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Sample records for anti-m2 scfv shows

  1. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  2. Synergistic capture of Clostridium botulinum Type A neurotoxin by scFv antibodies to novel epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean A.; Barr, John R.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Marks, James D.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    A non-immune library of human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for binding to the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain [BoNT/A (Hc)] with the goal of identifying scFv to novel epitopes. To do this, an antibody-mediated labeling strategy was used in which antigen-binding yeast clones were selected after labeling with previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the Hc. Twenty unique scFv clones were isolated that bound Hc. Of these, three also bound to full-length BoNT/A toxin complex with affinities ranging from 5 nM to 170 nM. Epitope binning showed that the three unique clones recognized at least two epitopes that were distinct from one another and from the detection MAbs. After production in E. coli, the scFv were coupled to magnetic particles and tested for their ability to capture BoNT/A holotoxin using an Endopep-MS assay. In this assay, toxin captured by scFv coated magnetic particles was detected by incubation of the complex with a peptide containing a BoNT/A-specific cleavage sequence. Mass spectrometry was used to detect the ratio of intact peptide to cleavage products as evidence for toxin capture. When tested individually, each of the scFv showed a weak positive Endopep-MS result. However, when the particles were coated with all three scFv simultaneously, they exhibited significantly higher Endopep-MS activity, consistent with synergistic binding. These results demonstrate novel approaches toward the isolation and characterization of scFv antibodies specific to unlabeled antigen. They also provide evidence that distinct scFv antibodies can work synergistically to increase the efficiency of antigen capture onto a solid support.

  3. Engineering production of functional scFv antibody in E. coli by co-expressing the molecule chaperone Skp

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    Rongzhi eWang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Single-chain variable fragment (scFv is a class of engineered antibodies generated by the fusion of the heavy (VH and light chains (VL of immunoglobulins through a short polypeptide linker. ScFv play a critical role in therapy and diagnosis of human diseases, and may in fact also be developed into a potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent. However, the fact that current scFv antibodies have poor stability, low solubility and affinity, seriously limits their diagnostic and clinical implication. Here we have developed four different expression vectors, and evaluated their abilities to express a soluble scFv protein. The solubility and binding activity of the purified proteins were determined using both SDS-PAGE and ELISA. Amongst the four purified proteins, the Skp co-expressed scFv showed the highest solubility, and the binding activity to antigen TLH was 3-4 fold higher than the other three purified scFv. In fact, this scFv is specific for TLH and does not cross-react with other TLH-associated proteins and could be used to detect TLH directly in real samples. These results suggest that the pACYC-Duet-skp co-expression vector might be a useful tool for the production of soluble and functional scFv antibody.

  4. Production of in vivo biotinylated scFv specific to almond (Prunus dulcis) proteins by recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Silvia; Alcocer, Marcos; Madrid, Raquel; García, Aina; Martín, Rosario; González, Isabel; García, Teresa

    2016-06-10

    The methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris has demonstrated its suitability for large-scale production of recombinant proteins. As an eukaryotic organism P. pastoris presents a series of advantages at expression and processing of heterologous proteins when compared with Escherichia coli. In this work, P. pastoris has been used to express a scFv from a human synthetic library previously shown to bind almond proteins. In order to facilitate purification and post processing manipulations, the scFv was engineered with a C-terminal tag and biotinylated in vivo. After purification, biotinylated scFv were bound to avidin conjugated with HRP producing a multimeric scFv. The multimeric scFv showed to maintain their ability to recognize almond protein when assayed in ELISA, reaching a LOD of 470mgkg(-1). This study describes an easy method to produce large quantities of in vivo biotinylated scFv in P. pastoris. By substituting the enzyme or fluorochromes linked to avidin, it will be possible to generate a diverse number of multimeric scFv as probes to suit different analytical platforms in the detection of almond in food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and characterization of anti c-met single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies.

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    Qamsari, Elmira Safaie; Sharifzadeh, Zahra; Bagheri, Salman; Riazi-Rad, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Sepideh Safaei; Baradaran, Behzad; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is the cell surface receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) involved in invasive growth programs during embryogenesis and tumorgenesis. There is compelling evidence suggesting important roles for c-Met in colorectal cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Hence, a molecular inhibitor of an extracellular domain of c-Met receptor that blocks c-Met-cell surface interactions could be of great thera-peutic importance. In an attempt to develop molecular inhibitors of c-Met, single chain variable fragment (scFv) phage display libraries Tomlinson I + J against a specific synthetic oligopeptide from the extracellular domain of c-Met receptor were screened; selected scFv were then characterized using various immune techniques. Three c-Met specific scFv (ES1, ES2, and ES3) were selected following five rounds of panning procedures. The scFv showed specific binding to c-Met receptor, and significantly inhibited proliferation responses of a human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116). Moreover, anti- apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on the HCT-116 cell line were also evaluated using Annexin V/PI assays. The results demonstrated rates of apoptotic cell death of 46.0, 25.5, and 37.8% among these cells were induced by use of ES1, ES2, and ES3, respectively. The results demonstrated ability to successfully isolate/char-acterize specific c-Met scFv that could ultimately have a great therapeutic potential in immuno-therapies against (colorectal) cancers.

  6. Generation and characterization of a novel recombinant scFv antibody specific for Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Nzuma, Ruramayi M; Liu, Fuquan; Grant, Irene R

    2018-04-07

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, mainly due to consumption and handling of contaminated raw chicken. Rapid detection methods for C. jejuni are vital for monitoring contamination levels in chicken products and reducing human Campylobacteriosis cases. The 'gold standard' culture-based method of Campylobacter detection takes 3-5 days and is too slow to permit effective intervention. Immuno-based methods are faster, but usually necessitate use of animals or hybridoma technology to produce antibodies; making them difficult and expensive to produce. Here, we report the generation and characterization of recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies specific for C. jejuni cells, and evaluation of one scFv antibody for an immunomagnetic separation-quantitative PCR (IMS-qPCR) method to rapidly, sensitively, and specifically detect low numbers of C. jejuni. An scFv antibody phage-display library was constructed using spleen mRNA derived from a rabbit immunized with gamma-irradiated C. jejuni cells. This library was screened by surface biopanning against C. jejuni whole cells. Enriched clones were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two scFv antibodies that strongly and specifically recognized C. jejuni cell were expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis showed that one antibody, scFv80, was expressed as a soluble protein and retained its specific and strong binding to C. jejuni cells. This recombinant monoclonal scFv antibody was purified and used to covalently coat paramagnetic beads to be used for IMS-qPCR. The IMS-qPCR method was able to specifically and sensitively detect C. jejuni in mixed cultures within 3 h.

  7. Generation and Characterization of a scFv Antibody Against T3SS Needle of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongzhi; Fang, Sui; Xiang, Shuangshuang; Ling, Sumei; Yuan, Jun; Wang, Shihua

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a halophilic gram-negative bacterium, is a food-borne pathogen that largely inhabits marine and estuarine environments, and poses a serious threat to human and animal health all over the world. The hollow "needle" channel, a specific assemble of T3SS which exists in most of gram-negative bacteria, plays a key role in the transition of virulence effectors to host cells. In this study, needle protein VP1694 was successfully expressed and purified, and the fusion protein Trx-VP1694 was used to immunize Balb/c mice. Subsequently, a phage single-chain fragment variable antibody (scFv) library was constructed, and a specific scFv against VP1694 named scFv-FA7 was screened by phage display panning. To further identify the characters of scFv, the soluble expression vector pACYC-scFv-skp was constructed and the soluble scFv was purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. ELISA analysis showed that the scFv-FA7 was specific to VP1694 antigen, and its affinity constant was 1.07 × 10(8 )L/mol. These results offer a molecular basis to prevent and cure diseases by scFv, and also provide a new strategy for further research on virulence mechanism of T3SS in V. parahaemolyticus by scFv.

  8. Disfunção autonômica e anticorpos contra receptores anti-m2 e anti-β1 em pacientes chagásicos

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    Clarissa Antunes Thiers

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A morte súbita é a principal causa de óbito na doença de Chagas, acometendo pacientes mesmo em fases precoces da doença. É reconhecido o comprometimento do sistema nervoso autônomo nessa doença e seu potencial como deflagrador de arritmias malignas quando associado a alterações estruturais ou metabólicas. OBJETIVO: Buscamos identificar, em pacientes chagásicos com função sistólica preservada, o comprometimento do sistema nervoso autônomo e sua associação com anticorpos funcionalmente ativos contra receptores anti-m2 e anti-β1. MÉTODOS: Mediante análise espectral da variabilidade RR durante teste de inclinação passiva, pacientes chagásicos crônicos foram comparados com controles saudáveis pareados por idade. Posteriormente, a associação de disfunção autonômica com anticorpos funcionalmente ativos com ação anti-m2 e anti-β1 foi pesquisada pelo método de Langendorf. RESULTADOS: Observamos que pacientes chagásicos sem disfunção ventricular expressam atividade parassimpática ante um estímulo vagal, porém com menor intensidade em relação aos controles. Pacientes chagásicos com anticorpos anti-m2 ou anti-β1 apresentaram uma redução ainda mais expressiva da resposta vagal durante a arritmia sinusal respiratória, independentemente da presença de lesão estrutural. Entretanto, a associação de ambos promoveu resposta ao estímulo vagal similar aos chagásicos sem a presença dos mesmos. CONCLUSÃO: A menor reserva vagal em pacientes chagásicos com função preservada esteve associada à presença de anticorpos anti-m2 ou anti-β1 funcionalmente ativos, e não à presença de lesão cardíaca estrutural.

  9. Chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig. Presence of anti-M2 antibodies in central nervous system tissue and the possible role of M2 autoantigen in the induction of the disease.

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    Lebar, R; Baudrimont, M; Vincent, C

    1989-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be transferred adoptively with T cells sensitized to the basic protein of myelin (BP). However, in the guinea pig, the chronic form of EAE has not been found to be inducible with BP alone, nor has it been adoptively transferred. An antibody response to the central nervous system (CNS) myelin autoantigens was looked for in serum and target CNS tissue in S13 guinea pigs with isologous CNS tissue-induced chronic EAE. Antibody activity was estimated by an immunoenzymatic technique and by autoradiography, using immunoprecipitated and electrophoresed relevant radiolabelled antigens. In serum, IgG antibody response to BP and M2 reached its maximum level 30 to 40 d after immunization and then declined progressively until it became undetectable. On the other hand, while anti-BP antibodies were seldom detected in CNS tissue acid extract, anti-M2 IgG antibodies were always present in CNS tissue of chronic EAE animals, and the amount of these antibodies were related to the severity of symptoms and lesions. No antibody response to proteolipid or to galactocerebroside was detected in serum or CNS tissue. BP-immunized controls showed no chronic EAE and no response to M2 in their serum or CNS tissue. Inasmuch as M2 has been shown to be a glycoprotein of CNS myelin, and anti-M2 antibodies to have a demyelinating property, the latter would be responsible for CNS tissue demyelination in chronic EAE. A shared role of BP and M2 in the induction of chronic EAE in the guinea pig is suggested.

  10. EXPRESSION OF RECOMBINANT ANTIBODY FRAGMENT, ANTI BNP-SCFV ON THE PERIPLASM OF Escherichia coli FOR THE DETECTION OF HEART FAILURE

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    Shabarni Gaffar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic natriuretic peptide (BNP is a polypeptide hormone consist of 32 amino acids that secreted by the heart ventricle to respond the excessive stretching of heart muscle cells. BNP can be used as prognostic marker for patients with heart failure. The presence of BNP in blood can be detected by BNP antibody, which is anti BNP-single chain variable fragment (Anti BNP-SCFV. The antibody is a combination of polypeptides between varying region on the heavy chain (VH and the light chain (VL of immunoglobulin. Anti BNP-SCFV will bind to BNP through the antigen-antibody interaction. Concentration of BNP in a patient’s blood can be detected through the interaction of BNP with Anti BNP-SCFV using immunosensor method. Production of recombinant Anti BNP-SCFV in Escherichia coli as host is reported in the present study. Anti BNP-SCFV was expressed in fusion form with OmpC signal peptide that direct the protein to a periplasmic space. Expression was performed under RhaBad promoter as control using L-rhamnose as inducer. SDS-PAGE characterization showed consistent band at 28 kDa, which was assumed as Anti BNP-SCFV. The optimum expression was found at four hours after induction with 4 mM inducer. Anti BNP-SCFV was secreted from the cell as characterized by the presence of the protein on periplasmic membrane and extracellular fraction.

  11. Effective single chain antibody (scFv) concentrations in vivo via adenoviral vector mediated expression of secretory scFv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, WO; Gomez-Navarro, J; Buchsbaum, DJ; Xiang, J; Casado, E; Barker, SD; Mahasreshti, PJ; Haisma, HJ; Barnes, MN; Siegal, GP; Alvarez, RD; Hemminki, A; Nettelbeck, DM; Curiel, DT

    Single chain antibodies (scFv) represent powerful interventional agents for the achievement of targeted therapeutics. The practical utility of these agents have been limited, however, by difficulties related to production of recombinant scFv and the achievement of effective and sustained levels of

  12. Radiosensitization and growth inhibition of cancer cells mediated by an scFv antibody gene against DNA-PKcs in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Li; Zhou, Ping-Kun; Zhou, Li-Jun; Pan, Xiu-Jie; Wang, Yu-Xiao; Xu, Qin-Zhi; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Mao-Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Overexpression of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is commonly occurred in cancers and causes radioresistance and poor prognosis. In present study, the single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFv) targeting DNA-PKcs was developed for the application of radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo. A humanized semisynthetic scFv library and the phage-display antibodies technology were employed to screen DNA-PKcs scFv antibody. DNA-PKcs epitopes were predicted and cloned. A humanized semisynthetic scFv library and the phage-display antibodies technology were employed to screen DNA-PKcs scFv antibody. DNA damage repair was analyzed by comet assay and immunofluorescence detection of γH2AX foci. The radiosensitization in vivo was determined on Balb/c athymic mice transplanted tumours of HeLa cells. Four epitopes of DNA-PKcs have been predicted and expressed as the antigens, and a specific human anti-DNA-PKcs scFv antibody gene, anti-DPK3-scFv, was obtained by screening the phage antibody library using the DNA-PKcs peptide DPK3. The specificity of anti-DPK3-scFv was verified, in vitro. Transfection of HeLa cells with the anti-DPK3-scFv gene resulted in an increased sensitivity to IR, decreased repair capability of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) detected by comet assay and immunofluorescence detection of γH2AX foci. Moreover, the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs was inhibited by anti-DPK3-scFv, which was displayed by the decreased phosphorylation levels of its target Akt/S473 and the autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs on S2056 induced by radiation. Measurement of the growth and apoptosis rates showed that anti-DPK3-scFv enhanced the sensitivity of tumours transplanted in Balb/c athymic mice to radiation therapy. The antiproliferation and radiosensitizing effects of anti-DPK3-scFv via targeting DNA-PKcs make it very appealing for the development as a novel biological radiosensitizer for cancer therapeutic potential

  13. scFv Antibody: Principles and Clinical Application

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    Zuhaida Asra Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional proteins having both antigen-binding capacity and marker activity can be obtained from transformed bacteria and used for one-step immunodetection of biological agents. Alternatively, antibody fragments could also be applied in the construction of immunotoxins, therapeutic gene delivery, and anticancer intrabodies for therapeutic purposes. This paper provides an overview of the current studies on the principle, generation, and application of scFv. The potential of scFv in breast cancer research is also discussed in this paper.

  14. scFv antibody: principles and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zuhaida Asra; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Ho, Wan Yong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Hamid, Muhajir

    2012-01-01

    To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional proteins having both antigen-binding capacity and marker activity can be obtained from transformed bacteria and used for one-step immunodetection of biological agents. Alternatively, antibody fragments could also be applied in the construction of immunotoxins, therapeutic gene delivery, and anticancer intrabodies for therapeutic purposes. This paper provides an overview of the current studies on the principle, generation, and application of scFv. The potential of scFv in breast cancer research is also discussed in this paper.

  15. scFv Antibody: Principles and Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zuhaida Asra; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ali, Abdul Manaf; Ho, Wan Yong; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Hamid, Muhajir

    2012-01-01

    To date, generation of single-chain fragment variable (scFv) has become an established technique used to produce a completely functional antigen-binding fragment in bacterial systems. The advances in antibody engineering have now facilitated a more efficient and generally applicable method to produce Fv fragments. Basically, scFv antibodies produced from phage display can be genetically fused to the marker proteins, such as fluorescent proteins or alkaline phosphatase. These bifunctional prot...

  16. Selection of scFv phages specific for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), as alternatives for antibodies in CAT detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Mehta, Jaytry; Rouah-Martin, Elsa; Backeljau, Jelke; De Coen, Wim; Eeckhout, Dominique; De Jaeger, Geert; Blust, Ronny; Robbens, Johan

    2012-10-01

    Reporter gene assays are commonly used in applied toxicology to measure the transcription of genes involved in toxic responses. In these reporter gene assays, transgenic cells are used, which contain a promoter-operator region of a gene of interest fused to a reporter gene. The transcription of the gene of interest can be measured by the detection of the reporter protein. Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) is frequently used as a reporter protein in mammalian reporter gene assays. Although CAT can be measured by different detection systems, like enzymatic and immune assays, most of these tests are expensive, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The excellent characteristics of phages, like their high affinity and specificity, their fast, cheap and animal-friendly manufacturing process with low batch-to-batch variations and their stability, make them appropriate as alternatives for antibodies in detection assays. Therefore, in this study single-chain variable fragment (scFv) phages were selected with affinity for CAT. Several scFv phages were selected that showed affinity towards CAT in a screening ELISA. Surface plasmon resonance analyses showed that the tested scFv phages have an affinity for CAT with a dissociation constant (K(d)) around 1 µM. The selected scFv phages in this study could be used as capture elements in a highly sensitive sandwich ELISA to detect CAT concentration as low as 0.1 ng ml⁻¹ or 4 pM. This low detection limit demonstrates the potential of the scFv phages as an alternative for capturing antibodies in a highly sensitive detection test to measure CAT concentrations in reporter gene assays. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies: scFv patents as a marker of a new class of potential biopharmaceuticals

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    Manuela Berto Pucca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies represent the fastest growing class of biopharmaceutical products and have a host of applications in medical research, diagnosis, therapy, and basic science. The production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies has revolutionized the generation of immunoglobulins, and their use represents a strategic breakthrough, affecting the global pharmaceutical market for therapeutic proteins. In the present work, a review of scFv, and the number of related patents, has been carried out. The results show that several countries have scFv patents, most notably the United States, China and United Kingdom. The target of these scFv antibodies was also assessed and the results demonstrate that most are directed toward cancer therapy.Anticorpos monoclonais representam a classe de maior crescimento em produtos de biofármacos e possuem várias aplicações em pesquisa médica, diagnóstico, terapias e ciência básica. A produção de anticorpos monoclonais recombinantes revolucionou a geração de imunoglobulinas e sua utilização implica em avanço estratégico, afetando o mercado farmacêutico global de proteínas terapêuticas. No presente trabalho, uma revisão sobre scFv e a relação do seu número de patentes foi analisada. Os resultados mostram que vários países apresentam patentes de scFv com destaque para os Estados Unidos, China e Reino Unido. Os alvos desses anticorpos também foram avaliados e as análises revelaram que a maioria é destinado a terapias contra o câncer.

  18. PET imaging of 64Cu-DOTA-scFv-anti-PSMA lipid nanoparticles (LNPs): Enhanced tumor targeting over anti-PSMA scFv or untargeted LNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Patty; Li, Lin; Chea, Junie; Delgado, Melissa K.; Crow, Desiree; Poku, Erasmus; Szpikowska, Barbara; Bowles, Nicole; Channappa, Divya; Colcher, David; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Shively, John E.; Yazaki, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Single chain (scFv) antibodies are ideal targeting ligands due to their modular structure, high antigen specificity and affinity. These monovalent ligands display rapid tumor targeting but have limitations due to their fast urinary clearance. Methods: An anti-prostate membrane antigen (PSMA) scFv with a site-specific cysteine was expressed and evaluated in a prostate cancer xenograft model by Cu-64 PET imaging. To enhance tumor accumulation, the scFv-cys was conjugated to the co-polymer DSPE-PEG-maleimide that spontaneously assembled into a homogeneous multivalent lipid nanoparticle (LNP). Results: The targeted LNP exhibited a 2-fold increase in tumor uptake compared to the scFv alone using two different thiol ester chemistries. The anti-PSMA scFv-LNP exhibited a 1.6 fold increase in tumor targeting over the untargeted LNP. Conclusions: The targeted anti-PSMA scFv-LNP showed enhanced tumor accumulation over the scFv alone or the untargeted DOTA-micelle providing evidence for the development of this system for drug delivery. Advances in knowledge and implications for patient care: Anti-tumor scFv antibody fragments have not achieved their therapeutic potential due to their fast blood clearance. Conjugation to an LNP enables multivalency to the tumor antigen as well as increased molecular size for chemotherapy drug delivery.

  19. Selection of scFv Antibody Fragments Binding to Human Blood versus Lymphatic Endothelial Surface Antigens by Direct Cell Phage Display.

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    Keller, Thomas; Kalt, Romana; Raab, Ingrid; Schachner, Helga; Mayrhofer, Corina; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Hantusch, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The identification of marker molecules specific for blood and lymphatic endothelium may provide new diagnostic tools and identify new targets for therapy of immune, microvascular and cancerous diseases. Here, we used a phage display library expressing human randomized single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies for direct panning against live cultures of blood (BECs) and lymphatic (LECs) endothelial cells in solution. After six panning rounds, out of 944 sequenced antibody clones, we retrieved 166 unique/diverse scFv fragments, as indicated by the V-region sequences. Specificities of these phage clone antibodies for respective compartments were individually tested by direct cell ELISA, indicating that mainly pan-endothelial cell (EC) binders had been selected, but also revealing a subset of BEC-specific scFv antibodies. The specific staining pattern was recapitulated by twelve phage-independently expressed scFv antibodies. Binding capacity to BECs and LECs and differential staining of BEC versus LEC by a subset of eight scFv antibodies was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. As one antigen, CD146 was identified by immunoprecipitation with phage-independent scFv fragment. This antibody, B6-11, specifically bound to recombinant CD146, and to native CD146 expressed by BECs, melanoma cells and blood vessels. Further, binding capacity of B6-11 to CD146 was fully retained after fusion to a mouse Fc portion, which enabled eukaryotic cell expression. Beyond visualization and diagnosis, this antibody might be used as a functional tool. Overall, our approach provided a method to select antibodies specific for endothelial surface determinants in their native configuration. We successfully selected antibodies that bind to antigens expressed on the human endothelial cell surfaces in situ, showing that BECs and LECs share a majority of surface antigens, which is complemented by cell-type specific, unique markers.

  20. Cloning approach and functional analysis of anti-intimin single-chain variable fragment (scFv

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    Elias Waldir P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimin is an important virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC. Both pathogens are still important causes of diarrhea in children and adults in many developing and industrialized countries. Considering the fact that antibodies are important tools in the detection of various pathogens, an anti-intimin IgG2b monoclonal antibody was previously raised in immunized mice with the conserved sequence of the intimin molecule (int388-667. In immunoblotting assays, this monoclonal antibody showed excellent specificity. Despite good performance, the monoclonal antibody failed to detect some EPEC and EHEC isolates harboring variant amino acids within the 338-667 regions of intimin molecules. Consequently, motivated by its use for diagnosis purposes, in this study we aimed to the cloning and expression of the single-chain variable fragment from this monoclonal antibody (scFv. Findings Anti-intimin hybridoma mRNA was extracted and reversely transcripted to cDNA, and the light and heavy chains of the variable fragment of the antibody were amplified using commercial primers. The amplified chains were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector. Specific primers were designed and used in an amplification and chain linkage strategy, obtaining the scFv, which in turn was cloned into pAE vector. E. coli BL21(DE3pLys strain was transformed with pAE scFv-intimin plasmid and subjected to induction of protein expression. Anti-intimin scFv, expressed as inclusion bodies (insoluble fraction, was denatured, purified and submitted to refolding. The protein yield was 1 mg protein per 100 mL of bacterial culture. To test the functionality of the scFv, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays were performed, showing that 275 ng of scFv reacted with 2 mg of purified intimin, resulting in an absorbance of 0.75 at 492 nm. The immunofluorescence assay showed a strong reactivity with

  1. Cloning approach and functional analysis of anti-intimin single-chain variable fragment (scFv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Márcio A; Aires, Karina A; Ozaki, Christiane Y; Ruiz, Renato M; Pereira, Milton Ca; Abreu, Patrícia Ae; Elias, Waldir P; Ramos, Oscar Hp; Piazza, Roxane Mf

    2011-02-02

    Intimin is an important virulence factor involved in the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Both pathogens are still important causes of diarrhea in children and adults in many developing and industrialized countries. Considering the fact that antibodies are important tools in the detection of various pathogens, an anti-intimin IgG2b monoclonal antibody was previously raised in immunized mice with the conserved sequence of the intimin molecule (int388-667). In immunoblotting assays, this monoclonal antibody showed excellent specificity. Despite good performance, the monoclonal antibody failed to detect some EPEC and EHEC isolates harboring variant amino acids within the 338-667 regions of intimin molecules. Consequently, motivated by its use for diagnosis purposes, in this study we aimed to the cloning and expression of the single-chain variable fragment from this monoclonal antibody (scFv). Anti-intimin hybridoma mRNA was extracted and reversely transcripted to cDNA, and the light and heavy chains of the variable fragment of the antibody were amplified using commercial primers. The amplified chains were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector. Specific primers were designed and used in an amplification and chain linkage strategy, obtaining the scFv, which in turn was cloned into pAE vector. E. coli BL21(DE3)pLys strain was transformed with pAE scFv-intimin plasmid and subjected to induction of protein expression. Anti-intimin scFv, expressed as inclusion bodies (insoluble fraction), was denatured, purified and submitted to refolding. The protein yield was 1 mg protein per 100 mL of bacterial culture. To test the functionality of the scFv, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays were performed, showing that 275 ng of scFv reacted with 2 mg of purified intimin, resulting in an absorbance of 0.75 at 492 nm. The immunofluorescence assay showed a strong reactivity with EPEC E2348/69. This study demonstrated that

  2. Flow cytometry-based methods for assessing soluble scFv activities and detecting pathogen antigens in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Sean; Weigel, Kris M.; Miller, Keith D.; Ndung' u, Joseph; Buscher, Philippe; Tran, Thao N.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.

    2010-04-01

    Novel methods are reported for evaluating and utilizing single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies derived from yeast-display libraries. Yeast-display was used to select scFv specific to invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG) of Trypanosoma brucei. A limiting step in the isolation of scFv from nonimmune libraries is the conversion of highly active yeast-displayed scFv into soluble antibodies that can be used in standard immunoassays. Challenges include limited solubility or activity following secretion and purification of scFv. For this reason, few scFv derived from yeast-display platforms have moved into development and implementation as diagnostic reagents. To address this problem, assays were developed that employ both yeastdisplayed and secreted scFv as analytical reagents. The first is a competitive inhibition flow cytometry (CIFC) assay that detects secreted scFv by virtue of its ability to competitively inhibit the binding of biotinylated antigen to yeast-displayed scFv. The second is an epitope binning assay that uses secreted scFv toidentify additional yeast-displayed scFv that bind nonoverlapping or noncompeting epitopes on an antigen. The epitope binning assay was used not only to identify sandwich assay pairs with yeast-displayed scFv, but also to identify active soluble scFv present in low concentration in a crude expression extract. Finally, a CIFC assay was developed that bypasses entirely the need for soluble scFv expression, by using yeast displayed scFv to detect unlabeled antigen in samples. These methods will facilitate the continued development and practical implementation of scFv derived from yeast-display libraries.

  3. Characterization of the Native and Denatured Herceptin by ELISA and QCM using a High-Affinity Single Chain Fragment Variable (scFv) Recombinant Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Mernaugh, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Herceptin/Trastuzumab is a humanized IgG1κ light chain antibody used to treat some forms of breast cancer. A phage-displayed recombinant antibody library was used to obtain an scFv (designated 2B4) to a linear synthetic peptide representing Herceptin’s heavy chain CDR3. ELISAs and piezoimmunosensor/quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) assays were used to characterize 2B4-binding activity to both native and heat denatured Herceptin. The 2B4 scFv specifically bound to heat denatured Herceptin in a concentration dependent manner over a wide (35–220.5 nM) dynamic range. Herceptin denatures and forms significant amount of aggregates when heated. UV-Vis characterization confirms that Herceptin forms aggregates as the temperature used to heat Herceptin increases. QCM affinity assay shows that binding stoichiometry between 2B4 scFv and Herceptin follows a 1:2 relationship proving that 2B4 scFv binds strongly to the dimers of heat denatured Herceptin aggregates and exhibits an affinity constant of 7.17 × 1013 M−2. The 2B4-based QCM assay was more sensitive than the corresponding ELISA. Combining QCM with ELISA can be used to more fully characterize non-specific binding events in assays. The potential theoretical and clinical implications of these results and the advantages of using QCM to characterize human therapeutic antibodies in samples are also discussed. PMID:22934911

  4. scFv from Antibody That Mimics gp43 Modulates the Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Tavares, Aldo Henrique F P; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; Ferreira, Karen Spadari

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by Paracoccidioides species is a prevalent systemic and progressive mycosis that occurs in Latin America. It is caused by Paracoccidioides species. Immunization with dendritic cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the scFv (pMAC/PS-scFv) that mimics the main antigen of P. brasiliensis (gp43) confers protection in experimental PCM. DCs link innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing invading pathogens and selecting the type of effector T cell to mediate the immune response. Here, we showed that DC-pMAC/PS-scFv induces the activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Moreover, our results demonstrated that BALB/c mice infected with P. brasiliensis and treated with DC-pMAC/PS-scFv showed the induction of specific IgG production against gp43 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-4 cytokines. Analysis of regional lymph nodes revealed increases in the expression of clec7a, myd88, tlr2, gata3 and tbx21, which are involved in the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that the scFv modulates the humoral and cellular immune responses and presents epitopes to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  5. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Affinity Purification of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Expressed in Raji Cells by Produced scFv Antibody Coupled CNBr-Activated Sepharose

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    Safar Farajnia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recombinant tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α has been utilized as an antineoplastic agent for the treatment of patients with melanoma and sarcoma. It targets tumor cell antigens by impressing tumor-associated vessels. Protein purification with affinity chromatography has been widely used in the downstream processing of pharmaceutical-grade proteins. Methods: In this study, we examined the potential of our produced anti-TNF-scFv fragments for purification of TNF-α produced by Raji cells. he Raji cells were induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS to express TNF-α. Western blotting and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS flow cytometry analyses were used to evaluate the TNF-α expression. The anti-TNF-α scFv selected from antibody phage display library was coupled to CNBr-activated sepharose 4B beads used for affinity purification of expressed TNF-α and the purity of the protein was assessed by SDS-PAGE. Results: Western blot and FACS flow cytometry analyses showed the successful expression of TNF-α with Raji cells. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the performance of scFv for purification of TNF-α protein with purity over 95%. Conclusion: These findings confirm not only the potential of the produced scFv antibody fragments but also this highly pure recombinant TNF-α protein can be applied for various in vitro and in vivo applications.

  7. Isolation of scFv antibody fragments against HER2 and CEA tumor antigens from combinatorial antibody libraries derived from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Hoda; Burrone, Oscar R; Sadghizadeh, Majid; Jahanzad, Eissa; Rastgou, Nasrin; Moghadasi, Sarrira; Arbabi, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    Tumor cells expressing HER-2/neu and CEA antigens are potentially ideal targets for antibody-targeted therapy. In this study, two large human combinatorial libraries have been generated from the lymph nodes of breast cancer patients that express HER2 and CEA antigens in their tumors. These 'immune' libraries have been constructed in two different formats of scFv, differing in the length of the peptide linker connecting the two variable VH and VL domains. Libraries derived from these patients may contain a larger pool of anti-tumor antigen antibodies and are useful repertoire for isolating scFvs against any tumor markers. The results of this study showed that we were successful in obtaining human scFvs against HER-2/neu and CEA. For HER-2, cell-panning strategy was performed and resulted in two scFv binders that detected the complete HER-2 receptor on the cell membrane and internalized to the cells. Also, preliminary ELISA data showed that several anti-CEA scFv binders were isolated by panning. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection, affinity maturation, and characterization of a human scFv antibody against CEA protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Emiliano; Flego, Michela; Dupuis, Maria Luisa; Barca, Stefano; Petronzelli, Fiorella; Anastasi, Anna Maria; D'Alessio, Valeria; Pelliccia, Angela; Vaccaro, Paola; Monteriù, Giorgia; Ascione, Alessandro; De Santis, Rita; Felici, Franco; Cianfriglia, Maurizio; Minenkova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Background CEA is a tumor-associated antigen abundantly expressed on several cancer types, including those naturally refractory to chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of human anti-CEA single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) is a first step toward the construction of new anticancer monoclonal antibodies designed for optimal blood clearance and tumor penetration. Methods The human MA39 scFv, selected for its ability to recognize a CEA epitope expressed on human colon carcinomas, was first isolated from a large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library, panned on human purified CEA protein. Subsequently, by in vitro mutagenesis of a gene encoding for the scFv MA39, a new library was established, and new scFv antibodies with improved affinity towards the CEA cognate epitope were selected and characterized. Results The scFv MA39 antibody was affinity-maturated by in vitro mutagenesis and the new scFv clone, E8, was isolated, typed for CEA family member recognition and its CEACAM1, 3 and 5 shared epitope characterized for expression in a large panel of human normal and tumor tissues and cells. Conclusion The binding affinity of the scFv E8 is in a range for efficient, in vivo, antigen capture in tumor cells expressing a shared epitope of the CEACAM1, 3 and 5 proteins. This new immunoreagent meets all criteria for a potential anticancer compound: it is human, hence poorly or not at all immunogenic, and it binds selectively and with good affinity to the CEA epitope expressed by metastatic melanoma and colon and lung carcinomas. Furthermore, its small molecular size should provide for efficient tissue penetration, yet give rapid plasma clearance. PMID:16504122

  9. Selection, affinity maturation, and characterization of a human scFv antibody against CEA protein

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    De Santis Rita

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CEA is a tumor-associated antigen abundantly expressed on several cancer types, including those naturally refractory to chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of human anti-CEA single-chain antibody fragments (scFv is a first step toward the construction of new anticancer monoclonal antibodies designed for optimal blood clearance and tumor penetration. Methods The human MA39 scFv, selected for its ability to recognize a CEA epitope expressed on human colon carcinomas, was first isolated from a large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library, panned on human purified CEA protein. Subsequently, by in vitro mutagenesis of a gene encoding for the scFv MA39, a new library was established, and new scFv antibodies with improved affinity towards the CEA cognate epitope were selected and characterized. Results The scFv MA39 antibody was affinity-maturated by in vitro mutagenesis and the new scFv clone, E8, was isolated, typed for CEA family member recognition and its CEACAM1, 3 and 5 shared epitope characterized for expression in a large panel of human normal and tumor tissues and cells. Conclusion The binding affinity of the scFv E8 is in a range for efficient, in vivo, antigen capture in tumor cells expressing a shared epitope of the CEACAM1, 3 and 5 proteins. This new immunoreagent meets all criteria for a potential anticancer compound: it is human, hence poorly or not at all immunogenic, and it binds selectively and with good affinity to the CEA epitope expressed by metastatic melanoma and colon and lung carcinomas. Furthermore, its small molecular size should provide for efficient tissue penetration, yet give rapid plasma clearance.

  10. A cancer specific cell-penetrating peptide, BR2, for the efficient delivery of an scFv into cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Jung Lim

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs have proven very effective as intracellular delivery vehicles for various therapeutics. However, there are some concerns about non-specific penetration and cytotoxicity of CPPs for effective cancer treatments. Herein, based on the cell-penetrating motif of an anticancer peptide, buforin IIb, we designed several CPP derivatives with cancer cell specificity. Among the derivatives, a 17-amino acid peptide (BR2 was found to have cancer-specificity without toxicity to normal cells. After specifically targeting cancer cells through interaction with gangliosides, BR2 entered cells via lipid-mediated macropinocytosis. Moreover, BR2 showed higher membrane translocation efficiency than the well-known CPP Tat (49-57. The capability of BR2 as a cancer-specific drug carrier was demonstrated by fusion of BR2 to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv directed toward a mutated K-ras (G12V. BR2-fused scFv induced a higher degree of apoptosis than Tat-fused scFv in K-ras mutated HCT116 cells. These results suggest that the novel cell-penetrating peptide BR2 has great potential as a useful drug delivery carrier with cancer cell specificity.

  11. A cancer specific cell-penetrating peptide, BR2, for the efficient delivery of an scFv into cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ki Jung; Sung, Bong Hyun; Shin, Ju Ri; Lee, Young Woong; Kim, Da Jung; Yang, Kyung Seok; Kim, Sun Chang

    2013-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have proven very effective as intracellular delivery vehicles for various therapeutics. However, there are some concerns about non-specific penetration and cytotoxicity of CPPs for effective cancer treatments. Herein, based on the cell-penetrating motif of an anticancer peptide, buforin IIb, we designed several CPP derivatives with cancer cell specificity. Among the derivatives, a 17-amino acid peptide (BR2) was found to have cancer-specificity without toxicity to normal cells. After specifically targeting cancer cells through interaction with gangliosides, BR2 entered cells via lipid-mediated macropinocytosis. Moreover, BR2 showed higher membrane translocation efficiency than the well-known CPP Tat (49-57). The capability of BR2 as a cancer-specific drug carrier was demonstrated by fusion of BR2 to a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) directed toward a mutated K-ras (G12V). BR2-fused scFv induced a higher degree of apoptosis than Tat-fused scFv in K-ras mutated HCT116 cells. These results suggest that the novel cell-penetrating peptide BR2 has great potential as a useful drug delivery carrier with cancer cell specificity.

  12. Fast conversion of scFv to Fab antibodies using type IIs restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmark, Hanna; Huovinen, Tuomas; Matikka, Tero; Pettersson, Tiina; Lahti, Maria; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2015-11-01

    Single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody libraries are widely used for developing novel bioaffinity reagents, although Fab or IgG molecules are the preferred antibody formats in many final applications. Therefore, rapid conversion methods for combining multiple DNA fragments are needed to attach constant domains to the scFv derived variable domains. In this study we describe a fast and easy cloning method for the conversion of single framework scFv fragments to Fab fragments using type IIS restriction enzymes. All cloning steps excluding plating of the Fab transformants can be done in 96 well plates and the procedure can be completed in one working day. The concept was tested by converting 69 scFv clones into Fab format on 96 well plates, which resulted in 93% success rate. The method is particularly useful as a high-throughput tool for the conversion of the chosen scFv clones into Fab molecules in order to analyze them as early as possible, as the conversion can significantly affect the binding properties of the chosen clones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A neutralizing recombinant single chain antibody, scFv, against BaP1, A P-I hemorrhagic metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J M A; Oliveira, T S; Silveira, C R F; Caporrino, M C; Rodriguez, D; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Ramos, O H P; Rucavado, A; Gutiérrez, J M; Magalhães, G S; Faquim-Mauro, E L; Fernandes, I

    2014-09-01

    BaP1 is a P-I class snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP) relevant in the local tissue damage associated with envenomings by Bothrops asper, a medically important snake species in Central America and parts of South and North America. The main treatment for these accidents is the passive immunotherapy using antibodies raised in horses. In order to obtain more specific and batch-to-batch consistent antivenons, recombinant antibodies are considered a good option compared to animal immunization. We constructed a recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) from a monoclonal antibody against BaP1 (MABaP1) formerly secreted by a hybridoma clone. This recombinant antibody was cloned into pMST3 vector in fusion with SUMO protein and contains VH and VL domains linked by a flexible (G4S)3 polypeptide (scFvBaP1). The aim of this work was to produce scFvBaP1 and to evaluate its potential concerning the neutralization of biologically important activities of BaP1. The cytoplasmic expression of this construct was successfully achieved in C43 (DE3) bacteria. Our results showed that scFvBaP1-SUMO fusion protein presented an electrophoretic band of around 43 kDa from which SUMO alone corresponded to 13.6 kDa, and only the scFv was able to recognize BaP1 as well as the whole venom by ELISA. In contrast, neither an irrelevant scFv anti-LDL nor its MoAb partner recognized it. BaP1-induced fibrinolysis was significantly neutralized by scFvBaP1, but not by SUMO, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, scFvBaP1, as well as MaBaP1, completely neutralized in vivo hemorrhage, muscle necrosis, and inflammation induced by the toxin. Docking analyses revealed possible modes of interaction of the recombinant antibody with BaP1. Our data showed that scFv recognized BaP1 and whole B. asper venom, and neutralized biological effects of this SVMP. This scFv antibody can be used for understanding the molecular mechanisms of neutralization of SVMPs, and for exploring the potential of

  14. Recombinant norovirus-specific scFv inhibit virus-like particle binding to cellular ligands

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    Hardy Michele E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noroviruses cause epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in all age-groups. The rapid onset and ease of person-to-person transmission suggest that inhibitors of the initial steps of virus binding to susceptible cells have value in limiting spread and outbreak persistence. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb 54.6 that blocks binding of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP to Caco-2 intestinal cells and inhibits VLP-mediated hemagglutination. In this study, we engineered the antigen binding domains of mAb 54.6 into a single chain variable fragment (scFv and tested whether these scFv could function as cell binding inhibitors, similar to the parent mAb. Results The scFv54.6 construct was engineered to encode the light (VL and heavy (VH variable domains of mAb 54.6 separated by a flexible peptide linker, and this recombinant protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified scFv54.6 recognized native VLPs by immunoblot, inhibited VLP-mediated hemagglutination, and blocked VLP binding to H carbohydrate antigen expressed on the surface of a CHO cell line stably transfected to express α 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Conclusion scFv54.6 retained the functional properties of the parent mAb with respect to inhibiting norovirus particle interactions with cells. With further engineering into a form deliverable to the gut mucosa, norovirus neutralizing antibodies represent a prophylactic strategy that would be valuable in outbreak settings.

  15. pMINERVA: A donor-acceptor system for the in vivo recombineering of scFv into IgG molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batonick, M; Kiss, M M; Fuller, E P; Magadan, C M; Holland, E G; Zhao, Q; Wang, D; Kay, B K; Weiner, M P

    2016-04-01

    Phage display is the most widely used method for selecting binding molecules from recombinant antibody libraries. However, validation of the phage antibodies often requires early production of the cognate full-length immunoglobulin G (IgG). The conversion of phage library outputs to a full immunoglobulin via standard subcloning is time-consuming and limits the number of clones that can be evaluated. We have developed a novel system to convert scFvs from a phage display vector directly into IgGs without any in vitro subcloning steps. This new vector system, named pMINERVA, makes clever use of site-specific bacteriophage integrases that are expressed in Escherichia coli and intron splicing that occurs within mammalian cells. Using this system, a phage display vector contains both bacterial and mammalian regulatory regions that support antibody expression in E. coli and mammalian cells. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody is expressed on the surface of bacteriophage M13 as a genetic fusion to the gpIII coat protein. The scFv is converted to an IgG that can be expressed in mammalian cells by transducing a second E. coli strain. In that strain, the phiC31 recombinase fuses the heavy chain constant domain from an acceptor plasmid to the heavy chain variable domain and introduces controlling elements upstream of the light chain variable domain. Splicing in mammalian cells removes a synthetic intron containing the M13 gpIII gene to produce the fusion of the light chain variable domain to the constant domain. We show that phage displaying a scFv and recombinant IgGs generated using this system are expressed at wild-type levels and retain normal function. Use of the pMINERVA completely eliminates the labor-intensive subcloning and DNA sequence confirmation steps currently needed to convert a scFv into a functional IgG Ab. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversion of scFv peptide-binding specificity for crystal chaperone development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Jennifer C.; Culver, Jeffrey A.; Drury, Jason E.; Motani, Rakesh S.; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Maynard, Jennifer A. (GIT); (UMM); (Texas)

    2012-02-07

    In spite of advances in protein expression and purification over the last decade, many proteins remain recalcitrant to structure determination by X-ray crystallography. One emerging tactic to obtain high-quality protein crystals for structure determination, particularly in the case of membrane proteins, involves co-crystallization with a protein-specific antibody fragment. Here, we report the development of new recombinant single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) capable of binding a specific epitope that can be introduced into internal loops of client proteins. The previously crystallized hexa-histidine-specific 3D5 scFv antibody was modified in the complementary determining region and by random mutagenesis, in conjunction with phage display, to yield scFvs with new biochemical characteristics and binding specificity. Selected variants include those specific for the hexa-histidine peptide with increased expression, solubility (up to 16.6 mg/ml) and sub-micromolar affinity, and those with new specificity for the EE hexa-peptide (EYMPME) and nanomolar affinity. Complexes of one such chaperone with model proteins harboring either an internal or a terminal EE tag were isolated by gel filtration. The 3.1 {angstrom} resolution structure of this chaperone reveals a binding surface complementary to the EE peptide and a {approx}52 {angstrom} channel in the crystal lattice. Notably, in spite of 85% sequence identity, and nearly identical crystallization conditions, the engineered scFv crystallizes in a different space group than the parent 3D5 scFv, and utilizes two new crystal contacts. These engineered scFvs represent a new class of chaperones that may eliminate the need for de novo identification of candidate chaperones from large antibody libraries.

  17. Diagnostic potential of recombinant scFv antibodies generated against hemagglutinin protein of influenza A virus

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    Roopali eRajput

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human influenza A viruses have been the cause of enormous socio-economic losses worldwide. In order to combat such a notorious pathogen, hemagglutinin protein (HA has been a preferred target for generation of neutralizing-antibodies, as potent therapeutic/ diagnostic agents. In the present study, recombinant anti-HA single chain variable fragment (scFv antibodies were constructed using the phage display technology to aid in diagnosis and treatment of human influenza A virus infections. Spleen cells of mice hyper-immunized with A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 virus were used as the source for recombinant antibody (rAb production. The antigen-binding phages were quantified after 6 rounds of bio-panning against A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1-like, or A/Udorn/307/72(H3N2 viruses. The phage yield was maximum for the A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1, however, considerable cross-reactivity was observed for the other virus strains as well. The HA-specific polyclonal rAb preparation was subjected to selection of single clones for identification of high reactive relatively conserved epitopes. The high affinity rAbs were tested against certain known conserved HA epitopes by peptide ELISA. Three recombinant mAbs showed reactivity with both the H1N1 strains and one (C5 showed binding with all the three viral strains. The C5 antibody was thus used for development of an ELISA test for diagnosis of influenza virus infection. Based on the sample size in the current analysis, the ELISA test demonstrated 83.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Thus, the ELISA, developed in our study, may prove as a cheaper alternative to the presently used real time RT-PCR test for detection of human influenza A viruses in clinical specimens, which will be beneficial, especially in the developing countries. Since, the two antibodies identified in this study are reactive to conserved HA epitopes; these may prove as potential therapeutic agents as well.

  18. CD4-Binding Site Directed Cross-Neutralizing scFv Monoclonals from HIV-1 Subtype C Infected Indian Children

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    Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infection in children is faster than adults. HIV-1 subtype C is responsible for more than 50% of the infections globally and more than 90% infections in India. To date, there is no effective vaccine against HIV-1. Recent animal studies and human Phase I trials showed promising results of the protective effect of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs. Interaction between CD4 binding site (CD4bs on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and CD4 receptor on the host immune cells is the primary event leading to HIV-1 infection. The CD4bs is a highly conserved region, comprised of a conformational epitope, and is a potential target of bnAbs such as VRC01 that is presently under human clinical trials. Recombinant scFvs can access masked epitopes due to their small size and have shown the potential to inhibit viral replication and neutralize a broad range of viruses. Pediatric viruses are resistant to many of the existing bnAbs isolated from adults. Therefore, in this study, pooled peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 chronically HIV-1 subtype C infected pediatric cross-neutralizers whose plasma antibodies exhibited potent and cross-neutralizing activity were used to construct a human anti-HIV-1 scFv phage library of 9 × 108 individual clones. Plasma mapping using CD4bs-specific probes identified the presence of CD4bs directed antibodies in 4 of these children. By extensive biopanning of the library with CD4bs-specific antigen RSC3 core protein, we identified two cross-neutralizing scFv monoclonals 2B10 and 2E4 demonstrating a neutralizing breadth and GMT of 77%, 17.9 µg/ml and 32%, 51.2 µg/ml, respectively, against a panel of 49 tier 1, 2 and 3 viruses. Both scFvs competed with anti-CD4bs bnAb VRC01 confirming their CD4bs epitope specificity. The 2B10 scFv was effective in neutralizing the 7 subtype C and subtype A pediatric viruses tested. Somatic hypermutations in the VH

  19. Construction and sequencing analysis of scFv antibody fragment derived from monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155

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    J. Mala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Norfloxacin belongs to the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics which has been approved for treatment in animals. However, its residues in animal products can pose adverse side effects to consumer. Therefore, detection of the residue in different food matrices must be concerned. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv that recognizes norfloxacin antibiotic was constructed. The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA of hybridoma cells against norfloxacin. Genes encoding VH and VL regions of monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155 were amplified and size of VH and VL fragments was 402 bp and 363 bp, respectively. The scFv of Nor155 was constructed by an addition of (Gly4Ser3 as a linker between VH and VL regions and subcloned into pPICZαA, an expression vector of Pichia pastoris. The sequence of scFv Nor155 (GenBank No. AJG06891.1 was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The complementarity determining regions (CDR I, II, and III of VH and VL were specified by Kabat method. The obtained recombinant plasmid will be useful for production of scFv antibody against norfloxacin in P. pastoris and further engineer scFv antibody against fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

  20. Construction of a Single Chain Variable Fragment Antibody (scFv) against Carbaryl and Its Interaction with Carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuyuan, Zhang; Zhihong, Huang; Lixia, Wang; Xiaonan, Liu

    2015-05-01

    Carbaryl is a low molecular weight insecticide that inhibits cholinesterase. Residues of carbaryl in food and the environment have damaged human health. A high-specificity scFv that can identify carbaryl is still lacking. In the present study, an anti-carbaryl scFv gene was prepared by cloning VL and VH genes from hybridoma cells secreting monoclonal antibody, then VH and VL were fused together using splicing by overlap extension (SOE) PCR with a flexible polypeptide linker connector (Gly4Ser)3, and then the scFv-pET-26b recombinant plasmid was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21 for expression using IPTG as an inducer. The expressed recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and ELISA. The three-dimensional structure of the anti-carbaryl scFv was constructed by computer modeling, and carbaryl was docked to the scFv model to obtain the structure of the binding complex. The binding site was composed of Ala51, Ser52, Ile51, Gly54, Ser56, Arg98, and Gly100. This helps to understand the mechanism of interaction between anti-carbaryl antibody and antigen. Furthermore, it provides guidance for in vitro affinity maturation of anti-carbaryl antibody.

  1. Development of single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies against Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca by phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Jordan, Ramon; Brlansky, Ronald H; Istomina, Olga; Hartung, John

    2015-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a member of the gamma proteobacteria. It is fastidious, insect-vectored and xylem-limited and causes a variety of diseases, some severe, on a wide range of economically important perennial crops, including grape and citrus. Antibody based detection assays are commercially available for X. fastidiosa, and are effective at the species, but not at the subspecies level. We have made a library of scFv antibody fragments directed against X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca strain 9a5c (citrus) by using phage display technology. Antibody gene repertoires were PCR-amplified using 23 primers for the heavy chain variable region (V(H)) and 21 primers for the light chain variable region (V(L)). The V(H) and V(L) were joined by overlap extension PCR, and then the genes of the scFv library were ligated into the phage vector pKM19. The library contained 1.2×10(7) independent clones with full-length scFv inserts. In each of 3cycles of affinity-selection with 9a5c, about 1.0×10(12) phage were used for panning with 4.1×10(6), 7.1×10(6), 2.1×10(7) phage recovered after the first, second and third cycles, respectively. Sixty-six percent of clones from the final library bound X. fastidiosa 9a5c in an ELISA. Some of these scFv antibodies recognized strain 9a5c and did not recognize X. fastidiosa strains that cause Pierce's disease of grapevine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cloning single-chain antibody fragments (ScFv) from hyrbidoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toleikis, Lars; Frenzel, André

    2012-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of the generation of antibodies by phage display and other technologies, hybridoma technology still provides a valuable tool for the generation of high-affinity binders against different targets. But there exist several limitations of using hybridoma-derived antibodies. The source of the hybridoma clones are mostly rat or mouse B-lymphocytes. Therefore a human-anti-mouse or human-anti-rat antibody response may result in immunogenicity of these antibodies. This leads to the necessity of humanization of these antibodies where the knowledge of the amino acid sequence of the proteins is inalienable. Furthermore, additional in vitro modifications, e.g., affinity maturation or fusion to other proteins, are dependent on cloning of the antigen-binding domains.Here we describe the isolation of RNA from hybridoma cells and the primers that can be used for the amplification of VL and VH as well as the cloning of the antibody in scFv format and its expression in Escherichia coli.

  3. Expression of Functional Anti-p24 scFv 183-H12-5C in HEK293T and Jurkat T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Omar, Mohammad Tasyriq

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: More than half of the diagnostic and therapeutic recombinant protein production depends on mammalian-based expression system. However, the generation of recombinant antibodies remains a challenge in mammalian cells due to the disulfide bond formation and reducing cytoplasm. Therefore, the production of functional recombinant antibodies in target cell line is necessary to be evaluated before used in therapeutic application such intrabodies against HIV-1. Methods: The work was to test expression of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against HIV-1 Capsid p24 protein in a human mammalian-based expression system using HEK293T and Jurkat T cells as a model. Three expression plasmid vectors expressing scFv 183-H12-5C were generated and introduced into HEK293T. Expression of the scFv was analyzed, while ELISA and immunoblotting analysis verified its binding. The evaluation of the recombinant antibody was confirmed by HIV-1 replication and MAGI infectivity assay in Jurkat T cells. Results: Three plasmid vectors expressing scFv 183-H12-5C was successfully engineered in this study. Recombinant antibodies scFv (~29 kDa) and scFv-Fc (~52 kDa) in the cytoplasm of HEK293T were effectively obtained by transfected the cells with engineered pCDNA3.3-mu-IgGk-scFv 183-H12-5C and pCMX2.5-scFv 183-H12-5C-hIgG1-Fc plasmid vectors respectively. scFv and scFv-Fc are specifically bound recombinant p24, and HIV-1 derived p24 (gag) evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Jurkat T cells transfected by pCDNA3.3-scFv 183-H12-5C inhibit the replication-competent NL4-3 viral infectivity up to 60%. Conclusion: Anti-p24 scFv 183-H12-5C antibody generated is suitable to be acted as intrabodies and may serve as a valuable tool for the development of antibody-based biotherapeutics against HIV-1.

  4. Application of a single-chain fragment variable (scFv antibody for the confirmatory diagnosis of hydatid disease in non-endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Xu

    2017-09-01

    Results: A scFv antibody against cystic echinococcosis was produced by genetic engineering and then applied to the immunohistochemical diagnosis of 18 cases of cystic echinococcosis presented in non-endemic coastal areas. The diagnosis of these cases by ultrasound and serum-based examinations was inconclusive. The 750 bp scFv antibody gene was expressed in COS-7 cells, and the antibody localized in the cytoplasm. The scFv antibody can detect the germinal layer and protoscolices of actively growing cysts but not of the degenerating protoscolices and has a diagnostic efficiency higher than that of single serum or ultrasound testing (P < 0.05. The combined use of scFv antibodies with serology and ultrasound diagnostics results in a diagnostic efficiency comparable to that of surgery. The scFv antibody can be used as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of hydatid disease in non-endemic areas, providing a beneficial supplementary diagnostic method that complements traditional immune testing and ultrasonic radiology and thus helping physicians to effectively differentiate hydatid disease.

  5. A Combination of Structural and Empirical Analyses Delineates the Key Contacts Mediating Stability and Affinity Increases in an Optimized Biotherapeutic Single-chain Fv (scFv)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chao; Terraube, Virginie; Tam, Amy Sze Pui; Stochaj, Wayne; Fennell, Brian J.; Lin, Laura; Stahl, Mark; LaVallie, Edward R.; Somers, Will; Finlay, William J. J.; Mosyak, Lydia; Bard, Joel; Cunningham, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Fully-human single-chain Fv (scFv) proteins are key potential building blocks of bispecific therapeutic antibodies, but they often suffer from manufacturability and clinical development limitations such as instability and aggregation. The causes of these scFv instability problems, in proteins that should be theoretically stable, remains poorly understood. To inform the future development of such molecules, we carried out a comprehensive structural analysis of the highly stabilized anti-CXCL13 scFv E10. E10 was derived from the parental 3B4 using complementarity-determining region (CDR)-restricted mutagenesis and tailored selection and screening strategies, and carries four mutations in VL-CDR3. High-resolution crystal structures of parental 3B4 and optimized E10 scFvs were solved in the presence and absence of human CXCL13. In parallel, a series of scFv mutants was generated to interrogate the individual contribution of each of the four mutations to stability and affinity improvements. In combination, these analyses demonstrated that the optimization of E10 was primarily mediated by removing clashes between both the VL and the VH, and between the VL and CXCL13. Importantly, a single, germline-encoded VL-CDR3 residue mediated the key difference between the stable and unstable forms of the scFv. This work demonstrates that, aside from being the critical mediators of specificity and affinity, CDRs may also be the primary drivers of biotherapeutic developability. PMID:26515064

  6. Tetanus Neurotoxin Neutralizing Antibodies Screened from a Human Immune scFv Antibody Phage Display Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT produced by Clostridium tetani is one of the most poisonous protein substances. Neutralizing antibodies against TeNT can effectively prevent and cure toxicosis. Using purified Hc fragments of TeNT (TeNT-Hc as an antigen, three specific neutralizing antibody clones recognizing different epitopes were selected from a human immune scFv antibody phage display library. The three antibodies (2-7G, 2-2D, and S-4-7H can effectively inhibit the binding between TeNT-Hc and differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Moreover, 2-7G inhibited TeNT-Hc binding to the receptor via carbohydrate-binding sites of the W pocket while 2-2D and S-4-7H inhibited binding of the R pocket. Although no single mAb completely protected mice from the toxin, they could both prolong survival when challenged with 20 LD50s (50% of the lethal dose of TeNT. When used together, the mAbs completely neutralized 1000 LD50s/mg Ab, indicating their high neutralizing potency in vivo. Antibodies recognizing different carbohydrate-binding pockets could have higher synergistic toxin neutralization activities than those that recognize the same pockets. These results could lead to further production of neutralizing antibody drugs against TeNT and indicate that using TeNT-Hc as an antigen for screening human antibodies for TeNT intoxication therapy from human immune antibody library was convenient and effective.

  7. Preparation of a Chicken scFv to Analyze Gentamicin Residue in Animal Derived Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; He, Jinxin; Ren, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoying; Du, Enqi; Li, Xinping

    2016-04-05

    Chicken is an ideal model for simplified recombinant antibody library generation. It has been rarely been reported to apply chicken single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) in immunoassays for the detection of antibiotic and chemical contaminants in animal food products. In this study, the scFvs (S-1 and S-5) were isolated from a phage display library derived from a hyperimmunized chicken. The checker board titration revealed that the optimum concentrations of S-1 and S-5 were 0.78 μg/mL and 0.44 μg/mL respectively, to obtain OD450 around 1.0 at 5 μg/mL of Gent-OVA coating concentration. Both S-1 and S-5 exhibited negligible cross reactivity with kanamycin and amikacin. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of S-1 and S-5 were 12.418 ng/mL and 14.674 ng/mL respectively. In the indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA), the limits of detection for S-1 and S-5 were 0.147 ng/mL and 0.219 ng/mL respectively. The mean recovery for Gent ranged from 60.91% to 118.09% with no more than 10.35% relative standard deviation (RSD) between the intra-assay and the inter-assay. These results indicate the chicken scFv based ic-ELISA method is suitable for the detection of Gent residue in animal derived edible tissues and milk.

  8. Human scFv antibodies (Afribumabs) against Africanized bee venom: Advances in melittin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessenda, Gabriela; Silva, Luciano C; Campos, Lucas B; Pacello, Elenice M; Pucca, Manuela B; Martinez, Edson Z; Barbosa, José E

    2016-03-15

    Africanized Apis mellifera bees, also known as killer bees, have an exceptional defensive instinct, characterized by mass attacks that may cause envenomation or death. From the years 2000-2013, 77,066 bee accidents occurred in Brazil. Bee venom comprises several substances, including melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Due to the lack of antivenom for bee envenomation, this study aimed to produce human monoclonal antibody fragments (single chain fragment variable; scFv), by using phage display technology. These fragments targeted melittin and PLA2, the two major components of bee venom, to minimize their toxic effects in cases of mass envenomation. Two phage antibody selections were performed using purified melittin. As the commercial melittin is contaminated with PLA2, phages specific to PLA2 were also obtained during one of the selections. Specific clones for melittin and PLA2 were selected for the production of soluble scFvs, named here Afribumabs: prefix: afrib- (from Africanized bee); stem/suffix: -umab (fully human antibody). Afribumabs 1 and 2 were tested in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their ability to inhibit the toxic actions of purified melittin, PLA2, and crude bee venom. Afribumabs reduced hemolysis caused by purified melittin and PLA2 and by crude venom in vitro and reduced edema formation in the paws of mice and prolonged the survival of venom-injected animals in vivo. These results demonstrate that Afribumabs may contribute to the production of the first non-heterologous antivenom treatment against bee envenomation. Such a treatment may overcome some of the difficulties associated with conventional immunotherapy techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Re-engineering of the PAM1 phage display monoclonal antibody to produce a soluble, versatile anti-homogalacturonan scFv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfield, I. W.; Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Møller, I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibody phage display is an increasingly important alternative method for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and involves the expression of antibody fragments (scFvs) at the surface of bacteriophage particles. We have previously used this technique to generate a phage mAb (PAM1phage...... of the PAM1 mAb, we describe here the production of a phage-free, soluble scFv version of the PAM1 mAb (PAM1scFv). Using the new PAM1scFv probe, the occurrence of the HG epitope recognized can now be localized with high resolution within micro-domains of plant cell walls....

  10. Production of recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) in vegetatively reproductive Kalanchoe pinnata by in planta transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Rhee, Yong; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Shim, Hyekyung; Choi, Jung-Jin; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sukchan

    2009-10-01

    We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins.

  11. Isolation of phage-display library-derived scFv antibody specific to Listeria monocytogenes by a novel immobilized method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, X-H; Trinh, T-L; Vu, T-B-H; Le, Q-H; To, K-A

    2018-02-01

    To select Listeria monocytogenes-specific single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies from a phage-display library by a novel simple and cost-effective immobilization method. Light expanded clay aggregate (LECA) was used as biomass support matrix for biopanning of a phage-display library to select L. monocytogenes-specific scFv antibody. Four rounds of positive selection against LECA-immobilized L. monocytogenes and an additional subtractive panning against Listeria innocua were performed. The phage clones selected using this panning scheme and LECA-based immobilization method exhibited the ability to bind L. monocytogenes without cross-reactivity toward 10 other non-L. monocytogenes bacteria. One of the selected phage clones was able to specifically recognize three major pathogenic serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b and 4b) of L. monocytogenes and 11 tested L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods. The LECA-based immobilization method is applicable for isolating species-specific anti-L. monocytogenes scFv antibodies by phage display. The isolated scFv antibody has potential use in development of immunoassay-based methods for rapid detection of L. monocytogenes in food and environmental samples. In addition, the LECA immobilization method described here could feasibly be employed to isolate specific monoclonal antibodies against any given species of pathogenic bacteria from phage-display libraries. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. A Combination of Structural and Empirical Analyses Delineates the Key Contacts Mediating Stability and Affinity Increases in an Optimized Biotherapeutic Single-chain Fv (scFv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chao; Terraube, Virginie; Tam, Amy Sze Pui; Stochaj, Wayne; Fennell, Brian J; Lin, Laura; Stahl, Mark; LaVallie, Edward R; Somers, Will; Finlay, William J J; Mosyak, Lydia; Bard, Joel; Cunningham, Orla

    2016-01-15

    Fully-human single-chain Fv (scFv) proteins are key potential building blocks of bispecific therapeutic antibodies, but they often suffer from manufacturability and clinical development limitations such as instability and aggregation. The causes of these scFv instability problems, in proteins that should be theoretically stable, remains poorly understood. To inform the future development of such molecules, we carried out a comprehensive structural analysis of the highly stabilized anti-CXCL13 scFv E10. E10 was derived from the parental 3B4 using complementarity-determining region (CDR)-restricted mutagenesis and tailored selection and screening strategies, and carries four mutations in VL-CDR3. High-resolution crystal structures of parental 3B4 and optimized E10 scFvs were solved in the presence and absence of human CXCL13. In parallel, a series of scFv mutants was generated to interrogate the individual contribution of each of the four mutations to stability and affinity improvements. In combination, these analyses demonstrated that the optimization of E10 was primarily mediated by removing clashes between both the VL and the VH, and between the VL and CXCL13. Importantly, a single, germline-encoded VL-CDR3 residue mediated the key difference between the stable and unstable forms of the scFv. This work demonstrates that, aside from being the critical mediators of specificity and affinity, CDRs may also be the primary drivers of biotherapeutic developability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Identification of a GTP-bound Rho specific scFv molecular sensor by phage display selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinestra Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rho GTPases A, B and C proteins, members of the Rho family whose activity is regulated by GDP/GTP cycling, function in many cellular pathways controlling proliferation and have recently been implicated in tumorigenesis. Although overexpression of Rho GTPases has been correlated with tumorigenesis, only their GTP-bound forms are able to activate the signalling pathways implicated in tumorigenesis. Thus, the focus of much recent research has been to identify biological tools capable of quantifying the level of cellular GTP-bound Rho, or determining the subcellular location of activation. However useful, these tools used to study the mechanism of Rho activation still have limitations. The aim of the present work was to employ phage display to identify a conformationally-specific single chain fragment variable (scFv that recognizes the active, GTP-bound, form of Rho GTPases and is able to discriminate it from the inactive, GDP-bound, Rho in endogenous settings. Results After five rounds of phage selection using a constitutively activated mutant of RhoB (RhoBQ63L, three scFvs (A8, C1 and D11 were selected for subsequent analysis. Further biochemical characterization was pursued for the single clone, C1, exhibiting an scFv structure. C1 was selective for the GTP-bound form of RhoA, RhoB, as well as RhoC, and failed to recognize GTP-loaded Rac1 or Cdc42, two other members of the Rho family. To enhance its production, soluble C1 was expressed in fusion with the N-terminal domain of phage protein pIII (scFv C1-N1N2, it appeared specifically associated with GTP-loaded recombinant RhoA and RhoB via immunoprecipitation, and endogenous activated Rho in HeLa cells as determined by immunofluorescence. Conclusion We identified an antibody, C1-N1N2, specific for the GTP-bound form of RhoB from a phage library, and confirmed its specificity towards GTP-bound RhoA and RhoC, as well as RhoB. The success of C1-N1N2 in discriminating activated

  14. Construction of Recombinant Single Chain Variable Fragment (ScFv) Antibody Against Superantigen for Immunodetection Using Antibody Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pawan Kumar; Agrawal, Ranu; Kamboj, D V; Singh, Lokendra

    2016-01-01

    Superantigens are a class of antigens that bind to the major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) II and T-cell receptor (TCR) and cause the nonspecific activation of T cells, resulting in a massive release of pro-inflammatory mediators. They are produced by the gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, and by a variety of other microbes such as viruses and mycoplasma, and cause toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and even death in some cases. The immunodetection of superantigens is difficult due to the polyclonal activation of T-cells leading to nonspecific antibody production. The production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies against superantigens can solve this problem and are far better than polyclonal antibodies in terms of detection. Here, we describe the construction of recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFv) antibodies against superantigens with specific reference to SEB (staphylococcal enterotoxin B) using antibody phage display technology.

  15. Generation and characterization of a human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody against cytosine deaminase from Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallano, Alessandra; Zamboni, Silvia; Carpinelli, Giulia; Santoro, Filippo; Flego, Michela; Ascione, Alessandro; Gellini, Mara; Tombesi, Marina; Podo, Franca; Cianfriglia, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD) to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody – directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT) aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects) of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv) format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies. Results An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD) was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU. Conclusion The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function. PMID:18783590

  16. Generation and characterization of a human single-chain fragment variable (scFv antibody against cytosine deaminase from Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tombesi Marina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody – directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies. Results An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU. Conclusion The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function.

  17. Isolation of soluble scFv antibody fragments specific for small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, using phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El-Magd, Rabab M; Vozza, Nicolas F; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of single chain antibody fragment (scFv) clones from naïve Tomlinson I+J phage display libraries that specifically bind a small biomarker molecule, L-Carnitine, was performed using iterative affinity selection procedures. L-Carnitine has been described as a conditionally essential nutrient for humans. Abnormally high concentrations of L-Carnitine in urine are related to many health disorders including diabetes mellitus type 2 and lung cancer. ELISA-based affinity characterization results indicate that selectants preferentially bind to L-Carnitine in the presence of key bioselecting component materials and closely related L-Carnitine derivatives. In addition, the affinity results were confirmed using biophysical fluorescence quenching for tyrosine residues in the V segment. Small-scale production of the soluble fragment yielded 1.3mg/L using immunopure-immobilized protein A affinity column. Circular Dichroism data revealed that the antibody fragment (Ab) represents a folded protein that mainly consists of β-sheets. These novel antibody fragments may find utility as molecular affinity interface receptors in various electrochemical biosensor platforms to provide specific L-Carnitine binding capability with potential applications in metabolomic devices for companion diagnostics and personalized medicine applications. It may also be used in any other biomedical application where detection of the L-Carnitine level is important. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Kossida, Sofia; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-26

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for next generation sequencing (NGS), by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the high throughput version of IMGT/V-QUEST (portal begun in 2010, 500,000 sequences per batch). In vitro combinatorial libraries of engineered antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) which mimic the in vivo natural diversity of the immune adaptive responses are extensively screened for the discovery of novel antigen binding specificities. However the analysis of NGS full length scFv (~850 bp) represents a challenge as they contain two V domains connected by a linker and there is no tool for the analysis of two V domains in a single chain. The functionality "Analyis of single chain Fragment variable (scFv)" has been implemented in IMGT/V-QUEST and, for NGS, in IMGT/HighV-QUEST for the analysis of the two V domains of IG and TR scFv. It proceeds in five steps: search for a first closest V-REGION, full characterization of the first V-(D)-J-REGION, then search for a second V-REGION and full characterization of the second V-(D)-J-REGION, and finally linker delimitation. For each sequence or NGS read, positions of the 5'V-DOMAIN, linker and 3'V-DOMAIN in the scFv are provided in the 'V-orientated' sense. Each V-DOMAIN is fully characterized (gene identification, sequence description, junction analysis, characterization of mutations and amino

  19. A compact phage display human scFv library for selection of antibodies to a wide variety of antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Peter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phage display technology is a powerful new tool for making antibodies outside the immune system, thus avoiding the use of experimental animals. In the early days, it was postulated that this technique would eventually replace hybridoma technology and animal immunisations. However, since this technology emerged more than 20 years ago, there have only been a handful reports on the construction and application of phage display antibody libraries world-wide. Results Here we report the simplest and highly efficient method for the construction of a highly useful human single chain variable fragment (scFv library. The least number of oligonucleotide primers, electroporations and ligation reactions were used to generate a library of 1.5 × 108 individual clones, without generation of sub-libraries. All possible combinations of heavy and light chains, among all immunoglobulin isotypes, were included by using a mixture of primers and overlapping extension PCR. The key difference from other similar libraries was the highest diversity of variable gene repertoires, which was derived from 140 non-immunized human donors. A wide variety of antigens were successfully used to affinity select specific binders. These included pure recombinant proteins, a hapten and complex antigens such as viral coat proteins, crude snake venom and cancer cell surface antigens. In particular, we were able to use standard bio-panning method to isolate antibody that can bind to soluble Aflatoxin B1, when using BSA-conjugated toxin as a target, as demonstrated by inhibition ELISA. Conclusion These results suggested that by using an optimized protocol and very high repertoire diversity, a compact and efficient phage antibody library can be generated. This advanced method could be adopted by any molecular biology laboratory to generate both naïve or immunized libraries for particular targets as well as for high-throughput applications.

  20. Identification and production of mouse scFv to specific epitope of enterovirus-71 virion protein-2 (VP2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Srimanote, Potjanee; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Glab-Ampai, Kittirat; Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Supasorn, Oratai; Chiawwit, Phatcharaporn; Poovorawan, Yong; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2018-05-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus-A16 (CA16) frequently cause hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics among infants and young children. CA16 infections are usually mild, while EV71 disease may be fatal due to neurologic complications. As such, the ability to rapidly and specifically recognize EV71 is needed to facilitate proper case management and epidemic control. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to generate antibodies to EV71-virion protein-2 (VP2) by phage display technology for further use in specific detection of EV71. A recombinant peptide sequence of EV71-VP2, carrying a predicted conserved B cell epitope fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (designated GST-EV71-VP2/131-160), was produced. The fusion protein was used as bait in in-solution biopanning to separate protein-bound phages from a murine scFv (MuscFv) phage display library constructed from an immunoglobulin gene repertoire from naïve ICR mice. Three phage-transformed E. coli clones (clones 63, 82, and 83) produced MuscFvs that bound to the GST-EV71-VP2/131-160 peptide. The MuscFv of clone 83 (MuscFv83), which produced the highest ELISA signal to the target antigen, was further tested. MuscFv83 also bound to full-length EV71-VP2 and EV71 particles, but did not bind to GST, full-length EV71-VP1, or the antigenically related CA16. MuscFv83 could be a suitable reagent for rapid antigen-based immunoassay, such as immunochromatography (ICT), for the specific detection and/or diagnosis of EV71 infection as well as epidemic surveillance.

  1. Aptamers, antibody scFv, and antibody Fab' fragments: An overview and comparison of three of the most versatile biosensor biorecognition elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor; Thompson, Michael

    2016-11-15

    The choice of biosensing elements is crucial for the development of the optimal biosensor. Three of the most versatile biosensing elements are antibody single-chain Fv fragments (scFv), antibody fragment-antigen binding (Fab') units, and aptamers. This article provides an overview of these three biorecognition elements with respects to their synthesis/engineering, various immobilization techniques, and examples of their use in biosensors. Furthermore, the final section of the review compares and contrasts their characteristics (time/cost of development, ease and variability of immobilization, affinity, stability) illustrating their advantages and disadvantages. Overall, scFv fragments are found to display the highest customizability (i.e. addition of functional groups, immobilizing peptides, etc.) due to recombinant synthesis techniques. If time and cost are an issue in the development of the biosensor, Fab' fragments should be chosen as they are relatively cheap and can be developed quickly from whole antibodies (several days). However, if there are sufficient funds and time is not a factor, aptamers should be utilized as they display the greatest affinity towards their target analytes and are extremely stable (excellent biosensor regenerability). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ophiophagus hannah Venom: Proteome, Components Bound by Naja kaouthia Antivenin and Neutralization by N. kaouthia Neurotoxin-Specific Human ScFv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witchuda Danpaiboon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5’-nucleotidase. N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins.

  3. Construction of genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage for simultaneous phage display of gold binding peptide 1 and nuclear matrix protein 22 ScFv antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Farnaz; Amini, Seyed Mohammad; Kharrazi, Sharmin; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Mazlomi, Mohammad Ali; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Sadroddiny, Esmaeil

    2017-11-01

    The most common techniques of antibody phage display are based on the use of M13 filamentous bacteriophages. This study introduces a new genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage displaying multiple copies of a known gold binding peptide on p8 coat proteins. The recombinant helper phages were used to rescue a phagemid vector encoding the p3 coat protein fused to the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) ScFv antibody. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the expression of gold binding peptide 1 (GBP1) on major coat protein p8 significantly enhances the gold-binding affinity of M13 phages. The recombinant bacteriophages at concentrations above 5×10 4 pfu/ml red-shifted the UV-vis absorbance spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); however, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was not changed by the wild type bacteriophages at concentrations up to 10 12 pfu/ml. The phage ELISA assay demonstrated the high affinity binding of bifunctional bacteriophages to NMP22 antigen at concentrations of 10 5 and 10 6 pfu/ml. Thus, the p3 end of the bifunctional bacteriophages would be able to bind to specific target antigen, while the AuNPs were assembled along the coat of virus for signal generation. Our results indicated that the complex of antigen-bacteriophages lead to UV-vis spectral changes of AuNPs and NMP22 antigen in concentration range of 10-80μg/ml can be detected by bifunctional bacteriophages at concentration of 10 4 pfu/ml. The ability of bifunctional bacteriophages to bind to antigen and generate signal at the same time, makes this approach applicable for identifying different antigens in immunoassay techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ophiophagus hannah Venom: Proteome, Components Bound by Naja kaouthia Antivenin and Neutralization by N. kaouthia Neurotoxin-Specific Human ScFv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danpaiboon, Witchuda; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Thanongsaksrikul, Jeeraphong; Dong-din-on, Fonthip; Srimanote, Potjanee; Thueng-in, Kanyarat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are an important health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake found in South and Southeast Asia. In this study, the O. hannah venom proteome and the venom components cross-reactive to N. kaouthia monospecific antivenin were studied. O. hannah venom consisted of 14 different protein families, including three finger toxins, phospholipases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, cobra venom factor, muscarinic toxin, L-amino acid oxidase, hypothetical proteins, low cysteine protein, phosphodiesterase, proteases, vespryn toxin, Kunitz, growth factor activators and others (coagulation factor, endonuclease, 5’-nucleotidase). N. kaouthia antivenin recognized several functionally different O. hannah venom proteins and mediated paratherapeutic efficacy by rescuing the O. hannah envenomed mice from lethality. An engineered human ScFv specific to N. kaouthia long neurotoxin (NkLN-HuScFv) cross-neutralized the O. hannah venom and extricated the O. hannah envenomed mice from death in a dose escalation manner. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that NkLN-HuScFv interacted with residues in loops 2 and 3 of the neurotoxins of both snake species, which are important for neuronal acetylcholine receptor binding. The data of this study are useful for snakebite treatment when and where the polyspecific antivenin is not available. Because the supply of horse-derived antivenin is limited and the preparation may cause some adverse effects in recipients, a cocktail of recombinant human ScFvs for various toxic venom components shared by different venomous snakes, exemplified by the in vitro produced NkLN-HuScFv in this study, should contribute to a possible future route for an improved alternative to the antivenins. PMID:24828754

  5. Isolation and characterisation of a human-like antibody fragment (scFv that inactivates VEEV in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Rülker

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV belongs to the Alphavirus genus and several species of this family are pathogenic to humans. The viruses are classified as potential agents of biological warfare and terrorism and sensitive detection as well as effective prophylaxis and antiviral therapies are required.In this work, we describe the isolation of the anti-VEEV single chain Fragment variable (scFv, ToR67-3B4, from a non-human primate (NHP antibody gene library. We report its recloning into the bivalent scFv-Fc format and further immunological and biochemical characterisation.The scFv-Fc ToR67-3B4 recognised viable as well as formalin and ß-propionolactone (ß-Pl inactivated virus particles and could be applied for immunoblot analysis of VEEV proteins and immuno-histochemistry of VEEV infected cells. It detected specifically the viral E1 envelope protein of VEEV but did not react with reduced viral glycoprotein preparations suggesting that recognition depends upon conformational epitopes. The recombinant antibody was able to detect multiple VEEV subtypes and displayed only marginal cross-reactivity to other Alphavirus species except for EEEV. In addition, the scFv-Fc fusion described here might be of therapeutic use since it successfully inactivated VEEV in a murine disease model. When the recombinant antibody was administered 6 hours post challenge, 80% to 100% of mice survived lethal VEEV IA/B or IE infection. Forty to sixty percent of mice survived when scFv-Fc ToR67-3B4 was applied 6 hours post challenge with VEEV subtypes II and former IIIA. In combination with E2-neutralising antibodies the NHP antibody isolated here could significantly improve passive protection as well as generic therapy of VEE.

  6. Generation of a rabbit single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody for specific detection of Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 in both free-living and bacteroid forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Nguyen Xuan; Pruksametanan, Natcha; Srila, Witsanu; Yuttavanichakul, Watcharin; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Teaumroong, Neung; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2017-01-01

    A simple and reliable method for the detection of specific nitrogen-fixing bacteria in both free-living and bacteroid forms is essential for the development and application of biofertilizer. Traditionally, a polyclonal antibody generated from an immunized rabbit was used for detection. However, the disadvantages of using a polyclonal antibody include limited supply and cross-reactivity to related bacterial strains. This is the first report on the application of phage display technology for the generation of a rabbit recombinant monoclonal antibody for specific detection and monitoring of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in both free-living form and in plant nodules. Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9, a broad host range soil bacteria, originally isolated from the root nodules of Aeschynomene americana in Thailand was used as a model in this study. A recombinant single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody library was constructed from the spleen of a rabbit immunized with DOA9. After three rounds of biopanning, one specific phage-displayed scFv antibody, designated bDOA9rb8, was identified. Specific binding of this antibody was confirmed by phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (phage ELISA). The phage antibody could bind specifically to DOA9 in both free-living cells (pure culture) and bacteroids inside plant nodules. In addition to phage ELISA, specific and robust immunofluorescence staining of both free-living and bacteroid forms could also be observed by confocal-immunofluorescence imaging, without cross-reactivity with other tested bradyrhizobial strains. Moreover, specific binding of free scFv to DOA9 was also demonstrated by ELISA. This recombinant antibody can also be used for the study of the molecular mechanism of plant-microbe interactions in the future.

  7. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  8. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  9. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  10. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  11. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  12. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  14. A generic strategy for subcloning antibody variable regions from the scFv phage display vector pCANTAB 5 E into pASK85 permits the economical production of F(ab) fragments and leads to improved recombinant immunoglobulin stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karl; Fiedler, Markus; Skerra, Arne; Hock, Bertold

    2002-04-01

    Apart from the decisive sensitivity and specificity of immunosensors, the employed antibodies essentially contribute to additional key factors like fabrication costs for sensor chips and sensor stability. A production scheme for recombinant antibody fragments has been optimised with respect to these particular issues of biosensor development. The phagemid vector pCANTAB 5 E is widely used for the selection of antibody fragments from corresponding libraries. However, large-scale production of the selected single-chain F(v) (scFv) fragments is substantially restricted by the high cost for the inducer IPTG and the anti-E-tag antibody. The latter is needed in significant amounts for the purification of the recombinant protein. A generic strategy was established for subcloning scFv variable regions from pCANTAB 5 E into the plasmid pASK85 for the expression of F(ab) fragments. pASK85 bears coding sequences for murine constant domains including a His(6) tag at the carboxyl-terminal end of the constant heavy chain domain. The anti-s-triazine antibody K47H served as a model system in this study. Biosynthesis of the F(ab) fragment in a high cell density fermenter was induced by addition of anhydrotetracycline. The F(ab) fragment was subsequently purified from the periplasmic extract in a single step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). A yield of 100 microg/lxOD(550) purified F(ab) fragment was obtained employing a standard fermentation scheme. The sensitivity and cross-reactivity of the F(ab) was comparable to the parent scFv when assayed by enzyme immunoassay. However, the F(ab) fragment exhibited significantly improved long-term stability.

  15. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  16. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  17. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  18. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  19. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Anti-HIV scFv Efficiently Protects CD4 T Cells from HIV-1 Infection and Deletion in hu-PBL Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chaobaihui; Wang, Weiming; Cheng, Liang; Li, Guangming; Wen, Michael; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Li, Dan; Zhou, Paul; Su, Lishan

    2017-02-01

    Despite success in viral inhibition and CD4 T cell recovery by highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), HIV-1 is still not curable due to the persistence of the HIV-1 reservoir during treatment. One patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a homozygous CCR5 Δ32 donor has had no detectable viremia for 9 years after HAART cessation. This case has inspired a field of HIV-1 cure research focusing on engineering HIV-1 resistance in permissive cells. Here, we employed a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-scFv X5 approach to confer resistance of human primary CD4 T cells to HIV-1. We showed that primary CD4 T cells expressing GPI-scFv X5 were resistant to CCR5 (R5)-, CXCR4 (X4)-, and dual-tropic HIV-1 and had a survival advantage compared to control cells ex vivo In a hu-PBL mouse study, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells were selected in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues upon HIV-1 infection. Finally, GPI-scFv X5-transduced CD4 T cells, after being cotransfused with HIV-infected cells, showed significantly reduced viral loads and viral RNA copy numbers relative to CD4 cells in hu-PBL mice compared to mice with GPI-scFv AB65-transduced CD4 T cells. We conclude that GPI-scFv X5-modified CD4 T cells could potentially be used as a genetic intervention against both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 infections. Blocking of HIV-1 entry is one of most promising approaches for therapy. Genetic disruption of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 by nucleases in T cells is under 2 clinical trials and leads to reduced viremia in patients. However, the emergence of viruses using the CXCR4 coreceptor is a concern for therapies applying single-coreceptor disruption. Here, we report that HIV-1-permissive CD4 T cells engineered with GPI-scFv X5 are resistant to R5-, X4-, or dual-tropic virus infection ex vivo In a preclinical study using hu-PBL mice, we show that CD4 T cells were protected and that GPI-scFv X5-transduced cells were

  20. The pharmacological efficacy of the anti-IL17 scFv and sTNFR1 bispecific fusion protein in inflammation mouse stimulated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbi; Zhang, Teng; Cao, Hongxue; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Shaojuan; Jing, Xiaohui; Song, Liying; Liu, Yunye; Che, Ruixiang; Liu, Xin; Li, Deshan; Ren, Guiping

    2017-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is still a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Recently, our study found that a bispecific fusion protein treatment can ameliorate the lung injury induced by LPS. However, the molecular mechanisms which bispecific fusion protein ameliorates acute lung injury remain unclear. In this study, we found that the bispecific fusion protein treatment inhibited the nuclear transcription of NF-κB in confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy, the bispecific fusion protein exert protective effects in the cell model of ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via inhibiting the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and mediate inflammation. Moreover, the treatment of the bispecific fusion protein show its efficacy in animal models stimulated by LPS, the results of real-time PCR and ELISA demonstrate that bispecific fusion protein treatment effectively inhibited the over-expression of inflammatory cytokines(tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β and interleukin 17). In addition, LPS-challenged mice exhibited significant lung injury characterized by the deterioration of histopathology, which was meliorated by bispecific fusion protein treatment. Collectively, these results demonstrate that bispecific fusion protein treatment ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through reducing inflammatory cytokines and lung inflammation, which may be associated with the decreased the nuclear transcription of NF-κB. The bispecific fusion protein may be useful as a novel therapy to treat ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Late-night talk show v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Halamásek, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the history of talk show in USA with emphasis on its specific form, which is late-night talk show. The first chapter focuses on the creation of new television networks and the overall state of american broadcasting during the first era of the television talk show format. The thesis briefly describes radio broadcasting which served not only as an important source of inspiration for television but also as a starting platform for most talk show hosts. Next chapter theoreti...

  2. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  3. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  4. Career development at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Are you considering a career change? Perhaps you want help to develop within your current role? Either way, you will find a relevant session in the BVA Career Development stream at the London Vet Show in November. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  6. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  7. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  8. See you at London Vet Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-05

    London Vet Show is fast approaching: it takes place from November 17 to 18 and is being held at ExCeL London for the first time. Zoe Davies, marketing manager, highlights some of what BVA is offering at the event. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  10. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  11. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  12. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated with growth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus- culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme ...

  13. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  14. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  15. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  16. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  17. Identification of genes showing differential expression profile ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify genes showing differential expression profile associated withgrowth rate in skeletal muscle tissue of Landrace weanling pig. Two subtracted cDNA populations were generated from mus-culus longissimus muscle tissues of selected pigs with extreme expected ...

  18. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  19. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  20. Varicose veins show enhanced chemokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, L del Rio; Aceves, M; Dueñas, A I; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero, C; Crespo, M Sanchez; García-Rodríguez, C

    2009-11-01

    Leucocyte infiltration in the wall of varicose veins has been reported previously. This study was designed to investigate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in control and in patients with varicose veins and to test the effect of treating varicose vein patients with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on cytokine expression prior to removal of varices. Sections of vein were removed during operation from both patient groups, and ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs) were performed to assess the expression of chemokines. Group I included non-varicose saphenous veins from healthy patients undergoing amputation for trauma. Varicose veins were obtained from patients with primary varicose undergoing surgical treatment who received no drug (group II) or treatment with 300 mg day(-1) of ASA for 15 days before surgery (group III). Non-varicose veins constitutively expressed low levels of monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA. Varicose veins had a distinct chemokine expression pattern, since significant up-regulation of MCP-1 and IL-8 and a marked expression of IP-10, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA were detected. Removal of the endothelium did not alter this pattern. Varicose veins obtained from patients treated with ASA showed a consistent decrease in chemokine expression, although it did not reach statistical significance. Varicose veins showed increased expression of several chemokines compared to control veins. A non-significant reduction of activation was observed following treatment with ASA for 15 days.

  1. Binding of HIV-1 gp41-directed neutralizing and non-neutralizing fragment antibody binding domain (Fab and single chain variable fragment (ScFv antibodies to the ectodomain of gp41 in the pre-hairpin and six-helix bundle conformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Louis

    Full Text Available We previously reported a series of antibodies, in fragment antigen binding domain (Fab formats, selected from a human non-immune phage library, directed against the internal trimeric coiled-coil of the N-heptad repeat (N-HR of HIV-1 gp41. Broadly neutralizing antibodies from that series bind to both the fully exposed N-HR trimer, representing the pre-hairpin intermediate state of gp41, and to partially-exposed N-HR helices within the context of the gp41 six-helix bundle. While the affinities of the Fabs for pre-hairpin intermediate mimetics vary by only 2 to 20-fold between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, differences in inhibition of viral entry exceed three orders of magnitude. Here we compare the binding of neutralizing (8066 and non-neutralizing (8062 antibodies, differing in only four positions within the CDR-H2 binding loop, in Fab and single chain variable fragment (ScFv formats, to several pre-hairpin intermediate and six-helix bundle constructs of gp41. Residues 56 and 58 of the mini-antibodies are shown to be crucial for neutralization activity. There is a large differential (≥ 150-fold in binding affinity between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies to the six-helix bundle of gp41 and binding to the six-helix bundle does not involve displacement of the outer C-terminal helices of the bundle. The binding stoichiometry is one six-helix bundle to one Fab or three ScFvs. We postulate that neutralization by the 8066 antibody is achieved by binding to a continuum of states along the fusion pathway from the pre-hairpin intermediate all the way to the formation of the six-helix bundle, but prior to irreversible fusion between viral and cellular membranes.

  2. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  3. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  4. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-07

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names.

  5. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  6. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  7. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  8. Functional expression of single-chain variable fragment antibody against c-Met in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Chung, Junho; Oh, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2006-05-01

    c-Met, a high affinity receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, shown to be overexpressed in a variety of malignant cells, is a potential biomarker as well as a therapeutic target. Thus, single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) specific for c-Met is expected to be efficiently employed in the clinical treatment or imaging of many cancer cells. Here, we constructed the expression system for anti-c-Met scFv fused with T7 tag at its N-terminus using pET vector and investigated the expression conditions to achieve a functional and soluble expression of the scFv in the cytoplasm of recombinant Escherichia coli. The redox potential of E. coli cytoplasm was the most critical factor for the functional expression of anti-c-Met scFv. The employment of a host with oxidizing cytoplasm, E. coli trxB/gor double mutant, improved the productivity of functional anti-c-Met scFv by approximately 10-fold compared to the production of anti-c-Met scFv in the reducing cytoplasm of wild type E. coli. Productivity of functional anti-c-Met scFv could be further enhanced by co-expressing molecular chaperones such as GroELS, trigger factor, and DsbC with the scFv. Coexpression of DsbC increased the yield of functional anti-c-Met scFv about 2.5-fold in the cytoplasm of E. coli trxB/gor mutant compared to the production of scFv without DsbC coexpression. Lowering the IPTG concentration from 1 to 0.05 mM led to the slight enhancement, approximately 1.6-fold, of productivity of functional scFv. Although the use of low temperature for anti-c-Met scFv expression increased the ratio of soluble scFv fraction to insoluble fraction, productivity of soluble scFv decreased owing to the significant reduction of expression rate. The addition of 0.5 M sucrose in the medium inhibited the formation of intracellular insoluble anti-c-Met scFv. To purify the anti-c-Met scFv simply, we fused hexahistidine at the C-terminus of scFv and purified the scFv showing 98% of purity through the interaction

  9. Characterization of antibodies in single-chain format against the E7 oncoprotein of the Human papillomavirus type 16 and their improvement by mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Accardi Luisa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV are the etiological agents of cervical cancer. The viral E7 protein plays a crucial role in viral oncogenesis. Many strategies have been explored to block the E7 oncoprotein activity. The single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs are valuable tools in cancer immunotherapy and can be used as "intracellular antibodies" to knock out specific protein functions. For both in vivo and in vitro employment, the scFv intrinsic solubility and stability are important to achieve long-lasting effects. Here we report the characterization in terms of reactivity, solubility and thermal stability of three anti-HPV16 E7 scFvs. We have also analysed the scFv43 sequence with the aim of improving stability and then activity of the antibody, previously shown to have antiproliferative activity when expressed in HPV16-positive cells. Methods The three anti-HPV16 E7 scFv 32, 43 51 were selected from the ETH-2 "phage-display" library. Thermal stability was evaluated with ELISA by determining the residual activity of each purified scFv against the recombinant HPV16 E7, after incubation in the presence of human seroalbumine for different time-intervals at different temperatures. Sequence analysis of the scFvs was performed with BLAST and CLUSTALL programs. The scFv43 aminoacid changes were reverted back to the consensus sequence from the immunoglobuline database by site-directed mutagenesis. ScFv solubility was evaluated with Western blotting by determining their relative amounts in the soluble and insoluble fractions of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Results ScFv51 was the most thermally stable scFv considered. Sequence analysis of the most reactive scFv43 has evidenced 2 amino acid changes possibly involved in molecule stability, in the VH and VL CDR3 regions respectively. By mutagenesis, two novel scFv43-derived scFvs were obtained, scFv43 M1 and M2. ScFv43 M2 showed to have improved thermal stability and

  10. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  11. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents' Favorite Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-05-19

    Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ(2) tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be "mostly unhealthy" (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows' content would create a healthier media environment for youth.

  12. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  13. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  14. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  15. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-01-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These…

  16. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  17. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  18. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  19. Showing and Telling: The Difference That Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to clarify an essential difference between the ways in which pictures and words convey meaning. Examines one attempt to differentiate and characterize various types of picture books and concludes by showing how Anthony Browne exploits the distinction between showing and telling to create the atmosphere of uncertainty and mystery in his…

  20. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include full...

  1. International Team Shows that Primes Can Be Found in Surprising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-12-05

    Dec 5, 1997 ... The significance of the work of Friedlander and I waniec can be seen in its historical context. It was Euclid, in ancient Greece, who first showed that there are an infinity of primes among the integers. Much later, in. 1837, Gustave Lejeune Dirichlet showed that there are infinitely many primes among the.

  2. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  3. Pedagogy of the Talk Show Hosts and Hostesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Denise

    2001-01-01

    Explores the apparently disparate link between successfully hosting a talk show and successfully teaching a college class and describes methods this professor has used to foster class discussion and student interest. (EV)

  4. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder ... are under development. One promising approach involves protein replacement. Previous research has suggested that replacing the missing ...

  5. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  6. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Yeonju; Moon, Sohyeon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Oh, Seikwan

    2011-01-01

    The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproectiv...

  7. Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on osteoporosis in rats. ... Result: The results show that a high-dose of CLJE (600 mg/kg) significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.24 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) and femur (0.24 ± 0.03, p < 0.05) caused by OVX, and prevented the ...

  8. REALITY SHOW AS A TYPE OF MEDIA DISCOURSE (A STUDY OF THE REALITY SHOW KEEPING UP WITH THE KARDASHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Ikalyuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on defining peculiarities of the US reality show as a type of media discourse. Based on a study of the reality show Keeping up with the Kardashians, an attempt has been made to determine intralinguistic and extralinguistic factors of creating an image of an ordinary American family in order to attract the public attention.

  9. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New Planetarium Show: "Max Goes To The Moon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    As part of our NASA Lunar Science Institute funding we have focused on making a children’s planetarium show about space science and exploration. We decided to adapt an award winning children’s book, “Max Goes to the Moon” by Dr. Jeffrey Bennett into a planetarium show. This story follows the adventure of a dog names Max and his friend/owner Tori. The two of them go on an amazing journey to the Moon and back. Not only is the show a great adventure but it also teaches many concepts pertaining to our current understanding of the Earth-Moon system. We based many of these concepts to fit the new State and Federal education standards.

  11. Uni Dufour | Ig Nobel Show with Marc Abrahams | 7 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 7 May, Marc Abrahams, founder of the Ig Nobel Prize, will give an "Ig Nobel show", in English at Uni Dufour. The Ig Nobel Prizes are an American parody of the Nobel Prizes. In early October of each year, they are awarded to ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to "first make people laugh, and then make them think". Marc Abrahams will introduce this funny and dynamic evening with a short presentation before handing over to a selection of recipients. The show is free and open to all. Tuesday 7 May Ig Nobel Show 6:30 p.m. - Room U600 Uni Dufour

  12. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  13. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  14. TODDLERS WITH ELEVATED AUTISM SYMPTOMS SHOW SLOWED HABITUATION TO FACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Namkung, Jessica; Toth, Karen; Greenson, Jessica; Murias, Michael; Dawson, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    We explored social information processing and its relation to social and communicative symptoms in toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their siblings. Toddlers with more severe symptoms of autism showed slower habituation to faces than comparison groups; slower face learning correlated with poorer social skills and lower verbal ability. Unaffected toddlers who were siblings of children with ASD also showed slower habituation to faces compared with toddlers without siblings with ASD. We conclude that slower rates of face learning may be an endophenotype of ASD and is associated with more severe symptoms among affected individuals. PMID:20301009

  15. Freshwater pearl mussels show plasticity of responses to different predation risks but also show consistent individual differences in responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Conor D; Arnott, Gareth; Elwood, Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Animals often show behavioural plasticity with respect to predation risk but also show behavioural syndromes in terms of consistency of responses to different stimuli. We examine these features in the freshwater pearl mussel. These bivalves often aggregate presumably to reduce predation risk to each individual. Predation risk, however, will be higher in the presence of predator cues. Here we use dimming light, vibration and touch as novel stimuli to examine the trade-off between motivation to feed and motivation to avoid predation. We present two experiments that each use three sequential novel stimuli to cause the mussels to close their valves and hence cease feeding. We find that mussels within a group showed shorter closure times than solitary mussels, consistent with decreased vulnerability to predation in group-living individuals. Mussels exposed to the odour of a predatory crayfish showed longer closures than control mussels, highlighting the predator assessment abilities of this species. However, individuals showed significant consistency in their closure responses across the trial series, in line with behavioural syndrome theory. Our results show that bivalves trade-off feeding and predator avoidance according to predation risk but the degree to which this is achieved is constrained by behavioural consistency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  17. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAIa, UTTARA BASUa, ILA PANTb, PATURU KONDAIAHb,∗ and AKHIL R CHAKRAVARTYa,∗. aDepartment of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. bDepartment of Molecular ...

  18. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  19. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  20. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  1. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  2. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  3. Strobes: Pyrotechnic Compositions That Show a Curious Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341356034; van Lingen, J.N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311441769; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073464708; Meijerink, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075044986

    2013-01-01

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature

  4. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  5. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  6. A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate…

  7. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Violations and... of his right, within 20 days or other specified time, to file a written answer and demand a hearing...

  8. THE MUSLIM SHOW: SOFT CONTRA "LABELING" MELALUI MEDIA SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Rakhmawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Post-event 911 Muslims get “labeling” as an entity that refers  to  the  fatalist devian, fundamentalists, terrorists and a number of other negative Labeling. Labeling (labeling can not be separated from the role  of the  mass media to distribute messages containing the theme of  labeling. An  idea promoted by some Western media tend to provide reinforcement on the labeling. As one of the sensitive issues that tendentious depiction of Islam and labeling will be a provocative theme.Most Muslims respond to such labeling in ways counterproductive. However, most respond with high context communication through the dissemination of messages clarification by using social media. One such action is through the production and distribution of the comic «The Muslim Show» (TMS. Visualization packaging and design of messages in the TMS showed the creativity of the author to show the entity- whether Muslims specifically or so on about the condition of multidimensional community of Muslims. The themes in the comic duo made by the French Muslims are trying to show the positive side, peaceful Islam in the fight against Islamophobia.

  9. 47 CFR 73.24 - Broadcast facilities; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.24 Broadcast facilities; showing required. An authorization for a new AM broadcast station or increase in facilities of an existing station will be issued... transmitter, and other technical phases of operation comply with the regulations governing the same, and the...

  10. International Team Shows that Primes Can Be Found in Surprising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. International Team Shows that Primes Can Be Found in Surprising Places. Andrew Granville. Research News Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 71-72. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  12. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets...

  13. On with the Show! A Guide for Directors and Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestor, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    Divided into two parts, the Director's Handbook and the Actor's Handbook, On With the Show! enables directors and actors to get the most out of rehearsal time at home and on the stage. Providing essential time-saving techniques, worksheets, and samples, this guide allows performers and directors to work more effectively and efficiently toward the…

  14. 47 CFR 74.131 - Licensing requirements, necessary showing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements, necessary showing. 74.131 Section 74.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Experimental Broadcast Stations § 74.131 Licensing...

  15. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  16. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  17. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  18. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    CMV subgroup I has recently been subdivided into IA and. IB on the basis of gene sequences available for CMV strains. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II†. NEERAJ VERMA*, B K MAHINGHARA, RAJA RAM and A A ZAIDI.

  19. Synthetic analogs of anoplin show improved antimicrobial activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Jens; Uggerhøj, Lars Erik; Poulsen, Tanja Juul

    2013-01-01

    We present the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the decapeptide anoplin and 19 analogs thereof tested against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (ATCC...... compounds are more specific than anoplin. Both 2Nal(6) and Cha(6) show improved therapeutic index against all strains tested....

  20. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi (Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis.

  2. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...

  3. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  4. Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: The results show that a high-dose of CLJE (600 mg/kg) significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.24 ... Keywords: Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae, Post-menopausal osteoporosis, Ovariectomy, Bone mineral density, Trabecular ..... biology of osteoclast function. J Cell Sci. 2000; 113:.

  5. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  6. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  7. Expression, production and renaturation of a functional single-chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) against human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. We attempted to refold the scFv by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), dialysis and dilution. The results show that the column ...

  8. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  9. Severe weather as a spectacle: the Meteo-Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbe, Iñaki; Gaztelumendi, Santiago

    2017-06-01

    In this work we focus on perhaps one of the worst journalist practice when dealing with severe weather, the Meteo-Show or the extended practice, especially in TV, for using weather and meteorology for spectacle. Journalism today has found weather information in a real goldmine in terms of audience due to the growing public interest in this matter. However, as it happens with other content, sensationalism and exaggeration have also reached weather information, primarily when episodes of adverse nature (snow, heavy rain, floods, etc.) are addressed. In this paper we look to identify the worst practices in weather communication through analysis of examples from real journalist work. We present some keys to understand this trend, highlighting the ingredients that are present in the worst Meteo-show.

  10. Severe weather as a spectacle: the Meteo-Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Orbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on perhaps one of the worst journalist practice when dealing with severe weather, the Meteo-Show or the extended practice, especially in TV, for using weather and meteorology for spectacle. Journalism today has found weather information in a real goldmine in terms of audience due to the growing public interest in this matter. However, as it happens with other content, sensationalism and exaggeration have also reached weather information, primarily when episodes of adverse nature (snow, heavy rain, floods, etc. are addressed. In this paper we look to identify the worst practices in weather communication through analysis of examples from real journalist work. We present some keys to understand this trend, highlighting the ingredients that are present in the worst Meteo-show.

  11. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  12. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  13. "Einstein's Playground": An Interactive Planetarium Show on Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary; Tan, Philip; Fairweather, Heather; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of many aspects of astronomy is closely linked with relativity and the finite speed of light, yet relativity is generally not discussed in great detail during planetarium shows for the general public. One reason may be the difficulty to visualize these phenomena in a way that is appropriate for planetariums; another may be their distance from everyday experiences that makes it hard for audiences to connect with the presentation. In this paper, we describe an effort to visualize special relativity phenomena in an immersive "everyday" scenario. In order to bring special relativity to human scale, we simulate a universe in which the speed of light is slower, so that "everyday" speeds become relativistic. We describe the physics and the technical details of our first planetarium show, "Einstein's Playground," which premiered at the Museum of Science, Boston.

  14. Experimental Lung Cancer Drug Shows Early Promise | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer A first-of-its-kind drug is showing early promise in attacking certain lung cancers that are hard to treat because they build up resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The drug, CO-1686, performed well in a preclinical study involving xenograft and transgenic mice, as reported in the journal Cancer Discovery. It is now being evaluated for safety and efficacy in Phase I and II clinical trials.

  15. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  16. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  17. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  18. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  19. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  20. Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.

  1. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  2. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper

  3. Patients with polymyositis show changes in muscle protein charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Jacobsen, Søren; Rasmussen, L

    1989-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) appears with indolent proximal muscle weakness and is an inflammatory disease with breakdown of muscle cells. In our study the protein charge concentrations of the contractile proteins in the A and I bands were determined, applying a microelectrode technique. Patients with PM show...... a lower protein charge concentration than healthy control subjects which may be caused by the breakdown and removal of the proteins in the contractile filaments. A tool to judge the state of the disease as well as an aid in diagnosis may have been found in this method....

  4. Evaluating social marketing: lessons from ShowCase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Alex; Reynolds, Lucy

    2009-11-01

    In April 2009, the National Social Marketing Centre launched its new case study resource, ShowCase: a collection of 40 best practice social marketing programmes, predominantly from the UK. The process of collecting and researching these case studies has provided a unique opportunity to look at the current state of 'evaluation' within the field of social marketing. This paper shares some of the observations made during the review, exploring common challenges faced when evaluating social marketing. It also provides recommendations for improving this process to guide future social marketing delivery.

  5. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themelis, I.

    1983-01-01

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails

    OpenAIRE

    Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...

  7. Structured learning of human interactions in TV shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron-Perez, Alonso; Marszalek, Marcin; Reid, Ian; Zisserman, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is recognition and spatiotemporal localization of two-person interactions in video. Our approach is person-centric. As a first stage we track all upper bodies and heads in a video using a tracking-by-detection approach that combines detections with KLT tracking and clique partitioning, together with occlusion detection, to yield robust person tracks. We develop local descriptors of activity based on the head orientation (estimated using a set of pose-specific classifiers) and the local spatiotemporal region around them, together with global descriptors that encode the relative positions of people as a function of interaction type. Learning and inference on the model uses a structured output SVM which combines the local and global descriptors in a principled manner. Inference using the model yields information about which pairs of people are interacting, their interaction class, and their head orientation (which is also treated as a variable, enabling mistakes in the classifier to be corrected using global context). We show that inference can be carried out with polynomial complexity in the number of people, and describe an efficient algorithm for this. The method is evaluated on a new dataset comprising 300 video clips acquired from 23 different TV shows and on the benchmark UT--Interaction dataset.

  8. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  9. Phytoceramide shows neuroprotection and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Yeonju; Moon, Sohyeon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Oh, Seikwan

    2011-10-28

    The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER) and phytosphingosine (PSO) in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS) showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o.) recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from yak milk show probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Harjodh; Jangra, Manoj; Kaur, Lakhwinder; Jaswal, Pallavi; Dureja, Chetna; Nandanwar, Hemraj; Chaudhuri, Saumya Ray; Raje, Manoj; Mishra, Sunita; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Probiotic industries strive for new, efficient and promising probiotic strains that impart a positive impact on consumer health. Challenges are persisting in isolation, screening, and selection of the new indigenous probiotic strains. In the present research, we explored the probiotic potential of 17 lactic acid bacteria isolated from Yak milk in a series of in vitro tests. We also demonstrated their health benefits, i.e., cholesterol degradation, lactose digestion, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Principal component analysis revealed that more than 50% of the strains fulfilled the examined criteria, e.g., survival in acidic pH, bile concentrations, and adherent property. Approximately all the strains produced antimicrobial substances against the maximum number of tested strains including clinical strains. Most strains degraded cholesterol in comparison to the reference probiotic strain whereas strain Yc showed 1.5 times higher the degradation efficiency of the control strain. Lan4 strain exhibited remarkable anticancer activity and induced the maximum apoptosis (87%) in the Hela cells and was non-toxic to the non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Around ten strains showed positive lactose digestion. Overall, this can be concluded that selected lactic acid bacteria revealed excellent probiotic properties along with desirable health benefits. These strains need to be further investigated in details for their application in the development of novel probiotic preparations for the improvement of public health.

  11. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  12. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  13. Establishment of human cell lines showing circadian rhythms of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Aki; Shimada, Hiroko; Numazawa, Kahori; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kawashima, Minae; Kato, Nobumasa; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ebisawa, Takashi

    2008-11-28

    We have established human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines stably expressing the luciferase gene, driven by the human Bmal1 promoter, to obtain human-derived cells that show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence after dexamethasone treatment. The average circadian period of bioluminescence for the obtained clones was 24.07+/-0.48 h. Lithium (10 mM) in the medium significantly lengthened the circadian period of bioluminescence, which is consistent with previous reports, while 2 mM or 5 mM lithium had no effect. This is the first report on the establishment of human-derived cell lines that proliferate infinitely and show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence, and also the first to investigate the effects of low-dose lithium on the circadian rhythms of human-derived cells in vitro. The established cells will be useful for various in vitro studies of human circadian rhythms and for the development of new therapies for human disorders related to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  14. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  15. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Auckland Volcanic Field - a basaltic field showing random behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corvec, N.; Rowland, J. V.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Basaltic monogenetic volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon typically producing fields of volcanic centers that increase in number with time. The process of field growth is not constant but punctuated by single eruptions, flare-ups and hiatuses. The development of a volcanic field involves physical processes that occur in the mantle, where batches of basaltic magma originate, and within the intervening lithosphere through which magma is transferred to the surface. The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic centers within such volcanic fields results from, and thus may provide insights to, these physical processes (e.g., magma production, tectonic controls), thereby aiding in our understanding of a volcanic field's future development. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), which lies in the most populated area of New Zealand, comprises 50 volcanic centers and produced its last eruption ~600 years ago. A recent study has provided a relative chronology of the entire sequence of eruptions, which is here used together with the spatial distribution of volcanic centers to investigate the evolution of the field in time and space. Two methods were used: 1) the Poisson Nearest Neighbor (PNN) analysis which evaluates the spatial distribution of a natural population over the spatial distribution of a statistical random model, the Poisson model; and 2) the Voronoi analysis which evaluates the spatial characteristics of each volcanic center by dividing a region (i.e., the volcanic field) into a set of polygons. The results of the PNN analysis show that the temporal evolution of the spatial distribution of the volcanic centers within the AVF follows the Poisson model, therefore they cannot be used to extrapolate the future evolution of the volcanic field. The preliminary results of the Voronoi analysis show in combination with the geochemical signatures from some volcanic centers a possible zonation within the source region, and/or the magmas may be variably affected on their way

  17. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  18. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Iredale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these games participants were asked what percentage of their earned money they would be willing to donate to charity. Our results show that men contribute more to charity when observed by a member of the opposite sex than by a member of the same sex or no observer. Conversely, female charity donations did not significantly vary across the three observer conditions. Findings support the notion that men's generosity might have evolved as a mating signal.

  19. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  20. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degr...

  1. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  2. Machine-Learning-Based No Show Prediction in Outpatient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A recurring problem in healthcare is the high percentage of patients who miss their appointment, be it a consultation or a hospital test. The present study seeks patient’s behavioural patterns that allow predicting the probability of no- shows. We explore the convenience of using Big Data Machine Learning models to accomplish this task. To begin with, a predictive model based only on variables associated with the target appointment is built. Then the model is improved by considering the patient’s history of appointments. In both cases, the Gradient Boosting algorithm was the predictor of choice. Our numerical results are considered promising given the small amount of information available. However, there seems to be plenty of room to improve the model if we manage to collect additional data for both patients and appointments.

  3. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degradación humana. Será que esta televisión basura está al servicio del poder.

  4. D-Ser-containing humanin shows promotion of fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanehiro; Sasabe, Jumpei; Chiba, Tomohiro; Aiso, Sadakazu; Utsunomiya-Tate, Naoko

    2012-06-01

    Humanin (HN), a peptide of 24 amino acid residues, suppresses the neuronal cell death that is induced by the gene products of Alzheimer's disease. HN contains two Ser residues at positions 7 and 14. Because the proportion of D-Ser isomerized from L-Ser in proteins appears to increase as cellular organs age, we explored the structural effects of the isomerization of each Ser residue in HN. By using a thioflavin-T assay to detect fibril formation, we found that an HN derivative that contained two isomerized D-Ser residues had a greater tendency to form fibrils than did wild-type HN or HNs containing single D-Ser residues. A previous report showed that HN containing two D-Ser residues exerts neuroprotective activity. Our data, therefore, suggest that the fibril formation by HN that contains two D-Ser residues may promote HN neuroprotective activity.

  5. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...... now get these objects out of the computer and be able to hold and experience them with your hands. Even made in clay. At SuperFormLab, workshop for the new education in Ceramic Design at the School of Design, the integration of digital technologies in relation to the ceramic materials and techniques...

  6. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  7. Prestin shows divergent evolution between constant frequency echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-10-01

    The gene Prestin encodes a motor protein that is thought to confer the high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity that characterizes the mammalian auditory system. Recent research shows that the Prestin gene has undergone a burst of positive selection on the ancestral branch of the Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, respectively), and also on the branch leading to echolocating cetaceans. Moreover, these two groups share a large number of convergent amino acid sequence replacements. Horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats exhibit narrowband echolocation, in which the emitted calls are based on the second harmonic of a predominantly constant frequency (CF) component, the frequency of which is also over-represented in the cochlea. This highly specialized form of echolocation has also evolved independently in the neotropical Parnell's mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). To test whether the convergent evolution of CF echolocation between lineages has arisen from common changes in the Prestin gene, we sequenced the Prestin coding region (~2,212 bp, >99% coverage) in P. parnellii and several related species that use broadband echolocation calls. Our reconstructed Prestin gene tree and amino acid tree showed that P. parnellii did not group together with Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats, but rather clustered within its true sister species. Comparisons of sequences confirmed that P. parnellii shared most amino acid changes with its congeners, and we found no evidence of positive selection in the branch leading to the genus of Pteronotus. Our result suggests that the adaptive changes seen in Prestin in horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats are not necessary for CF echolocation in P. parnellii.

  8. Sulfur dioxide - Episodic injection shows evidence for active Venus volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    1984-03-01

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  9. Sulfur dioxide: episodic injection shows evidence for active venus volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L W

    1984-03-09

    Pioneer Venus ultraviolet spectra from the first 5 years of operation show a decline (by more than a factor of 10) in sulfur dioxide abundance at the cloud tops and in the amount of submicron haze above the clouds. At the time of the Pioneer Venus encounter, the values for both parameters greatly exceeded earlier upper limits. However, Venus had a similar appearance in the late 1950's, implying the episodic injection of sulfur dioxide possibly caused by episodic volcanism. The amount of haze in the Venus middle atmosphere is about ten times that found in Earth's stratosphere after the most recent major volcanic eruptions, and the thermal energy required for this injection on Venus is greater by about an order of magnitude than the largest of these recent Earth eruptions and about as large as the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. The episodic behavior of sulfur dioxide implies that steady-state models of the chemistry and dynamics of cloud-top regions may be of limited use.

  10. Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R; Hockings, Kimberley J

    2014-08-05

    The ability of wild animals to respond flexibly to anthropogenic environmental changes, including agriculture, is critical to survival in human-impacted habitats. Understanding use of human foods by wildlife can shed light on the acquisition of novel feeding habits and how animals respond to human-driven land-use changes. Little attention has focused on within-species variation in use of human foods or its causes. We examined crop-feeding in two groups of wild chimpanzees - a specialist frugivore - with differing histories of exposure to agriculture. Both groups exploited a variety of crops, with more accessible crops consumed most frequently. However, crop selection by chimpanzees with long-term exposure to agriculture was more omnivorous (i.e., less fruit-biased) compared to those with more recent exposure, which ignored most non-fruit crops. Our results suggest chimpanzees show increased foraging adaptations to cultivated landscapes over time; however, local feeding traditions may also contribute to group differences in crop-feeding in this species. Understanding the dynamic responses of wildlife to agriculture can help predict current and future adaptability of species to fast-changing anthropogenic landscapes.

  11. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  13. Nerve alterations showing autophagy in 2 patients with lichen aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Makoto; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2018-02-22

    Lichen aureus is a rare, chronic, persistent purpuric dermatosis clinically characterized by striking yellow- to bronze-colored lesions. Histologically, lichen aureus differs from other pigmented purpuric dermatoses in containing dense, band-like infiltrates closely associated with the epidermis. This report describes 2 patients with lichen aureus, a 20-year-old woman with a lesion on her right arm and a 51-year-old man with a lesion on the right side of his groin. Skin biopsy specimens revealed almost identical findings in both patients, including dense band-like infiltrates containing lymphocytes, histiocytes with hemosiderin deposits scattered extravasated red blood cells and nerve alterations at the dermo-epidermal interface. The nerves within the lesions were filled with granules, which stained positive with antibody to microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3, suggesting autophagy within the nerves. These altered nerves were present only in areas of band-like dermal lymphocytic infiltration. Electron microscopy of the lesions showed the accumulation of autophagosomes in Schwann cells. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  15. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  16. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

    2009-05-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.

  18. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Experimental taphonomy shows the feasibility of fossil embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Elizabeth C; Villinski, Jeffrey T; Turner, F Rudolf; Donoghue, Philip C J; Raff, Rudolf A

    2006-04-11

    The recent discovery of apparent fossils of embryos contemporaneous with the earliest animal remains may provide vital insights into the metazoan radiation. However, although the putative fossil remains are similar to modern marine animal embryos or larvae, their simple geometric forms also resemble other organic and inorganic structures. The potential for fossilization of animals at such developmental stages and the taphonomic processes that might affect preservation before mineralization have not been examined. Here, we report experimental taphonomy of marine embryos and larvae similar in size and inferred cleavage mode to presumptive fossil embryos. Under conditions that prevent autolysis, embryos within the fertilization envelope can be preserved with good morphology for sufficiently long periods for mineralization to occur. The reported fossil record exhibits size bias, but we show that embryo size is unlikely to be a major factor in preservation. Under some conditions of death, fossilized remains will not accurately reflect the cell structure of the living organism. Although embryos within the fertilization envelope have high preservation potential, primary larvae have negligible preservation potential. Thus the paleo-embryological record may have strong biases on developmental stages preserved. Our data provide a predictive basis for interpreting the fossil record to unravel the evolution of ontogeny in the origin of metazoans.

  20. Field Monitoring Shows Smaller Sediment Deficit to the Louisiana Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanks, K. M.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Current reports suggest that the Louisiana Coast will undergo significant drowning due to high subsidence rates and low sediment supply. One report suggests that sediment supply is just 30% of the amount necessary to sustain the current land area (Blum & Roberts, 2009). A novel dataset (CRMS) put together by the USGS and Louisiana's Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority provides direct measurements of sediment accumulation, subsidence rates, and sediment characteristics along the Louisiana Coast over the past 10 years (Jankowski et al., 2017). By interpolating bulk density, percent organic matter, and vertical accretion rates across the coast (274 sites), a more accurate estimate of sediment accumulation, both organic and inorganic, can be determined. Preliminary interpolation shows that an average of 53 MT organic and 132 MT inorganic sediment accumulates on coastal marshes each year. Assuming an average 9 mm/yr subsidence rate (Nienhuis et al., 2017) and 3 mm/yr sea-level rise (Blum & Roberts, 2009), this accumulation results in only a 12 MT/yr, or 6.5%, sediment deficit. Assuming a fluvial sediment discharge of 205 MT/yr, 64% of sediment is being trapped on the delta top. Although the sediment load estimates (MT/yr) may be slightly liberal due to interpolation over water, the fraction sediment deficit is unlikely to significantly change. These results suggest that even if current subsidence rates and sea level rise do not change, the gap between accommodation and accumulation may not be as dire as previously thought.

  1. Physics Outreach: Road Shows and World Year of Physics 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklavzina, Stanley

    2003-05-01

    The general public's awareness of science and physics is decreasing along with the number of physics students at universities on a global scale. One way to increase public and student interest while promoting the university's image is through science outreach activities. In February the APS sponsored a Physics Road Show Conference in Fort Collins Colorado where 55 attendees from around the country shared program information and exchanged ideas about different types of physics (and other science) outreach activities. Papers describing some of the programs can be found at the APS Forum on Education Spring 2003 newsletter: http://www.aps.org/units/fed/spring2003/index.html . The inspiration for the conference is the IUPAP's declaration making 2005 The World Year in Physics. In planning for 2005, the APS has initiated a communication avenue for discussion of ideas of how we bring physics to the public in 2005. If you would like to join in on the discussion visit http://listsvr.apsmsgs.org/cgi-bin/lyris.pl?enter=physicsontheroad . I will share highlights from the conference and ideas developing for 2005.

  2. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  3. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  4. Human DNA methylomes at base resolution show widespread epigenomic differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Ryan; Pelizzola, Mattia; Dowen, Robert H.; Hawkins, R. David; Hon, Gary; Tonti-Filippini, Julian; Nery, Joseph R.; Lee, Leonard; Ye, Zhen; Ngo, Que-Minh; Edsall, Lee; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica; Stewart, Ron; Ruotti, Victor; Millar, A. Harvey; Thomson, James A.; Ren, Bing; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary DNA cytosine methylation is a central epigenetic modification that plays essential roles in cellular processes including genome regulation, development and disease. Here we present the first genome-wide, single-base resolution maps of methylated cytosines in a mammalian genome, from both human embryonic stem cells and fetal fibroblasts, along with comparative analysis of mRNA and small RNA components of the transcriptome, several histone modifications, and sites of DNA-protein interaction for several key regulatory factors. Widespread differences were identified in the composition and patterning of cytosine methylation between the two genomes. Nearly one-quarter of all methylation identified in embryonic stem cells was in a non-CG context, suggesting that they may utilize different methylation mechanisms to affect gene regulation. Methylation in non-CG contexts showed enrichment in gene bodies and depletion in protein binding sites and enhancers. Non-CG methylation disappeared upon induced differentiation of the embryonic stem cells, and was restored in induced pluripotent stem cells. We identified hundreds of differentially methylated regions proximal to genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation, and widespread reduced methylation levels in fibroblasts associated with lower transcriptional activity. These reference epigenomes provide a foundation for future studies exploring this key epigenetic modification in human disease and development. PMID:19829295

  5. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  6. Different training schedules influence platelet aggregation in show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, C; Arfuso, F; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Pietro, S Di; Bruschetta, D; Piccione, G

    2017-03-28

    Depending on the intensity, duration and type of physical exercise, equine metabolism has to adapt to nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system requirements. In horses, exercise and training are known to have considerable effects on the mechanisms of hemostatic system involving platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training schedules on platelet aggregation in 15 Italian Saddle jumping horses. Animals were divided into three equal groups: Group A was subjected to a high intensity-training program; group B to a light training program, group C included sedentary horses. From each animal, blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture at rest on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days, and afterwards, once a week, for a total of 5 weeks data recording, in order to assess the maximum degree of platelet aggregation and the initial velocity of aggregation (slope) platelet aggregation. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of the different training schedules on studied parameters. The results revealed a different degree of platelet aggregation and a different initial velocity of platelet aggregation that changes during the different training schedules in horses that could represent a different protective endothelial mechanism. These findings could have an important role for a clearer knowledge of the physiological reference values of platelet aggregation and for a better interpretation of these variations during the training.

  7. Prosimian primates show ratio dependence in spontaneous quantity discriminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mychal Jones

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of nonhuman animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object-file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object-file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (≤ 3, both values were large (> 3, or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of nonhuman primates.

  8. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  9. Chinese dyslexics show neural differences in morphological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Tao, Ran; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Peng, Danling; Booth, James R

    2013-10-01

    Previous behavioral studies have suggested that morphological awareness is impaired in Chinese children with reading disability (RD), but how this is reflected in brain alterations is not known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study compared morphological processing in a RD group (11-13 years old) to an age-matched typically developing (TD) group. Participants made semantic relatedness judgments to incongruent word pairs that were either semantically related but did not share a morpheme or semantically unrelated but did share a morpheme. This was compared to conditions where semantic relatedness and morphemic information was congruent. A smaller incongruency effect was found in left dorsal posterior (BA9) and ventral anterior (BA47) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the RD compared to the TD, suggesting that the RD is less sensitive to morphological information. This was a specific deficit as a phonological control task that manipulated congruency between orthography and phonology did not show group differences in the IFG. Moreover, brain activation in the IFG for the incongruency effect in the semantic task was negatively correlated with reading skill for the RD group only, suggesting that higher skill children with RD may rely on a compensatory whole-word strategy by ignoring the morphemic information. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Map and table showing isotopic age data in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Shew, Nora B.; DuBois, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The source of the data reported here is a compilation of radiometric ages maintained in conjunction with the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) studies for Alaska. The symbol shape plotted at each location is coded for rock type, whether igneous, metamorphic, or other; the color of the symbol shows the geologic era or period for the Sample(s) at each locale. A list of references for each quadrangle is given to enable the user to find specific information including analytical data for each sample dated within a particular quadrangle. At the scale of this map, the very large number of Samples and the clustering of the samples in limited areas prevented the showing of individual sample numbers on the map.Synthesis and interpretation of any data set requires the user to evaluate the reliability or value of each component of the data set with respect to his or her intended use of the data. For geochronological data, this evaluation must be based on both analytical and geological criteria. Most age determinations are published with calculated estimates of analytical precision, Replicate analyses are infrequently performed; therefore, reported analytical precision is based on estimates of the precision of various components of the analysis and often on an intuitive factor to cover components that may have not been considered. Analytical accuracy is somewhat more difficult to determine; it is not only dependent on the actual measurement, it is also concerned with uncertainties in decay and abundance constants, uncertainties in the isotopic composition and size of the tracer for conventional K-Ar ages, and uncertainties in the Original isotopic composition of the sample, Geologic accuracy of a date is Variable; the interpretation of the meaning of an age determination, is important in the evaluation of its geologic accuracy. Potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium, and uranium-lead age determinations on a single sample can differ widely yet none or all may be

  11. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Children with autism show reduced somatosensory response: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Elysa J; Khatibi, Kasra; Hill, Susanna S; Siegel, Bryna; Arroyo, Monica S; Dowling, Anne F; Neuhaus, John M; Sherr, Elliott H; Hinkley, Leighton N B; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2012-10-01

    The neural underpinnings of sensory processing differences in autism remain poorly understood. This prospective magnetoencephalography (MEG) study investigates whether children with autism show atypical cortical activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in comparison with matched controls. Tactile stimuli were clearly detectable, and painless taps were applied to the distal phalanx of the second (D2) and third (D3) fingers of the right and left hands. Three tactile paradigms were administered: an oddball paradigm (standard taps to D3 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 0.33 and deviant taps to D2 with ISI ranging from 1.32 s to 1.64 s); a slow-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the deviant taps in the oddball paradigm; and a fast-rate paradigm (D2) with an ISI matching the standard taps in the oddball. Study subjects were boys (age 7-11 years) with and without autism disorder. Sensory behavior was quantified using the Sensory Profile questionnaire. Boys with autism exhibited smaller amplitude left hemisphere S1 response to slow and deviant stimuli during the right-hand paradigms. In post-hoc analysis, tactile behavior directly correlated with the amplitude of cortical response. Consequently, the children were re-categorized by degree of parent-report tactile sensitivity. This regrouping created a more robust distinction between the groups with amplitude diminution in the left and right hemispheres and latency prolongation in the right hemisphere in the deviant and slow-rate paradigms for the affected children. This study suggests that children with autism have early differences in somatosensory processing, which likely influence later stages of cortical activity from integration to motor response. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Do ravens show consolation? Responses to distressed others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlaith N Fraser

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from an uninvolved bystander to the conflict victim may represent an expression of empathy in which the bystander consoles the victim to alleviate the victim's distress ("consolation". However, alternative hypotheses for the function of bystander affiliation also exist. Determining whether ravens spontaneously offer consolation to distressed partners may not only help us to understand how animals deal with the costs of aggressive conflict, but may also play an important role in the empathy debate.This study investigates the post-conflict behavior of ravens, applying the predictive framework for the function of bystander affiliation for the first time in a non-ape species. We found weak evidence for reconciliation (post-conflict affiliation between former opponents, but strong evidence for both bystander affiliation and solicited bystander affiliation (post-conflict affiliation from the victim to a bystander. Bystanders involved in both interactions were likely to share a valuable relationship with the victim. Bystander affiliation offered to the victim was more likely to occur after intense conflicts. Renewed aggression was less likely to occur after the victim solicited affiliation from a bystander.Our findings suggest that in ravens, bystanders may console victims with whom they share a valuable relationship, thus alleviating the victims' post-conflict distress. Conversely victims may affiliate with bystanders after a conflict in order to reduce the likelihood of renewed aggression. These results stress the importance of relationship quality in determining the occurrence and function of post-conflict interactions, and show that ravens may be sensitive to the emotions of others.

  14. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: tukamoto@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  15. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  16. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day −1 ), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  17. Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Dust Storm Time Lapse Shows Opportunity's Skies Darken NASA's Opportunity rover is literally seeing some of its darkest days. Both Mars Exploration Rovers have been riding out a regional dust storm for several weeks. Conditions became particularly dreary in the Meridiani Planum region where Opportunity sits, perched on the edge of 'Victoria Crater.' This image is a time-lapse composite where each horizon-survey image has been compressed horizontally (but not vertically) to emphasize the sky. The relative brightness and darkness of the sky from sol to sol (over a 30-sol period beginning June 14, 2007) is depicted accurately in these images, which view roughly the same part of the plains southwest of the rover. The images are approximately true color composites, generated from calibrated radiance data files using the panoramic camera's 601-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 482-nanometer filters. The rovers' atmospheric science team is concerned that smaller, regional dust storms could expand into a larger, globe-encircling storm. That could extend the time the sun stays obscured, challenging the capability of Opportunity's solar panels to produce enough electricity for the rover to function. Fortunately, as of July 19, 2007, the Opportunity site is clearing slightly. When the storm ends, atmospheric scientists hope to review data from the rovers that will help them determine what sort of dust was being lifted and distributed. The numbers across the top of the image report a measurement of atmospheric opacity, called by the Greek letter tau. The lower the number, the clearer the sky. Both Opportunity and Spirit have been recording higher tau measurements in July 2007 than they had seen any time previously in their three and a half years on Mars. The five sol numbers across the bottom correspond (left to right) to June 14, June 30, July 5, July 13 and July 15, 2007.

  18. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  19. "The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Deacon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded

  20. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-03

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.

  1. Showing shape with texture: two directions seem better than one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Hagh-Shenas, Haleh; Interrante, Victoria

    2003-06-01

    Studies have shown that observers' judgment of surface orientation and curvature is affected by the presence of surface texture pattern. However, the question of designing a texture pattern that does not hide the surace information nor does convey a misrepresentation of the surface remains unsolved. The answer to this question has important potential imapct across a wide range of visualization application. Molecular modeling and radiation therapy are among the many fields that are in need of accurately visualizing their data and could benefit from such methods. Over the past several years we have carried out a series of experiments to investigate the impact of various texture pattern characteristics on shape perception. In this paper we report the result of our most recent study. The task in this study was adjusting surface attitude probes under three different texture conditions and a control condition in which no texture was present. We later compare the performances of the subjects. The three texture conditions were: a doubly oriented texture in which approximately evenly spaced lines followed both of the principal directions, a singly oriented texture in which lines followed only the first principal direction, and a singly oriented line integral convolution. Over a series of 200 trials (4 texture conditions, 10 surface probe locations * five repeated measures) a total of five naive participants were asked to adjust a circular probe. The probes were randomly located on an arbitrary curved surface and its perpendicular extension appeared to be oriented in the direction of the surface normal. An analysis of the results showed that the performance was best in the two directional texture condition. Performances were further decreased in one directional and no texture conditions (in that order). The paper is organized as follows. In Section 1 we briefly describe the motivation for our work. In Section 2 we describe our experimental methods, including a brief summary

  2. Global Uranium Supply Ensured for Long Term, New Report Shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Uranium resources and production are on the rise with the security of uranium supply ensured for the long term, according to a new report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, commonly referred to as the ''Red Book'', shows that total identified uranium resources have grown 12.5% since 2008. However, the costs of production have also increased, leading to reductions in lower cost category resources. These figures, which reflect the situation as of 1 January 2011, mean that total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements. Global uranium mine production increased by over 25% between 2008 and 2010 because of significantly increased production in Kazakhstan, currently the world's leading producer. The increased resource base has been achieved thanks to a 22% increase in uranium exploration and mine development expenditures between 2008 and 2010, which in 2010 totalled over $2 billion. Demand for uranium is expected to continue to rise for the foreseeable future. Although the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident has affected nuclear power projects and policies in some countries, nuclear power remains a key part of the global energy mix. Several governments have plans for new nuclear power plant construction, with the strongest expansion expected in China, India, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. The speed and magnitude of growth in generating capacity elsewhere is still to be determined. By the year 2035, according to the joint NEA-IAEA Secretariat, world nuclear electricity generating capacity is projected to grow from 375 GWe net (at the end of 2010) to between 540 GWe net in the low demand case and 746 GWe net in the high demand case, increases of 44% and 99% respectively. Accordingly, world annual reactor-related uranium requirements are projected to rise from 63 875 tonnes of uranium metal

  3. X-31 Kiel Probe Close-up Showing Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A close-up photograph of the Kiel air data probe on the noseboom on the X-31 aircraft shows the orifices used to collect air pressure measurements. Icing in the unheated Kiel probe on the first X-31 (Bu. No. 164584) caused that aircraft to crash. The aircraft obtained data that may apply to the design and development of highly-maneuverable aircraft of the future. Each has a three-axis thrust-vectoring system, coupled with advanced flight controls, to allow it to maneuver tightly at very high angles of attack. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled

  4. NASA Images Show Decreased Clarity in Lake Tahoe's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer aboard NASA's Terra satellite, launched in 1999, illustrate the state of gradually decreasing water clarity at Lake Tahoe, one of the clearest lakes in the world. The images are available at: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/default.htm.In the image on the left, acquired in November 2000, vegetation can be seen in red. The image on the right, acquired at the same time by a different spectral band of the instrument, is color-coded to show the bottom of the lake around the shoreline. Where the data are black, the bottom cannot be seen.Scientists monitoring the lake's water clarity from boat measurements obtained since 1965 have discovered that the lake along the California-Nevada border has lost more than one foot of visibility each year, according to the Lake Tahoe Watershed Assessment, a review of scientific information about the lake undertaken at the request of President Clinton and published in February 2000. The most likely causes are increases in algal growth, sediment washed in from surrounding areas and urban growth and development.By combining historical and current ground-based measurements with space measurements from new instruments like the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, scientists are now continuously monitoring and better understanding the circulation and changes in Lake Tahoe's water clarity. Images like these from satellites, which are able to capture entire views of the lake and its 63 contributing streams, can be used to determine and monitor spatial variations in the lake's clarity over time. These images complement 'point' measurements, made by boats from one spot in the lake. Rafts and buoys verify the satellite images, and help scientists develop and test circulation models.The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer is one of five Earth-observing instruments on Terra, launched in 1999, and is its only high

  5. Latest data shows long-term security of uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: According to Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand just published by the OECD Nuclear En ergy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), uranium resources, production and demand are all on the rise. Exploration efforts have increased recently in line with the expected expansion of nuclear energy in the coming years. Total identified resources have grown but so too have costs of production. Worldwide exploration and mine development expenditures have more than doubled since the publication of the previous edition, Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand. These expenditures have increased despite declining uranium market prices since mid- 2007. The uranium resources presented in this edition, reflecting the situation as of 1 January 2009, show that total identified resources amounted to 6 306 300 tU, an increase of about 15% compared to 2007, including those reported in the high-cost category (< USD 260/kgU or < USD 100/lbU O), reintroduced for the first time since the 1980s. This high-cost 3 8 category was used in the 2009 edition in response to the generally increased market prices for uranium in recent years, despite the decline since mid-2007, expectations of increasing demand as new nuclear power plants are being planned and built, and increased mining costs. Although total identified resources have increased overall, there has been a significant reduction in lower-cost resources owing to increased mining costs. At 2008 rates of consumption, total identified resources are sufficient for over 100 years of supply. The recognition by an increasing number of governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, baseload electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, coupled with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supply, increases the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity, although the magnitude of that growth remains to be determined. According to

  6. Anti-CTGF single-chain variable fragment dimers inhibit human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation by down-regulating p-Akt and p-mTOR levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Cai, Liting; Xu, Xudong; Fan, Juxiang; Xue, Xiulei; Yan, Xuejiao; Qu, Qinrong; Wang, Xihua; Zhang, Chen; Wu, Guoqiu

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) contributes to airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell hyperplasia in asthma. Humanized single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) was well characterized as a CTGF antagonist in the differentiation of fibroblast into myofibroblast and pulmonary fibrosis in our previous studies. To further improve the bioactivity of scFv, we constructed a plasmid to express scFv-linker-matrilin-6×His fusion proteins that could self-assemble into the scFv dimers by disulfide bonds in matrilin under non-reducing conditions. An immunoreactivity assay demonstrated that the scFv dimer could highly bind to CTGF in a concentration-dependent manner. The MTT and EdU assay results revealed that CTGF (≥10 ng/mL) promoted the proliferation of ASM cells, and this effect was inhibited when the cells were treated with anti-CTGF scFv dimer. The western blot analysis results showed that increased phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR induced by CTGF could be suppressed by this scFv dimer. Based on these findings, anti-CTGF scFv dimer may be a potential agent for the prevention of airway remodeling in asthma.

  7. Functional expression of an scFv on bacterial magnetic particles by in vitro docking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugamata, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Yoshino, Tomoko, E-mail: y-tomoko@cc.tuat.ac.jp

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • We present a novel expression system called “in vitro docking” on bacterial magnetic particles. • An scFv–Fc was functionally expressed on bacterial magnetic particles of magnetotactic bacteria. • Our novel expression system on BacMPs will be effective for disulfide-bonded proteins. - Abstract: A Gram-negative, magnetotactic bacterium, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 produces nano-sized magnetic particles (BacMPs) in the cytoplasm. Although various applications of genetically engineered BacMPs have been demonstrated, such as immunoassay, ligand–receptor interaction or cell separation, by expressing a target protein on BacMPs, it has been difficult to express disulfide-bonded proteins on BacMPs due to lack of disulfide-bond formation in the cytoplasm. Here, we propose a novel dual expression system, called in vitro docking, of a disulfide-bonded protein on BacMPs by directing an immunoglobulin Fc-fused target protein to the periplasm and its docking protein ZZ on BacMPs. By in vitro docking, an scFv–Fc fusion protein was functionally expressed on BacMPs in the dimeric or trimeric form. Our novel disulfide-bonded protein expression system on BacMPs will be useful for efficient screening of potential ligands or drugs, analyzing ligand–receptor interactions or as a magnetic carrier for affinity purification.

  8. Preparation, production and labelling of scFv against TU-20 and HIV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábry, Milan; Sedláček, Juraj; Kronrád, L.; Málek, Z.; Viklický, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2003), s. 285 ISSN 1084-9785 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OE67/1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : neurotubulin * antibody * labelling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2003

  9. The research progress and medicine application of the ScFv antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Lili; Zhang Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Since the scholar of England and Japan had found the diphtheria antitoxin, the research of the antibody has experienced three phases: polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies and genetically engineered antibodies. In recent years, far more attention has been paid to single-chain antibody by researchers owing to it's small molecular, strong ability of penetration, short half-lives in blood, high specificity to combine with the corresponding antibody, weak immunogenicity and possibility to be expressed in prokaryocyte. (authors)

  10. Radio Show on Books and Libraries as a Means of Promoting the Public Library: Marking the 200th Edition of the Show Tvoja,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavletič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSince 2004, the Ciril Kosmač Library of Tolmin has been continuously preparing a radio show on books and libraries on the local radio station Alpski val. The show has been used as an advertising platform or as a means of primary library promotion. The radio show is regarded as one of the tools of what is termed market communication, and it is intended to provide broad public information on the services of a public library, to promote the library’s activities and holdings and to foster a reading culture. The aim of the show is to stimulate the potential user interest in visiting and using the services of a public library, to expand the circle of users and consequently raise the number of visits and library loans. The title of the show, its audio image, target audience, metapromotion and substantive concept are all key to planning the radio show on books and libraries. The radio show is an example of an effective tool that helps to establish the library’s ties with the local community. This example of best practices shows that it is worth pursuing this activity in Slovenia’s public libraries and highlighting it on their websites.

  11. Reducing no-show behavior at a community mental health center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieren, Q van; Rijckmans, M.J.N.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an easy to apply no-show policy can substantially reduce no-show behavior of 16–25-year-old clients undergoing individual outpatient treatment at a community mental health center. After introduction of the new no-show policy, the no-show percentage

  12. Expression and purification of a novel therapeutic single-chain variable fragment antibody against BNP from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Dawei; Zhou, Yuwei; Tang, Jian; Jing, Fang; Zhang, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) secretion is regarded as the dominating mechanism of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW), which results from a renal loss of sodium and water during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia. Scale preparation of therapeutic single-chain variable fragment (scFv) that can neutralize elevated circulating BNP may have potential value for clinical use. In this report, we used a recently isolated humanized anti-BNP scFv fragment (3C1) as model antibody (Ab) to evaluate the potential of scale production of this therapeutic protein. The truncated gene encoding for scFv fragment cloned in pET22b (+) was mainly overexpressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli) Rosetta (DE3) pLysS cells. The insoluble fragment was solubilized and purified by Ni-NTA agarose resin under denaturation conditions, and recovered via an effective refolding buffer containing 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 0.15 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.5 M arginine, 2 mM GSH, 1 mM GSSG, and 5% glycerol. The refolded scFv fragment was concentrated by PEG20000, and dialyzed in PBS (containing 5% glycerol, pH 7.4). The final yield was approximately 10.2 mg active scFv fragment per liter of culture (3.4 g wet weight cells). The scFv fragment was more than 95% pure assessed by SDS-PAGE assay. Recombinant scFv fragment with His tag displayed its immunoreactivity with anti-His tag Ab by western blotting. ELISA showed the scFv fragment specifically bound to BNP, and it displayed similar activity as the traditional anti-BNP monoclonal Ab (mAb). Thus, the current strategy allows convenient small-scale production of this therapeutic protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood donor show behavior after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Zijlstra, Bonne; De Kort, Wim L.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  14. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....

  15. We're Playing "Jeremy Kyle"! Television Talk Shows in the Playground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Bishop, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on an episode of play in a primary school playground in England, which featured a group of children re-enacting elements of the television talk show "The Jeremy Kyle Show". The episode is analysed in the light of work that has identified the key elements of the talk show genre and the children's play is examined in…

  16. Producing a Radio Show about Psychological Science: The Story of "Psychological Frontiers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Emily; Sachau, Daniel; Albertson, Dawn N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the development of a campus-based radio show about psychological science. The authors' goals in creating the show were to inform the public about the science of psychology and to create a teaching and learning resource for faculty members and students. The show, "Psychological Frontiers," airs twice a week and consists of…

  17. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Cocoa Beach Air Show. The Cocoa Beach Air Show will include aircraft engaging in aerobatic maneuvers. The event is scheduled to...

  18. 77 FR 29932 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary. As part of that celebration, an air show... posed by the Nautical City Festival air show near Rogers City, MI, the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte...

  19. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO Patriotic Festival Air Show. This action... Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA. (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  20. Allometric comparison of Georgia dairy heifers on farms and at youth shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D S; Duberstein, K J; Fain Bohlen, J L; Bertrand, J K; Nelson, A H; Froetschel, M A; Davidson, B E; Graves, W M

    2015-02-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between allometric measures of growth of Holstein dairy heifers and placing in the show ring, and to compare differences in growth between Holstein heifers that are shown and not shown. In the first study, 494 Holstein show heifers were evaluated at the 2012 and 2013 Georgia Junior National Livestock Shows. Measurements were obtained for weight, head length, withers height, hip height, thurl width, and tail length. Heifer mass index (HMI), average daily gain (ADG), and age were calculated. In total, 72.5% of Holstein show heifers were underweight. Average ADG was 0.63 kg/d, which is below the industry recommendation of 0.7 to 0.8 kg/d. Variables were ranked and converted to percentages to account for differences in class size. Withers height, head length, and HMI were most indicative of show placing. In the second study, we compared differences between growth patterns of show heifers and non-show heifers. An additional 293 non-show Holstein heifers were evaluated on 3 Georgia dairy farms during the same period as the show. In total, 43.3% of non-show heifers were underweight. Average ADG for non-show heifers was 0.71 kg/d, which is within the industry recommendation of 0.7 to 0.8 kg/d. Show heifers weighed less for their age than non-show heifers and tended to be taller at the withers than non-show heifers. The HMI scores were similar for younger show and non-show heifers, but older show heifers had lower HMI scores than non-show heifers of the same age. Show heifers had HMI scores that were lower than values calculated from standard growth data. As show heifers matured, ADG decreased, whereas as non-show heifers matured, ADG increased. Youth, leaders, and parents need to be aware of the importance of growing replacement heifers correctly so that heifers calve at 22 to 24 mo of age at an acceptable size and scale and become profitable members of the milking herd. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  1. The impact of multiple show-ups on eyewitness decision-making and innocence risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew M; Bertrand, Michelle; Lindsay, R C L; Kalmet, Natalie; Grossman, Deborah; Provenzano, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    If an eyewitness rejects a show-up, police may respond by finding a new suspect and conducting a second show-up with the same eyewitness. Police may continue finding suspects and conducting show-ups until the eyewitness makes an identification (Study 1). Relatively low criterion-setting eyewitnesses filter themselves out of the multiple show-ups procedure by choosing the first suspect with whom they are presented (Studies 2 and 3). Accordingly, response bias was more stringent on the second show-up when compared with the first, but became no more stringent with additional show-ups. Despite this stringent shift in response bias, innocence risk increased with additional show-ups, as false alarms cumulate (Studies 2 and 3). Although unbiased show-up instructions decreased innocent suspect identifications, the numbers were still discouraging (Study 4). Given the high number of innocent suspects who would be mistakenly identified through the use of multiple show-up procedures, using such identifications as evidence of guilt is questionable. Although evidence of guilt is limited to identifications from a single show-up, practical constraints might sometimes require police to use additional show-ups. Accordingly, we propose a stronger partition between evidentiary and investigative procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. CPR in medical TV shows: non-health care student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alismail, Abdullah; Meyer, Nicole C; Almutairi, Waleed; Daher, Noha S

    2018-01-01

    There are over a dozen medical shows airing on television, many of which are during prime time. Researchers have recently become more interested in the role of these shows, and the awareness on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Several cases have been reported where a lay person resuscitated a family member using medical TV shows as a reference. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate college students' perception on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and when to shock using an automated external defibrillator based on their experience of watching medical TV shows. A total of 170 students (nonmedical major) were surveyed in four different colleges in the United States. The survey consisted of questions that reflect their perception and knowledge acquired from watching medical TV shows. A stepwise regression was used to determine the significant predictors of "How often do you watch medical drama TV shows" in addition to chi-square analysis for nominal variables. Regression model showed significant effect that TV shows did change students' perception positively ( p <0.001), and they would select shock on asystole as the frequency of watching increases ( p =0.023). The findings of this study show that high percentage of nonmedical college students are influenced significantly by medical shows. One particular influence is the false belief about when a shock using the automated external defibrillator (AED) is appropriate as it is portrayed falsely in most medical shows. This finding raises a concern about how these shows portray basic life support, especially when not following American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines. We recommend the medical advisors in these shows to use AHA guidelines and AHA to expand its expenditures to include medical shows to educate the public on the appropriate action to rescue an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patient.

  3. The Transcriptional Heat Shock Response of Salmonella Typhimurium Shows Hysteresis and Heated Cells Show Increased Resistance to Heat and Acid Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pin, C.; Hansen, Trine; Munoz-Cuevas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if the transcriptional response of Salmonella Typhimurium to temperature and acid variations was hysteretic, i.e. whether the transcriptional regulation caused by environmental stimuli showed memory and remained after the stimuli ceased. The transcriptional activity of non.......e., they remained up-regulated after the environmental stress ceased. At 25uC the transcriptional regulation of genes encoding for heat shock proteins was determined by the previous environment. Gene networks constructed with up-regulated genes were significantly more modular than those of down-regulated genes......H 4.5 were not affected. The exposure to pH 5 only caused up-regulation of 12 genes and this response was neither hysteretic nor accompanied of increased resistance to inactivation conditions. Cellular memory at the transcriptional level may represent a mechanism of adaptation to the environment...

  4. The Impact of Destination Exposure in Reality Shows on Destination Image, Familiarity, and Travel Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacia Reviany Mege

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of reality shows renders them as potential media for tourism promotion. However, there is limited research regarding the impact of destination exposure in reality shows. This study aimed to investigate the impact of destination exposure in television reality shows on destination image, familiarity, and travel intention. To test the hypotheses, a within subject experiment was conducted. A worldwide popular reality show, The Amazing Race, was used as a stimulus for the participants. The results revealed that, in general, both cognitive and affective destination im- ages were rated higher after watching the reality show. Furthermore, familiarity with the destination and travel intention to the destination increased after watching the destination in the reality show. The result of this study will be useful for destination marketing organization and the government to explore alternative promotional media and aid the promotion of tourism destination.

  5. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  6. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  7. Seeing is doing. The implicit effect of TV cooking shows on children's use of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyens, Evy; Smits, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has established that TV viewing and food marketing influence children's eating behavior. However, the potential impact of popular TV cooking shows has received far less attention. TV cooking shows may equally affect children's food selection and consumption by distributing both food cues and portion-size cues. In an experimental study, elementary school children were randomly exposed to a cooking show, that either did or did not display a portion-size cue, or a non-food TV show. Results showed that children used significantly more sugar on their pancakes, and consumed significantly more of the pancakes after watching a TV cooking show compared to a non-food TV show. However, observing a portion-size cue in a TV cooking show only influenced sugar selection in older children (5th grade), but not in younger children (1st grade). The findings suggest that food cues in TV cooking shows stimulate consumption by inducing food cravings in children. Actual portion-size cues only appeared to affect older children's food selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, E-M; Zijlstra, B J H; de Kort, W L A M

    2017-10-01

    Show behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this study is the first study to account for variation in donor behaviour across different collection sites. We applied a multilevel approach to data from Donor InSight, including 11 889 donors from 257 fixed and mobile collection sites in the Netherlands. The aim of the multilevel models was to account for variance at two levels, that is donors and collection sites. We estimated the likelihood of showing after invitation based on individual predictors, including demographics, donation history and attitude. At the collection site level, we included satisfaction with the blood bank aggregated from individual responses by donors who donate at this site, opening hours and collection site type, that is fixed/mobile. Most importantly, show behaviour varied considerably across collection sites and depended on characteristics of these sites. Moreover, women, older and more experienced donors had higher odds of showing after invitation than men, younger and less experienced donors. Donors higher on warm glow, self-efficacy and donor identity more likely showed after an invitation. Higher aggregate satisfaction and donating at fixed collection sites increased the odds of show. In addition to individual factors, collection site characteristics are important in explaining variation in donor show behaviour, thus presenting clues for blood bank policies and interventions to improve donor show. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. Factors associated with patient no-show rates in an academic otolaryngology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Caitlin E; Hughes, Allyson L; I-Chen, Chen; Westgate, Philip M; Gal, Thomas J; Bush, Matthew L; Comer, Brett T

    2018-03-01

    Factors affecting access to healthcare is an expanding area of research. This study seeks to identify factors associated with no-show rates in an academic otolaryngology practice to improve clinical efficiency and patient access to care. Retrospective review. A retrospective review of scheduled clinical appointments from February 1, 2015 to January 30, 2016 at a single academic otolaryngology department was performed. Statistical analysis was completed to examine the association of no-show rates with the following: otolaryngology subspecialty, clinic location (e.g., main campus vs. satellite), patient demographic factors, attending seniority, temporal factors, insurance types, rurality, and visit type. There was an overall no-show rate of 20% for 22,759 scheduled clinic visits. Satellite clinics had the highest no-show rates at 25% (P < .001). New patient visits had the highest no-show rate at 24% (P < .001). Among subspecialties, facial plastic surgery had the lowest no-show rate (12.6%), whereas Pediatrics had the highest (23%) (P < .001). No significant association between gender and no-show rates was observed (P = .29), but patients over 60 years old had the lowest no-show rate (12.7%, P < .0001). Patients with Medicaid (28%), Medicare (15.3%), and commercial insurance (12.9%) had significantly different overall no-show rates (P < .0001). Increased clinic no-show rates are associated with satellite clinics, new patient visits, younger age, and insurance type. No-show rates varied among subspecialties. Further investigation is warranted to assess barriers to appointment compliance and to develop interventions to improve access to care. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:626-631, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. 33 CFR 100.736 - Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. 100.736 Section 100.736 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Fort Myers Beach air show; Fort Myers Beach, FL. (a)(1) Regulated Area. The regulated area is formed by...

  11. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The... Beach, VA to support the Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show. This action is necessary to provide for the...

  12. 25 CFR 26.33 - How do I show I need job training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I show I need job training? 26.33 Section 26.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Training Services § 26.33 How do I show I need job training? The need for Job Placement and...

  13. 76 FR 2000 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Show Low, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...This action will amend Class E airspace at Show Low, AZ, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Show Low Regional Airport. This will improve the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the airport.

  14. Writing Games: Continuity and Change in the Design and Development of Quiz Shows in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaglioni, Massimo; Fiacco, Axel

    2013-01-01

    abstractAs in the United States and in many countries across Europe, the quiz show was a founding genre for Italian television as far back as the 1950s: because of their broad appeal, such game shows as Lascia o raddoppia and Il musichiere contributed strongly to television’s burgeoning popularity

  15. Do Talk Shows Cultivate Adolescents' Views of the World? A Prolonged-Exposure Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossler, Patrick; Brosius, Hans-Bernd

    2001-01-01

    Investigates effects of German daily talk shows (dealing with lesbian or gay male relationships, transsexuality, and body adornment) on adolescents. Shows that cultivation effects occurred at both first- and second-order level, but were restricted to the issues; and no transfer effects pertaining to a general change of attitudes. Concludes…

  16. Media-Constructed Anti-Intellectualism: The Portrayal of Experts in Popular US Television Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, Lisa B.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the popular portrayal of intellectual expertise through a content analysis of 200 of the 10 top-rated popular US television talk shows. Shows that experts in this sample were typically brought on late in the program, allotted little speaking time, placed among non-experts, frequently interrupted, and sometimes challenged. Indicates that…

  17. The Persuasive Effect of Host and Audience Reaction Shots in Television Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L.; Hendriks, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Explores the effects of nonverbal reactions of a talk show host and studio audience members to arguments presented by a talk show guest on a low-involvement topic. Suggests that positive audience or host reactions can enhance persuasive influence; however, if those cues are incongruent, persuasive influence may be negated. Addresses implications…

  18. 20 CFR 404.1508 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 404... is needed to show an impairment. If you are not doing substantial gainful activity, we always look first at your physical or mental impairment(s) to determine whether you are disabled or blind. Your...

  19. 20 CFR 416.908 - What is needed to show an impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is needed to show an impairment. 416.908... is needed to show an impairment. If you are not doing substantial gainful activity, we always look first at your physical or mental impairment(s) to determine whether you are disabled or blind. Your...

  20. 78 FR 45061 - Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski Show, Sister Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sister Bay Marina Fest Fireworks and Ski... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Sister Bay due to a fireworks display and ski show. This... with the fireworks display and ski show in Sister Bay on August 31, 2013. DATES: This rule is effective...

  1. Using the "Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a Feminist Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jule, Allyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a teaching tool used with a group of final-year undergraduate students who gathered together last academic year (2007-8) to explore Women in Leadership, as part of a Communications course. The research focus was: How can the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" (a…

  2. Real Science: MIT Reality Show Tracks Experiences, Frustrations of Chemistry Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    A reality show about a college course--a chemistry class no less? That's what "ChemLab Boot Camp" is. The 14-part series of short videos is being released one episode at a time on the online learning site of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The novel show follows a diverse group of 14 freshmen as they struggle to master the…

  3. Blood donor show behaviour after an invitation to donate: The influence of collection site factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Zijlstra, B. J. H.; de Kort, W. L. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and ObjectivesShow behaviour after invitation to donate varies considerably across donors. More insight into this variation is important for blood banks in achieving stable stocks. This study examined individual factors determining intended show behaviour. Most importantly, however, this

  4. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  5. Are Educational Shows Teaching Our Children to Become Life-Long Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Jeremiah; Howard, Tiffany; Goza, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate various textual characteristics of popular children television shows. More specifically, researchers examined both the quantity and quality of question asked (i.e., question training). Furthermore, several readability components among the different shows (e.g., narrativity, syntactic simplicity,…

  6. "Survivor": Three Principles of Economics Lessons as Taught by a Reality Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlan, Dean

    2017-01-01

    The reality television show "Survivor" has been a ratings success on CBS for over 16 years. In the show, 16 strangers are marooned in a remote location, required to compete in physical and mental challenges and periodically vote to eliminate players from the game. The last person remaining wins one million dollars. The author uses this…

  7. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA. This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14 for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75–79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  8. Occupational Portrayal of Men and Women on the Most Frequently Mentioned Television Shows of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Stephen A.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of male vs. female occupational portrayals in terms of occupational prestige on the six television shows most frequently mentioned by preschool children. The following shows were viewed and analyzed six times: Sesame Street, Bugs Bunny, Roadrunner, Batman, Flintstones, and Happy Days.…

  9. Using Journals to Show Students What Social Psychology Is All about

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Professional journals serve the vital scientific function of disseminating knowledge to colleagues. In so doing, journals become the "face" and "voice" of the professional disciplines they represent. Journal content shows the major topics of interest, the scope, and the boundaries of the profession. It shows the techniques and methods of research…

  10. 77 FR 40798 - Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...; Nautical City Festival Air Show, Rogers City MI; in the Federal Register (77 FR 29932). We received no... Nautical City Festival will be celebrating Calcite's 100th Anniversary. As part of that celebration, an air...

  11. CPR in medical TV shows: non-health care student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alismail A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Alismail,1 Nicole C Meyer,2 Waleed Almutairi,1 Noha S Daher3 1Cardiopulmonary Sciences Department, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 2Respiratory Care Department, Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA, USA; 3Department of Allied Health Studies, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA Introduction: There are over a dozen medical shows airing on television, many of which are during prime time. Researchers have recently become more interested in the role of these shows, and the awareness on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Several cases have been reported where a lay person resuscitated a family member using medical TV shows as a reference. The purpose of this study is to examine and evaluate college students’ perception on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and when to shock using an automated external defibrillator based on their experience of watching medical TV shows.Methods: A total of 170 students (nonmedical major were surveyed in four different colleges in the United States. The survey consisted of questions that reflect their perception and knowledge acquired from watching medical TV shows. A stepwise regression was used to determine the significant predictors of “How often do you watch medical drama TV shows” in addition to chi-square analysis for nominal variables.Results: Regression model showed significant effect that TV shows did change students’ perception positively (p<0.001, and they would select shock on asystole as the frequency of watching increases (p=0.023.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that high percentage of nonmedical college students are influenced significantly by medical shows. One particular influence is the false belief about when a shock using the automated external defibrillator (AED is appropriate as it is portrayed falsely in most medical shows. This finding raises a concern about how

  12. ROLE-PLAY AND SHOW-AND-TELL IN GRADE 5 STUDENTS' SPEAKING LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choiril Anwar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate (1 the effectiveness of role-play and show-and-tell, and (2 which one was more effective between role-play and show-and-tell in grade 5 students' speaking learning. It was an experimental study by randomized pretest-posttest control group design. The data were collected by a non-test of an observation. The instrument of the research was observation sheets completed by speaking rubric on Likert scale. The data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffe test. The results of the research showed that: (1 role-play and show-and-tell were effective in grade 5 students' speaking learning indicated by p < 0.05 and; (2 role-play was more effective than show-andtell indicated by p < 0.05.

  13. Suoran talk show´n käsikirjoittaminen : Tapausesimerkkinä Maria!

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    Talk show´n käsikirjoittaminen on monivaiheinen prosessi, joka huipentuu suoraan lähetykseen. Koska suora talk show -lähetys sisältää arvaamattomia elementtejä, ei lopputulos vastaa aina suunniteltua. Pyrin opinnäytetyössäni valottamaan talk show´n käsikirjoittamista. Esimerkkinä käytän Maria! -talk show´ta. Suoritin työharjoitteluni ohjelmassa. Tutkin myös, miten ennakkoon suunniteltu käsikirjoitus muuttuu suorassa lähetyksessä. Vertailen kahden Maria!:n talk show´n käsikirjoitusta niiden to...

  14. MR findings of nasal cavity lesions showing the infundibular widening on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Young Uk; Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Several kinds of nasal cavity lesions located in the region of the infundibulum on CT. At such time, the visualization of these lesions is very similar. The purpose of this study was to differentially diagnose these nasal cavity lesions through evaluation of the MR findings. In 51 cases of pathologically proven nasal cavity masses which on CT showed infundibular widening, we retrospectively evaluated the MR findings. The cases involved prolapsed antral mucosa from sinusitis(n=15), inverted papilloma(n=10), antrochoanal polyp(n=10), aspergillosis(n=9), and nasal polyp(n=7). All patients underwent both CT and MR. imaging. In all cases, CT findings were similar ; soft tissue masses filling the maxillary sinus and nasal cavity were associated with infundibular widening caused by pressure on the uncinate process, leading to erosion. Differential diagnosis by CT was very difficult ; MR T2 weighted imaging was most effective for differential diagnosis of these nasal cavity masses. Prolapsed antral mucosa showed central inhomogeneous mixed signal intensity, with a peripheral rim of hyperintensity along the sinus wall and nasal component. Antrochoanal polyps showed homogeneous bright signal intensity of the antral and nasal component. Aspergillosis showed central dark signal foci. Inverted papillomas showed mixed intermediate and high intensity mixed with high signal intensity. Nasal polyps showed striation mixed of intermediate and high signal intensity, while nasal polyp showed striation of intermediate and high intensity. On Gd-enhanced T1 weighted images, prolapsed antral mucosa and antrochoanal polyp showed peripheral rim enhancement of the antral and nasal component. In contrast, inverted papilloma and nasal polyp showed intense enhancement of the mass and can be separate from the sinus inflammatory disease. Various nasal cavity masses showing infundibular widening on CT can be differentiated on MR images, especially of these are T2 weighted or contrast enhanced T1

  15. ACCOMPLISHING COHERENCE IN TALK SHOWS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN ENGLISH AND INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Shanti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper tried to show how conversational coherence is achieved within talk shows, what strategies used by both host and interviewee to achieve coherence collaboratively. It was shown that in both English and Indonesian talk shows, conversational activity of asking questions can be employed to measure a coherence of a stretch of conversation. Question-answer adjacency pairs can provide the framework through which coherence is achieved, and they have two possibilities to be agreed or disagreed with. This is clear from the English talk show instead of the Indonesian one. The way speakers taking turn and the occurrence of overlap within the sequence of conversation can also determine mutual understanding among the participants. However, the Indonesian talk show offers a longer answer pair compared with the English one. Both talk shows, in fact, share the similar indicators and use similar strategies in order to achieve coherence across the talk show sessions. Speaker’s hesitation is found more in the Indonesian talk show instead of the English one. Another marker of coherence, overlap onset, also occurs a lot in both talk shows. The way speakers (host and interviewee maintain the topic throughout the talk supports the notion that mutual understanding is successfully achieved. Meanwhile, culture is considered not too influential in determining different ways of maintaining the flow of the talk. Both talk shows use similar patterns with no significant difference in terms of culture. They differ only in the level of conversational devices used which is related to language use instead of cultural background.   Keywords: coherence, adjacency pairs, turn-taking, talk shows   Abstrak: Studi ini mencoba menunjukkan bagaimana koherensi percakapan dicapai dalam talk show, strategi apa yang digunakan oleh pembawa acara serta tamu yang diwawancarai untuk mencapai koherensi secara kolaboratif. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dalam talk show berbahasa

  16. Serotonin transporter knockout rats show improved strategy set-shifting and reduced latent inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Vondervoort, I.I.G.M. van de; Leeuw, M.J.C. de; Wijlaars, L.P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT−/−) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility,

  17. Serotonin transporter knockout rats show improved strategy set-shifting and reduced latent inhibition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Vondervoort, I.I. van de; Leeuw, M.J. de; Wijlaars, L.P.; Maes, J.H.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT(-/-)) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility,

  18. New Study Shows 59 Percent of Americans Will Develop Kidney Disease in Their Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STUDY SHOWS 59 PERCENT OF AMERICANS WILL DEVELOP KIDNEY DISEASE IN THEIR LIFETIME National Kidney Foundation Recommends Annual ... 2013) – Nearly six of ten Americans will develop kidney disease in their lifetime, according to a new analysis ...

  19. 78 FR 34370 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Availability of Video Showing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... processes for filing EQRs allows an EQR seller and its agent to file using a web interface that generally replicates the Commission-distributed software used currently. A video showing how EQRs can be filed using...

  20. Comportamento agressivo em shows musicais: analisando notícias de jornal impresso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pimentel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a content analysis of the newspaper articles dealing with aggressive behavior in music shows. This analysis permits an understanding of the characteristics of these situations, the aggressive behaviors in shows, and the way in which the print media treat the subject. Despite of the newspapers’ influence on public opinion formation, that is, the transmission of attitudes and behavior repertoires, this kind of analysis is rarely reported in Brazilian social psychological literature. Some 31 newspaper articles were content analyzed as to aggressive behavior during music shows. Results indicate that aggressive behaviors occur in shows of most varied musical styles. Results are discussed on the basis of social cognitive theory.

  1. Rifalazil and derivative compounds show potent efficacy in a mouse model of H. pylori colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David M; Mullin, Steve; Sirokman, Klari; Söndergaard, Karen L; Johnson, Starrla; Gwathmey, Judith K; van Duzer, John; Murphy, Christopher K

    2008-08-01

    The rifamycin rifalazil (RFZ), and derivatives (NCEs) were efficacious in a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori colonization. Select NCEs were more active in vitro and showed greater efficacy than RFZ. A systemic component contributes to efficacy.

  2. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  3. Federal Report Shows Drop in Proportion of Children in US Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows drop in proportion of children in US population Annual statistics compilation forecasts increasing diversity. The number ... slightly, as did the percentage of the U.S. population who are children, according to the federal government’s ...

  4. Heater probe thermocoagulation for high-risk patients who show rebleeding from peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Lin, Hwai-Jeng

    2011-08-26

    To investigate whether heater probe therapy is effective for patients showing rebleeding from peptic ulcers. We retrospectively reviewed the case profiles in our previous studies on endoscopic therapy for high-risk patients with peptic ulcer bleeding in the past two decades. We analysed the outcomes of 191 patients who showed rebleeding after initial endoscopic haemostasis and received endoscopic therapy with heater probe thermocoagulation. . A total of 191 patients showing rebleeding received heater probe thermocoagulation. After re-therapy, 158 patients (82.7%) achieved ultimate haemostasis. Twenty-five of the 33 patients who failed to achieve haemostasis received surgical intervention. Ten patients (5.2%) died within 1 month after re-therapy. Heater probe thermocoagulation can be used as the first choice for management of patients showing rebleeding after initial endoscopic therapy.

  5. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Newly developed foam ceramic body shows promise as thermal insulation material at 3000 deg F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, E. W.; Paul, R. D.

    1967-01-01

    Optimized zirconia foam ceramic body shows promise for use as a thermal insulation material. The insulating media displays low density and thermal conductivity, good thermal shock resistance, high melting point, and mechanical strength.

  7. Angiogenic endothelium shows lactadherin-dependent phagocytosis of aged erythrocytes and apoptotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fens, Marcel H. A. M.; Mastrobattista, Enrico; De Graaff, Anko M.; Flesch, Frits M.; Ultee, Anton; Rasmussen, Jan T.; Molema, Grietje; Storm, Gert; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenic endothelium plays a crucial role in tumor growth. During angiogenesis, complex alterations in the microenvironment occur. In response, the endothelium undergoes phenotypic changes, for example overexpression of alpha(v)-integrins. Here, we show that the overexpression of

  8. {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaishi, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu; Kamayachi, Satoshi; Fujita, Takehisa; Enokido, Hisashi; Komatsuzaki, Hideki; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hirayama, Tsunenori [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.).

  9. Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates with IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X Y Z Review of Research Shows, Overall, Acupuncture Did Not Increase Pregnancy Rates With IVF Share: An analysis of research conducted on acupuncture as an adjuvant (booster) treatment to in vitro ...

  10. New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherre Sade Bezerra Da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available New method for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda in laboratory shows that larval cannibalism is not obligatory. Here we show, for the first time, that larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, can be successfully reared in a cohort-based manner with virtually no cannibalism. FAW larvae were reared since the second instar to pupation in rectangular plastic containers containing 40 individuals with a surprisingly ca. 90% larval survivorship. Adult females from the cohort-based method showed fecundity similar to that already reported on literature for larvae reared individually, and fertility higher than 99%, with the advantage of combining economy of time, space and material resources. These findings suggest that the factors affecting cannibalism of FAW larvae in laboratory rearings need to be reevaluated, whilst the new technique also show potential to increase the efficiency of both small and mass FAW rearings.

  11. Care package for anxiety disorders: no-show and dropout of standardised, time restricted treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Hanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Background: Psychotherapy has shown to be efficacious but therapy effectiveness in mental health services is compromised by patients who fail to show up for assessment, treatment start and stay in treatment. Predictors for patient non-attendance (no-show and dropout) have been identified as patient...... or therapist characteristics. Organisational variables are sparsely studied although waiting time may affect no-show and dropout. In order to reduce waiting time the Mental Health Services in Denmark have introduced care packages in the treatment of non-psychotic disorders. Care packages are courses...... and if demographic and clinical variables were predictors for no-show and dropout. Methods: The study was a quasi-experimental pre-post study in a naturalistic setting in the Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark. Two samples of patients, aged above 18 years and referred for treatment for anxiety...

  12. Cultura e escritura: às voltas com o antropológico no reality show

    OpenAIRE

    Serelle, Marcio de Vasconcellos; PUC/MG - Pontifícia Universidade Católica

    2014-01-01

    This article recovers the notion of a perspective considered as anthropologicalin reality show – which has begun in the 60’s –, and reflects on how thoseprogrammes nowadays serve to examine the human phenomenon, especially inregard to its interpersonal relationships. Reality shows, as semblances of the passionfor the real that characterized the 20th century, have already assumed theirfictional face and now articulate culture and invention. At this point, their scriptrefers to some aspects of ...

  13. Larval antlions with more pronounced behavioural asymmetry show enhanced cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Krzysztof; Kuszewska, Karolina; Woyciechowski, Michał

    2017-02-01

    Brain lateralization is hypothesized to improve the efficiency of information processing. Here, we found that some Myrmeleon bore antlion larvae showed individual asymmetry in righting from a supine to normal position over one side of their body, which can be considered a reflection of greater brain lateralization. We demonstrated that these behaviourally asymmetrical individuals showed improved learning abilities, providing novel evidence that brain lateralization leads to beneficial effects on cognitive functions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Political Tv Talk Shows on Greek Television: Live Broadcasting as an ideological and Cognitive frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vovou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semiopragmatic analysis of the political talk shows on Greek television that reveals a symbolic conception of the TV studio and it’s value-attributing mechanisms through which principles of democratic dialogue are enacted inside this kind of social and media frame. Political talk shows create the notion of a complex temporality, larger than the concept of events presented live, afecting the political and social vision of the audience.

  15. Traditional and New Media Convergence on Philippine Noontime Show, Eat Bulaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arceo Genina Mariel M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is still moving towards the direction of merging Traditional and New Media. Some TV formats had been affected by the rise of social media although a big part of the Filipino populace is still into watching Television as their source of information. Almost all of the shows in the Philippines are available online and in mainstream television to cater viewers who wish to watch their favorite shows anytime and anywhere. Social Media Trends had helped and invaded the mainstream media on creating content for the viewers. Even social media sensations have paved its way to mainstream media by being televised on the news and segments as guests to a show. Giving these shows high ratings with an online social media star is a sign of things to come. This study is a condensed version of a research that examines how a 36-year-old noontime show being viewed by older generation has penetrated social media and has attracted younger viewers. It also aimed to know what really happen when traditional and new media integrates. Initial findings show that media convergence is absolutely more than a technology shift as most people know it.

  16. BIOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF ARABIAN FOALS AND THEIR LATER SUCCESSES IN SHOWS AND ON RACE TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PIESZKA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabian horses are one of the most important products of Polish horse breeding.Many of them are International and World champions in shows; others are very wellknown as courageous race horses. To obtain such champions it is necessary to takeunder consideration many factors affecting the final results. The objective of thisstudy was to evaluate the effect of biometrical measurements of the foals at birthaccording to their future successes in shows and on racetrack. The study was carriedout on 143 horses winning in shows and in races. Body weight, height at withers,girth and canon circumferences taken at birth of these horses were analysed.Additionally coat colour was studied. All studied animals were divided into threegroups according to each measurement and the differences between such groupswere evaluated according points obtained for particular place at shows and place inraces. It was stated that horses heavier at birth and with higher girth circumferencegot more successes both at shows and on racetrack. Horses with higher height atwithers at birth were more successful in shows while animals with higher canoncircumference won oftener at race track. It was observed that the most courageousrace horses were bay while most champions were grey.

  17. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  18. What Are We Drinking? Beverages Shown in Adolescents' Favorite Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Larson, Nicole I; Gollust, Sarah E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Media use has been shown to contribute to poor dietary intake; however, little attention has been paid to programming content. The portrayal of health behaviors in television (TV) programming contributes to social norms among viewers, which have been shown to influence adolescent behavior. This study reports on a content analysis of beverages shown in a sample of TV shows popular with a large, diverse group of adolescents, with attention to the types of beverages and differences across shows and characters. Favorite TV shows were assessed in an in-school survey in 2010. Three episodes of each of the top 25 shows were analyzed, using a detailed coding instrument. Beverage incidents (ie, beverage shown or described) were recorded. Beverage types included milk, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), diet beverages, juice, water, alcoholic drinks, and coffee. Characters were coded with regard to gender, age group, race, and weight status. Shows were rated for a youth, general, or adult audience. χ 2 tests were used to compare the prevalence of each type of beverage across show ratings (youth, general, adult), and to compare characteristics of those involved in each type of beverage incident. Beverage incidents were common (mean=7.4 incidents/episode, range=0 to 25). Alcohol was the most commonly shown (38.8%); milk (5.8%) and juice (5.8%) were least common; 11.0% of incidents included SSBs. Significant differences in all types of beverage were found across characters' age groups. Almost half of young adults' (49.2%) or adults' (42.0%) beverage incidents included alcohol. Beverages are often portrayed on TV shows viewed by adolescents, and common beverages (alcohol, SSBs) may have adverse consequences for health. The portrayal of these beverages likely contributes to social norms regarding their desirability; nutrition and health professionals should talk with youth about TV portrayals to prevent the adoption of unhealthy beverage behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of

  19. The information seeking and procurment needs of attendees at an industrial trade show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Bresler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe what attracts visitors to an industrial trade show, and to profile them. This will enable the show organisers to attract the right mix of exhibitors and fulfil their dual role of satisfying the needs of both attendees and exhibitors and improve the role of exhibitions in the latter's marketing mix. Problem investigated: The research seeks to elicit the attendance objectives of participants in order to ascertain their information seeking and procurement needs. This can be used to improve the marketing communication of both the organisers and exhibitors. Research methodology: The research design is a multi method, descriptive study. A non probability, judgemental sample was drawn; 1020 interviews were conducted per Electra Mining Africa expo in 2004 and 2006. Both open ended and fixed response questions were posed and due to the similarity of responses, 300 per show were analysed. The researcher fulfilled a participant observer role to enhance the validity and reliability of the findings. Findings/implications: The prime reason for visitation was to see what is new, discover, and gather information, and attendees were not disappointed in that. The trade shows attracted an informed, niche audience. Exhibitors gained access to key decision makers with buying influence. Attendees represented all roles in the buying process and intended to buy some capital items exhibited within the following year. Business contacts were made. The attraction and contact efficiency of the exhibition's were high and may result in conversion efficiency. In terms of market and geographical coverage it is a vertical international show. Originality: This paper contributes to limited research conducted on trade shows, especially in South Africa. It is unique in that it describes the effectiveness of an industrial trade show from a demand perspective in order to improve the facilitating role of exhibition organisers. It

  20. Beyond the boundaries of the classroom: teaching about gender and sexuality at a drag show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Steven P

    2004-01-01

    Like much of the general public, the vast majority of my students strongly hold dichotomous, essentialist outlooks about what the categories female and male/gay and straight are supposed to represent and be. One way that I have found to challenge these oppressive worldviews, and also to queer my classes in the process, is to take my course participants to drag shows and/or to use videotapes of drag queens and drag kings in my classes. As part of an ongoing ethnography of drag performers I am undertaking, I have taken over 300 students to drag shows over the past eight years. Female students have often found attending a drag show to be a fun experience free of the sexual harassment found in most bars, while male students often contextually experience being a social minority for the first time in their life. From both attending drag shows and/or watching recordings of them I show in class, students have reported gaining an experiential appreciation of the performed basis of gender, sexuality, and inequality. Or, stated slightly differently, students begin to understand how the stratification system metaphorically makes drag queens of us all. This, in turn, provides the basis of the foremost argument I make in all my classes: equality will not be realized until nondichotomous, truly new ways of relating to others are envisioned and acted upon.

  1. Writing Games: Continuity and Change in the Design and Development of Quiz Shows in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scaglioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As in the United States and in many countries across Europe, the quiz show was a founding genre for Italian television as far back as the 1950s: because of their broad appeal, such game shows as Lascia o raddoppia and Il musichiere contributed strongly to television’s burgeoning popularity during the subsequent decades. Since then, the quiz show has traversed different eras of television history, with partial and gradual changes to its textual features, aesthetics and narratives, as well as its production routines. Since the 1980s, with deregulation and the advent of commercial television, the Italian game-show market has become more international and more reliant on formats. In the genre’s long history, the “hidden profession” of writing TV games exhibits elements of both continuity and change. The needs of format-adaptation have highlighted two main areas of “localization”: question-writing and casting. This essay explores the profession of game-show writer in Italy and how the role has evolved. It adopts a historical framework to illuminate the continuity and change in the profession, in relation to a broader history of both the genre and the television medium, while also seeking to outline both the specificity of the Italian TV context and its connections with an international environment. 

  2. Development Calung Pitaloka Shows as a Media Communications in the Era of Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Suprapti Dwi Takariani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technology (ICT now is unstoppable. This condition had impacted the calung show development, due to people's appreciation has shifted and tend to like popular culture which is introduced by ICT products than the calung show. The issue in this study is how the development of the performing group calung Pitaloka as a medium of communication in the era of convergence. The purpose of this study is to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, develop strategies, and formulation development of Pitaloka the group of calung show as a communication medium in the era of convergence. This study used a qualitative method with a case study approach. In this study determination of informants is using purposive sampling technique. The results showed that based on the conditions of Pitaloka the group of calung show currently they have more weaknesses than strengths, but they still have a chance even though the treat still exist from the outside, therefore the strategy could be implemented is to utilize the existing facilities and utilize the support and good cooperation with all parties.

  3. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: Children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their distribution......Abstract The reminiscence bump—the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life—is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way...... showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations...

  4. Discussion on Application of Space Materials and Technological Innovation in Dynamic Fashion Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meilin; Kim, Chul Soo; Zhao, Wenhan

    2018-03-01

    In modern dynamic fashion show, designers often use the latest ideas and technology, and spend their energy in stage effect and overall environment to make audience’s watching a fashion show like an audio-visual feast. With rapid development of China’s science and technology, it has become a design trend to strengthen the relationship between new ideas, new trends and technology in modern art. With emergence of new technology, new methods and new materials, designers for dynamic fashion show stage art can choose the materials with an increasingly large scope. Generation of new technology has also made designers constantly innovate the stage space design means, and made the stage space design innovated constantly on the original basis of experiences. The dynamic clothing display space is on design of clothing display space, layout, platform decoration style, platform models, performing colors, light arrangement, platform background, etc.

  5. Female Emotional Eaters Show Abnormalities in Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Method Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Results Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Discussion Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. PMID:19040270

  6. A simple identification method for spore-forming bacteria showing high resistance against γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Sone, Koji; Kobayashi, Toshikazu

    1993-01-01

    A simple identification method was developed for spore-forming bacteria which are highly resistant against γ-rays. Among 23 species of Bacillus studied, the spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus and B. aneurinolyticus showed high resistance against γ-rays as compared with other spores of Bacillus species. Combination of the seven kinds of biochemical tests, namely, the citrate utilization test, nitrate reduction test, starch hydrolysis test, Voges-Proskauer reaction test, gelatine hydrolysis test, mannitol utilization test and xylose utilization test showed a characteristic pattern for each species of Bacillus. The combination pattern of each the above tests with a few supplementary test, if necessary, was useful to identify Bacillus species showing high radiation resistance against γ-rays. The method is specific for B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. pumilus, and highly selective for B. aneurinolyticus and B. cereus. (author)

  7. Soap operas and talk shows on television are associated with poorer cognition in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Carlson, Michelle C

    2006-03-01

    No information exists regarding whether a favorite television category choice affects attention, memory, or cognition among older women. Cross-sectional data from a population-based community sample of 289 older cognitively and physically intact women who were surveyed about television use. The cognitive battery included measures of psychomotor speed, executive attention, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and global cognition. Talk shows (P cognitive outcomes in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Clinically significant cognitive impairment across domains were associated with watching talk shows (OR = 7.3; 95% CI = 1.9, 28.4) and soap operas (OR = 13.5; 95% CI = 3.7, 49.5). Clinical interviews can incorporate questions about television viewing habits. Endorsements of talk shows or soap operas as frequent and favored television programming may identify those at risk for cognitive impairment and targets for further cognitive screening.

  8. The application of the Mayer multimedia learning theory to medical PowerPoint slide show presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-01-01

    PowerPoint™ and other slideware have the potential to be overused and abused. Presentations should be tailored using scientifically derived principles in order to maximise teaching potential. This paper applies the Mayer Multimedia Learning Theory (with its twelve evidence-based principles of multimedia design) to medical slide show presentations. The best way to avoid audience boredom or mortification is to adhere to these precepts. Presentations stand or fall on the quality, relevance, and integrity of the content. Slide shows should supplement a presentation, and not substitute for it. The key principles are brevity, cogency and clarity.

  9. Nanoscale E-Cadherin ligand patterns show threshold size for cellular adhesion and adherence junction formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine H; Pedersen, Gitte Albinus; Nejsum, Lene Niemann

    2012-01-01

    of adherence junctions in epithelial cells. Cells at 100 nm patterns show poor adhesion, while larger pattern sizes show both good adhesion, significant spreading and defined cortical actin. We estimate a threshold of 0.03μm2 for epithelial cellular attachment via E-Cadherin......The role of ligand spatial distribution on the formation of cadherin mediated cell-cell contacts is studied utilizing nanopatterns of E-cadherin ligands. Protein patches ranging in size from 100 nm to 800 nm prepared by colloidal lithography critically influence adhesion, spreading and formation...

  10. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma: a case report showing papillary tubular adenoma-like features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a case showing eccrine syringofibroadenoma occurred on the dorsum of the right foot of a 46-year-old Japanese female. Histopathologic examination revealed anastomosing cords and strands of cuboidal epithelial cells extending from the epidermis to the upper dermis, with a number of well-defined ducts suggesting eccrine ductal origin. In addition, there were papillary tubular adenoma-like ductal structures lined by a few rows of epithelial cells with papillary projections into the lumen surrounded by fibrous stroma in the mid-dermis. It is of note that various histologic features showing different differentiation were seen in a single lesion of eccrine syringofibroadenoma.

  11. The Construction of National Memory Through Popular Culture. The Case of the Argentinian TV Show,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizondo Oviedo, María Verónica

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the borders of the complex television sign through the analysis of the Argentinian TV show "Peter Capusotto y sus videos". In it we find that humor is used as a mechanism to dismantle binary hierarchic political and social oppositions. The program is presented as a musical and comedy TV show where concepts such as popular culture and mass culture are questioned through different false musicians. We focus our attention in the character of Bombita Rodríguez, el Palito Ortega montonero due to the controversy generated in the cultural scene by the fact of bringing up recent aspects of Argentinian history.

  12. Culture and script: dealing with the anthropological perspective in the reality show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Vasconcellos Serelle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article recovers the notion of a perspective considered as anthropologicalin reality show – which has begun in the 60’s –, and reflects on how thoseprogrammes nowadays serve to examine the human phenomenon, especially inregard to its interpersonal relationships. Reality shows, as semblances of the passionfor the real that characterized the 20th century, have already assumed theirfictional face and now articulate culture and invention. At this point, their scriptrefers to some aspects of historical realism, as the mise-en-scène of the ordinaryman, the reduced models, and the dynamics of game.

  13. 77 FR 43517 - Safety Zone; Flying Magazine Air Show, Lake Winnebago, Oshkosh, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... and vessels from the hazards associated with an air show over water and associated fireworks display...; then south to 44[deg]00'36'' N, 088[deg]30'16'' W; then west returning to the point of origin (NAD 83... returning to the point of origin (NAD 83). (b) Effective and Enforcement Period. This regulation is...

  14. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Virginia Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during...

  15. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author)

  16. Measuring risk attitudes in a natural experiment: Data from the television game show LINGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Schotman, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    We use data from a television game show, involving elementary lotteries and substantial prize money, as a natural experiment to measure risk attitudes. We find robust evidence of substantial risk aversion. As an extension, we estimate the various models using transformations of the 'true'

  17. Show small close comfort and listen - How to overcome barriers in the use of social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Verjans, S. (2011, 23 November). Show small close comfort and listen - How to overcome barriers in the use of social media. Presentation at the SVEA Final Conference "Next Generation Learning - How to Integrate Social Media in Vocational and Adult Training", Brussels, Belgium.

  18. "Youth Amplified": Using Critical Pedagogy to Stimulate Learning through Dialogue at a Youth Radio Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I describe and analyse how critical pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning that encourages students to reflect on their socio-political contexts, may stimulate critical consciousness and dialogue at a youth radio show. The participants, who attended four diverse Cape Town high schools and predominantly lived in poor…

  19. 'Archives not in the show': the case for the Uganda National Archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings showed that while UNA has a catalogue in place, access to archival materials is a challenge. Lack of comprehensive finding aids and low public awareness of the services provided are factors hindering UNA services. The existing legislation to support archival services is also not fully implemented. Measures such ...

  20. Car and Motorcycle Show Brings “Gearheads” and Fans Together | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 24, the Building 549 parking lot was full of cars; however, unlike any regular work day, the spaces were filled with a variety of classic cars, street rods, motorcycles, and unique modern cars for display in the first car and motorcycle show hosted at NCI at Frederick.

  1. Executive functioning shows differential maturation from early to late adolescence: longitudinal findings from a TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelema, Sarai R; Harakeh, Zeena; Ormel, Johan; Hartman, Catharina A; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van Zandvoort, Martine J E

    2014-03-01

    Maturation of executive functioning (EF) is topical, especially in relation to adolescence, yet longitudinal research covering early and late adolescence is lacking. This, however, is a prerequisite for drawing conclusions on normal cognitive development, and understanding deviant maturation. The aim of this study is to longitudinally investigate 6 subcomponents of EF in early (mean age 11) and late adolescence (mean age 19) and to investigate the influence of sex and socioeconomic status (SES). We used data of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). A number of 2,217 participants carried out tasks of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT), measuring Focused Attention, Inhibition, Sustained Attention, Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Shift Attention. Linear growth model with individual varying times of observation showed significant slopes for all 6 measures. Sex differences were found for the majority of the measures, where boys showed more maturation. Maturation was influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Results show that significant maturation takes place for all the measured subcomponents over adolescence. Overall, girls show better baseline performance and smaller maturational rates, suggesting more mature skills in early adolescence. Maturation is only influenced by SES for Sustained Attention and Inhibition. Findings underline that for making statements about EF maturation in adolescence, it is essential to look at subcomponents. Furthermore, sex differences are an important factor when investing (ab)normal maturation of EF. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Negotiation Games : Play metaphors in the journalist-source relationship between political PR and talk shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, B.; Broersma, M.; Wijfjes, H.

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the interpretive repertoires used by public relations (PR) advisors of Dutch politicians to describe their relations with talk show journalists. A qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews revealed that the dominant repertoires come from the realm of play. PR advisors

  3. 77 FR 56549 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket Number USCG-2012-0739] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone while the U.S. Navy...

  4. 75 FR 50952 - Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0705] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Angels at Kaneohe Bay Air Show, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes two temporary safety zones while the U.S...

  5. 75 FR 37720 - Safety Zone; New Bern Air Show, Neuse River, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Carolina. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of aircraft crashes during performances at air shows. Typical of plane crashes, there is a wide area of scattered debris that damages property...; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or...

  6. "No One Ever Showed Me Nothing": Skill and Self-Making among Trinidadian Garment Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between skill acquisition and the constitution of economic selfhood in Trinidad. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork among garment workers in a context of industrial decline, I show how their formal, informal, and illicit means of acquiring sewing skills are inextricably linked to the fragmented and unstable…

  7. All in the Training: Techniques for Enhancing Karst Landscape Education through Show Cave Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Leslie; van Beynen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance of karst terrains and a universal lack of knowledge about the role they play in supplying freshwater resources, informal environmental education through guided show cave tours is poorly understood. This study evaluated techniques for educating cave guides on how to disseminate information about human-karst interactions to…

  8. Retroviral DNA integration: ASLV, HIV, and MLV show distinct target site preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick S Mitchell

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The completion of the human genome sequence has made possible genome-wide studies of retroviral DNA integration. Here we report an analysis of 3,127 integration site sequences from human cells. We compared retroviral vectors derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV, and murine leukemia virus (MLV. Effects of gene activity on integration targeting were assessed by transcriptional profiling of infected cells. Integration by HIV vectors, analyzed in two primary cell types and several cell lines, strongly favored active genes. An analysis of the effects of tissue-specific transcription showed that it resulted in tissue-specific integration targeting by HIV, though the effect was quantitatively modest. Chromosomal regions rich in expressed genes were favored for HIV integration, but these regions were found to be interleaved with unfavorable regions at CpG islands. MLV vectors showed a strong bias in favor of integration near transcription start sites, as reported previously. ASLV vectors showed only a weak preference for active genes and no preference for transcription start regions. Thus, each of the three retroviruses studied showed unique integration site preferences, suggesting that virus-specific binding of integration complexes to chromatin features likely guides site selection.

  9. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  10. [Case with probable dementia with Lewy bodies, who shows reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kazuyuki; Morita, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), showing reduplicative paramnesia (RP) and Capgras syndrome (CS). The patient, a right-handed 60 year-old male, began to show progressive dementia. At the age of 65, he showed fluctuating cognitive impairment and recurrent visual hallucinations. His SPECT demonstrated hypoperfusion not in the medial temporal cortices, but in the parieto-occipital lobes, where the right hemisphere was dominantly hypoperfused. He was diagnosed with probable DLB. In addition to recurrent visual hallucinations, he showed a sense of self- (or others) transfiguration, consciousness of something non-existent (Leibhaftige Bewusstheit; Jaspers, K.), and fluctuating visuo-spacial impairment. At the age of 67, he gradually complained of his duplicative wives "sosie". Finally he went so far as to talk about a nameless phantom boarder. We considered that RP and CS of this case comprised a sense of self-(or others) transfiguration, misidentification of important persons and places, and productive symptoms such as consciousness of something non-existent (Leibhaftige Bewusstheit) and visual hallucinations. The above mentioned symptoms might be originated not only from the disturbance of visuospacial recognition, which involves the limbic system (especially amygdala), medial frontal cortex, and right hemisphere of the brain, but also from the disturbance of recursive consciousness, due to diffusely damaged brain regions with Lewy body pathology. (Authors' abstract)

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as...

  12. The estimated cost of "no-shows" in an academic pediatric neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Gentry, Shelley D; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-02-01

    Missed appointments ("no-shows") represent an important source of lost revenue for academic medical centers. The goal of this study was to examine the costs of "no-shows" at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who missed appointments at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic during 1 academic year. Revenue lost was estimated based on average reimbursement for different insurance types and visit types. The yearly "no-show" rate was 26%. Yearly revenue lost from missed appointments was $257,724.57, and monthly losses ranged from $15,652.33 in October 2013 to $27,042.44 in January 2014. The yearly revenue lost from missed appointments at the academic pediatric neurology clinic represents funds that could have been used to improve patient access and care. Further work is needed to develop strategies to decrease the no-show rate to decrease lost revenue and improve patient care and access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Head direction cells in the postsubiculum do not show replay of prior waking sequences during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark P; Bogaard, Andrew R; Andrews, Chris M; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2012-03-01

    During slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, hippocampal place cells in the rat show replay of sequences previously observed during waking. We tested the hypothesis from computational modeling that the temporal structure of REM sleep replay could arise from an interplay of place cells with head direction cells in the postsubiculum. Physiological single-unit recording was performed simultaneously from five or more head direction or place by head direction cells in the postsubiculum during running on a circular track allowing sampling of a full range of head directions, and during sleep periods before and after running on the circular track. Data analysis compared the spiking activity during individual REM periods with waking as in previous analysis procedures for REM sleep. We also used a new procedure comparing groups of similar runs during waking with REM sleep periods. There was no consistent evidence for a statistically significant correlation of the temporal structure of spiking during REM sleep with spiking during waking running periods. Thus, the spiking activity of head direction cells during REM sleep does not show replay of head direction cell activity occurring during a previous waking period of running on the task. In addition, we compared the spiking of postsubiculum neurons during hippocampal sharp wave ripple events. We show that head direction cells are not activated during sharp wave ripples, whereas neurons responsive to place in the postsubiculum show reliable spiking at ripple events. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of competition performance in dressage and show jumping of Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Norberg, E.; Madsen, P.

    2016-01-01

    Most Warmblood horse studbooks aim to improve the performance in dressage and show jumping. The Dutch Royal Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) includes the highest score achieved in competition by a horse to evaluate its genetic ability of performance. However, the records collected during competition are

  15. 20 CFR 416.1826 - Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Showing that you are not married when you apply for SSI. 416.1826 Section 416.1826 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... used on mail for each of you? (iv) Who owns or rents the place where you live? (v) Do any deeds, leases...

  16. "Einstein's Playground": An Interactive Planetarium Show on Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary; Tan, Philip; Fairweather, Heather; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of many aspects of astronomy is closely linked with relativity and the finite speed of light, yet relativity is generally not discussed in great detail during planetarium shows for the general public. One reason may be the difficulty to visualize these phenomena in a way that is appropriate for planetariums; another may be their…

  17. STS-39 Earth observation of Earth's limb at sunset shows atmospheric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows the Earth's limb at sunset with numerous atmospheric scattering layers highlighted. The layers consist of fine particles suspended in very stable layers of the atmosphere. The layers act as a prism for the sunlight.

  18. The Contributions of Political Fashion Shows and Fabric to Visual Arts-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterwick, Shauna

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores how working with the genre of fashion shows and using fabric are two important additions to the various genres employed in visual arts-based practice. These genres are particularly attuned to feminist approaches to popular education, research, and teaching, enabling embodied knowing and the expression of imagination and…

  19. Technology Takes Coaching to Scale: Investing in Innovation Grantees Show How It's Done

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of video and other technology tools to support professional learning. A growing body of evidence shows how these tools are improving teachers' practice (Borko, Jacobs, Eiteljorg, & Pittman, 2008; Grant & Kline, 2010; van Es & Sherin, 2010). However, there has been less…

  20. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak. Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  1. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  2. A boy infant with sleep related rhythmic movement disorder showing arm banging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kohyama

    2014-09-01

    Discussion: We diagnosed him as having arm banging type of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder. To our knowledge, no precise description on this type of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder has been found. In addition, this patient seemed to be the youngest case of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder showing arm banging.

  3. RGMA and IL21R show association with experimental inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohra, R; Beyeen, A D; Guo, J P

    2010-01-01

    (EAE), anti-MOG antibodies and pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in advanced intercross lines (AILs). Analysis in the tenth and twelfth generation of AILs resolved the region in two narrow QTL, Eae30 and Eae31. Eae30 showed linkage to MOG-EAE, anti-MOG antibodies and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Eae...

  4. Correlation analyses between volatiles and glucosinolates show no evidence for chemical defense signaling in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Paul Schiestl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Positive correlations between volatile organic compounds (VOCs and defense chemicals indicate signaling of defense status. Such aposematic signaling has been hypothesized to be widespread in plants, however, it has up to now only been shown for visual signals. Correlations between identical compounds in different plant tissues, on the other hand, can be informative about the (co-regulation of their biosynthesis or emission. Here I use Brassica rapa to investigate 1 correlations between identical metabolites (volatiles, glucosinolates in leaf and flower tissue, and 2 correlations between volatiles and glucosinolates in the same plant organs (flowers and leaves. Whereas the amounts of many glucosinolates were positively correlated in leaves and flower tissue, identical leaf and floral VOCs showed no such correlations, indicating independent regulation of emission. None of the leaf or flower volatiles showed positive correlations with the two major glucosinolates (gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin or the sum of all glucosinolates in either leaves or flowers. Some VOCs, however, showed positive correlations with minor glucosinolates which, however, represented less than one percent of the total amounts of glucosinolates. Some leaf monoterpenes showed negative associations with gluconapin. The lack of consistent positive correlations between VOCs and major defense compounds suggests that plants do not chemically signal their defense status. This could be adaptive as it may avoid eavesdropping by specialist herbivores to locate their host plants. Negative correlations likely indicate chemical trade-offs in the synthesis of secondary metabolites.

  5. Kunstnik Ester Kasepuu pälvis art show peaauhinna / Valdemar Vilder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilder, Valdemar

    2006-01-01

    Wollondilly maakonna kunstisündmuseks on kujunenud The Artrageous art show, kus paremaks hinnatud tööd saavad auhinnad. 2006. aasta peaauhinna ja näitusekülastajate auhinna võitis Ester. Mitmekülgse kunstniku, lastekirjanduse illustreerija, raamatukujundaja isikunäitus on väljas Thirlmere Whistlestop galeriis septembrikuu lõpuni

  6. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Dalmas, E; Nout, M J R; Abee, T

    2010-07-01

    Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579 based on optical density and viable count measurements. This growth inhibition was manifested by a 4 log CFU ml(-1) reduction, within the first 15 min of exposure. Tempe extracts also rapidly inactivated B. cereus spores upon germination. Viability and membrane permeability assessments using fluorescence probes showed rapid inactivation and permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane confirming the bactericidal mode of action. Cooked beans and Rhizopus grown on different media did not show antibacterial activity, indicating the unique association of the antibacterial activity with tempe. Subsequent characterization of the antibacterial activity revealed that heat treatment and protease addition nullified the bactericidal effect, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the bioactive compound. During fermentation of soya beans with Rhizopus, compounds are released with extensive antibacterial activity against B. cereus cells and spores. The results show the potential of producing natural antibacterial compounds that could be used as ingredients in food preservation and pathogen control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  8. "The Sooty Show" Laid Bear: Children, Puppets and Make-Believe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmison, Michael; Goldman, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    Examines the complex nature of pretense as portrayed in a popular UK children's television puppet show. Argues that animality of puppets is rendered opaque as their identities as children are linguistically accomplished, leading to a piece of representational art structured by moral and behavioral dictates typical of conventional adult-child…

  9. O Reality Show como simulacro da reificação humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Nunes Bittencourt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nesta resenha analisamos o livro Rituais de Sofrimento, de Sílvia Viana, enfatizando de que maneira o programa televisivo do formato Reality Show se configura ideologicamente como uma instância capitalista, perfazendo todas os seus paradigmas mais brutais.

  10. Sediment trapping with indigenous grass species showing differences in plant traits in northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil loss from an 8% sloping Teff field in north-western Ethiopia is significant (~ 70 t ha− 1 yr− 1), and thus found to be an important source of sediment. Grass barriers showing sediment trapping efficacy (STE) are important measures in trapping sediment inside Teff fields

  11. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  12. DESIRE AND PLEASURE IN THE BRANDED REALITY SHOW AS A DISCURSIVE PSYCHOANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sukma Wijaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of branded reality show is still very limited, especially in the perspective of discursive psychoanalysis. In fact, the phenomenon of reality show is currently growing in the television industry, so brands are inspired to create similar programs. This paper aims to analyze the desire and pleasure of success are presented and disclosed by branded reality show ‘Diplomat Success Challenge’ on a national TV channel in Indonesia. Using discursive psychoanalysis method in the Lacanian perspective, author found that participants in the ‘Diplomat Success Challenge’ saw competitors (other participants as ‘other’ in imaginary phase which is the object of desire in having the pleasure of success, while the audience used the praticipants as reflection of their desire and pleasure of success. There are two tendencies of the spectatorship style in responding to the discourse. In one hand the audiences tend to be more emphatic and figural, while on the other hand they tend to be more logic and systematic. In addition, the desire and pleasure of success in the ‘Diplomat Success Challenge’ becomes a powerful discourse that alienated negative issues related to the Diplomat as a tobacco product brand. Thus, the politics of reality through a discourse of success in the branded reality show has successfully infiltrated into the subconscious and control the public consciousness.

  13. Public and private forest landownership in the Pacific northwest shows stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney

    1956-01-01

    Ownership of forest land in the Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine sub regions of Oregon and Washington shows little change over the past two decades, according to Forest Survey inventories made in the 1930's, 1945, and 1953. Prior to 1945, some shifting of the ownership pattern occurred, with the area of private forest land decreasing and public ownership increasing...

  14. Soya bean tempe extracts show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus cells and spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Dalmas, E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Tempe, a Rhizopus ssp.-fermented soya bean food product, was investigated for bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal effects against cells and spores of the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Methods and results: Tempe extract showed a high antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579

  15. Genetic connections between dressage and show jumping in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, G; Madsen, Per; Ducro, B J

    During the last decades a process of specialization has occurred into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). As a consequence, the genetic base might become stratified. The objective of this study was to estimate the connectedness between JH and DH subpopulati...

  16. Genetic connections between dressage and show jumping in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, G; Madsen, Per; Ducro, B J

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades a process of specialization has occurred into show jumping (JH) and dressage (DH) in the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN). As a consequence, the genetic base might become stratified. The objective of this study was to estimate the connectedness between JH and DH subpopulati...

  17. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serena Coetzee

    spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). ... Figure 1 shows that gender and population group transformation are well underway but do not. (yet) correlate with the demographics of South Africa's population ...

  18. Differential gene expression of two extreme honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies showing varroa tolerance and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Robertson, T; Mostajeran, M; Robertson, A J; Qiu, X

    2016-06-01

    Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite of honey bees (Apis mellifera), is the most serious pest threatening the apiculture industry. In our honey bee breeding programme, two honey bee colonies showing extreme phenotypes for varroa tolerance/resistance (S88) and susceptibility (G4) were identified by natural selection from a large gene pool over a 6-year period. To investigate potential defence mechanisms for honey bee tolerance to varroa infestation, we employed DNA microarray and real time quantitative (PCR) analyses to identify differentially expressed genes in the tolerant and susceptible colonies at pupa and adult stages. Our results showed that more differentially expressed genes were identified in the tolerant bees than in bees from the susceptible colony, indicating that the tolerant colony showed an increased genetic capacity to respond to varroa mite infestation. In both colonies, there were more differentially expressed genes identified at the pupa stage than at the adult stage, indicating that pupa bees are more responsive to varroa infestation than adult bees. Genes showing differential expression in the colony phenotypes were categorized into several groups based on their molecular functions, such as olfactory signalling, detoxification processes, exoskeleton formation, protein degradation and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that these biological processes play roles in conferring varroa tolerance to naturally selected colonies. Identification of differentially expressed genes between the two colony phenotypes provides potential molecular markers for selecting and breeding varroa-tolerant honey bees. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Ageing research on vertebrates shows knowledge gaps and opportunities for species conservation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    is constant when species reach maturity. The implications of these assumptions have strong consequences not only in the development of evolutionary theories of ageing and population ecology but also in species conservation. By modeling mortality of different species of vertebrates we show that different...

  20. Teaching Prospect Theory with the "Deal or No Deal" Game Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith; Bittner, Teresa; Makrigeorgis, Christos; Johnson, Gloria; Haefner, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that decision makers are more sensitive to potential losses than gains. Loss aversion psychology has led behavioural economists to look beyond expected utility by developing "prospect theory." We demonstrate this theory using the "Deal or No Deal" game show.

  1. The mating projections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans show key characteristics of hyphal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Y-Lazo, Bernardo; Lee, Sheu; Regan, Hannah; Sudbery, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Fungi can grow in a variety of growth forms: yeast, pseudohyphae and hyphae. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in all three of these forms. In this fungus, hyphal growth is distinguished by the presence of a Spitzenkörper-like structure at the hyphal tip and a band of septin bars around the base of newly evaginated germ tubes. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grows as yeast and pseudohyphae, but is not normally considered to show hyphal growth. We show here that in mating projections of both C. albicans and S. cerevisiae a Spitzenkörper-like structure is present at the growing tip and a band of septin bars is present at the base. Furthermore, in S. cerevisiae mating projections, Spa2 and Bni1 form a cap to the 3-dimensional ball of FM4-64 staining, exactly as previously observed in C. albicans hyphae, suggesting that the putative Spitzenkörper may be a distinct structure from the polarisome. Taken together this work shows that mating projections of both S. cerevisiae and C. albicans show the key characteristics of hyphal growth. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus Christi... temporary safety zone in the Corpus Christi, Texas for North American Tri-Hull Championship scheduled to...-mail LT Wes Geyer, Sector Corpus Christi Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard; telephone 361-888...

  3. The photograph shows one of the lighter aspects of the neutrino experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    This notice, in many colours (which we unfortunately cannot show), marks the entrance to the zig-zag passage, through concrete shielding in the South Hall of the Proton Synchrotron, leading to the enclosure that contains the CERN heavy-liquid bubble chamber.

  4. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.; Madsen, O.; Norberg, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Ducro, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between the

  5. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2007-06-01

    To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Cross-sectional, observational. Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida-all leading sources of California's crime guns--where these restrictions do not exist. Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate ("straw") gun purchases. Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9-10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5-2.2%), p = 0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p = 0.06). California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed.

  6. Low-cost synthesis of pure ZnO nanowalls showing three-fold symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Mario; Strano, Vincenzina; Spinella, Corrado; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Mirabella, Salvo

    2018-04-01

    ZnO nanowalls (NWLs) represent a non-toxic, Earth abundant, high surface-to-volume ratio, semiconducting nanostructure which has already showed potential applications in biosensing, environmental monitoring and energy. Low-cost synthesis of these nanostructures is extremely appealing for large scale upgrading of laboratory results, and its implementation has to be tested at the nanoscale, at least in terms of chemical purity and crystallographic orientation. Here, we have produced pure and texturized ZnO NWLs by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) synthesis followed by a thermal treatment at 300 °C. We examined the NWL formation process and the new obtained structure at the nanoscale, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. We have shown that only after annealing at 300 °C in nitrogen does the as-grown material, composed of a mixture of Zn compounds NWLs, show its peculiar crystal arrangement. The resulting ZnO sheets are in fact made by ZnO wurtzite domains (4-5 nm) that show a particular kind of texturization; indeed, they are aligned with their own c-axis always perpendicular to the sheets forming the wall and rotated (around the c-axis) by multiples of 20° from each other. The presented data show that low-cost CBD, followed by an annealing process, gives pure ZnO with a peculiarly ordered nanostructure that shows three-fold symmetry. Such evidence at the nanoscale will have significant implications for realizing sensing or catalyst devices based on ZnO NWLs.

  7. Impact of Medical TV Shows on Preprocedural Fear of Surgical In-House Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Kai; Koch, Horst J; Kaminski, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Background and Hypotheses: The growing number of medical television series and the increasing amount of time people spend watching TV will have an influence on what they expect from their treatment in a hospital. We suspect that reality as presented in the media and the actual reality of hospitals are not always conceived of as two different worlds. Many medical TV shows present dramatic, life-threatening operations much more often than they occur in reality. Patients who frequently watch such shows might be induced to believe that even routine operations are often dangerous, which could result in higher levels of fear before such an operation. We suspect then that there is a significant relation between preoperative levels of fear and TV viewing habits. A standardized questionnaire was used to interview 162 in-house patients who had come to the hospital for an elective standard operation in a German hospital. They were interviewed 1-2 days prior to operation and shortly before discharge from hospital. The questions aimed at their social situation, their TV viewing habits with special consideration of medical TV shows, and the patients' preprocedural fear. The links between levels of education, age, and gender on the one hand, and viewing habits on the other, which have been shown in cultivation research, are supported by our findings. Approximately 50% reported a relevant anxiety level above 4 (on a scale of 0-10). There is a significant association between levels of fear and TV viewing habits. Thirteen subjects (8%) indicated that they suffered the highest imaginable degree of fear, all of them frequent watchers of medical TV shows. Frequent viewers of medical TV shows were definitely more scared than all other patients (p = 0.039). The preoperative level of fear was highest in the age group of under 40 years and significantly lower (p = 0.0042) in the age group of over 70 years. The assumed effects of cultivation with in-house patients caused by watching TV

  8. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Asbury, Kathryn; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2011-02-02

    Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50%) and modest shared environmental influences (25%). Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%), and the shared (school) environment is less important (about 12%). The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  9. Spontaneous epileptic rats show changes in sleep architecture and hypothalamic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastlund, Jesper F; Jennum, Poul; Mohapel, Paul; Penschuck, Silke; Watson, William P

    2005-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep, hypothalamic pathology, and seizures in spontaneous epileptic rats. Rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters for measuring electrocorticogram (ECoG) and stimulation electrodes in the hippocampus. Epileptogenesis was triggered by 2 h of electical stimulation-induced self-sustained status epilepticus (SSSE). After SSSE, ECoGs were monitored over a 15-week period for the occurrence of interictal high-amplitude low-frequency (HALF) acitvity and spontaneous reoccurring seizures (SRSs). Spontaneous epileptic rats showed clinical features of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), such as spontaneous seizures, interictal activity and neuronal cell loss in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, a region important for normal sleep regulation. Interestingly, epileptic rats showed disturbances in sleep architecture, with a high percentage of the seizures occurring during sleep. Therefore we conclude that a close association exists between epileptiform activity and alterations in sleep architecture that may be related to hypothalamic pathology.

  10. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  11. Socially inhibited individuals show heightened DTH response during intense social engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, S W; Kemeny, M E; Weitzman, O B; Schoen, M; Anton, P A

    1999-06-01

    To determine whether altered cellular immune response might mediate the increased health risks associated with social inhibition, we examined delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in 36 adults under conditions of low and high intensity social engagement. Participants come from a study of psychological factors in functional bowel disease and fibromyalgia. Under high engagement conditions, socially inhibited individuals showed significantly increased induration in response to intradermal tetanus toxoid. Under low engagement conditions, these individuals showed less pronounced DTH responses that did not differ in magnitude from those of uninhibited individuals. This pattern of results was found using two different measures of social inhibition and was independent of social inhibition's definition as a continuously distributed trait vs a discrete category. These data are consistent with the general hypothesis that social inhibition represents a predisposition to physiologic hyperresponsiveness that requires an exogenous social trigger for expression. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe B; Johnsen, Anders H; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-11-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related. Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea and an hitherto unknown metabolite suggested to be 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3-methylideneurea.

  13. Strains of the soil fungus Mortierella show different degradation potentials for the phenylurea herbicide diuron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Aamand, Jens; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2013-01-01

    Microbial pesticide degradation studies have until now mainly focused on bacteria, although fungi have also been shown to degrade pesticides. In this study we clarify the background for the ability of the common soil fungus Mortierella to degrade the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Diuron degradation...... potentials of five Mortierella strains were compared, and the role of carbon and nitrogen for the degradation process was investigated. Results showed that the ability to degrade diuron varied greatly among the Mortierella strains tested, and the strains able to degrade diuron were closely related....... Degradation of diuron was fastest in carbon and nitrogen rich media while suboptimal nutrient levels restricted degradation, making it unlikely that Mortierella utilize diuron as carbon or nitrogen sources. Degradation kinetics showed that diuron degradation was followed by formation of the metabolites 1...

  14. A Case of Porokeratosis Showing Different Clinical Patterns of the Disease with Anogenital Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis (PK is a group of cutaneous entities characterized by marginate scaling lesions, histologically showing a column of parakeratotic keratinocytes (cornoid lamella. Various forms are recognized such as porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, punctate parakeratosis. PM should be treated because of the possibility of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We are presenting a 21 year old male patient suffering from PM on the back of the hands, foot, scrotum, oral mucosa and anal region. The histological biopsy specimens showed the characteristic features of porokeratosis. We destroyed the lesions by cryotherapy sessions. Here, we present a case of PM since it is rarely seen as multiple lesions with oral, anal and scrotal involvements altogether. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 97-9

  15. A Girl with Idiopathic Epilepsy Showing Forced Normalization after Levetiracetam Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Takase, Masato; Fujino, Osamu; Itoh, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Forced normalization has been reported in association with almost all anti-epileptic drugs. We report on a 9-year-old girl with idiopathic epilepsy who showed forced normalization after administration of levetiracetam (LEV). She initially presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures when she was 4 years old. Diffuse sharp and slow wave complexes (SWCs) were observed on electroencephalography (EEG). We prescribed sodium valproate (VPA) and benzodiazepines, but the seizures and EEG findings worsened gradually. Although subsequent administration of LEV stopped the seizures, the patient became subject to episodes of rage and violent behavior. Forced normalization was confirmed by the disappearance of SWCs on EEG. We reduced the dose of LEV and tried in various ways to resolve the situation, but finally we had to abandon LEV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with idiopathic epilepsy but without disabilities in everyday life showing forced normalization associated with LEV administration.

  16. Novel ruthenium methylcyclopentadienyl complex bearing a bipyridine perfluorinated ligand shows strong activity towards colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo G; Brás, Ana Rita; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Sanches, Anabela; Robalo, M Paula; Avecilla, Fernando; Moreira, Tiago; Garcia, M Helena; Haukka, Matti; Preto, Ana; Valente, Andreia

    2018-01-01

    Three new compounds have been synthesized and completely characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The new bipyridine-perfluorinated ligand L1 and the new organometallic complex [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 ) 2 Cl] (Ru1) crystalize in the centrosymmetric triclinic space group P1¯. Analysis of the phenotypic effects induced by both organometallic complexes Ru1 and [Ru(η 5 -MeCp)(PPh 3 )(L1)][CF 3 SO 3 ] (Ru2), on human colorectal cancer cells (SW480 and RKO) survival, showed that Ru2 has a potent anti-proliferative activity, 4-6 times higher than cisplatin, and induce apoptosis in these cells. Data obtained in a noncancerous cell line derived from normal colon epithelial cells (NCM460) revealed an intrinsic selectivity of Ru2 for malignant cells at low concentrations, showing the high potential of this compound as a selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  18. Effects of coronary artery bypass surgery on regions showing persistent defects in thallium myocardial images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yutaka; Ban, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Yoshifumi

    1989-01-01

    The indications for revascularization surgery and its effects on myocardial regions showing persistent defects in thallium myocardial images are controversial. The effects of aortocoronary bypass surgery on myocardial perfusion and wall motion in the regions with persistent defects were evaluated in 47 patients with thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography and left ventriculography. In areas showing persistent thallium defects preoperatively the rate of improvement of perfusion was only 24% by postoperative thallium imaging, and 57% by wall motion analysis. These results were significantly inferior to those of regions with transient defects, which were 84% and 82%, respectively. A persistent defect may not be a definitive marker of a non-viable scar, but the results of surgery on such regions were unsatisfactory. It is concluded, therefore, that revascuralization surgery in regions with persistent defects is not always recommended and that the indications for surgery should be individually determined with operative risk balanced against benefits. (author)

  19. Contesting the “nature” of conformity : what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Alexander; Reicher, Stephen David

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work inf...

  20. Dog owners show experience-based viewing behaviour in judging dog face approachability

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Carla Jade; Houghton, Sarah; Guo, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Our prior visual experience plays a critical role in face perception. We show superior perceptual performance for differentiating conspecific (vs non-conspecific), own-race (vs other-race) and familiar (vs unfamiliar) faces. However, it remains unclear whether our experience with faces of other species would influence our gaze allocation for extracting salient facial information. In this eye-tracking study, we asked both dog owners and non-owners to judge the approachability of human, monkey ...

  1. A physics-explicit model of bacterial conjugation shows the stabilizing role of the conjugative junction

    OpenAIRE

    Pastuszak, Jakub; Waclaw, Bartlomiej

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation is a process in which bacteria exchange DNA through a physical connection (conjugative junction) between mating cells. Despite its significance for processes such as the spread of antibiotic resistance, the role of physical forces in conjugation is poorly understood. Here we use computer models to show that the conjugative junction not only serves as a link to transfer the DNA but it also mechanically stabilises the mating pair which significantly increases the conjugation rate. W...

  2. Alcohol content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV show 'Geordie Shore'

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Aim: To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. \\ud \\ud Methods: A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. \\ud \\ud Results: All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' conte...

  3. Characterization of Streptomyces netropsis Showing a Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of nematode has become difficult owing to the restricted use of effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide, and other non-fumigant nematicides. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop microbial nematicide to replace chemical nematicides. In this study, the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of fermentation broths of 2,700 actinomycete strains were tested for their nematicidal activity against second stage of juveniles (J2s of Meloidogyne incognita. As the results, only the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of AN110065, at 20% equivalent to 10% fermentation broth, showed strong nematicidal activity with 78.9% of mortality 24 h after treatment and 94.1% of mortality at 72 h. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strain sequence was 99.78% identical to Streptomyces netropsis. The extract of S. netropsis AN110065 fermentation broth was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate and butanol and then the ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers were investigated for their nematicidal activity against the M. incognita. At 1,000 mg/ml, ethyl acetate layer showed the strongest activity of 83.5% of juvenile mortality 72 h after treatment. The pot experiment using the fermentation broth of AN110065 on tomato plant against M. incognita displayed that it evidently suppressed gall formation at a 10-fold diluent treatment. The tomato plants treated with the fermentation broth of S. netropsis AN110065 did not show any phytotoxicity. The results suggest that S. netropsis AN110065 has a potential to serve as microbial nematicide in organic agriculture.

  4. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M

    2011-03-23

    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  5. A cadaveric simulation of distal femoral traction shows safety in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Alfred; Block, Jake; Obremskey, William

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of a distal femoral traction pin subjected to a 1.5-T magnetic resonance image (MRI) with regard to pin migration and implant heating in a cadaveric model. Deflection angles of various traction pins as well as a Bohler-style Steinmann Pin Tractor Bow (tractor bow) and a Kirschner wire bow subjected to a 1.5-T clinical MRI were measured. Tractions pins were placed into a cadaveric femur and the tractor bow was attached to the most distal pin to simulate distal femoral traction. Temperature and migration were measured after subjecting the cadaveric leg to a "worst-case scenario" MRI sequence for 30 minutes. All traction pins and bows showed deflection. The Kirschner wire bow showed a hazardous level of deflection and was immediately removed from further testing. The pin temperature changes were not significantly different than the changes in the MRI room temperature and a conduction loop was not seen in the combination pin and tractor bow. There was no significant migration of any pin nor was there objective loosening from pin vibration. Implant-quality stainless steel traction pins show no signs of adverse heating or pin migration when subjected to 1.5-T MRI clinical scanning. Kirschner bows are highly ferromagnetic and should not be used unless individually tested for safety. Steinmann Pin Tractor Bows that show weak ferromagnetism preliminarily appear safe to use during a 1.5-T MRI and do not produce a conduction loop with excessive heating in a cadaveric model, although further testing is indicated.

  6. Alcohol Content in the 'Hyper-Reality' MTV Show 'Geordie Shore'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eden; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo

    2018-05-01

    To quantify the occurrence of alcohol content, including alcohol branding, in the popular primetime television UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. A 1-min interval coding content analysis of alcohol content in the entire DVD Series 11 of 'Geordie Shore' (10 episodes). Occurrence of alcohol use, implied use, other alcohol reference/paraphernalia or branding was recorded. All categories of alcohol were present in all episodes. 'Any alcohol' content occurred in 78%, 'actual alcohol use' in 30%, 'inferred alcohol use' in 72%, and all 'other' alcohol references occurred in 59% of all coding intervals (ACIs), respectively. Brand appearances occurred in 23% of ACIs. The most frequently observed alcohol brand was Smirnoff which appeared in 43% of all brand appearances. Episodes categorized as suitable for viewing by adolescents below the legal drinking age of 18 years comprised of 61% of all brand appearances. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the UK Reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Two-thirds of all alcohol branding occurred in episodes age-rated by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) as suitable for viewers aged 15 years. The organizations OfCom, Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) and the Portman Group should implement more effective policies to reduce adolescent exposure to on-screen drinking. The drinks industry should consider demanding the withdrawal of their brands from the show. Alcohol content, including branding, is highly prevalent in the MTV reality TV show 'Geordie Shore' Series 11. Current alcohol regulation is failing to protect young viewers from exposure to such content.

  7. Coronary collateralization shows sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive artery disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available Coronary collateral circulation protects cardiac tissues from myocardial infarction damage and decreases sudden cardiac death. So far, it is unclear how coronary collateralization varies by race-ethnicity groups and by sex.We assessed 868 patients with obstructive CAD. Patients were assessed for collateral grades based on Rentrop grading system, as well as other covariates. DNA samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 genotyping array. To evaluate genetic contributions to collaterals, we performed admixture mapping using logistic regression with estimated local and global ancestry.Overall, 53% of participants had collaterals. We found difference between sex and racial-ethnic groups. Men had higher rates of collaterals than women (P-value = 0.000175. White Hispanics/Latinos showed overall higher rates of collaterals than African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (59%, 50% and 48%, respectively, P-value = 0.017, and especially higher rates in grade 1 and grade 3 collateralization than the other two populations (P-value = 0.0257. Admixture mapping showed Native American ancestry was associated with the presence of collaterals at a region on chromosome 17 (chr17:35,243,142-41,251,931, β = 0.55, P-value = 0.000127. African ancestry also showed association with collaterals at a different region on chromosome 17 (chr17: 32,266,966-34,463,323, β = 0.38, P-value = 0.00072.In our study, collateralization showed sex and racial-ethnic differences in obstructive CAD patients. We identified two regions on chromosome 17 that were likely to harbor genetic variations that influenced collateralization.

  8. FESEM Analysis showing evidence of aerosol Mixing over Indo-Gangetic Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Huth, J.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, S.; Pandey, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Kanpur AERONET deployed in January 2001 has provided a long-term dataset which has been used to understand the aerosol properties and aerosol long term trend in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Recent studies have revealed higher black carbon (BC) mass concentrations in the IGP, home to 900 million people. We present analysis of black carbon mass concentrations obtained from several locations in the IGP - namely Varanasi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Greater Noida and Delhi. Measurements show significant diurnal variation with higher BC concentrations in the morning hours and low concentrations during afternoon and evening time. Seasonally, BC concentrations are generally found to be higher during winter months compared to spring and summer monsoon season showing high seasonal variability. The higher winter-time BC is associated with a stable and shallow boundary layer which favors accumulation of pollutants over the IGP, resulting in dense haze conditions. Filter-based analysis, obtained from samples used in Aethalometer and high vacuum sampler, were analyzed to study aerosol surface characteristics and size of particles. Additionally, FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis show many dust minerals (Na, Al, Si, K, Fe), biogenic substances, fly ash of varying sizes 15 nanometer to 5 micron. The SEM imagery also show heterogeneous aerosol particles, sometimes these mineral grains are seen separately and sometime coating of fly ash and mineral particles are clearly seen. Similarly, Kanpur AERONET data is analyzed during winter and pre-monsoon season, contrasting aerosol properties (SSA, Refractive index and Size distribution) are found that are associated with large aerosol mixing, also supported from the FESEM analysis.

  9. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  10. Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Beltran, William A.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J.; Olivares, Melani B.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Komáromy, András M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2013-01-01

    The first retinal gene therapy in human blindness from RPE65 mutations has focused on safety and efficacy, as defined by improved vision. The disease component not studied, however, has been the fate of photoreceptors in this progressive retinal degeneration. We show that gene therapy improves vision for at least 3 y, but photoreceptor degeneration progresses unabated in humans. In the canine model, the same result occurs when treatment is at the disease stage equivalent to humans. The study ...

  11. THE "GREATEST SHOW ON EARTH": FOOTBALL AND ITS ABILITY TO BREAK THE LEVELS OF MASS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ivan Keske

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the media, especially radio, television and web, strengthen football and give national and international visibility to this sport, within the different levels of culture proposed by Umberto Eco (2004. The text also shows how soccer provides a contextual and dialogical relationship between the different levels of culture, being able to transgress them, rearranging them into a new proposal.

  12. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, E.; Bona, F.; Falasco, E.; La Morgia, V.; Badino, G.; Isaia, M.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management

  13. Environmental drivers of phototrophic biofilms in an Alpine show cave (SW-Italian Alps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piano, E., E-mail: elena.piano@unito.it [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); Bona, F.; Falasco, E. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy); La Morgia, V. [ISPRA, via Ca' Fornacetta, 9, 40064 Ozzano dell' Emilia (Italy); Badino, G. [Department of Physics, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Turin (Italy); Isaia, M. [Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology, University of Turin, Via Accademia Albertina 13, 10123 Turin (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    The proliferation of lampenflora is a major threat for the conservation of show caves, since phototrophic organisms cause physical, chemical and aesthetic damage to speleothems. In this paper we examine the environmental factors influencing the presence and the growth of the three main photosynthetic groups composing phototrophic biofilms in the Bossea show cave (SW-Italian Alps). The presence and the primary production of cyanobacteria, diatoms and green algae were detected with BenthoTorch®, an instrument for in situ measurement of chlorophyll a concentration that has never been used before in caves. By means of different techniques of regression analysis, we highlighted the response of the three photosynthetic groups to different environmental factors. Illuminance proved to be the main factor influencing positively both the probability of the presence and the productivity of the three groups. The presence of seeping water on the substrate and the distance from the cave entrance proved to play an important role in determining patterns of colonization. By means of GIS techniques, we provide thematic maps of the cave, providing a representation of pattern of the density of the three examined photosynthetic groups within different areas of the cave. The same approach may apply to other show caves, aiming at providing suggestions for the cave management (i.e. cleaning of the cave walls and positioning of artificial lights) and reduce impact caused by tourism. - Highlights: • We used a PAM fluorimeter on autotrophic biofilms in a show cave for the first time. • We modelled the environmental factors influencing phototrophic biofilms. • Illuminance, moisture and distance from the entrance proved to be significant. • We produced thematic maps illustrating our results. • We provide suggestions for cave management.

  14. Failure to show decrease in small pulmonary blood vessels in rats with experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, J M; Suyama, K L; Keane, P M

    1982-01-01

    We induced chronic pulmonary hypertension in one group of rats by exposing them to chronic hypobaric hypoxia (380 mm Hg for three weeks) and in another group by administering a single subcutaneous dose of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg body weight). Both groups of rats showed increase of the right ventricular mean systolic blood pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. We measured the surface area of histological sections of the left or right lungs and counted all small blood vessels with an exte...

  15. Anthraquinones isolated from Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed show an antifungal property against phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mi; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Gyung; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2004-10-06

    The fungicidal activities of Cassia tora extracts and their active principles were determined against Botrytis cineria, Erysiphe graminis, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia recondita, Pyricularia grisea, and Rhizoctonia solani using a whole plant method in vivo and were compared with synthetic fungicides and three commercially available anthraquinones. The responses varied with the plant pathogen tested. At 1 g/L, the chloroform fraction of C. tora showed a strong fungicidal activity against B. cinerea, E. graminis, P. infestans, and R. solani. Emodin, physcion, and rhein were isolated from the chloroform fraction using chromatographic techniques and showed strong and moderate fungicidal activities against B. cinerea, E. graminis, P. infestans, and R. solani. Furthermore, aloe-emodin showed strong and moderate fungicidal activities against B. cinerea and R. solani, respectively, but did not inhibit the growth of E. graminis, P. infestans, P. recondita, and Py. grisea. Little or no activity was observed for anthraquinone and anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid when tested at 1 g/L. Chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid as synthetic fungicides were active against P. infestans and B. cinerea at 0.05 g/L, respectively. Our results demonstrate the fungicidal actions of emodin, physcion, and rhein from C. tora.

  16. Visual search patterns in semantic dementia show paradoxical facilitation of binding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskontas, Indre V.; Boxer, Adam L.; Fesenko, John; Matlin, Alisa; Heuer, Hilary W.; Mirsky, Jacob; Miller, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    While patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show deficits in attention, manifested by inefficient performance on visual search, new visual talents can emerge in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), suggesting that, at least in some of the patients, visual attention is spared, if not enhanced. To investigate the underlying mechanisms for visual talent in FTLD (behavioral variant FTD [bvFTD] and semantic dementia [SD]) patients, we measured performance on a visual search paradigm that includes both feature and conjunction search, while simultaneously monitoring saccadic eye movements. AD patients were impaired relative to healthy controls (NC) and FTLD patients on both feature and conjunction search. BvFTD patients showed less accurate performance only on the conjunction search task, but slower response times than NC on all three tasks. In contrast, SD patients were as accurate as controls and had faster response times when faced with the largest number of distracters in the conjunction search task. Measurement of saccades during visual search showed that AD patients explored more of the image, whereas SD patients explored less of the image before making a decision as to whether the target was present. Performance on the conjunction search task positively correlated with gray matter volume in the superior parietal lobe, precuneus, middle frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. These data suggest that despite the presence of extensive temporal lobe degeneration, visual talent in SD may be facilitated by more efficient visual search under distracting conditions due to enhanced function in the dorsal frontoparietal attention network. PMID:21215762

  17. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-02-01

    The reminiscence bump-the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life-is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote their future life stories. The events in these life stories were mostly life-script events, and their distribution showed a clear bump in young adulthood. In Study 2, children were prompted by word cues to write down events from their future lives. The events generated consisted mostly of non-life-script events, and those events did not show a bump in young adulthood. Our findings challenge prevailing explanations of the reminiscence bump and suggest that the cultural life script forms an overarching organizational principle for autobiographical memories and future representations across the life span.

  18. Free-ranging dogs show age related plasticity in their ability to follow human pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; N, Nikhil Dev; Gupta, Shreya; Sau, Shubhra; Sarkar, Rohan; Biswas, Arpita; Banerjee, Arunita; Babu, Daisy; Mehta, Diksha; Bhadra, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    Differences in pet dogs' and captive wolves' ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance. Humans can act both as food providers and as threats to these dogs, and thus understanding human gestures can be a survival need for the free-ranging dogs. We tested the responsiveness of such dogs in urban areas toward simple human pointing cues using dynamic proximal points. Our experiment showed that pups readily follow proximal pointing and exhibit weaker avoidance to humans, but stop doing so at the later stages of development. While juveniles showed frequent and prolonged gaze alternations, only adults adjusted their behaviour based on the reliability of the human experimenter after being rewarded. Thus free-ranging dogs show a tendency to respond to human pointing gestures, with a certain level of behavioural plasticity that allows learning from ontogenic experience.

  19. Case of bronchogenic cyst showing cardiac abnormalities diagnosed by reconstruction CT prior to surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Naoya; Tosaka, Masako; Io, Noriko

    1985-03-01

    A 30-year-old man began to experience palpitation, chest pain and fever 3 weeks prior to admission. An electrocardiogram showed evidence suggestive of left atrial overloading, and frequent atrial premature beats. A chest roentgenogram revealed an abnormal shadow behind the right upper portion of the heart. A cross-sectional echocardiogram demonstrated abnormal echoes with ill-defined margins in the left atrium and a picture of Computed Tomography (CT) was thought to show a left atrial tumor. However left atriography suggested it to be an extracardiac tumor which was compressing the left atrium. Therefore, reconstruction CT was performed and with the use of high CT numbers, the cyst was considered to be subcarinal in position. The CT also showed a calcified mass which was mobile within the cyst. At thoracotomy, an 6 x 3 cm cyst was removed completely and a diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst was established histopathologically. In this report, ECG abnormalities suggestive of left atrial damage and the diagnostic usefulness of reconstruction CT are stressed. (author).

  20. Laboratory study of fungal bioreceptivity of different fractions of composite flooring tiles showing efflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaphy, Segula; Lavi, Ido; Sultz, Stephan; Zabari, Limor

    2014-06-01

    Fungi can grow in extreme habitats, such as natural stone and mineral building materials, sometimes causing deterioration. Efflorescence-concentrated salt deposits-results from water movement through building material; it can damage masonry materials and other bricks. Fungal isolate KUR1, capable of growth on, and dissolution of stone chips composing terrazzo-type floor tiles, was isolated from such tiles showing fiber-like crystalline efflorescence. The isolate's ribosomal DNA sequences were 100 % identical to those of Nigrospora sphaerica. The ability of KUR1 to colonize and degrade the different stone chips composing the tiles was studied in axenic culture experiments. When exposed to each of the different mineral chip types composed of dolomite, calcite, or calcite-apatite mineral in low-nutrition medium, the fungus showed selective nutrient consumption, and different growth and stone mineral dissolution rates. Micromorphological examination of the fungus-colonized chips by electron microscopy showed the production of a fungal biofilm with thin films around the hyphae on the surface of the examined chips and disintegration of the calcite-apatite fraction. More than 70 % dissolution of the introduced powdered (<1 mm particle size) mineral was obtained within 10 days of incubation for the soft calcite-apatite fraction.

  1. Wacana Visual Talk Show ‘Mata Najwa’: Melihat Bahasa Tubuh Partisipan sebagai Kekuatan Visual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Gunarti W.W.,

    2013-12-01

    ABSTRAK   Menjelang Pemilu 2014, isu sosial politik menjadi topik yang sering diangkat dalam pro- gram bincang-bincang  (talk show di televisi. Keberadaan talk show sebagai sebuah wacana visual menarik untuk dikaji karena mampu mempengaruhi opini publik tentang suatu isu yang melibatkan tokoh publik. Selain mengangkat isu populer, tontonan bincang-bincang juga didesain menampilkan pembawa acara profesional serta narasumber yang tengah menjadi isu. Talk show Mata Najwa di Metro TV adalah salah satu tontonan bincang-bincang yang menampilkan kekuatan visual tersebut. Dengan menggunakan latar desain studio se- bagai ruang bincang-bincang, kekuatan visual dipusatkan pada penampilan Najwa Shihab selaku pembawa acara dan narasumber di mana tubuh partisipan menjadi bagian dari kon- struksi media untuk menarik perhatian penonton. Studi ini membahas salah satu episode ‘Mendadak Capres’ yang menghadirkan figur publik Rhoma Irama sebagai narasumber. Analisis kualitatif dengan pendekatan Semiotika Sosial menempatkan  paritisipan sebagai bagian dari  elemen wacana di dalam produksi. Fokus pembahasan meliputi tanda-tanda visual yang terdiri dari ekspresi wajah, gerakan tangan serta posisi tubuh pembawa aca- ra dan narasumber untuk membangun identitas dan kekuasaan di dalam wacana visual perbincangan. Bahasa tubuh partisipan menjadi penting karena dapat membangun per- sepsi penonton dan mendukung suasana perbincangan. Studi ini sekaligus dapat menjadi sebuah model bahwa kekuatan tontonan bincang-bincang tidak hanya terletak pada topik, tetapi juga pada kekuatan visual partisipan melalui bahasa tubuh.   Kata kunci: wacana visual, bahasa tubuh, dan kekuatan visual

  2. ChREBP-Knockout Mice Show Sucrose Intolerance and Fructose Malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takehiro; Iizuka, Katsumi; Takao, Ken; Horikawa, Yukio; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Takeda, Jun

    2018-03-12

    We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.

  3. ChREBP-Knockout Mice Show Sucrose Intolerance and Fructose Malabsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.

  4. Phantom of the Universe: A State-of-the-Art Planetarium Show on Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Phantom of the Universe is a planetarium show premiering in 2016 that will showcase an exciting exploration of dark matter, from the Big Bang to the Large Hadron Collider. The show will reveal the first hints of its existence through the eyes of Fritz Zwicky. Viewers will marvel at the astral choreography witnessed by Vera Rubin in the Andromeda galaxy. They will plummet deep underground to see the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. From there, they will end the journey at the Large Hadron Collider, speeding alongside particles before they collide in visually stunning explosions of light and sound, and learning how scientists around the world are collaborating to track down the constituent of dark matter. The show will be offered to planetariums worldwide free of charge. It will feature music composed by Mickey Hart (Apocalypse Now, The Twilight Zone, The Grateful Dead) and narration by Academy-Award winning actress Tilda Swinton, and showcase the creativity and directing prowess of Joao Pequenao and the writing and producing talents of award-winning filmmaker, Carey Ann Strelecki. See a flattened preview (with resulting distortions) at: http://PhantomOfTheUniverse.com/

  5. Serbs, the craziest of all – TV comedy show "Kursadžije" by Grand Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of research done on the TV comedy show (series "Kursadžije" by Grand Production. The attention is directed towards understanding the motives of the Fool (buffoon which appears as the characteristic of the main characters in the show. Kursadžije (a rough translation would be Course-attending-people are attendants of a course for Special Balkan Forces and they are the representatives of the countries that constituted the former Socialistic Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. By using the theoretic guidelines of Klappe’s about the Fool as a social type, and the analysis of V.Trifunovic, I will demonstrate why all of the Kursadžija’s are Fools and how they are different one from the other based on their different follies (buffoonery, craziness. Having in mind that this is a Serbian TV show and that the Serbian attendant of that course, Gedža Crazy Milojko (the American equivalent of Gedža could be Redneck or Hillbilly, is the only one who has the term "Crazy" (Fool in his name, I will particularly pay attention to the motive of "Serbian craziness", and examine is it a way to emphasize how special the Serbs are, how unique and unbeatably exotic, i.e., why is the "Serbian craziness" valued as a positive one.

  6. Data showing the circumvention of oxaliplatin resistance by vatalanib in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kenneth K W; Poon, Daniel C; Wei, Yuming; Wang, Fang; Lin, Ge; Fu, Li-Wu

    2016-06-01

    We have recently reported that vatalanib, an orally active small molecule multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Hess-Stumpp et al., 2005 [1]), can sensitize multidrug resistant (MDR) colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting two MDR transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 (To et al., 2015 [2]). This data article describes the possible circumvention of resistance to specifically platinum (Pt)-based anticancer drugs by vatalanib via inhibition of two other efflux transporters ABCC2 and ATP7A. Data from the flow cytometric transporter efflux assay showed specific inhibition of ABCC2 activity by vatalanib in stable transfected cells and ABCC2-overexpressing oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer cells HCT116/Oxa. We also performed the transporter ABCC2 ATPase assay and showed an increase in ATP hydrolysis by ABCC2 in the presence of vatalanib. ATP7A mRNA expression was also shown to be upregulated in HCT116/Oxa cells. Vatalanib was shown to suppress this upregulated ATP7A expression. Data from the cellular Pt accumulation assay showed a lower Pt accumulation in HCT116/Oxa cells than the parental sensitive HCT116 cells. Vatalanib was shown to increase cellular Pt accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of oxaliplatin and vatalanib was shown to restore the suppressed apoptosis in HCT116/Oxa cells.

  7. Data showing the circumvention of oxaliplatin resistance by vatalanib in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K.W. To

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have recently reported that vatalanib, an orally active small molecule multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Hess-Stumpp et al., 2005 [1], can sensitize multidrug resistant (MDR colon cancer cells to chemotherapy under hypoxia by inhibiting two MDR transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 (To et al., 2015 [2]. This data article describes the possible circumvention of resistance to specifically platinum (Pt-based anticancer drugs by vatalanib via inhibition of two other efflux transporters ABCC2 and ATP7A. Data from the flow cytometric transporter efflux assay showed specific inhibition of ABCC2 activity by vatalanib in stable transfected cells and ABCC2-overexpressing oxaliplatin-resistant colon cancer cells HCT116/Oxa. We also performed the transporter ABCC2 ATPase assay and showed an increase in ATP hydrolysis by ABCC2 in the presence of vatalanib. ATP7A mRNA expression was also shown to be upregulated in HCT116/Oxa cells. Vatalanib was shown to suppress this upregulated ATP7A expression. Data from the cellular Pt accumulation assay showed a lower Pt accumulation in HCT116/Oxa cells than the parental sensitive HCT116 cells. Vatalanib was shown to increase cellular Pt accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of oxaliplatin and vatalanib was shown to restore the suppressed apoptosis in HCT116/Oxa cells.

  8. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves; Radon in oesterreichischen Schaubergwerken und -hoehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit (AGES GmbH), Linz (Austria). Kompetenzzentrum Radiooekologie und Radon; Aspek, W. [Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Unfallverhuetung und Berufskrankheitenbekaempfung; Gschnaller, J. [GT-Analytic KEG, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  9. Free-ranging dogs show age related plasticity in their ability to follow human pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Debottam; N., Nikhil Dev; Gupta, Shreya; Sau, Shubhra; Sarkar, Rohan; Biswas, Arpita; Banerjee, Arunita; Babu, Daisy; Mehta, Diksha

    2017-01-01

    Differences in pet dogs’ and captive wolves’ ability to follow human communicative intents have led to the proposition of several hypotheses regarding the possession and development of social cognitive skills in dogs. It is possible that the social cognitive abilities of pet dogs are induced by indirect conditioning through living with humans, and studying free-ranging dogs can provide deeper insights into differentiating between innate abilities and conditioning in dogs. Free-ranging dogs are mostly scavengers, indirectly depending on humans for their sustenance. Humans can act both as food providers and as threats to these dogs, and thus understanding human gestures can be a survival need for the free-ranging dogs. We tested the responsiveness of such dogs in urban areas toward simple human pointing cues using dynamic proximal points. Our experiment showed that pups readily follow proximal pointing and exhibit weaker avoidance to humans, but stop doing so at the later stages of development. While juveniles showed frequent and prolonged gaze alternations, only adults adjusted their behaviour based on the reliability of the human experimenter after being rewarded. Thus free-ranging dogs show a tendency to respond to human pointing gestures, with a certain level of behavioural plasticity that allows learning from ontogenic experience. PMID:28715475

  10. Anxiety Patients Show Reduced Working Memory Related dlPFC Activation During Safety and Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Vytal, Katherine E; O'Connell, Katherine; Torrisi, Salvatore; Letkiewicz, Allison; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety patients exhibit deficits in cognitive tasks that require prefrontal control of attention, including those that tap working memory (WM). However, it is unclear whether these deficits reflect threat-related processes or symptoms of the disorder. Here, we distinguish between these hypotheses by determining the effect of shock threat versus safety on the neural substrates of WM performance in anxiety patients and healthy controls. Patients, diagnosed with generalized and/or social anxiety disorder, and controls performed blocks of an N-back WM task during periods of safety and threat of shock. We recorded blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity during the task, and investigated the effect of clinical anxiety (patients vs. controls) and threat on WM load-related BOLD activation. Behaviorally, patients showed an overall impairment in both accuracy and reaction time compared to controls, independent of threat. At the neural level, patients showed less WM load-related activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region critical for cognitive control. In addition, patients showed less WM load-related deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, which are regions of the default mode network. Most importantly, these effects were not modulated by threat. This work suggests that the cognitive deficits seen in anxiety patients may represent a key component of clinical anxiety, rather than a consequence of threat. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GIANT PLANETS ORBITING METAL-RICH STARS SHOW SIGNATURES OF PLANET-PLANET INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas giants orbiting interior to the ice line are thought to have been displaced from their formation locations by processes that remain debated. Here we uncover several new metallicity trends, which together may indicate that two competing mechanisms deliver close-in giant planets: gentle disk migration, operating in environments with a range of metallicities, and violent planet-planet gravitational interactions, primarily triggered in metal-rich systems in which multiple giant planets can form. First, we show with 99.1% confidence that giant planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 AU orbiting metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < 0) are confined to lower eccentricities than those orbiting metal-rich stars. Second, we show with 93.3% confidence that eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization primarily orbit metal-rich stars. Finally, we show that only metal-rich stars host a pile-up of hot Jupiters, helping account for the lack of such a pile-up in the overall Kepler sample. Migration caused by stellar perturbers (e.g., stellar Kozai) is unlikely to account for the trends. These trends further motivate follow-up theoretical work addressing which hot Jupiter migration theories can also produce the observed population of eccentric giant planets between 0.1 and 1 AU.

  12. [Effect of culture to delusions: Introduction of the Truman Show delusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, É Júlia; Herold, Róbert; Tényi, Tamás

    "People accepts the reality of the unfolded world" - says Peter Weir in his writing from 1998. The movie Truman Show demonstrates the life of a man, who - without knowing that - lived his life more than thirty years long at real time in a reality show. We could see the Truman Show delusion in international scientific literature in the past years, like a new, cultural formed shape of persecutory and grandiose delusions. The background of its maturation is given by the changed social norms and cultural effects, what let anybody to may get celebrity - without any vocation or hard work - within fifteen minutes and turning into the focus of millions. Patients, whom looking for the meaning of the feeling of "being changed" (depersonalisation, derealisation) constantly finds the answers in a kind of a directed reality, broadcasted by the television or other medias, where the people round them are playing pre-written roles. Similar as the Capgras sympton - they are different compared what they sound to be, need to execute tasks to avoid the unknown threats or gaining rewards. The paper gives not only a short overview about this rare psychopathological symptom, but also introduces this through three case studies observed at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Pecs, Hungary.

  13. Cytotoxic hydrogen bridged ruthenium quinaldamide complexes showing induced cancer cell death by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Rianne M; Allison, Simon J; Rafferty, Karen; Ghandhi, Laura; Pask, Christopher M; McGowan, Patrick C

    2016-08-16

    This report presents the first known p-cymene ruthenium quinaldamide complexes which are stabilised by a hydrogen-bridging atom, [{(p-cym)Ru(II)X(N,N)}{H(+)}{(N,N)XRu(II)(p-cym)}][PF6] (N,N = functionalised quinaldamide and X = Cl or Br). These complexes are formed by a reaction of [p-cymRu(μ-X)2]2 with a functionalised quinaldamide ligand. When filtered over NH4PF6, and under aerobic conditions the equilibrium of NH4PF6 ⇔ NH3 + HPF6 enables incorporation of HPF6 and the stabilisation of two monomeric ruthenium complexes by a bridging H(+), which are counter-balanced by a PF6 counterion. X-ray crystallographic analysis is presented for six new structures with OO distances of 2.420(4)-2.448(15) Å, which is significant for strong hydrogen bonds. Chemosensitivity studies against HCT116, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis human cancer cells showed the ruthenium complexes with a bromide ancillary ligand to be more potent than those with a chloride ligand. The 4'-fluoro compounds show a reduction in potency for both chloride and bromide complexes against all cell lines, but an increase in selectivity towards cancer cells compared to non-cancer ARPE-19 cells, with a selectivity index >1. Mechanistic studies showed a clear correlation between IC50 values and induction of cell death by apoptosis.

  14. Do dolphins rehearse show-stimuli when at rest? Delayed matching of auditory memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee eKremers

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying vocal mimicry in animals remain an open question. Delphinidae are able to copy sounds from their environment that are not produced by conspecifics. Usually, these mimicries occur associated with the context in which they were learned. No reports address the question of separation between auditory memory formation and spontaneous vocal copying although the sensory and motor phases of vocal learning are separated in a variety of songbirds. Here we show that captive bottlenose dolphins produce, during their nighttime resting periods, non-dolphin sounds that they heard during performance shows. Generally, in the middle of the night, these animals produced vocal copies of whale sounds that had been broadcast during daily public shows. As their life history was fully known, we know that these captive dolphins had never had the opportunity to hear whale sounds before then. Moreover, recordings made before the whale sounds started being broadcast revealed that they had never emitted such sounds before. This is to our knowledge the first evidence for a separation between formation of auditory memories and the process of learning to produce calls that match these memories in a marine mammal. One hypothesis is that dolphins may rehearse some special events heard during the daytime and that they then express vocally what could be conceived as a more global memory. These results open the way for broader views on how animals might rehearse life events while resting or maybe dreaming.

  15. Using television shows to teach communication skills in internal medicine residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Roger Y; Saber, Sadra S; Ma, Irene; Roberts, J Mark

    2009-02-03

    To address evidence-based effective communication skills in the formal academic half day curriculum of our core internal medicine residency program, we designed and delivered an interactive session using excerpts taken from medically-themed television shows. We selected two excerpts from the television show House, and one from Gray's Anatomy and featured them in conjunction with a brief didactic presentation of the Kalamazoo consensus statement on doctor-patient communication. To assess the efficacy of this approach a set of standardized questions were given to our residents once at the beginning and once at the completion of the session. Our residents indicated that their understanding of an evidence-based model of effective communication such as the Kalamazoo model, and their comfort levels in applying such model in clinical practice increased significantly. Furthermore, residents' understanding levels of the seven essential competencies listed in the Kalamazoo model also improved significantly. Finally, the residents reported that their comfort levels in three challenging clinical scenarios presented to them improved significantly. We used popular television shows to teach residents in our core internal medicine residency program about effective communication skills with a focus on the Kalamazoo's model. The results of the subjective assessment of this approach indicated that it was successful in accomplishing our objectives.

  16. Live Reporting in a News / Current Affairs TV Show as a Factor of (Non Credibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena Perišin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a perfunctory glance at the content of current aff airs/news programs makes it clear that in just a few years time, live reporting on Croatian TV news shows has increased dramatically. Technologicaladvancements, the equipping of TV stations with mobile satellite vans, and the pressure of competition have all resulted in increased instances of live reporting. When investigating news values, pictureand sound, as well as the possibility of immediate, timely reporting represent the key characteristics of TV journalism. In this context, live reports, as part of a news segment, should add to the authenticity and credibility of the program. Currently, however, TV broadcasting houses attempt to best one another in the number of live broadcasts as a means to purport a higher quality of their program. The direct address to the camera turns a reporter from an anonymous bearer of information into the “main star”. The figures accumulated on the extent of this form used in a news show do not determine the professional level of the editorial policy. Live reporting cannot be regarded as news value if other news values are neglected in the process. Recent research shows that live reports, in most cases, have been stripped of the initial notion of reporting on important and recent events. As such, they are becoming less of a justifi ed element in the creation of news.

  17. Amphibian DNA shows marked genetic structure and tracks pleistocene climate change in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Bates, John M

    2007-12-01

    The glacial refugia paradigm has been broadly applied to patterns of species dynamics and population diversification. However, recent geological studies have demonstrated striking Pleistocene climate changes in currently semiarid northeastern Brazil at time intervals much more frequent than the climatic oscillations associated with glacial and interglacial periods. These geomorphic data documented recurrent pulses of wet regimes in the past 210,000 years that correlate with climate anomalies affecting multiple continents. While analyzing DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 2) and one nuclear marker (cellular-myelocytomatosis proto-oncogene) in the forest-associated frogs Proceratophrys boiei and Ischnocnema gr. ramagii, we found evidence of biological responses consistent with these pluvial maxima events. Sampled areas included old, naturally isolated forest enclaves within the semiarid Caatinga, as well as recent man-made fragments of humid coastal Atlantic forest. Results show that mtDNA lineages in enclave populations are monophyletic or nearly so, whereas nonenclave populations are polyphyletic and more diverse. The studied taxa show evidence of demographic expansions at times that match phases of pluvial maxima inferred from geological data. Divergence times between several populations fall within comparatively drier intervals suggested by geomorphology. Mitochondrial and nuclear data show local populations to be genetically structured, with some high levels of differentiation that suggest the need of further taxonomic work.

  18. Multicultural Milky Way: Ethnoastronomy and Planetarium Shows for Under-served Arizonans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierman, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The astronomy outreach initiative, Multicultural Milky Way, partners the School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University (ASU) with under-served populations in Arizona in learning about our Milky Way and other galaxies. Arizona is home to many diverse populations with rich cultural histories such as Mayan, Navajo, and Apache. Linking astronomy practiced by one’s indigenous culture to that of Western astronomy may increase the interest in science. Through multicultural planetarium shows and associated hands-on activities, under-served students and families will learn how the Milky Way is represented in different cultures and about the science of galaxies. New planetarium shows using the Mesa Community College (MCC) Digital Planetarium and STARLAB portable planetarium explore how the Milky Way is interpreted in different cultures. STARLAB shows and associated new hands-on activities have been featured during school visits, teacher trainings, and Community Astronomy Nights around Arizona. For authentic assessment, evaluation techniques and procedures were developed.

  19. Cytogenetically Unrelated Clones in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Showing Different Responses to Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kasahara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML with two cytogenetically unrelated clones. The patient was a 45-year-old male who was diagnosed with acute monoblastic leukemia (AMoL. Initial G-band analysis showed 51,XY,+6,+8,inv(9(p12q13c,+11,+13,+19[12]/52,idem,+Y[8], but G-band analysis after induction therapy showed 45,XY,-7,inv(9(p12q13c[19]/46,XY,inv(9(p12q13c[1]. Retrospective FISH analysis revealed a cryptic monosomy 7 clone in the initial AML sample. The clone with multiple trisomies was eliminated after induction therapy and never recurred, but a clone with monosomy 7 was still detected in myelodysplastic marrow with a normal blast percentage. Both clones were successfully eliminated after related peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, but the patient died of relapsed AML with monosomy 7. We concluded that one clone was de novo AMoL with chromosome 6, 8, 11, 13, and 19 trisomy and that the other was acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC with chromosome 7 monosomy showing different responses to chemotherapy. Simultaneous onset of cytogenetically unrelated hematological malignancies that each have a different disease status is a rare phenomenon but is important to diagnose for a correct understanding of the disease status and for establishing an appropriate treatment strategy.

  20. Clinicopathogical characteristics and mammographic features of breast cancer showing architectural distortion on a mammogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Masao; Hirose, Naoko; Suwa, Kaori; Yoshida, Masayuki; Otuki, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-seven cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in this clinic between January 2003 and December 2010. Of those, 97 patients who showed architectural distortion on mammography were examined regarding the clinicopathological characteristics and mammographic features. The overall rate of architectural distortion was 13.3%, which became higher with progression of the clinical stage. The rate of lymph node metastasis was 50.5% histologically, and the most common histological type was scirrhous carcinoma at 36.2%, papillotubular carcinoma at 33%, invasive lobular carcinoma at 12.1%, and ductal carcinoma in situ at 11%. Cases of extensive ductal spread beyond the breast quadrant, accompanied by microcalcifications or showing architectural distortion in two views on mammography, were present at significantly high rates. Cases showing architectural distortion in two views on mammography accounted for 66% of the total, and, when these cases were not associated with any other mammographic findings, the most suspected histology of the lesion was invasive lobular carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. (author)

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells show an energy producing anabolic metabolic phenotype compared with primary myocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higashi Richard M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional status of a cell is expressed in its metabolic activity. We have applied stable isotope tracing methods to determine the differences in metabolic pathways in proliferating Rhabdomysarcoma cells (Rh30 and human primary myocytes in culture. Uniformly 13C-labeled glucose was used as a source molecule to follow the incorporation of 13C into more than 40 marker metabolites using NMR and GC-MS. These include metabolites that report on the activity of glycolysis, Krebs' cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Results The Rh30 cells proliferated faster than the myocytes. Major differences in flux through glycolysis were evident from incorporation of label into secreted lactate, which accounts for a substantial fraction of the glucose carbon utilized by the cells. Krebs' cycle activity as determined by 13C isotopomer distributions in glutamate, aspartate, malate and pyrimidine rings was considerably higher in the cancer cells than in the primary myocytes. Large differences were also evident in de novo biosynthesis of riboses in the free nucleotide pools, as well as entry of glucose carbon into the pyrimidine rings in the free nucleotide pool. Specific labeling patterns in these metabolites show the increased importance of anaplerotic reactions in the cancer cells to maintain the high demand for anabolic and energy metabolism compared with the slower growing primary myocytes. Serum-stimulated Rh30 cells showed higher degrees of labeling than serum starved cells, but they retained their characteristic anabolic metabolism profile. The myocytes showed evidence of de novo synthesis of glycogen, which was absent in the Rh30 cells. Conclusion The specific 13C isotopomer patterns showed that the major difference between the transformed and the primary cells is the shift from energy and maintenance metabolism in the myocytes toward increased energy and anabolic metabolism for proliferation in the Rh30 cells

  2. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of a specific anti-insulin-like growth factor I receptor single chain antibody on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Younesi, Vahid; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Nickho, Hamid; Safarzadeh, Elham; Ahmadi, Majid; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Ahmad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is expressed on breast cancer cells and involves in metastasis, survival, and proliferation. Currently, application of IGF-IR-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), alone or in combination with other drugs, is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies have been introduced as appropriate tools for tumor-targeting purposes because of their advantages over whole antibodies. In the present study, we employed a naïve phage library and isolated scFvs against a specific epitope from extracellular domain of IGF-IR by panning process. The selected scFvs were further characterized using polyclonal and monoclonal phage ELISA, soluble monoclonal ELISA, and colony PCR and sequencing. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of selected scFv antibodies on breast cancer cell lines were also evaluated by MTT and Annexin V/PI assays. The results of ELISA indicated specific reactions of the isolated scFvs against the IGF-IR peptide, and analyses of PCR product and sequencing confirmed the presence of full length V H and Vκ inserts. Treatment of MCF7 and SKBR3 cells with anti-IGF-IR scFv led to a significant growth inhibition. The results also showed that scFv treatment significantly augmented trastuzumab growth inhibitory effects on SKBR3 cells. The percentage of the apoptotic MCF7 and SKBR3 cells after 24-h treatment with scFv was 39 and 30.70 %, respectively. Twenty-four-hour treatment with scFv in combination with trastuzumab resulted in 44.75 % apoptosis of SKBR3 cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the targeting of IGF-IR by scFv can be an effective strategy in the treatment of breast cancer and provide further evidence for effectiveness of dual targeting of HER2 and IGF-IR in breast cancer therapy.

  3. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  4. Prolonged hypoxia increases survival even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio showing cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kopp

    Full Text Available Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf, when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf. Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a

  5. Hanseniaspora uvarum from Winemaking Environments Show Spatial and Temporal Genetic Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Warren; Setati, Mathabatha E.; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Mostert, Talitha T.; Colonna-Ceccaldi, Benoit; Coulon, Joana; Girard, Patrick; Moine, Virginie; Pillet, Myriam; Salin, Franck; Bely, Marina; Divol, Benoit; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Hanseniaspora uvarum is one of the most abundant yeast species found on grapes and in grape must, at least before the onset of alcoholic fermentation (AF) which is usually performed by Saccharomyces species. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic and phenotypic variability within the H. uvarum species. One hundred and fifteen strains isolated from winemaking environments in different geographical origins were analyzed using 11 microsatellite markers and a subset of 47 strains were analyzed by AFLP. H. uvarum isolates clustered mainly on the basis of their geographical localization as revealed by microsatellites. In addition, a strong clustering based on year of isolation was evidenced, indicating that the genetic diversity of H. uvarum isolates was related to both spatial and temporal variations. Conversely, clustering analysis based on AFLP data provided a different picture with groups showing no particular characteristics, but provided higher strain discrimination. This result indicated that AFLP approaches are inadequate to establish the genetic relationship between individuals, but allowed good strain discrimination. At the phenotypic level, several extracellular enzymatic activities of enological relevance (pectinase, chitinase, protease, β-glucosidase) were measured but showed low diversity. The impact of environmental factors of enological interest (temperature, anaerobia, and copper addition) on growth was also assessed and showed poor variation. Altogether, this work provided both new analytical tool (microsatellites) and new insights into the genetic and phenotypic diversity of H. uvarum, a yeast species that has previously been identified as a potential candidate for co-inoculation in grape must, but whose intraspecific variability had never been fully assessed. PMID:26834719

  6. Normal rat kidney cells secrete both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of osteopontin showing different physiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemir, M.; DeVouge, M.W.; Mukherjee, B.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have reported previously that the 69-kDa major phosphoprotein, secreted by normal rat kidney (NRK) cells, is osteopontin, a glycosylated bone matrix protein. Here we show that this 69-kDa osteopontin is secreted by NRK cells in both phosphorylated (pp69) and nonphosphorylated (np69) forms, with estimated isoelectric points of 3.8 and 4.5, respectively. Electrophoretic analysis of radioiodinated cell surface proteins immunoprecipitated with an anti-69-kDa osteopontin serum, demonstrates that the 69-kDa osteopontin is also present on the cell surface, but only its phosphorylated form (pp69) shows such cell surface association. Because osteopontin mediates cell adhesion and spreading, and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser cell-binding sequence, our observations strongly suggest that the cell surface localization of pp69 osteopontin is receptor-mediated, and the modification by phosphorylation may be crucial for its receptor binding activity. We also report that antisera directed against either fibronectin or 69-kDa osteopontin co-immunoprecipitate both np69 osteopontin and fibronectin as a heat-dissociable complex. In contrast, pp69 osteopontin does not co-precipitate with fibronectin. Furthermore, compared to NRK cells, vanadyl sulfate-treated NRK cells which acquire a reversible transformed phenotype, including anchorage-independent growth, show increased levels of pp69 on the cell surface, concomitant with significantly decreased levels of pp69 and elevated levels of np69 in the conditioned media. The data presented here establish transformation sensitivity of NRK cell-secreted osteopontin with respect to its secretion and cell surface localization, and demonstrate that phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of osteopontin have different physiological properties, which may regulate the functional roles of this extracellular matrix protein

  7. A comparison between wolves, Canis lupus, and dogs, Canis familiaris, in showing behaviour towards humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Turner, Dennis C; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-12-01

    Both human and nonhuman primates use imperative pointing to request a desired object from another individual. Gaze alternation often accompanies such pointing gestures, and in species that have no hands this can in itself function as imperative pointing. Dogs have exceptional skills in communicating with humans. The early development of these skills is suggested to have been facilitated by domestication. Adult wolves socialized with humans can use human-provided information to find food in various situations, but it is unclear whether they would use gaze alternation to show their human partner a target location they cannot reach on their own. In our experiment, we tested wolves and dogs in a task where they could indicate an out-of-reach food location to one of two human partners. One partner reacted in a cooperative way and gave the food hidden in the indicated location to the subject whereas the other responded in a competitive way and ate the food herself. Our results suggest that wolves, as well as dogs, use 'showing' behaviours to indicate a food location to a human partner, and that both can adjust their communication to the cooperativeness of their human partners, showing more indicating signals in the presence of the cooperative partner than in the presence of the competitive one. We conclude that wolves and dogs, both kept in packs under the same conditions, can use humans as cooperative partners, and point imperatively in order to receive a desired out-of-reach object. It seems that intensive socialization with humans enables both wolves and dogs to communicate cooperatively about a food location with humans, most probably relying on skills that evolved to promote social coordination within their packs.

  8. Task control signals in pediatric Tourette syndrome show evidence of immature and anomalous functional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Church

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a pediatric movement disorder that may affect control signaling in the brain. Previous work has proposed a dual-networks architecture of control processing involving a task-maintenance network and an adaptive control network (Dosenbach et al., 2008. A prior resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI analysis in TS has revealed functional immaturity in both putative control networks, with “anomalous” correlations (i.e. correlations outside the typical developmental range limited to the adaptive control network (Church et al., 2009. The present study used functional MRI (fMRI to study brain activity related to adaptive control (by studying start-cues signals, and to task-maintenance (by studying signals sustained across a task set. Two hypotheses from the previous rs-fcMRI results were tested. First, adaptive control (i.e., start-cue activity will be altered in TS, including activity inconsistent with typical development (“anomalous”. Second, group differences found in task maintenance (i.e., sustained activity will be consistent with functional immaturity in TS. We examined regions found through a direct comparison of adolescents with and without TS, as well as regions derived from a previous investigation that showed differences between unaffected children and adults. The TS group showed decreased start-cue signal magnitude in regions where start-cue activity is unchanged over typical development, consistent with anomalous adaptive control. The TS group also had higher magnitude sustained signals in frontal cortex regions that overlapped with regions showing differences over typical development, consistent with immature task maintenance in TS. The results demonstrate task-related fMRI signal differences anticipated by the atypical functional connectivity found previously in adolescents with TS, strengthening the evidence for functional immaturity and anomalous signaling in control networks in adolescents

  9. Self-report of ADHD shows limited agreement with objective markers of persistence and remittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rietz, Ebba; Cheung, Celeste H M; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-11-01

    A controversial issue is whether self-report of symptoms and impairment is sufficient for diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents and adults in the absence of other informants, such as parents. The present study investigated how well self-report is reflected by cognitive-neurophysiological and actigraph measures, which we have previously shown to discriminate between ADHD persisters, remitters and controls using parent-report (Cheung et al., 2015; Brit J Psychiat http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.114.145185). Parent- and self-reported ADHD symptoms and impairment, together with cognitive, electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency, event-related potential (ERP) and actigraph measures were obtained from 108 adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD and 167 controls. Participants reported lower levels of ADHD symptoms and impairments than parents (p self-report was low at 44%, compared to the persistence rate of 79% previously reported based on parent-report. Regression analyses showed that the objective measures distinguished poorly between ADHD persistent and remittent groups based on self-report, in contrast to findings based on parent-report (Cheung et al., 2015), although the measures differentiated well between ADHD persisters and controls. Correlation analyses revealed that self-reported impairment significantly correlated with fewer of the objective measures, despite parent- and self-reported symptoms showing similar correlations with the measures. The findings show that self-reported ADHD outcome is not as well reflected by cognitive-neurophysiological and movement correlates as we previously found for parent-reported ADHD. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Population exposure to smoking and tobacco branding in the UK reality show 'Love Island'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alexander B; Opazo Breton, Magdalena; Cranwell, Joanne; Britton, John; Murray, Rachael L

    2018-02-05

    Reality television shows are popular with children and young adults; inclusion of tobacco imagery in these programmes is likely to cause smoking in these groups. Series 3 of the UK reality show Love Island, broadcast in 2017, attracted widespread media criticism for high levels of smoking depicted. We have quantified this tobacco content and estimated the UK population exposure to generic and branded tobacco imagery generated by the show. We used 1-min interval coding to quantify actual or implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia or branding, in alternate episodes of series 3 of Love Island, and Census data and viewing figures from Kantar Media to estimate gross and per capita tobacco impressions. We coded 21 episodes comprising 1001 min of content. Tobacco imagery occurred in 204 (20%) intervals; the frequency of appearances fell significantly after media criticism. An identifiable cigarette brand, Lucky Strike Double Click, appeared in 16 intervals. The 21 episodes delivered an estimated 559 million gross tobacco impressions to the UK population, predominantly to women, including 47 million to children aged branding, including 4 million to children advertising legislation and broadcasting regulations intended to protect children from smoking imagery in UK television, series 3 of Love Island delivered millions of general and branded tobacco impressions both to children and adults in the UK. More stringent controls on tobacco content in television programmes are urgently needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sun-Wook [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biological Sciences, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Heon-Man [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangyong, E-mail: saylim@kaeri.re.kr [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress. - Highlights: • The dr1998 mutant strain lost 90% of its total catalase activity. • Increased ROS levels and decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} resistance were observed in dr1998 mutants. • Lack of drA0146 did not affect any oxidative stress-related phenotypes. • The purified DRA0146 did not show catalase activity.

  12. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H 2 O 2 treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H 2 O 2 resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H 2 O 2 , but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H 2 O 2 stress. - Highlights: • The dr1998 mutant strain lost 90% of its total catalase activity. • Increased ROS levels and decreased H 2 O 2 resistance were observed in dr1998 mutants. • Lack of drA0146 did not affect any oxidative stress-related phenotypes. • The purified DRA0146 did not show catalase activity.

  13. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giattina Emily

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account

  14. Lichen-derived compounds show potential for central nervous system therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, R Gajendra; Veeraval, Lenin; Maitra, Swati; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Tomasi, Sophie; Dévéhat, Françoise Lohézic-Le; Boustie, Joël; Chakravarty, Sumana

    2016-11-15

    Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells. A MTT assay was performed to assess the cytotoxicity of compounds at optimum neurotrophic activity. Neuro2A cells treated with neurotrophic lichen compounds were used for RT-PCR to evaluate the induction of genes that code for the neurotrophic markers BDNF and NGF. Immunoblotting was used to assess acetyl H3 and H4 levels, the epigenetic markers associated with neurotrophic and/or neurogenic activity. The neurogenic property of the compounds was determined using murine hippocampal primary cultures. AChE inhibition activity was performed using a modified Ellman's esterase method. Lichen compounds atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and (+)-usnic acid showed neurotrophic activity in a preliminary cell-based screening based on Neuro2A neurite outgrowth. Except for usnic acid, no cytotoxic effects were observed for the two depsides (atranorin and perlatolic acid) and the alkyl depsidone (physodic acid). Perlatolic acid appears to be promising, as it also exhibited AChE inhibition activity and potent proneurogenic activity. The neurotrophic lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid) modulated the gene expression of BDNF and NGF. In addition, perlatolic acid showed increased protein levels of acetyl H3 and H4 in Neuro2A cells. These lichen depsides and depsidones showed neuroactive properties in vitro (Neuro2A cells) and ex vivo (primary neural stem or progenitor cells), suggesting their potential to treat CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  15. BCR-ABL1 transcript types showed distinct laboratory characteristics in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, A P; Azevedo, I F; Melo, F C B C; Neves, W B; Azevedo, A C A C; Melo, R A M

    2017-04-20

    In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) two main types of messenger RNA (e14a2 and e13a2) can be produced by BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement. Due to conflicting results, the clinical value of these transcripts remains controversial. The aim of this study was to identify associations of e14a2 and e13a2 transcripts with laboratory variables and also the response to treatment. This study included 203 adult patients with CML treated with Imatinib as first-line drug in a reference hematology center in Northeast Brazil. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained after informed consent. Samples were collected for RNA extraction and analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), according to the international protocol BIOMED-1. The LeukemiaNet 2013 criteria were used to establish the molecular response. The frequency distribution of the BCR-ABL1 transcripts was e14a2 (64%), e13a2 (34%), and double positives (2%). The results showed a statistically significant association of the e14a2 transcript type with thrombocytosis (P = 0.0005) and the e13a2 with higher leukocyte count (P = 0.0491). In a subgroup of 44 patients, the molecular response to treatment with Imatinib was assessed by quantitative PCR at 3 months (BCR-ABL1 ≤ 10%), 6 months (BCR-ABL1 ≤ 1%), or 12 months (BCR-ABL1 ≤ 0.1%). Although patients with the transcript e14a2 showed higher frequency of good responses than patients with the transcript e13a2, this difference was not statistically significant. In agreement with published data, our results showed association of the BCR-ABL1 transcript e14a2 with thrombocytosis and the BCR-ABL1 transcript e13a2 with higher leukocytosis in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

  16. Novel glutamate dehydrogenase genes show increased transcript and protein abundances in mature tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Gisela; Bortolotti, Santiago; Mortera, Pablo; Schlereth, Armin; Stitt, Mark; Carrari, Fernando; Kamenetzky, Laura; Valle, Estela M

    2012-06-15

    NAD(P)H-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.3) contributes to the control of glutamate homeostasis in all living organisms. In bacteria and animals, GDH is a homohexamer allosterically regulated, whereas in plants NADH-GDH (EC 1.4.1.2) is also found as heterohexamer of α- and β-subunits, but its regulation remains undefined. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), GDH activity increases during the fruit ripening along with the content of free glutamate, the most abundant amino acid of ripe fruit involved in conferring the genuine tomato flavour. In this work, novel Slgdh-NAD genes were identified in the recently deciphered tomato genome: three encoding the α-subunit (Slgdh-NAD;A1-3) and one additional gene encoding the β-subunit of GDH (Slgdh-NAD;B1) isolated from a genomic library. These genes are located in different chromosomes. Slgdh-NAD;A1-3 show conserved structures, whereas Slgdh-NAD;B1 includes a novel 5'-untranslated exon. Slgdh-NAD;A1-3 transcripts were detected in all tomato tissues examined, showing the highest levels in mature green fruits, contrasting with Slgdh-NAD;B1 transcripts which were detected mainly in roots or in mature fruits when treated with glutamate, NaCl or salicylic acid. Analyses of GDH activity and protein distribution in different tissues of the Micro-Tom cultivar showed that only the active homohexamer of GDH β-subunits was detected in roots while heterohexamers of GDH α- and β-subunits were found in fruits. These results indicate that GDH β-subunit could modulate the heteromeric isoforms of GDH in response to the environment and physiology of the tomato fruit. This information is relevant to manipulate glutamate contents in tomato fruits genetically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes patients show different time-course of myocardial perfusion improvement after coronary artery bypass grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. J.; Seok, J. W.; Eo, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is known to cause microangiopathy. The microangiopathy is hardly detectable on the coronary angiography. Myocardial perfusion imaging shows the resultant perfusion status which reflects the microangiopathy. For patients who underwent revascularization, the microangiopathy could affect the myocardial perfusion improvement. Diabetes patients probably experience the different myocardial perfusion improvement as compared to the non-diabetes patients although they have similar angiographic findings. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is a time-course difference of perfusion improvement between the diabetes and non diabetes patients who showed patent angiographic findings after coronary artery grafting surgery (CABG). A total of 129 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were enrolled in this study. Myocardial SPECTs performed at previous, short-term (3 month), and mid-term (1 year) to CABG. One-year follow up angiography was done 411±121 days after surgery. Graft patency was determined according to the FitzGibbon et al. Segments were assigned to vascular territories using a 20 segment model. The segments of excellent patency were included in this study. Time course differences of concerned segments were analyzed using RMANOVA. The number of segments enrolled was 764 of diabetes and 1083 of non-diabetes. At short-term follow up, reversibility score was 2.8±8.1% in diabetes and 0.3±7.5% in non-diabetes. At long-term follow up, reversibility score was 1.8±8.0% in diabetes and 0.1±7.3% in non-diabetes. The time-course of reversibility score was significantly different between the diabetes and non diabetes (p<0.001) Diabetic segments showed high residual reversibility score than non-diabetic segments after CABG although the angiographic finding was patent in both groups. This result is maybe attributable to microangiopathy induced by diabetes

  18. An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson Steven L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

  19. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  20. A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity. Results A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity. Conclusions A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes. All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123

  1. Multifactor-dimensionality reduction shows a two-locus interaction associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y M; Ritchie, M D; Moore, J H; Park, J Y; Lee, K-U; Shin, H D; Lee, H K; Park, K S

    2004-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex genetic disease, which results from interactions between multiple genes and environmental factors without any single factor having strong independent effects. This study was done to identify gene to gene interactions which could be associated with the risk of Type 2 diabetes. We genotyped 23 different loci in the 15 candidate genes of Type 2 diabetes in 504 unrelated Type 2 diabetic patients and 133 non-diabetic control subjects. We analysed gene to gene interactions among 23 polymorphic loci using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) method, which has been shown to be effective for detecting and characterising gene to gene interactions in case-control studies with relatively small samples. The MDR analysis showed a significant gene to gene interaction between the Ala55Val polymorphism in the uncoupling protein 2 gene ( UCP2) and the 161C>T polymorphism in the exon 6 of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ( PPARgamma) gene. This interaction showed the maximum consistency and minimum prediction error among all gene to gene interaction models evaluated. Moreover, the combination of the UCP2 55 Ala/Val heterozygote and the PPARgamma 161 C/C homozygote was associated with a reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes (odds ratio: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34 to 0.77, p=0.0016). Using the MDR method, we showed a two-locus interaction between the UCP2 and PPARgamma genes among 23 loci in the candidate genes of Type 2 diabetes. The determination of such genotype combinations contributing to Type 2 diabetes mellitus could provide a new tool for identifying high-risk individuals.

  2. Memory-guided saccades show effect of a perceptual illusion whereas visually guided saccades do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massendari, Delphine; Lisi, Matteo; Collins, Thérèse; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The double-drift stimulus (a drifting Gabor with orthogonal internal motion) generates a large discrepancy between its physical and perceived path. Surprisingly, saccades directed to the double-drift stimulus land along the physical, and not perceived, path (Lisi M, Cavanagh P. Curr Biol 25: 2535-2540, 2015). We asked whether memory-guided saccades exhibited the same dissociation from perception. Participants were asked to keep their gaze centered on a fixation dot while the double-drift stimulus moved back and forth on a linear path in the periphery. The offset of the fixation was the go signal to make a saccade to the target. In the visually guided saccade condition, the Gabor kept moving on its trajectory after the go signal but was removed once the saccade began. In the memory conditions, the Gabor disappeared before or at the same time as the go-signal (0- to 1,000-ms delay) and participants made a saccade to its remembered location. The results showed that visually guided saccades again targeted the physical rather than the perceived location. However, memory saccades, even with 0-ms delay, had landing positions shifted toward the perceived location. Our result shows that memory- and visually guided saccades are based on different spatial information. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We compared the effect of a perceptual illusion on two types of saccades, visually guided vs. memory-guided saccades, and found that whereas visually guided saccades were almost unaffected by the perceptual illusion, memory-guided saccades exhibited a strong effect of the illusion. Our result is the first evidence in the literature to show that visually and memory-guided saccades use different spatial representations.

  3. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  4. KCNQ2/3 openers show differential selectivity and site of action across multiple KCNQ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Thimmapaya, Rama; Zhang, Xu-Feng; Anderson, David J; Baranowski, John L; Scanio, Marc; Perez-Medrano, Arturo; Peddi, Sridhar; Wang, Zhi; Patel, Jyoti R; DeGoey, David A; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Honore, Prisca; Yao, Betty B; Surowy, Carol S

    2011-08-30

    KCNQ2/3 voltage-gated potassium channels conduct low-threshold, slowly activating and non-inactivating currents to repolarize the neuronal resting membrane potential. The channels negatively regulate neuronal excitability and KCNQ2/3 openers are efficacious in hyperexcited states such as epilepsy and pain. We developed and utilized thallium influx assays to profile novel KCNQ2/3 channel openers with respect to selectivity across KCNQ subtypes and on requirement for tryptophan 236 of KCNQ2, a critical residue for activity of the KCNQ opener retigabine. Using distinct chemical series of openers, a quinazolinone series showed relatively poor selectivity across multiple KCNQ channels and lacked activity at the KCNQ2(W236L) mutant channel. In contrast, several novel benzimidazole openers showed selectivity for KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ2 and retain activity at KCNQ2(W236L). Profiling of several hundred KCNQ2/3 openers across multiple diverse chemical series revealed that openers show differential degrees of selectivity across subtypes, with selectivity most difficult to achieve against KCNQ2. In addition, we report the significant finding that KCNQ openers can pharmacologically differentiate between homomeric and heteromeric channels containing subtypes in common. Moreover, most openers assayed were dependent on the W236 for activity, whereas only a small number appear to use a distinct mechanism. Collectively, we provide novel insights into the molecular pharmacology of KCNQ channels by demonstrating differential selectivity and site of action for KCNQ2/3 openers. The high-throughput thallium influx assays should prove useful for rapid characterization of KCNQ openers and in guiding efforts to identify selective compounds for advancement towards the clinic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hanseniaspora uvarum from winemaking environments show spatial and temporal genetic clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren eAlbertin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanseniaspora uvarum is one of the most abundant yeast species found on grapes and in grape must, at least before the onset of alcoholic fermentation which is usually performed by Saccharomyces species. The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic and phenotypic variability within the H. uvarum species. One hundred and fifteen strains isolated from winemaking environments in different geographical origins were analysed using 11 microsatellite markers and a subset of 47 strains were analysed by AFLP. H. uvarum isolates clustered mainly on the basis of their geographical localisation as revealed by microsatellites. In addition, a strong clustering based on year of isolation was evidenced, indicating that the genetic diversity of Hanseniaspora uvarum isolates was related to both spatial and temporal variations. Conversely, clustering analysis based on AFLP data provided a different picture with groups showing no particular characteristics, but provided higher strain discrimination. This result indicated that AFLP approaches are inadequate to establish the genetic relationship between individuals, but allowed good strain discrimination. At the phenotypic level, several extracellular enzymatic activities of enological relevance (pectinase, chitinase, protease, β-glucosidase were measured but showed low diversity. The impact of environmental factors of enological interest (temperature, anaerobia and copper addition on growth was also assessed and showed poor variation. Altogether, this work provided both new analytical tool (microsatellites and new insights into the genetic and phenotypic diversity of H. uvarum, a yeast species that has previously been identified as a potential candidate for co-inoculation in grape must, but whose intraspecific variability had never been fully assessed.

  6. Contesting the “Nature” Of Conformity: What Milgram and Zimbardo's Studies Really Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Reicher, Stephen. D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right. PMID:23185132

  7. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S Alexander; Reicher, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  8. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alexander Haslam

    Full Text Available Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  9. Aggressive human neuroblastomas show a massive increase in the numbers of autophagic vacuoles and damaged mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Gordana; Stevovic, Tamara Kravic; Djuricic, Slavisa; Djokic, Dragomir; Djurisic, Marina; Ciric, Darko; Martinovic, Tamara; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir; Vujic, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is activated in cancer cells in response to multiple stresses and has been demonstrated to promote tumor cell survival and drug resistance in neuroblastoma (NB). This study was conducted to analyze the ultrastructural features of peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs) and identify the relation of the types of NTs, the proliferation rate, and MYCN gene amplification with a number of autophagic vacuoles. Our results indicate that aggressive human NBs show a massive increase in the number of autophagic vacuoles associated with proliferation rate and that alteration of the mitochondria might be an important factor for the induction of autophagy in NTs.

  10. The reminiscence bump reconsidered: Children's prospective life stories show a bump in young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Annette; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe reminiscence bump—the reporting of more memories from young adulthood than from other stages of life—is considered a hallmark of autobiographical memory research. The most prevalent explanations for this effect assume that events in young adulthood are favored because of the way they are encoded and maintained in long-term memory. Here we show that a similar increase of events in early adulthood is found when children narrate their personal futures. In Study 1, children wrote thei...

  11. Self-excited electrostatic pendulum showing electrohydrodynamic-force-induced oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D.; Hernandez Guerrero, José M.

    2017-12-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effect ("ion wind") associated with corona discharges in air has been extensively investigated and modeled. We present a simple experiment that shows how both the magnitude and direction of EHD forces can change in such a way as to impart energy continuously to an oscillating electrostatic pendulum. The amplitude of oscillations of an electrostatic pendulum subject to EHD forces can grow approximately exponentially over a period of minutes, and we describe a qualitative theory to account for this effect, along with implications of these experiments for theories of ball lightning.

  12. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between...

  13. Interactive optical trapping shows that confinement is a determinant of growth in a mixed yeast culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, N.; Siegumfeldt, H.; Andersen, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    Applying a newly developed user-interactive optical trapping system, we controllably surrounded individual cells of one yeast species, Hanseniaspora uvarum, with viable cells of another yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thus creating a confinement of the former. Growth of surrounded and non......-surrounded H. uvarum cells was followed under a microscope by determining their generation time. The average generation time of surrounded H. uvarum cells was 15% higher than that of non-surrounded cells thereby showing that the confinement imposed by viable S. cerevisiae cells on H. uvarum inhibits growth...

  14. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  15. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane

  16. Xenon isotopes in 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko show that comets contributed to Earth's atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Altwegg, K; Balsiger, H; Bar-Nun, A; Bekaert, D V; Berthelier, J-J; Bieler, A; Briois, C; Calmonte, U; Combi, M; De Keyser, J; Fiethe, B; Fuselier, S A; Gasc, S; Gombosi, T I; Hansen, K C; Hässig, M; Jäckel, A; Kopp, E; Korth, A; Le Roy, L; Mall, U; Mousis, O; Owen, T; Rème, H; Rubin, M; Sémon, T; Tzou, C-Y; Waite, J H; Wurz, P

    2017-06-09

    The origin of cometary matter and the potential contribution of comets to inner-planet atmospheres are long-standing problems. During a series of dedicated low-altitude orbits, the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) on the Rosetta spacecraft analyzed the isotopes of xenon in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The xenon isotopic composition shows deficits in heavy xenon isotopes and matches that of a primordial atmospheric component. The present-day Earth atmosphere contains 22 ± 5% cometary xenon, in addition to chondritic (or solar) xenon. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Heteromeric Slick/Slack K+ channels show graded sensitivity to cell volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tejada, Maria A; Hashem, Nadia; Callø, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Slick and Slack high-conductance K+ channels are found in the CNS, kidneys, pancreas, among other organs, where they play an important role in cell excitability as well as in ion transport processes. They are both activated by Na+ and Cl- but show a differential regulation by cell volume changes...... to osmotic challenges. In order to provide with the adequate water permeability to the cell membrane of Xenopus laevis oocytes, mRNA of aquaporin 1 was co-expressed with homomeric or heteromeric Slick and Slack α-subunits. Oocytes were superfused with hypotonic or hypertonic buffers and changes in currents...

  18. Robots show us how to teach them: feedback from robots shapes tutoring behavior during action learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.

  19. Stigmatization of eating disorders: a controlled study of the effects of the television show Starved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterman, Shawn N; Klump, Kelly L

    2010-01-01

    Starved is a situational comedy ("sitcom") that depicted individuals with eating disorders that was feared to increase stigma. Our study directly examined this possibility by randomly assigning participants to watch Starved or The Comeback (a sitcom unrelated to eating disorders) and measuring eating disorder stigma/stereotypes before and after viewing. Participants who viewed Starved did not show increased levels of stigma, suggesting that short-term exposure to an extreme portrayal of eating disorder stereotypes may not increase stigma. Future research should examine prolonged exposure and other potential sources of these negative attitudes.

  20. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  1. Physically Active Men Show Better Semen Parameters than Their Sedentary Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde-Acevedo, Paula C; Mayorga-Torres, B Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; du Plessis, Stefan S; Ahmad, Gulfam; Cadavid, Ángela P; Cardona Maya, Walter D

    2017-10-01

    The quality of semen depends upon several factors such as environment, life style, physical activity, age, and occupation. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the conventional and functional semen parameters in men practicing vigorous physical activity to those of sedentary men. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, semen samples of 17 physically active men and 15 sedentary men were collected for analysis. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, while functional parameters were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that several semen parameters (semen volume, viability, progressive motility, total motility, normal morphology, and moribund cells) were superior in the physically active group in comparison with the sedentary group. Semen parameters such as viability, progressive motility and total motility, as well as the percentage of moribund spermatozoa were significantly different between both groups. However, sperm DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial potential were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the physical activity shows better semen parameters than sedentary group. Taken together, our results demonstrate that regular physical activity has beneficial impact in sperm fertility parameters and such a life style can enhance the fertility status of men. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  2. The simbolic and argumentative power of discourse in journalistic television shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Silva Lins Cajazeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the pedagogical-didatic discourse of the journalistic show Bem-Estar, specialized in the Health area, produced and published by the Journalism Department of Globo TV Network, in São Paulo, Brazil. In the analysis it was considered five editions of the show, from August 27th to the 31st of 2012. The objective was to verify the extent to which this discourse was established, through didatic e pedagogic resources, in the transmission of the themes. This study was structured in two investigation categories, the first being classified as usage (strategies and the second one as base (ending, which were used for the analysis of the research object. Thereafter, it was verified the interconnection between health questions and strategies of the symbolic and argumentative power of the journalistic discourse, in this media space, controlled by the media company. Thus, it was established an evaluation parameter to the interation process with the audience in the convergence between television and the Internet, in the Digital Age.

  3. Distance running as an ideal domain for showing a sex difference in competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Robert O

    2013-04-01

    Men are over-represented in the arts, sciences, and sports. This has been hypothesized to reflect an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness or long-term motivation to improve one's performance and "show-off." Evidence for this hypothesis is equivocal, however, because there are viable alternative explanations for men's dominance in most cultural display domains. Here, I argue that distance running is an ideal domain for addressing this issue. Distance running is ideal because it indicates enduring competitiveness, allows objective comparisons, and is accessible, acceptable, and popular for both men and women. I review recent studies and present new data showing that substantially more men than women run relatively fast in the U.S., that this sex difference in relative performance can be attributed, at least in part, to men's greater training motivation, and that this pattern has been stable for several decades. Distance running thus provides compelling evidence for an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness. I conclude with suggestions regarding how variation in achievement motivation can be informed by considering how evolved predispositions interact with environmental and social conditions.

  4. γ Sulphate PNA (PNA S: highly selective DNA binding molecule showing promising antigene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Avitabile

    Full Text Available Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNAs, nucleic acid analogues showing high stability to enzyme degradation and strong affinity and specificity of binding toward DNA and RNA are widely investigated as tools to interfere in gene expression. Several studies have been focused on PNA analogues with modifications on the backbone and bases in the attempt to overcome solubility, uptake and aggregation issues. γ PNAs, PNA derivatives having a substituent in the γ position of the backbone show interesting properties in terms of secondary structure and affinity of binding toward complementary nucleic acids. In this paper we illustrate our results obtained on new analogues, bearing a sulphate in the γ position of the backbone, developed to be more DNA-like in terms of polarity and charge. The synthesis of monomers and oligomers is described. NMR studies on the conformational properties of monomers and studies on the secondary structure of single strands and triplexes are reported. Furthermore the hybrid stability and the effect of mismatches on the stability have also been investigated. Finally, the ability of the new analogue to work as antigene, interfering with the transcription of the ErbB2 gene on a human cell line overexpressing ErbB2 (SKBR3, assessed by FACS and qPCR, is described.

  5. Fibroadenomas of the breast showing an ill-defined margin on ultrasonogram: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Choi, Hye Young; Shim, Sung Shine; Rhee, Chung Sik; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    To correlate the sonographic finding of ill-defined fibroadenoma with the histopathologic findings. Sonographic finding of forty nine surgically proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively correlated with histopathologic findings. We evaluated sonographic findings including the margin, shape, size and the echotexture of fibroadenoma. The histopathologic glandular structure, stromal type of fibroadenoma, type of the surrounding breast tissue and presence of interdigitation between fibroadenoma and the surrounding breast tissue were pathologically reviewed and analyzed statistically. Breast sonography of fibroadenomas demonstrated well-defined margin in 28 (57%) and ill-defined margin in 21 (43%) among 49 lesions. Histopathologically, the glandular structure and type of the surrounding breast tissue were not significantly different between well-defined and ill-defined fibroadenomas. The stromal type of fibroadenoma was sclerotic in 8 (29%) well-defined fibroadenomas while sclerotic in 15 (72%) of 21 ill-defined fibroadenomas,showing difference with a statistical significance between well-defined and ill-defined fibroadenomas (p<0.05). Twenty (71%) of 28 fibroadenomas with well-defined sonographic margins showed well-defined border between mass and the surrounding breast tissue, pathologically. Meanwhile, twenty (95%) of 21 fibroadenomas with ill-defined sonographic margins demonstrated interdigitation of the surrounding breast tissue and mass, exhibiting a statistical significance (p<0.005). Ill-defined margins of fibroadenomas on sonography represent the interdigitation of the surrounding breast tissue with a mass and is seen in the sclerotic stromal type of fibroadenomas.

  6. Fibroadenomas of the breast showing an ill-defined margin on ultrasonogram: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Choi, Hye Young; Shim, Sung Shine; Rhee, Chung Sik; Sung, Soon Hee

    2002-01-01

    To correlate the sonographic finding of ill-defined fibroadenoma with the histopathologic findings. Sonographic finding of forty nine surgically proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively correlated with histopathologic findings. We evaluated sonographic findings including the margin, shape, size and the echotexture of fibroadenoma. The histopathologic glandular structure, stromal type of fibroadenoma, type of the surrounding breast tissue and presence of interdigitation between fibroadenoma and the surrounding breast tissue were pathologically reviewed and analyzed statistically. Breast sonography of fibroadenomas demonstrated well-defined margin in 28 (57%) and ill-defined margin in 21 (43%) among 49 lesions. Histopathologically, the glandular structure and type of the surrounding breast tissue were not significantly different between well-defined and ill-defined fibroadenomas. The stromal type of fibroadenoma was sclerotic in 8 (29%) well-defined fibroadenomas while sclerotic in 15 (72%) of 21 ill-defined fibroadenomas,showing difference with a statistical significance between well-defined and ill-defined fibroadenomas (p<0.05). Twenty (71%) of 28 fibroadenomas with well-defined sonographic margins showed well-defined border between mass and the surrounding breast tissue, pathologically. Meanwhile, twenty (95%) of 21 fibroadenomas with ill-defined sonographic margins demonstrated interdigitation of the surrounding breast tissue and mass, exhibiting a statistical significance (p<0.005). Ill-defined margins of fibroadenomas on sonography represent the interdigitation of the surrounding breast tissue with a mass and is seen in the sclerotic stromal type of fibroadenomas.

  7. Fluoride-tolerant mutants of Aspergillus niger show enhanced phosphate solubilization capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiana de Cássia Silva

    Full Text Available P-solubilizing microorganisms are a promising alternative for a sustainable use of P against a backdrop of depletion of high-grade rock phosphates (RPs. Nevertheless, toxic elements present in RPs, such as fluorine, can negatively affect microbial solubilization. Thus, this study aimed at selecting Aspergillus niger mutants efficient at P solubilization in the presence of fluoride (F-. The mutants were obtained by exposition of conidia to UV light followed by screening in a medium supplemented with Ca3(PO42 and F-. The mutant FS1-555 showed the highest solubilization in the presence of F-, releasing approximately 70% of the P contained in Ca3(PO42, a value 1.7 times higher than that obtained for the wild type (WT. The mutant FS1-331 showed improved ability of solubilizing fluorapatites, increasing the solubilization of Araxá, Catalão, and Patos RPs by 1.7, 1.6, and 2.5 times that of the WT, respectively. These mutants also grew better in the presence of F-, indicating that mutagenesis allowed the acquisition of F- tolerance. Higher production of oxalic acid by FS1-331 correlated with its improved capacity for RP solubilization. This mutant represents a significant improvement and possess a high potential for application in solubilization systems with fluoride-rich phosphate sources.

  8. On the Spectral Evolution of Helium-atmosphere White Dwarfs Showing Traces of Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, B.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2018-04-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 115 helium-line (DB) and 28 cool, He-rich hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs based on atmosphere fits to optical spectroscopy and photometry. We find that 63% of our DB population show hydrogen lines, making them DBA stars. We also demonstrate the persistence of pure DB white dwarfs with no detectable hydrogen feature at low effective temperatures. Using state-of-the art envelope models, we next compute the total quantity of hydrogen, M H, that is contained in the outer convection zone as a function of effective temperature and atmospheric H/He ratio. We find that some (T eff, M H) pairs cannot physically exist as a homogeneously mixed structure; such a combination can only occur as stratified objects of the DA spectral type. On that basis, we show that the values of M H inferred for the bulk of the DBA stars are too large and incompatible with the convective dilution scenario. We also present evidence that the hydrogen abundances measured in DBA and cool, helium-rich white dwarfs cannot be globally accounted for by any kind of accretion mechanism onto a pure DB star. We suggest that cool, He-rich DA white dwarfs are most likely created by the convective mixing of a DA star with a thin hydrogen envelope; they are not cooled down DBAs. We finally explore several scenarios that could account for the presence of hydrogen in DBA stars.

  9. Using metagenomics to show the efficacy of forest restoration in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William D; Shokralla, Shadi; McGee, Kathleen M; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2017-10-01

    The Franklin Parker Preserve within the New Jersey Pine Barrens contains 5000 acres of wetlands habitat, including old-growth Atlantic white cedar (or AWC; Chamaecyparis thyoides) swamps, cranberry bogs, and former cranberry bogs undergoing restoration into AWC forests. This study showed that the C-use efficiency was greater in the old-growth AWC soils than in soils from 8-year-old mid-stage restored AWC stands, which were greater than found in soil from 4-year-old AWC stands-the latter two stands being restored from long-term cranberry bogs. A metagenomic analysis of eDNA extracted from these soils showed that the C-cycle trends were associated with increases in the relative numbers of DNA sequences from several copiotrophic bacterial groups (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria), complex C-decomposing fungal groups (Sordiomycetes, Mortierellales, and Thelephorales), and collembolan and formicid invertebrates. All groups are indicators of successionally more advanced soils, and critical for soil C-cycle activities. These data suggest that the restoration activities studied are enhancing critical guilds of soil biota, and increasing C-use efficiency in the soils of restored habitats, and that the use of metagenomic analysis of soil eDNA can be used in the development of assessment models for soil recovery of wetlands following restoration.

  10. Children with dyslexia show cortical hyperactivation in response to increasing literacy processing demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøydis eMorken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study aimed to examine how differences in literacy processing demands may affect cortical activation patterns in 11- to 12-year-old children with dyslexia as compared to children with typical reading skills. 11 children with and 18 without dyslexia were assessed using a reading paradigm based on different stages of literacy development. In the analyses, six regions showed an interaction effect between group and condition in a factorial ANOVA. These regions were selected as regions of interest for further analyses. Overall, the dyslexia group showed cortical hyperactivation compared to the typical group. The difference between the groups tended to increase with increasing processing demands. Differences in cortical activation were not reflected in in-scanner reading performance. The six regions further grouped into three patterns, which are discussed in terms of processing demands, compensatory mechanisms, orthography and contextual facilitation. We conclude that the observed hyperactivation is chiefly a result of compensatory activity, modulated by other factors.

  11. System with embedded drug release and nanoparticle degradation sensor showing efficient rifampicin delivery into macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousil, Jiří; Filippov, Sergey K; Hrubý, Martin; Mazel, Tomáš; Syrová, Zdeňka; Cmarko, Dušan; Svidenská, Silvie; Matějková, Jana; Kováčik, Lubomír; Porsch, Bedřich; Konefał, Rafał; Lund, Reidar; Nyström, Bo; Raška, Ivan; Štěpánek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a biodegradable, biocompatible system for the delivery of the antituberculotic antibiotic rifampicin with a built-in drug release and nanoparticle degradation fluorescence sensor. Polymer nanoparticles based on poly(ethylene oxide) monomethyl ether-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) were noncovalently loaded with rifampicin, a combination that, to best of our knowledge, was not previously described in the literature, which showed significant benefits. The nanoparticles contain a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) system that allows real-time assessment of drug release not only in vitro, but also in living macrophages where the mycobacteria typically reside as hard-to-kill intracellular parasites. The fluorophore also enables in situ monitoring of the enzymatic nanoparticle degradation in the macrophages. We show that the nanoparticles are efficiently taken up by macrophages, where they are very quickly associated with the lysosomal compartment. After drug release, the nanoparticles in the cmacrophages are enzymatically degraded, with half-life 88±11 min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  13. Visual modeling shows that avian host parents use multiple visual cues in rejecting parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2010-05-11

    One of the most striking outcomes of coevolution between species is egg mimicry by brood parasitic birds, resulting from rejection behavior by discriminating host parents. Yet, how exactly does a host detect a parasitic egg? Brood parasitism and egg rejection behavior provide a model system for exploring the relative importance of different visual cues used in a behavioral task. Although hosts are discriminating, we do not know exactly what cues they use, and to answer this it is crucial to account for the receiver's visual perception. Color, luminance ("perceived lightness") and pattern information have never been simultaneously quantified and experimentally tested through a bird's eye. The cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis and its hosts show spectacular polymorphisms in egg appearance, providing a good opportunity for investigating visual discrimination owing to the large range of patterns and colors involved. Here we combine field experiments in Africa with modeling of avian color vision and pattern discrimination to identify the specific visual cues used by hosts in making rejection decisions. We found that disparity between host and foreign eggs in both color and several aspects of pattern (dispersion, principal marking size, and variability in marking size) were important predictors of rejection, especially color. These cues correspond exactly to the principal differences between host and parasitic eggs, showing that hosts use the most reliable available cues in making rejection decisions, and select for parasitic eggs that are increasingly mimetic in a range of visual attributes.

  14. How does culture show? A case study of an international and interprofessional course in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Majda; Rasmussen, Birgit H

    2009-09-01

    Research shows slow improvement of the care of dying persons and their significant others. One of the reasons for that is the lack of palliative care education as an integral part of health professionals' undergraduate education. The paper discusses an attempt to develop innovative forms of palliative care education: an international, interprofessional and IT-supported undergraduate course for Swedish and Slovenian students of nursing, medicine, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology and social work, which has been developed jointly by the two authors. One of the aims of the course has been to address differences in professional and national cultures relevant to quality in palliative care. The development and pilot implementation phases of the course were analysed qualitatively, using evaluation materials from students and teachers and from an external evaluation study. The results show that the interprofessional approach in the course enabled students to get to know other professions, as well as enabling them to work together as a team and resolve conflicts. Cultural differences between Sweden and Slovenia were not very pronounced, yet they came to the fore regarding teamwork and relationships between professions, as well as in respect of the "right thing" to do in relation to patient' problems.

  15. Isolation of Enterobacter cowanii from Eucalyptus showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, C L; Venter, S N; Cleenwerck, I; Engelbeen, K; de Vos, P; Wingfield, M J; Telechea, N; Coutinho, T A

    2009-10-01

    This study was performed to identify bacterial strains isolated simultaneously with Pantoea species from Eucalyptus trees showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Uruguay. Several molecular techniques including 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization were used to characterize the gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, slime-producing bacterial strains isolated along with Pantoea species from Eucalyptus. Hypersensitivity reactions (HR) and pathogenicity tests were performed on tobacco and Eucalyptus seedlings, respectively. The isolates clustered closely with the type strain of Enterobacter cowanii in both phylogenetic trees constructed. The DNA-DNA similarity between the isolates and the type strain of Ent. cowanii ranged from 88% to 92%. A positive HR was observed on the tobacco seedlings, but no disease symptoms were visible on the inoculated Eucalyptus seedlings. Enterobacter cowanii was isolated from trees with symptoms of bacterial blight although strains of this bacterial species do not appear to be the causal agent of the disease. This study provides the first report of Ent. cowanii isolated from Eucalyptus. Its presence in Eucalyptus tissue suggests that it is an endophyte in trees showing symptoms of blight.

  16. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder show attentional bias for violence-related stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2013-08-30

    Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Executive attention networks show altered relationship with default mode network in PD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boord, Peter; Madhyastha, Tara M; Askren, Mary K; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention. Brain regions showing group differences in attention processing were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis of a separate resting state run. Parkinson's disease subjects showed more activation during increased executive challenge in four regions of the dorsal attention and frontoparietal networks, namely right frontal eye field, left and right intraparietal sulcus, and precuneus. In three regions we saw reduced resting state connectivity to the default mode network. Further, whereas higher task activation in the right intraparietal sulcus correlated with reduced resting state connectivity between right intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus in healthy controls, this relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease subjects. Our results suggest that a weakened interaction between the default mode and task positive networks might alter the way in which the executive response is processed in PD.

  18. Mortality risk factors show similar trends in modern and historic populations exposed to plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-05-31

    Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.

  19. Pigeons (Columba livia) show change blindness in a color-change detection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Jeffers, Jacob S

    2017-07-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon whereby changes to a stimulus are more likely go unnoticed under certain circumstances. Pigeons learned a change detection task, in which they observed sequential stimulus displays consisting of individual colors back-projected onto three response keys. The color of one response key changed during each sequence and pecks to the key that displayed the change were reinforced. Pigeons showed a change blindness effect, in that change detection accuracy was worse when there was an inter-stimulus interval interrupting the transition between consecutive stimulus displays. Birds successfully transferred to stimulus displays involving novel colors, indicating that pigeons learned a general change detection rule. Furthermore, analysis of responses to specific color combinations showed that pigeons could detect changes involving both spectral and non-spectral colors and that accuracy was better for changes involving greater differences in wavelength. These results build upon previous investigations of change blindness in both humans and pigeons and suggest that change blindness may be a general consequence of selective visual attention relevant to multiple species and stimulus dimensions.

  20. Accidental ammonia exposure to county fair show livestock due to contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, Enzo R; Kasten, Steve; Banerjee, Monty

    2002-10-01

    Nitrogen based fertilizers represent an important element in the farm economy, but their storage and use are associated with major risks to livestock and humans. An accidental ammonia exposure occurred at a Midwest county fair in Illinois. Six deaths occurred in show livestock; a Holstein cow, 3 Holstein heifers, a goat, and a lamb. Mortality was associated with consumption of water inadvertently contaminated with a liquid fertilizer containing ammonium nitrate and urea commonly used for irrigating agricultural crop fields and brought onto the fairgrounds by a tanker truck previously used to transport liquid fertilizer. The show animals that drank the contaminated water immediately became ill, developed seizures and died within a few hours. Postmortem findings were unremarkable to nonspecific. Rumen contents from the lamb, Holstein cow, and Holstein heifer had ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of l,000, 1,150 and 1,440 ppm, respectively. Water from the heifer's water bucket, the cow's water bucket, and the tanker truck, had nitrate levels of 6,336, 6,116, and 6,248 ppm, respectively. The ammonia toxicosis was attributed to the contaminated water brought onto the fairgrounds by the tankertruck that previously transported liquid ammonium nitrateand urea. This accident underscores the importance of meticulous observation of safety guidelines and measured working practices in agriculture and animal husbandry.