WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti-missile defence

  1. The Regional Dimension of Romania's Participation to the Anti-Missile Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current security environment is characterized by a high degree of instability and unpredictability, through the manifestation of new risks and threats, especially those with asymmetrical nature, by redefining the relations between the great powers, and increasing freedom of action of the regional actors (state and non-state. At the international level, the end of the Cold War has led to a fragmentation of efforts in the security field, with direct implications on the need for further efforts of the international community coordination. In this era of profound change and transformation it is not possible the adoption of an isolationist policy of security, but only in a broader context of interdependencies and relationships between general trends, threats or challenges specific to a particular area or geographic areas. Swift operationalization of the anti-missile system will strengthen the national security both directly, through the protection it provides for the entire national territory, and indirectly, as the system will have a deterrent important role, able to mitigate risks of possible attacks by ballistic missiles. The role of deterrence will remove the risk of attack against any Allied territory on which, by virtue of membership in NATO and obligations involved according to article 5 of the Washington Treaty, Romania has also responsibilities.

  2. SMART DEFENCE AND DEFENCE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor FRUNZETI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the Chicago Summit in May 2012. the Euro-Atlantic community has been imprinted, from the security and defence perspective. by me launch of a new initiative known as smart defence, a concept referring to the need to improve the way in which defence spending is made at the Alliance's level. Smart defence also has a corollary at EU's level — i.e., pooling and sharing - the two notions referring. Overall, to the same procedure and implying a crucial need for the two organizations to coordinate their efforts in this. This article approaches the conceptual meaning of smart defence, with special emphasis on its management dimension regarding the defence resources. As a consequence, it is approached in connection with Other similar concepts such as pooling and sharing', Planning, Programming, Budgeting, and Evaluation System (PPBES, and the Connected Force Initiative.

  3. Diverse opportunities in defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gareth

    2016-08-01

    Working at the UK's defence laboratory gives Gareth Brown the ability to apply his physics and mathematics knowledge to real-world applications - and not necessarily in the ways you might expect. This article is Crown copyright

  4. From Defence To Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From this perspective, high defence expenditure has been compared to dismantling ...... availability exceed evaporative demand and a state of permanent drought ...... In October 1993, South African authorities seized a container on a plot near ...

  5. Chemical defences against herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavia, Henrik; Baumgartner, Finn; Cervin, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the recent and emerging research involving chemical defences against herbivory in aquatic primary producers. It provides an overview of plant chemical defence theories and highlights recent research on aquatic primary producers addressing a number of aspects...... of these theories, concluding with new chemical approaches to tackle the questions and suggestions for future research directions. It explains that aquatic primary producers are a taxonomically and functionally diverse group of organisms that includes macroalgae, microalgae, and vascular plants. It also states...... that despite the fact that aquatic primary producers constitute a large and diverse group of organisms that vary in their evolutionary histories, selection for chemical defences to resist or reduce grazing are commonplace across the phylogenetic boundaries....

  6. New materials in defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sikandar S.; Khan, Shahid A.; Butt, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    National defence is very important and always needs new such materials which have technological and socio-economic development of human society. The types of materials used by a society reflect its level of sophistication. These modern materials are basically the same conventional materials but with a greater knowledge content which include superalloys, modern polymers, engineering ceramics and the advanced composite. The production and use of new materials is playing and important role in the recent development in the defence industry. (A.B.)

  7. TNO and CBRN defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Within the Defence, Safety & Security branch of TNO a dedicated department focuses on Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Protection. This is a world class research department consisting of about 50 people and a High Tox laboratory that is the only facility in The Netherlands that

  8. NATO Defence Planning Process. Implications for defence posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Fleischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The NATO Defence Planning Process (NDPP is the most important element affecting the Alliance's defence posture. Under the process states commit themselves to provide capabilities and forces required to fulfil NATO missions, defined in the NATO Strategic Concept. The NDPP directly affects national defence plans by harmonizing them with identified security and defence objectives as well by influencing development of the novel national defence capabilities. The emergence of new threats in the NATO environment, demands modifications in the defense planning process and establishing new goals for the Alliance. Enhancement of the NDPP should be priority during the time of unrest.

  9. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  10. Identification of plant defence regulators through transcriptional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... defence-related genes also supports constitutive activation of defence in cdd1. We screened T-DNA ..... identified through this work as novel plant defence regu- ... to drought stress than untransformed plants (Lee et al. 2012).

  11. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendorst, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998, TNO Defence, Security and Safety has performed operational analysis with the Underwater Warfare Testbed, which provides an environment for evaluation and validation of systems, concepts, and tactics. On top of this testbed the Torpedo Defence System TestBed has been built to simulate

  12. Radiation protection in civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, K.

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.) [de

  13. Probabilistic Flood Defence Assessment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The WTI2017 project is responsible for the development of flood defence assessment tools for the 3600 km of Dutch primary flood defences, dikes/levees, dunes and hydraulic structures. These tools are necessary, as per January 1st 2017, the new flood risk management policy for the Netherlands will be implemented. Then, the seven decades old design practice (maximum water level methodology of 1958 and two decades old safety standards (and maximum hydraulic load methodology of 1996 will formally be replaced by a more risked based approach for the national policy in flood risk management. The formal flood defence assessment is an important part of this new policy, especially for flood defence managers, since national and regional funding for reinforcement is based on this assessment. This new flood defence policy is based on a maximum allowable probability of flooding. For this, a maximum acceptable individual risk was determined at 1/100 000 per year, this is the probability of life loss of for every protected area in the Netherlands. Safety standards of flood defences were then determined based on this acceptable individual risk. The results were adjusted based on information from cost -benefit analysis, societal risk and large scale societal disruption due to the failure of critical infrastructure e.g. power stations. The resulting riskbased flood defence safety standards range from a 300 to a 100 000 year return period for failure. Two policy studies, WV21 (Safety from floods in the 21st century and VNK-2 (the National Flood Risk in 2010 provided the essential information to determine the new risk based safety standards for flood defences. The WTI2017 project will provide the safety assessment tools based on these new standards and is thus an essential element for the implementation of this policy change. A major issue to be tackled was the development of user-friendly tools, as the new assessment is to be carried out by personnel of the

  14. Defence in depth perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneau, Tania; Ferrier, Agnes; Barbaud, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Defence in Depth (DiD) concept was introduced to the field of nuclear safety in the sixties and early seventies. Even though it was not well developed at the beginning, the principles rapidly became close to those currently used. The concept was then composed of 3 levels, and was already associated with operating conditions. These principles have progressed over time and now there are five levels, including progressively situations issued from design extension conditions, to cope with severe accidents and dealing with accident management off-site. Indeed, human and organizational features are considered as a part of the safety provisions at all levels in an integrated approach that is not just related to reactor design. That's the current vision from IAEA, addressed first in INSAG 3 then in INSAG 10, and in the IAEA standards requirements currently addressed by SSR-2/1 superseding NS-R-1). These five levels of DiD are also referred to in other texts including WENRA documents in Europe, but also in the national requirements from different countries. Thus, the application of DiD principle has become a recognized international practice. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accidents, even if they raised many questions on nuclear safety issues, confirmed the merits of the DiD concept. Indeed, lessons learned from the accidents have reinforced the use of the DiD concept to ensure adequate safety. The discussions focused more on the implementation of the concept (how it has been or can be used in practice) than the concept itself, and in particular on the following subjects: the notion of level robustness, generally addressed separately from the levels definition, but playing an important role for the efficiency of the concept; the notion of levels independence and the need for strengthening them; the role of diversity to achieve levels independence. However, a prescription of additional diversity and independence across all safety levels could result in inappropriately

  15. In Defence of Pashukanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Koen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents an extended defence of the general theory of law formulated by the Bolshevik jurist, Evgeny Pashukanis, and published in his Law and Marxism: A General Theory in 1924. The general theory is a theory of the legal form. Although Pashukanis did not name his theory, it has become known as the commodity form theory of law because of its theorising the legal form as a homologue of the commodity form. However, despite having weighty Marxist and revolutionary Bolshevik credentials, the general theory has been subjected to sustained attack, especially from new left and neo-Marxist circles. This essay identifies and explicates six major objections to Pashukanism from its left critics. These are that the general theory is too abstract to comprehend the reality of legal relations; that it is infused with economic reductionism; that it derives the legal form wrongly from commodity exchange; that it classifies the legal form incorrectly as an attribute of capitalism only; that it lacks the generality required of a general theory of law; and that it is imbricated in the growth of anarchism and Stalinism. Following a brief exegetical exercise, the bulk of the essay is devoted to demonstrating in detail that each of the six objections to the general theory is without merit, and that none makes any serious incursion into its integrity as a theory of the legal form. The central submission of the essay is that the Pashukanist general theory of law is rooted in the first principles of classical Marxism and hence may lay claim legitimately to being the Marxist theory of law.

  16. Operational Analysis on Torpedo Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootendordt, H.J.; Benders, F.P.A.; Fitski, H.J.; Veldhoven, E.R. van

    2008-01-01

    Surface vessels and submarines must be able to defend themselves against a torpedo attack. Self-defence can be approached as a modular concept. The first module involves 'Detection, Classification and Localisation (DCL)'. DCL triggers the second module: the 'evaluator'. This module starts the last

  17. The reconfiguration of the SA defence industry in the post-2015-defence review environment: prospects & challenges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khanyile, Moses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IMPLICATIONS • Licence category (FSB) • Credit licence (NCR) • Forex Licence (SARB) Armscor & AMD Initiative: Establishment of the Defence Industry Fund (DIF) WAY FORWARD Finalisation of the Defence Industry Strategy Drafting...

  18. Piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Immonen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about piloting Snapchat for Finnish Defence Forces. The goals for the thesis are to find out how Snapchat can be used as part of Finnish Defence Forces’ social media communication and strategy. Conscripts are the most important target group for social media communication in the Defence Forces. Young conscripts are the main target group for Snapchat. This thesis is theoretically based on organizational communication, stakeholder communication and social media communicati...

  19. Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    discuss the political agreement.90 The Defence Chief of Staff is interviewed in the same paper along the same lines, where he provides an in- depth ...DRIVING DANISH DEFENCE TOWARDS POLITICAL GOALS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Driving Danish Defence Towards Political Goals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  20. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available , peace, safety and security. CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security provides a national defence S&T capability: supplying knowledge, advice and solutions in defence and matters of national security....

  1. Defence electro-optics: European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    In 2009 the United States invested in defence R&T 3,6 times and in defence research and development 6,8 times as much as all member states of the European Defence Agency (EDA) combined while the ratio in the total defence expenditure was 2,6 in the US' favour. The European lack of investments in defence research and development has a negative impact on the competitiveness of European defence industry and on the European non-dependence. In addition, the efficiency of investment is reduced due to duplication of work in different member states. The Lisbon Treaty tasks EDA to support defence technology research, and coordinate and plan joint research activities and the study of technical solutions meeting future operational needs. This paper gives an overview how EDA meets the challenge of improving the efficiency of European defence R&T investment with an emphasis on electro-optics and describes shortly the ways that governmental and industrial partners can participate in the EDA cooperation. Examples of joint R&T projects addressing electro-optics are presented.

  2. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  3. The South African National Defence Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations.......This research paper is an evaluation of The Souch African National Defence Force´s (SANDF) involvement in Peace Support Operations....

  4. Altruistic defence behaviours in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic anti-predatory behaviours pose an evolutionary problem because they are costly to the actor and beneficial to the recipients. Altruistic behaviours can evolve through indirect fitness benefits when directed toward kin. The altruistic nature of anti-predatory behaviours is often difficult to establish because the actor can obtain direct fitness benefits, or the behaviour could result from selfish coercion by others, especially in eusocial animals. Non-eusocial parthenogenetically reproducing aphids form colonies of clone-mates, which are ideal to test the altruistic nature of anti-predatory defence behaviours. Many aphids release cornicle secretions when attacked by natural enemies such as parasitoids. These secretions contain an alarm pheromone that alerts neighbours (clone-mates of danger, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits to the actor. However, contact with cornicle secretions also hampers an attacker and could provide direct fitness to the actor. Results We tested the hypothesis that cornicle secretions are altruistic by assessing direct and indirect fitness consequences of smearing cornicle secretions onto an attacker, and by manipulating the number of clone-mates that could benefit from the behaviour. We observed parasitoids, Aphidius rhopalosiphi, foraging singly in patches of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae of varied patch size (2, 6, and 12 aphids. Aphids that smeared parasitoids did not benefit from a reduced probability of parasitism, or increase the parasitoids' handling time. Smeared parasitoids, however, spent proportionately more time grooming and less time foraging, which resulted in a decreased host-encounter and oviposition rate within the host patch. In addition, individual smearing rate increased with the number of clone-mates in the colony. Conclusions Cornicle secretions of aphids were altruistic against parasitoids, as they provided no direct fitness benefits to secretion

  5. De Nederlandse missile defence capaciteit: Strategisch onmisbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Surface based air & missile defence behelst enerzijds de verdediging tegen conventionele luchtdreigingen, zoals vliegtuigen, helikopters en onbemande vliegtuigen (luchtverdediging). Aan de andere kant houdt het de verdediging tegen ballistische raketten en kruisraketten in (raketverdediging). De

  6. Long-distance signalling in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Ton, Jurriaan

    2008-06-01

    Plants use inducible defence mechanisms to fend off harmful organisms. Resistance that is induced in response to local attack is often expressed systemically, that is, in organs that are not yet damaged. In the search for translocated defence signals, biochemical studies follow the physical movement of putative signals, and grafting experiments use mutants that are impaired in the production or perception of these signals. Long-distance signals can directly activate defence or can prime for the stronger and faster induction of defence. Historically, research has focused on the vascular transport of signalling metabolites, but volatiles can play a crucial role as well. We compare the advantages and constraints of vascular and airborne signals for the plant, and discuss how they can act in synergy to achieve optimised resistance in distal plant parts.

  7. Dematerialization in the defence sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, L.; During Aahs, C.; Eriksson, Bjoern; Jungmar, M. [Stockholm Univ. and Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group

    2001-07-01

    The goal of dematerialization is to reduce flows of resources from the biosphere and the lithosphere to the technosphere, and to increase the efficiency within the technosphere. Dematerialization can be obtained in many different ways, for example through product design and changed or reduced use of products. Recycling and reuse of material or products are two ways to achieve more efficient use of resources and reduced exploitation of raw material. Substantial amounts of material are stored within the armed forces. An assessment of the total weight of the defence materiel has been made and the result amounts to about 230 000 tons, mainly different metals. The calculation is not complete and excludes for example munitions. The scrapping of the Bofors S-tank is studied as an example of a MIPS-analysis. The MIPS-analysis is a kind of material flow analysis where the weight of all material affected by human activity related to the life-cycle of a product or service utility is estimated. Each tank is assumed to give 20 tons of recycled steel. Recycling will also lead to avoidance of waste rock and slag from extraction, the 'rucksack'. Comparing recycling of an S-tank with landfilling a material flow of roughly 160 tons from the lithosphere to the technosphere is avoided.

  8. European Defence Community: origins of integration in the defence sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іван Васильович Яковюк

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency among non-historians to force «practioners» of the discipline to justify why the study of a particular episode of the past is so important and to articulate the lessons to be learned from the experience. The fate of international constitutions and treaties is particularly prone to demands of this kind. After all, «constitutional borrowing» has long been a common feature of international law and politics. This article will address one such Treaty from the past. But it does not aspire to preserving its historical integrity; rather to awaken interest in it in the first place.          The European Defence Community (EDC was an ambitious initiative in the first years of the 1950s. Leading European countries had different foreign policy agendas towards it. The EDC. could have been a crucial milestone on the long path towards European integration. European Defense Community (EDC, an abortive attempt by western European powers, with United States support, to counterbalance the overwhelming conventional military ascendancy of the Soviet Union in Europe by the formation of a supranational European army and, in the process, to subsume West German forces into a European force, avoiding the tendentious problem of West German rearmament. One can trace the U.S. influence from the very first stages of the EDC. negotiations. Even in the agreement of the EDC., the footprints of U.S. policies can be observed, bringing the NATO Alliance to the forefront. The EDC. is also interrelated with the Marshall Plan, which leads us to think that the EDC. was not solely a European dream as has been widely argued, but rather an instrument of U.S. foreign policy, which could be resorted to as and when needed.          Influenced by the Korean War, the French politician René Pleven evolved a plan that later was put forward by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman at a meeting of the Council of Europe in 1951. Though the weaker

  9. Defence in depth in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear energy is clean and can prevent global warming and hence it has a lot of importance in the current world. In order for the safe and reliable operation of the NPP, a defence in depth concept has been practised, so that even one level of protection fails the subsequent one will contain the hazardous situation. Various levels, both from consideration of the physical barriers and implementation are described in this paper. Three major accidents happened in nuclear reactors are analysed from the defence in depth concept and shortcomings are discussed. (author)

  10. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  11. Civil defence abroad. Pt. 3: The Warsaw Pact countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirrmeister, K.G.; Hofmann, H.

    1988-01-01

    Civil defence forms part of the national defence of the G.D.R., and belongs since 1976 to the responsibility of the Defence Ministry. Civil defence service is equal to military service. Civil defence services are organised on a territorial basis and a production-oriented basis: Double concept. Construction of shelters is propagated for 30 years now, maintenance of existing buildings is an obligation since 1965. Principles (triage) of military medical service are applied, and are valid for students and post-graduate medical training. Civil defence training is required in school and industry. Civil defence expenditure is increasing, although there is little acceptance by the population. The issue presents extensive documentation. - Civil defence in the Soviet Union covers services in times of peace and of war. Defence measures are prepared and held up to date in the entire territory. The civil defence service belongs to the responsibility of the Council of Ministers, and the deputy minister of defence is the head of services. The training schedules and principles are laid down by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the government, and local party organisations and governmental authorities. Civil defence training is a general obligation for all citizens over 8 years of age. The main goal is: Protection of the population as the production force, of the economy, and resources. (orig.) [de

  12. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR Defence peace safety and security research unit aims to provide a defence evaluation and research institute capability for the Department of Defence. It also serves as the 'in-house' S&T capability of key government departments and agencies...

  13. Civil defence and disaster control services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Today's systems of civil defence and disaster control services are the result of a long process of development, which is outlined for the Federal Republic of Germany. The present organisational and legal systems are explained, together with the institutions concerned. (DG) [de

  14. Defence Output Measures: An Economics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    positive or negative impact of defence spending on growth and there is evidence supporting both impacts! The divergent results reflect the need for a...It also protects national interests, including independence and ‘appropriate sovereignty’ (e.g. protecting a nation’s interests in a globalised

  15. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  16. Probiotics: beneficial factors of the defence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Jean Michel

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics, defined as living micro-organisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, have been used traditionally as food components to help the body to recover from diarrhoea. They are commonly ingested as part of fermented foods, mostly in fresh fermented dairy products. They can interact with the host through different components of the gut defence systems. There is mounting clinical evidence that some probiotics, but not all, help the defence of the host as demonstrated by either a shorter duration of infections or a decrease in the host's susceptibility to pathogens. Different components of the gut barrier can be involved in the strengthening of the body's defences: the gut microbiota, the gut epithelial barrier and the immune system. Many studies have been conducted in normal free-living subjects or in subjects during common infections like the common cold and show that some probiotic-containing foods can improve the functioning of or strengthen the body's defence. Specific probiotic foods can be included in the usual balanced diet of consumers to help them to better cope with the daily challenges of their environment.

  17. The long road of antimissile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2001-01-01

    The author proposes a discussion of the elaboration of the National Missile Defence (NMD) by the new US administration in 2001. He first reports the evolution of this concept which resulted in 1999 with the National Missile Defence Act, produced by a commission chaired by Rumsfeld and aimed at the assessment of the threat of ballistic missiles in the world. Before that, in the 1960, the USA already tried to protect themselves by designing two type of missiles: long range interceptors (Nike Zeus), and short range missiles (Sprint). Later, Reagan launched the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI). By the end of Cold War, the SDI was downgraded into smaller programmes. In a second part, the author discusses some elements of the NMD content: definition of objectives over 20 years, technical and strategic obstacles, definition of Rogue States. In a third part, he proposes an overview of the relationships between antimissile defence and nuclear deterrence, notably through the ABM Treaty, and with problem raised by Arms of Mass Destruction (AMD). In the last part, he comments reactions (mainly opposition) of different countries (Russia, China, European countries and particularly Germany), and proposes some possible true motivations for the creation of the NMD

  18. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are

  19. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... product and improved the economy through the retention of some ... and maintaining a defence industrial base (DIB) in those countries ... by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) that focuses primarily ... work share on the purchased equipment (co-production), ..... These upgrades are now an integral.

  20. South Africa's Defence Industrial Participation in Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jvdyk

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... product and improved the economy through the retention of some 58 000 jobs. ... and maintaining a defence industrial base (DIB) in those countries that have the ... by the Department of Trade and Industry (dti) that focuses primarily on civil industry ... work share on the purchased equipment (co-production), ...

  1. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Do Parasites and the Immune System Choose their Dances? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 17-24 ...

  2. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Organize Itself so as to Connect Target Recognition to Expected Functions? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 25-38 ...

  3. The Immune System and Bodily Defence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Immune System and Bodily Defence How Does the Immune System Recognize Everything Under the Sun? Vineeta Bal Satyajit Rath. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 6-10 ...

  4. Host defence peptides in human burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaus, Aljoscha; Jacobsen, Frank; Sorkin, Michael; Rittig, Andrea; Voss, Bruno; Daigeler, Adrien; Sudhoff, Holger; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse expression profiles of human epithelial host defence peptides in burned and unburned skin tissue, samples of which were obtained during debridements and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Total RNA was isolated, and cDNA of epithelial host defence peptides and proteins (hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD1-hBD4, dermcidin, S100A7/psoriasin and RNAse7) was quantified by qRT-PCR. In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical staining localised gene expression of hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3 in histological sections. Most of the analysed host defence peptides and proteins showed higher mRNA levels in partial-thickness burns than in unburned tissue. In situ hybridisation revealed expression of hCAP-18/LL-37, hBD2 and hBD3 at the surface of burns that was independent of burn depth. However, the finding of higher host defence peptide gene expression rates does not correlate with the incidence of wound infection in burns. We hypothesise that the epithelial innate immune response in burns is complex.

  5. Assessment methodology for air defence control systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oosthuizen, R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Command and Control, humans have to make sense of the situation to support decision making on the required action. Development of an Air Defence Control system through a Systems Engineering process starts with assessment of existing systems...

  6. Public Private Business Models for Defence Acquisition - A Multiple Case Study of Defence Acquisition Projects in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Since the ending of the Cold War, the defence sector, particularly the areas of military logistics and defence acquisition, has been undergoing a comprehensive transformation. There are several factors that explain this transformation: changes in defence and security policies for nations and organisations; reductions in defence expenditure; participation in Peace Support Operations; Lessons Learned from these operations, especially in the area of logistics; revolutionary development in the ar...

  7. European defence industry consolidation and domestic procurement bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    2017-01-01

    How have European cross-border defence industrial mergers and acquisitions affected domestic procurement bias among the major EU powers? This article departs from the findings of Andrew Moravcsik more than two decades ago suggesting that major West European states had no ingrained preferences...... for defence industrial autarchy. When cross-national armament projects were derailed, this could be attributed to political efforts of national defence industrial champions favouring purely domestic projects. As former national champions join pan-European defence groups, their preferences are likely modified......-border defence industry consolidation will be analysed. Procurement bias is assessed in two industry segments characterised by pervasive consolidation....

  8. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  9. The Kassel concept for river flood defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Hydraulic and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Following an introduction referring to the history, the regulation of ''interference and compensation'' and the ''sustainable development'' as the foundation of future-oriented flood defence concepts are dealt with. The position of science and technology with respect to the employed planning methods: Models for the determination of spatial and temporal distribution of maximum precipitation, river basin models, methods for water level computation, benefit/cost analysis and environmental assessment are described and evaluated. Thereafter the Kassel Concept for River Flood Defence is presented. The basic principle is a mosaic of de-central, semi-central and central measures with reference to the specific project which are economically eligible and environment-compatible. (orig.)

  10. Immune Defence Factors In Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence is accumulating to prove the nutritional, anti-infective, anti-fertility, psychosomal and economic advantages of breast-feeding. A number of studies have shown that breast milk protects against diarrheal, respiratory and other infections. Its value in protecting against allergy has also been established. This article reviews the studies on various immune defence factors present in the human milk. The available scientific knowledge makes a very strong case in favour of promoting breast-feeding.

  11. Salicylic acid-independent plant defence pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Salicylic acid is an important signalling molecule involved in both locally and systemically induced disease resistance responses. Recent advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling have revealed that plants employ a network of signal transduction pathways, some of which are independent of salicylic acid. Evidence is emerging that jasmonic acid and ethylene play key roles in these salicylic acid-independent pathways. Cross-talk between the salicylic acid-dependent and the salicy...

  12. Radiation Protection and Civil defence Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Elshinawy, R.M.K.; Abdelfattah, A.T.

    1991-01-01

    This conference involves subjects of radiation protection, programming of civil defence, on the implementation of 1990 ICRP recommendation, thermoluminescence properties of bone equivalent calcium phosphate ceramics, potassium body burdens in occupational users of egyptian nuclear research centre, transport of radionuclides in fresh water stream, water treatment process for nuclear reactor, research activities related to internal contamination and bioassay and experience and environmental radiation monitoring in inshass. it contains of figures and tables

  13. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  14. Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Konrad; von Bredow, Christoph-Rüdiger; von Bredow, Yvette M; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Trenczek, Tina E; Strauß, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are under neuronal control from the CNS. The detailed neural innervation and possible differences between species are not studied so far. Using axonal tracing, the neuronal innervation is investigated comparing four species. The aim is to document the complexity of defence gland innervation in peripheral nerves and central motoneurons in stick insects. In the species studied here, the defence gland is innervated by the intersegmental nerve complex (ISN) which is formed by three nerves from the prothoracic (T1) and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), as well as a distinct suboesophageal nerve (Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion). In Carausius morosus and Sipyloidea sipylus, axonal tracing confirmed an innervation of the defence glands by this N. anterior SOG as well as N. anterior T1 and N. posterior SOG from the intersegmental nerve complex. In Peruphasma schultei, which has rather large defence glands, only the innervation by the N. anterior SOG was documented by axonal tracing. In the central nervous system of all species, 3-4 neuron types are identified by axonal tracing which send axons in the N. anterior SOG likely innervating the defence gland as well as adjacent muscles. These neurons are mainly suboesophageal neurons with one intersegmental neuron located in the prothoracic ganglion. The neuron types are conserved in the species studied, but the combination of neuron types is not identical. In addition, the central nervous system in S. sipylus contains one suboesophageal and one prothoracic neuron type with axons in the intersegmental nerve complex contacting the defence gland. Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments

  15. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  16. Conversion policy principles of defence factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedik, I.I.; Deniskin, V.P.; Stepanov, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    1.Research Production Association 'LUCH' (RPA 'LUCH') have worked at atomic industry for 51 years. Now it is one of the leading scientific production centers of Russia Ministry of Atomic Energy. Not long ago it was a complex of Scientific Research Institute, experimental plant and Obyedenennaya Expedicia at the Semipalatinsk test site (now it is the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK). Basic directions of the complex activity are defence tasks. These tasks are to develop structure and technology of producing fuel assemblies for NRE (nuclear rocket engine) reactors. Also the tasks include testing the fuel assemblies at IWG-1, RWD and RA reactors. Also the tasks include structure and technology development, production and testing electric generating channels for nuclear thermal emission converters of nuclear energy into electric one (space board power engineering), power metal optics for powerful lasers, high temperature gas reactors. 2.Main directions of RPA 'LUCH' conversion were determined on the basis of possibilities for developing main achievements in defence technology directions.These directions are high temperature materials and constructions (carbides, refractory metals, measurements, optics, uranium compound, beryllium, molybdenum) 3.At present at RPA 'LUCH' there have been created experimental and industrial productions making temperature sensors for Atomic Electric Power Stations (AEPS). Also these manufactures release commercial products. They produce technological equipment of carbide-silicon for electronic industry as well as parts or X-ray tubes, vermiculite parts for cable driving of AEP stations (high temperature, fireproof ones) of thermal and electrical accumulators. Thus, a scientific-production center is being created. Core of it is a scientific engineers group and development directions, generated from orders of defence department, as well as new foreign technologies (along with investments).The example of the said above can be development of a

  17. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  18. The role of moulting in parasite defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-08-07

    Parasitic infections consist of a succession of steps during which hosts and parasites interact in specific manners. At each step, hosts can use diverse defence mechanisms to counteract the parasite's attempts to invade and exploit them. Of these steps, the penetration of parasites into the host is a key step for a successful infection and the epithelium is the first line of host defence. The shedding of this protective layer (moulting) is a crucial feature in the life cycle of several invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, and is generally considered to make hosts vulnerable to parasites and predators. Here, we used the crustacean Daphnia magna to test whether moulting influences the likelihood of infection by the castrating bacterium Pasteuria ramosa. This parasite is known to attach to the host cuticula before penetrating into its body. We found that the likelihood of successful parasite infection is greatly reduced if the host moults within 12 h after parasite exposure. Thus, moulting is beneficial for the host being exposed to this parasite. We further show that exposure to the parasite does not induce hosts to moult earlier. We discuss the implications of our findings for host and parasite evolution and epidemiology.

  19. Civil defence information for every home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joutsi, L.

    1995-01-01

    In Finland, the local authorities and the central government are responsible for the general planning of civil defence and for joint protection measures, while individual citizens and corporations are responsible for individual protection measures. In practice, housing companies and employers are required to carry out the statutory preparations needed for civil defence. Preparation for accidents can be improved, for instance, by awareness of correct actions in each situation. The most important individual protection measures are first aid, basic fire extinguishing skills, provision of shelter, and acquisition of a reserve stock of provisions at home. A reserve stock means that there is a sufficient supply of non-perishable foodstuffs, medication and water vessels for a couple of days' needs at home. A warning of imminent danger is usually given by sounding a general alarm signal. Even slight changes in radiation are reported immediately. Shelter should primarily be sought indoors. Instructions may be given on the radio, on TV and by means of loudspeakers. If there is a radiation risk, the thyroid may be protected against radioactive iodine by taking iodine tablets, but they should not be taken until so instructed by the authorities. (2 figs.)

  20. Preconscious defence analysis, memory and structural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John Munder

    2003-02-01

    Beginning with the ways in which the use of the couch lends 'depth to the surface' (Erikson, 1954), I explore the topography of the inter- and intrasubjective psychoanalytic situation and process. I suggest that defences are not by definition unconscious but rather can be observed operating at conscious and preconscious levels, particularly under these conditions. A focus on preconscious disavowal provides a window on what has become unconscious repression. As a result of eliciting and then verbalising the operation of such defences with regard to anxieties in the here-and-now transference, declarative memories of increasingly specific childhood fantasies and events begin to hold sway over unmanageable procedural remnants from the analysand's past. With this may even come the possibility of neuronal regeneration, the more generalisable enhancement of declarative and symbolic functions and the sense of identity with which these are associated. Herein may lie one enduring therapeutic effect of the 'talking cure' - putting feelings into words - as one among a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities.

  1. Pareto Efficient Solution of Attack-Defence Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as

  2. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT and E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  3. Fallout: the defence, industrial and technological benefits of nuclear deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of budgetary restrictions, it is fair to question the weight of military nuclear defence spending. Upon examination, however, nuclear deterrence has numerous military, industrial, and technological benefits. It is, in fact, totally intertwined with the other elements of our defence system. (author)

  4. Methodology to detect gaps in a soccer defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikolas Sten; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to create a methodology which can provide information about gaps in an opposing team’s defence. To illustrate the methodology, a defence was tracked during a game in the danish Superliga using ZXY radio tracking and analysed using the methodology. Results show...

  5. Considerations on Defence Thinking in Post-1994 South Africa with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... analyse and discuss the new comprehensive guidelines for defence force design in the Draft Defence Review 2012 and reflects on some of the most important policy implications for the SANDF in this regard – specifically given the demands placed on the SANDF in the field of post-conflict reconstruction and development.

  6. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    Attack-defence trees are a powerful technique for formally evaluating attack-defence scenarios. They represent in an intuitive, graphical way the interaction between an attacker and a defender who compete in order to achieve conflicting objectives. We propose a novel framework for the formal

  7. Infection biology and defence responses in sorghum against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puttalingaiah, Basavaraju; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Shetty, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the infection biology of Colletotrichum sublineolum (isolate CP2126) and defence responses in leaves of resistant (SC146), intermediately resistant (SC326) and susceptible (BTx623) sorghum genotypes. Methods and Results: Infection biology and defence responses were studied...

  8. Getting prepared for future attack : induction of plant defences by herbivore egg deposition and consequences for the insect community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashalidou, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive Plants have evolved intriguing defences against insect herbivores. Compared to constitutive defences that are always present, plants can respond with inducible defences when they are attacked. Insect

  9. A saponin-detoxifying enzyme mediates suppression of plant defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, K.; Melton, R.; Peart, J.; Baulcombe, D.; Osbourn, A.

    2002-08-01

    Plant disease resistance can be conferred by constitutive features such as structural barriers or preformed antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Additional defence mechanisms are activated in response to pathogen attack and include localized cell death (the hypersensitive response). Pathogens use different strategies to counter constitutive and induced plant defences, including degradation of preformed antimicrobial compounds and the production of molecules that suppress induced plant defences. Here we present evidence for a two-component process in which a fungal pathogen subverts the preformed antimicrobial compounds of its host and uses them to interfere with induced defence responses. Antimicrobial saponins are first hydrolysed by a fungal saponin-detoxifying enzyme. The degradation product of this hydrolysis then suppresses induced defence responses by interfering with fundamental signal transduction processes leading to disease resistance.

  10. Impact of antimissile defence on nuclear strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delory, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    As antimissile defence has become a mean to compensate the limitations of nuclear deterrence in Asia, notably within the frame of the US-North Korea relationship, but has also influence on the relationships between countries which do not possess an actual operational antimissile defence like Pakistan and India, the author proposes an assessment of the consequences antimissile defence may have on deterrence logics in Asia. He also notices that various issues must be taken into account: arsenal sizes, the slow rate of ballistic modernisation processes, the weaknesses of C4ISR systems and advanced alarm systems. He recalls the peculiarities of antimissile defence, and then addresses the cases of North Korea, India and Pakistan, and China. For each country, he analyses and discusses the influence of a choice or of the existence of an antimissile defence on the nuclear strategy and doctrine, but also on the posture of other countries like the USA

  11. Shaping Baltic States Defence Strategy: Host Nation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otzulis Valdis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of NATO troops in the Baltic states has increased in the last years due to changing international environment, increased level of potential risks and threats, and necessity to enhance deterrence in the region. As a result of NATO’s Wales and Warsaw summits decisions, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are entitled to host a battalion size battle group. The article aims at investigating how host nation support (HNS can contribute to the national defence and, additionally, to the self-defence capabilities of the Baltic states. The concept of HNS is present in the national defence concepts of all three countries. However, its active application and utilization started in the last two years. The article argues that more intensive incorporation of an HNS system in national defence policies serve the capability development in fields like national military logistics, infrastructure, and civil-military cooperation. Those capabilities can serve as an extension of the national defence.

  12. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  13. THE SMART DEFENCE CONCEPT - A NEW APPROACH OF COMMON DEFENCE WITHIN NATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu IONIȚĂ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Defence concept was introduced in the NATO policy in a time when the Alliance is confronted with new challenges generated by the global economic crisis, a lack of balance in the participation of the member states in the financing of common operations, threats coming from states that do not adhere to nuclear non-proliferation treaties, as well as the emergence of new state actors at the global level. By implementing the Smart Defence concept, the Alliance intends to adapt its own means of generating critical capabilities in accordance with the pooling and sharing paradigm, implemented with the European Union, an initiative that might lead to stronger cooperation between the two organisms and to a more efficient use of shared capabilities.

  14. How to address patients' defences: a pilot study of the accuracy of defence interpretations and alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Olivier; de Roten, Yves; Martinez, Elena; Drapeau, Martin; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2005-12-01

    This pilot study examined the accuracy of therapist defence interpretations (TAD) in high-alliance patients (N = 7) and low-alliance patients (N = 8). TAD accuracy was assessed in the two subgroups by comparing for each case the patient's most frequent defensive level with the most frequent defensive level addressed by the therapist when making defence interpretations. Results show that in high-alliance patient-therapist dyads, the therapists tend to address accurate or higher (more mature) defensive level than patients most frequent level. On the other hand, the therapists address lower (more immature) defensive level in low-alliance dyads. These results are discussed along with possible ways to better assess TAD accuracy.

  15. Raise your defence: a baseline for security

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    It is an unfair imbalance: the (computer) security of a system/service is only as strong as the weakest link in the chain of protection. This provides attackers with an incredible advantage: they can choose when to attack, where and with which means. The defence side is permanently under pressure: they must defend at all times all assets against all eventualities. For computer security, this means that every computer system, every account, every web site and every service must be properly protected --- always.   In particular, at CERN, those services visible to the Internet are permanently probed. Web sites and servers are permanently scanned by adversaries for vulnerabilities; attackers repeatedly try to guess user passwords on our remote access gateways like LXPLUS or CERNTS; computing services, e.g. for Grid computing, are analysed again and again by malicious attackers for weaknesses which can be exploited. Thanks to the vigilance of the corresponding system and service experts, these atta...

  16. Assessment of defence in depth for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Defence in depth is a comprehensive approach to safety that has been developed by nuclear power experts to ensure with high confidence that the public and the environment are protected from any hazards posed by the use of nuclear power for the generation of electricity. The concepts of defence in depth and safety culture have served the nuclear power industry well as a basic philosophy for the safe design and operation of nuclear power plants. Properly applied, defence in depth ensures that no single human error or equipment failure at one level of defence, nor even a combination of failures at more than one level of defence, propagates to jeopardize defence in depth at the subsequent level or leads to harm to the public or the environment. The importance of the concept of defence in depth is underlined in IAEA Safety Standards, in particular in the requirements set forth in the Safety Standards: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (NS-R-1) and Safety Assessment and Verification for Nuclear Power Plants (NS-G-1.2). A specific report, Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety (INSAG-10), describes the objectives, strategy, implementation and future development in the area of defence in depth in nuclear and radiation safety. In the report Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants (INSAG-12), defence in depth is recognized as one of the fundamental safety principles that underlie the safety of nuclear power plants. In consonance with those high level publications, this Safety Report provides more specific technical information on the implementation of this concept in the siting, design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. It describes a method for comprehensive and balanced review of the provisions required for implementing defence in depth in existing plants. This publication is intended to provide guidance primarily for the self-assessment by plant operators of the comprehensiveness and quality of defence in depth provisions. It can be used

  17. Specificity in Mesograzer-Induced Defences in Seagrasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Martínez-Crego

    Full Text Available Grazing-induced plant defences that reduce palatability to herbivores are widespread in terrestrial plants and seaweeds, but they have not yet been reported in seagrasses. We investigated the ability of two seagrass species to induce defences in response to direct grazing by three associated mesograzers. Specifically, we conducted feeding-assayed induction experiments to examine how mesograzer-specific grazing impact affects seagrass induction of defences within the context of the optimal defence theory. We found that the amphipod Gammarus insensibilis and the isopod Idotea chelipes exerted a low-intensity grazing on older blades of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, which reflects a weak grazing impact that may explain the lack of inducible defences. The isopod Synischia hectica exerted the strongest grazing impact on C. nodosa via high-intensity feeding on young blades with a higher fitness value. This isopod grazing induced defences in C. nodosa as indicated by a consistently lower consumption of blades previously grazed for 5, 12 and 16 days. The lower consumption was maintained when offered tissues with no plant structure (agar-reconstituted food, but showing a reduced size of the previous grazing effect. This indicates that structural traits act in combination with chemical traits to reduce seagrass palatability to the isopod. Increase in total phenolics but not in C:N ratio and total nitrogen of grazed C. nodosa suggests chemical defences rather than a modified nutritional quality as primarily induced chemical traits. We detected no induction of defences in Zostera noltei, which showed the ability to replace moderate losses of young biomass to mesograzers via compensatory growth. Our study provides the first experimental evidence of induction of defences against meso-herbivory that reduce further consumption in seagrasses. It also emphasizes the relevance of grazer identity in determining the level of grazing impact triggering resistance and

  18. The Defence Medical Library Service and military medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S B

    2005-01-01

    The Defence Medical Library Service (DMLS) supports the clinical practice and career development of military health professionals across the world. Clinical governance and the need for medical knowledge to be evidence-based means the DMLS has a central role to play in support of defence medicine. The DMLS is important for enabling health professionals to make sense of the evidence-based pyramid and the hierarchy of medical knowledge. The Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (RCDM) in Birmingham is recognised as an international centre of excellence. The information, knowledge and research requirements of the RCDM will provide opportunities for the DMLS to support and engage with the academic community.

  19. Reinforcing Defence in Depth: A Practical Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, G.; Misak, J.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of defence in depth for ensuring nuclear safety of nuclear installations is often oversimplified and interpreted as a set of physical barriers, whose integrity is ensured by safety provisions in the form of the plant systems implemented independently at various levels of defence. However, the provisions established at each level of defence should in general terms include not only hardware components (active and passive systems), but more comprehensively, also inherent safety characteristics, safety margins, operating procedures and guidelines, quality assurance, safety culture, staff training, and many other organizational measures as parts of management of safety. Many of the above mentioned provisions belong to the category of human and organizational factors. While various hardware components are typically specific for different levels of defence, human and organizational factors may have an impact on several levels of defence. These factors are associated with large uncertainties and can result in latent weaknesses. Their implementation can negatively affect several levels of defence at the same time. The proposed paper will underline the need for a more comprehensive view of the defence in depth concept in order to provide a practical and effective tool for a systemic approach to safety. The paper will consist of two main parts. The first part will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool for facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth. The method uses screening of safety provisions at five levels of defence to ensure integrity of the physical barriers and achievement of safety objectives at each level of defence. The second part of the paper will focus on human and organizational factors considered as provisions for reliable performance of safety functions. It will explain the significant shift in the demands on the human system between levels 3 and 4 of the defence in depth framework, and will

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Chemical Defence Pathways in Plant Disease Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rook, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    on each topic. The chapter reviews the some of the scientific and technical challenges in metabolic engineering and the new possibilities emerging from recent technological developments. It concludes by discussing the outlook for bioengineered chemical defences as part of crop protection strategies, also...... with antimicrobial properties for use in crop protection. It presents an overview of the metabolic engineering efforts made in the area of plant chemical defence. For in-depth information on the characteristics of a specific class of chemical defence compounds, the reader is referred to the specialized reviews...

  1. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting....... This raises the question: are we witnessing an incursion of spillover mechanisms into the ‘High Politics' domain of the defence industry? What are the drivers eroding the ‘High Politics' character of defence industry integration? Are market forces at play? Does it reflect pressures for institutional...

  2. Radiation accidents and defence of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmedov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    ), don't pollute the industry environ and surroundings, don't do real danger of reirradiation and pollution but demand investigation of their origin; accidents as a result when personal and persons from population have gotten a doze of outward irradiation (over PN); accidents as a result when industry or surroundings have been polluted (over PN);.accidents, as a result of outward and inside irradiation of personal, persons from population (over NPP-norms of radiation safety). Volume and character of measures by foregoing radiation accidents and their consequence depend on groups and scale of accident. They include investigation of the accident reasons; realization the radiation control for estimation degree of ionizing radiation pressure to personal and individual persons from population; rendering medical help to victims; definition of surroundings pollution level; equipment, industrial and habitable places; prevention of further influence of ionizing radiation to population and spreading radionuclides in surroundings; elimination of disrepairs and liquidation of radiation accident source. Radiation accident in the nuclear engineering establishments and industry have been divided into accident and proper-crash. At present international organizations have divided a school of crashes and accidents at NPP. According to that scale 3 levels of accidents and 4 levels of crashes have been chosen. The accidents have been qualified: insignificant (1 level), middle difficulty (2 level), serious (3 level), but crashes - within the NPP (4 level), at the risk of surroundings (5 level), difficult (6 level), global (7 level). Character, volume and forms of measures by defence of population in the crashes at NPP depend on both the level of crash and the concrete radiation situation and stage of crash development. Those measures include: notification about crash; rendering medical help to victims, primary measures of personal and population defence (cover, iodine precautions

  3. From Defence to Development: Redirecting Military Resources in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover From Defence to Development: Redirecting Military Resources in ... of the IDRC-funded project "Militarization and the Ecology of Southern Africa." ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  4. 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sillitti, Alberto; Succi, Giancarlo; Messina, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents high-quality original contributions on new software engineering models, approaches, methods, and tools and their evaluation in the context of defence and security applications. In addition, important business and economic aspects are discussed, with a particular focus on cost/benefit analysis, new business models, organizational evolution, and business intelligence systems. The contents are based on presentations delivered at SEDA 2015, the 4th International Conference in Software Engineering for Defence Applications, which was held in Rome, Italy, in May 2015. This conference series represents a targeted response to the growing need for research that reports and debates the practical implications of software engineering within the defence environment and also for software performance evaluation in real settings through controlled experiments as well as case and field studies. The book will appeal to all with an interest in modeling, managing, and implementing defence-related software devel...

  5. suicide prevention and management in the sa national defence force

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rene

    DEFENCE FORCE: A PSYCHOLOGICAL. DISCUSSION ... military, among British veterans of the Falkland war and during the recent Iraq conflict.1 In the United ... Nye reported in her research on Vietnam combat veterans, that posttraumatic ...

  6. The role of thionins in rice defence against root pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongli; Gheysen, Godelieve; Ullah, Chhana; Verbeek, Ruben; Shang, Chenjing; De Vleesschauwer, David; Höfte, Monica; Kyndt, Tina

    2015-10-01

    Thionins are antimicrobial peptides that are involved in plant defence. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the role of rice thionin genes in defence responses against two root pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola and the oomycete Pythium graminicola. The expression of rice thionin genes was observed to be differentially regulated by defence-related hormones, whereas all analysed genes were consistently down-regulated in M. graminicola-induced galls, at least until 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Transgenic lines of Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare overproducing OsTHI7 revealed decreased susceptibility to M. graminicola infection and P. graminicola colonization. Taken together, these results demonstrate the role of rice thionin genes in defence against two of the most damaging root pathogens attacking rice. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. The failing firm defence: merger policy and entry

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Robin; Weeds, Helen

    2003-01-01

    This Paper considers the 'failing firm defence'. Under this principle, found in most antitrust jurisdictions, a merger that would otherwise be blocked due to its adverse effect on competition is permitted when the firm to be acquired is a failing firm, and an alternative, less detrimental merger is unavailable. Competition authorities have shown considerable reluctance to accept the failing firm defence, and it has been successfully used in just a handful of cases. The Paper considers the def...

  8. China's nuclear arsenal and missile defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappai, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the last few years, major focus of the nuclear debate has been turned towards the United States' proposal to erect a National Missile Defence (NMD) shield for itself. Of the existing nuclear weapon powers, China has been the most vociferous critic of this proposal. As and when this shield does become a reality, China will be the first to lose credibility as a deterrent against USA's existing nuclear arsenal. Therefore taking countermeasures against such a proposal is quite natural. China's approach towards non-proliferation mechanisms is steeped in realpolitik and its ability to manoeuvre them in its favour as a P5 and N5 power. Further, the Chinese leadership have been clear about the capabilities and limitations of nuclear weapons and treated them as diplomatic and political tools. The underlying aim is to preserve China's status as a dominant player in the international system while checkmating other possible challengers. Such a pragmatic approach is of far-reaching significance to all nations, especially those that possess nuclear weapons themselves. It will also be in India's long-term strategic interest to assess and take necessary corrective measures in its national security strategy, and make the composition of Indian nuclear strategy meet the desired goal. (author)

  9. Defence in Depth and Ageing Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S.; Vega, G.; Diluch, A.; Versaci, R., E-mail: versaci@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-10-15

    Accident prevention is the first safety priority of both designers and operators. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems and procedures in a plant operated by personnel who are committed to a strong safety culture. For future nuclear power plants, consideration of multiple failures and severe accidents will be achieved in a more systematic and complete way from the design stage. Defence in depth (DID) consists of a hierarchical deployment of different levels of equipment and procedures in order to maintain the effectiveness of physical barriers placed between radioactive materials and workers, the public or the environment, in normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and, for some barriers, in accidents at the plant. The primary way of preventing accidents is to achieve a high quality in design, construction and operation of the plant, and thereby to ensure that deviations from normal operation are infrequent. The best way to meet these premises of effectiveness of the barriers and the Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) is to develop an ageing management programme to prevent potential failures and accidents. In this work we will refer to the ageing management programme for Atucha I and Atucha II power plants and to the Atucha I spent fuel storage. (author)

  10. Transformational Leadership in the Estonian Defence Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antek Kasemaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The study is a contribution to the validation of the 15 items and 5 subscales Transformational Leadership Scale (TLS proposed by Rafferty and Griffin (2004. Design/methodology/approach – The sample includes participants from different levels of the Estonian Defence Forces (EDF military hierarchy (N=2570. The structure of the TLS was examined by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Additionally ANOVA was used to compare the results between different subsamples. Findings – TLS showed satisfactory reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses found TLS as valid five dimensions instrument to measure transformational leadership in the Estonian military context. Different management levels showed different emphases among the dimensions of transformational leadership. Research and practical limitations/implications – TLS will be an important tool to use in transformational leadership research in the Estonian military context and beyond. Additionally, the current research contributes to the development of alternative measurement tools besides the most commonly used MLQ. The limitation of the work will be the rather homogenous sample from the Estonian military, however it will open the door for the subsequent research using different samplings. Originality/value – The current research found TLS to be a reliable and valid instrument, very short and therefore easy to administrate, having the possibility to use it with five dimensional and as one general transformational instrument as well.

  11. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  12. Pareto Efficient Solutions of Attack-Defence Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes, such as proba......Attack-defence trees are a promising approach for representing threat scenarios and possible countermeasures in a concise and intuitive manner. An attack-defence tree describes the interaction between an attacker and a defender, and is evaluated by assigning parameters to the nodes......, such as probability or cost of attacks and defences. In case of multiple parameters most analytical methods optimise one parameter at a time, e.g., minimise cost or maximise probability of an attack. Such methods may lead to sub-optimal solutions when optimising conflicting parameters, e.g., minimising cost while...... maximising probability. In order to tackle this challenge, we devise automated techniques that optimise all parameters at once. Moreover, in the case of conflicting parameters our techniques compute the set of all optimal solutions, defined in terms of Pareto efficiency. The developments are carried out...

  13. Time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buijs, F.A.; Hall, J.W.; Sayers, P.B.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying theory and a practical process for establishing time-dependent reliability models for components in a realistic and complex flood defence system. Though time-dependent reliability models have been applied frequently in, for example, the offshore, structural safety and nuclear industry, application in the safety-critical field of flood defence has to date been limited. The modelling methodology involves identifying relevant variables and processes, characterisation of those processes in appropriate mathematical terms, numerical implementation, parameter estimation and prediction. A combination of stochastic, hierarchical and parametric processes is employed. The approach is demonstrated for selected deterioration mechanisms in the context of a flood defence system. The paper demonstrates that this structured methodology enables the definition of credible statistical models for time-dependence of flood defences in data scarce situations. In the application of those models one of the main findings is that the time variability in the deterioration process tends to be governed the time-dependence of one or a small number of critical attributes. It is demonstrated how the need for further data collection depends upon the relevance of the time-dependence in the performance of the flood defence system.

  14. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Radiation protection and safety in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Very few organisations have to address such a diverse and complex range of radiation safety matters as the Australian Defence Organisation. The Australian Defence Force and the Department of Defence (its military and civilian branches) have to comply with strict regulations in normal peace time activities. The Surgeon-General, to whom responsibility for policy in radiation protection and safety falls, has established a Defence Radiation Safety Committee, which in turn oversees four specialist subcommittees. Their tasks include recommending policy and doctrine in relation to radiation safety, overseeing the implementation of appropriate regulations, monitoring their compliance. generating the relevant documentation (particularly on procedures to be followed), developing and improving any necessary training courses, and providing sound technical advice whenever and to whomever required. The internal Defence regulations do not permit radiation doses to exceed those limits recommended by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and precautions are taken to ensure during normal peace time duties that these levels are not exceeded. At times of national emergency, the Surgeon-General provides guidance and advice to military commanders on the consequences of receiving dose levels that would not be permitted during normal peace time activities. The paper describes the methods adopted to implement such arrangements

  16. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...

  17. Defence in front of challenges related to climate disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Bastien

    2015-03-01

    As the Pentagon already noticed a relationship between security and climate change in a report published more than ten years ago, climate change is now considered as a threat multiplier, and is therefore a major stake for industrial, institutional and military actors of defence. The author first describes the relationship between national security and climatic security, how risks related to global warming have also an actual potential of destabilisation. He describes how this issue is increasingly addressed by defence actors, notably with a strategic approach initiated by the USA, a still holding back France, discussions about the impact of operational capabilities, and a trend for a carbon print decrease for the defence sector. In the next part, the author examines whether policies of adaptation to climate change could involve threats, evokes the development of geo-engineering, and briefly outlines that a failed adaptation could increase vulnerability

  18. Nuclear power reactors: reactor safety and military and civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvinden, T.

    1976-01-01

    The formation of fission products and plutonium in reactors is briefly described, followed by a short general discussion of reactor safety. The interaction of reactor safety and radioactive release considerations with military and civil defence is thereafter discussed. Reactors and other nuclear plants are factors which must be taken into account in the defence of the district around the site, and as potential targets of both conventional and guerilla attacks and sabotage, requiring special defence. The radiological hazards arising from serious damage to a power reactor by conventional weapons are briefly discussed, and the benefits of underground siting evaluated. Finally the author discusses the significance of the IAEA safeguards work as a preventive factor. (JIW)

  19. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  20. Accident management-defence in depth in Indian PHWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannad, V.B.L.; Reddy, V.V.; Hajela, Sameer; Bhatia, C.M.; Nair, Suma

    2015-01-01

    Defence in Depth (DiD) is the established safety principle for the design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi had highlighted the importance of provisions at Level-4 and 5 of DiD. Post Fukushima accident, on-site measures have been strengthened for Indian Nuclear Power Plants. On procedural front, Accident Management Guidelines have been introduced to handle events more severe than design basis accidents. This paper elaborates enhancement of Defence in Depth provisions for Indian Nuclear Power Plants. (author)

  1. Quantitative Verification and Synthesis of Attack-Defence Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanyan, Zaruhi; Nielson, Flemming; Parker, David

    2016-01-01

    analysis of quantitative properties of complex attack-defence scenarios, using an extension of attack-defence trees which models temporal ordering of actions and allows explicit dependencies in the strategies adopted by attackers and defenders. We adopt a game-theoretic approach, translating attack...... which guarantee or optimise some quantitative property, such as the probability of a successful attack, the expected cost incurred, or some multi-objective trade-off between the two. We implement our approach, building upon the PRISM-games model checker, and apply it to a case study of an RFID goods...

  2. The role of strategic missile defence in the global architecture de ballistic non proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Whereas some think that missile defence is a proliferation agent by nature and therefore undermines the already fragile regime of ballistic non proliferation, some others think that missile defence could underpin the non proliferation regime. The author thus discusses these issues and both points of view by commenting the ambiguous discursive relationships between missile defence and arms control, and by highlighting the various roles and missions given to missile defence, notably in treaties (like the ABM treaty) and postures adopted by concerned countries

  3. A cellular backline: specialization of host membranes for defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Christine

    2015-03-01

    In plant-pathogen interactions, the host plasma membrane serves as a defence front for pathogens that invade from the extracellular environment. As such, the lipid bilayer acts as a scaffold that targets and delivers defence responses to the site of attack. During pathogen infection, numerous changes in plasma membrane composition, organization, and structure occur. There is increasing evidence that this facilitates the execution of a variety of responses, highlighting the regulatory role membranes play in cellular responses. Membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts are hypothesized to create signalling platforms for receptor signalling in response to pathogen perception and for callose synthesis. Further, the genesis of pathogen-associated structures such as papillae and the extra-haustorial membrane necessitates polarization of membranes and membrane trafficking pathways. Unlocking the mechanisms by which this occurs will enable greater understanding of how targeted defences, some of which result in resistance, are executed. This review will survey some of the changes that occur in host membranes during pathogen attack and how these are associated with the generation of defence responses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Exploiting Modelling and Simulation in Support of Cyber Defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Boltjes, B.; Croom-Jonson, S.; Jonat, F.; Çankaya, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly evolving environment of Cyber threats against the NATO Alliance has necessitated a renewed focus on the development of Cyber Defence policy and capabilities. The NATO Modelling and Simulation Group is looking for ways to leverage Modelling and Simulation experience in research, analysis

  5. CSIR eNews: Defence, peace, safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At the CSIR, science and technology (S&T) is hard at work for a peaceful, safe and prosperous South Africa. The organisation has developed strong S&T capabilities through its associations with key players in defence, safety and security...

  6. Direct and indirect chemical defence of pine against folivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Hilker, M.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical defence of pine against herbivorous insects has been intensively studied with respect to its effects on the performance and behaviour of the herbivores as well as on the natural enemies of pine herbivores. The huge variety of terpenoid pine components play a major role in mediating

  7. Successive Evolutions of the Defence in Depth Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulat, B., E-mail: B.Poulat@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-10-15

    Following Fukushima Daiichi accident, the Defence-in-depth concept, which is usually defined as a combination of a number of consecutive and independent levels of protection that would have to fail before harmful effects could be caused, has been confirmed as an essential element to be applied in the design of a nuclear facility to protect people and the environment. However, and although the implementation of the defence in depth concept had been required for long, the Fukushima Daiichi accident and the “stress tests” conducted in different countries have revealed deficiencies in its implementation. Consequently within the review of the IAEA safety requirements requested by Member states, it was important to check whether this concept was appropriately defined in order to be properly understood and fully implemented by vendors and operating organizations. By screening the successive definitions of the defence in depth principle and concept, this paper emphasizes the few issues which have been gradually clarified and enhanced to ensure effectiveness of the defence in depth as expressed from its original statement. (author)

  8. Polymorphism at selected defence gene analogs (DGAs) of Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major diseases affecting banana is Sigatoka or leaf spot disease that comprises three species, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Mycosphaerella musicola and Mycosphaerella eumusae. Plants have a large number of defence related genes which trigger a cascade of defense responses that halt the spread of pathogens.

  9. Phytoplankton defence mechanisms: traits and trade-offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pančić, Marina; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    mechanisms in phytoplankton are diverse and include physiological (e.g. toxicity, bioluminescence), morphological (e.g. silica shell, colony formation), and behavioural (e.g. escape response) traits. However, the function of many of the proposed defence mechanisms remains elusive, and the costs and benefits...

  10. Alcohol misuse in patients attending a defence force general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 658 patients approached, 40 (6%) declined to fill in the questionnaire. 42% of the 618 patients surveyed were ... 38,1% of male apprentices at the technical college and 40,0% of male current defence force members staying on the base scored 8 or more on the AUDIT. In the group scoring less than 8 on the ...

  11. Probabilistic Design of Coastal Flood Defences in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai Van, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study further develops the method of probabilistic design and to address a knowledge gap in its application regarding safety and reliability, risk assessment and risk evaluation to the fields of flood defences. The thesis discusses: - a generic probabilistic design framework for assessing flood

  12. Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developmental Trends of the Defence of Superior Order: Acritical Appraisal of the Statute of the International Criminal Court. Eni E Alobo. Abstract. No Abstract. LWATI: A Journal of Contemporary Research, 9(3), 107-125, 2012. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Post-secretory fate of host defence components in mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathe, Matthias; Forteza, Rosanna; Conner, Gregory E

    2002-01-01

    Airway mucus is a complex mixture of secretory products that provide a multifaceted defence against infection. Among many antimicrobial substances, mucus contains a peroxidase identical to milk lactoperoxidase (LPO) that is produced by goblet cells and submucosal glands. Airway secretions contain the substrates for LPO, namely thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide, at concentrations sufficient for production of the biocidal compound hypothiocyanite, a fact confirmed by us in vitro. In vivo, inhibition of airway LPO in sheep significantly inhibits bacterial clearance, suggesting that the LPO system is a major contributor to host defences. Since secretory products including LPO are believed to be steadily removed by mucociliary clearance, their amount and availability on the surface is thought to be controlled solely by secretion. In contrast to this paradigm, new data suggest that LPO and other substances are retained at the ciliary border of the airway epithelium by binding to surface-associated hyaluronan, thereby providing an apical, fully active enzyme pool. Thus, hyaluronan, secreted from submucosal gland cells, plays a previously unrecognized pivotal role in mucosal host defence by retaining LPO and possibly other substances important for first line host defence at the apical surface 'ready for use' and protected from ciliary clearance.

  14. 240 THE RELEVANCE OF THE DEFENCE OF ALIBI IN CRIMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    It is this unique defence that we seek to analyse in this work. ... been guilty'3 According to the Supreme Court in Eke v State4 alibi means ... 3 E. Jowitt, Dictionary of English Law Vol 1 (London, Sweet and Maxwell 1959) pg 156 ... (a) Every person who actually does the act or makes the omission which constitutes the offence ...

  15. Interdepartmental Cooperation in Defence Issues and Strategic Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Nikolic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this paper comes from one successfully conducted empirical research about motivation of potential candidates to serve in the active reserve as a kind of military service which is recently introduced in the Serbian Army. The research team was faced with a set of problems related to the deadlines, resources and mandate issues. A solution was found in agile interdepartmental cooperation. Firstly, we started with identification of missing resources and mandates of our research team. Then, we investigated where we could find the missing issues. After that, we established lines for cooperation with other departments in the MoD. The clarity of interdepartmental communication and concretisation of demands and expectations were crucial for success. In the end we realized the full potential of interdepartmental cooperation and started to think about that phenomenon in the wider context of defence and security issues. We found some other examples of interdepartmental cooperation in earlier efforts of the defence sector reform, as well as some results in other armies. The paper presents strengths and opportunities of interdepartmental cooperation through temporary engaged working groups in the specific defence sector environment, as well as potential obstacles. In a wider aspect, interdepartmental cooperation in defence and security issues becomes more and more important because of new security challenges we are facing today.

  16. Currency crises with the threat of an interest rate defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, T.R.; Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.

    2011-01-01

    While virtually all currency crisis models recognise that the decision to abandon a peg depends on how tenaciously policy makers defend it, this is seldom modelled explicitly. We add the threat of an interest rate defence to the global game model of Morris and Shin (American Economic Review 88,

  17. Defence in Depth - Applied to the Nuclear System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weightman, M., E-mail: mike_weightman@hotmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Normally, the Defence in Depth concept is applied to the technical barriers that provide protection to the public and workers from nuclear accidents. This allows designers, operators and regulators to challenge (along with using other design principles such as independence, redundancy, diversity, single point failure, etc) the technical systems provided to see whether more needs to be done to provide adequate defence in depth to ensure risks are reduced so far as is reasonably practical. Post Fukushima, much thought has gone into reconsidering whether the effectiveness of the defence in depth concept can be enhanced by, for example, rebalancing the attention between prevention and mitigation or enhancing the independence of protective measures such as providing extremely robust standalone emergency cooling capability. This presentation argues that Fukushima teaches us a more fundamental lesson - that the defence in depth concept (along with other design principles') should be applied to the nuclear system to see whether more should be done to enhance the institutional barriers in any particular nuclear system. These barriers are at three main levels: industry, regulators and stakeholders each with sub-barriers. It reinforces the need for industry and regulators to be independent, open and transparent so that the nuclear system can work effectively. Examples are given where the application of the model identifies areas for improvement in existing systems. (author)

  18. Psychiatric, Psychological and “Witchcraft” Defences to Murder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Expert psychiatric testimony may be relevant in certain instances of homicide especially murder. However, the exposure of most psychiatric trainees may be inadequate in relation to the range of psychological defences available to an offender accused of homicide. Aim: To describe the psychiatric and ...

  19. CSIR eNews: Defence peace safety and security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available At the CSIR, science and technology (S&T) is hard at work for a peaceful, safe and prosperous South Africa. The organisation has developed strong S&T capabilities through its associations with key players in defence, safety and security...

  20. "Contributory intent" as a defence limiting delictual liability | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of delictual liability, the term "fault" generally refers to the defendant's conduct, whereas "contributory fault" refers to the plaintiff's conduct. "Contributory intent" is a form of "contributory fault" and may apply as a defence limiting delictual liability within the ambit of the Apportionment of Damages Act 34 of 1956 ...

  1. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacques

    2003-03-26

    Mar 26, 2003 ... Department of Defence in Pretoria, and oral history interviews with military .... were created almost from scratch and 'refined on the hoof' in the first three ... would culminate in a three or four day, thirty five or forty five kilometre .... organisation of 202 Bn. to be adjusted so as to accommodate horse and dog.

  2. Torpedo and countermeasures modelling in the Torpedo Defence System Testbed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, F.P.A.; Witberg, R.R.; H.J. Grootendorst, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several years ago, TNO-FEL started the development of the Torpedo Defence System Testbed (TDSTB) based on the TORpedo SIMulation (TORSIM) model and the Maritime Operations Simulation and Evaluation System (MOSES). MOSES provides the simulation and modelling environment for the evaluation and

  3. Communal range defence in primates as a public goods dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Erik P; Arseneau, T Jean M; Schleuning, Xenia; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-12-05

    Classic socio-ecological theory holds that the occurrence of aggressive range defence is primarily driven by ecological incentives, most notably by the economic defendability of an area or the resources it contains. While this ecological cost-benefit framework has great explanatory power in solitary or pair-living species, comparative work on group-living primates has always found economic defendability to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition to account for the distribution of effective range defence across the taxon. This mismatch between theory and observation has recently been ascribed to a collective action problem among group members in, what is more informatively viewed as, a public goods dilemma: mounting effective defence of a communal range against intrusions by outgroup conspecifics. We here further develop this framework, and report on analyses at three levels of biological organization: across species, across populations within a single lineage and across groups and individuals within a single population. We find that communal range defence in primates very rarely involves collective action sensu stricto and that it is best interpreted as the outcome of opportunistic and strategic individual-level decisions. Whether the public good of a defended communal range is produced by solitary, joint or collective action is thus the outcome of the interplay between the unique characteristics of each individual, local and current socio-ecological conditions, and fundamental life-history traits of the species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Defence Industrial Policies and Their Impact on Acquisition Outcomes: A Comparative Analysis of the United Kingdom and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    average costs for firms in that industry but nonetheless support a positive (or non- negative ) level of profit. Defence industrial policies & their...prompted by increasing pressure on defence budgets; consolidation of the UK defence industry; “ globalisation ” of UK defence companies & threat of exit

  5. Instar-specific sensitivity of specialist Manduca sexta larvae to induced defences in their host plant Nicotiana attenuata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.; Hermenau, U.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    1. The time delay associated with the activation of induced defences is thought to be a liability for this type of defence because it allows herbivores to remove biomass before the defence is fully induced. When defences are costly and plants grow with competitors, however, it may be more

  6. Life-history constraints in grassland plant species: a growth-defence trade-off is the norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Lind; E.T. Borer; E.W. Seabloom; P.B. Adler; J.D. Bakker; D.M. Blumenthal; M. Crawley; K.F. Davies; J. Firn; D.S. Gruner; S. Harpole; Y. Hautier; H. Hillebrand; J.M.H. Knops; B.A. Melbourne; B. Mortensen; A.C. Risch; M. Schuetz; C.J. Stevens; P.D. Wragg

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth can be limited by resource acquisition and defence against consumers, leading to contrasting trade-off possibilities. The competition-defence hypothesis posits a trade-off between competitive ability and defence against enemies (e.g. herbivores and pathogens). The growth-defence hypothesis suggests that strong competitors for nutrients are also defended...

  7. Necessity, private defence and the killing of Mary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    2001-07-01

    This article examines the reasons used by the Court of Appeal in Re A (Children) to authorise and justify an operation which would inevitably kill the weaker of a pair of conjoined twins in order to offer the stronger twin a good chance of a long and happy life. The crux of the judgment was that a utilitarian theory of necessity could justify this operation. This article seeks to define the criminal law defences at issue in the case and to argue that utilitarian necessity is such a dangerous doctrine that it should never be employed if there is any other defence which can be made to serve the same purpose--as there was in the present case.

  8. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  9. Nelson Mandela's defence: A psychological capital documentary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene van Wyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative documentary analysis examines Nelson Mandela�s defence statement at the Rivonia Trial, Pretoria Supreme Court, on 20 April 1964. The defence document is analysed through the psychological capital lens, depicting themes that support the constructs of hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism. Psychological capital characteristics played a major role in the initial non-violent policies of negotiation. The inevitable establishment of Umkhonto we Sizwe followed, as a result of the increased restrictions and unwillingness of government to negotiate and collaborate. Mandela showed a determined spirit to unite the country. The discussion gives insight into Mandela�s authentic psychological capital leadership under difficult political and personal circumstances. Some implications are indicated in adopting Mandela�s psychological characteristics for personal reform.

  10. The Morality and Economics of Safety in Defence Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Tim

    Ministry of Defence policy is to conform as closely as possible to UK health and safety legislation in all its operations. We consider the implications of the law and the guidance provided by the Health and Safety Executive for the arguments we need to make for the safety of defence procurements, and extract four general principles to help in answering the questions that arise when considering the safety of systems with complex behaviour. One of these principles is analysed further to identify how case law and the guidance interpret the requirement for risks to be reduced so far as is reasonably practicable. We then apply the principles to answer some questions that have arisen in our work as Independent Safety Auditors, including the limits to the tolerability of risk to armed forces personnel and civilians in wartime, and the acceptability of the transfer of risk from one group to another when controls on risk are introduced.

  11. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-)cult...

  12. KYPO – A Platform for Cyber Defence Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Čeleda Pavel; Čegan Jakub; Vykopal Jan; Tovarňák Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Correct and timely responses to cyber attacks are crucial for the effective implementation of cyber defence strategies and policies. The number of threats and ingenuity of attackers is ever growing, as is the need for more advanced detection tools, techniques and skilled cyber security professionals. KYPO – Cyber Exercise & Research Platform is focused on modelling and simulating complex computer systems and networks in a virtualized and separated environment. The platform enables realist...

  13. Signalling network construction for modelling plant defence response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Miljkovic

    Full Text Available Plant defence signalling response against various pathogens, including viruses, is a complex phenomenon. In resistant interaction a plant cell perceives the pathogen signal, transduces it within the cell and performs a reprogramming of the cell metabolism leading to the pathogen replication arrest. This work focuses on signalling pathways crucial for the plant defence response, i.e., the salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways, in the Arabidopsis thaliana model plant. The initial signalling network topology was constructed manually by defining the representation formalism, encoding the information from public databases and literature, and composing a pathway diagram. The manually constructed network structure consists of 175 components and 387 reactions. In order to complement the network topology with possibly missing relations, a new approach to automated information extraction from biological literature was developed. This approach, named Bio3graph, allows for automated extraction of biological relations from the literature, resulting in a set of (component1, reaction, component2 triplets and composing a graph structure which can be visualised, compared to the manually constructed topology and examined by the experts. Using a plant defence response vocabulary of components and reaction types, Bio3graph was applied to a set of 9,586 relevant full text articles, resulting in 137 newly detected reactions between the components. Finally, the manually constructed topology and the new reactions were merged to form a network structure consisting of 175 components and 524 reactions. The resulting pathway diagram of plant defence signalling represents a valuable source for further computational modelling and interpretation of omics data. The developed Bio3graph approach, implemented as an executable language processing and graph visualisation workflow, is publically available at http://ropot.ijs.si/bio3graph/and can be

  14. The Advent of Representative Associations in the Irish Defence Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    year period from 1975 to 1988. The Submission Group had difficulty finding appropriate groups in the Irish labour market against which to compare the...in the Irish Labour market , the average male industrial worker was chosen. In choosing the male industrial worker, it was not suggested that this...Defence Forces to have all young officers attend University College Galway ( UCG ) or a similar third level institute for the purpose of acquiring a

  15. Aerial Refueling For NATO’s Smart Defence Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Rome: NATO Defense College, 2012, 148. 40 David A. Brown , "NATO Studying Development of Dedicated Refueling Unit Similar to Early Warning Force...accessed March 1, 2012). Brown , David A. "NATO Studying Development of Dedicated Refueling Unit Similar to Early Warning Force." Aviation Week...Aircraft. Coulsdon, Surrey: IHS Global Limited, 2011. Jennings, Gareth . "Nations Pool for NATO C-17A Fleet." Jane’s Defence Weekly, October 2008

  16. A Primer on Recent Canadian Defence Budgeting Trends and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a dangerous world, the federal government has made recapitalizing and updating Canada’s armed forces a priority. Unfortunately, fiscal pressures obliged the government to deviate from its Canada First Defence Strategy, cutting staff and delaying military hardware acquisitions. However, the introduction this year of the Defence Procurement Strategy should allow Ottawa to use improved approaches to buy equipment that would otherwise have been purchased already under the DND’s opaque capital expenditure system. At present, DND capital funds are mostly subject to accrual accounting. Capital costs are charged against the defence budget as annual amortization expenses over equipment lifecycles. While this enables multiple capital projects to go ahead simultaneously, not all of the money covering capital costs is treated this way. Traditional A-Base Vote 5 expenses are still charged to the budget the year the expenditure is made — and the DND consistently underspends the Vote 5 funds available by as much as 28 percent. Since 2007/8, an estimated $6.42 billion wasn’t used as intended. While some of this can be carried forward, there are limits. Leftover funds exceeding them are returned to the Treasury and are thereby lost. It’s up to the DND to make up losses out of future funding. Just as bad, the accrual method doesn’t fully account for inflation, so when schedules slip, project purchasing power diminishes by hundreds of millions of dollars. Ambitious initiatives like the Joint Support Ship and (likely the Canadian Surface Combatant end up taking hits to reflect harsh budgetary realities; the capabilities of Canada’s soldiers suffer. This policy brief draws on research and confidential interviews to highlight the pressing need for reform in Canadian defence procurement.

  17. Can the failing firm defence rule be counterproductive?

    OpenAIRE

    Helder Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigates the role of the failing firm defence (FFD) concept in the merger control process within a Cournot setting where (i) endogenous mergers are motivated by prospective efficiency gains and (ii) mergers must be submitted to an antitrust authority that might demand partial divestiture for approval. The findings show that when the FFD concept is one of the tools available for controlling the merger process, firms can strategically embark on a merger that makes other fi...

  18. Chemical defence in chrysomelid eggs and neonate larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Pasteels, Jacques M.; Daloze, D.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Eggs and neonate larvae of chrysomelid beetles (sub-tribes Chrysomelina and Phyllodectina) were investigated for the presence of defensive substances. The two isoxazolinone glucosides (compounds 1 and 2), characteristic of the adult defence secretion, were detected in the eggs of all studied species. Compound 2, containing a nitropropionate, is always present in concentrations (above 10-2 M), which are highly deterrent to the ant Myrmica rubra. This compound is not at all or only slightly to...

  19. 2015 Status Report on Major Defence Equipment Procurements

    OpenAIRE

    David Perry

    2015-01-01

    Federal elections may be good for democracy, but the campaigns — particularly the lengthy one recently held in Canada — can be crippling for plans to better arm our military. Just before the election was called, there were public signs of important progress being made in what has long been a frustratingly slow and bureaucratically complex procurement process. But then the campaign left the Department of National Defence and other federal departments unable to secure approvals from either a de...

  20. Mapping a product-service-system delivering defence avionics availability

    OpenAIRE

    Settanni, E.; Thenent, N.; Newnes, L.; Parry, G.; Goh, Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term support agreements such as availability-based contracts are often associated with the servitization of business models in such sectors as defence aerospace. In practice, there is no unambiguous way of linking availability and service outcomes from an operational perspective; rather, the focus tends to be placed almost exclusively on product-related metrics. To address this gap, this paper outlines a conceptual model of how advanced service outcomes should be delivered under an avail...

  1. Defence and security applications of quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have seen tremendous recent application in the realm of Defence and Security. And, in many instances replacing traditional solid state lasers as the source of choice for Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, In-situ Sensing, Through-Barrier Sensing, and many others. Following their development and demonstration in the early 1990's, QCL's reached some maturity and specific defence and security application prior to 2005; with much initial development fostered by DARPA initiatives in the US, dstl, MoD, and EOARD funding initiatives in the UK, and University level R&D such as those by Prof Manijeh Razeghi at Northwestern University [1], and Prof Ted Masselink at Humboldt University [2]. As QCL's provide direct mid-IR laser output for electrical input, they demonstrate high quantum efficiency compared with diode pumped solid state lasers with optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) to generate mid-Infrared output. One particular advantage of QCL's is their very broad operational bandwidth, extending from the terahertz to the near-infrared spectral regions. Defence and Security areas benefiting from QCL's include: Countermeasures, Remote Sensing, Through-the-Wall Sensing, and Explosive Detection. All information used to construct this paper obtained from open sources.

  2. Transgenerational effects alter plant defence and resistance in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchio, J

    2017-04-01

    Trichomes, or leaf hairs, are epidermal extensions that take a variety of forms and perform many functions in plants, including herbivore defence. In this study, I document genetically determined variation, within-generation plasticity, and a direct role of trichomes in herbivore defence for Mimulus guttatus. After establishing the relationship between trichomes and herbivory, I test for transgenerational effects of wounding on trichome density and herbivore resistance. Patterns of interannual variation in herbivore density and the high cost of plant defence makes plant-herbivore interactions a system in which transgenerational phenotypic plasticity (TPP) is apt to evolve. Here, I demonstrate that parental damage alters offspring trichome density and herbivore resistance in nature. Moreover, this response varies between populations. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that TPP contributes to variation in nature, and also suggests that selection can modify TPP in response to local conditions. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Defence nuclear waste disposal in Russia. International perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.; Kirko, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Significant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive waste have been generated in Russia during the production of nuclear weapons, and there is an urgent need to find suitable ways to manage these wastes in a way that protects both the current population and future generations. This book contains contributions from pure and applied scientists and other representatives from Europe, North America, and Russia, who are, or have been, actively involved in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal. First-hand experience of specific problems associated with defence-related wastes in the USA and the Russian Federation is presented, and current plans are described for the disposal of solid wastes arising from civilian nuclear power production programmes in other countries, including Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany and the UK. The book provides a good insight into ongoing research at local and national level within Russia, devoted to the safe disposal of defence-related radioactive waste. It also demonstrates how existing expertise and technology from civilian nuclear waste management programmes can be applied to solving the problems created by nuclear defence programmes. Contributions address methods of immobilisation, site selection methodology, site characterisation techniques and data interpretation, the key elements of safety/performance assessments of planned deep (geological) repositories for radioactive waste, and radionuclide transport modelling. Concerns associated with certain specific nuclear waste disposal concepts and repository sites are also presented. refs

  4. Anosognosia as motivated unawareness: the 'defence' hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Oliver H; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Solms, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Anosognosia for hemiplegia has seen a century of almost continuous research, yet a definitive understanding of its mechanism remains elusive. Essentially, anosognosic patients hold quasi-delusional beliefs about their paralysed limbs, in spite of all the contrary evidence, repeated questioning, and logical argument. We review a range of findings suggesting that emotion and motivation play an important role in anosognosia. We conclude that anosognosia involves (amongst other things) a process of psychological defence. This conclusion stems from a wide variety of clinical and experimental investigations, including data on implicit awareness of deficit, fluctuations in awareness over time, and dramatic effects upon awareness of psychological interventions such as psychotherapy, reframing of the emotional consequences of the paralysis, and first versus third person perspectival manipulations. In addition, we review and refute the (eight) arguments historically raised against the 'defence' hypothesis, including the claim that a defence-based account cannot explain the lateralised nature of the disorder. We argue that damage to a well-established right-lateralised emotion regulation system, with links to psychological processes that appear to underpin allocentric spatial cognition, plays a key role in anosognosia (at least in some patients). We conclude with a discussion of implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defence in depth by 'Leittechnique' systems with graded intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the past, only two types of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems were in use in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG): safety systems and operational systems. Present nuclear power plant 'Leittechnique' systems in the FRG have been expanded from this 'black-and-white' status to multiple-grade systems with respect to safety, qualification requirements and intelligence. The extensive experience of the past has encouraged the rule-making committees - representing all parties working in the nuclear field - to differentiate between the protection limitations and condition limitations of the reactor protection system on one hand and the information systems (including the accident monitoring and alarm system) of different safety importance on the other, assuming additional extensive application of non-safety-grade operational Leittechnique systems. These definitions of categories are in accordance with international practice and enable designers to apply 'echelons of defence', composed of equipment of all categories, in accordance with 'defence-in-depth' concepts. They also simplify the introduction of computerized equipment, especially in the lower safety categories. Status, background and reasons of the introduction, as well as typical defence-in-depth modes, of the first running Leittechnique system of this kind (in the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant) and especially their different tasks in disturbance handling are described. The international situation and future developments are briefly characterized. (author)

  6. 2015 Status Report on Major Defence Equipment Procurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Federal elections may be good for democracy, but the campaigns — particularly the lengthy one recently held in Canada — can be crippling for plans to better arm our military. Just before the election was called, there were public signs of important progress being made in what has long been a frustratingly slow and bureaucratically complex procurement process. But then the campaign left the Department of National Defence and other federal departments unable to secure approvals from either a defence minister or the Treasury Board, until the election ended and the new prime minister appointed the current cabinet. There had already been upheaval prior to that: In the first seven months of 2015, the three senior leaders at the Canadian Forces and the Defence Department (including the minister had been replaced, along with many other people critical to the procurement process. In addition, there had been changes in the Public Works Department and the Defence Procurement Strategy Secretariat. Frustrating and disappointing delays have long been a matter of course in Canada’s defence procurement process. In 2014/15, the number of ministerial or Treasury Board approvals to allow projects to proceed was half of that in 2009/10. Yet the demand for approvals has not abated. In addition to the turnover of key figures involved in the procurement and approval process, delays have come from a number of major steps added to the process, making an already lengthy and complex system even more so. To be sure, these steps were added in the pursuit of improved financial management and project management, with the aim of addressing longstanding problems. But it will take years to see if those objectives have been realized. An irony here is that the budget for military procurement has increased. Between 2004 and 2009, the Defence Department’s procurement budget nearly doubled. But the funding was never matched by the capacity to manage it. In 2003, the Material

  7. Aerodynamic Test Facility Requirements for Defence R&D to 2000 and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Defence Force. Following its review of science and technology, the Australian Science and Technology Council ( ASTEC ) reported I that the present pattern...Organisation (DSTO) within the Department of Defence. Accordingly, ASTEC recommended to the Prime Minister that the Department of Defence be asked to develop...DSTO2 as well as by ASTEC 1 . An additional reason for choosing aerodynamics for early consideration in response to ASTEC’s recommendation is that wind

  8. United Kingdom's defence procurement: a period of smart enlightenment or halting culture

    OpenAIRE

    O Callaghan, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to map predominant cultures and examine their compatibility with the Smart Procurement Initiative. An initiative that was identified in the Strategic Defence Review to address the limitations of UK's defence procurement process that had previously failed to deliver defence equipment to cost, time and specification. The introduction reviews those factors, which influenced procurement since World War 11. The background to UK's current procurement process...

  9. Rosatom Corporation at the All-Russian civil defence training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhikh, E.N.; Glazunov, A.V.; Tyurin, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The 80th anniversary of civil defence in Russia was marked by the All-Russian civil defence exercise attended by representatives of federal executive authorities, regional and local executive authorities. During the exercise performance of the following activities was verified: introduction of increased preparedness mode for local air-defence emergency-response forces, activities of emergency-response and fire safety commissions, information collection and exchange during implementation of top-priority civil defence measures, etc. The paper describes the activities carried out during the exercise [ru

  10. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rangobana, Samuel A; Alkebaisi, Hussain K

    2005-01-01

    .... Logistics statistics, for refurbished trucks returned to user units, are also gathered from the asset management software database, Mincom Ellipse, in use by the Botswana Defence Force Mechanical...

  11. Costs and benefits of chemical defence in the Red Alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran M Nylund

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that the production of chemical defences is costly in terrestrial vascular plants. However, these studies do not necessarily reflect the costs of defence production in macroalgae, due to structural and functional differences between vascular plants and macroalgae. Using a specific culturing technique, we experimentally manipulated the defence production in the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera to examine if the defence is costly in terms of growth. Furthermore, we tested if the defence provides fitness benefits by reducing harmful bacterial colonisation of the alga. Costly defences should provide benefits to the producer in order to be maintained in natural populations, but such benefits through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation have rarely been documented in macroalgae. We found that algae with experimentally impaired defence production, but with an externally controlled epibacterial load, grew significantly better than algae with normal defence production. We also found that undefended algae exposed to a natural epibacterial load experienced a substantial reduction in growth and a 6-fold increase in cell bleaching, compared to controls. Thus, this study provides experimental evidence that chemical defence production in macroalgae is costly, but that the cost is outweighed by fitness benefits provided through protection against harmful bacterial colonisation.

  12. Analogical Arguments in Ethics and Law: A Defence of Deductivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Perin Shecaira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a qualified defence of Bruce Waller’s deductivist schema for a priori analogical arguments in ethics and law. One crucial qualification is that the schema represents analogical arguments as complexes composed of one deductive inference (hence “deductivism” but also of one non-deductive subargument. Another important qualification is that the schema is informed by normative assumptions regarding the conditions that an analogical argument must satisfy in order for it to count as an optimal instance of its kind. Waller’s schema (in qualified form is defended from criticisms formulated by Trudy Govier, Marcello Guarini and Lilian Bermejo-Luque.

  13. Cross Border EU Defence Industry Consolidation between Globalization and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    as it constitute a rendezvous of traditional market-based efficiency logics and concerns over sovereignty. Moreover, the defence industry has been an institutional island still exhibiting all the national protectionist mechanisms that European integration mostly has done away with in other sectors. The paper...... will depart from these institutional peculiarities drawing on the varieties of capitalism literature. Different patterns in ownership, public-private R&D links and business promotion policies are a key constraint in cross-border mergers. This is compounded by sovereignty concerns hosted by the national...

  14. Bacteriophages use hypermodified nucleosides to evade host's defence systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kot, Witold; Olsen, Nikoline S.; Carstens, Alexander Byth

    developed several strategies to evade these defence mechanisms. Ultimately, this led to the oldest and still running arms race - microorganisms vs. their molecular parasites. We here describe a remarkable new strategy used by the recently isolated Escherichia coli phage CAjan belonging to...... to investigate this mechanism in detail we have used several methods including direct plaque sequencing, restriction endonuclease analysis and CRISPR-Cas genome editing. Through generation of specific mutants, we were able to introduce a restriction sensitive phenotype in the CAjan bacteriophage providing new...

  15. Manic Defences in Contemporary Society. The Psychocultural Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Dusko; Jakovljevic, Miro; Marcinko, Darko

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses the impact of contemporary culture on the individual's personality. We used the "psychocultural" approach whose key feature is the amalgamation of theories and methods belonging to psychodynamic and psychosocial studies, as well as those used in the field of media and cultural studies. The idea of a potentially therapeutic effect of culture (therapy culture) can already been seen in Freud's and Lacan's texts, and it is often used in critical analyses of contemporary corporate culture, which is more or less developed in some parts of the world. In their criticisms, many contemporary authors emphasize that modern societies have a tendency towards the weakening of basic commitment, or lack thereof, to a social equivalent of Winnicott's concept of environmental provisions as an inalienable democratic right essential for human emotional and mental progress or emotional well-being. The article describes frequent resorting to the so-called manic defences that defensively distort, deny and obscure the awareness that a human being is not the omnipotent source of life, but instead depends on other human beings, and often tries to compensate for loss through various activities. The article describes excessive shopping as an activity that often serves as an attempt to find what was lost, i.e. to fill an emotional void. This solution (resorting to manic defences) is encouraged by contemporary culture, especially through promotional material (e.g. advertising). The main theses of this article are supported by quotations and data from world literature.

  16. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Lars B; Brönmark, Christer

    1999-10-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism underlying this effect, high drag caused by the deep-bodied morphology. Our study confirms that drag is higher for deep-bodied crucian carp, both in terms of estimated theoretical drag and power curve steepness. However, deep-bodied fish swimming at the velocity associated with minimum cost of transport, U mc , did not experience higher costs of transport than shallow-bodied fish. Deep-bodied crucian carp had significantly lower standard metabolic rates, i.e. metabolic rates at rest, and also lower U mc , and the resulting costs of transport were similar for the two morphs. Nevertheless, when deep-bodied individuals deviate from U mc , e.g. when increasing foraging effort under competition, their steeper power curves will cause substantial energy costs relative to shallow-bodied conspecifics. Furthermore, there is evidence that reductions in standard metabolic rate incur costs in terms of lower stress tolerance, reduced growth rate, and life history changes. Thus, this work provides links between hydrodynamics, a cost-reducing mechanism, and a density-dependent fitness cost associated with an inducible defence.

  17. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    The article questions how strong Europeanisation is as an explanation of administrative changes in EU member states. Denmark has an opt-out from the European cooperation on defence, and, therefore, its defence administration represents a critical or a less likely case to test the Europeanisation...... thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...... structures and the decision-making processes in the Ministry of Defence (MoD) have also adapted to the ESDP. The latter example emphasises the strength of top-down Europeanisation as a possible explanation of domestic administrative changes in member states. It is argued that Europeanisation per se...

  18. Are bacteriophage defence and virulence two sides of the same coin in Campylobacter jejuni?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); P. van Baarlen (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe continuous battle for survival in the environment has led to the development or acquisition of sophisticated defence systems in bacteria. These defence systems have contributed to the survival of the bacterial species in the environment for millions of years. Some systems appear to

  19. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  20. Civil Defence Commission at the Federal German Ministry of the Interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The work of the Civil Defence Commission comprises also interdisciplinary questions of civil defence and disaster relief. The lectures are concerned with the causes and effects of radioactivity, medical practice in the event of disaster, toxicology and pathology, including even psychology in disaster as well as risk management and dosimetry. The subjects chemical accidents and disaster relief are marginally dealt with. (DG) [de

  1. Modelling the effects of a CBRN defence system using a Bayesian Belief Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillipson, F.; Bastings, I.C.L.; Vink, N.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a Bayes model to quantify the effects of a passive CBRN defence system is presented. The model gives insight in the way of the mutual influence of all the elements of passive CBRN defence, by the use of detailed scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis and root cause analysis. This can

  2. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Client-Oriented Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  3. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Executive Leaflet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  4. Environmental Effects on Constitutive and Inducible Resin Defences of Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria L. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Peter L. Lorio; Jonathan J. Ruel

    2000-01-01

    The ecological literature abounds with studies of environmental effects on plant antiherbivore defences. While various models have been proposed (e.g. plant stress, optimal allocation, growth-differentiation balance), each has met with mixed support. One possible explanation for the mixed results is that constitutive and induced defences are differentialiy affected by...

  5. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ziguo; Feechan, Angela; Pedersen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Penetration resistance is often the first line of defence against fungal pathogens. Subsequently induced defences are mediated by the programmed cell death (PCD) reaction pathway and the salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling pathways. We previously demonstrated...

  6. Computational intelligence methods for the efficient reliability analysis of complex flood defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingston, Greer B.; Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Gouldby, Ben P.; van Gelder, Pieter H.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    With the continual rise of sea levels and deterioration of flood defence structures over time, it is no longer appropriate to define a design level of flood protection, but rather, it is necessary to estimate the reliability of flood defences under varying and uncertain conditions. For complex

  7. Between a rock and a hard place: Environmental and engineering considerations when designing coastal defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firth, L.B.; Thompson, R.C.; Bohn, K.; Abbiati, M.; Airoldi, L.; Bouma, T.J.; Bozzeda, F.; Ceccherelli, V.U.; Colangelo, M.A.; Evans, A.; Ferrario, F.; Hanley, M.E.; Hinz, H.; Hoggart, S.P.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Moore, P.; Morgan, E.H.; Perkol-Finkel, S.; Skov, M.W.; Strain, E.M.; van Belzen, J.; Hawkins, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal defence structures are proliferating as a result of rising sea levels and stormier seas. With the realisation that most coastal infrastructure cannot be lost or removed, research is required into ways that coastal defence structures can be built to meet engineering requirements, whilst also

  8. the role of the south african national defence force in policing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mosesm

    the history and socioeconomic realities of our society. For ... White Paper on National Defence for the Republic of South Africa of 19962 and ... Reading the 1998 Defence Review,5 it was clearly assumed, without any ... year regarding the crime situation in South Africa. ..... approaches need to be augmented by the SANDF.

  9. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  10. State Aid as a Defence for Public Authorities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    court’s perception. As the contracts had been declared to be in force by a declaratory judgment that was res judicata, the dispute before the CJEU concerned the national interpretation of the principle of res judicata and its application in a State aid context. The CJEU first turned to the principle......In the annotated judgment a public authority uses the existence of State aid as a defence in a legal action, where its contractual partner aimed to achieve damages and fulfilment of the contracts. The public authority claimed that the contracts were not on market terms, which also was the national...... of consistent interpretation, which it considered could provide various solutions for the national court to draw all the necessary consequences of the possible breach of the duty to notify State aid. In the alternative, the CJEU considered the principle of effectiveness and found that due to the fundamental...

  11. Defence-in-depth concept for the EU-ABWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Fuchs, Steffen; Takada, Toshiaki; Kataoka, Kazuyoshi [Toshiba International Limited (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The current defence-in-depth (DiD) concept has been established by the Reactor Harmonization Working Group (RHWG) of Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). Principally the DiD concept was already part of the very early power reactor designs. However, additional considerations have been done in order to take plant conditions into account which are beyond the original design basis. The most recent advancements have been done based on major lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident. Especially for new nuclear reactors it has to be demonstrated that DiD aspects have been considered in their design. Currently Toshiba is adapting its Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) for the European market, at first in Finland. This presentation aims to describe how the new DiD concept has been applied to achieve the safety goals for a modern reactor type and to ensure a design that can be licensed in Western Europe. (orig.)

  12. Prioritizing Defence Industry Capabilities: Lessons for Canada from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Craig Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of Canadian acquisition announcements over the past few years have generated significant debate about a variety of issues like whether or not Canada should have a separate procurement agency, whether or not industrial and regional benefits are appropriate and whether or not Canadian companies should be given preference over international companies. In discussions about improving our procurement process Australia is often used as an example because the nations are generally considered to be similar in size with respect to GDP, population and military. This study examines Australia’s approach to establishing a defence industry policy with a set of Priority Industry Capabilities and how that policy connects with military procurement in order to identify those lessons that might be useful for Canada as it seeks to improve its own procurement process and its relationship with the defence industry. The study looks at some important background information on the Australian experience and then looks more specifically at the most recent articulation of policies in Australia. Although Australia is not without its own challenges, there are a number of lessons that stand out for Canada. This study discusses the lessons for Canada and recommends that government spends the time and effort required to connect a series of related policy documents that provides industry and others with an articulation of what the government of the day intends to do and what their priorities are moving forward. It also recommends a holistic review of the entire procurement process to determine what is working well and what actually needs fixing would be useful.

  13. Interculturalism in the post-multicultural debate: a defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Barrero, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to formulate a defence of the emerging intercultural policy paradigm for the benefit of those who are still somewhat reluctant to accept its proper place within the current migration-related diversity policy debate. My defence will take two main lines of argumentation: Firstly, I will state that the increasing intensity of the intercultural policy paradigm must be placed in the present-day post-multicultural period, which recognizes the strengths ​​of the multicultural policy paradigm but also the limits to its process for recognizing differences. The role played by the emerging national civic policy paradigm (a renovated version of assimilation), prioritizing duties before rights, will also be considered crucial to better contextualize interculturalism. Secondly, I will try to identify the main distinctive features of interculturalism, which legitimize its proper place within the diversity debate today. Without rejecting rights-based and duties-based policy approaches, interculturalism places more emphasis on a contacts-based policy approach, aimed at fostering communication and relationships among people from different backgrounds, including national citizens. This approach focuses on common bonds rather than differences. It also views diversity as an advantage and a resource, and centres its policy goals on community cohesion and reframing a common public culture that places diversity within rather than outside the so-called Unity. In reviewing the current literature and the origins of the intercultural policy paradigm, I restate its contribution towards resolving current trends in transnationalism, changing identities, superdiversity and the rise of populist anti-immigrant parties. These are issues the old multicultural project has struggled to deal with, which has provoked the current disillusionment. Lastly, I will propose a research avenue to further consolidate interculturalism as a distinctive and legitimate policy

  14. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)

  15. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian defence organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation, while others may be designated as radiation protection officers in remote units with few duties to perform in this role. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A training course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasise: basic radiation theory and protection; operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO; an understanding of the Safety Manual; day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments; and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved sufficiently successful, both for the students and the ADO generally, to seek national accreditation through the Australian National Training Authority and, as a first step, competency standards have been identified

  16. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M R; Jonckheere, W; Knegt, B; Lemos, F; Liu, J; Schimmel, B C J; Villarroel, C A; Ataide, L M S; Dermauw, W; Glas, J J; Egas, M; Janssen, A; Van Leeuwen, T; Schuurink, R C; Sabelis, M W; Alba, J M

    2015-06-01

    Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can give rise to

  17. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M. R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B. C. J.; Villarroel, C. A.; Ataide, L. M. S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J. J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R. C.; Sabelis, M. W.; Alba, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. Scope The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can

  18. Collective defence portfolios of ant hosts shift with social parasite pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongepier, Evelien; Kleeberg, Isabelle; Job, Sylwester; Foitzik, Susanne

    2014-09-22

    Host defences become increasingly costly as parasites breach successive lines of defence. Because selection favours hosts that successfully resist parasitism at the lowest possible cost, escalating coevolutionary arms races are likely to drive host defence portfolios towards ever more expensive strategies. We investigated the interplay between host defence portfolios and social parasite pressure by comparing 17 populations of two Temnothorax ant species. When successful, collective aggression not only prevents parasitation but also spares host colonies the cost of searching for and moving to a new nest site. However, once parasites breach the host's nest defence, host colonies should resort to flight as the more beneficial resistance strategy. We show that under low parasite pressure, host colonies more likely responded to an intruding Protomognathus americanus slavemaker with collective aggression, which prevented the slavemaker from escaping and potentially recruiting nest-mates. However, as parasite pressure increased, ant colonies of both host species became more likely to flee rather than to fight. We conclude that host defence portfolios shift consistently with social parasite pressure, which is in accordance with the degeneration of frontline defences and the evolution of subsequent anti-parasite strategies often invoked in hosts of brood parasites. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of Defence Plans in Europe: Current Status, Strengths and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boeck, Steven; Van Hertem, Dirk; Das, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    interconnected, a contingency in one area can affect the whole power system and possibly lead to a wide area black out. Therefore adequate defence plans need to be designed and in place to handle these situations. This paper starts with an overview of the terminology used in defence plans. Subsequently...... the current status of defence plans in Europe and the preferred sequence of actions to mitigate contingencies, is given based on a survey conducted among several European TSOs. Furthermore his paper gives an overview of how the ongoing changes with renewables, phasor measurement units (PMUs), power flow...

  20. The cytoskeleton in cell-autonomous immunity: structural determinants of host defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Shenoy, Avinash R.

    2016-01-01

    Host cells use antimicrobial proteins, pathogen-restrictive compartmentalization and cell death in their defence against intracellular pathogens. Recent work has revealed that four components of the cytoskeleton — actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments and septins, which are well known for their roles in cell division, shape and movement — have important functions in innate immunity and cellular self-defence. Investigations using cellular and animal models have shown that these cytoskeletal proteins are crucial for sensing bacteria and for mobilizing effector mechanisms to eliminate them. In this Review, we highlight the emerging roles of the cytoskeleton as a structural determinant of cell-autonomous host defence. PMID:26292640

  1. Maritime defence and the South African Navy to the cancellation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Union of South Africa's declaration of war against Germany on 6. September 1939 ... available only address the history of the British Royal Navy, imperial defence ..... The effect of British naval mastery was also illustrated by the fact that the.

  2. Lepidopteran defence droplets - A composite physical and chemical weapon against potential predators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, S.; Zagrobelny, Mika; Khakimov, Bekzod

    2016-01-01

    Insects often release noxious substances for their defence. Larvae of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) secrete viscous and cyanogenic glucoside-containing droplets, whose effectiveness was associated with their physical and chemical properties. The droplets glued mandibles and legs of potential...

  3. The evolution of plant chemical defence - new roles for hydroxynitrile glucosides in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Camilla

    Plants are sessile organisms well-known to produce a vast array of chemical compounds of which many are used in chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens. The biosynthesis of these plant chemical defence compounds poses a considerable risk of self-toxicity for the plant itself. Several...... on hydroxynitrile glucoside metabolism in the legume model plant Lotus japonicus. Lotus japonicus produces both cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides as chemical defence compounds. The cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin are stored in the cell vacuole as inactive glycosides and, upon...... function and evolution. Further, it contributes to our understanding of the formation and role of biosynthetic gene clusters in plant chemical defence. The bifurcation in hydroxynitrile glucoside biosynthesis and catabolism observed in Lotus japonicus makes it a very suitable model system to study...

  4. Introducing 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare' university module for DMS personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chris; Blake, L

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 10 years the UK Defence Medical Services has deployed healthcare personnel to a variety of operational areas in support of UK Operations. The unique nature of every operational deployment, in conjunction with the wide variety of roles which healthcare staff undertake, necessitates bespoke educational preparation of the military healthcare force. This paper explores the creation and development of one of the four modules which comprise the BSc (Hons) in Defence Health Care studies, entitled 'The Diverse Nature of Defence Healthcare'. It demonstrates the unique contribution that the Defence School of Healthcare Education makes towards Generation and Preparation of the Force for deployment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Five Key Changes for the Management of UK Defence - An Agenda for Research?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatham, Peter; Taylor, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    .... Given the paucity of academic research into the general area of defence management, it is suggested that there is considerable potential for focused application of ideas and concepts from a broad...

  6. Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing the trade-public health linkage in defence of trade liberalisation and ... of United States-measures affecting the production and sale of clove cigarettes. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad.

  7. Development of a single logistic process for the South African National Defence Force

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) contracted the CSIR to investigate and propose methods to improve its logistics and inventory accounting capabilities. The CSIR proposed that a supply chain management approach should be followed...

  8. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Stankowich, Theodore; Romero, Ashly N.

    2017-01-01

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encep...

  9. The Strategic Failure of UK Defence Reform and What Still Needs to Be Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    from the previous Labour Government, see HM Government, “Defence Secretary Balances MoD Budget,” https://www.gov.uk/government/news/defence-secretary...conceptualize the different levels of strategy required in a modern environment, inclusive of grand strategy...Learning Under Fire: Military Change in Wartime. Lecture to selected JAWS students , Norfolk, VA, March 2015. HM Government. A Strong Britain in an Age

  10. The Audit of Explosives Storage and Transport Within the Australian Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Headquarters Australian Defence Force Australian Ordnance Council THE AUDIT OF EXPLOSIVES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT WITHIN THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE...control number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 1994 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1994 to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Audit of Explosives...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 THE AUDIT OF EXPLOSIVES STORAGE AND TRANSPORT WITHIN THE AUSTRALIAN DFFENCE FORCE - by R.W. Johnson and M.J

  11. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  12. Antioxidant defences of Norway spruce bark against bark beetles and its associated blue-stain fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicijan Mateja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles and their fungal associates are integral parts of forest ecosystems, the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus Linnaeus, 1758 and the associated pathogenic blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica (SIEM. C. MOREAU, are the most devastating pests regarding Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. H. KARST.]. Bark beetles commonly inhabit weakened and felled trees as well as vital trees. They cause physiological disorders in trees by destroying a phloem and cambium or interrupt the transpiration -ow in the xylem. Conifers have a wide range of effective defence mechanisms that are based on the inner bark anatomy and physiological state of the tree. The basic function of bark defences is to protect the nutrient-and energy-rich phloem, the vital meristematic region of the vascular cambium, and the transpiration -ow in the sapwood. The main area of defence mechanisms is secondary phloem, which is physically and chemically protected by polyphenolic parenchyma (PP cells, sclerenchyma, calcium oxalate crystals and resin ducts. Conifer trunk pest resistance includes constitutive, inducible defences and acquired resistance. Both constitutive and inducible defences may deter beetle invasion, impede fungal growth and close entrance wounds. During a successful attack, systemic acquired resistance (SAR becomes effective and represents a third defence strategy. It gradually develops throughout the plant and provides a systemic change within the whole tree’s metabolism, which is maintained over a longer period of time. The broad range of defence mechanisms that contribute to the activation and utilisation of SAR, includes antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, which are generally linked to the actions of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The presented review discusses the current knowledge on the antioxidant defence strategies of spruce inner bark against the bark beetle (Ips typographus and associated blue stain fungus (Ceratocystis polonica.

  13. Some practical examples of defence in depth analysis for category IV gamma irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo, E-mail: aryarj@ig.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    The Defence in Depth concept provides a major contribution to the safety philosophy of irradiation facilities. But problems occur when somebody tries to understand or analyse a safety system or develop a new one because there is a lack of practical examples in Safety Series 107 or other IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) publications for irradiation facilities. This paper tries to fill this lack of information by providing a series of practical examples and explanations about Defence in Depth concepts. (author)

  14. Variation in maternal solitary bee nest defence related to nest state

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson , Jason H.; Hoffmeister , Thomas S.; Roitberg , Bernard D.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; AbstractParental protection of offspring is found in numerous animal species. Protection provides offspring with a greater chance of surviving to be able to reproduce, while at the same time, often posing a cost to the parent. Therefore, the net value of defence for the parent can vary depending on the developmental stage of the offspring and their ability to defend themselves. For example, in commonly studied organisms (e.g. birds), defence level increases over time u...

  15. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Alongside this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aesthetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activities are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice which has consequences beyond the digital, the semiotic and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment. 

  16. Politics, pleasure, violence: Swedish defence propaganda in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferrada Stoehrel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the Swedish Armed Forces have produced and distributed highly edited video clips on YouTube that show moving images of military activity. Along- side this development, mobile phone apps have emerged as an important channel through which the user can experience and take an interactive part in the staging of contemporary armed conflict. This article examines the way in which the aes- thetic and affective experience of Swedish defence and security policy is socially and (media-culturally (co-constructed and how the official representation of Swedish military intervention (reproduces political and economic effects when these activi- ties are distributed through traditional and social media such as YouTube and digital apps. Based on Isabela and Norman Fairclough’s thoughts on political discourse, Michel Foucault’s dialectic idea of power/knowledge, and Sara Ahmed’s concept of the affective, I discuss how the Swedish digital military aesthetic is part of a broader political and economic practice that has consequences beyond the digital, the semi- otic, and what might at first glance appear to be pure entertainment.

  17. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture‐independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive‐aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic‐acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non‐Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine‐tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. PMID:27373840

  18. Risk management as a social defence against anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Geldenhuys

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study is to describe how risk management unconsciously influences behaviour when doing business in an African country. Motivation for the study: Operational risk management is a rational management imperative. However, this does not take cognisance of the unconscious role of risk management. A systems-psychodynamic perspective might be particularly relevant if the anxiety implied in risk management is not appropriately contained. Awareness of these dynamics may provide an opportunity for addressing them and allow for a more holistic way of managing risk. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study as a qualitative case study in an African country. They used purposive sampling and analysed the data using qualitative content analysis. Main findings: Viewing risk management from a systems-psychodynamic perspective allowed the researchers to identify the influence of risk management on the behaviour of people. The emerging hypothesis was that, if businesses do not address the anxiety underlying risk management, managing risk becomes a social defence against the anxiety. Practical/managerial implications: Awareness of the anxiety involved in risk management may assist businesses to manage risk in a more realistic way, making provision for, and even capitalising on, the human element. Contributions/value-add: The article provides a systems-psychodynamic, and hence a more complete, perspective of operational risk management when doing business in an African country.

  19. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. Diving bradycardia: a mechanism of defence against hypoxic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, Paolo; Alboni, Marco; Gianfranchi, Lorella

    2011-06-01

    A feature of all air-breathing vertebrates, diving bradycardia is triggered by apnoea and accentuated by immersion of the face or whole body in cold water. Very little is known about the afferents of diving bradycardia, whereas the efferent part of the reflex circuit is constituted by the cardiac vagal fibres. Diving bradycardia is associated with vasoconstriction of selected vascular beds and a reduction in cardiac output. The diving response appears to be more pronounced in mammals than in birds. In humans, the bradycardic response to diving varies greatly from person to person; the reduction in heart rate generally ranges from 15 to 40%, but a small proportion of healthy individuals can develop bradycardia below 20 beats/min. During prolonged dives, bradycardia becomes more pronounced because of activation of the peripheral chemoreceptors by a reduction in the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (O2), responsible for slowing of heart rate. The vasoconstriction is associated with a redistribution of the blood flow, which saves O2 for the O2-sensitive organs, such as the heart and brain. The results of several investigations carried out both in animals and in humans show that the diving response has an O2-conserving effect, both during exercise and at rest, thus lengthening the time to the onset of serious hypoxic damage. The diving response can therefore be regarded as an important defence mechanism for the organism.

  1. Development of 63Ni sources for defence related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udhayakumar, J.; Pardeshi, G.S.; Gandhi, Shyamala S.; Dash, A.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2004-01-01

    63 Ni is seen as a good substitute for the conventional sources of ionization used in electron capture detectors in Gas Chromatography applications. It has advantages such as source stability, reasonably long shelf life due to its long half-life and viable for safe and easy handling due to low energy beta emission. At the special request from the Defence Establishments in India for supply of 63 Ni beta source on special dimension of a curved inner copper ring area, the new electro-deposition cell was designed and used for routine preparation and supply of such sources. The paper describes the procedure for fabrication of 63 Ni beta sources by electro-deposition method. Activity up to ∼370 MBq (∼10 mCi) was electrodeposited exclusively on inner curved area of ∼4 sq.cm. Copper annular ring, using Boric acid electrolyte bath solution at a temperature range of 50 deg - 60 deg C with a current density of ∼ 6 ma/sq.cm. For this purpose, a new electro depositing cell was specially designed and used. The paper discusses the details regarding source requirement, source preparation parameters, film thickness and its impact on beta output, source quality control aspects and other applications of the sources. The paper also highlights the demand and supply scenario of such electrodeposited sources, in terms of commercial supply sale value, as an import substitute. (author)

  2. Peer-to-Peer Enclaves for Improving Network Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Archer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information about cyberthreats within networks spreads slowly relative to the speed at which those threats spread. Typical "threat feeds" that are commercially available also disseminate information slowly relative to the propagation speed of attacks, and they often convey irrelevant information about imminent threats. As a result, hosts sharing a network may miss opportunities to improve their defence postures against imminent attack because needed information arrives too late or is lost in irrelevant noise. We envision timely, relevant peer-to-peer sharing of threat information – based on current technologies – as a solution to these problems and as a useful design pattern for defensive cyberwarfare. In our setting, network nodes form communities that we call enclaves, where each node defends itself while sharing information on imminent threats with peers that have similar threat exposure. In this article, we present our vision for this solution. We sketch the architecture of a typical node in such a network and how it might interact with a framework for sharing threat information; we explain why certain defensive countermeasures may work better in our setting; we discuss current tools that could be used as components in our vision; and we describe opportunities for future research and development.

  3. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  4. Double checking medicines: defence against error or contributory factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gerry

    2008-08-01

    The double checking of medicines in health care is a contestable procedure. It occupies an obvious position in health care practice and is understood to be an effective defence against medication error but the process is variable and the outcomes have not been exposed to testing. This paper presents an appraisal of the process using data from part of a larger study on the contributory factors in medication errors and their reporting. Previous research studies are reviewed; data are analysed from a review of 991 drug error reports and a subsequent series of 40 in-depth interviews with health professionals in an acute hospital in northern England. The incident reports showed that errors occurred despite double checking but that action taken did not appear to investigate the checking process. Most interview participants (34) talked extensively about double checking but believed the process to be inconsistent. Four key categories were apparent: deference to authority, reduction of responsibility, automatic processing and lack of time. Solutions to the problems were also offered, which are discussed with several recommendations. Double checking medicines should be a selective and systematic procedure informed by key principles and encompassing certain behaviours. Psychological research may be instructive in reducing checking errors but the aviation industry may also have a part to play in increasing error wisdom and reducing risk.

  5. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement interventions: To what extent are they manifestations of social defences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremias J. de Klerk

    2012-02-01

    Research purpose: The aim is to provide an explanation to the lure behind interventions and to contribute to building a theory on plausible systems psychodynamic drivers and mechanisms of recurrent change interventions. Motivation for the study: This study provides insights into social defences in ways that did not receive much attention previously; specifically how defence mechanisms act as drivers for new change and improvement interventions. Research design, approach and method: A literature study, consisting of a literature review and a phenomenological analysis. The study was conducted from the systems psychodynamic approach. Main findings: Improvement interventions often represent defences that serve to contain anxieties or maintain fantasies. Four specific themes emerged: interventions defend the perception of being in control, they maintain the fantasy that one is busy with worthy actions to overcome challenges, they are defences against boredom or contain anxieties about incompetence, and they maintain the fantasy of being heroic leaders. Practical/managerial implications: The findings can assist leaders to understand their own defences in order to avoid embarking on non-essential interventions. This can free up much time, energy and effort to spend on other priorities, assisting organisations to achieve better results. Contribution/value-add: The study refutes the notion that improvement interventions are always rational coping mechanisms and highlights the role of improvement interventions as defences to reduce anxiety, even though they may contribute little to organisational survival in real terms.

  7. Parental risk management in relation to offspring defence: bad news for kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Katharina; Riegler, Georg; Hoi, Herbert

    2015-01-07

    Do parents defend their offspring whenever necessary, and do self-sacrificing parents really exist? Studies recognized that parent defence is dynamic, mainly depending on the threat predators pose. In this context, parental risk management should consider the threat to themselves and to their offspring. Consequently, the observed defence should be a composite of both risk components. Surprisingly, no study so far has determined the influence of these two threat components on parental decision rules. In a field experiment, we investigated parental risk taking in relation to the threat posed to themselves and their offspring. To disentangle the two threat components, we examined defence behaviours of parent blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus towards three different predators and during different nestling developmental stages. Nest defence strategies in terms of alarm call intensity and nearest predator approach differed between the three predators. Defence intensity was only partly explained by threat level. Most importantly, parental risk management varied in relation to their own, but not offspring risk. Parent defence investment was independent of nestling risk when parents followed a high-risk strategy. However, parents considered nestling as well as parental risk when following a low-risk strategy. Our findings could have general implications for the economy of risk management and decision-making strategies in living beings, including humans. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowich, Theodore; Romero, Ashly N

    2017-01-11

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization. The only exceptions were those that live in trees-a complex three-dimensional world probably requiring greater cognitive abilities. At the proximate level, because brain tissue is extremely energetically expensive to build, mammals may be trading off spending more on elaborate defences and saving by building less powerful brains. At the ultimate level, having greater defences may also reduce the need for advanced cognitive abilities for constant assessment of environmental predation risk, especially in simple open environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. The correlated evolution of antipredator defences and brain size in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Ashly N.

    2017-01-01

    Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization. The only exceptions were those that live in trees—a complex three-dimensional world probably requiring greater cognitive abilities. At the proximate level, because brain tissue is extremely energetically expensive to build, mammals may be trading off spending more on elaborate defences and saving by building less powerful brains. At the ultimate level, having greater defences may also reduce the need for advanced cognitive abilities for constant assessment of environmental predation risk, especially in simple open environments. PMID:28077771

  10. Eales′ disease: Oxidant stress and weak antioxidant defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eales′ disease (ED is an idiopathic retinal periphlebitis characterized by capillary non-perfusion and neovascularization. In addition to the existing system, a new staging system has been proposed by Saxena et al . Immunological, molecular biological and biochemical studies have indicated the role of human leucocyte antigen, retinal S antigen autoimmunity, Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, free radical damage and possibly hyperhomocysteinemia in its etiopathogenesis, which appears multifactorial. Oxidant stress has been shown by increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid oxidation in the vitreous, erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. A decrease in vitamins E and C both in active and healed vasculitis, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase showed a weakened antioxidant defence. Epiretinal membrane from patients of ED who underwent surgery showed, by immunolocalization, presence of carboxy methyl lysine, an advanced glycation end product formed by glycoxidation and is involved in angiogenesis. OH· free radical accumulation in monocytes has been directly shown by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Free radical damage to DNA and of protein was shown by the accumulation of 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine (in leucocytes and nitrotyrosine (in monocytes, respectively. Nitrosative stress was shown by increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in monocytes in which levels of iron and copper were increased while those of zinc decreased. A novel 88 kDa protein was found in serum and vitreous in inflammatory condition and had antioxidant function. Platelet fluidity was also affected. Oral, methotrexate in low dosage (12.5 mg/week for 12 weeks as well as oral vitamin E (400 IU and C (500 mg daily for 8 weeks are reported to have beneficial effects.

  11. Effectiveness evaluation of flood defence structures in different geomorphological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Stefano; Pazzi, Veronica; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    The flood risk in different geomorphological contexts of two less developed countries are investigated in order to evaluate the efficacy of the existing flood defence structures. In particular, a recent floodplain crossed by a wide meandering river and a narrow mountain valley flowed by creek with a torrential regime have been chosen for such analysis in North Albania and central Mexico, respectively. Both areas have been affected by disastrous floods in past years with considerable damages to properties and people. Some safety countermeasures have been performed over time, even if in a non-systematic way. For this reason, the current inclination to flood risk was assessed by means of a freeware software designed to perform one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling for a full network of natural and anthropic channels (HEC-RAS software by Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System). This new analyses take into account: i) the natural morphological variability along the river path, ii) the anthropic interventions on the fluvial dynamics, iii) the landscape appearance after the soil exploitation in the past years, and iv) all the changes induced by an exceeded informal urbanization. The reconstruction of the river and bordering areas geometric data was carried out according to the physical characteristics of the local environment: a bathymetric survey and near-river DGPS acquisitions for the open spaces of the Albanian floodplain, and traditional topographic methods for the highly vegetated Mexican valley. In both cases, the results show that the existing works are, on their own, poorly efficient in containing the predictable floods. Albanians levees seem underdimensioned, while the channelling works are too narrow to contain large amounts of water and solid transport as typical of the Mexican study area. Evidently, a new territorial planning is required in these areas, and some projects are now in place. However, it would be desirable that local authorities

  12. A Defence of Constructionism: Philosophy as Conceptual Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a broad account and a defence of constructionism, both as a metaphilosophical approach and as a philosophical methodology, with some references to the philosophical tradition that has inspired it, the so-called «maker’s knowledge» tradition. The main thesis defended is that Plato’s «user’s knowledge tradition» should be complemented, if not replaced, by a constructionist approach to philosophical problems in general and to knowledge in particular. To put it simply, an epistemic agent knows something when that agent is able to build (reproduce, simulate, model, construct etc. that something and plug the obtained information in the correct network of relations that account for it. Or in even more intuitive terms, an agent qualifies as an epistemic agent not when she is a passive user of some information, but when she is a critical producer of it. Her epistemic expertise increases in relation to the scope and depth of the questions that is able to ask and answer on a particular topic. The maker’s knowledge is knowledge of the ontology of the semantic artefact and this is a fundamental epistemological lesson we can learn from poietic disciplines such as computer science and economics. So constructionism shifts the focus away from the mimetic, passive and declarative knowledge that something is the case, in order to concentrate more on the poietic, interactive and practical knowledge of something being the case, that is, of semantic artefacts. Once applied to the interpretation of philosophy itself, constructionism suggests adding conceptual engineering to conceptual analysis as a fundamental method.

  13. Nuclear Belief Systems and Individual Policy-Makers: Duncan Sandys, Unmanned Weaponry, and the Impossibility of Defence

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explore the influence that Duncan Sandys' experiences of the Second World War had on his policy preferences, and policy-making, in relation to British defence policy during his years in government. This is a significant period in British nuclear policy which began with thermonuclear weaponry being placed ostentatiously at the centre of British defence planning in the 1957 Defence White Paper, and ended with the British acquiring the latest American nuclear weapon techn...

  14. Crowd-out of defence and health spending: is Israel different from other industrialised nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2013-04-22

    Does high defence spending limit the growth of public health investment? Using comparative data from 31 OECD countries between 1980 and 2010, we find little evidence that defence crowds out public health spending. Whether measured in terms of long-term levels or short-term changes, per capita defence and health spending positively and significantly correlate. To investigate the possibility that countries with high security needs such as Israel exhibit differing patterns, we also compare crowd-out among countries experiencing violent conflicts as well as current high military-spending countries. We observed a greater positive correlation between changes in health and defence spending among conflict-countries (r = 0.65, p military spending countries, Israel's politicians reduced defence spending while increasing health expenditure during its recent recession. These analyses reveal that while Israel's politicians have chronically underinvested in public health, there are modest steps being taken to rectify the country's unique and avoidable crowding out of public health from its high military spending.

  15. Induced defences alter the strength and direction of natural selection on reproductive traits in common milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K A; Cory, K A; Johnson, M T J

    2017-06-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long sought to understand the ecological processes that generate plant reproductive diversity. Recent evidence indicates that constitutive antiherbivore defences can alter natural selection on reproductive traits, but it is unclear whether induced defences will have the same effect and whether reduced foliar damage in defended plants is the cause of this pattern. In a factorial field experiment using common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., we induced plant defences using jasmonic acid (JA) and imposed foliar damage using scissors. We found that JA-induced plants experienced selection for more inflorescences that were smaller in size (fewer flowers), whereas control plants only experienced a trend towards selection for larger inflorescences (more flowers); all effects were independent of foliar damage. Our results demonstrate that induced defences can alter both the strength and direction of selection on reproductive traits, and suggest that antiherbivore defences may promote the evolution of plant reproductive diversity. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Defence in Depth: Assessment of Comprehensiveness and Further Strengthening of the Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misak, J., E-mail: Jozef.Misak@ujv.cz

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Defence in depth concept based on multiple levels of protection of the workers, public and the environment against radiation harm is and should remain an essential strategy for ensuring safety of nuclear power plants. This strategy should be comprehensively implemented through all stages of the plant lifetime, from the siting through construction and operation up to decommissioning. First part of the presentation will introduce a screening method developed by the IAEA as a tool facilitating the assessment of the comprehensiveness of defence in depth and will indicate further possibilities for using and updating the approach by taking into account recent lessons learned. Although it is clear that it is not possible for any industrial facility including nuclear power plants to fully eliminate the risk, further strengthening the defence in depth in particular at level 4 dealing with design extension conditions gives very high confidence in prevention and effective mitigation of severe accidents so that they are either practically eliminated or their consequences are limited in area and time. Second part of the presentation will discuss several issues associated with current efforts for strengthening the defence in depth, including the issues of practical elimination, independence and diversity of safety provisions at different levels of defence. (author)

  17. Leaf Colour as a Signal of Chemical Defence to Insect Herbivores in Wild Cabbage (Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Green

    Full Text Available Leaf colour has been proposed to signal levels of host defence to insect herbivores, but we lack data on herbivory, leaf colour and levels of defence for wild host populations necessary to test this hypothesis. Such a test requires measurements of leaf spectra as they would be sensed by herbivore visual systems, as well as simultaneous measurements of chemical defences and herbivore responses to leaf colour in natural host-herbivore populations. In a large-scale field survey of wild cabbage (Brassica oleracea populations, we show that variation in leaf colour and brightness, measured according to herbivore spectral sensitivities, predicts both levels of chemical defences (glucosinolates and abundance of specialist lepidopteran (Pieris rapae and hemipteran (Brevicoryne brassicae herbivores. In subsequent experiments, P. rapae larvae achieved faster growth and greater pupal mass when feeding on plants with bluer leaves, which contained lower levels of aliphatic glucosinolates. Glucosinolate-mediated effects on larval performance may thus contribute to the association between P. rapae herbivory and leaf colour observed in the field. However, preference tests found no evidence that adult butterflies selected host plants based on leaf coloration. In the field, B. brassicae abundance varied with leaf brightness but greenhouse experiments were unable to identify any effects of brightness on aphid preference or performance. Our findings suggest that although leaf colour reflects both levels of host defences and herbivore abundance in the field, the ability of herbivores to respond to colour signals may be limited, even in species where performance is correlated with leaf colour.

  18. "New Sport" in the street: self-defence, security and space in belle epoque Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundschuh, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Near the turn of the twentieth century, traditional self-defence methods (for example, jiu-jitsu) were revamped into a more accessible and practical set of techniques and tactics for everyday use in urban public space. Framed as a "new sport" with broad public utility, early urban self-defence developed against the backdrop of heightening fears of violent crime and a burgeoning politics of security, as well as tensions provoked by the increasingly common appearance of unchaperoned, middle-class women in public. Self-defence masters pitched their innovations in an inclusive rhetoric, always with separate lessons for men and women and their respective spaces of risk. This article places modern self-defence practices in tension with historical transformations in the urban landscape, arguing that urban self-defence posited a certain subjective relation to the city that tapped simultaneously into the desire for empowerment, fantasies of criminal danger and a law-and-order tone that shaded into urban vigilantism.

  19. Male Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) Nest Defence Correlates with Female Ornament Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d-old nest......We investigated the relationship between male nest defence and female breast patch size in an alpine population of rock sparrow (Petronia petronia) in northern Italy. We presented a mounted weasel (Mustela nivalis), a common nest predator, to 28 pairs breeding in nest boxes, with 12-13-d...... defence factor was significantly related only to female breast patch size. We argue that male rock sparrows apparently make parental investment decisions according to their mate's quality, and examine possible alternative hypotheses....

  20. BUILDING HIGH PERFORMANCE STRATEGY OF MILITARY EXPENDITURES: THE UTILITY FUNCTION IN THE MIDDLE OF DEFENCE BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARITANA SEDYSHEVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes tasks and methods which can be used in process of discovering the most expedient variants of the perspective and effective strategy development process of the defence spending in the Republic of Estonia.The author offers a part of strategy model named “Financial Perspective” as one of the improvement tools for the system of planning military expenditures and effective utilization of budgetary funds. The Balanced Scorecard application by using the “utility function” will allow the Estonian Defence Forces to overcome important barriers to strategy implementation by interrelation of military planning and budgeting processes. The Balanced Scorecard might be used as a very strong practical application. It will improve the calculations of long-term perspective plans and the development of the military budgetary policy by taking into account the features of national defence expenses.

  1. A defence in depth approach to safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, P.; Holloway, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The safety assessment of plant built to earlier standards requires an approach to prioritisation of upgrades that is based on sound engineering and safety principles. The principles of defence in depth are universally accepted and can form the basis of a prioritisation scheme for safety issues, and hence for the upgrading required to address them. The described scheme includes criteria for acceptability and issue prioritisation that are based on the number of lines of defence and the consequences of their failure. They are thus equivalent in concept to risk criteria, but are based on deterministic principles. This scheme has been applied successfully to the RBMK plant at Ignalina in Lithuania, for which a Western-style Safety Analysis Report has recently been produced and reviewed by joint Western and Eastern teams. An extended Safety Improvement Programme (SIP2) has been developed and agreed, based on prioritisations from the defence in depth assessment. (author)

  2. Families of returned defence force personnel: a changing landscape of challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Steel, Zachary

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to identify the key challenges experienced by the families of defence force personnel following deployment. We undertook a selective review of four post-deployment challenges to the families of defence force personnel: (1) changes to relationships; (2) changes to family member roles and responsibilities; (3) adjustment of children and parenting challenges; and (4) anger, family conflict and violence. Emerging issues in the area of post-deployment adjustment are also discussed. Empirical studies of post-deployment family adjustment are lacking. Each of the reviewed challenges can contribute to psychological difficulties and precipitate contact with mental health services. The challenges faced by defence force personnel when returning from deployment arise within a family context. Clinicians should thoroughly assess these factors in families following deployment, but also recognise family strengths and resilience to these challenges. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. The bile acid deoxycholate elicits defences in Arabidopsis and reduces bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarattini, Marco; Launay, Alban; Farjad, Mahsa; Wénès, Estelle; Taconnat, Ludivine; Boutet, Stéphanie; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Fagard, Mathilde

    2017-05-01

    Disease has an effect on crop yields, causing significant losses. As the worldwide demand for agricultural products increases, there is a need to pursue the development of new methods to protect crops from disease. One mechanism of plant protection is through the activation of the plant immune system. By exogenous application, 'plant activator molecules' with elicitor properties can be used to activate the plant immune system. These defence-inducing molecules represent a powerful and often environmentally friendly tool to fight pathogens. We show that the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) induces defence in Arabidopsis and reduces the proliferation of two bacterial phytopathogens: Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. We describe the global defence response triggered by this new plant activator in Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level. Several induced genes were selected for further analysis by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We describe the kinetics of their induction and show that abiotic stress, such as moderate drought or nitrogen limitation, does not impede DCA induction of defence. Finally, we investigate the role in the activation of defence by this bile acid of the salicylic acid biosynthesis gene SID2, of the receptor-like kinase family genes WAK1-3 and of the NADPH oxidase-encoding RbohD gene. Altogether, we show that DCA constitutes a promising molecule for plant protection which can induce complementary lines of defence, such as callose deposition, reactive oxygen species accumulation and the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling pathways. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Uncovering the defence responses of Eucalyptus to pests and pathogens in the genomics age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten; Zwart, Lizahn; Mangwanda, Ronishree; Oates, Caryn N; Visser, Erik A; Wilken, Febé E; Mamni, Thandekile B; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Long-lived tree species are subject to attack by various pests and pathogens during their lifetime. This problem is exacerbated by climate change, which may increase the host range for pathogens and extend the period of infestation by pests. Plant defences may involve preformed barriers or induced resistance mechanisms based on recognition of the invader, complex signalling cascades, hormone signalling, activation of transcription factors and production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with direct antimicrobial or anti-insect activity. Trees have evolved some unique defence mechanisms compared with well-studied model plants, which are mostly herbaceous annuals. The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden has recently become available and provides a resource to extend our understanding of defence in large woody perennials. This review synthesizes existing knowledge of defence mechanisms in model plants and tree species and features mechanisms that may be important for defence in Eucalyptus, such as anatomical variants and the role of chemicals and proteins. Based on the E. grandis genome sequence, we have identified putative PR proteins based on sequence identity to the previously described plant PR proteins. Putative orthologues for PR-1, PR-2, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, PR-7, PR-8, PR-9, PR-10, PR-12, PR-14, PR-15 and PR-17 have been identified and compared with their orthologues in Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The survey of PR genes in Eucalyptus provides a first step in identifying defence gene targets that may be employed for protection of the species in future. Genomic resources available for Eucalyptus are discussed and approaches for improving resistance in these hardwood trees, earmarked as a bioenergy source in future, are considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Growth and Transformation of the South African defence industry: A state owned enterprise perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, Theo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available % localisation • R&D and intellectual property development investment of R550m to R800m annually • 62% of our employees are black and about 30% of our local procurement spend were to black suppliers. • Knowledge-based value added advanced manufacturing A... Confidential Shift In Defence Investments & Smart Layer Add-ons Smart Layer / Add-ons Smart Defence Products + = Critical Focus Area Good Progress On-going SECURE Up- Smarting of Products • Shift in R&D Investments towards Disruptive Technologies...

  7. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  8. Design features to achieve defence-in-depth in small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Broader incorporation of inherent and passive safety design features has become a 'trademark' of many advanced reactor concepts, including several evolutionary designs and nearly all innovative small and medium sized design concepts. Ensuring adequate defence-in-depth is important for reactors of smaller output because many of them are being designed to allow more proximity to the user, specifically, when non-electrical energy products are targeted. Based on the activities recently performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the paper provides a summary description of the design features used to achieve defence in depth in the eleven representative concepts of small and medium sized reactors. (author)

  9. Interactions between nutritional approaches and defences against microbial diseases in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroprese, M; Giannenas, I; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Objective of this review is to discuss the role of small ruminant diet in the defence of these animals against microbial diseases, in relation to different experimental approaches and various stressors acting on animals. The effects of various diets in immune reactions and animal defences are presented. Also, effects in relation to the species studied and the type of stressors acting on animals are discussed. Evidence is provided about the significance of the diet in enhancing immune responses of small ruminants during specific conditions, e.g., around parturition, during lactation, as well as in growing lambs or kids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Western European Nuclear Regulators’ Association (WENRA) Views on Defence-in-Depth for New Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, L.; Routamo, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Féron, F., E-mail: lasse.reiman@stuk.fi [ASN (France)

    2014-10-15

    WENRA published in 2010 a statement on safety objectives for new NPPs. Based on these objectives, WENRA decided to develop common positions, compiled in a booklet (available on www.wenra.org), on selected key safety issues for the design of new NPPs. One position presents WENRA’s Defence-in-Depth approach, describing WENRA’s expectation that multiple failure events and core melt accidents are considered in the original design of new nuclear power plants; another position presents expectations on the independence between different levels of Defence-in-Depth. (author)

  11. Pathogenesis and host defence against Mucorales: the role of cytokines and interaction with antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roilides, Emmanuel; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Simitsopoulou, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Innate immune response, including macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells and their respective receptors, plays an important role in host defences against Mucorales with differential activity against specific fungal species, while adaptive immunity is not the first line of defence. A number of endogenous and exogenous factors, such as cytokines and growth factors as well as certain antifungal agents have been found that they influence innate immune response to these organisms. Used alone or especially in combination have been shown to exert antifungal effects against Mucorales species. These findings suggest novel ways of adjunctive therapy for patients with invasive mucormycosis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. NRT/PTR transporters are essential for translocation of glucosinolate defence compounds to seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Andersen, Tonni Grube; Burow, Meike

    2012-01-01

    glucosinolates in seeds and had more than tenfold over-accumulation in source tissues such as leaves and silique walls, indicating that both plasma membrane-localized transporters are essential for long-distance transport of glucosinolates. We propose that GTR1 and GTR2 control the loading of glucosinolates from......In plants, transport processes are important for the reallocation of defence compounds to protect tissues of high value, as demonstrated in the plant model Arabidopsis, in which the major defence compounds, glucosinolates, are translocated to seeds on maturation. The molecular basis for long...

  13. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from Caenorhabditis elegans and primitive invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui, Javier E; Urbach, Jonathan M; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2010-01-01

    The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in identifying the host response pathways that are involved in its defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect, and respond to, infection without the involvement of its homologue of Toll-like receptors, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms?

  14. Evolution of host innate defence: insights from C. elegans and primitive invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irazoqui, Javier E.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Preface The genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was first used to model bacterial virulence in vivo a decade ago. Since then, great strides have been made in the identification of host response pathways that are involved in the defence against infection. Strikingly, C. elegans seems to detect and respond to infection without the involvement of its Toll-like receptor homologue, in contrast to the well-established role for these proteins in innate immunity in mammals. What, therefore, do we know about host defence mechanisms in C. elegans, and what can they tell us about innate immunity in higher organisms? PMID:20029447

  15. People's Front in Defence of Land, San Salvador Atenco: A testimony

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Pérez Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Martha Pérez Pineda gives her statement of the Peoples Front in Defence of the Land (The Peoples Front in Defence of Land (Frente del Pueblo en Defensa de la Tierra, FPDT) was formed in 2002, by residents of San Salvador Atenco, to resist their forced displacement by the federal government of Mexico and Estado de Mexico. The government planned to displace them to make way for the new Mexico City Airport. The people of San Salvador Atenco refused and battled, the most common fights were disput...

  16. Effects of reflex-based self-defence training on police performance in simulated high-pressure arrest situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, Peter G.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of reflex-based self-defence training on police performance in simulated high-pressure arrest situations. Police officers received this training as well as a regular police arrest and self-defence skills training (control training) in a crossover design. Officers’

  17. An uncertain future: South Africa’s National Defence Force caught between foreign-policy ambitions and domestic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In June 2015, the South African Parliament passed the long-awaited defence review (DR2015). The aim of the review was to stop the decline of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) and to create an economical and sustainable force structure capable of continuing to fulfil its constitutio...

  18. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treger, Bartosz; Matusiak, Feliks; Pilecki, Maciej; Rogoż, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents attending upper secondary school. The Defence Style Questionnaire DSQ-40 and the Offer Self Image Questionnaire were used in the study. Results showed no differences, in the maturity levels of the defence mechanisms, between the two groups. Subjects from the clinical group had a significantly lower self-image of themselves than subjects from the control group.. In both groups, the use of mature defence mechanisms was accompanied by a positive self-image, while the use of less mature defence mechanisms was associated with a lower self-image. Comparison of the groups revealed different relationships between the aspects of self-image and used defence mechanisms, in particular the mechanism of projection. Number of significant correlations was greater in the clinical group. In the context of lower self-image, the study revealed the importance of such defence mechanisms as projection, acting out, somatization or schizoid fantasies. The obtained results seem to confirm a hypothesis that the assessment of the maturity of defence mechanisms in the period of adolescence is less clear and clinically useful.

  19. Modelling joint air defence doctrinal issues with a LinkZA-based integration of two C2 simulators – a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JJ

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the integration between two command and control simulators in order to clarify doctrinal issues surrounding Joint Air Defence using as example the uncertainty of roles and responsibilities between the Air Defence Cell...

  20. union defence forces : statistics of the wounded and prisoners of war ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNION DEFENCE FORCES : STATISTICS OF THE. WOUNDED AND PRISONERS OF WAR DURING. THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939-1945. Compiled by Captain J.E. Loraine-Grews. In 1943, after active service as ROMS of Die Middellandse Regiment in the Western Desert during which he escaped capture at Tobruk ...

  1. Jamali lauds PAEC contribution to scientific development defence needs of country

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali has appreciated role of Pakistan Atomic Energy Council (PAEC) for its contribution to the scientific development and defence needs of the country. He directed that all resources and energy be devoted to the development of human resource and infrastructure for socio-economic uplift of the nation" (1 page).

  2. Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Martin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir. Edmonton and Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2014. xxx, 407 pp. Foreword by Bohdan Nahaylo. Introduction. Illustrations. Appendices on separate CD-Rom. Index. Paper.

  3. On combining coastal defence and aquaculture: opportunities in the Southwest Delta of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van C.J.; Ysebaert, T.

    2012-01-01

    In reaction to an extreme flooding event in 1953 in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the Dutch shortened and strengthened their estuarine coastline with dams, dikes and land reclamation. In retrospect, the construction of these large scale artificial coastal defence structures and the

  4. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  5. In Vitro Activities against Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens of Synthetic Host Defence Propeptides Processed by Neutrophil Elastase.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desgranges, Stephane

    2011-02-22

    The antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of a host defence peptide can be controlled by modification as a propeptide of reduced net charge which can be processed by neutrophil elastase, a serine protease involved in chronic airway inflammation and infections associated with cystic fibrosis.

  6. Mechanisms involved in the evasion of the host defence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A

    1991-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an extracellular opportunistic pathogen, utilizes two major mechanisms to evade the host defence system. One of these mechanisms is the production of a large number of extracellular products, such as proteases, toxins, and lipases. The two proteases, alkaline protease and ...

  7. Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, T.; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, P.; Rezek, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Pavela, R.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jul 11 (2016), č. článku plw026. ISSN 2041-2851 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Climate change * Lamiaceae * VOCs * defence strategies * elevation * greenhouse experiment * insect herbivory * plant–animal interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  8. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  9. The Party Politics of Legislative-Executive Relations in Security and Defence Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Herranz-Surralles, A.; Kaarbo, J.; Ostermann, F.

    2017-01-01

    The move from territorial defence to ‘wars of choice’ has influenced the domestic politics of military interventions. This paper examines the extent to which both the substance and the procedure of military interventions are contested among political parties. Regarding the substance, our analysis of

  10. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    KAUST Repository

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav; Meier, Stuart; Petersen, Lindsay N.; Ingle, Robert A.; Roden, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition

  11. Artificial intelligence and finite element modelling for monitoring flood defence structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Kozionov, A.; Kusherbaeva, V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid approach to monitoring the stability of flood defence structures equipped with sensors. This approach combines the finite element modelling with the artificial intelligence for real-time signal processing and anomaly detection. This combined method has been developed for the

  12. Cytokinins as key regulators in plant–microbe–insect interactions: connecting plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giron, D.; Frago, E.; Glevarec, G.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Dicke, M.

    2013-01-01

    1. Plant hormones play important roles in regulating plant growth and defence by mediating developmental processes and signalling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of parasitic and mutualistic biotic interactions. 2. Plants are known to rapidly respond to pathogen and herbivore

  13. Protect and Survive: "Whiteness" and the Middle-Class Family in Civil Defence Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John

    2008-01-01

    "Civil defence pedagogies" normalise continuous emergency through educational channels such as school, community and adult education. Using critical whiteness studies, and critiques of white supremacy from critical race theory, as a conceptual base, the protection of whiteness, and particularly the white middle-class family, is considered to be…

  14. The defence architecture of the superficial cells of the oral mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asikainen, P.; Ruotsalainen, T.J.; Mikkonen, J.J.W.; Koistinen, A.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.; Kullaa, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The oral epithelium together with the saliva and its components forms a complex structure which is the first line of defence in the oral cavity. The surface of superficial cells of the oral epithelium contains ridge-like folds, microplicae (MPL), which are typical of the surfaces of areas covered

  15. Application of Defence of Insanity in Nigerian Courts: The Missing Link

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This paper is aimed at appraising the import of forensic psychology to the legal trials of mentally ill people. Method: Nigeria laws are replete with Criminal Codes and Criminal Procedure Acts but there are numerous failed cases of insanity defences in Nigeria. The research technique of content analysis of insanity ...

  16. Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, J.S.; Farag, M.A.; Paré, P.W.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants employ a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which act directly by having a negative effect on herbivores and others that act indirectly by attracting natural enemies of herbivores. In this study we asked if a common jasmonate-signalling pathway links the regulation of direct and indirect

  17. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon; Mark C. Mescher; Gary W. Felton; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2010-01-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C18 fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic...

  18. Anticipatory action in self-defence: essence and limits under international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibori Szabó, K.

    2011-01-01

    The legality of preemptive strikes is one of the most controversial questions of contemporary international law. At the core of this controversy stands the temporal dimension of self-defence: when and for how long can a state defend itself against an armed attack? Can it resort to armed force before

  19. Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... Ebola expert says building up health systems is best defence ... community of public health experts to control viral epidemics in several countries. ... says the problem of infectious diseases has grown in the past 30 years, but ...

  20. An Analysis of SE and MBSE Concepts to Support Defence Capability Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Architecture Review Meeting ATM Automatic Teller Machine AUSDAF Australian Defence Architecture Framework (also known as DAF) BOK Body of Knowledge BPMN ...behaviour trees, • business process modelling notation ( BPMN ™), • flowcharts, • IDEFx™ family of diagrams, and • Architecture Description...model diagraming of the ilk of BPMN , UML and SysML33 is heavily rules- 32 Architecture

  1. Fitness consequences of indirect plant defence in the annual weed, Sinapis arvensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Wagenaar, R.; Poelman, E.H.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Harvey, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits that enhance the attraction of the natural enemies of their herbivores have been postulated to function as an 'indirect defence'. An important underlying assumption is that this enhanced attraction results in increased plant fitness due to reduced herbivory. This assumption has been

  2. The state and the defence committees in the Ghanaian revolution, 1981-1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.; Hesseling, G.S.C.M.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Reyntjens, F.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to overcome some of the shortcomings of the theory of the postcolonial state, this study analyses the relationship between the 'revolutionary' leadership in Ghana and the 'revolutionary' mass organizations established by the new regime, the Defence Committees. The contradictions

  3. Did fleshy fruit pulp evolve as a defence against seed loss rather ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dispersers. Most seed dispersal studies are ecological and examine the role of fruit pulp in promoting seed dispersal. ... Introduction. Endozoochory, the interaction between fleshy-fruited plants ... adaptations for seed defence may have led to the evolution ..... Eriksson O and Bremer B 1992 Pollination systems, dispersal.

  4. Post-translational modification of host proteins in pathogen-triggered defence signalling in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat to global food production. Similar to animals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognize pathogens and swiftly activate defence. To activate a rapid response, receptor-mediated pathogen perception and subsequent downstream signalling

  5. Dopamine is a key regulator in the signalling pathway underlying predator-induced defences in Daphnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Linda C.; Leese, Florian; Laforsch, Christian; Tollrian, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The waterflea Daphnia is a model to investigate the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity resulting from one differentially expressed genome. Daphnia develops adaptive phenotypes (e.g. morphological defences) thwarting predators, based on chemical predator cue perception. To understand the genomic basis of phenotypic plasticity, the description of the precedent cellular and neuronal mechanisms is fundamental. However, key regulators remain unknown. All neuronal and endocrine stimulants were able to modulate but not induce defences, indicating a pathway of interlinked steps. A candidate able to link neuronal with endocrine responses is the multi-functional amine dopamine. We here tested its involvement in trait formation in Daphnia pulex and Daphnia longicephala using an induction assay composed of predator cues combined with dopaminergic and cholinergic stimulants. The mere application of both stimulants was sufficient to induce morphological defences. We determined dopamine localization in cells found in close association with the defensive trait. These cells serve as centres controlling divergent morphologies. As a mitogen and sclerotization agent, we anticipate that dopamine is involved in proliferation and structural formation of morphological defences. Furthermore, dopamine pathways appear to be interconnected with endocrine pathways, and control juvenile hormone and ecdysone levels. In conclusion, dopamine is suggested as a key regulator of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:26423840

  6. Trade-off among different anti-herbivore defence strategies along an altitudinal gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, Tomáš; Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Skuhrovec, J.; Pavela, R.; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jul 11 (2016), č. článku plw026. ISSN 2041-2851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : climate change * plant–animal interactions * defence strategies Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2016

  7. Interactive effects of above- and belowground herbivory and plant competition on plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Raaijmakers, C.; Kostenko, O.; Kos, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Competition and herbivory are two major factors that can influence plant growth and plant defence. Although these two factors are often studied separately, they do not operate independently. We examined how aboveground herbivory by beet armyworm larvae (Spodoptera exigua) and belowground herbivory

  8. Comparing Presidents and Their Actions "To Provide for the Common Defence"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joe; Hood, Jack

    2009-01-01

    As noted by Onosko, the nature of the social studies curriculum typically results in superficial and disconnected coverage of the content with few opportunities for in-depth investigation and discussion of that content. Engaging students in a comparative study of U.S. Presidents and actions they took "to provide for the common defence"…

  9. Implementation of defence in depth for next generation light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1995, devoted to defence in depth in future reactors. It focuses mainly on the next generation of LWRs, although many general considerations may also apply to other types of reactors

  10. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  11. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Narayan

    Full Text Available There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences and (ii analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become

  12. PM2.5, oxidant defence and cardiorespiratory health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott A; Godri-Pollitt, Krystal; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2013-05-04

    Airborne fine particle mass concentrations (PM2.5) are used for ambient air quality management worldwide based in part on known cardiorespiratory health effects. While oxidative stress is generally thought to be an important mechanism in determining these effects, relatively few studies have specifically examined how oxidant defence may impact susceptibility to particulate air pollution. Here we review studies that explore the impact of polymorphisms in anti-oxidant related genes or anti-oxidant supplementation on PM2.5-induced cardiorespiratory outcomes in an effort to summarize existing evidence related to oxidative stress defence and the health effects of PM2.5. Recent studies of PM-oxidative burden were also examined. In total, nine studies were identified and reviewed and existing evidence generally suggests that oxidant defence may modify the impact of PM2.5 exposure on various health outcomes, particularly heart rate variability (a measure of autonomic function) which was the most common outcome examined in the studies reviewed. Few studies examined interactions between PM2.5 and oxidant defence for respiratory outcomes, and in general studies focused primarily on acute health effects. Therefore, further evaluation of the potential modifying role of oxidant defence in PM2.5-induced health effects is required, particularly for chronic outcomes. Similarly, while an exposure metric that captures the ability of PM2.5 to cause oxidative stress may offer advantages over traditional mass concentration measurements, little epidemiological evidence is currently available to evaluate the potential benefits of such an approach. Therefore, further evaluation is required to determine how this metric may be incorporated in ambient air quality management.

  13. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Martin; Eriksson, Stephan; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the evolution of deimatic behaviours in harmless and palatable prey.

  14. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally.In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable.We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the evolution of deimatic behaviours in harmless and palatable prey.

  15. Deimatic Display in the European Swallowtail Butterfly as a Secondary Defence against Attacks from Great Tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Martin; Eriksson, Stephan; Jakobsson, Sven; Wiklund, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Background Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey’s primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly’s startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the swallowtail’s startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to aid the

  16. Bruce NGS a loss of flow analysis for effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, W.; Jiang, Y.; Kwee, M.; Xue, J.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of defence-in-depth is applied to CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor designs and operations to provide series of levels of defence to prevent accidents progressing and to provide protection for reactor and public safety. The level 2 defence-in-depth provisions are designed to detect and intercept deviation from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operating occurrences (AOOs) from escalating to accident conditions, and to return the plant to a state of normal operations, according to the Canada Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulatory document RD-337. Historically, safety analysis has focused on the effectiveness of level 3 defence-in-depth provisions in accident conditions, and the effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth has not been assessed. In this study, the effectiveness of Level 2 defence-in-depth is assessed for loss of flow (LOF) events for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) A reactors. The level 2 defence-in-depth in Bruce NGS A design is identified to be the stepback function of reactor regulating system (RRS). The behavior of RRS stepback following the initiation of loss of flow event is simulated using RFSP/TUF/RRS - em coupled code. The behavior of full system and single channel is simulated and assessed against the acceptance criteria - fitness for service of systems, structures and components (SSCs). (author)

  17. Bruce NGS a loss of flow analysis for effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth provisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, W. [AMEC NSS, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jiang, Y.; Kwee, M.; Xue, J. [Bruce Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The concept of defence-in-depth is applied to CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor designs and operations to provide series of levels of defence to prevent accidents progressing and to provide protection for reactor and public safety. The level 2 defence-in-depth provisions are designed to detect and intercept deviation from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operating occurrences (AOOs) from escalating to accident conditions, and to return the plant to a state of normal operations, according to the Canada Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulatory document RD-337. Historically, safety analysis has focused on the effectiveness of level 3 defence-in-depth provisions in accident conditions, and the effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth has not been assessed. In this study, the effectiveness of Level 2 defence-in-depth is assessed for loss of flow (LOF) events for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) A reactors. The level 2 defence-in-depth in Bruce NGS A design is identified to be the stepback function of reactor regulating system (RRS). The behavior of RRS stepback following the initiation of loss of flow event is simulated using RFSP/TUF/RRS{sub -}em coupled code. The behavior of full system and single channel is simulated and assessed against the acceptance criteria - fitness for service of systems, structures and components (SSCs). (author)

  18. Self-Defence as a Circumstance Precluding the Wrongfulness of the Use of Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliff Farhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Ago, the International Law Commission’s second Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts, defined self-defence as a faculté of a state to use force in response to an act of another state through which a breach of the principal obligation under Article 2(4 Charter is committed. On this basis, he then inserted a provision in Chapter V to Part One of the Draft Articles on State Responsibility expressing self-defence as a specific factual circumstance precluding the wrongfulness of the use of force which constitutes a response to state aggression. This conception of self-defence, although misunderstood from the onset, remained in the backdrop of the study of the law of state responsibility for a considerable period. It was only dismantled during the reign of the last Special Rapporteur on the topic of state responsibility, James Crawford. The last Rapporteur, at the onset, submitted that it is not the function of the Draft Articles to specify the content of the primary rules, including that referred to in Article 51 Charter. He then redefined the function of the circumstance of self-defence as that of precluding the wrongfulness of non-performance of certain obligations other than the general prohibition insofar as such non-performance is connected with the exercise of the right under Article 51 Charter.This contribution first scrutinises this paradigmatic shift and finds it to be symptomatic of the conviction on the part of Crawford that the notion of self-defence could also encompass the use of force against speculative threats of state origin as well as actual threats that emanate from individuals or groups which are disconnected from the organisation of any state. It then uses this finding as a springboard towards the examination of the controversy surrounding the notion of self-defence under international law. In that connection, it first outlines the findings of the World Court on the

  19. The Failing Firm Defence in EU Merger Control and the Effects of the Economic Crisis on its Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ranta, Pontus

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2013 the European Commission cleared two mergers, Nynas/Shell/Harburg Refinery and Aegean/Olympic II, on the basis of the failing firm defence. Since the European Commission had only twice before accepted a concentration on the basis of this defence these clearances raised the question whether the Commission’s interpretation of the failing firm defence had become more lenient. Such a change of practice would have been welcomed both by those who believed that the Commission’s fa...

  20. System of Budget Planning, Programming, Development and Execution and the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Čutić

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The system of budget planning, programming, development and execution of the Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia (henceforth: the Croatian acronym SPPIIP is the basic system for the strategic management of defence resources through which an effective and rational distribution of available resources is conducted, based on the goals of national security of the Republic of Croatia. This system sets the principles of transparency and democratic management of defence resources while respecting the specificities of the defence system. The SPPIIP allows for decision making based on complete information about alternatives and the choice of the most economical and most efficient way to reach the goal. It unites the strategic plan, program and budget. It consists of four continuous, independent and interconnected phases: planning, programming, development and the execution of the budget. The processes of the phases are dynamic and cyclic. In addition to the SPPIIP, the Defence Resources Management Model (DRMM, Croatian acronym: MURO has also been developed. This is an analytic tool which serves as a decision support system in the SPPIIP. The DRMM is a complex computer model showing graph and tabular overviews in a multi-year period. The model examines three areas: the strength of the forces, expenses and defence programs. The purpose of the model is cost and strength analysis and the analysis of compromise and feasibility, i.e. how sensitive the programs are to fiscal movements in the sphere of the MoD budget in the course of a multiyear cycle, until a certain project ends. The analysis results are an easily understandable basis for decision making. The SPPIIP and the DRMM are mutually independent systems, but they complement each other well. The SPPIIP uses the DRMM in designing and resource allocation based on the goals set. The quality of the DRMM depends on the amount and quality of data in its database. The DRMM can be used as a basis for

  1. Early season herbivore differentially affects plant defence responses to subsequently colonizing herbivores and their abundance in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Broekgaarden, C.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Induction of plant defences by early season herbivores can mediate interspecific herbivore competition. We have investigated plant-mediated competition between three herbivorous insects through studies at different levels of biological integration. We have addressed (i) gene expression; (ii) insect

  2. Priming, induction and modulation of plant defence responses by bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Mari-Anne; Dow, J. Maxwell; Molinaro, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) have multiple roles in plant-microbe interactions. LPS contributes to the low permeability of the outer membrane, which acts as a barrier to protect bacteria from plant-derived antimicrobial substances. Conversely, perception of LPS by plant cells can lead...... to the triggering of defence responses or to the priming of the plant to respond more rapidly and/or to a greater degree to subsequent pathogen challenge. LPS from symbiotic bacteria can have quite different effects on plants to those of pathogens. Some details are emerging of the structures within LPS...... that are responsible for induction of these different plant responses. The lipid A moiety is not solely responsible for all of the effects of LPS in plants; core oligosaccharide and O-antigen components can elicit specific responses. Here, we review the effects of LPS in induction of defence-related responses...

  3. Ecology shapes the evolutionary trade-off between predator avoidance and defence in coral reef butterflyfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jennifer R; Alim, Chidera; Bertrand, Nick G; Lee, Wesley; Price, Samantha A; Tran, Binh; Wainwright, Peter C

    2018-07-01

    Antipredator defensive traits are thought to trade-off evolutionarily with traits that facilitate predator avoidance. However, complexity and scale have precluded tests of this prediction in many groups, including fishes. Using a macroevolutionary approach, we test this prediction in butterflyfishes, an iconic group of coral reef inhabitants with diverse social behaviours, foraging strategies and antipredator adaptations. We find that several antipredator traits have evolved adaptively, dependent primarily on foraging strategy. We identify a previously unrecognised axis of diversity in butterflyfishes where species with robust morphological defences have riskier foraging strategies and lack sociality, while species with reduced morphological defences feed in familiar territories, have adaptations for quick escapes and benefit from the vigilance provided by sociality. Furthermore, we find evidence for the constrained evolution of fin spines among species that graze solely on corals, highlighting the importance of corals, as both prey and structural refuge, in shaping fish morphology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Prevention is Better than Prosecution: Deepening the Defence against Cyber Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fick

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author proposes that effectively and efficiently addressing cyber crime requires a shift in paradigm. For businesses and government departments alike the focus should be on prevention, rather than the prosecution of cyber criminals. The Defence in Depth strategy poses a practical solution for achieving Information Assurance in today’s highly networked environments. In a world where “absolute security” is an unachievable goal, the concept of Information Assurance poses significant benefits to securing one of an organization’s most valuable assets: Information. It will be argued that the approach of achieving Information Assurance within an organisation, coupled with the implementation of a Defence in Depth strategy can ensure that information is kept secure and readily available and provides a competitive advantage to those willing to invest and maintain such a strategy.

  5. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  6. Conditions for the lawful exercise of the right of self-defence in international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeniece V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Charter of the United Nations wasthought to establish a normative order, maintain international peace and security. According to the Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations “Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs”[1]. However the Article 51 doesnot propose a legal definition of the conduct which is considered as an armed attack or the commencement of such an attack. It does not propose strict criterions for the use of force for self-defence. As a result different interpretations of this norm have been arising and continuing to change in response to new situations and threats.

  7. Cancer susceptibility and reproductive trade-offs: a model of the evolution of cancer defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, Amy M; Kokko, Hanna; Breden, Felix; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Aktipis, C Athena

    2015-07-19

    The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer defence. We build a model that contrasts the probabilistic onset of cancer with other, extrinsic causes of mortality and use it to predict that intense reproductive competition will lower cancer defences and increase cancer incidence. We explore the trade-off between cancer defences and intraspecific competition across different extrinsic mortality conditions and different levels of trade-off intensity, and find the largest effect of competition on cancer in species where low extrinsic mortality combines with strong trade-offs. In such species, selection to delay cancer and selection to outcompete conspecifics are both strong, and the latter conflicts with the former. We discuss evidence for the assumed trade-off between reproductive competitiveness and cancer susceptibility. Sexually selected traits such as ornaments or large body size require high levels of cell proliferation and appear to be associated with greater cancer susceptibility. Similar associations exist for female traits such as continuous egg-laying in domestic hens and earlier reproductive maturity. Trade-offs between reproduction and cancer defences may be instantiated by a variety of mechanisms, including higher levels of growth factors and hormones, less efficient cell-cycle control and less DNA repair, or simply a larger number of cell divisions (relevant when reproductive success requires large body size or rapid reproductive cycles). These mechanisms can affect intra- and interspecific variation in cancer susceptibility arising from rapid cell proliferation during reproductive maturation, intrasexual competition and reproduction. © 2015 The Author

  8. What Canada could learn from U.S. defence procurement: Issues, best practices and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anessa L. Kimball

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite differences in scale, Canada and the U.S. face common challenges in military procurement and there is much Canada can learn as both countries pursue reforms. The U.S. employs a system of systems approach, based on requirements, resource allocation and acquisition. The process begins with the Joint Capabilities and Development System, focused on identifying and prioritizing needs and assessing alternatives. This is followed by the Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution System, which leads to the creation of a budget and provides guidance for the project’s execution. The third and final step is the Defense Acquisition System, which oversees the development and purchase of the new equipment. While deceptively simple in summary, U.S. defence procurement is dogged by problems — particularly cost overruns, a surfeit of key players and delayed schedules which degrade troops’ performance in the field. Additionally, the defence products market is restricted, inevitably limiting competition, encouraging misbehaviour on the part of business and driving up prices. The DoD is in the midst of consultations with contractors and Congress is undertaking an effort to rewrite acquisition laws. But the most pressing questions remain: Does a best procurement practice exist? If so, what criteria define it? In light of Canada’s new Defence Procurement Strategy (DPS, some lessons are clear. Further analysis is needed to figure out whether reforms can succeed in so narrow a marketplace. More attention must be paid to shaping contracts and clarifying expectations about sticking to schedules. And Ottawa must think carefully about the military’s needs, as it pushes ahead with the DPS. In surveying change at the DoD, this brief draws pointed conclusions to which Canada’s defence planners must pay heed, if they’re to leave the military stronger than they found it.

  9. Condom Use Behaviors and Correlates of Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programs, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviors and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male personnel, aged 18–30, who completed a cross-sectional s...

  10. The Value of an Independent Royal Air Force - Breaking the Oscar Wilde Paradigm in British Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    discussion. 11 Ian Drury , Defence Correspondent, "Could this be the end for the RAF? Military chief refuses to rule out merger with Navy as cuts loom...However, would it provide the flexibility to be effective if a different threat emerged in ten years time? In contrast to Smith‟s thesis, Colin ...1984), 88. 25 General Rupert Smith, The Utility of Force – The Art of War in the Modern World (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2008), 5. 26 Colin

  11. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis activate distinct patterns of defence responses in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan

    2015-02-01

    Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optical Waveguide Sensing and Imaging in Medicine, Environment, Security and Defence

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Wojtek J; Tanev, Stoyan

    2008-01-01

    The book explores various aspects of existing and emerging fiber and waveguide optics sensing and imaging technologies including recent advances in nanobiophotonics. The focus is both on fundamental and applied research as well as on applications in civil engineering, biomedical sciences, environment, security and defence. The main goal of the multi-disciplinarry team of Editors was to provide an useful reference of state-of-the-art overviews covering a variety of complementary topics on the interface of engineering and biomedical sciences.

  13. The Canadian Defence Input-Output Model DIO Version 4.41

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Request to develop DND tailored Input/Output Model. Electronic communication from AllenWeldon to Team Leader, Defence Economics Team onMarch 12, 2011...and similar contain- ers 166 1440 Handbags, wallets and similar personal articles such as eyeglass and cigar cases and coin purses 167 1450 Cotton yarn...408 3600 Radar and radio navigation equipment 409 3619 Semi-conductors 410 3621 Printed circuits 411 3622 Integrated circuits 412 3623 Other electronic

  14. The multiple strategies of an insect herbivore to overcome plant cyanogenic glucoside defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs) are widespread plant defence compounds that release toxic hydrogen cyanide by plant bglucosidase activity after tissue damage. Specialised insect herbivores have evolved counter strategies and some sequester CNglcs, but the underlying mechanisms to keep CNglcs intact...... during feeding and digestion are unknown. We show that CNglc-sequestering Zygaena filipendulae larvae combine behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies at different time points during feeding and digestion to avoid toxic hydrolysis of the CNglcs present in their Lotus food...

  15. The genetic architecture of defence as resistance to and tolerance of bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howick, Virginia M; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2017-03-01

    Defence against pathogenic infection can take two forms: resistance and tolerance. Resistance is the ability of the host to limit a pathogen burden, whereas tolerance is the ability to limit the negative consequences of infection at a given level of infection intensity. Evolutionarily, a tolerance strategy that is independent of resistance could allow the host to avoid mounting a costly immune response and, theoretically, to avoid a co-evolutionary arms race between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Biomedically, understanding the mechanisms of tolerance and how they relate to resistance could potentially yield treatment strategies that focus on health improvement instead of pathogen elimination. To understand the impact of tolerance on host defence and identify genetic variants that determine host tolerance, we defined genetic variation in tolerance as the residual deviation from a binomial regression of fitness under infection against infection intensity. We then performed a genomewide association study to map the genetic basis of variation in resistance to and tolerance of infection by the bacterium Providencia rettgeri. We found a positive genetic correlation between resistance and tolerance, and we demonstrated that the level of resistance is highly predictive of tolerance. We identified 30 loci that predict tolerance, many of which are in genes involved in the regulation of immunity and metabolism. We used RNAi to confirm that a subset of mapped genes have a role in defence, including putative wound repair genes grainy head and debris buster. Our results indicate that tolerance is not an independent strategy from resistance, but that defence arises from a collection of physiological processes intertwined with canonical immunity and resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Chemicals on plant surfaces as a heretofore unrecognized, but ecologically informative, class for investigations into plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Eric F

    2016-11-01

    Plants produce and utilize a great diversity of chemicals for a variety of physiological and ecological purposes. Many of these chemicals defend plants against herbivores, pathogens and competitors. The location of these chemicals varies within the plant, some are located entirely within plant tissues, others exist in the air- (or water-) space around plants, and still others are secreted onto plant surfaces as exudates. I argue herein that the location of a given defensive chemical has profound implications for its ecological function; specifically, I focus on the characteristics of chemical defences secreted onto plant surfaces. Drawing from a broad literature encompassing ecology, evolution, taxonomy and physiology, I found that these external chemical defences (ECDs) are common and widespread in plants and algae; hundreds of examples have been detailed, yet they are not delineated as a separate class from internal chemical defences (ICDs). I propose a novel typology for ECDs and, using existing literature, explore the ecological consequences of the hypothesized unique characteristics of ECDs. The axis of total or proportional investment in ECDs versus ICDs should be considered as one axis of investment by a plant, in the same way as quantitative versus qualitative chemical defences or induced versus constitutive defences is considered. The ease of manipulating ECDs in many plant systems presents a powerful tool to help test plant defence theory (e.g. optimal defence). The framework outlined here integrates various disciplines of botany and ecology and suggests a need for further examinations of exudates in a variety of contexts, as well as recognition of the effects of within-plant localization of defences. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. Defence intelligence in the UK: an agenda for inquiry within and beyond the ‘3 Mile Limit’

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, PHJ; Varouhakis, M; Abdalla, N

    2016-01-01

    When reflecting on UK defence intelligence, one is reminded of a mahogany bookshelf with a single book on it. At first glance, it may appear there is not much to the story, but when you pull the book, the entire bookshelf slides to reveal a labyrinth of history that spans decades in breadth and a surprising depth of other, sometimes additional and sometimes subordinate, but no less significant and even less scrutinised additional organisations, entities and processes that have made up defence...

  18. Status of services, overexposure and QAC in TLD PMS to defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, A.S.; Gupta, D.K.; Samaria, H.C.; Chouhan, R.L.; Mishra, M.; Goyal, J.K.; Gautam, M.; Kalla, R.

    2008-01-01

    Individual monitoring has always played an important role in radiological protection. There is continuous development in the field of dosimetry systems and many changes have taken place in last many years. The use of radiation for peaceful purposes is increasing with advancement of technological growth in the country. Thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have emerged as one of the best alternatives for personal monitoring. Defence sector has nearly 2100 persons, who are working in various Military Hospitals, Military Colleges, DRDO Labs, Defence Ordinance factories and many others CPMFs like CISF, BSF, who are likely to receive radiation doses. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur is providing the TLD personal monitoring service since Jan 1999 as per the guideline by B.A.R.C. to all the institutions mentioned above. This paper brings out salient features of this service in terms of facility available, procedures fulfilling the requirement of accreditation, over exposure reported, quality measures adopted and quality assurance results conducted by BARC, utility and suggestions for such type of services. (author)

  19. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona sequentially induces JA and SA defence pathways in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; Felton, Gary W; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2010-02-01

    While plant responses to herbivores and pathogens are well characterized, responses to attack by other plants remain largely unexplored. We measured phytohormones and C(18) fatty acids in tomato attacked by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona, and used transgenic and mutant plants to explore the roles of the defence-related phytohormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). Parasite attachment to 10-day-old tomato plants elicited few biochemical changes, but a second attachment 10 d later elicited a 60-fold increase in JA, a 30-fold increase in SA and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR). Host age also influenced the response: neither Cuscuta seedlings nor established vines elicited a HLR in 10-day-old hosts, but both did in 20-day-old hosts. Parasites grew larger on hosts deficient in SA (NahG) or insensitive to JA [jasmonic acid-insensitive1 (jai1)], suggesting that both phytohormones mediate effective defences. Moreover, amounts of JA peaked 12 h before SA, indicating that defences may be coordinated via sequential induction of these hormones. Parasitism also induced increases in free linolenic and linoleic acids and abscisic acid. These findings provide the first documentation of plant hormonal signalling induced by a parasitic plant and show that tomato responses to C. pentagona display characteristics similar to both herbivore- and pathogen-induced responses.

  20. Thrips advisor: exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Merel; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Bleeker, Petra; Dicke, Marcel; Escobar-Bravo, Rocio; Cheng, Gang; Haring, Michel A; Kant, Merijn R; Kappers, Iris; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A; Legarrea, Saioa; Macel, Mirka; Mouden, Sanae; Pieterse, Corné M J; Sarde, Sandeep J; Schuurink, Robert C; De Vos, Martin; Van Wees, Saskia C M; Broekgaarden, Colette

    2018-04-09

    Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.

  1. Effects of fudioxonil on Botrytis cinerea and on grapevine defence response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Noëlle PETIT

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Botrytis bunch rot of grapes is mainly controlled by applying fungicides at three crop stages: the end of flowering (BBCH 68, bunch closure (BBCH 77 and the beginning of veraison (BBCH 81. The phenylpyrroles derivative fudioxonil is among the most effective fungicides registered to control Botrytis cinerea. Its effectiveness was investigated in relation to spray timing, fungicide resistance and defence responses of grapevine. Frequencies of B. cinerea strains which were resistant to fungicides were evaluated at harvest. The frequencies of resistant phenotypes were similar in all treatments except for a class of multidrug resistant strains (MDR 1 whose frequency increased after fudioxonil applications. None of the treatments tested induced defence responses in flowers/berries after fungicide application, suggesting that fudioxonil effectiveness was not related to a stimulation of plant defence processes. The standard program of three fungicide applications provided the best control of B. cinerea  in the Champagne region in comparison with a single treatment of fudioxonil at any of the crop stages tested.

  2. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Armed rollers: does nestling's vomit function as a defence against predators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deseada Parejo

    Full Text Available Chemical defences against predators are widespread in the animal kingdom although have been seldom reported in birds. Here, we investigate the possibility that the orange liquid that nestlings of an insectivorous bird, the Eurasian roller (Coracias garrulus, expel when scared at their nests acts as a chemical defence against predators. We studied the diet of nestling rollers and vomit origin, its chemical composition and deterrent effect on a mammal generalist predator. We also hypothesized that nestling rollers, as their main prey (i.e. grasshoppers do from plants, could sequester chemicals from their prey for their use. Grasshoppers, that also regurgitate when facing to a threat, store the harmful substances used by plants to defend themselves against herbivores. We found that nestling rollers only vomit after being grasped and moved. The production of vomit depended on food consumption and the vomit contained two deterrent chemicals (hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids stored by grasshoppers and used by plants to diminish herbivory, suggesting that they originate from the rollers' prey. Finally, we showed for the first time that the oral secretion of a vertebrate had a deterrent effect on a model predator because vomit of nestling rollers made meat distasteful to dogs. These results support the idea that the vomit of nestling rollers is a chemical defence against predators.

  4. Food supplementation mitigates dispersal-dependent differences in nest defence in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récapet, Charlotte; Daniel, Grégory; Taroni, Joëlle; Bize, Pierre; Doligez, Blandine

    2016-05-01

    Dispersing and non-dispersing individuals often differ in phenotypic traits (e.g. physiology, behaviour), but to what extent these differences are fixed or driven by external conditions remains elusive. We experimentally tested whether differences in nest-defence behaviour between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals changed with local habitat quality in collared flycatchers, by providing additional food during the nestling rearing period. In control (non-food-supplemented) nests, dispersers were less prone to defend their brood compared with non-dispersers, whereas in food-supplemented nests, dispersing and non-dispersing individuals showed equally strong nest defence. We discuss the importance of dispersal costs versus adaptive flexibility in reproductive investment in shaping these differences in nest-defence behaviour between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms, our study emphasizes the importance of accounting for environmental effects when comparing traits between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals, and in turn assessing the costs and benefits of dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Defence-in-depth and development of safety requirements for advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnino, A.; Gasparini, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses a general approach for the preparation of the design safety requirements using the IAEA Safety Objectives and the strategy of defence-in-depth. It proposes a general method (top-down approach) to prepare safety requirements for a given kind of reactor using the IAEA requirements for nuclear power plants as a starting point through a critical interpretation and application of the strategy of defence-in-depth. The IAEA has recently developed a general methodology for screening the defence-in-depth of nuclear power plants starting from the fundamental safety objectives as proposed in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals. This methodology may provide a useful tool for the preparation of safety requirements for the design and operation of any kind of reactor. Currently the IAEA is preparing the technical basis for the development of safety requirements for Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors, with the aim of showing the viability of the method. A draft TECDOC has been prepared and circulated among several experts for comments. This paper is largely based on the content of the draft TECDOC. (authors)

  6. Host ploidy, parasitism and immune defence in a coevolutionary snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnas, E E; Lively, C M

    2006-01-01

    We studied the role of host ploidy and parasite exposure on immune defence allocation in a snail-trematode system (Potamopyrgus antipodarum-Microphallus sp.). In the field, haemocyte (the defence cell) concentration was lowest in deep-water habitats where infection is relatively low and highest in shallow-water habitats where infection is common. Because the frequency of asexual triploid snails is positively correlated with depth, we also experimentally studied the role of ploidy by exposing both diploid sexual and triploid asexual snails to Microphallus eggs. We found that triploid snails had lower haemocyte concentrations than did diploids in both parasite-addition and parasite-free treatments. We also found that both triploids and diploids increased their numbers of large granular haemocytes at similar rates after parasite exposure. Because triploid P. antipodarum have been shown to be more resistant to allopatric parasites than diploids, the current results suggest that the increased resistance of triploids is because of intrinsic genetic properties rather than to greater allocation to defence cells. This finding is consistent with recent theory on the advantages of increased ploidy for hosts combating coevolving parasites.

  7. Ventral medullary neurones excited from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S M; Smith, P R

    1984-07-01

    In cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the ventral medulla was explored in and around the strip previously identified as the location of the efferent pathway from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas to the spinal cord, in a search for neurones excited by electrical stimulation of the defence areas. Such units were found mostly in the caudal part of this strip, at a depth of not more than 500 microns from the surface. Nearly all were located in the ventral part of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) at the level of the rostral pole of the inferior olive. There was evidence of temporal and spatial facilitation, indicating a convergent excitatory input from the defence areas onto neurones in PGL. This is consistent with earlier evidence of a synaptic relay in the efferent pathway at this site. When the pathway is blocked at this site, arterial blood pressure falls profoundly, so activity in these neurones may be essential for the normal level of sympathetic nerve activity.

  8. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence: plant β-glucosidases as the main target for herbivore adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Fred; Bak, Søren

    2014-08-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two-component chemical defence. These adaptations include host plant choice, non-disruptive feeding guilds and various physiological adaptations as well as metabolic enzymatic strategies of the insect’s digestive system. Furthermore, insect adaptations often act in combination, may exist in both generalists and specialists, and can act on different classes of defence compounds. We discuss how generalist and specialist insects appear to differ in their ability to use these different types of adaptations: in generalists, adaptations are often inducible, whereas in specialists they are often constitutive. Future studies are suggested to investigate in detail how insect adaptations act in combination to overcome plant chemical defences and to allow ecologically relevant conclusions.

  9. Ecological trade-offs between jasmonic acid-dependent direct and indirect plant defences in tritrophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Wang, Lizhong; Zhao, Jiuhai; Li, Chuanyou; Ge, Feng; Kang, Le

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on plants genetically modified in jasmonic acid (JA) signalling support the hypothesis that the jasmonate family of oxylipins plays an important role in mediating direct and indirect plant defences. However, the interaction of two modes of defence in tritrophic systems is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the preference and performance of a herbivorous leafminer (Liriomyza huidobrensis) and its parasitic wasp (Opius dissitus) on three tomato genotypes: a wild-type (WT) plant, a JA biosynthesis (spr2) mutant, and a JA-overexpression 35S::prosys plant. Their proteinase inhibitor production and volatile emission were used as direct and indirect defence factors to evaluate the responses of leafminers and parasitoids. Here, we show that although spr2 mutant plants are compromised in direct defence against the larval leafminers and in attracting parasitoids, they are less attractive to adult flies compared with WT plants. Moreover, in comparison to other genotypes, the 35S::prosys plant displays greater direct and constitutive indirect defences, but reduced success of parasitism by parasitoids. Taken together, these results suggest that there are distinguished ecological trade-offs between JA-dependent direct and indirect defences in genetically modified plants whose fitness should be assessed in tritrophic systems and under natural conditions. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  10. Reconceptualing social defence theory for the purpose of organisational-level change: causes, consequences and the contribution of grid-group cultural theory

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University London. Despite repeated demonstrations of the dysfunctional effects of social defences in organisations, social defence theory's (SDT) problem of organisational change (Long, 2006) remains. Why? Can this be avoided? The research centres on a four-year coaching and consulting project within a multinational manufacturing company. Social defences appeared but a careful Tavistock action-resear...

  11. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, H. Y.; Cruz, J.; Treitschke, M.; Wahl, Martin; Molis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown (Dictyopteris membranacea, Fuc...

  12. Establishment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection: Translational evasion of oxidative defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a clinically important disease affecting 3% of the world population. HCV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Hepacivirus within the Flaviviridae family. The virus establishes a chronic infection in the face of an active host oxidative defence, thus adaptation to oxidative stress is key to virus survival. Being a small RNA virus with a limited genomic capacity, we speculate that HCV deploys a different strategy to evade host oxidative defence. Instead of counteracting oxidative stress, it utilizes oxidative stress to facilitate its own survival. Translation is the first step in the replication of a plus strand RNA virus so it would make sense if the virus can exploit the host oxidative defence in facilitating this very first step. This is particularly true when HCV utilizes an internal ribosome entry site element in translation, which is distinctive from that of cap-dependent translation of the vast majority of cellular genes, thus allowing selective translation of genes under conditions when global protein synthesis is compromised. Indeed, we were the first to show that HCV translation was stimulated by an important pro-oxidant-hydrogen peroxide in hepatocytes, suggesting that HCV is able to adapt to and utilize the host anti-viral response to facilitate its own translation thus allowing the virus to thrive under oxidative stress condition to establish chronicity. Understanding how HCV translation is regulated under oxidative stress condition will advance our knowledge on how HCV establishes chronicity. As chronicity is the initiator step in disease progression this will eventually lead to a better understanding of pathogenicity, which is particularly relevant to the development of anti-virals and improved treatments of HCV patients using anti-oxidants. PMID:24659872

  13. In Defence of Culture? Racialised Sexual Violence and Agency in Legal and Judicial Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Dagistanli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of work in critical race and feminist theories that have criticised as Euro/Anglo-centric, and hence exclusionary, the liberal foundations of Western democratic legal systems. The basis of such critiques is that legal personhood is premised on an atomistic individual agent that purports to be neutral but in actuality reflects and maintains the hegemonic gendered and raced status quo privileging the white, middle to upper-class man to the exclusion of women and all racial and cultural Others. Some approaches, such as cultural defences in criminal law, have sought to address this via a recognition and incorporation of the difference of Other groups and their different moral norms, proclivities and circumstances. To illustrate, this discussion will draw on a cultural defence that was advanced in a series of group sexual violence cases that involved four Pakistani, Muslim brothers. While concluding that culture permeates the actions of all individuals, this article seeks to show how cultural recognition approaches in law often overlook the individual agency of those differentiated through their racial, ethnic and religious visibility. Instead of asserting the primacy of individual free will and a rational agent as the main driver of criminal behaviour cultural defences, in particular, appear to attribute criminal action to the morally aberrant traditions and practices of non-Western cultures. At the same time, such approaches to cultural recognition fail to acknowledge that culture, and not just the culture of Others, is necessarily the backdrop for all (group sexual violence. With these points in mind, the paper ends with some suggestions for accommodating alternative narratives that seek to avoid the reductive scripts that currently appear to characterise legal and judicial musings on culture

  14. Establishment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection: translational evasion of oxidative defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2014-03-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes a clinically important disease affecting 3% of the world population. HCV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Hepacivirus within the Flaviviridae family. The virus establishes a chronic infection in the face of an active host oxidative defence, thus adaptation to oxidative stress is key to virus survival. Being a small RNA virus with a limited genomic capacity, we speculate that HCV deploys a different strategy to evade host oxidative defence. Instead of counteracting oxidative stress, it utilizes oxidative stress to facilitate its own survival. Translation is the first step in the replication of a plus strand RNA virus so it would make sense if the virus can exploit the host oxidative defence in facilitating this very first step. This is particularly true when HCV utilizes an internal ribosome entry site element in translation, which is distinctive from that of cap-dependent translation of the vast majority of cellular genes, thus allowing selective translation of genes under conditions when global protein synthesis is compromised. Indeed, we were the first to show that HCV translation was stimulated by an important pro-oxidant-hydrogen peroxide in hepatocytes, suggesting that HCV is able to adapt to and utilize the host anti-viral response to facilitate its own translation thus allowing the virus to thrive under oxidative stress condition to establish chronicity. Understanding how HCV translation is regulated under oxidative stress condition will advance our knowledge on how HCV establishes chronicity. As chronicity is the initiator step in disease progression this will eventually lead to a better understanding of pathogenicity, which is particularly relevant to the development of anti-virals and improved treatments of HCV patients using anti-oxidants.

  15. Separating defence and civilian radioactive waste programs in Nevada: can the public navigate the maze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Nevada is at the centre of public policy debate with regards to high and low level radioactive waste disposal. Nevada's Yucca Mountain is the only site under consideration for a US geologic repository for commercial spent nuclear fuel and defence high level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has long been a low level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the Department of Energy (DOE) defence waste and is now expected to take even more LLW as the preferred site for a regional or centralised disposal facility. Furthermore, the primary mission at NTS, defence, continues to add more contamination to the site. Combined, these facts present a public policy enigma, confused further by the intentional separation of the programs by DOE, even though all are essentially conducted at the same site. Involving the public in policy decisions for these programs is a dilemma because the public does not make the same artificial distinctions between them as DOE, DOE credibility suffers from past public involvement efforts conducted during an era of Cold War secrecy and because DOE public involvement programs are operated independently, with little or no co-operation between programs. The public does not know where it fits into the DOE decision-making process or if it impacts the policy decisions being made that affect it. This paper examines the complex maze of radioactive policy and bureaucracy in order to unveil the enigma Nevada residents face. Are they able to navigate this maze to effectively participate in government policy and decision-making? Or, will they remain confused by the government bureaucracy which deliberately makes a mess of the situation and seeks to exploit a politically weak state with large tracts of federally controlled land? lt further evaluates the effect this enigma has in producing acceptable public policy for radioactive waste disposal in the US, the role of public participation in that policy, and the reason the public is disillusioned and disengaged in the

  16. Oh sister, where art thou? Spatial population structure and the evolution of an altruistic defence trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamminger, T; Foitzik, S; Metzler, D; Pennings, P S

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of parasite virulence and host defences is affected by population structure. This effect has been confirmed in studies focusing on large spatial scales, whereas the importance of local structure is not well understood. Slavemaking ants are social parasites that exploit workers of another species to rear their offspring. Enslaved workers of the host species Temnothorax longispinosus have been found to exhibit an effective post-enslavement defence behaviour: enslaved workers were observed killing a large proportion of the parasites' offspring. As enslaved workers do not reproduce, they gain no direct fitness benefit from this 'rebellion' behaviour. However, there may be an indirect benefit: neighbouring host nests that are related to 'rebel' nests can benefit from a reduced raiding pressure, as a result of the reduction in parasite nest size due to the enslaved workers' killing behaviour. We use a simple mathematical model to examine whether the small-scale population structure of the host species could explain the evolution of this potentially altruistic defence trait against slavemaking ants. We find that this is the case if enslaved host workers are related to nearby host nests. In a population genetic study, we confirm that enslaved workers are, indeed, more closely related to host nests within the raiding range of their resident slavemaker nest, than to host nests outside the raiding range. This small-scale population structure seems to be a result of polydomy (e.g. the occupation of several nests in close proximity by a single colony) and could have enabled the evolution of 'rebellion' by kin selection. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Role of Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) in Arabidopsis thaliana defence against the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas viridiflava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F R; Marina, M; Pieckenstain, F L

    2015-07-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis starts with putrescine production through the decarboxylation of arginine or ornithine. In Arabidopsis thaliana, putrescine is synthesised exclusively by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), which exists as two isoforms (ADC1 and 2) that are differentially regulated by abiotic stimuli, but their role in defence against pathogens has not been studied in depth. This work analysed the participation of ADC in Arabidopsis defence against Pseudomonas viridiflava. ADC activity and expression, polyamine levels and bacterial resistance were analysed in null mutants of each ADC isoform. In non-infected wild-type (WT) plants, ADC2 expression was much higher than ADC1. Analysis of adc mutants demonstrated that ADC2 contributes to a much higher extent than ADC1 to basal ADC activity and putrescine biosynthesis. In addition, adc2 mutants showed increased basal expression of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-dependent PR genes. Bacterial infection induced putrescine accumulation and ADC1 expression in WT plants, but pathogen-induced putrescine accumulation was blocked in adc1 mutants. Results suggest a specific participation of ADC1 in defence, although basal resistance was not decreased by dysfunction of either of the two ADC genes. In addition, and as opposed to WT plants, bacterial infection increased ADC2 expression and ADC activity in adc1 mutants, which could counterbalance the lack of ADC1. Results demonstrate a major contribution of ADC2 to total ADC activity and the specific induction of ADC1 in response to infection. A certain degree of functional redundancy between the two isoforms in relation to their contribution to basal resistance is also evident. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Paital, Biswaranjan; Dandapat, Jagneswar

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  19. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Bihari Nityananda Chainy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS, a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing environmental challenges for survival. Antioxidant defences are one of such biochemical mechanisms. At low concentration, ROS regulates several physiological processes, whereas at higher concentration they are toxic to organisms because they impair cellular functions by oxidizing biomolecules. Seasonal changes in antioxidant defences make species able to maintain their correct ROS titre to take various physiological functions such as hibernation, aestivation, migration, and reproduction against changing environmental physical parameters. In this paper, we have compiled information available in the literature on seasonal variation in antioxidant defence system in various species of invertebrates and vertebrates. The primary objective was to understand the relationship between varied biological phenomena seen in different animal species and conserved antioxidant defence system with respect to seasons.

  20. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Radakovic, Zoran; Regis, Jully M A; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid; Hofmann, Julia; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, a plant-parasitic cyst nematode, invades host roots and induces a specific syncytial feeding structure, from which it withdraws all required nutrients, causing severe yield losses. The system H. schachtii–Arabidopsis is an excellent research model for investigating plant defence mechanisms. Such responses are suppressed in well-established syncytia, whereas they are induced during early parasitism. However, the mechanisms by which the defence responses are modulated and the role of phytohormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of hormone-based defence responses at the onset of nematode infection. First, concentrations of main phytohormones were quantified and the expression of several hormone-related genes was analysed using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR or GeneChip. Further, the effects of individual hormones were evaluated via nematode attraction and infection assays using plants with altered endogenous hormone concentrations. Our results suggest a pivotal and positive role for ethylene during nematode attraction, whereas jasmonic acid triggers early defence responses against H. schachtii. Salicylic acid seems to be a negative regulator during later syncytium and female development. We conclude that nematodes are able to impose specific changes in hormone pools, thus modulating hormone-based defence and signal transduction in strict dependence on their parasitism stage. PMID:25825039

  1. Understanding plant defence responses against herbivore attacks: an essential first step towards the development of sustainable resistance against pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M Estrella; Martínez, Manuel; Cambra, Inés; Grbic, Vojislava; Diaz, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    Plant-herbivore relationships are complex interactions encompassing elaborate networks of molecules, signals and strategies used to overcome defences developed by each other. Herbivores use multiple feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from host plants. In turn, plants respond by triggering defence mechanisms to inhibit, block or modify the metabolism of the pest. As part of these defences, herbivore-challenged plants emit volatiles to attract natural enemies and warn neighbouring plants of the imminent threat. In response, herbivores develop a variety of strategies to suppress plant-induced protection. Our understanding of the plant-herbivore interphase is limited, although recent molecular approaches have revealed the participation of a battery of genes, proteins and volatile metabolites in attack-defence processes. This review describes the intricate and dynamic defence systems governing plant-herbivore interactions by examining the diverse strategies plants employ to deny phytophagous arthropods the ability to breach newly developed mechanisms of plant resistance. A cornerstone of this understanding is the use of transgenic tools to unravel the complex networks that control these interactions.

  2. Military milk: breastfeeding rates among Australian Defence Force women who return to military service following maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley

    2015-02-01

    The breastfeeding behaviors among Australian Defence Force women have not previously been examined. Studies have shown that breastfeeding prevalence and duration are affected by maternity leave entitlements and returning to work. This study aimed to benchmark breastfeeding initiation, prevalence, and duration among a cohort of Australian Defence Force women and to compare these findings against Australian population norms. A cross-sectional survey was conducted via email in 2008 for Australian Defence Force women who had taken maternity leave in the Australian financial year of 2006/2007. Analysis of breastfeeding indicators was undertaken. Ninety-eight percent of Australian Defence Force women in this cohort initiated breastfeeding and breastfed for a median duration of 8 months, returning to work when the mean age of the child was 8.4 months. Breastfeeding prevalence did not meet 2003 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council targets by 6 months postpartum but compared favorably to the Australian population norms. Sixty-six percent of the respondents returned to work full-time, with a median breastfeeding duration of 7 months. Women who returned to work part-time had a longer median duration of 10 months. Breastfeeding rates among this cohort of Australian Defence Force women compare favorably with the general Australian population until 9 months, coinciding with returning to work after a period of maternity leave. The results support recent Australian population studies on breastfeeding and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The effect of the development of theatre missile defences on the arms control structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min

    1998-01-01

    Th arms control structure usually refers to current and past results of the efforts by the USA and former Soviet Union to negotiate strategic arms control agreements. The structure is to be represented by the various arms control agreements, such as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) and the strategic Reduction Talks (START). Whatever the motives of the parties to these agreements, today people commonly regard the structure as the best way to achieve strategic stability. The profile od arms control and the impact of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, to understand how the Theatre Missile Defence (TMD) program affects the arms control structure

  4. Current strategies in the farm practices and post-harvest pesticidal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Suss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, people often talk about biologic agriculture and Integrated Production (IP, even if the real meaning of these terms is altered. In both cases, they deal with production methods characterized by a particular attention to the reduction of the environmental impact of all the farm practices used, especially for defence from adversities, being the element of major concern for environment and consumers’ health.Farm practice evolution, especially those about pest defence, is based on important conceptual change, accurate scientific analysis and organization of technical assistance, rationalization of agri-pharmaceutical product use is one of the main objective of Integrated Production Specifications (IPS. The quantitative reduction is the first objective, obtained by various means such as the use of efficient equipment and the qualitative selection based on the priority use of minor impact means, effectiveness being equal. At post-harvest, the anti-parasitary defence is undergoing deep changes in our country. Once, pesticides very toxic and persistent were used; however, in the last years the availability of active principles (a.p. usable on foodstuffs or in productive environments; for instance, methyl bromide use has been progressively reduced till its banishment because it is recognized to damage the ozone layer. Thus, on the whole we can talk about “integrated pest management” even for the post-harvest sector. However, substantial differences exist between agriculture and post-harvest, thus the integrated pest management in food production environment has to be designed in a different way. The fundamental element of this technique is to identify a tolerance threshold to pest attack but for the defence of food industries and stored foodstuffs is very difficult, if not impossible, to fix a limit to insect presence after which intervening is compulsory. Monitoring of pest attacks and the implementation of prevention practices is

  5. Quorum-Sensing Blockade As A Strategy for Enhancing Host Defences Against Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    Conventional antibiotics target the growth and the basal life processes of bacteria leading to growth arrest and cell death. The selective force that is inherently linked to this mode of action eventually selects out antibiotic-resistant variants. The most obvious alternative to antibiotic...... rise to a new 'drug target rush'. Recently, QS has been shown to be involved in the development of tolerance to various antimicrobial treatments and immune modulation. The regulation of virulence via QS confers a strategic advantage over host defences. Consequently, a drug capable of blocking QS...

  6. Quorum-sensing blockade as a strategy for enhancing host defences against bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2007-01-01

    Conventional antibiotics target the growth and the basal life processes of bacteria leading to growth arrest and cell death. The selective force that is inherently linked to this mode of action eventually selects out antibiotic-resistant variants. The most obvious alternative to antibiotic...... rise to a new 'drug target rush'. Recently, QS has been shown to be involved in the development of tolerance to various antimicrobial treatments and immune modulation. The regulation of virulence via QS confers a strategic advantage over host defences. Consequently, a drug capable of blocking QS...

  7. A study on the mechanism of speculative attack and the defence strategy of the central bank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hyun Yun

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We first analyze the concrete mechanism of speculative attack on the foreign exchange market which became very prevalent phenomena during the foreign exchange crisis. When the central bank of the domestic country tries to defend the attack by increasing the interest rate, some problems can arise in that the speculative attacks through foreign exchange options market and/or index futures markets can be very successful due to that policy. So the central bank should pay much attention to the microstructure of the financial markets when the defence strategy against speculative attack is determined.

  8. Women in combat: The status and roles assigned female personnel in the permanent defence forces.

    OpenAIRE

    Clonan, Thomas Martin

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the PhD study is to examine critically the integration of female personnel within the Permanent Defence Forces (PDF). Their integration is examined in light of the deployment of women in the international military, and in light of a liberal-feminist examination of the workplace in terms of its equality of opportunity agenda. It is argued that the sex-role stereotyping used to recruit young men in to the military in the past along with socio-biological theories of women’s and me...

  9. Reinforcement of Defence-in-Depth: Modification Practice After the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Tang, H.; Mao, Q., E-mail: wangyuhong@cgnpc.com.cn [China Nuclear Power Design Co., Ltd Xia Meilin, Futian District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province (China)

    2014-10-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident revealed the importance and demand for further reinforcement of defence in- depth. CGN (China General Nuclear Power Group) has made a complete safety assessment on CPR1000 nuclear power plants under construction in China. Dozens of modifications have been implemented based on the assessment findings and lessons learned from Fukushima nuclear accident, taking into account of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) and comparison analysis of the latest regulations and standards. These modifications help to enhance nuclear safety significantly for nuclear power plants under construction in China, and provide helpful modification guidance for nuclear power plants in operation of the same type. (author)

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Nanotechnologies for Detection and Defence

    CERN Document Server

    Tsiulyanu, Dumitru; Popov, Cyril; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Advanced nanotechnologies for detection and defence against CBRN agents

    2018-01-01

    This volume gives a broad overview of advanced technologies for detection and defence against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) agents. It provides chapters addressing the preparation and characterization of different nanoscale materials (metals, oxides, glasses, polymers, carbon-based, etc.) and their applications in fields related to security and safety. In addition, it presents an interdisciplinary approach as the contributors come from different areas of research, such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A major feature of the book is the combination of longer chapters introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and shorter contributions highlighting specific applications in different security areas.

  11. Impacts of low doses of pesticide mixtures on liver cell defence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; Dupont, Gwendoline; Razpotnik, Andrej; Fouche, Edwin; De Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Low amounts of residual pesticides are present in the environment, often as mixtures of chemicals which contaminate drinking water and food, being a source of chronic exposure for humans and a growing matter of concern in public health policy. Despite of the needs and growing investigation, little is known about the impact of low doses and mixtures of these chemicals on human health. The purpose of this study was to enlighten if modifications of liver cell metabolic- and/or defence-related ca...

  12. Defence and illustration of nuclear deterrence; Defense et illustration de la dissuasion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    After having shown that nuclear deterrence has been efficient since 1945 (nuclear weapons prevented from war, nuclear deterrence contributed to the reduction of risks related to proliferation), the author discusses the amorality and illegality of nuclear deterrence (its ethics can indeed be a matter of discussion, as well as issues like self-defence and international humanitarian law). On another hand, he shows that deterrence costs remain acceptable and that substitutes to nuclear deterrence are not credible. He concludes that deterrence is therefore still useful and legitimate

  13. The roles of plant phenolics in defence and communication during Agrobacterium and Rhizobium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amita; Sood, Priyanka; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-09-01

    Phenolics are aromatic benzene ring compounds with one or more hydroxyl groups produced by plants mainly for protection against stress. The functions of phenolic compounds in plant physiology and interactions with biotic and abiotic environments are difficult to overestimate. Phenolics play important roles in plant development, particularly in lignin and pigment biosynthesis. They also provide structural integrity and scaffolding support to plants. Importantly, phenolic phytoalexins, secreted by wounded or otherwise perturbed plants, repel or kill many microorganisms, and some pathogens can counteract or nullify these defences or even subvert them to their own advantage. In this review, we discuss the roles of phenolics in the interactions of plants with Agrobacterium and Rhizobium.

  14. Condom Use Behaviors and Correlates of Condom Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    may engage in risky sexual behaviours, such as having unprotected sex with sex workers .4 Furthermore, studies have found high HIV risk- taking...did not use a condom the last time they had sex with a sex worker . 11 And in the 1Naval Health Research Center, Department of Defense HIV /AIDS...only found in 16-20% of participants,7 and 41% did not use a condom the last time they had sex with a sex worker .4 In the Rwanda Defence Forces, 24

  15. Provoking misunderstanding: a comment on Black's defence of value-free sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn

    2014-09-01

    This paper is a response to a recent article dealing with the concept of value-free sociology by Donald Black. It argues that while a defence of Weber's position on the role of values in sociological research is necessary and important, what is offered by Black is counter-productive in important respects. This is because it encourages some of the misunderstandings that it is aimed at remedying and, even more importantly, offers a simplistic discussion of what are complex issues. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  16. European cooperation in the field of security and defence. International Relation theories perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czaputowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses various theoretical explanations of the European cooperation in the field of security and defence. According to realist explanations this cooperation was a response to external evolutions in the international system, i.e. changes in polarity and distribution of power. Liberals say that it was rather due to internal factors. Constructivists argue that it was a result of elites’ socialisation, while according to Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory, it was caused by civil servants and military staff at the policy implementation level. The paper argues that external factors underlined by realists were decisive, i.e. America’s decreasing involvement in European security.

  17. Canadian Defence Commitments: Overview and Status of Selected Acquisitions and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Sloan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For years, successive Canadian governments have been overpromising and under-delivering on defence procurement. Timetables have slipped even as repair and maintenance costs for aging equipment have soared, while elaborate rules have obscured the acquisition process in a bureaucratic fog. This paper assembles information from a wide range of official sources and cuts through the confusion. It surveys 15 Canadian defence acquisitions and initiatives, each anticipated to cost more than $100 million, to account for the delays. Final replacements for the ancient Sea King helicopters are no closer to arriving — after almost 30 years — because the DND failed to recognize that it asked for technology that is still in development. The Joint Support Ship project is years behind schedule because, as originally conceived, it sought to integrate so many capabilities that it was unbuildable. The Integrated Soldier System Project is almost as far behind because Ottawa’s procurement rules are so complex and niggling that no bidder could fulfill every single one. Canada faces evolving threats, but efforts to equip the Canadian Forces to meet them have been marked by a long litany of failures — failures of communication, of organization and of vision. This paper sets out the military procurement process, and concisely explains the most egregious flaws, making it essential reading for anyone interested in the future of Canada’s military.

  18. Convergent evolution of plant and animal embryo defences by hyperstable non-digestible storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, María Yanina; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Mu, Huawei; Heras, Horacio

    2017-11-20

    Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i.e., kinetic stability). PmPV1 is highly resistant to in vitro proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and 25-85 °C. Furthermore, PmPV1 withstands in vitro and mice digestion and is recovered unchanged in faeces, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. Subunit sequence similarities suggest a common origin and tolerance to mutations. This is the first known animal genus that, like plant seeds, lowers the nutritional value of eggs by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that survive the gut of predators unaffected. The selective pressure of the harsh gastrointestinal environment would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like hyperstable antinutritive proteins to unattended reproductive stages in animals.

  19. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motifs and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04805.001 PMID:26083713

  20. Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality and control tests in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K. Helm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N = 477 read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination. The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Lynne A; Abdul-Sada, Ali; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hodge, Angela; Hartley, Sue E

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.

  2. Prostate specific antigen enhances the innate defence of prostatic epithelium against Escherichia coli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Claire L; Ali, Ased; Gross, Naomi; Pal, Deepali; Williamson, Stuart; Heer, Rakesh; Robson, Craig N; Pickard, Robert S; Hall, Judith

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated whether the increase in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) typically seen during male urinary tract infection (UTI) is incidental or reflects an innate defence mechanism of the prostate. The protective roles of the whey-acid-motif-4-disulphide core (WFDC) proteins, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and WFDC2, in the prostate were also examined. UTI recurrence was assessed retrospectively in men following initial UTI by patient interview. PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression were assessed using biopsy samples. LNCaP and DU145 in vitro prostate cell models were utilized to assess the effects of an Escherichia coli challenge on PSA and WFDC gene expression, and bacterial invasion of the prostate epithelium. The effects of PSA on WFDC antimicrobial properties were studied using recombinant peptides and time-kill assays. Men presenting with PSA >4 ng/ml at initial UTI were less likely to have recurrent (r) UTI than those with PSA prostatic epithelium, and the PSA and SLPI proteins co-localized in vivo. Challenging LNCaP (PSA-positive) cells with E. coli increased PSA, SLPI, and WFDC2 gene expression (P prostate innate defences. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Histology and cell wall biochemistry of stone cells in the physical defence of conifers against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Henderson, Hannah; Schuetz, Mathias; Skyba, Oleksandr; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; King, John; Samuels, A Lacey; Mansfield, Shawn D; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Conifers possess an array of physical and chemical defences against stem-boring insects. Stone cells provide a physical defence associated with resistance against bark beetles and weevils. In Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), abundance of stone cells in the cortex of apical shoots is positively correlated with resistance to white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). We identified histological, biochemical and molecular differences in the stone cell phenotype of weevil resistant (R) or susceptible (S) Sitka spruce genotypes. R trees displayed significantly higher quantities of cortical stone cells near the apical shoot node, the primary site for weevil feeding. Lignin, cellulose, xylan and mannan were the most abundant components of stone cell secondary walls, respectively. Lignin composition of stone cells isolated from R trees contained a higher percentage of G-lignin compared with S trees. Transcript profiling revealed higher transcript abundance in the R genotype of coumarate 3-hydroxylase, a key monolignol biosynthetic gene. Developing stone cells in current year apical shoots incorporated fluorescent-tagged monolignol into the secondary cell wall, while mature stone cells of previous year apical shoots did not. Stone cell development is an ephemeral process, and fortification of shoot tips in R trees is an effective strategy against insect feeding. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Plasma membrane order and fluidity are diversely triggered by elicitors of plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Roman; Der, Christophe; Grosjean, Kevin; Anca, Iulia; Noirot, Elodie; Leborgne-Castel, Nathalie; Lochman, Jan; Simon-Plas, Françoise; Gerbeau-Pissot, Patricia

    2016-09-01

    Although plants are exposed to a great number of pathogens, they usually defend themselves by triggering mechanisms able to limit disease development. Alongside signalling events common to most such incompatible interactions, modifications of plasma membrane (PM) physical properties could be new players in the cell transduction cascade. Different pairs of elicitors (cryptogein, oligogalacturonides, and flagellin) and plant cells (tobacco and Arabidopsis) were used to address the issue of possible modifications of plant PM biophysical properties induced by elicitors and their links to other events of the defence signalling cascade. We observed an increase of PM order whatever the elicitor/plant cell pair used, provided that a signalling cascade was induced. Such membrane modification is dependent on the NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, cryptogein, which is the sole elicitor able to trap sterols, is also the only one able to trigger an increase in PM fluidity. The use of cryptogein variants with altered sterol-binding properties confirms the strong correlation between sterol removal from the PM and PM fluidity enhancement. These results propose PM dynamics as a player in early signalling processes triggered by elicitors of plant defence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves impairs defence but not rapid repair of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, M A; Schöninkle, E; Holzer, P

    1993-07-01

    Capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones have previously been reported to play a part in gastric mucosal protection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these nociceptive neurones strengthen mucosal defence against injury or promote rapid repair of the damaged mucosa, or both. This hypothesis was examined in anaesthetised rats whose stomachs were perfused with ethanol (25 or 50% in saline, wt/wt) for 30 minutes. The gastric mucosa was inspected 0 and 180 minutes after ethanol had been given at the macroscopic, light, and scanning electron microscopic level. Rapid repair of the ethanol injured gastric mucosa (reduction of deep injury, partial re-epithelialisation of the denuded surface) took place in rats anaesthetised with phenobarbital, but not in those anaesthetised with urethane. Afferent nerve ablation as a result of treating rats with a neurotoxic dose of capsaicin before the experiment significantly aggravated ethanol induced damage as shown by an increase in the area and depth of mucosal erosions. Rapid repair of the injured mucosa, however, as seen in rats anesthetised with phenobarbital 180 minutes after ethanol was given, was similar in capsaicin and vehicle pretreated animals. Ablation of capsaicin sensitive afferent neurones was verified by a depletion of calcitonin gene related peptide from the gastric corpus wall. These findings indicate that nociceptive neurones control mechanisms of defence against acute injury but are not required for rapid repair of injured mucosa.

  6. Identification and characterization of novel defence and PCD signalling components in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Wenjun

    rescued syp121 syp122 ssdx (suppressor of syntaxin-related death) lines were collected. SSD genes are typically required for pathogen defence. In this PhD project, using some of these triple mutant lines, SSD6 and SSD12 were identified to be novel genes by Mutmap and complementation test. SSD6 encode...... a large protein with at least six domains with predicted functions, and mutations in five of these showed that they are important for the lesion mimic phenotype of syp121 syp122. Subcellular localization showed SSD6 to function on the ER. In the project, a split-GFP Gateway vector system was developed...... for topology studies of membrane proteins, and SSD6 was found to be an ER membrane-anchored cytosolic protein. The position of SSD6 in the defence signalling network was studied using syp121 syp122 ssd6 ssdy quadruple mutants, which suggested that SSD6 is not involved in any known signalling pathway. All...

  7. Interpreting the impact of flood forecasts by combining policy analysis studies and flood defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slomp Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood forecasting is necessary to save lives and reduce damages. Reducing damages is important to save livelihoods and to reduce the recovery time. Flood alerts should contain expected time of the event, location and extent of the event. A flood alert is not only one message but part of a rehearsed flow of information using multiple canals. First people have to accept the fact that there might be a threat and what the threat is about. People need a reference to understand the situation and be aware of possible measures they can take to assure their own safety and reduce damages. Information to the general public has to be consistent with the information used by emergency services and has to be very clear about consequences and context of possible measures (as shelter in place or preventive evacuation. Emergency services should monitor how the public is responding to adapt their communication en operation during a crisis. Flood warnings and emergency services are often coordinated by different government organisations. This is an extra handicap for having consistent information out on time for people to use. In an information based society, where everyone has twitter, email and a camera, public organisations may have to trust the public more and send out the correct information as it comes in. In the Netherlands Rijkswaterstaat, the National Water Authority and the National Public Works Department, is responsible for or involved in forecasting in case of floods, policy studies on flood risk, policy studies on maintenance, assessment and design of flood defences, elaborating rules and regulations for flood defences, advice on crisis management to the national government and for maintaining the main infrastructure in the Netherlands (high ways and water ways. The Water Management Center in the Netherlands (WMCN has developed a number of models to provide flood forecasts. WMCN is run for and by all managers of flood defences and is hosted by

  8. 43. and 44. annual meeting of the Civil Defence Commission of the Federal Ministry of the Interior. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the conditions governing international safety call for a re-orientation in civil defence policy. The 23 papers presented to the meetings address aspects such as external hazards, including illicit trafficking with nuclear materials, novel risks emanating from the population growth rates, the international refugee problem, environmental issues, and new approaches in civil defence policy also encompassing emergency preparedness under the responsibility of the Laender. Futher topics discussed are proposals for improvement of first-aid medical care, or new approaches in concepts for risk identification and management as well as preventive action. (DG) [de

  9. NATO Guide for Judgement-Based Operational Analysis in Defence Decision Making : Analyst-Oriented Volume - Code of Best Practice for Soft Operational Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnmalen, D.J.D.; et al

    2012-01-01

    Judgment plays an important role in all Operational Analysis (OA). NATO practitioners have determined that approaches in OA that are based on human judgement are increasingly critical to defence decision making. The purpose of the NATO Guide for Judgement-Based OA in Defence Decision Making is to

  10. The mirror has two faces: dissociative identity disorder and the defence of pathological criminal incapacity--a South African criminal law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Dissociative identity disorder poses numerous medico legal issues whenever the insanity defence emerges. Within the context of the South African criminal law, the impact of dissociative identity disorder on criminal responsibility has only been addressed very briefly in one decided case. Various questions arise as to the impact that the distinctive diagnostic features of dissociative identity disorder could possibly have on the defence of pathological criminal incapacity, or better known as the insanity defence, within the ambit of the South African criminal law. In this contribution the author reflects on the mental disorder known as dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder, against the backdrop of the defence of pathological criminal incapacity. Reflections are also provided pertaining to the various medico legal issues at stake whenever this defence has to be adjudicated upon.

  11. SPECIAL TRAITS OF MANIFESTATION OF DEFENCIVE MECHANISMS DURING DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-ATTITUDE OF TEENAGERS FROM FULL AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Melojan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the problems of personality development of today’s teenagers pertaining to their self-attitude and psychological defence. It presents the results of a comparative analysis of self-attitude development specifics and manifestation of defence mechanisms in teenagers from full and single-parent families as well as special traits of interconnection of self-attitude main components and some types of psychological defence that are typical for them. Better well-being and greater disposition to approve of themselves has been revealed among those raised in full families as against a tendency to self-disparagement, besides the more intensive use of psychological defence, of their peers from single-parent families. It has been established that family structure defined by the principle “full” - “single-parent” is an important factor of self-attitude development and manifestation of psychological defence in teenagers.

  12. Partial demethylation of oligogalacturonides by pectin methyl esterase 1 is required for eliciting defence responses in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sonia; Castillejo, Cristina; Quesada, Miguel A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Brownsey, Geoff J; Suau, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2008-04-01

    In addition to the role of the cell wall as a physical barrier against pathogens, some of its constituents, such as pectin-derived oligogalacturonides (OGA), are essential components for elicitation of defence responses. To investigate how modifications of pectin alter defence responses, we expressed the fruit-specific Fragaria x ananassa pectin methyl esterase FaPE1 in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. Pectin from transgenic ripe fruits differed from the wild-type with regard to the degree and pattern of methyl esterification, as well as the average size of pectin polymers. Purified oligogalacturonides from the transgenic fruits showed a reduced degree of esterification compared to oligogalacturonides from wild-type fruits. This reduced esterification is necessary to elicit defence responses in strawberry. The transgenic F. vesca lines had constitutively activated pathogen defence responses, resulting in higher resistance to the necrotropic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Further studies in F. vesca and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the elicitation capacity of the oligogalacturonides is more specific than previously envisaged.

  13. Dutch police officers' preparation and performance of their arrest and self-defence skills: A questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and

  14. Police arrest and self-defence skills: Performance under anxiety of officers with and without additional experience in martial arts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Landman, H.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were

  15. Knowing your friends and foes--plant receptor-like kinases as initiators of symbiosis or defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Petutsching, Elena Kristin; Ried, Martina Katharina; Lipka, Volker; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Robatzek, Silke; Parniske, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The decision between defence and symbiosis signalling in plants involves alternative and modular plasma membrane-localized receptor complexes. A critical step in their activation is ligand-induced homo- or hetero-oligomerization of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)- and/or lysin motif (LysM) receptor-like kinases (RLKs). In defence signalling, receptor complexes form upon binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including the bacterial flagellin-derived peptide flg22, or chitin. Similar mechanisms are likely to operate during the perception of microbial symbiont-derived (lipo)-chitooligosaccharides. The structurally related chitin-oligomer ligands chitooctaose and chitotetraose trigger defence and symbiosis signalling, respectively, and their discrimination involves closely related, if not identical, LysM-RLKs. This illustrates the demand for and the challenges imposed on decision mechanisms that ensure appropriate signal initiation. Appropriate signalling critically depends on abundance and localization of RLKs at the cell surface. This is regulated by internalization, which also provides a mechanism for the removal of activated signalling RLKs. Abundance of the malectin-like domain (MLD)-LRR-RLK Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase (SYMRK) is additionally controlled by cleavage of its modular ectodomain, which generates a truncated and rapidly degraded RLK fragment. This review explores LRR- and LysM-mediated signalling, the involvement of MLD-LRR-RLKs in symbiosis and defence, and the role of endocytosis in RLK function. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Antagonism between salicylic and abscisic acid reflects early host-pathogen conflict and moulds plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Bennett, Mark H; Truman, William H; Grant, Murray R

    2009-08-01

    The importance of phytohormone balance is increasingly recognized as central to the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Recently it has been demonstrated that abscisic acid signalling pathways are utilized by the bacterial phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae to promote pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the dynamics, inter-relationship and impact of three key acidic phytohormones, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, and the bacterial virulence factor, coronatine, during progression of P. syringae infection of Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that levels of SA and ABA, but not JA, appear to play important early roles in determining the outcome of the infection process. SA is required in order to mount a full innate immune responses, while bacterial effectors act rapidly to activate ABA biosynthesis. ABA suppresses inducible innate immune responses by down-regulating SA biosynthesis and SA-mediated defences. Mutant analyses indicated that endogenous ABA levels represent an important reservoir that is necessary for effector suppression of plant-inducible innate defence responses and SA synthesis prior to subsequent pathogen-induced increases in ABA. Enhanced susceptibility due to loss of SA-mediated basal resistance is epistatically dominant over acquired resistance due to ABA deficiency, although ABA also contributes to symptom development. We conclude that pathogen-modulated ABA signalling rapidly antagonizes SA-mediated defences. We predict that hormonal perturbations, either induced or as a result of environmental stress, have a marked impact on pathological outcomes, and we provide a mechanistic basis for understanding priming events in plant defence.

  17. Damage-associated responses of the host contribute to defence against cyst nematodes but not root-knot nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, Syed Jehangir; Anjam, Muhammad Shahzad; Mendy, Badou; Anwer, Muhammad Arslan; Habash, Samer S.; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Grundler, Florian M.W.; Siddique, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    When nematodes invade and subsequently migrate within plant roots, they generate cell wall fragments (in the form of oligogalacturonides; OGs) that can act as damage-associated molecular patterns and activate host defence responses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating damage responses in

  18. Dutch police officers’ preparation and performance of their arrest and self-defence skills: A questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renden, P.G.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how Dutch police officers perceive their preparation for arrest and self-defence skills (ASDS) and their ability to manage violence on duty. Furthermore, we assessed whether additional experience (i.e., by having encountered violence on duty or by practicing martial arts) and

  19. Role of stress-related hormones in plant defence during early infection of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kammerhofer, N.; Radakovic, Z.; Regis, J.M.A.; Dobrev, Petre; Vaňková, Radomíra; Grundler, F.M.W.; Siddique, S.; Hofmann, J.; Wieczorek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 3 (2015), s. 778-789 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14120 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : defence responses * early infection * ethylene Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 7.210, year: 2015

  20. Alteration in expression of defence genes in Pisum sativum after exposure to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Alterations in the amounts of mRNA for different types of defence genes after exposure of peas to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation are demonstrated. The expression of the genes which encode the chalcone synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and glutathione reductase was induced, while a decrease was found for the chloroplastic radical-scavenging enzyme, superoxide dismutase. (author)

  1. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis immune-related MAPKs uncovers a role for MPK3 as negative regulator of inducible defences

    KAUST Repository

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Garcia, Ana; Bigeard, Jean; Zaag, Rim; Bueso, Eduardo; Garmier, Marie; Pateyron, Sté phanie; de Tauzia-Moreau, Marie-Ludivine; Brunaud, Vé ronique; Balzergue, Sandrine; Colcombet, Jean; Aubourg, Sé bastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    -induced genes and we identify a negative role for MPK3 in regulating defence gene expression, flg22-induced salicylic acid accumulation and disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Among the MAPK-dependent genes, 27% of flg22-upregulated genes and 76

  2. The EU as black widow; Devouring the WEU to give birth to a European Security and Defence Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, Ramses A.; Kronenberger, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    The Treaty of Nice will finally turn the European Union into a security and defence organisation. Alongside its tasks in all other areas the Union will be given the competence to strengthen its contribution to the maintenance of international peace and security in accordance with the UN Charter.

  3. Assessment of nature-based flood defences' implementation potential : development and application of a game theory based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.K.H.; Hermans, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Nature-based flood defence (NBFD) by means of vegetated foreshores is an innovative flood protection strategy. In contrasts with traditional hard structures it combines nature and flood protection functions and employs natural dynamics. Introducing such an innovation into actual flood protection

  4. Defence in depth in nuclear safety. INSAG-10. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present report deals with the concept of defence in depth in nuclear and radiation safety, discussing its objectives, strategy, implementation and future development. The report is intended for use by governmental authorities and by the nuclear industry and its supporting organizations. It is intended to stimulate discussion and to promote practical action at all levels to enhance safety. 6 refs, 1 tab

  5. Crosstalk between autophagy and inflammatory signalling pathways: balancing defence and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwell, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Autophagy has broad functions in immunity, ranging from cell-autonomous defence to coordination of complex multicellular immune responses. The successful resolution of infection and avoidance of autoimmunity necessitates efficient and timely communication between autophagy and pathways that sense the immune environment. The recent literature indicates that a variety of immune mediators induce or repress autophagy. It is also becoming increasingly clear that immune signalling cascades are subject to regulation by autophagy, and that a return to homeostasis following a robust immune response is critically dependent on this pathway. Importantly, examples of non-canonical forms of autophagy in mediating immunity are pervasive. In this article, the progress in elucidating mechanisms of crosstalk between autophagy and inflammatory signalling cascades is reviewed. Improved mechanistic understanding of the autophagy machinery offers hope for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  6. Aqueous extract from Vitis vinifera tendrils is able to enrich keratinocyte antioxidant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternale, Daniele; De Bellis, Roberta; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Potenza, Lucia; Cucchiarini, Luigi; Mancini, Umberto; Dachà, Marina; Ricci, Donata

    2011-09-01

    An aqueous extract of V. vinifera L. tendrils was evaluated for its ability to enrich the antioxidant capacity of cultured cells. The long-time antioxidant capability of the extract was measured by in vitro chemical methods, and its influence on reduced glutathione levels and plasma membrane oxido reductase activity was determined in cultured human keratinocytes (NCTC 2544). Keratinocytes are cells normally exposed to oxidative stress, and for this reason adequately equipped with antioxidant defences. However, it has long been suggested that exogenous antioxidants may play an important role in minimizing the adverse effects of oxidative stress on skin.We demonstrated that V. vinifera tendril aqueous extract was able to increase, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, the reduced glutathione concentration and activity of trans plasma membrane oxido reductase as an indirect evaluation of the intracellular redox status of the cells demonstrating a relevant antioxidant activity of this phytocomplex.

  7. M-ficolin, an innate immune defence molecule, binds patterns of acetyl groups and activates complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pernille Dorthea; Thiel, Steffen; Larsen, Claus Bindslev

    2005-01-01

    Ficolins play a role in the innate immune defence as pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition molecules. Three ficolins are found in humans: H-ficolin, L-ficolin and M-ficolin. L-ficolin and H-ficolin circulate in blood in complexes with mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases...... (MASPs) and are capable of activating the complement system. L-ficolin shows affinity for acetylated compounds and binds to various capsulated strains of bacteria. H-ficolin has been shown to bind Aerococcus viridans. Less is known about M-ficolin, but it is thought to be present only on monocytes. We...... system. We developed a monoclonal rat anti-human-M/L-ficolin antibody and verified by flow cytometric analysis the presence of ficolin on the surface of peripheral blood monocytes....

  8. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: interactions with organisms in the environment and cells of the immune defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena

    2008-01-01

    , which emphasises the urgent need for development of novel strategies that will help us to defeat this pathogen. P. aeruginosa biofilm cells display a multicellular-like coordinated behaviour and control expression of virulence factors, elements involved in biofilm development and immunomodulating...... factors by means of signal molecule mediated communication, known as quorum sensing. This thesis explores a strategy which aims to counteract P. aeruginosa virulence and pathogenicity by impeding its cell-to-cell communication. A treatment regime, which focuses on targeting bacterial communication instead......; two quorum sensing signal molecules; the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal and N-3-oxododecanoyl L-homoserine lactone exhibit the ability to modulate activities of the immune defence in addition to functioning as quorum sensing mediators. The two signal molecules impair activities of immune cells crucial...

  9. Radioisotope implantation with a new facility at the Australian Defence Force Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, S.K.; Chaplin, D.H.; Edge, A.V.J.; Hutchison, W.D.; Timmers, H.; Byrne, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    A 50 - 155 keV ion implanter is being developed on the campus of the University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy for the implantation of radioisotopes as part of a UNSW/ANU collaboration. The facility employs a versatile SNICS II negative ion source. Commissioning tests have shown the facility to efficiently produce, mass-select, and transport negative ion beams of various stable isotopes. The mass resolution has been demonstrated to be better than 1 amu and the implantation of stable isotopes was verified with Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) analysis. Recently, the first implantation of radioactive 111 In has been performed successfully. The routine implantation of this and other radioisotopes is envisaged to support analytical techniques in the material sciences, such as Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Oriented Nuclei (NMRON), and to possibly study the controlled activation of medical implants and the diffusion of radioisotopes in materials

  10. Successes and Shortfalls of European Union Common Security and Defence Policy Missions in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Kammel, Arnold; Nervanto, Elisa

    This brief synthesises the IECEU project’s most essential findings on the effectiveness of European Union (EU) missions in four Africa countries: Libya, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Central African Republic (CAR). It describes the main elements and impact...... and context. However, the EU missions presented in this brief share the main characteristic that they have all been deployed under the union’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP)2 with the explicit intent of improving the overall security situation and addressing conflicts in Africa. This brief...... will start by providing a short overview of each case, describing the conflict(s), security situation, mission objectives and obstacles. In this way, it compares the overall effectiveness of EU operational conflict prevention across the four African countries and discusses what lessons can be learned from...

  11. Defence in Depth by Design for the Advanced GIII NPP in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X., E-mail: liusongtao.npic@gmail.com [Science and Technology on Reactor System Design Technology Laboratory Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-10-15

    This paper describes the design of the advanced nuclear power plant ACP1000 in China that keeps the principle of defence in depth. To enhance the safety of the new generation NPPs, passive and active engineering safety features are used. The reactor will be kept safe under design basis accidents by using active engineering safety features, such as the medium and low pressure safety injection systems, and the emergency feedwater system. Under beyond DBAs, the passive safety systems will be actuated to keep removing residual heat for more than 72 hours, and to keep the core melt retained and cooled in the vessel. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, there are six main design enhancements in ACP1000 to meet the demands of the China authorities. (author)

  12. A Not-So-Gentle Refutation of the Defence of Homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Jakub; Olender, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    In a recent paper, Levy, Gadd, Kerridge, and Komesaroff attempt to defend the ethicality of homeopathy by attacking the utilitarian ethical framework as a basis for medical ethics and by introducing a distinction between evidence-based medicine and modern science. This paper demonstrates that their argumentation is not only insufficient to achieve that goal but also incorrect. Utilitarianism is not required to show that homeopathic practice is unethical; indeed, any normative basis of medical ethics will make it unethical, as a defence of homeopathic practice requires the rejection of modern natural sciences, which are an integral part of medical ethics systems. This paper also points out that evidence-based medicine lies at the very core of modern science. Particular arguments made by Levy et al. within the principlist medical ethics normative system are also shown to be wrong.

  13. Iceland and the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy: Challenge or Opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Iceland had initial misgivings about the EU’s capacity created in 1999 for military crisis management. In the current debate over Iceland’s EU application, questions have been raised about the possible impact of CSDP on the nation’s non-military status. In fact the CSDP is designed to respect national choices in defence; requires unanimity on new actions; and allows case-by-case decisions on participation. Preliminary study of six other small states in the EU suggests that none of them has been obliged by membership to abandon national preferences in this field, though all have made special efforts to support EU police and civilian operations - an area where Iceland is also well qualified to contribute. The more significant effects of EU membership for Icelandic security might in fact come in other, ‘softer’ areas including EU obligations for mutual assistance in civil emergencies.

  14. Project Swiftsure final report: Destruction of chemical agent waste at Defence Research Establishment Suffield. Special publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAndless, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    Project Swiftsure describes a three-year project at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield to safely destroy stockpiles of mustard lewisite, nerve agents and decontaminate scrap material which was stored on the DRES Experimental Proving Ground. Using both in-house and contracted resources, the agent waste was destroyed by chemical neutralization or incineration. With the exception of the arsenic byproducts from the lewisite neutralization process, all secondary waste generated by chemical neutralization was incinerated. Mustard in different forms was thermally destroyed using a transportable incinerator of commercial design. Extensive environmental monitoring and public consultation programs were conducted during the project. Results of the monitoring programs verified that the chemical warfare agents were destroyed in a safe, environmentally-responsible manner. jg p.329.

  15. Multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapiński, Daniel; Krzysztofik, Izabela; Koruba, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a novel method for tracking several air targets simultaneously. The developed concept concerns a multi-channel, passive, short-range anti-aircraft defence system based on the programmed selection of air targets and an algorithm of simultaneous synchronisation of several modified optical scanning seekers. The above system is supposed to facilitate simultaneous firing of several self-guided infrared rocket missiles at many different air targets. From the available information, it appears that, currently, there are no passive self-guided seekers that fulfil such tasks. This paper contains theoretical discussions and simulations of simultaneous detection and tracking of many air targets by mutually integrated seekers of several rocket missiles. The results of computer simulation research have been presented in a graphical form.

  16. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Ortega

    Full Text Available The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress.

  17. The health and cost implications of high body mass index in Australian defence force personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peake Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent illness and injury among workers with high body mass index (BMI can raise the costs of employee healthcare and reduce workforce maintenance and productivity. These issues are particularly important in vocational settings such as the military, which require good physical health, regular attendance and teamwork to operate efficiently. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage and administrative outcomes among Australian Defence Force personnel with varying BMI. Methods Personnel were grouped into cohorts according to the following ranges for (BMI: normal (18.5 − 24.9 kg/m2; n = 197, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2; n = 154 and obese (≥30 kg/m2 with restricted body fat (≤28% for females, ≤24% for males (n = 148 and with no restriction on body fat (n = 180. Medical records for each individual were audited retrospectively to record the incidence of injury and illness, absenteeism, productivity, healthcare usage (i.e., consultation with medical specialists, hospital stays, medical investigations, prescriptions and administrative outcomes (e.g., discharge from service over one year. These data were then grouped and compared between the cohorts. Results The prevalence of injury and illness, cost of medical specialist consultations and cost of medical scans were all higher (p  Conclusions High BMI in the military increases healthcare usage, but does not disrupt workforce maintenance. The greater prevalence of injury and illness, greater healthcare usage and lower productivity in obese Australian Defence Force personnel is not related to higher levels of body fat.

  18. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  19. Too hard to swallow: a secret secondary defence of an aposematic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Yi; Huang, Wen-San; Tang, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Lung-Chun; Lin, Chung-Ping

    2018-01-25

    Anti-predator strategies are significant components of adaptation in prey species. Aposematic prey are expected to possess effective defences that have evolved simultaneously with their warning colours. This study tested the hypothesis of the defensive function and ecological significance of the hard body in aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils pioneered by Alfred Russel Wallace nearly 150 years ago. We used predation trials with Japalura tree lizards to assess the survivorship of 'hard' (mature) versus 'soft' (teneral) and 'clawed' (intact) versus 'clawless' (surgically removed) weevils. The ecological significance of the weevil's hard body was evaluated by assessing the hardness of the weevils, the local prey insects, and the bite forces of the lizard populations. The existence of toxins or deterrents in the weevil was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 'hard' weevils were instantly spat out after being bitten once and survived attacks by the lizards. In contrast, the 'soft' weevils were chewed and subsequently swallowed. The results were the same regardless of the presence or absence of the weevil's tarsal claws. The hardness of 'hard' Pachyrhynchus weevils was significantly higher than the average hardness of other prey insects in the same habitat and the mean bite forces of the local lizards. The four candidate compounds of the weevil identified by GC-MS had no known toxic or repellent functions against vertebrates. These results reveal that the hardness of aposematic prey functions as an effective secondary defence, and they provide a framework for understanding the spatio-temporal interactions between vertebrate predators and aposematic insect prey. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. From grey to green: Efficacy of eco-engineering solutions for nature-based coastal defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca L; Konlechner, Teresa M; Ghisalberti, Marco; Swearer, Stephen E

    2018-05-01

    Climate change is increasing the threat of erosion and flooding along coastlines globally. Engineering solutions (e.g. seawalls and breakwaters) in response to protecting coastal communities and associated infrastructure are increasingly becoming economically and ecologically unsustainable. This has led to recommendations to create or restore natural habitats, such as sand dunes, saltmarsh, mangroves, seagrass and kelp beds, and coral and shellfish reefs, to provide coastal protection in place of (or to complement) artificial structures. Coastal managers are frequently faced with the problem of an eroding coastline, which requires a decision on what mitigation options are most appropriate to implement. A barrier to uptake of nature-based coastal defence is stringent evaluation of the effectiveness in comparison to artificial protection structures. Here, we assess the current evidence for the efficacy of nature-based vs. artificial coastal protection and discuss future research needs. Future projects should evaluate habitats created or restored for coastal defence for cost-effectiveness in comparison to an artificial structure under the same environmental conditions. Cost-benefit analyses should take into consideration all ecosystem services provided by nature-based or artificial structures in addition to coastal protection. Interdisciplinary research among scientists, coastal managers and engineers is required to facilitate the experimental trials needed to test the value of these shoreline protection schemes, in order to support their use as alternatives to artificial structures. This research needs to happen now as our rapidly changing climate requires new and innovative solutions to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities to an increasingly uncertain future. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 107 conidia/mL. The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent. The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%–47% and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%–63%. Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD. Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse, signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein, signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein, was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms.

  2. IAEA safety fundamentals: the safety of nuclear installations and the defence in depth concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aro, I.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation is a replica of the similar presentation provided by the IAEA Basic Professional Training Course on Nuclear Safety. The presentation utilizes the IAEA Safety Series document No. 110, Safety Fundamentals: the Safety of Nuclear Installations. The objective of the presentation is to provide the basic rationale for actions in provision of nuclear safety. The presentation also provides basis to understand national nuclear safety requirements. There are three Safety Fundamentals documents in the IAEA Safety Series: one for nuclear safety, one for radiation safety and one for waste safety. The IAEA is currently revising its Safety Fundamentals by combining them into one general Safety Fundamentals document. The IAEA Safety Fundamentals are not binding requirements to the Member States. But, a very similar text has been provided in the Convention on Nuclear Safety which is legally binding for the Member State after ratification by the Parliament. This presentation concentrates on nuclear safety. The Safety Fundamentals documents are the 'policy documents' of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. They state the basic objectives, concepts and principles involved in ensuring protection and safety in the development and application of atomic energy for peaceful purposes. They will state - without providing technical details and without going into the application of principles - the rationale for actions necessary in meeting Safety Requirements. Chapter 7 of this presentation describes the basic features of defence in depth concept which is referred to in the Safety Fundamentals document. The defence in depth concept is a key issue in reaching high level of safety specifically at the design stage but as the reader can see the extended concept also refers to the operational stage. The appendix has been taken directly from the IAEA Basic Professional Training Course on Nuclear Safety and applied to the Finnish conditions. The text originates from the references

  3. Gastric mucosal defence mechanism during stress of pyloric obstruction in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K; Ganguly, A K

    1987-04-01

    1. The integrity of the gastric mucosa and its ability to secrete mucus are believed to be essential for protection of gastric mucosa against ulceration induced by aggressive factors active in any stress situation. This study involves a three-compartmental analysis of gastric mucosal barrier in pylorus-ligated albino rats. 2. Quantitative analyses of histologically identifiable gastric mucosal epithelial neutral glycoproteins and gastric adherent mucus from oxyntic and pyloric gland areas, and components of non-dialysable mucosubstances in gastric secretion were made under stress of pyloric obstruction for 4, 8, and 16 h durations. Epithelial mucin was identified by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining technique and assessed from the ratio of gastric mucosal thickness to the depth of PAS positive materials in it. The remaining visible mucus adhered to the gastric mucosa was estimated by Alcian blue binding technique. The results were compared with that of identical control groups. 3. A significant reduction in mucosal epithelial PAS positive materials after 8 or 16 h of pylorus ligation was observed. 4. The Alcian blue binding capacity of the pyloric gland area was increased significantly after 4 h of pylorus ligation, while after 8 or 16 h it was reduced in both oxyntic and pyloric gland areas. 5. Significant reductions in the rate of gastric secretion and volume, as well as concentration of the components of non-dialysable mucosubstances, were observed, indicating decreased synthesis of mucus glycoproteins. 6. Disruption of the mucosal barrier may have occurred due to decreased mucus synthesis and acid-pepsin accumulation; both could be due to stress associated with gastric distension. 7. The present findings confirm the role of mucus in protecting the underlying gastric epithelium during stress. The adherent mucus offers a first line of defence and epithelial mucus a second line of defence.

  4. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. ‘His home is his castle. And mine is a cage’: a new partial defence for primary victims who kill

    OpenAIRE

    Wake, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the Crimes Amendment (Abolition of Defensive Homicide) Act 2014 which had the effect of repealing Victoria’s only general ‘partial defence’ of defensive homicide, and replaced the existing statutory self-defence in murder/manslaughter provisions and general common law self- defence rules with a single test. The abolition of defensive homicide means there is now no general ‘partial defence’ to accommodate cases falling short of self-defence. The ch...

  6. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahomed Waheed

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR. Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowledge underpinning our understanding of defence strategies against the pathogen. In order to initiate a better understanding of host-specific defence we have generated EST data using 454 pyrosequencing and profiled nine defence-related genes from Pc-infected avocado roots. Results 2.0 Mb of data was generated consisting of ~10,000 reads on a single lane of the GS FLX platform. Using the Newbler assembler 371 contigs were assembled, of which 367 are novel for Persea americana. Genes were classified according to Gene Ontology terms. In addition to identifying root-specific ESTs we were also able to identify and quantify the expression of nine defence-related genes that were differentially regulated in response to P. cinnamomi. Genes such as metallothionein, thaumatin and the pathogenesis related PsemI, mlo and profilin were found to be differentially regulated. Conclusions This is the first study in elucidating the avocado root transcriptome as well as identifying defence responses of avocado roots to the root pathogen P. cinnamomi. Our data is currently the only EST data that has been generated for avocado rootstocks, and the ESTs identified in this study have already been useful in identifying defence-related genes as well as providing gene information for other studies looking at processes such as ROS regulation as well as hypoxia in avocado roots. Our EST data will aid in the elucidation of the avocado transcriptome and identification of markers for improved

  7. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Mutyambai

    C. sesamiae parasitic wasps indicated that these parasitoids preferred volatiles from oviposited and neighbouring landrace plants compared to those from the control plants. This effect was absent in the standard commercial hybrid we tested. There was no HIPV induction and no difference in parasitoid attraction in neighbouring and control hybrid maize plants. These results show plant-plant signalling: 'Nyamula' maize plants emitting oviposition-induced volatiles attractive to the herbivore's natural enemies can induce this indirect defence trait in conspecific neighbouring undamaged maize plants. Maize plants growing in a field may thus benefit from this indirect defence through airborne signalling which may enhance the fitness of the volatile-emitting plant by increasing predation pressure on herbivores.

  8. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Van Wees, Saskia C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185445373

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the

  9. Brothers in arms or peace? The media representation of Swedish and Norwegian defence- and military co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Arne Nohrstedt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relevance of Johan Galtung's model for peace journalism and critical discourse analysis (CDA in light of the media coverage of Swedish and Norwegian defence cooperation. By analysing the proposal for closer military cooperation between the Nato-member Norway and the non-aligned Sweden the article emphasises the paradox that the fact that both Sweden and Norway have forces fighting in Afghanistan was not mentioned when the heads of the Norwegian and Swedish Defence in a joint article justified the need for a closer cooperation between the two countries. Thus this analysis illustrates some limitations of the peace journalism perspective and the necessity to take a contextual approach in which also the possibility of "peace talk" being part of a war discourse is considered.

  10. An interpretation of the settlement and defences of the Otatara-Hikurangi pa complex, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Walton, T.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the amorphous appearance of Hikurangi, one of New Zealand's largest pa, it is possible to draw conclusions about the defensive character of the place and its neighbour Otatara. Detailed study of vertical aerial photographs reveals potential defensive lines, which have to be interpreted in the light of the overall topography of the place. The defence of Otatara-Hikurangi relied largely on natural features, on controlling high ground, and on the speedy interior movement by defenders from one area to another as required. Fixed defences, including scarps, were a small part of the mix. Otatara-Hikurangi was an important centre in late prehistory and could probably muster large numbers of defenders. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  11. The almost invisible league: crypsis and association between minute fishes and shrimps as a possible defence against visually hunting predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    Full Text Available Camouflage is one of the most widespread defence modes used by substrate-dwelling animals, whereas transparency is generally found in open-water organisms. Both these defence types are regarded as effective against visually guided predators. We present here three assemblages of similarly-sized freshwater fish and shrimp species which apparently rely on camouflage and transparency to evade some of their potential predators. In one of the associations, there is a transition from cryptic colours and translucency to transparency of the component species according to the position each of them occupies in the habitat. The likeness between the fishes and the shrimps is here regarded as a type of protective association similar to numerical or social mimicry. Additionally, we suggest that the assemblage may contain Batesian-like mimicry components.

  12. Audit of annual medical appraisal and revalidation activity across the UK Defence Medical Services 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Louisa E; Withnall, Rdj

    2017-02-01

    To provide the first annual audit of Defence Medical Services (DMS) medical appraisal and revalidation activity. A questionnaire-based survey of appraisal and revalidation activity within the 2013-2014 appraisal year (1 April 2013 - 1 March 2014) across the Royal Navy (RN), Army, Royal Air Force (RAF) and Ministry of Defence (MOD) and Defence Postgraduate Medical Deanery (DPMD) Designated Bodies (DBs). Mandatory annual medical appraisal of all DMS doctors was introduced in 2002. The General Medical Council (GMC) introduced licences to practise in November 2011. Revalidation went live in December 2012. In the 2013-2014 appraisal year, there were 1379 DMS doctors. The Responsible Officers (ROs) of the RN, Army, RAF, MOD and Defence Postgraduate Medical Deanery (DPMD) provide appraisal and revalidation services for doctors within their DBs. In the 2013-2014 appraisal year, 82% of DMS doctors completed an annual appraisal. ROs provided positive revalidation recommendations for 90% of DMS doctors without the need for additional supporting information. Additional supporting evidence was required for 10% of DMS trained doctors, but ultimately 100% of DMS doctors due revalidation in the 2013-2014 appraisal year received a positive recommendation. To assist DMS compliance with GMC quality assurance requirements, HQ Surgeon General now maintains a central database of appraisal and revalidation data across the five DMS DBs. Appropriately targeted appraiser training and 'revalidation ready top-up' training should be provided to ensure the demand for military appraisers is met, and that DMS appraisers appropriately maintain their skills. MOD now maintains a central live database for ongoing appraisal and revalidation monitoring. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Operational risk and the three lines of defence in the UK financial institutions: Is three really the magic number?

    OpenAIRE

    Mabwee, K.; Ring, P.; Webb, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the need for financial services firms to develop and implement robust systems and structures for managing operational risk. While there now appears to be some consensus in terms of definitions, quantification and modelling, firms are struggling with the qualitative side of operational risk management, particularly in relation to financial institutions’ operational risk governance, where the three-lines of defence model has become standardised. At the same ti...

  14. An Overview of Seasonal Changes in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defence Parameters in Some Invertebrate and Vertebrate Species

    OpenAIRE

    Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda; Paital, Biswaranjan; Dandapat, Jagneswar

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant defence system, a highly conserved biochemical mechanism, protects organisms from harmful effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of metabolism. Both invertebrates and vertebrates are unable to modify environmental physical factors such as photoperiod, temperature, salinity, humidity, oxygen content, and food availability as per their requirement. Therefore, they have evolved mechanisms to modulate their metabolic pathways to cope their physiology with changing envi...

  15. Geometric and frequency EMI sounding of estuarine earthen flood defence embankments in Ireland using 1D inversion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganotti, Matteo; Jackson, Ruth; Krahn, Hartmut; Dyer, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Earthen flood defence embankments are linear structures, raised above the flood plain, that are commonly used as flood defences in rural settings; these are often relatively old structures constructed using locally garnered material and of which little is known in terms of design and construction. Alarmingly, it is generally reported that a number of urban developments have expanded to previously rural areas; hence, acquiring knowledge about the flood defences protecting these areas has risen significantly in the agendas of basin and asset managers. This paper focusses, by reporting two case studies, on electromagnetic induction (EMI) methods that would efficiently complement routine visual inspections and would represent a first step to more detailed investigations. Evaluation of the results is presented by comparison with ERT profiles and intrusive investigation data. The EM data, acquired using a GEM-2 apparatus for frequency sounding and an EM-31 apparatus for geometrical sounding, has been handled using the prototype eGMS software tool, being developed by the eGMS international research consortium; the depth sounding data interpretation was assisted by 1D inversions obtained with the EM1DFM software developed by the University of British Columbia. Although both sounding methods showed some limitations, the models obtained were consistent with ERT models and the techniques were useful screening methods for the identification of areas of interest, such as material interfaces or potential seepage areas, within the embankment structure: 1D modelling improved the rapid assessment of earthen flood defence embankments in an estuarine environment; evidence that EMI sounding could play an important role as a monitoring tool or as a first step towards more detailed investigations.

  16. Influences on the Consumption of Australian Ration Packs: Review of a Contextual Model and Application to Australian Defence Force Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Australian Defence Force Data Executive Summary It might be assumed that soldiers will consume sufficient food to match their energy...and custard, porridge and mashed potato were all liked. Items of moderate acceptability were main meals, choc chip dessert, rice, bread and scones...fruits, sugar, biscuits, muesli bars, choc /energy bars, and beverage powders) and soldiers chose one or more from each category depending on which

  17. NEA’S Plans for Strengthening International Implementation of the Application of Defence in Depth Philosophies in Nuclear Power Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundell, N., E-mail: Neil.BLUNDELL@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Division, OECD NEA, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Following the Fukushima Daiichi Accident the OECD NEA established and delivered three tasks related to Defence in Depth for its member states. These consisted of: • A review of member state and NEA activities directly related to the accident by the Fukushima Senior Task Group set up by the OECD NEA Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA). • An international expert review of the NEA’s wide ranging joint nuclear safety research portfolio. • A joint workshop on ‘Challenges and Enhancements to Defence in Depth (DiD) in light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident’ on 5th June 2013 by both the OECD NEA Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) and Committee for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI). These tasks encompassed firstly, how the NEA member states understand the concept of DiD and its value within Nuclear Safety. Secondly, how DiD is implemented at present, focussing on how it is implemented to deal with external events, and finally what future areas the NEA members considered NEA as a whole should be carrying forward to enhance the understanding and implementation of Defence-in-Depth. Such areas included: • Exploring what the DiD safety goal concept ”practically eliminate large and early offsite releases” means and how is it implemented. • Independence and margins in the implementation of DiD. • Human interventions considering catastrophic external events effects on emergency response and recovery. • Detailed identification of additional safety research after Fukushima. This presentation provides a summary of those tasks and NEA’s international programme of activities to bring its members together in those areas they highlighted to deliver enhancement in the understanding and implementation of defence in depth. (author)

  18. Defence Chemistry Modulation by Light and Temperature Shifts and the Resulting Effects on Associated Epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B.; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds - dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline – were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C. PMID:25360717

  19. Nest defence in a cuckoo host: great reed warblers risk themselves equally for their own and parasitic chicks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Procházka, Petr; Šicha, Václav; Požgayová, Milica

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 147, 5-6 (2010), s. 741-756 ISSN 0005-7959 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : brood parasitism * chick discrimination * cuckoo * mobbing * nest defence * nestlingnestling recognition * parental investment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2010

  20. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  1. Defence chemistry modulation by light and temperature shifts and the resulting effects on associated epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Saha

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were (1 to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against epibacteria in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2 to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%, respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds--dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP, fucoxanthin and proline--were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.

  2. The association between self-image and defence mechanisms in a group of adolescent patients receiving psychiatric treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Treger; Feliks Matusiak; Maciej Pilecki; Monika Rogoż

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between various areas of self-image and defence mechanisms in adolescents. The study included a division into groups according to whether or not they were receiving psychiatric treatment. Methods Data were obtained from two groups: a clinical group (30 persons), consisting of adolescent patients of the Adolescent Inpatient Ward of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic and a control group (40 persons), adolescents a...

  3. The role of space in the security and defence policy of Turkey. A change in outlook: Security in space versus security from space

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan, C.; Kale, I.

    2017-01-01

    Space and security domains are strongly related with each other. Nowadays, space is an indispensable part of security and defence policy, and it is increasingly becoming a critical infrastructure for strategic Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. However, space is vulnerable itself to the new space threats. This study reviews the current and near future space role in Turkey's security and defence policy and aims to address...

  4. Preparation of a Natural Product Extract Library for Investigation Against Disease States Specific to Defence Health: A Mini Long Range Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    drug leads from Australian biota. He joined DSTO in 2006 as a Defence Scientist in Analysis and Verification, where he is applying his background in...a Forensic Science degree at Deakin University (Waurn Ponds) in 2006. She joined DSTO in 2007 where she works as a Defence Scientist in Analysis and...the polyphenolic compounds (such as tannins ), which are interference compounds in certain biological assays and lead to false positive results. The

  5. Towards a transformed defence industry that contributes to the growth of the South African economy. Based on research performed by Johan Strydom

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, Erlank

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IfM Education and Consultancy Services 13 Why public investment in RTOs is justified MARKET FAILURES ADDRESSED BY RTOs Source: Introduction to Technology & Innovation Management Strategy and Policy University of Cambridge... vision for the RSA defence industry • A proposed strategy for realising the vision • Exciting opportunites and initiatives • The way forward 3 Defence budget Source: Briefing on Draft Def Ind Strategy Helmoed Römer Heitman...

  6. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Evading plant defence: Infestation of poisonous milkweed fruits (Asclepiadaceae) by the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Wunder, Cora; Reuss, Esther; Toennes, Stefan W; Mebs, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To cope with toxic metabolites plants use for defence, herbivorous insects employ various adaptive strategies. For oviposition, the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Tephritidae) uses milkweed plants of the genus Gomphocarpus (Asclepiadaceae) by circumventing the plant's physical (gluey latex) and chemical (toxic cadenolides) defence. With its long, telescope-like ovipositor, the fly penetrates the exo- and endocarp of the fruit and places the eggs on the unripe seeds located in the centre of the fruit. Whereas most plant parts contain high concentrations of cardenolides such as gomphoside, calotropin/calacatin and gomphogenin, only the seeds exhibit low cardenolide levels. By surmounting physical barriers (fruit membranes, latex), the fly secures a safe environment and a latex-free food source of low toxicity for the developing larvae. One amino acid substitution (Q111V) at the cardenolide binding site of the fly's Na + , K + -ATPase was detected, but the significance of that substitution: reducing cardenolide sensitivity or not, is unclear. However, poisoning of the larvae by low levels of cardenolides is assumed to be prevented by non-resorption and excretion of the polar cardenolides, which cannot passively permeate the midgut membrane. This example of an insect-plant interaction demonstrates that by morphological and behavioural adaptation, a fruit fly manages to overcome even highly effective defence mechanisms of its host plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Police arrest and self-defence skills: performance under anxiety of officers with and without additional experience in martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renden, Peter G; Landman, Annemarie; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether officers with additional martial arts training experience performed better in arrest and self-defence scenarios under low and high anxiety and were better able to maintain performance under high anxiety than officers who just rely on regular police training. We were especially interested to find out whether training once a week would already lead to better performance under high anxiety. Officers with additional experience in kickboxing or karate/jiu-jitsu (training several times per week), or krav maga (training once a week) and officers with no additional experience performed several arrest and self-defence skills under low and high anxiety. Results showed that officers with additional experience (also those who trained once a week) performed better under high anxiety than officers with no additional experience. Still, the additional experience did not prevent these participants from performing worse under high anxiety compared to low anxiety. Implications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: Dutch police officers train their arrest and self-defence skills only four to six hours per year. Our results indicate that doing an additional martial arts training once a week may lead to better performance under anxiety, although it cannot prevent that performance decreases under high anxiety compared to low anxiety.

  9. Interaction between the moss Physcomitrella patens and Phytophthora: a novel pathosystem for live-cell imaging of subcellular defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdijk, Elysa J R; DE Keijzer, Jeroen; DE Groot, Deborah; Schoina, Charikleia; Bouwmeester, Klaas; Ketelaar, Tijs; Govers, Francine

    2016-08-01

    Live-cell imaging of plant-pathogen interactions is often hampered by the tissue complexity and multicell layered nature of the host. Here, we established a novel pathosystem with the moss Physcomitrella patens as host for Phytophthora. The tip-growing protonema cells of this moss are ideal for visualizing interactions with the pathogen over time using high-resolution microscopy. We tested four Phytophthora species for their ability to infect P. patens and showed that P. sojae and P. palmivora were only rarely capable to infect P. patens. In contrast, P. infestans and P. capsici frequently and successfully penetrated moss protonemal cells, showed intracellular hyphal growth and formed sporangia. Next to these successful invasions, many penetration attempts failed. Here the pathogen was blocked by a barrier of cell wall material deposited in papilla-like structures, a defence response that is common in higher plants. Another common response is the upregulation of defence-related genes upon infection and also in moss we observed this upregulation in tissues infected with Phytophthora. For more advanced analyses of the novel pathosystem we developed a special set-up that allowed live-cell imaging of subcellular defence processes by high-resolution microscopy. With this set-up, we revealed that Phytophthora infection of moss induces repositioning of the nucleus, accumulation of cytoplasm and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, but not of microtubules. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Disruption of the ammonium transporter AMT1.1 alters basal defences generating resistance against Pseudomonas syringae and Plectosphaerella cucumerina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria ePastor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of the high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1 activates the priming defence against Pseudomonas syringae, resulting in enhanced resistance. In this study, it is demonstrated that the high-affinity ammonium transporter AMT1.1 is a negative regulator of Arabidopsis defence responses. The T-DNA knockout mutant amt1.1 displays enhanced resistance against Plectosphaerella cucumerina and reduced susceptibility to P. syringae. The impairment of AMT1.1 induces significant metabolic changes in the absence of challenge, suggesting that amt1.1 retains constitutive defence responses. Interestingly, amt1.1 combats pathogens differently depending on the lifestyle of the pathogen. In addition, N starvation enhances the susceptibility of wild type plants and the mutant amt1.1 to P. syringae whereas it has no effect on P. cucumerina resistance. The metabolic changes of amt1.1 against P. syringae are subtler and are restricted to the phenylpropanoid pathway, which correlates with its reduced susceptibility. By contrast, the amt1.1 mutant responds by activating higher levels of camalexin and callose against P. cucumerina. In addition, amt1.1 shows altered levels of aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates and other Trp-related compounds following infection by the necrotroph. These observations indicate that AMT1.1 may play additional roles that affect N uptake and plant immune responses.

  11. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C L; Adikaram, N K B; Wanigasekara, U W N P; Bandara, B M R

    2013-03-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  12. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Abayasekara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL activity and cell wall lignification. ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.

  13. Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv ‘Embul’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayasekara, C. L.; Adikaram, N. K. B.; Wanigasekara, U. W. N. P.; Bandara, B. M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar ‘Embul’ (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification. 1H and 13C NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4′-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana. PMID:25288931

  14. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Pierre; Daniel, Grégory; Viblanc, Vincent A; Martin, Julien G A; Doligez, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits. We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence (i.e. risk taking) behaviour at both the phenotypic and genetic level. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Variation in the effectiveness of biotic defence: the case of an opportunistic ant-plant protection mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Bruno; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Dounias, Edmond; McKey, Doyle B

    2001-11-01

    Benefits to plants in facultative ant protection mutualisms are highly variable. This allows examination of the sources of this variation and the mechanisms by which ants protect plants. We studied opportunistic interactions between ants and an extrafloral nectary-bearing vine, Dioscorea praehensilis, during 3 different years. Variation in plant protection among years was striking. Several factors affected the effectiveness of the biotic defence. Stems recently emerged from the underground tuber were self-supporting, contacting no other plants and encountering few foraging ants. Stems then became lianescent, and contact with supporting plants greatly increased ant recruitment. Both species and number of ant workers influenced the effect of ants on the major herbivore, the chrysomelid beetle Lilioceris latipennis. Protective actions included limitation of oviposition (reduction in the number of eggs laid on the plant) and predation, leading to increased larval mortality. The probability of successful predation was strongly dependent on larval size. If temporarily low ant-patrolling activity allows larvae to grow beyond a critical size, their mechanical (thick integument) or chemical (plant-derived compounds in a fecal shield) defences become more effective against ants. Secondary metabolites derived from the host plant thus appear to be important for the anti-predator mechanisms of this beetle, being necessary for its survival and reproduction on a host plant that actively recruits ants as a biotic defence against herbivores.

  16. Can Plant Defence Mechanisms Provide New Approaches for the Sustainable Control of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blas Agut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous mite which causes economic losses in both agricultural and ornamental plants. Some traits of T. urticae hamper its management, including a short life cycle, arrhenotokous parthenogenesis, its haplodiploid sex determination system, and its extraordinary ability to adapt to different hosts and environmental conditions. Currently, the use of chemical and biological control are the major control methods used against this mite. In recent years, some studies have focused on plant defence mechanisms against herbivores. Various families of plant compounds (such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, or acyl sugars have been shown to behave as acaricides. Plants can be induced upon appropriate stimuli to increase their resistance against spider mites. This knowledge, together with the understanding of mechanisms by which T. urticae detoxifies and adapts to pesticides, may complement the control of this pest. Herein, we describe plant volatile compounds (VOCs with repellent activity, and new findings about defence priming against spider mites, which interfere with the T. urticae performance. The use of VOCs and defence priming can be integrated into current management practices and reduce the damage caused by T. urticae in the field by implementing new, more sustainable crop management tools.

  17. Role of the Regulatory Body in Implementing Defence in Depth in Nuclear Installations - Regulatory Oversight in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sheikh, B. M., E-mail: badawymel@yahoo.com [Egyptian Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that nuclear facilities are operated at all times in an acceptably safe manner including the safe conduct of decommissioning activities. Defence in depth is recognized as one of the fundamental safety principles that underlie the safety of nuclear power plants. Defence in depth is implemented to provide a graded protection against a wide variety of transients, incidents and accidents, including equipment failures and human errors within nuclear power plants and events initiated outside plants. The Regulator Body plays an important role in implementing defence in depth in nuclear installations in the context of a clear allocation of responsibilities with an operating organization. This role starting with setting safety objectives and by its own independent review and technical assessment of the safety justifications provided by the operating organization in addition to safety culture investigating within relevant organizations. This paper briefly reviews this role in normal operation and post accidents, and its effects on overall nuclear safety in nuclear installations with reference to Egyptian regulatory oversight. (author)

  18. The role of web sharing, species recognition and host-plant defence in interspecific competition between two herbivorous mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Alba, Juan M; Egas, Martijn; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2016-11-01

    When competing with indigenous species, invasive species face a problem, because they typically start with a few colonizers. Evidently, some species succeeded, begging an answer to the question how they invade. Here, we investigate how the invasive spider mite Tetranychus evansi interacts with the indigenous species T. urticae when sharing the solanaceous host plant tomato: do they choose to live together or to avoid each other's colonies? Both species spin protective, silken webs on the leaf surfaces, under which they live in groups of con- and possibly heterospecifics. In Spain, T. evansi invaded the non-crop field where native Tetranychus species including T. urticae dominated. Moreover, T. evansi outcompetes T. urticae when released together on a tomato plant. However, molecular plant studies suggest that T. urticae benefits from the local down-regulation of tomato plant defences by T. evansi, whereas T. evansi suffers from the induction of these defences by T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesize that T. evansi avoids leaves infested with T. urticae whereas T. urticae prefers leaves infested by T. evansi. Using wild-type tomato and a mutant lacking jasmonate-mediated anti-herbivore defences, we tested the hypothesis and found that T. evansi avoided sharing webs with T. urticae in favour of a web with conspecifics, whereas T. urticae more frequently chose to share webs with T. evansi than with conspecifics. Also, T. evansi shows higher aggregation on a tomato plant than T. urticae, irrespective of whether the mites occur on the plant together or not.

  19. CHIRAC'S GAULLISM - WHY FRANCE HAS BECOME THE DRIVING FORCE BEHIND THE EFFORT TO BUILD AN AUTONOMOUS EUROPEAN DEFENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel H. Van Herpen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses Chirac’s European defence policy and how it fits into the Gaullist tradition. He starts by sketching the original Gaullism of General De Gaulle which is based on four pillars: a national industrial policy, an independent foreign policy, the possession of a French nuclear deterrent and the ambition to build an independent European defence. His efforts in the last realm, however, are blocked by the US and its European NATO allies. In the Non-Gaullist Interregnum between 1974-1995 President Giscard d’Estaing jeopardised the Gaullist legacy, but President François Mitterrand became – against all expectations – a ‘Socialist Gaullist’ and it was he who realised one of De Gaulle’s objectives by creating the Eurocorps. His successor, Jacques Chirac has conducted a highly volatile European policy. The author distinguishes no less than six different and often contradictory phases in Chirac’s European defence policy. Despite the failures, some successes, however, have been booked, especially after the Saint-Malo Summit with Tony Blair. But much will depend in the coming years on how Chirac will succeed his balancing act between the EU-25, the French-German tandem and the ‘Big Three’.

  20. Strategies to increase Vitamin C in plants: from plant defence perspective to food biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria eLocato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by classical breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defence responses.

  1. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Coordination between antioxidant defences might be partially modulated by magnesium status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Bicho, Manuel; Santa-Clara, Helena; Laires, Maria José

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the redox balance in competitive adult swimmers against recreational practitioners, controlling for Mg intake. Fifteen, competitive swimmers and 16 recreational practitioners, all male and aged 18-25years, were recruited into the study. Oxidative and muscle damage markers, and antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated by photometry (except for thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), which was assessed by fluorimetry). Controlling for the level of exercise, inverse correlations were observed for uric acid and glutathione reductase (GR) or susceptibility of red blood cells to peroxidation (RBCPx); plasma adrenaline oxidase activity (AdOx) and carotenoids; TBARS and GR or Vit E; and direct correlations were observed between AdOx and creatine kinase (CK) or TBARS; CK and superoxide dismutase activity; GR and RBCPx. Controlling for Mg intake in addition to exercise level revealed new inverse correlations: between carotenoids and TBARS or lactate, and new direct correlations between lactate and AdOx or TBARS; cortisol and AdOx, CK, lactate dehydrogenase, or methemoglobin reductase. The associations between uric acid and RBCPx; AdOx and CK or TBARS; and GR and RBCPx lost their significance. All others remained significant. These outcomes suggest that the coordination between antioxidant defences may be partially modulated by Mg, which may be the result of its ability to stabilize cell membranes and oxidation targets, such as adrenaline.

  3. The defence technique in Tai Chi Push Hands: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Chuan; Cheng, Kuang-You B; Liu, Yu-Jen; Chiu, Hung-Ta; Cheng, Kuang-Yu

    2010-12-01

    Developed from traditional Chinese martial arts, Tai Chi exercise includes different forms and interactive Push Hands but biomechanical analyses have focused on the former only. To analyse the techniques of Push Hands, an experienced master was asked to defend pushing by four opponents. Movements were videotaped and digitized using a motion analysis system. Surface electrodes were used to record the electromyographic activity of ten muscle groups. Two force plates were used to measure the ground reaction force on each foot. Inexperienced individuals performed the same procedure to serve as the control group. The results indicate that the master adopted a postural adjustment to maintain balance. A clear shift of body weight from the front to the rear foot and mediolateral displacement of the centre of gravity was observed. Low electromyographic activity was observed in the upper body muscle groups, while high electromyographic activity was observed in the right rectus femoris and very high activity in the left rectus femoris during the defence. All inexperienced participants lost their balance in resisting pushing. It is concluded that the Tai Chi defensive technique includes a subtle postural adjustment that slightly changes the pushing force direction, and allows the rear leg to resist the incoming force.

  4. Nuclear Safety R&D for the Knowledge-Based Implementation of Defence in Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W-P., E-mail: wpbaek@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Department of Nuclear Safety Research, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Assuring a high level of safety is a pre-requisite for the development and utilization of nuclear technology. The most fundamental approach for nuclear power plant (NPP) safety is “defence in depth (DiD),” which is a combination of multiple physical barriers and multiple (generally 5) levels of protection, with the aim of accident prevention and mitigation. NPPs around the world have shown excellent safety records for over 14,500 cumulative reactor years, compared with other electricity sources, by properly implementing DiD. However, the occurrence and severe consequences of the Fukushima accident have provoked controversy on the completeness of the DiD concept. There have been active discussions on DiD with respect to the Fukushima accident. A general consensus has been arrived that the concept of DiD is still valid but its implementation was incomplete for the Fukushima NPP. Had DiD been properly implemented during the design, construction and operation, much better provisioning against the extreme earthquake and tsunami would have been available and the accident consequences would not have been so disastrous.

  5. CNS Orientations, Safety Objectives and Implementation of the Defence in Depth Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, A.C., E-mail: Andre-Claude.LACOSTE@asn.fr [Autorité de Sureté Nucléaire, Montrouge (France)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The 6th Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) is convened in Vienna next year for two weeks from Monday March 24{sup th} to Friday April 4{sup th} 2014. The consequences and the lessons learnt from the accident that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant will be a major issue. The 2nd Extraordinary Meeting of the CNS in August 2012 was totally devoted to the Fukushima Daiichi accident. One of its main conclusions was Conclusion 17 included in the summary report which says: ''Nuclear power plants should be designed, constructed and operated with the objectives of preventing accidents and, should an accident occur, mitigating its effects and avoiding off-site contamination. The Contracting Parties also noted that regulatory authorities should ensure that these objectives are applied in order to identify and implement appropriate safety improvements at existing plants''. The wording of the sentences of Conclusion 17 dedicated, the first one to new built reactors, the second one to existing plants, can be improved and clarified. But obviously the issue of the off-site consequences of an accident is fundamental. So the in-depth question comes: what can and should be done to achieve these safety objectives? And in particular how to improve the definition and then the implementation of the Defence in Depth Concept? From my point of view, this is clearly the main issue of this Conference. (author)

  6. Lessons Learned from Process Safety Management: A Practical Guide to Defence in Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langerman, N., E-mail: neal@chemical-safety.com [Advanced Chemical Safety, Inc., San Diego (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Beginning with the experiences of Alfred Nobel, the chemical enterprise has learned from failures and implemented layers of protection to prevent unwanted incidents. Nobel developed dynamite as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin, a process we would today call “inherently safer technology”. In recent years, the USA has issued regulations requiring formal “risk management plans” to identify and mitigate production risks. The USA set up the “Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board” as an independent investigator of serious chemical enterprise incidents with a mission to issue recommendations aimed at preventing repeated incidents based on lessons learned. Following a particularly violent explosion in Texas in 1989, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the “Process Safety Management” (PSM) rule. PSM is a singular guide to defence in depth for preventing large-scale production incidents. The formalism is equally applicable to the chemical enterprise and the nuclear installation enterprise. This presentation will discuss the key elements of PSM and offer suggestions on using PSM as a guide to developing multiple layers of protection. The methods of PSM are applicable to Nuclear Generating Stations, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants and fissile material storage and handling. Examples from both the chemical and nuclear enterprises will be used to illustrate key points. (author)

  7. Revisioning Fordham's 'Defences of the self' in light of modern relational theory and contemporary neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsched, Donald E

    2015-09-01

    This paper explores the evolution of Michael Fordham's ideas concerning 'defences of the self', including his application of this concept to a group of 'difficult' adult patients in his famous 1974 paper by the same name. After tracing the relevance of Fordham's ideas to my own discovery of a 'self-care system' in the psychological material of early trauma patients (Kalsched ), I describe how Fordham's seminal notions might be revisioned in light of contemporary relational theory as well as early attachment theory and affective neuroscience. These revisionings involve an awareness that the severe woundings of early unremembered trauma are not transformable through interpretation but will inevitably be repeated in the transference, leading to mutual 'enactments' between the analytic partners and, hopefully, to a new outcome. A clinical example of one such mutual enactment between the author and his patient is provided. The paper concludes with reflections on the clinical implications of this difficult case and what it means to become a 'real person' to our patients. Finally, Jung's alchemical views on transference are shown to be useful analogies in our understanding of the necessary mutuality in the healing process with these patients. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. Environmental policy memorandum of the Dutch Ministry of Defence 2004; Defensie Milieubeleidsnota 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Starting point of the title memorandum is environmental sound operational management of the Ministry of Defence. In the memorandum 26 policy targets are formulated for the period 2004-2008 in the fields of climate and energy, noise, hazardous materials, environmental care, and biological diversity and nature. One of the projects concerns the participation in a wind turbine farm in the Dutch province Drenthe. [Dutch] Uitgangspunt van de nota is een milieuverantwoorde bedrijfsvoering. Na een grondige evaluatie van de Defensie Milieubeleidsnota (DMB) 2000 zijn in de DMB 2004 zo'n 26 doelstellingen geformuleerd tot en met het jaar 2008. De belangrijkste doelstellingen liggen op het gebied van klimaat en energie, geluid, gevaarlijke stoffen, afval, milieuzorg, en biodiversiteit en natuur. Een van de opvallendste projecten uit DMB 2004 is een windturbinepark in Drenthe. Defensie gaat daarbij deelnemen aan een provinciaal project op en naast het magazijnencomplex te Coevorden. Van acht a negen te plaatsen turbines, die elk 2 MegaWatt elektriciteit gaan opwekken, zal het ministerie van Defensie er zes voor zijn rekening nemen. Dat betekent een investering van ruim 19 miljoen euro. Deze investering wordt echter binnen tien jaar geheel terugverdiend. Het turbinepark past in de doelstelling dat bij Defensie, conform het Rijksbeleid, eind 2008 zo'n 75% van het elektriciteitsverbruik duurzaam wordt opgewekt.

  9. Real-time threat evaluation in a ground based air defence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment a ground based air defence operator is required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect Defended Assets (DAs on the ground against aerial threats by assigning available Weapon Systems (WSs to engage enemy aircraft. Since this aerial environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making in stress situations, the associated responsibilities are typically divided between a number of operators and computerized systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. One such a Decision Support System (DSS, a threat evaluation and weapon assignment system, assigns threat values to aircraft (with respect to DAs in real-time and uses these values to propose possible engagements of observed enemy aircraft by anti-aircraft WSs. In this paper a design of the threat evaluation part of such a DSS is put forward. The design follows the structured approach suggested in [Roux JN & van Vuuren JH, 2007, Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art, ORiON, 23(2, pp. 151-187], phasing in a suite of increasingly complex qualitative and quantitative model components as more (reliable data become available.

  10. The ghost of herbivory past: slow defence relaxation in the chlorophyte Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus VIJVERBERG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater chlorophyte Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin Kützing produces colonies as an inducible defence against herbivores. We investigated the dynamics of Scenedesmus colony formation and disintegration in response to the density of the herbivorous rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus in large-scale mesocosms. Additional bioassays were performed to investigate Scenedesmus colony disintegration under different light regimes. In the mesocosm experiment, colony formation took place rapidly, but relaxation towards the initial size took relatively long (>10 d after cessation of herbivory. In the bioassays, in the absence of infochemicals, colonies disintegrated almost immediately in the dark (1-1.5 d, within 4 d under a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D and between 8 and 12 days under full light. Colony disintegration times in the mesocosm experiment were substantially longer as compared to treatments with the same photoperiod (L:D 16:8 in the bioassays. So after a peak of herbivory, the 'ghost of herbivory past', i.e. the remaining infochemicals, may continue to induce colony formation, causing an additional lengthening of colony disintegration times and associated fitness costs (higher sedimentation loss rates. This indicates that costs of colony formation are not only important during the induction phase, but may be even more important during the relaxation phase. We compared these sedimentation costs to the costs of herbivory for differently sized Scenedesmus, and found a clear trade-off pattern for these costs.

  11. Condom Use Behaviors and Correlates of Use in the Botswana Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programs, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviors and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male personnel, aged 18–30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored. PMID:23970609

  12. Condom use behaviours and correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored.

  13. The multifunctional artificial reef and its role in the defence of the Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, I; Tinoco, H; Aragonés, L; García-Barba, J

    2016-04-15

    Multifunctional artificial reefs (MFAR) are being implemented around the world, due to their ability to provide an environment where a sports-economic-recreational use and environmental improvement is implemented, and are also elements of coastal defence. However, a lot of failures have been recorded, possibly due to disregarded local factors in the formulations used, and there is no method that has encompassed all these factors, in order to take them into account in its design. The aim of this paper was to provide the coastal engineer with a method that would be used for the design of such reefs. To do this, the Babilonia beach of Guardamar del Segura, Alicante (Spain), was chosen because it is a fully anthropised area (with houses in the Maritime-Terrestrial Public Domain, marina, channelling and river mouth) with continuous regression, in which all the elements considered in this study, were treated. Based on the performance obtained in studies and projects worldwide, the climatic characteristics, biocenosis, sediment transport, settlements and liquefaction and the evolution of the coastline, were analysed. The multidisciplinary study carried out showed that with the implementation of a MFAR, the problem was reversed. Furthermore, the area was provided with a playful-economic use, and could be used 60% of the time, by surfers whose skill level were low to intermediate, without forgetting that the diversity of the marine ecosystem in the area was increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor with helical hairpin structure belongs to a new family of plant defence peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Peter B; Mineev, Konstantin S; Dunaevsky, Yakov E; Arseniev, Alexander S; Belozersky, Mikhail A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2012-08-15

    A new peptide trypsin inhibitor named BWI-2c was obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by sequential affinity, ion exchange and reversed-phase chromatography. The peptide was sequenced and found to contain 41 amino acid residues, with four cysteine residues involved in two intramolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant BWI-2c identical to the natural peptide was produced in Escherichia coli in a form of a cleavable fusion with thioredoxin. The 3D (three-dimensional) structure of the peptide in solution was determined by NMR spectroscopy, revealing two antiparallel α-helices stapled by disulfide bonds. Together with VhTI, a trypsin inhibitor from veronica (Veronica hederifolia), BWI-2c represents a new family of protease inhibitors with an unusual α-helical hairpin fold. The linker sequence between the helices represents the so-called trypsin inhibitory loop responsible for direct binding to the active site of the enzyme that cleaves BWI-2c at the functionally important residue Arg(19). The inhibition constant was determined for BWI-2c against trypsin (1.7×10(-1)0 M), and the peptide was tested on other enzymes, including those from various insect digestive systems, revealing high selectivity to trypsin-like proteases. Structural similarity shared by BWI-2c, VhTI and several other plant defence peptides leads to the acknowledgement of a new widespread family of plant peptides termed α-hairpinins.

  15. Pre-emptive Defence against International Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction: A Reasoned Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gamarra Chopo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9-11 terrorist attacks had serious repercussions on the world stage, giving rise, among other effects, to a protracted debate on the conditions in which the use of force to fight against terrorism might be justified or not under international law. In the UnitedStates, there were those who advocated in favour of pre-emptive action against the terrorists, and those who were protecting and harbouring them, within the framework of a large scale ‘war’ against terrorism. This gave rise to the ‘Bush doctrine’ of the ‘pre-emptive attack’ to fight against international terrorism and those who possessed weapons of mass destruction that might be used against opponents or for terrorist purposes. Although some people feltthat this version of ‘pre-emption’ in the unilateral use of force strayed from the traditional parameters of self-defence, others considered it to be an adaptation of these parameters to the new needs arising from the threat posed by terrorist groups and outlaw states.

  16. Defence in depth for electric power supplies in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Srivasista, K.; Solanki, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of electric power supply system in a nuclear power plant is to supply and distribute reliable electric power to safety related systems and systems important to safety in various forms, arrangements and combinations of redundancy and diversity in order to perform safety functions required during operational states and design basis events (DBE) such as shutting down the reactor, maintaining the reactor in safe shutdown state, containment isolation and reactor core cooling preventing significant release of radioactive material to the environment. Hence the design basis of electric power supply systems includes identification of DBE that require power supplies, adequacy of redundancy and diversity, environmental conditions to which electric equipment are qualified, identification of loads requiring interrupted and uninterrupted power supplies, time sequence in which emergency loads are to be supplied in case of interruption, provisions for maintaining and testing, consideration for minimum duration capability of emergency power supplies during station blackout etc. Based on operation experience, results of probability safety assessment and certain weaknesses noticed in defence in depth of electric power supply systems, several continuous design improvements have been made in Indian nuclear power plants during operating phase and life extension. Instituting various tests during initial commissioning, subsequent operation and life extension has ensured high standards of performance of electric power supplies. Some of these aspects are highlighted in this paper

  17. The US ballistic missile defence policy in the Baltic and Nordic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konyshev Valery

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the implications of the deployment of the US ballistic missile defense (BMD system in the Baltic and Nordic regions. These implications are to be considered to ensure Russia’s military security. Using the structural-functional method, the authors analyse the internal structure of the US BMD in Europe, stages of its implementation, and its influence on the military equilibrium in the region. Being similar to other regional missile defence systems of the Pentagon, BMD in Europe increases the offensive capabilities of the US armed forces and its allies and in doing so, it stops performing a purely defensive mission declared by Washington. It is stressed that the deployment of mobile sea- and land-based BMD elements in the Baltic Sea region and Nordic countries will inevitably destabilize the strategic situation and may lead to a new round of arms race in the region. The efficacy of BMD in Europe is evaluated from the perspective of military technology. The system’s potential threats to Russia’s military security and its armed forces are assessed. The article considers measures to enhance national security that could be taken by Russia provided the US plans to deploy BMD in Europe are fully implemented.

  18. Expression of defence-related genes in sunflower infected with broomrape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Şestacova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional activity of four defence-related genes (NPR1, PAL, defensin and PR5 in seven sunflower lines – resistant (MS-2161A, tolerant (MS-2039A and susceptible (MS-2098A, MS-2091A, MS-2077A, MS-2067A and MS-1589A, infected with three broomrape populations (Tulcea, Romania; Soroca and Anenii Noi, Republic of Moldova, was studied in advanced stages of infection (90 days after sowing. Obtained results revealed that resistant genotypes are characterized through higher stability in transcriptional activity of the studied genes. Thus, resistance could be associated with ability rapidly to maintain and recover a normal level of metabolism under more intensive stress factors. Also, it was established that expression of PR5 and defensin genes was altered and revealed considerable deviations in this phase of adaptation, while NPR1 and PAL mostly showed values at the level of the control group, which allows assuming that these genes, in the moment of sample collection and analysis, had normalized transcriptional activity, probably being involved in early responses.

  19. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force (ADF has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug’s use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies.

  20. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  1. Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock

    KAUST Repository

    Bhardwaj, Vaibhav

    2011-10-31

    The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.

  2. Business continuity strategies for cyber defence: battling time and information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streufert, John

    2010-11-01

    Can the same numbers and letters which are the life blood of modern business and government computer systems be harnessed to protect computers from attack against known information security risks? For the past seven years, Foreign Service officers and technicians of the US Government have sought to maintain diplomatic operations in the face of rising cyber attacks and test the hypothesis that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. As eight out of ten attacks leverage known computer security vulnerabilities or configuration setting weaknesses, a pound of cure would seem to be easy to come by. Yet modern security tools present an unusually consequential threat to business continuity - too much rather than too little information on cyber problems is presented, harking back to a phenomenon cited by social scientists in the 1960s called 'information overload'. Experience indicates that the longer the most serious cyber problems go untreated, the wider the attack surface adversaries can find. One technique used at the Department of State, called 'risk scoring', resulted in an 89 per cent overall reduction in measured risk over 12 months for the Department of State's servers and personal computers. Later refinements of risk scoring enabled technicians to correct unique security threats with unprecedented speed. This paper explores how the use of metrics, special care in presenting information to technicians and executives alike, as well as tactical use of organisational incentives can result in stronger cyber defences protecting modern organisations.

  3. Combining personal with social information facilitates host defences and explains why cuckoos should be secretive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals often vary defences in response to local predation or parasitism risk. But how should they assess threat levels when it pays their enemies to hide? For common cuckoo hosts, assessing parasitism risk is challenging: cuckoo eggs are mimetic and adult cuckoos are secretive and resemble hawks. Here, we show that egg rejection by reed warblers depends on combining personal and social information of local risk. We presented model cuckoos or controls at a pair’s own nest (personal information of an intruder) and/or on a neighbouring territory, to which they were attracted by broadcasts of alarm calls (social information). Rejection of an experimental egg was stimulated only when hosts were alerted by both social and personal information of cuckoos. However, pairs that rejected eggs were not more likely to mob a cuckoo. Therefore, while hosts can assess risk from the sight of a cuckoo, a cuckoo cannot gauge if her egg will be accepted from host mobbing. Our results reveal how hosts respond rapidly to local variation in parasitism, and why it pays cuckoos to be secretive, both to avoid alerting their targets and to limit the spread of social information in the local host neighbourhood. PMID:26794435

  4. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant–plant mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output. PMID:24807259

  5. Assessment of pleiotropic transcriptome perturbations in Arabidopsis engineered for indirect insect defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyani, Benyamin; van der Krol, Alexander R; Bino, Raoul J; Bouwmeester, Harro J

    2014-06-19

    Molecular characterization is an essential step of risk/safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. Holistic approaches for molecular characterization using omics platforms can be used to confirm the intended impact of the genetic engineering, but can also reveal the unintended changes at the omics level as a first assessment of potential risks. The potential of omics platforms for risk assessment of GM crops has rarely been used for this purpose because of the lack of a consensus reference and statistical methods to judge the significance or importance of the pleiotropic changes in GM plants. Here we propose a meta data analysis approach to the analysis of GM plants, by measuring the transcriptome distance to untransformed wild-types. In the statistical analysis of the transcriptome distance between GM and wild-type plants, values are compared with naturally occurring transcriptome distances in non-GM counterparts obtained from a database. Using this approach we show that the pleiotropic effect of genes involved in indirect insect defence traits is substantially equivalent to the variation in gene expression occurring naturally in Arabidopsis. Transcriptome distance is a useful screening method to obtain insight in the pleiotropic effects of genetic modification.

  6. In defence of andragogy. Part 2: An educational process consistent with modern nursing's aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, F

    1997-12-01

    In 1987 the English National Board (1987) made it clear that it supported a move towards an andragogical approach to nurse education. Recently such moves have been questioned as has the validity of andragogy (Darbyshire 1993). In response to such challenges this paper extends some of the arguments made in the article 'In defence of andragogy' (Milligan 1995). It is argued that andragogy provides a framework within which care and other crucial aspects of the nurse-patient/client relationship can be mirrored and thereby facilitated in future practitioners. In the socialization processes inherent in nurse education, care is surely difficult to teach or facilitate unless the philosophy and methods are consistent with such ends. Furthermore, it is frequently argued that as educationalists we need to be consistent in our approach to students with that which we hope to see in their future practice (Bevis & Murray 1990). Andragogy offers a medium through which this can be facilitated. It is essentially a humanistic educational process that values the individual. The power relationship between the educator and student is much more horizontal than is found in the historically common hierarchical educational relationship. An educational process based upon andragogy therefore mirrors important parts of the nurse-patient/client relationship. It offers a theory of education consistent with the aims of modern day nursing practice. We should seek to improve our understanding of andragogy and no longer conceptualize it as one end of a false dichotomy with pedagogy.

  7. The patient experience: measuring the quality of care in the Defence Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Neale; Lamb, D

    2014-06-01

    Healthcare provided by the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is acknowledged to be of a high standard but patients' experiences of it has not been measured and collated in a consistent and meaningful way, which has limited strategic quality improvement initiatives. Responsibility for implementing and delivering a programme of healthcare governance and assurance for the DMS rests with the Inspector General (IG). An important aspect of this role is to nurture a culture of continuous improvement in the DMS and under this leadership the IG team has prioritised a number of projects to address this. The project to improve patient experience data capture was prioritised in the work schedule as it incorporated initiatives that would lead to improved quality in DMS healthcare, information exploitation and ultimately patient safety. This is the first in a series of articles that will document this important work and describe the methodological considerations associated with the initial questionnaire design, collaboration with NHS partners, the pilot study and progress towards the introduction of the definitive DMS tool later this year. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Plant parasitic nematode effectors target host defence and nuclear functions to establish feeding cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël eQuentin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, the most damaging species of which have adopted a sedentary lifestyle within their hosts. These obligate endoparasites have a biotrophic relationship with plants, in which they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied, multinucleate feeding cells. Effectors synthesised in the oesophageal glands of the nematode are injected into the plant cells via the syringe-like stylet and play a key role in manipulating the host machinery. The establishment of specialized feeding cells requires these effectors to modulate many aspects of plant cell morphogenesis and physiology, including defence responses. This cell reprogramming requires changes to host nuclear processes. Some proteins encoded by parasitism genes target host nuclei. Several of these proteins were immunolocalised within feeding cell nuclei or shown to interact with host nuclear proteins. Comparative genomics and functional analyses are gradually revealing the roles of nematode effectors. We describe here these effectors and their hypothesised roles in the unique feeding behaviour of these pests.

  9. Renal pathology in working dogs in the South African National Defence Force : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Short

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Urine analysis, serumbiochemical profile and a cortical wedge biopsy for histopathological examination was performed on 42 South African National Defence Force (SANDF dogs from around the country. The only significant finding on urine analysis and serum biochemistry was a relatively large number (16/42 of dogs with elevated serum inorganic phosphate levels. Histopathology revealed that only 9 of the animals had normal kidneys reflected in the wedge biopsy material, with over 50%of them showing signs of glomerular pathology (primarily mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Other conditions detected histopathologically were haemosiderosis (47 % of animals, focal nephrosis (2.4 %, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (2.4 %, focal interstitial nephritis (4.7 % and acute tubular nephrosis (4.7 %. The lesions observed were of limited distribution and extent; this histopathological finding may account for the absence of significant abnormalities on urine analysis or serum biochemistry profiles. It appears from these results that a large percentage of the SANDF population would be expected to have mild renal lesions, but that these lesions are not severe enough to lead to clinical signs. The findings of this study are similar to those of randomly selected populations of non-military dogs performed in other areas of the world, which also demonstrated an unexpectedly high incidence of histopathological renal pathology in dogs considered healthy. These lesions may well, however, play a role in later life, and it is recommended that military veterinarians maintain an index of suspicion for renal disease, particularly glomerular disease. The aetiology of the histopathological lesions is unknown.

  10. The popularisation of Positive Psychology as a defence against behavioural complexity in research and organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the systems psychodynamic nature of the manifesting defensive structures operating in Positive Psychology. Motivation for the study: The study investigated the popularity of Positive Psychology amongst academics, students and organisational consultants and the tendency to avoid the complexity of the relatedness between positive and negative as part of the human condition. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research by means of a Listening Post was used, consisting of six psychologists in their roles as lecturers and organisational consultants. Thematic analyses led to the formulation of various working hypotheses, integrated into a research hypothesis. Main findings: Four themes manifested – namely, the manifesting defence mechanisms, a reluctance to relinquish positive psychology as an object of hope, a need to guard against being too hasty in breaking down positive psychology and a need for a psychology that can engage us in a conversation about integrating the complexities of the human condition. Practical/managerial implications: The findings were linked to Deo Strümpfer’s work, indicating that Positive Psychology originated in early 20th century psychology, which is indeed not about simplification, but is imbedded in the complexity of various behavioural continua. Contribution/value-add: Academics, students and organisational consultants are encouraged to revisit Strümpfer’s work to ensure that this psychology is appreciated for its depth and quality.

  11. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential in Defence Housing Authority, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Asif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of liquefaction phenomenon may be induced in the event of a large magnitude earthquake but sometimes loose, saturated and poorly graded sand may be subjected to liquefaction due to the vibration produced by other sources. Liquefaction could cause damage to building and infrastructure due to sudden increase of pore pressure in the loose layers of saturated sand causing the loss of bearing capacity and shear strength. Defence Housing Authority (DHA is the well planned residential scheme established by Pakistan Army along the coastal belt of Karachi. The soil occurring in DHA is fine grained, poorly graded and mainly comprises of sandy silt and silty sand of Recent age, where water table is encountered at very shallow depth. Hence, it is important to assess the geotechnical behavior of the soil in DHA area, where most of the high rise buildings and mega civil structures are being constructed. In present study, seismic soil liquefaction was evaluated at 15 sites (30 bore holes in DHA by using simplified empirical method in terms of Factor of Safety (FS. The Relative Density (RD was determined with the help of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Grain size analysis was also carried out on each borehole samples. The results revealed that the DHA area is vulnerable to liquefaction during severe seismic event of magnitude between 6.5 and 7.5 in Karachi.

  12. Technologies for developing an advanced intelligent ATM with self-defence capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed several technologies for protecting automated teller machines. These technologies are based mainly on pattern recognition and are used to implement various self-defence functions. They include (i) banknote recognition and information retrieval for preventing machines from accepting counterfeit and damaged banknotes and for retrieving information about detected counterfeits from a relational database, (ii) form processing and character recognition for preventing machines from accepting remittance forms without due dates and/or insufficient payment, (iii) person identification to prevent machines from transacting with non-customers, and (iv) object recognition to guard machines against foreign objects such as spy cams that might be surreptitiously attached to them and to protect users against someone attempting to peek at their user information such as their personal identification number. The person identification technology has been implemented in most ATMs in Japan, and field tests have demonstrated that the banknote recognition technology can recognise more then 200 types of banknote from 30 different countries. We are developing an "advanced intelligent ATM" that incorporates all of these technologies.

  13. Consequences of climate disruption for the Ministry of Defence - EPS 2013-55 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Bastien; Coldefy, Alain; Kempf, Herve

    2014-06-01

    After having recalled some important results of the fifth IPCC report, this report aims at providing a mapping of biases by which climate disruption impacts the different activities, functions, and missions of the French Ministry of Defence. This disruption results in new risks and threats, but could also be the background of new legal and administrative standards and constraints which may affect military capacities. The authors first study how climate disruption is addressed by American and British allies, analyse direct and indirect risks and threats which are created or strengthened by climate disruption, identify the impact of climate disruption on operational capacities as a whole, at the industrial level (in product elaboration), and also in the use of hardware on locations which could be modified under the action of climate change. They also propose crisis scenarios on the near and on the long term, in relationship with climate disruption but also with other issues. They state a set of operational recommendations for the Ministry for a better anticipation of impact on the short, medium and long term

  14. Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2014-06-22

    In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant-plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it is unclear whether ants can also directly increase plant reproduction by defending seeds. The neotropical tree Cordia alliodora hosts colonies of Azteca pittieri ants. The trees produce domatia where ants nest at stem nodes and also at the node between the peduncle and the rachides of the infloresence. Unlike the stem domatia, these reproductive domatia senesce after the tree fruits each year. In this study, I show that the tree's resident ant colony moves into these ephemeral reproductive domatia, where they tend honeydew-producing scale insects and patrol the nearby developing fruits. The presence of ants significantly reduced pre-dispersal seed predation by Amblycerus bruchid beetles, thereby directly increasing plant reproductive output.

  15. Shifting from priming of salicylic acid- to jasmonic acid-regulated defences by Trichoderma protects tomato against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernandez, Ivan; Lok, Gerrit B; Pozo, María J; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2017-02-01

    Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underlying the induction of resistance. In this study, we investigated whether Trichoderma modulates the hormone signalling network in the host to induce resistance to nematodes. We investigated the role and the timing of the jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-regulated defensive pathways in Trichoderma-induced resistance to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. A split-root system of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) was used to study local and systemic induced defences by analysing nematode performance, defence gene expression, responsiveness to exogenous hormone application, and dependence on SA and JA signalling of Trichoderma-induced resistance. Root colonization by Trichoderma impeded nematode performance both locally and systemically at multiple stages of the parasitism, that is, invasion, galling and reproduction. First, Trichoderma primed SA-regulated defences, which limited nematode root invasion. Then, Trichoderma enhanced JA-regulated defences, thereby antagonizing the deregulation of JA-dependent immunity by the nematodes, which compromised galling and fecundity. Our results show that Trichoderma primes SA- and JA-dependent defences in roots, and that the priming of responsiveness to these hormones upon nematode attack is plastic and adaptive to the parasitism stage. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Security Policy at Road’s End? The Roles of Sweden and Finland in the Nordic-Baltic Defence Cooperation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnerstig Mike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses a number of questions related to Nordic and to an extent also Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation. First of all, how far has Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation come today? Secondly, what are the differences in the approaches of Sweden and Finland when it comes to defence cooperation, especially regarding NATO, in the Nordic-Baltic area? As a first analytical result, it is apparent that the rhetorical standing of the Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation process is greater than its real achievements, especially in terms of defence integration. Secondly, it seems also to be clear that the defence and security policy debates of Sweden and Finland are quite different. Some problems identified in the debates within the two countries, respectively, are very similar although the suggested solutions vary very remarkably. Regarding the key issue of NATO membership, the developments of the last few years suggest that the Swedish political establishment, as well as the general public, might be closer to a substantial discussion of NATO membership than their Finnish equivalents.

  17. Multi-modal defences in aphids offer redundant protection and increased costs likely impeding a protective mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Adam J; Doremus, Matthew R; Kraft, Laura J; Kim, Kyungsun L; Oliver, Kerry M

    2018-03-01

    The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, maintains extreme variation in resistance to its most common parasitoid wasp enemy, Aphidius ervi, which is sourced from two known mechanisms: protective bacterial symbionts, most commonly Hamiltonella defensa, or endogenously encoded defences. We have recently found that individual aphids may employ each defence individually, occasionally both defences together, or neither. In field populations, Hamiltonella-infected aphids are found at low to moderate frequencies and while less is known about the frequency of resistant genotypes, they show up less often than susceptible genotypes in field collections. To better understand these patterns, we sought to compare the strengths and costs of both types of defence, individually and together, in order to elucidate the selective pressures that maintain multi-modal defence mechanisms or that may favour one over the other. We experimentally infected five aphid genotypes (two lowly and three highly resistant), each with two symbiont strains, Hamiltonella-APSE8 (moderate protection) and Hamiltonella-APSE3 (high protection). This resulted in three sublines per genotype: uninfected, +APSE8 and +APSE3. Each of the 15 total sublines was first subjected to a parasitism assay to determine its resistance phenotype and in a second experiment, a subset was chosen to compare fitness (fecundity and survivorship) in the presence and absence of parasitism. In susceptible aphid genotypes, parasitized sublines infected with Hamiltonella generally showed increased protection with direct fitness benefits, but clear infection costs to fitness in the absence of parasitism. In resistant genotypes, Hamiltonella infection rarely conferred additional protection, often further reduced fecundity and survivorship when enemy challenged, and resulted in constitutive fitness costs in the absence of parasitism. We also identified strong aphid genotype × symbiont-strain interactions, such that the best defensive

  18. Advancing Ruggedness of Nuclear Stations By Expanding Defence In Depth in Critical Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    than increasing redundancy. There are several events both external and internal that could cause the failure of AC motor driven cooling systems. DC operated steam driven systems and diesel driven cooling systems have avoided several near core melt conditions. Containment Integrity is the last defence for protecting the people and the environment. Diversity in containment cooling is essential for keeping the pressure transients under control. Design provisions to connect potable cooling systems for heat removal and capability to flood the reactor cavity are essential. Recognizing the remote possibility of a severe accident, reliable containment venting (capability to operate with potable energy sources) and filtering could be explored as an option for ensuring an additional layer of protection. These four critical areas need to be viewed as layers in the defence of depth and consequently would require a design that fully removes and common cause failures. Ruggedness of these layers can be achieved only when the process signal sources, power supply and processing of the logic is executed independently. The electrical power system should be re-evaluated for bringing flexibility and adaptability for achieving greater level of safety. (author)

  19. Implementation of Defence in Depth at Nuclear Power Plants. Lessons Learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Miller, Douglass; Rzentkowski, Greg; Lahtinen, Nina; Valtonen, Keijo; Foucher, Laurent; Harikumar, Shri S.; Yamada, Tomoho; Sharafutdinov, Rashet; Kuznetsov, Mark; Carlsson, Lennart; Hanberg, Jan; Theiss, Klaus; Holahan, Gary; Williams, Donna; Nuenighoff, Kay; Wattelle, Emmanuel; Lazo, Edward; White, Andrew; Reig, Javier; Salgado, Nancy; Weightman, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Defence in depth (DiD) is a concept that has been used for many years alongside tools to optimise nuclear safety in reactor design, assessment and regulation. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident raised many questions and gave unique insight into nuclear safety issues, including DiD. In June 2013, the NEA held a Joint Workshop on Challenges and Enhancements to DiD in Light of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (NEA, 2014), organised by the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA). It was noted at the time that further work would be beneficial to enhance nuclear safety worldwide, especially with regard to the implementation of DiD. Accordingly, a senior-level task group (STG) was set up to produce a regulatory guidance booklet that would assist member countries in the use of DiD, taking into account lessons learnt from the 2011 accident. This regulatory guidance booklet builds on the work of this NEA workshop, of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA) and of other members of the STG. It uses as its basis the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group's Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety study (INSAG-10) (IAEA, 1996). The booklet provides insights into the implementation of DiD by regulators and emergency management authorities after the Fukushima Daiichi accident, aiming to enhance global harmonisation by providing guidance on: - the background to the DiD concept; - the need for independent effectiveness among the safety provisions for the various DiD levels, to the extent practicable; - the need for greater attention to reinforce prevention and mitigation at the various levels; - the vital importance of ensuring that common cause and common mode failures, especially external events acting in combination, do not lead to breaches of safety provisions at several DiD levels, taking note of the

  20. First Announcement and Call for Papers SECOND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON FLOOD DEFENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Beijing, Sep. 10-13, 2002 Organized by: Tsinghua University of China & International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES)Sponsored by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Kassel University of Germany Chinese Hydraulic Engineering Society (CHES) German-Sino Unsteady Sediment Transport (GESINOS) http://vww.irtces.org http://www. Tsinghua.edu.cn INTRODUCTION In the past decade frequently occurring floods claimed thousands of lives and caused economic loss of billions of US dollars. Among them the Mississippi River flood in 1993, the Rhine River flood in 1995, the Yangtze River flood in 1998, the Haihe River flood in 1996, and the storm surges in Bangladesh in 1991 are the most devastating. It is evident that both the frequency and intensity of flooding are increasing. The Dirst International Symposium on Flood Defence in Sep. 2000, initiated by Profs. Toensmann and Koch,attracted more than 200 scientists and engineers gathering in Kassel University discussing the ever-increasing concerned problems and sharing experiences and strategies for flood defence. Many scientists suggested to continue the technical forum and the Tsinghua University (one of the top universities of China) and the International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation (IRTCES) are organizing the Second International Symposium on Flood Defence (ISFD'2002) scheduled on Sep. 10-13, 2002. The purpose of the conference is to review the state-of-the-art of the studies on flooding and engineering and non-engineering strategies. The symposium will focus on a better understanding laws of flooding and environmental problems involved, different perspectives evolved,climate change and its impact on extreme hydrological events, and reporting new approaches to the

  1. The Swedish National Defence Research Establishment and the plans for Swedish nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonter, Thomas

    2001-03-01

    This study analyses the Swedish nuclear weapons research since 1945 carried out by the Swedish National Defence Research Establishment (FOA). The most important aspect of this research was dealing with protection in broad terms against nuclear weapons attacks. However, another aspect was also important from early on - to conduct research aiming at a possible production of nuclear weapons. FOA performed an extended research up to 1968, when the Swedish Government signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which meant the end of these production plans. Up to this date, five main investigations about the technical conditions were made, 1948, 1953, 1955, 1957 and 1965, which all together expanded the Swedish know-how to produce a bomb. The Swedish plans to procure nuclear weapons were not an issue in the debate until the mid 50's. The reason for this was simple, prior to 1954 the plans were secretly held within a small group of involved politicians, military and researchers. The change of this procedure did take place when the Swedish Supreme Commander in a public defence report in 1954 favoured a Swedish Nuclear weapons option. In 1958 FOA had reached a technical level that allowed the Parliament to make a decision. Two programs were proposed - the L-programme (the Loading Programme), to be used if the parliament would say yes to a production of nuclear weapons, and the S-programme (the Protection Programme), if the Parliament would say no. The debate on the issue had now created problems for the Social Democratic Government. The Prime Minister, Tage Erlander, who had earlier defended a procurement of nuclear weapons, was now forced to reach a compromise. The compromise was presented to the parliament in a creative manner that meant that only the S-programme would be allowed. The Government argued that the technical level did allow a 'freedom of action' up to at least the beginning of the 60's when Sweden was mature to make a decision on the issue. During this period

  2. The question of autonomy of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Serbian self-defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the historical struggle of Serbian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina for the autonomous freedom, through numerous rebellions and uprisings in the 19th century, such as rebellions and uprisings of Serbs in Šumadija. After its success in Serbia under the rule of Miloš Obrenović, Serbs' struggle for the autonomous freedom in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the last period of the Ottoman and later Austro-Hungarian authority was a 'categorical imperative of Serbian self defence'. Resistance to foreign occupiers in Bosnia and Herzegovina was repeated after the disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991, with the struggle for the autonomous freedom in the Republic of Srpska, for its achievements, challenges and perspectives. On both of these occasions, Serbian people remained and fought for their freedom and unity in the community with other nations. On both of these occasions, destiny and outcome of this successful struggle with opponents were earlier in hands of great powers and later in hands of powerful states. Their earlier and later attitudes towards Serbs were different. Compared to Bulgarians and Bulgaria, or Cretans and Crete, after whose uprisings the great powers awarded them the autonomy, they only promised the same to Serbs while some of them opposed it and corrupted, up until the end of the First World War. It was similar with the struggle of Serbs in Bosnia and Herzegovina for freedom in the achieved Republic of Srpska, up until the United States of America took Bosnia and Herzegovina in its own hands. The States, in cooperation with the Contact Group members, ended the civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina at the meeting in Dayton in the USA in 1995, while at the same time legitimizing the Republic of Srpska within the two-entity Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. Wound-induced proteinase inhibitor in Salix viminalis and its association with defence against insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarikoski, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics

    1997-09-01

    For successful traditional breeding, the plant material has to be screened for genetic variation for the desired traits. By screening Salix clones for wound-induced proteinase inhibitor (PI) activity and ethylene evolution, it was possible to identify variation for both characters among the Salix clones tested. However, no correlation was observed with insect and pathogen resistance. Since there was no simple relationship between wound-induced ethylene production, accumulation of PI and pest resistance, a more systematic investigation of Salix PIs was begun. A gene (swin1.1) encoding a 21 kDa trypsin inhibitor with characteristics of Kunitz-type of PI was sequenced. The trypsin inhibitor encoded by the isolated swin1.1 gene was shown to be functional in vitro and exhibit specificity for trypsin. It is therefore likely that this PI is involved in the plant defence in Salix, since many insects have trypsin as their major digestive protease. In further support of this view, in bio-tests with poplar the mortality of the first instar larvae (Lymantria dispar) was significantly increased, both after application of the trypsin inhibitor encoded by swin1.1 directly on poplar leaves and after feeding the larvae with transgenic poplar over-expressing the swin1.1 gene. In Salix, the swin1.1 gene was shown to be induced by mechanical wounding, insect feeding and by treatment with the signalling substances salicylic and jasmonic acid. The locally wound-induced response (mechanical and insect) was greater than the systemic response. Other swin1 gene family members were also differentially expressed after the inductive treatment. 187 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Determinants of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents amongst service personnel in a large Defence station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Anand; Kotwal, Brig Atul; Ilankumaran, Mookkiah

    2017-07-01

    Injuries are assuming epidemic proportions globally; and in India. Also, previous decade witnessed carnage on Indian roads, with nearly 12 lakh people killed and 55 lakhs disabled in road crashes. The trend in Armed Forces is reflective of the aforesaid patterns. Behaviour and socio-demographic background of the victims are significant determinants of injuries and road accidents. Community-based epidemiological information on these aspects is envisaged to contribute in their preventive strategy. Towards this direction, the present study was conducted with aim to generate socio-behavioural profile of injuries and Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) amongst service personnel in a large defence station; and to evaluate their determinants. A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 796 Naval personnel onboard warships in large Naval station. Data on socio-behavioural aspects and determinants of injuries and road accidents was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire; and by scrutiny of relevant records. Data was analysed using MSExcel, Epi-info and SPSS 17. Young and middle-aged persons were predominantly involved in injuries and road accidents. Two-wheeler users sustained maximum road accidents. Human factor was a significant determinant in RTAs and injuries. A majority of victims admitted that human factors were the predominant cause of road accidents; and opined that the events were preventable. Age-specific Behavioural Change Communication strategies aimed at refining user outlook are imperative; tailored to sociodemographic milieu of user/victim. Incorporation of a dynamic feedback/reporting mechanism, creation of 'armed forces-specific road safety and injury prevention policy' and safety audits on injuries and road crashes are measures in this direction.

  5. INTEROPERABILITY AND STANDARDISATION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Waal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The political changes in South Africa have extended its international obligations by actively involving it in the social wellbeing of troubled African states. Under the auspices of the United Nations, this role is manifested in peacekeeping operations and other standard international practices. The ability of African allied forces to train, exercise, and operate efficiently, effectively, and economically together depends on the interoperability of their operational procedures, doctrine, administration, materiel and technology. This implies that all parties must have the same interpretation of ‘interoperability’. In this study, a conceptual model that explains interoperability and standardisation in terms of a systems hierarchy and the systems engineering process is developed. The study also explores the level of understanding of interoperability in the South African Department of Defence in terms of the levels of standardisation and its relationship to the concepts of systems, systems hierarchy, and systems engineering.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die politieke veranderinge in Suid-Afrika het daartoe aanleiding gegee dat verdere internasionale verpligtinge die land opgelê is. Suid-Afrika, in samewerking met mede-Afrika lande en onder toesig van die Verenigde Nasies, moet deur middel van vredesoperasies by onstabiele Afrika lande betrokke raak. Die vermoë om gesamentlik aan vredesopleiding, vredesoefeninge en vredesoperasies op ‘n effektiewe, doeltreffende en ekonomiese wyse deel te neem, vereis dat daar versoenbaarheid tussen onderlinge operasionele prosedures, doktrine, administrasie, materieel en tegnologie is. Dit beteken dat alle partye eens omtrent die begrip ‘versoenbaarheid’ moet wees. In hierdie studie is ‘n konseptuele model wat versoenbaarheid en standaardisasie verduidelik in terme van die stelselhiërargie en die stelselingenieursweseproses ontwikkel. Hierdie studie het ook die vlak van begrip en

  6. The gut microbiota plays a protective role in the host defence against pneumococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijt, Tim J; Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Scicluna, Brendon P; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Roelofs, Joris J T H; de Boer, J Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W Joost

    2016-04-01

    Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infected them intranasally with S. pneumoniae. We then performed survival and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments and measured parameters of inflammation and alveolar macrophage whole-genome responses. We found that the gut microbiota protects the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by increased bacterial dissemination, inflammation, organ damage and mortality in microbiota-depleted mice compared with controls. FMT in gut microbiota-depleted mice led to a normalisation of pulmonary bacterial counts and tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 levels 6 h after pneumococcal infection. Whole-genome mapping of alveolar macrophages showed upregulation of metabolic pathways in the absence of a healthy gut microbiota. This upregulation correlated with an altered cellular responsiveness, reflected by a reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Compared with controls, alveolar macrophages derived from gut microbiota-depleted mice showed a diminished capacity to phagocytose S. pneumoniae. This study identifies the intestinal microbiota as a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia. The gut microbiota enhances primary alveolar macrophage function. Novel therapeutic strategies could exploit the gut-lung axis in bacterial infections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Analytical evidence of heterogeneous lead accumulation in the hypothalamic defence area and nucleus tractus solitarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, D; Santos, J P; Carvalho, M L; Diniz, M S; House, B; Miller, V M

    2014-09-01

    Lead is a potent toxicant associated with adverse cardiovascular effects and hypertension in children. Yet, few studies have determined if autonomic dysfunction associated with lead exposure involves brain regions which regulate autonomic responses. Central autonomic nuclei such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and hypothalamic defence area (HDA) may be particularly sensitive to lead infiltration because they are adjacent to ventricles and areas with semi-permeable blood-brain-barriers. To understand if autonomic nuclei are sensitive to lead accumulation Wistar rats were exposed to lead from the gestational period and lead levels were quantified in brain regions that regulate arterial pressure: the NTS and the HDA. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to quantify total brain lead levels and revealed no differences between exposed and control tissues; measured values were close to the detection limit (2μg/g). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was also used, which has a greater sensitivity, to quantify lead. There was ∼2.1μg/g lead in the NTS and ∼3.1μg/g lead in the HDA of exposed rats, and no lead in the control rats. There were greater lead levels in the HDA (∼50%) as compared with the NTS. Pathology studies revealed more prominent lead granules in the HDA as compared with the NTS. Increased microglia and astrocyte activation was also noted in the NTS of lead exposed rats as compared with the HDA. Regional differences in neuro-inflammatory responses likely contribute to heterogeneous lead accumulation, with enhanced clearance of lead in the NTS. Future studies will resolve the mechanisms underpinning tissue-specific lead accumulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas Market deverticalization and liberalization: simulate the effect of different attack and defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drusiani, Renato; Fazioli, Roberto; Matino, Paola

    2005-01-01

    The Autorita' per l'Energia Elettrica e il Gas (Aeeg-Italian Electricity Regulator) and The Autorita' Garante per la Concorrenza e il Mercato (Agcm - Italian Competition and Market Regulator) have pointed out that, despite the process of deverticalization and liberalization started with the 'Decreto Letta', oligopolistic blocks still exist in the up stream segment of the natural gas supply chain. Such a liberalization process apparently did not bring about those expected, outstanding benefits for the final users, to such extent that it took action from the Aeeg itself to regulate the final prices, thus dramatically hampering the complete opening of the market and ultimately undermining its expected results. Furthermore, the natural gas industry operators are all aware that competition in the down stream segment (distribution) will be, as it is righi now, limited only to the more attractive industrial use. This parer analyzes and simulates, based on empirical data, the effect of different attack and defence strategies between incumbents and competitors, whose identification is based more on the financial solidity they show in developing competition strategies than their management efficiency level. Il is our intent to add a contribution to the national debate in terms of simulation of a price competition between incumbent and competitor, in order to evaluate how likely it is far oligopolistic blocks to occur. As a second step, a simplified competition analysis, applied to a real-life situation, has been carried out. The questions tackled in this simulation, which is based on the game theory, concern, first and foremost, the demonstration that an oligopolistic block in the up stream affects the down stream, and how such effects bear on the various categories of users. As a final corollary, a question of industrial policy: are the effects of an asymmetric liberalization such as to induce a supply side concentration which is rather based on the exploitation of the up

  9. The origins of marine bioluminescence: turning oxygen defence mechanisms into deep-sea communication tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J F; de Wergifosse, B; Noiset, O; Dubuisson, M; Janssens, B; Thompson, E M

    1998-04-01

    Bioluminescence, the emission of ecologically functional light by living organisms, emerged independently on several occasions, yet the evolutionary origins of most bioluminescent systems remain obscure. We propose that the luminescent substrates of the luminous reactions (luciferins) are the evolutionary core of most systems, while luciferases, the enzymes catalysing the photogenic oxidation of the luciferin, serve to optimise the expression of the endogenous chemiluminescent properties of the luciferin. Coelenterazine, a luciferin occurring in many marine bioluminescent groups, has strong antioxidative properties as it is highly reactive with reactive oxygen species such as the superoxide anion or peroxides. We suggest that the primary function of coelenterazine was originally the detoxification of the deleterious oxygen derivatives. The functional shift from its antioxidative to its light-emitting function might have occurred when the strength of selection for antioxidative defence mechanisms decreased. This might have been made possible when marine organisms began colonising deeper layers of the oceans, where exposure to oxidative stress is considerably reduced because of reduced light irradiance and lower oxygen levels. A reduction in metabolic activity with increasing depth would also have decreased the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, in these organisms, mechanisms for harnessing the chemiluminescence of coelenterazine in specialised organs could have developed, while the beneficial antioxidative properties were maintained in other tissues. The full range of graded irradiance in the mesopelagic zone, where the majority of organisms are bioluminescent, would have provided a continuum for the selection and improvement of proto-bioluminescence. Although the requirement for oxygen or reactive oxygen species observed in bioluminescent systems reflects the high energy required to produce visible light, it may suggest that oxygen

  10. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  11. Enhanced defence in depth: a fundamental approach for innovative nuclear systems recommended by INPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2001, the IAEA initiated the 'International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)'. Having in mind that nuclear power will be an important option for meeting future electricity needs, the scope of INPRO covers nuclear reactors expected to come into service in the next fifty years, together with their associated fuel cycles. This article deals with enhanced defence in depth (DID) strategy that is recommended by INPRO. This strategy is twofold: first, to prevent accidents and second, if prevention fails, to limit their potential consequences and prevent any evolution to more serious conditions. Accident prevention is the first priority. For innovative nuclear systems, the effectiveness of preventive measures should be enhanced compared with existing systems. DID is generally structured in 5 levels of protection, including successive barriers preventing the release of radioactive material to the environment. These levels are: 1) prevention of abnormal operation and failures, 2) control of abnormal operation and detection of failures, 3) control of accidents within the design basis, 4) control of severe plant conditions, including prevention and mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents, and 5) mitigation of radiological consequences of significant release of radioactive materials. In the area of nuclear safety, INPRO has set 5 principles: 1) incorporate DID as a part of the safety approach and make the 5 levels of DID more independent from each other than in current installations; 2) prevent, reduce or contain releases of radioactive or hazardous materials in any normal or abnormal plant operation; 3) incorporate increased emphasis on inherent safety characteristics and passive safety features; 4) include research and development work to bring the capability of computer codes used for the safety of innovative nuclear systems to the standard of codes used for the safety of current reactors; and 5) include a holistic life

  12. Energy drinks and their component modulate attention, memory, and antioxidant defences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, M T Costa; Couto-Pereira, N S; Lampert, C; Arcego, D M; Toniazzo, A P; Limberger, R P; Dallegrave, E; Dalmaz, C; Arbo, M D; Leal, M B

    2017-08-12

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the subchronic consumption of energy drinks and their constituents (caffeine and taurine) in male Wistar rats using behavioural and oxidative measures. Energy drinks (ED 5, 7.5, and 10 mL/kg) or their constituents, caffeine (3.2 mg/kg) and taurine (40 mg/kg), either separately or in combination, were administered orally to animals for 28 days. Attention was measured though the ox-maze apparatus and the object recognition memory test. Following behavioural analyses, markers of oxidative stress, including SOD, CAT, GPx, thiol content, and free radicals, were measured in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. The latency time to find the first reward was lower in animals that received caffeine, taurine, or a combination of both (P = 0.003; ANOVA/Bonferroni). In addition, these animals took less time to complete the ox-maze task (P = 0.0001; ANOVA/Bonferroni), and had better short-term memory (P caffeine and taurine, there was a significant increase in the production of free radicals in the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus (P caffeine and taurine improved memory and attention, and led to an imbalance in the antioxidant defence system. These results differed from those of the group that was exposed to the energy drink. This might be related to other components contained in the energy drink, such as vitamins and minerals, which may have altered the ability of caffeine and taurine to modulate memory and attention.

  13. Evidence of viscerally-mediated cold-defence thermoeffector responses in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan B; Filingeri, Davide; Halaki, Mark; Jay, Ollie

    2017-02-15

    Visceral thermoreceptors that modify thermoregulatory responses are widely accepted in animal but not human thermoregulation models. Recently, we have provided evidence of viscerally-mediated sweating alterations in humans during exercise brought about by warm and cool fluid ingestion. In the present study, we characterize the modification of shivering and whole-body thermal sensation during cold stress following the administration of a graded thermal stimuli delivered to the stomach via fluid ingestion at 52, 37, 22 and 7°C. Despite no differences in core and skin temperature, fluid ingestion at 52°C rapidly decreased shivering and sensations of cold compared to 37°C, whereas fluid ingestion at 22 and 7°C led to equivalent increases in these responses. Warm and cold fluid ingestion independently modifies cold defence thermoeffector responses, supporting the presence of visceral thermoreceptors in humans. However, the cold-defence thermoeffector response patterns differed from previously identified hot-defence thermoeffectors. Sudomotor activity is modified by both warm and cold fluid ingestion during heat stress, independently of differences in core and skin temperatures, suggesting independent viscerally-mediated modification of thermoeffectors. The present study aimed to determine whether visceral thermoreceptors modify shivering responses to cold stress. Ten males (mean ± SD: age 27 ± 5 years; height 1.73 ± 0.06 m, weight 78.4 ± 10.7 kg) underwent whole-body cooling via a water perfusion suit at 5°C, on four occasions, to induce a steady-state shivering response, at which point two aliquots of 1.5 ml kg -1 (SML) and 3.0 ml kg -1 (LRG), separated by 20 min, of water at 7, 22, 37 or 52°C were ingested. Rectal, mean skin and mean body temperature (T b ), electromyographic activity (EMG), metabolic rate (M) and whole-body thermal sensation on a visual analogue scale (WBTS) ranging from 0 mm (very cold) to 200 mm (very hot) were all

  14. Grapevine fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase generates actin-disrupting volatiles and promotes defence-related cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Claudel, Patricia; Riemann, Michael; Hause, Bettina; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Fatty acid hydroperoxides can generate short-chained volatile aldehydes that may participate in plant defence. A grapevine hydroperoxide lyase (VvHPL1) clustering to the CYP74B class was functionally characterized with respect to a role in defence. In grapevine leaves, transcripts of this gene accumulated rapidly to high abundance in response to wounding. Cellular functions of VvHPL1 were investigated upon heterologous expression in tobacco BY-2 cells. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion of VvHPL1 was located in plastids. The overexpression lines were found to respond to salinity stress or the bacterial elicitor harpin by increasing cell death. This signal-dependent mortality response was mitigated either by addition of exogenous jasmonic acid or by treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases. By feeding different substrates to recombinantly expressed enzyme, VvHPL1 could also be functionally classified as true 13-HPL. The cognate products generated by this 13-HPL were cis-3-hexenal and trans-2-hexenal. Using a GFP-tagged actin marker line, one of these isomeric products, cis-3-hexenal, was found specifically to elicit a rapid disintegration of actin filaments. This response was not only observed in the heterologous system (tobacco BY-2), but also in a grapevine cell strain expressing this marker, as well as in leaf discs from an actin marker grape used as a homologous system. These results are discussed in the context of a role for VvHPL1 in a lipoxygenase-dependent signalling pathway triggering cell death-related defence that bifurcates from jasmonate-dependent basal immunity. PMID:29659985

  15. Cathelicidin host defence peptide augments clearance of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by its influence on neutrophil function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula E Beaumont

    Full Text Available Cathelicidins are multifunctional cationic host-defence peptides (CHDP; also known as antimicrobial peptides and an important component of innate host defence against infection. In addition to microbicidal potential, these peptides have properties with the capacity to modulate inflammation and immunity. However, the extent to which such properties play a significant role during infection in vivo has remained unclear. A murine model of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection was utilised, demonstrating cathelicidin-mediated enhancement of bacterial clearance in vivo. The delivery of exogenous synthetic human cathelicidin LL-37 was found to enhance a protective pro-inflammatory response to infection, effectively promoting bacterial clearance from the lung in the absence of direct microbicidal activity, with an enhanced early neutrophil response that required both infection and peptide exposure and was independent of native cathelicidin production. Furthermore, although cathelicidin-deficient mice had an intact early cellular inflammatory response, later phase neutrophil response to infection was absent in these animals, with significantly impaired clearance of P. aeruginosa. These findings demonstrate the importance of the modulatory properties of cathelicidins in pulmonary infection in vivo and highlight a key role for cathelicidins in the induction of protective pulmonary neutrophil responses, specific to the infectious milieu. In additional to their physiological roles, CHDP have been proposed as future antimicrobial therapeutics. Elucidating and utilising the modulatory properties of cathelicidins has the potential to inform the development of synthetic peptide analogues and novel therapeutic approaches based on enhancing innate host defence against infection with or without direct microbicidal targeting of pathogens.

  16. How to Reinforce the “Defence-in-Depth” in NPP by Taking into Account Natural Hazards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarenne, C.; Herviou, K.; Picot, C.; Dupuy, P., E-mail: caroline.lavarenne@irsn.fr, E-mail: karine.herviou@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2014-10-15

    The “defence-in-depth” (DiD) principle is the fundamental safety principle for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. This principle aims to prevent as far as possible initiating events and managing their consequences if preventive provisions failed. It has to be applied to the protection against hazards so as to limit their likelihood and/or their consequences by the implementation of prevention, control and mitigation provisions in NPPs consistently with provisions for internal events. So far, the protection of nuclear power plants against external hazards follows a “load-cases” approach, which differs from the approach used for internal events. In 2011, the Fukushima accident showed that, for a beyond design hazard or a combination of hazards not considered at the design stage, all levels of defence may be swept away simultaneously and may lead to a disaster. Natural hazards can therefore be considered as a potential common cause of failure affecting at the same time all levels of the “defence-in-depth”. In France, the definition and the implementation of a post-Fukushima “Hardened Safety Core” for operating NPPs should compensate for some weaknesses in the current approach and improve significantly the robustness of the installations against natural hazards. For future reactors, a new approach based on the definition of two domains, “design basis” and “design extension” for natural hazards, is examined in order to fulfil ambitious general plant safety objectives. It turns out that safety assessments related to natural hazards raise some challenges and difficulties, especially to characterize events with very low frequencies in a context of limited data, to define combinations of hazards (eventually with internal events) and to consider events that go beyond the design basis. For these issues, international guidance and discussions may be fruitful. (author)

  17. The combined use of Pochonia chlamydosporia and plant defence activators - a potential sustainable control strategy for Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara VIEIRA DOS SANTOS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable strategies are required for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi to reduce dependence on toxic chemical pesticides. The efficacy of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia in biocontrol could be enhanced by integration with control measures that reduce initial nematode infestations. The use of foliar sprays with plant defence activators can reduce the susceptibility of potato plants to M. chitwoodi. This study assessed effects of combined soil application of P. chlamydosporia with foliar sprays of benzothiadiazole (BTH or cis-jasmone on infection of potatoes by M. chitwoodi. Solanum tuberosum, cv. Désirée plants were grown in soil mixed with 5000 chlamydospores g-1 of soil, sprayed twice with BTH or cis-jasmone and inoculated with 300 M. chitwoodi second-stage juveniles. Forty-five days after inoculation, nematode reproduction, numbers of colony-forming units of the fungus g-1 of soil and g-1 of root, and egg parasitism were assessed by standard techniques. Foliar sprays of BTH or cis-jasmone combined with the fungus reduced nematode reproduction (P<0.05, LSD. The presence of the fungus slightly increased the efficacy of cis-jasmone, as the number of eggs per egg mass was less in plants treated both with cis-jasmone and the fungus than in the plants treated only with the defence activator. The proportion of parasitized eggs was greater in the cis-jasmone treatment where rhizosphere colonisation was less, suggesting that P. chlamydosporia became a poorer rhizosphere coloniser but a more efficient nematode parasite. The addition of P. chlamydosporia to soil in combination with application of inducers of plant defence could be an alternative control strategy to be used against M. chitwoodi in potato.

  18. A plant EPF-type zinc-finger protein, CaPIF1, involved in defence against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Park, Jeong Mee; Joung, Young Hee; Lee, Sanghyeob; Chung, Eunsook; Kim, Soo-Yong; Yu, Seung Hun; Choi, Doil

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY To understand better the defence responses of plants to pathogen attack, we challenged hot pepper plants with bacterial pathogens and identified transcription factor-encoding genes whose expression patterns were altered during the subsequent hypersensitive response. One of these genes, CaPIF1 (Capsicum annuum Pathogen-Induced Factor 1), was characterized further. This gene encodes a plant-specific EPF-type protein that contains two Cys(2)/His(2) zinc fingers. CaPIF1 expression was rapidly and specifically induced when pepper plants were challenged with bacterial pathogens to which they are resistant. In contrast, challenge with a pathogen to which the plants are susceptible only generated weak CaPIF1 expression. CaPIF1 expression was also strongly induced in pepper leaves by the exogenous application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, and salicylic acid, whereas methyl jasmonate had only moderate effects. CaPIF1 localized to the nuclei of onion epidermis when expressed as a CaPIF1-smGFP fusion protein. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing CaPIF1 driven by the CaMV 35S promoter showed increased resistance to challenge with a tobacco-specific pathogen or non-host bacterial pathogens. These plants also showed constitutive up-regulation of multiple defence-related genes. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of the CaPIF1 orthologue in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to the same host or non-host bacterial pathogens. These observations provide evidence that an EPF-type Cys(2)/His(2) zinc-finger protein plays a crucial role in the activation of the pathogen defence response in plants.

  19. Seismic measures and defence in depth of nuclear power plant. Lessons learned from the great east Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kanehiro

    2011-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011 brought about severe accident at nuclear power plant, which gave significant lessons to nuclear experts concerned with safety measures. Concepts of defence in depth was basic philosophy to assure safety of nuclear power plant even against uncertainties exceeding design basis. This concept consisted of prevention, monitoring, and action to mitigate consequences of failures such as a series of physical barriers between the reactor core and the environment, which were called multiple safety systems, each with backup and designed to accommodate human error. As for natural disaster, depth of recognition of characteristic of natural phenomena and its effect and engineering judgment was of prime importance. Different waveforms of ground motion at Fukushima and Onagawa at the Great East Japan Earthquake showed that design ground motion should have large uncertainties. To cope with uncertainties of ground motion, robust seismic measures based on experience were such as design of static seismic intensity and rigid structure of natural period less than 0.1 sec. As for tsunami, defence in depth measures were prepared for the cooling of reactor core, spent fuel and related electric generation equipment with taking into account 1) time lag between tsunami generation and arrival, 2) tsunami affected area could be limited by coastal levee or anti-inundation measure, 3) system redundancy could be assured by different locations of equipments and 4) repair works could be done by shipment of replacement equipment from outside due to limitation of affected regional area. Success examples of Onagawa, Tokai unit 2, Fukushima Daiichi unit 6 and Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plants could suggest definite tsunami defence in depth measures. Containment vent system as final heat sink and emergency condenser as reactor core cooling at outage should be properly utilized for Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Leaf habit does not determine the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, X; Pearse, I S

    2017-05-01

    Plant life-history strategies associated with resource acquisition and economics (e.g. leaf habit) are thought to be fundamental determinants of the traits and mechanisms that drive herbivore pressure, resource allocation to plant defensive traits, and the simultaneous expression (positive correlations) or trade-offs (negative correlations) between these defensive traits. In particular, it is expected that evergreen species - which usually grow slower and support constant herbivore pressure in comparison with deciduous species - will exhibit higher levels of both physical and chemical defences and a higher predisposition to the simultaneous expression of physical and chemical defensive traits. Here, by using a dataset which included 56 oak species (Quercus genus), we investigated whether leaf habit of plant species governs the investment in both physical and chemical defences and pair-wise correlations between these defensive traits. Our results showed that leaf habit does not determine the production of most leaf physical and chemical defences. Although evergreen oak species had higher levels of leaf toughness and specific leaf mass (physical defences) than deciduous oak species, both traits are essentially prerequisites for evergreenness. Similarly, our results also showed that leaf habit does not determine pair-wise correlations between defensive traits because most physical and chemical defensive traits were simultaneously expressed in both evergreen and deciduous oak species. Our findings indicate that leaf habit does not substantially contribute to oak species differences in plant defence investment. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Testing for the induction of anti-herbivory defences in four Portuguese macroalgae by direct and water-borne cues of grazing amphipods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hee Young; Cruz, Joana; Treitschke, Michaela; Wahl, Martin; Molis, Markus

    2007-09-01

    Herbivory is a key factor in regulating plant biomass, thereby driving ecosystem performance. Algae have developed multiple adaptations to cope with grazers, including morphological and chemical defences. In a series of experiments we investigated whether several species of macroalgae possess anti-herbivore defences and whether these could be regulated to demand, i.e. grazing events. The potential of direct grazing on defence induction was assessed for two brown ( Dictyopteris membranacea, Fucus vesiculosus) and two red seaweeds ( Gelidium sesquipedale, Sphaerococcus coronopifolius) from São Rafael and Ria Formosa, Portugal. Bioassays conducted with live algal pieces and agar-based food containing lipophilic algal extracts were used to detect changes in palatability after exposure to amphipod attacks (=treatment phase). Fucus vesiculosus was the only species significantly reducing palatability in response to direct amphipod-attacks. This pattern was observed in live F. vesiculosus pieces and agar-based food containing a lipophilic extract, suggesting that lipophilic compounds produced during the treatment phase were responsible for the repulsion of grazers. Water-borne cues of grazed F. vesiculosus as well as non-grazing amphipods also reduced palatability of neighbouring conspecifics. However, this effect was only observed in live tissues of F. vesiculosus. This study is the first to show that amphipods, like isopods, are capable to induce anti-herbivory defences in F. vesiculosus and that a seasonally variable effectiveness of chemical defences might serve as a dynamic control in alga-herbivore interactions.

  3. Phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in plant defence response: from protein–protein and lipid–protein interactions to hormone signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) and PLD-derived phosphatidic acids (PAs) play vital roles in plant hormonal and environmental responses and various cellular dynamics. Recent studies have further expanded the functions of PLDs and PAs into plant–microbe interaction. The molecular diversities and redundant functions make PLD–PA an important signalling complex regulating lipid metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling in plant defence through protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions or hormone signalling. Different PLD–PA signalling complexes and their targets have emerged as fast-growing research topics for understanding their numerous but not yet established roles in modifying pathogen perception, signal transduction, and downstream defence responses. Meanwhile, advanced lipidomics tools have allowed researchers to reveal further the mechanisms of PLD–PA signalling complexes in regulating lipid metabolism and signalling, and their impacts on jasmonic acid/oxylipins, salicylic acid, and other hormone signalling pathways that essentially mediate plant defence responses. This review attempts to summarize the progress made in spatial and temporal PLD/PA signalling as well as PLD/PA-mediated modification of plant defence. It presents an in-depth discussion on the functions and potential mechanisms of PLD–PA complexes in regulating actin filament/microtubule cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling, and in influencing lipid metabolism-derived metabolites as critical signalling components in plant defence responses. The discussion puts PLD–PA in a broader context in order to guide future research. PMID:25680793

  4. Impairment of the chemical defence of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by metacestodes (cysticeroids) of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankespoor, C L; Pappas, P W; Eisner, T

    1997-07-01

    The defensive glands of beetles, Tenebrio molitor, infected with metacestodes (cysticercoids) of Hymenolepis diminuta are everted less frequently upon stimulation, and contain less toluquinone (methylbenzoquinone) and m-cresol, than glands of uninfected controls. These differences, as shown in predation trials with wild rats, increase the likelihood that both cysticercoids and beetles will be ingested by the tapeworm's definitive host. This is the first documented case of a parasite inhibiting the chemical defence of an intermediate host, and one of only a few reports of parasite-induced manipulation of host biology supported by empirical evidence implicating facilitated parasite transmission between host species.

  5. Something Has to Give: Why Delays Are the New Reality of Canada’s Defence Procurement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Sloan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent waves of political controversy over military procurement programs, most notably the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter project, are symptoms of an ongoing and increasingly strategic choice Canada is making in the way it equips its military. From the failure to settle on a design for the Arctic/Offshore Patrol Ship (which had an originally planned delivery date of 2013, to the un-awarded contracts for new fixed-wing search and rescue aircraft (initially anticipated nearly a decade ago and the incomplete Integrated Soldier-System Project (once expected to be active by this year; to the delay in cutting the steel for the Joint Support Ship (initial delivery planned for 2012 needed to replace vessels that are now being decommissioned, Canadians are witnessing the results of a new philosophy behind the government’s procurement process. Canadian governments have always insisted on industrial and regional benefits for Canada when buying military equipment. But the massive defence spending promised under the 2008 Canada First Defence Strategy exacerbated this approach. The emphasis has now formally been placed on favouring industrial benefits for Canada in defence acquisitions, while heightened political cautiousness has placed a higher priority on ensuring maximum value for taxpayer money with a zero tolerance for mistakes environment. A relatively small Canadian defence budget has put pressure on military officials to be creative about ordering new equipment — in some cases, perhaps too creative. Officials have taken to commissioning vehicles and equipment that are more versatile and are capable of carrying out more than their traditional functions. In certain instances, this has meant wish lists that cannot be fulfilled in the expected time frame, or even at all. This is the case, for example, with the Joint Support Ship, which went from a plan for new refuelling and replenishment ships to one for vessels that could also provide a command and

  6. Three lines of defence model and the role of internal audit activities as the response to the global economic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragičević Radičević, T.; Stojanović Trivanović, M.; Stanojević, Lj

    2017-05-01

    The existing framework of corporate governance has shown a number of weaknesses, and the result was a new economic crisis at the global level. The main problems were identified as: increased risk of investors, non-transparency of information, conflict of interest between corporation subjects. European Institute of Internal Auditors in response to the strengthening the trust in information, shareholders activism, better communication, which all will lead to the reduction of risks and restore investors confidence, proposed the Model Three Lines of Defence, where the key role has internal audit.

  7. Compact, diode-pumped, solid-state lasers for next generation defence and security sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; McRae, I.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2015-06-01

    Low-cost semiconductor laser diode pump sources have made a dramatic impact in sectors such as advanced manufacturing. They are now disrupting other sectors, such as defence and security (D&S), where Thales UK is a manufacturer of sensor systems for application on land, sea, air and man portable. In this talk, we will first give an overview of the market trends and challenges in the D&S sector. Then we will illustrate how low cost pump diodes are enabling new directions in D&S sensors, by describing two diode pumped, solid- state laser products currently under development at Thales UK. The first is a new generation of Laser Target Designators (LTD) that are used to identify targets for the secure guiding of munitions. Current systems are bulky, expensive and require large battery packs to operate. The advent of low cost diode technology, merged with our novel solid-state laser design, has created a designator that will be the smallest, lowest cost, STANAG compatible laser designator on the market. The LTD delivers greater that 50mJ per pulse up to 20Hz, and has compact dimensions of 125×70×55mm. Secondly, we describe an ultra-compact, eye-safe, solid-state laser rangefinder (LRF) with reduced size, weight and power consumption compared to existing products. The LRF measures 100×55×34mm, weighs 200g, and can range to greater than 10km with a single laser shot and at a reprate of 1Hz. This also leverages off advances in laser pump diodes, but also utilises low cost, high reliability, packaging technology commonly found in the telecoms sector. As is common in the D&S sector, the products are designed to work in extreme environments, such as wide temperature range (-40 to +71°C) and high levels of shock and vibration. These disruptive products enable next- generation laser sensors such as rangefinders, target designators and active illuminated imagers.

  8. Macrophages and cytokines in the early defence against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellermann-Eriksen Svend

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 and 2 are old viruses, with a history of evolution shared with humans. Thus, it is generally well-adapted viruses, infecting many of us without doing much harm, and with the capacity to hide in our neurons for life. In rare situations, however, the primary infection becomes generalized or involves the brain. Normally, the primary HSV infection is asymptomatic, and a crucial element in the early restriction of virus replication and thus avoidance of symptoms from the infection is the concerted action of different arms of the innate immune response. An early and light struggle inhibiting some HSV replication will spare the host from the real war against huge amounts of virus later in infection. As far as such a war will jeopardize the life of the host, it will be in both interests, including the virus, to settle the conflict amicably. Some important weapons of the unspecific defence and the early strikes and beginning battle during the first days of a HSV infection are discussed in this review. Generally, macrophages are orchestrating a multitude of anti-herpetic actions during the first hours of the attack. In a first wave of responses, cytokines, primarily type I interferons (IFN and tumour necrosis factor are produced and exert a direct antiviral effect and activate the macrophages themselves. In the next wave, interleukin (IL-12 together with the above and other cytokines induce production of IFN-γ in mainly NK cells. Many positive feed-back mechanisms and synergistic interactions intensify these systems and give rise to heavy antiviral weapons such as reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. This results in the generation of an alliance against the viral enemy. However, these heavy weapons have to be controlled to avoid too much harm to the host. By IL-4 and others, these reactions are hampered, but they are still allowed in foci of HSV replication, thus focusing the activity to only relevant sites

  9. DORIS downstream service: a support to civil defence autorithies in landslides and subsidence risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, A.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Manunta, M.; Calò, F.; Paglia, L.; Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Bellotti, F.; Colombo, D.; Strozzi, T.; Wegmuller, U.; Mora, O.; Sanches, F.

    2012-04-01

    , additional information on ground displacements through the generation of very long deformation time series, spanning an almost 20 year time interval by properly combining ERS-1, ERS-2 and ENVISAT data. In this work we present the preliminary results relevant to selected European areas (Umbria (Central Italy), Nebrodi (Sicily, Southern Italy), Zermatt (Switzerland), Silesian Coal basin (Poland), Mallorca (Spain) and Budapest basin (Hungary)) affected by ground deformation, highlighting as such EO data and technologies can significantly improve the ability of European Civil Defence authorities to assess and manage the risk induced by natural and man-made hazards.

  10. Nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for personnel in nuclear disaster for defence needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Yadav, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the tragedy of nuclear device exploding over Japan by USA in 1945 awareness exists amongst the armed forces personnel all over the world that a requirement of implementing radiological protection is imminent. Towards this adoption of radiological safety programme is a criterion. In a nuclear war disaster scenario, one encounters initial nuclear radiation (gamma and neutron radiations), gamma radiations from fallout, heat and blast. At certain distances Tanks/ armoured vehicles will survive and 4 R/s radiation level sensing to actuate relays for closing the ports of vehicles is essential, leading to reduction in inhalation, ingestion of fallout radioactivity and reduction in radiation dose received by occupants of the vehicle. Towards this sturdy radiation monitors to indicate gamma dose rate of the order of 1000 R/h, gamma and neutron dosimeters of the order of 1000 cGy with reading instruments are to be developed. These must work in harsh environment and sustain JSS 55555 conditions of army. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur over past one decade has been involved in developing personnel, area and field monitoring instruments like dosimeters, survey meters, which are useful, acceptable to army personnel, armoured and personnel carrier vehicles, field structures/shelters. Technology transfer after satisfaction of armed forces, product ionisation and supply, maintenance, training has been the endeavor of the DRDO. Herein it is proposed to highlight the techno electronics nuclear radiation monitoring sensors and associated electronics systems developed first time in the country and productionised in bulk for Services for implementing personnel protection. The sensors developed and described are - Radiophotoluminescent Glass (RPLG) for gamma radiation dosimetry , neutron sensitive PIN diode for fast neutron dosimetry, gamma radiation sensitive PIN diode, superheated liquid neutron and gamma sensors. The dosimeter, dose rate meter and field/area instruments are

  11. Bakhtinian Thought and the Defence of Narrative: Overcoming Universalism and Relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Owen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of recalcitrant global problems such as the prevalence of various levels and forms of inequality and increased environmental destruction, there is a growing recognition of the limitations, epistemological, political, social, cultural, ethical and ecological, of the modes of thought that have dominantly governed and continue to govern our worldview. The modernist project, despite various attempts to give voice to those previously denied, has come under criticism for tendencies to totalise experience and overlook or exclude differences. On the other hand, the postmodernist glorification of difference and tendency to isolate and fragment has generated a kind of debilitating uncertainty in the form of absolute relativism rendering any pursuit of meaning meaningless. Alongside the recognition of these limitations are attempts to overcome the negative effects of these modes of understanding and to create new ways of understanding ourselves, our relationship to others, human and non-human and to the larger world process in which we find ourselves. Despite the supposed opposition between the modern and postmodern projects, the two share in common the tendency to undermine another mode of understanding that by its very nature both precludes and succeeds them. The mode of understanding referred to is narrative understanding which has the potential to pave a middle way between modernity’s totalising exclusions and postmodernity’s fragmenting nihilism, furthermore when the narrative approach is seriously undertaken it becomes clear that the formerly polarised dominant modes of thought are part of a wider, more heterogeneous process. The following article examines and highlights in detail some of the problems surrounding the modern and postmodern modes of thought in order to demonstrate the usefulness of narrative theory in overcoming these problems. In order to augment the defence of narrative theory this article also draws considerably from

  12. Impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on a demersal hard-bottom fish community in the southern North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    In the coming decades, artificial defence structures will increase in importance worldwide for the protection of coasts against the impacts of global warming. However, the ecological effects of such structures on the natural surroundings remain unclear. We investigated the impact of experimentally introduced tetrapod fields on the demersal fish community in a hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. The results indicated a significant decrease in fish abundance in the surrounding area caused by migration effects towards the artificial structures. Diversity (HB) and evenness (E) values exhibited greater variation after the introduction of the tetrapods. Additionally, a distinct increase in young-of-the-year (YOY) fish was observed near the structures within the second year after introduction. We suggest that the availability of adequate refuges in combination with additional food resources provided by the artificial structures has a highly species-specific attraction effect. However, these findings also demonstrate that our knowledge regarding the impact of artificial structures on temperate fish communities is still too limited to truly understand the ecological processes that are initiated by the introduction of artificial structures. Long-term investigations and additional experimental in situ work worldwide will be indispensable for a full understanding of the mechanisms by which coastal defence structures interact with the coastal environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternally derived chemical defences are an effective deterrent against some predators of poison frog tadpoles (Oophaga pumilio).

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    Stynoski, Jennifer L; Shelton, Georgia; Stynoski, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Parents defend their young in many ways, including provisioning chemical defences. Recent work in a poison frog system offers the first example of an animal that provisions its young with alkaloids after hatching or birth rather than before. But it is not yet known whether maternally derived alkaloids are an effective defence against offspring predators. We identified the predators of Oophaga pumilio tadpoles and conducted laboratory and field choice tests to determine whether predators are deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. We found that snakes, spiders and beetle larvae are common predators of O. pumilio tadpoles. Snakes were not deterred by alkaloids in tadpoles. However, spiders were less likely to consume mother-fed O. pumilio tadpoles than either alkaloid-free tadpoles of the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas, or alkaloid-free O. pumilio tadpoles that had been hand-fed with A. callidryas eggs. Thus, maternally derived alkaloids reduce the risk of predation for tadpoles, but only against some predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Defence syndromes in lodgepole - whitebark pine ecosystems relate to degree of historical exposure to mountain pine beetles.

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    Raffa, Kenneth F; Mason, Charles J; Bonello, Pierluigi; Cook, Stephen; Erbilgin, Nadir; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Villari, Caterina; Townsend, Philip A

    2017-09-01

    Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defences that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analysed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and Pinus albicaulis, a high-elevation species whose encounters with this beetle are transitioning from intermittent to continuous. We quantified multiple classes of terpenes, phenolics, carbohydrates and minerals. Pinus contorta had higher constitutive allocation to, and generally stronger inducibility of, compounds that resist these beetle-fungal complexes. Pinus albicaulis contained higher proportions of specific monoterpenes that enhance pheromone communication, and lower induction of pheromone inhibitors. Induced P. contorta increased insecticidal and fungicidal compounds simultaneously, whereas P. albicaulis responses against these agents were inverse. Induced terpene accumulation was accompanied by decreased non-structural carbohydrates, primarily sugars, in P. contorta, but not P. albicaulis, which contained primarily starches. These results show some host species with continuous exposure to bark beetles have more thoroughly integrated defence syndromes than less-continuously exposed host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Heath government and British defence policy in Southeast Asia at the end of empire (1970-71).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea, Benvenuti

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the rationale behind the Heath government's 1970 decision to negotiate a Five Power Defence agreement with Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Malaysia and to maintain a small British military contingent in Southeast Asia as a part of this new politico-military framework. It argues that while its overriding foreign policy concern was to end Britain's problematic relationship with the European Economic Community and to make membership of this grouping the cornerstone of its foreign policy, the Heath government was careful not to cast Britain's post-imperial future in purely European terms. The successful negotiation of the Five Power Defence Arrangements in 1970-71 was instrumental in achieving this by ensuring that London would maintain close links with key Commonwealth partners in the Asian region. In what was not only an attempt to neutralize potential domestic opposition to Britain's entry into the EEC, but also a lingering reluctance to do away with the rhetoric of Britain as a leading power with extra-European interests, Heath was eager to show that by making a contribution to the stability of Southeast Asia, Britain still had a role to play outside Europe.

  16. The rare sugar D-allose acts as a triggering molecule of rice defence via ROS generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Akihito; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Yoshihara, Akihide; Ohara, Toshiaki; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ohkouchi, Takeo; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Ichimura, Kazuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Gomi, Kenji; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Only D-allose, among various rare monosaccharides tested, induced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in susceptible rice leaves with defence responses: reactive oxygen species, lesion mimic formation, and PR-protein gene expression. These responses were suppressed by ascorbic acid or diphenylene iodonium. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsrbohC, encoding NADPH oxidase, were enhanced in sensitivity to D-allose. D-Allose-mediated defence responses were suppressed by the presence of a hexokinase inhibitor. 6-Deoxy-D-allose, a structural derivative of D-allose unable to be phosphorylated, did not confer resistance. Transgenic rice plants expressing Escherichia coli AlsK encoding D-allose kinase to increase D-allose 6-phosphate synthesis were more sensitive to D-allose, but E. coli AlsI encoding D-allose 6-phosphate isomerase expression to decrease D-allose 6-phosphate reduced sensitivity. A D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-defective mutant was also less sensitive, and OsG6PDH1 complementation restored full sensitivity. These results reveal that a monosaccharide, D-allose, induces rice resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae by activating NADPH oxidase through the activity of D-glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, initiated by hexokinase-mediated conversion of D-allose to D-allose 6-phosphate, and treatment with D-allose might prove to be useful for reducing disease development in rice.

  17. Systemic resistance and lipoxygenase-related defence response induced in tomato by Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dommes Jacques

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed the ability of Pseudomonas putida strain BTP1 to promote induced systemic resistance (ISR in different host plants. Since ISR is long-lasting and not conducive for development of resistance of the targeted pathogen, this phenomenon can take part of disease control strategies. However, in spite of the numerous examples of ISR induced by PGPR in plants, only a few biochemical studies have associated the protective effect with specific host metabolic changes. Results In this study, we showed the protective effect of this bacterium in tomato against Botrytis cinerea. Following treatment by P. putida BTP1, analyses of acid-hydrolyzed leaf extracts showed an accumulation of antifungal material after pathogen infection. The fungitoxic compounds thus mainly accumulate as conjugates from which active aglycones may be liberated through the activity of hydrolytic enzymes. These results suggest that strain BTP1 can elicit systemic phytoalexin accumulation in tomato as one defence mechanism. On another hand, we have shown that key enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway are stimulated in plants treated with the bacteria as compared with control plants. Interestingly, this stimulation is observed only after pathogen challenge in agreement with the priming concept almost invariably associated with the ISR phenomenon. Conclusion Through the demonstration of phytoalexin accumulation and LOX pathway stimulation in tomato, this work provides new insights into the diversity of defence mechanisms that are inducible by non-pathogenic bacteria in the context of ISR.

  18. The Trojan Horse of the microbiological arms race: phage-encoded toxins as a defence against eukaryotic predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jason W; Koudelka, Gerald B

    2014-02-01

    Phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) acts as a bacterial defence against the eukaryotic predator Tetrahymena. To function as an effective bacterial anti-predator defence, Stx must kill a broad spectrum of predators. Consistent with that assertion, we show here that bacterially encoded Stx efficiently kills the bacteriovore Acanthamoeba castellanii in co-culture. We also show that, in addition to Stx, the phage-encoded exotoxin, diphtheria toxin (Dtx) expressed by Corynebacterium diphtheriae also can function as part of an anti-predator strategy; it kills Acanthamoeba in co-culture. Interestingly, only exotoxins produced by bacteria internalized by the Acanthamoeba predator are cytolethal; the presence of purified Dtx or Stx in culture medium has no effect on predator viability. This finding is consistent with our results indicating that intoxication of Acanthamoeba by these exotoxins does not require a receptor. Thus bacteria, in the disguise of a food source, function as a 'Trojan Horse', carrying genes encoding an exotoxin into target organisms. This 'Trojan Horse' mechanism of exotoxin delivery into predator cells allows intoxication of predators that lack a cell surface receptor for the particular toxin, allowing bacteria-bearing exotoxins to kill a broader spectrum of predators, increasing the fitness of the otherwise 'defenceless' prey bacteria. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Threshold of the State: Civil Defence, the Blackout and the Home in Second World War Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, James

    2017-06-01

    This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home. What emerges not only expands historical understandings of the wartime experience of civilians, it also shows civil defence measures as highly visible points on an often antagonistic trajectory of state interactions with citizens concerning the privacy and security of the dwelling in the modern city. The requirements of civil defence, I argue, were not merely the product of exceptional wartime circumstances, but symptomatic of long-standing attempts to open up dwellings to state scrutiny. These attempts had both a significant pre-war lineage and, crucially, implications beyond the end of the war in private homes and on social housing estates. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A standards-based approach to quality improvement for HIV services at Zambia Defence Force facilities: results and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kols, Adrienne; Kim, Young-Mi; Bazant, Eva; Necochea, Edgar; Banda, Joseph; Stender, Stacie

    2015-07-01

    The Zambia Defence Force adopted the Standards-Based Management and Recognition approach to improve the quality of the HIV-related services at its health facilities. This quality improvement intervention relies on comprehensive, detailed assessment tools to communicate and verify adherence to national standards of care, and to test and implement changes to improve performance. A quasi-experimental evaluation of the intervention was conducted at eight Zambia Defence Force primary health facilities (four facilities implemented the intervention and four did not). Data from three previous analyses are combined to assess the effect of Standards-Based Management and Recognition on three domains: facility readiness to provide services; observed provider performance during antiretroviral therapy (ART) and antenatal care consultations; and provider perceptions of the work environment. Facility readiness scores for ART improved on four of the eight standards at intervention sites, and one standard at comparison sites. Facility readiness scores for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV increased by 15 percentage points at intervention sites and 7 percentage points at comparison sites. Provider performance improved significantly at intervention sites for both ART services (from 58 to 84%; P improved at intervention sites and declined at comparison sites; differences in trends between study groups were significant for eight items. A standards-based approach to quality improvement proved effective in supporting healthcare managers and providers to deliver ART and PMTCT services in accordance with evidence-based standards in a health system suffering from staff shortages.