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Sample records for anti-inhibitor coagulant complex

  1. Effect of coagulation of nodes in an evolving complex network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Wataru; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2012-04-20

    We propose a new type of stochastic network evolution model based on annihilation, creation, and coagulation of nodes, together with the preferential attachment rule. The system reaches a unique quasistatistically steady state in which the distribution of links follows a power law, lifetime of nodes follows an exponential distribution, and the mean number of links grows exponentially with time. The master equation of the model is solved analytically by applying Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for aerosols. The results indicate that coagulation of nodes in complex networks and mean field analysis of aerosols are similar in both the growth dynamics with irreversible processes and in the steady state statistics. We confirm that the basic properties of the model are consistent with the empirical results of a business transaction network having about 1×10(6) firms.

  2. Dyeing wastewater treatment with a complex adsorption-coagulation agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-jian; LIU Jun-liang; ZHAO Qing-liang; LIU Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    To remove effectively the pollutants from printing and dyeing wastewater, a new complex adsorptioncoagulation agent was developed and employed in dyeing wastewater treatment. The experimental results showed that better removals of COD, turbidity and color could be efficiently realized under the operating conditions of mixing at 150 r/min, reacting within 5 min and dosing at 15 g/L and 20 g/L, respectively. Combined with the settled sludge, the agent could be recycled for further adsorption and coagulation within 10 times. Compared to the conventional coagulants, the newly-developed agent had such merits as suitability for wide pH range of wastewater, less sludge production, reutilization of the condensed sludge and low operation cost.

  3. Model experiments on the coagulation-membrane post-treatment of complex wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Kolosova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology of purification of toxic oil-containing liquid waste it was shown that the complex compound of the wastewater, its reducing nature (low negative redox-potential can cause low efficiency of electrolytic coagulation stage and induce coagulation after membrane filtration stage. The possibility of "membrane activation" of the coagulation process was tested with the polystyrene latex model system. In addition, there was shown a lower rate of the electrolytic coagulation with the model system based on phosphate buffer, sodium chloride, an organic dye, gasoline, sodium sulfide than with a similar system adjusted to positive values of redox-potential using hydrogen peroxide. In both cases the analysis of particle size distributions was performed using the analyzer Zetatrac (Microtrac Inc., USA, measured outside dimensions 0.8–6500 nm. Thus, the necessity of control and correction of the redox-potential of the wastewater entering to the coagulation-membrane post-treatment for the effective process of electrolytic coagulation preceding the membrane filtration stage was shown.

  4. Structural and functional characterization of protein complexes in the blood coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson

    In this dissertation, components of coagulation factor (F)X-activating (tenase; fXase) complexes are studied using computational biophysics and the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The main focus is on structure-function relationships of the two central tenase complexes with respect to activation...... processes, complex formation, and platelet membrane association. Both the intrinsic and the extrinsic tenase complex consists of a trypsin-like serine protease and auxiliary domains complexed with the appropriate cofactor; FIXa with FVIIIa and FVIIa with tissue factor (TF), respectively. Topics covered...... are explained. Furthermore, the inter-domain linker connecting the two epidermal growth factor-like domains of FVIIa will be discussed with respect to consequences for its ability to form a productive complex with tissue factor. Finally, membrane binding of FVIIIa as mediated by the tandem C2-like domains...

  5. EPCR-dependent PAR2 activation by the blood coagulation initiation complex regulates LPS-triggered interferon responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Hernandez, Irene; Basu, Sreemanti; Zogg, Mark; Botros, Fady; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Griffin, John H; Ruf, Wolfram; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-04-30

    Infection and inflammation are invariably associated with activation of the blood coagulation mechanism, secondary to the inflammation-induced expression of the coagulation initiator tissue factor (TF) on innate immune cells. By investigating the role of cell-surface receptors for coagulation factors in mouse endotoxemia, we found that the protein C receptor (ProcR; EPCR) was required for the normal in vivo and in vitro induction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-regulated gene expression. In cultured bone marrow-derived myeloid cells and in monocytic RAW264.7 cells, the LPS-induced expression of functionally active TF, assembly of the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa initiation complex of blood coagulation, and the EPCR-dependent activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa complex were required for the normal LPS induction of messenger RNAs encoding the TLR3/4 signaling adaptor protein Pellino-1 and the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8. In response to in vivo challenge with LPS, mice lacking EPCR or PAR2 failed to fully initiate an interferon-regulated gene expression program that included the Irf8 target genes Lif, Iigp1, Gbp2, Gbp3, and Gbp6. The inflammation-induced expression of TF and crosstalk with EPCR, PAR2, and TLR4 therefore appear necessary for the normal evolution of interferon-regulated host responses.

  6. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis.

  7. Role of heparin and non heparin binding serpins in coagulation and angiogenesis: A complex interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, Teena; Ali, Mohammad Farhan; Ahmad, Irshad; Bano, Shadabi; Ansari, Shoyab; Jairajpuri, Mohamad Aman

    2016-08-15

    Pro-coagulant, anti-coagulant and fibrinolytic pathways are responsible for maintaining hemostatic balance under physiological conditions. Any deviation from these pathways would result in hypercoagulability leading to life threatening diseases like myocardial infarction, stroke, portal vein thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Angiogenesis is the process of sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones and plays a critical role in vascular repair, diabetic retinopathy, chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Serpins; a superfamily of protease inhibitors, play a key role in regulating both angiogenesis and coagulation. They are characterized by the presence of highly conserved secondary structure comprising of 3 β-sheets and 7-9 α-helices. Inhibitory role of serpins is modulated by binding to cofactors, specially heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) present on cell surfaces and extracellular matrix. Heparin and HSPGs are the mainstay of anti-coagulant therapy and also have therapeutic potential as anti-angiogenic inhibitors. Many of the heparin binding serpins that regulate coagulation cascade are also potent inhibitors of angiogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the switch between their specific anti-coagulant and anti-angiogenic role during inflammation, stress and regular hemostasis is important. In this review, we have tried to integrate the role of different serpins, their interaction with cofactors and their interplay in regulating coagulation and angiogenesis. PMID:27372899

  8. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottke, Oliver; Braunschweig, Till; Spronk, Henri M H; Esch, Stephanie; Rieg, Annette D; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Fitzner, Christina; Tolba, Rene; Rossaint, Rolf

    2011-08-18

    Despite increasing use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to treat hemorrhage-associated coagulopathy, few studies have investigated PCC in trauma, and there is a particular lack of safety data. This study was performed to evaluate PCC therapy in a porcine model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Coagulopathy was induced in 27 anesthetized pigs by replacing approximately 70% blood volume with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactate solution; erythrocytes were collected and retransfused. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received PCC (35 or 50 IU/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters including thromboelastometry, thrombin generation, and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. Internal organs were examined macroscopically and histologically to determine the presence of emboli and assess liver injury. Total blood loss was significantly lower and survival was higher in both PCC groups versus the control group (P disseminated intravascular coagulation. Liver injury was similar in all animals. In conclusion, 35 IU/kg PCC safely improved coagulation and attenuated blood loss. However, the higher dose of PCC (50 IU/kg) appeared to increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  9. Polyphosphate, Platelets, and Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Travers, Richard J.; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H

    2015-01-01

    While we have understood the basic outline of the enzymes and reactions that make up the traditional blood coagulation cascade for many years, recently our appreciation of the complexity of these interactions has greatly increased. This has resulted in unofficial “revisions” of the coagulation cascade to include new amplification pathways and connections between the standard coagulation cascade enzymes, as well as the identification of extensive connections between the immune system and the c...

  10. Production of a Complex Coagulant from Bentonite%以膨润土为原料制备复合型絮凝剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马同森; 吴杰; 张成丽; 周艳梅

    2009-01-01

    The research is focused on the preparation of complex coagulant from bentonite for disposal of industrial wastewater by a series of ways, such as acid soaking, oxidation, polymerization. The performances of complex coagulants are evaluated through coagulation tests and the optimum conditions such as proportion, dosage, sedimentation time, pH value were determined. These samples exhibit a significantly better coagulation performance in treating industry wastewater under the applied experimental conditions.%以膨润土为原料,通过酸浸、氧化、聚合等一系列反应制备聚合硫酸铝铁絮凝剂,通过混凝试验考查了其对工业废水的处理效果,得出最佳摩尔比的絮凝剂、最佳投加量、最佳沉降时间和最适宜pH范围,显示了合成的系列絮凝剂对工业废水有较好的处理效果,是一种有广阔应用前景的絮凝剂.

  11. The effect of chemical anti-inhibitors on fibrinolytic enzymes and inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Jespersen, J; Kluft, C;

    1997-01-01

    proteases. We studied the influence of chemical anti-inhibitors (chloramine T, flufenamate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and methylamine) on fibrinolytic serine proteases and fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors using the physiological substrate fibrin as plasmin substrate. Low concentrations of chloramine T (0.01 mmol....../l) prevent the inhibition of plasminogen activators. Higher concentrations (1 mmol/l) reduce the inhibition of plasmin, but simultaneously quench the plasminogen activator activity. Flufenamate eliminates most fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors, but increases the activity of plasmin (apparent recovery 140......Fibrinolytic enzyme inhibitors hamper the determination of the specific fibrinolytic serine protease activity. Reportedly, chemical anti-inhibitors eliminate the influence of fibrinolytic inhibitors, but it remains unclear to what extent they change the specific activity of fibrinolytic serine...

  12. Effects of Rutin and Hesperidin and Their Al(III and Cu(II Complexes on in Vitro Plasma Coagulation Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Kuntić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two flavonoids, rutin and hesperidin, were investigated in vitro for anticoagulant activity through coagulation tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, prothrombin time (PT and thrombin time (TT. Only an ethanolic solution of rutin at the concentration of 830 µM prolonged aPTT, while TT and PT were unaffected. In order to evaluate whether the prolongation of aPTT was due to the decrease of coagulation factors, the experiment with deficient plasma was performed, showing the effects on factors VIII and IX. Since pharmacological activity of flavonoids is believed to increase when they are coordinated with metal ions, complexes of these flavonoids with Al(III and Cu(II ions were also tested. The results showed that complexes significantly prolonged aPTT and had no effects on PT and TT. Assay with deficient plasma (plasma having the investigated factor at less then 1% revealed that complexes could bind to the coagulation factors, what may lead to a non-specific inhibition and aPTT prolongation. An effort was made to correlate stability of complexes with their anticoagulant properties.

  13. Analysis of blood coagulation in mice: pre-analytical conditions and evaluation of a home-made assay for thrombin-antithrombin complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijers Joost CM

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mouse models for the study of thrombotic disorders has gained increasing importance. Methods for measurement of coagulation activation in mice are, however, scarce. The primary aim of this study was to develop a specific mouse thrombin-antithrombin (TAT ELISA for measurement of coagulation activation and to compare it with two commercially available assays for human TAT complexes. In addition, we aimed to improve methods for mouse plasma anticoagulation and preparation. Methods and results First, for the measurement of TAT-complexes in plasma a mouse specific TAT-ELISA was developed using rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against mouse thrombin and rat antithrombin, respectively. This ELISA detected an increase in TAT levels in a mouse model of endotoxemia. Two commercial human TAT ELISAs appeared to be less specific for mouse thrombin-rat antithrombin complexes. Second, to prevent clotting of mouse blood sodium citrate was either mixed with blood during collection in a syringe or was injected intravenously immediately prior to blood collection. Intravenous sodium citrate completely inhibited blood coagulation resulting in plasma with consistently low TAT levels. Sodium citrate mixed with blood during collection resulted in increased TAT levels in 4 out of 16 plasma samples. Third, heparinase was added to plasma samples after in vivo injection of different heparin doses to test its neutralizing effect. Heparinase neutralized up to a 20 U of heparin/mouse and resulted in accurate APTT and factor VIII determinations. Conclusion These procedures and reagents for plasma preparation and coagulation testing will improve studies on thrombotic disorders in mice.

  14. Diagnosis and prognosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in a general hospital -- meaning of the ISTH score system, fibrin monomers, and lipoprotein-C-reactive protein complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchie, Ph; Cauchie, Ch; Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Carlier, E; Deschepper, N; Govaerts, D; Migaud-Fressart, M; Woodhams, B; Brohée, D

    2006-06-01

    The meaning, the utility, and the prognostic significance of the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score and other parameters of coagulation activation including soluble fibrin monomer complexes (SFMC), antithrombin and protein C consumption, and formation of lipoprotein-C-reactive protein (LP-CRP) complexes (MDA slope 1 and flag A2) were evaluated in 165 inpatients from a general hospital for whom DIC testing was required by the attending physicians. Of these 165 patients, 148 had an underlying disease that clearly justified the laboratory request from our systematic post hoc review of the clinical charts. Of these 148 patients, 28 had a positive overt DIC score, 19 had an A2 flag, and 4 had both. The DIC score was strongly related to several major markers of coagulation activation such as D-dimers, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and soluble fibrin and was inversely related to antithrombin and protein C levels, which began to fall from DIC score 4 or higher. The formation of LP-CRP complexes was only related to Gram-negative sepsis and these patients had a strong inflammatory reaction. Independent risk factors for death were high creatininemia, positive overt DIC score, and/or presence of SFMC. In patients with positive DIC score, SFMC positivity and low levels of antithrombin and/or protein C were additional risk factors. The ISTH overt DIC score proves useful and adequate as a marker for clinically significant DIC. Illness severity is further defined by SFMC, antithrombin, and protein C levels. LP-CRP complexes are related to sepsis but not to actual overt DIC and lethal prognosis.

  15. Diagnosis and prognosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in a general hospital -- meaning of the ISTH score system, fibrin monomers, and lipoprotein-C-reactive protein complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchie, Ph; Cauchie, Ch; Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Carlier, E; Deschepper, N; Govaerts, D; Migaud-Fressart, M; Woodhams, B; Brohée, D

    2006-06-01

    The meaning, the utility, and the prognostic significance of the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) score and other parameters of coagulation activation including soluble fibrin monomer complexes (SFMC), antithrombin and protein C consumption, and formation of lipoprotein-C-reactive protein (LP-CRP) complexes (MDA slope 1 and flag A2) were evaluated in 165 inpatients from a general hospital for whom DIC testing was required by the attending physicians. Of these 165 patients, 148 had an underlying disease that clearly justified the laboratory request from our systematic post hoc review of the clinical charts. Of these 148 patients, 28 had a positive overt DIC score, 19 had an A2 flag, and 4 had both. The DIC score was strongly related to several major markers of coagulation activation such as D-dimers, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, and soluble fibrin and was inversely related to antithrombin and protein C levels, which began to fall from DIC score 4 or higher. The formation of LP-CRP complexes was only related to Gram-negative sepsis and these patients had a strong inflammatory reaction. Independent risk factors for death were high creatininemia, positive overt DIC score, and/or presence of SFMC. In patients with positive DIC score, SFMC positivity and low levels of antithrombin and/or protein C were additional risk factors. The ISTH overt DIC score proves useful and adequate as a marker for clinically significant DIC. Illness severity is further defined by SFMC, antithrombin, and protein C levels. LP-CRP complexes are related to sepsis but not to actual overt DIC and lethal prognosis. PMID:16680742

  16. Spatial coagulation with bounded coagulation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleul, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the spatial coagulation equation with bounded coagulation rate is well-posed for all times in a given class of kernels if the convection term of the underlying particle dynamics has divergence bounded above by a negative constant. Multiple coagulations, fragmentation and scattering are also considered.

  17. Inflammation and coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of sepsis, inflammation and coagulation play a pivotal role. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation leads to activation of coagulation, and coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular pathwa

  18. Discrimination between platelet-mediated and coagulation-mediated mechanisms in a model of complex thrombus formation in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadroy, Y.; Horbett, T.A.; Hanson, S.R.

    1989-04-01

    To study mechanisms of complex thrombus formation in vivo, and to compare the relative antithrombotic effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, a model was developed in baboons. Segments of collagen-coated tubing followed by two sequentially placed expansion chambers exhibiting disturbed flow patterns were exposed to native blood under laminar flow conditions. The device was incorporated for 1 hour into an exteriorized arteriovenous shunt in baboons under controlled blood flow (20 ml/min). Morphologic evaluation by scanning electron microscopy showed that thrombi associated with collagen were relatively rich in platelets but thrombi in the chambers were rich in fibrin and red cells. Deposition of indium 111-labeled platelets was continuously measured with a scintillation camera. Platelet deposition increased in a linear (collagen-coated segment) or exponential (chambers 1 and 2) fashion over time, with values after 40 minutes averaging 24.1 +/- 3.3 x 10(8) platelets (collagen segment), 16.7 +/- 3.4 x 10(8) platelets (chamber 1), and 8.4 +/- 2.4 x 10(8) platelets (chamber 2). Total fibrinogen deposition after 40 minutes was determined by using iodine 125-labeled baboon fibrinogen and averaged 0.58 +/- 0.14 mg in the collagen segment, 1.51 +/- 0.27 mg in chamber 1, and 0.95 +/- 0.25 mg in chamber 2. Plasma levels of beta-thromboglobulin (beta TG), platelet-factor 4 (PF4), and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) increased fourfold to fivefold after 60 minutes of blood exposure to the thrombotic device. Platelet deposition onto the collagen segment, chamber 1, and chamber 2 was linearly dependent on the circulating platelet count. Platelet accumulation in chamber 1 and chamber 2 was also dependent on the presence of the proximal collagen segment.

  19. Distinct Roles of Ser-764 and Lys-773 at the N Terminus of von Willebrand Factor in Complex Assembly with Coagulation Factor VIII*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Lydia; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte G.; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    Complex formation between coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) is of critical importance to protect FVIII from rapid in vivo clearance and degradation. We have now employed a chemical footprinting approach to identify regions on VWF involved in FVIII binding. To this end, lysine amino acid residues of VWF were chemically modified in the presence of FVIII or activated FVIII, which does not bind VWF. Nano-LC-MS analysis showed that the lysine residues of almost all identified VWF peptides were not differentially modified upon incubation of VWF with FVIII or activated FVIII. However, Lys-773 of peptide Ser-766–Leu-774 was protected from chemical modification in the presence of FVIII. In addition, peptide Ser-764–Arg-782, which comprises the first 19 amino acid residues of mature VWF, showed a differential modification of both Lys-773 and the α-amino group of Ser-764. To verify the role of Lys-773 and the N-terminal Ser-764 in FVIII binding, we employed VWF variants in which either Lys-773 or Ser-764 was replaced with Ala. Surface plasmon resonance analysis and competition studies revealed that VWF(K773A) exhibited reduced binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain, which harbors the VWF-binding site. In contrast, VWF(S764A) revealed more effective binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain compared with WT VWF. The results of our study show that the N terminus of VWF is critical for the interaction with FVIII and that Ser-764 and Lys-773 have opposite roles in the binding mechanism. PMID:23168412

  20. Distinct roles of Ser-764 and Lys-773 at the N terminus of von Willebrand factor in complex assembly with coagulation factor VIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Lydia; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte G; van der Zwaan, Carmen; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-01-01

    Complex formation between coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) is of critical importance to protect FVIII from rapid in vivo clearance and degradation. We have now employed a chemical footprinting approach to identify regions on VWF involved in FVIII binding. To this end, lysine amino acid residues of VWF were chemically modified in the presence of FVIII or activated FVIII, which does not bind VWF. Nano-LC-MS analysis showed that the lysine residues of almost all identified VWF peptides were not differentially modified upon incubation of VWF with FVIII or activated FVIII. However, Lys-773 of peptide Ser-766-Leu-774 was protected from chemical modification in the presence of FVIII. In addition, peptide Ser-764-Arg-782, which comprises the first 19 amino acid residues of mature VWF, showed a differential modification of both Lys-773 and the α-amino group of Ser-764. To verify the role of Lys-773 and the N-terminal Ser-764 in FVIII binding, we employed VWF variants in which either Lys-773 or Ser-764 was replaced with Ala. Surface plasmon resonance analysis and competition studies revealed that VWF(K773A) exhibited reduced binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain, which harbors the VWF-binding site. In contrast, VWF(S764A) revealed more effective binding to FVIII and the FVIII light chain compared with WT VWF. The results of our study show that the N terminus of VWF is critical for the interaction with FVIII and that Ser-764 and Lys-773 have opposite roles in the binding mechanism. PMID:23168412

  1. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  2. Coagulation properties of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, Elin

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of the different proteins in milk are important for the outcome of the coagulation processes which yield our dairy products, whereas total milk protein content is a poor indicator of coagulation properties of milk. In order to design the milk protein composition to meet dairy processing requirements, selection for genetic variants of milk proteins have been proposed. This work aimed to study genetic milk protein polymorphism and its association with the detailed milk protein co...

  3. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  4. Treatment of high concentration wastewater in polyacrylamide production by complex coagulation process%复合混凝法处理高浓度聚丙烯酰胺生产废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振玉; 孙亚兵; 徐建华; 陈颖; 王惠英; 冯景伟

    2011-01-01

    High concentration wastewater in polyacrylamide( PAM ) production was treated by the polyaluminium chloride ( PAC ) coagulation-activated carbon adsorption process. The optimum treatment conditions are as follows: wastewater pH 6. 5, wastewater temperature 35 ℃ , adding PAC before activated carbon, PAC dosage 250 mg/L, activated carbon dosage 200 mg/L. Under these conditions,the COD removal rate is 52. 0% . This complex coagulation system has almost no effect on the removal of NH3-N.%采用聚合氯化铝(PAC)混凝和活性炭吸附的复合混凝法处理高浓度聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)生产废水.实验结果表明,最佳处理条件为:废水 pH 6.5,废水温度 35℃,先加入 PAC 混凝后再加入活性炭,PAC 加入量250 mg/L,活性炭加入量 200 mg/L.在此最佳条件下,废水 COD 去除率达 52.0%.该复合混凝体系对 NH3-N几乎没有去除效果.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which systemic activation of coagulation without a specific localization occurs, resulting in extensive formation of intravascular fibrin, particularly in small and midsize vessels. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may lead to several altered coagulation parameters, including a low platelet count, abnormal global clotting assays, low levels of physiological anticoagulant proteases, or increased fibrin degradation products. Also, more complex assays for activation of coagulation factors or pathways may indicate involvement of these molecules in DIC. None of these tests alone, however, can accurately ascertain or rebuff a diagnosis of DIC. Nonetheless, a combination of readily available routine assays may be instrumental in establishing a diagnosis of DIC and can also be useful to point to a subset of patients with DIC that may need definite, often costly, interventions in the hemostatic system. Current insights on relevant etiological pathways that may contribute to the occurrence of DIC have led to innovative therapeutic and adjunctive approaches to patient with DIC. Management options directed at the amelioration of hemostatic activation may tentatively be indicated and were found to be advantageous in experimental and clinical investigations. These treatments encompass elimination of tissue factor-mediated thrombin generation or restitution of normal anticoagulant function.

  6. Investigating the significance of coagulation kinetics on maintaining membrane permeability in an MBR following reactive coagulant dosing

    OpenAIRE

    Autin, Oliver; Hai, F.; Judd, Simon; McAdam, Ewan J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the impact of kinetically controlled floc growth on sustaining membrane permeability following reactive coagulant dosing was determined using a model particle system. Floc formation was indicated to comprise of two stages following coagulant addition: (i) an initial destabilisation phase which encouraged complexation of protein and polysaccharide; and (ii) entrapment of the coarse model particles (3 µm Firefli™ microspheres) in the polymeric complex during the floc growth phase...

  7. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Ippolito, Luigi; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex and multifaceted disorder characterized by the activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways, consumption of coagulation factors, and depletion of coagulation regulatory proteins. The introduction into the circulation of cellular debris characterized by strong thromboplastic activity due to tissue factor exposition or release (in or from burned tissues), which can thereby activate extrinsic pathway of coagulation system and trigger massive thrombin generation when present in sufficient concentration, represents the most plausible biological explanation to support the development of intravascular coagulation in patients with burn injury. Severe burns left untreated might also lead to an immunological and inflammatory response (activation of the complement cascade), which can amplify fibrinolysis and blood clotting. Overall, the real prevalence of DIC in patients with burns is as yet unclear. Postmortem, retrospective, and even longitudinal investigations are in fact biased by several factors, such as the objective difficulty to establish whether DIC might have occurred as a primary complication of burns or rather as a consequence of other superimposed pathologies (e.g., sepsis, multiple organ failure), the different diagnostic criteria for assessing DIC, and the heterogeneity of the patient samples studied. Nevertheless, the current scientific evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that biochemical changes suggestive for DIC (hypercoagulability, hypo- and hyperfibrinolysis) are commonplace in patients with burn trauma, and their severity increases exponentially with the severity of injury. Overt DIC seems to occur especially in critically ill burn patients or in those with severe burns (up to third degree) and large involvement of body surface area, in whom an appropriate therapy might be effective to prevent the otherwise fulminant course. Although early prophylaxis with antithrombin concentrates

  8. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Jean-Christophe Gris; Benjamin Brenner

    2014-01-01

    The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking ...

  9. Coagulation inhibitors in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmon, C T

    2005-04-01

    Coagulation is triggered by inflammatory mediators in a number of ways. However, to prevent unwanted clot formation, several natural anticoagulant mechanisms exist, such as the antithrombin-heparin mechanism, the tissue factor pathway inhibitor mechanism and the protein C anticoagulant pathway. This review examines the ways in which these pathways are down-regulated by inflammation, thus limiting clot formation and decreasing the natural anti-inflammatory mechanisms that these pathways possess. PMID:15787615

  10. Disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, Satoshi; Levi, Marcel; Toh, Cheng-Hock

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired syndrome characterized by widespread intravascular activation of coagulation that can be caused by infectious insults (such as sepsis) and non-infectious insults (such as trauma). The main pathophysiological mechanisms of DIC are inflammatory cytokine-initiated activation of tissue factor-dependent coagulation, insufficient control of anticoagulant pathways and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-mediated suppression of fibrinolysis. Together, these changes give rise to endothelial dysfunction and microvascular thrombosis, which can cause organ dysfunction and seriously affect patient prognosis. Recent observations have pointed to an important role for extracellular DNA and DNA-binding proteins, such as histones, in the pathogenesis of DIC. The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) established a DIC diagnostic scoring system consisting of global haemostatic test parameters. This scoring system has now been well validated in diverse clinical settings. The theoretical cornerstone of DIC management is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying conditions, and DIC should be simultaneously managed to improve patient outcomes. The ISTH guidance for the treatment of DIC recommends treatment strategies that are based on current evidence. In this Primer, we provide an updated overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of DIC and discuss the future directions of basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:27250996

  11. Overview of the coagulation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Palta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is a dynamic process and the understanding of the blood coagulation system has evolved over the recent years in anaesthetic practice. Although the traditional classification of the coagulation system into extrinsic and intrinsic pathway is still valid, the newer insights into coagulation provide more authentic description of the same. Normal coagulation pathway represents a balance between the pro coagulant pathway that is responsible for clot formation and the mechanisms that inhibit the same beyond the injury site. Imbalance of the coagulation system may occur in the perioperative period or during critical illness, which may be secondary to numerous factors leading to a tendency of either thrombosis or bleeding. A systematic search of literature on PubMed with MeSH terms ′coagulation system, haemostasis and anaesthesia revealed twenty eight related clinical trials and review articles in last 10 years. Since the balance of the coagulation system may tilt towards bleeding and thrombosis in many situations, it is mandatory for the clinicians to understand physiologic basis of haemostasis in order to diagnose and manage the abnormalities of the coagulation process and to interpret the diagnostic tests done for the same.

  12. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, Jecko; Toh, Cheng Hock

    2012-04-01

    Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation is a clinicopathological syndrome where widespread intravascular coagulation occurs in response to an inciting process. The pathophysiology for this disorder is complex with an important role for thrombin, the central regulator of the coagulation process. Since the clinical spectrum of DIC is variable due to its dynamic nature, the laboratory diagnosis should ideally be not based on a single marker or an isolated set of results. The treatment should primary focus on the management of the underlying triggering condition with blood products used as resuscitative measures. Newer therapeutic modalities have been recently tried with success although the management of DIC still remains a major challenge.

  13. COAGULATION ACTIVITY IN LIVER DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sheikh Sajjadieh Mohammad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation markers were assayed in 60 participants: 20 patients with chronic hepatitis, 20 patients with cirrhosis, and 20 healthy individuals (control. Plasma levels of anti-thrombin III were determined by a chromogenic substrate method, and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen were analyzed by the Rutberg method. Commercially available assays were used for laboratory coagulation tests. The levels of coagualation activity markers in patients with chronic liver disease were significantly different in comparison to those in healthy participants. These results indicate the utility of measuring markers for coagulation activity in determining which cirrhosis patients are more susceptible to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Coagulation Dynamics of Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, T.; Sequeira, A.

    2008-01-01

    The process of platelet activation and blood coagulation is quite complex and not yet completely understood. Recently, a phenomenological meaningful model of blood coagulation and clot formation in flowing blood that extends existing models to integrate biochemical, physiological and rheological factors, has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present results from a computational study of a simplified version of this coupled fluid-biochemistry model. A generalized Newtonian model with...

  15. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model) in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pa...

  16. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, François Régis; Garcia-Hejl, Carine; Moussaid, Yassine; Schernberg, Antoine; Bidard, François-Clément; Pavic, Michel; Khenifer, Safia; Stoclin, Annabelle

    2014-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complex abnormality of hemostasis with dramatic consequences and long described as associated with tumors. Yet the diagnosis and management of paraneoplastic DIC are poorly defined. The purpose of this paper is to review DIC associated with solid tumors, at the pathophysiological and therapeutic levels in particular. We also report data from a recent retrospective series of patients with DIC in the context of a solid tumor, to illustrate the epidemiological, clinical and prognostic.

  17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome that may complicate a variety of diseases, including malignant disease. DIC is characterized by widespread, intravascular activation of coagulation (leading to intravascular fibrin deposition) and simultaneous consumption of coagulation fact

  18. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation: clinical and biological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touaoussa, Aziz; El Youssi, Hind; El Hassani, Imane; Hanouf, Daham; El Bergui, Imane; Zoulati, Ghizlane; Amrani Hassani, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by the systemic activation of blood coagulation. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are complex and dependent on the underlying pathology, making the clinical and biological expression of quite variable DIC. Among the various biological parameters disrupted, most are not specific, and none of them allows in itself to make the diagnosis. All this does not facilitate the task of the practitioner for diagnosis of overt DIC, much less that of the non-overt DIC, early stage whose treatment would improve the prognosis. These considerations have led to develop scores, combining several parameters depending on their availability in daily practice, as well as their diagnostic relevance. Of all the scores, the ISTH (International society of thrombosis and hemostasis) remains the most used.

  19. Method of removing arsenic and other anionic contaminants from contaminated water using enhanced coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, David M.; Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.; Khandaker, Nadim R.

    2006-11-21

    An improved water decontamination process comprising contacting water containing anionic contaminants with an enhanced coagulant to form an enhanced floc, which more efficiently binds anionic species (e.g., arsenate, arsenite, chromate, fluoride, selenate, and borate, and combinations thereof) predominantly through the formation of surface complexes. The enhanced coagulant comprises a trivalent metal cation coagulant (e.g., ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate) mixed with a divalent metal cation modifier (e.g., copper sulfate or zinc sulfate).

  20. Coagulation/Flocculation of Tannery Wastewater Using Immobilized Chemical Coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Imran; M. A. Hanif; M. S. Riaz; S. Noureen; T. M. Ansari; Bhatti, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical coagulants were immobilized into bead form using sodium alginate to treat tannery wastewater samples. The used chemical coagulants were ammonium aluminium sulphate (NH4Al(SO4)2), aluminium sulphate (Al2(SO4)2, calcium carbonate (CaCO3), sodium citrate (Na3C6HsO7). The effect of the chemical coagulant dose and tannery wastewater pH was studied on wastewater electrical conductance (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sulphates, chlorides, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total alkalinity and...

  1. Trauma and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding and coagulation disorders related to trauma are pathological processes which are frequently seen and increase mortality. For the purpose, trauma patients should be protected from hypoperfusion, hypothermia, acidosis and hemodilution which may aggravate the increase in physiological responses to trauma as anticoagulation and fibrinolysis. Performing damage control surgery and resuscitation and transfusion of adequate blood and blood products in terms of amount and content as stated in protocols may increase the rate of survival. Medical treatments augmenting fibrin formation (fibrinogen, desmopressin, factor VIIa or preventing fibrin degradation (tranexamic acid have been proposed in selected cases but the efficacy of these agents in trauma patients are not proven. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:71-6

  2. Study on coagulation property of metal-polysilicate coagulants in low turbidity water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 崔福义; 赵庆良; 马超

    2004-01-01

    In order to remove the low turbidity present in surface water, a novel metal-polysilicate coagulant was used to treat the raw water taken from Tanjiang River in Guangdong Province. This study on the effects of A1/Fe molar ratio on the performance of a complex compound formed by polysilicic acid, aluminium and ferric salt (PAFS) showed that PAFS with A1/Fe ratio of 10:3 seemed to have the best coagulation performance in removing turbidity and color. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of polymerization time of 15 d, sedimentation time of 12 min, and pH of 6-8,PAFS with A1/Fe molar ratio of 10:3 had the best coagulation efficiency and lowest residual A1 concentration. The turbidity decreased from 23.8 NTU to 3.23 NTU and the residual A1 concentration was only 0.165 mg/L in the product water. It could be speculated that colloidal impurities and particulate A1 were removed by adsorption bridging and electrical neutralization of long chain inorganic polymer coagulants.

  3. Study on coagulation property of metal-polysilicate coagulants in low turbidity water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海燕; 崔福义; 赵庆良; 马超

    2004-01-01

    In order to remove the low turbidity present in surface water, a novel metal-polysilicate coagulant was used to treat the raw water taken from Tanjiang River in Guangdong Province. This study on the effects of Al/Fe molar ratio on the performance of a complex compound formed by polysilicic acid, aluminium and ferric salt (PAFS) showed that PAFS with Al/Fe ratio of 10:3 seemed to have the best coagulation performance in removing turbidity and color. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of polymerization time of 15 d, sedimentation time of 12 min, and pH of 6(8, PAFS with Al/Fe molar ratio of 10:3 had the best coagulation efficiency and lowest residual Al concentration. The turbidity decreased from 23.8 NTU to 3.23 NTU and the residual Al concentration was only 0.165 mg/L in the product water. It could be speculated that colloidal impurities and particulate Al were removed by adsorption bridging and electrical neutralization of long chain inorganic polymer coagulants.

  4. Coagulation and sepsis%凝血和脓毒症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张樱; 陈昊; 陈亚岗

    2008-01-01

    从单一血小板计数的下降到DIC,凝血系统异常在危重病患者中屡见不鲜,病死率随之升高.在脓毒症中,组织因子活化外源性凝血途径增强凝血,同时诱导抗凝和阻碍纤维蛋白溶解,从而造成机体高凝血状态,形成微血管血栓,干扰器官微循环,导致器官功能衰竭.许多炎症介质涉及到凝血系统的活化;反之,许多凝血蛋白与炎症也密切相关.此文综述了炎症和凝血的复杂关系,对这一关系的全新理解有助于形成新的治疗脓毒症的措施.%Coagulation abnormalities,ranging from a simple fall in platelet count to full-blown disseminated intravascular coagulation,are common occurrences in severe diseases patients and have been associated with increased mortality.In.sepsis,activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway by tissue factor induces increased coagulation,simultaneous depression of the inhibitory mechanisms of coagulation,and suppression of the fibrinolytic system results in a procoagulant state that may lead to the formation of microvascular thrombi disturbing organ microcirculation and promoting the development of organ dysfunction.Many inflammatory mediators are involved in the activation of coagulation,but many coagulation proteins are themselves actively involved in the inflammatory process.In this article,we explore the complex relation between inflammation and coagulation and how improved understanding of this interaction has led to the development of new therapeutic agents for patients with severe sepsis.

  5. Effect of coagulation on extinction in an aerosol plume propagating in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, T H; Brock, J R

    1982-05-01

    Model studies based on the K-theory diffusion assumption have been carried out on aerosol plumes issuing from a crosswind line source in which advection, vertical diffusion, coagulation, sedimentation, and dry deposition are occurring. Procedures are described and a few typical results are presented. It is shown that in appropriate conditions coagulation can play an important role in altering extinction in the plume. An important coupling effect between coagulation and sedimentation/deposition has been demonstrated. In a coagulating plume it is found that total particle mass concentration cannot be inferred from measurements of extinction without a detailed consideration of the effects of coagulation. In realistic atmospheric simulations isopleths of extinction in the plume cross section show complex forms resulting from the wind gradient and its interactions with vertical diffusion and the coagulation and sedimentation/deposition processes. PMID:20389900

  6. Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Obstetrical disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is usually a very acute, serious complication of pregnancy. The obstetrical DIC score helps with making a prompt diagnosis and starting treatment early. This DIC score, in which higher scores are given for clinical parameters rather than for laboratory parameters, has three components: (i) the underlying diseases; (ii) the clinical symptoms; and (iii) the laboratory findings (coagulation tests). It is justifiably appropriate to initiate therapy for DIC when the obstetrical DIC score reaches 8 points or more before obtaining the results of coagulation tests. Improvement of blood coagulation tests and clinical symptoms are essential to the efficacy evaluation for treatment after a diagnosis of obstetrical DIC. Therefore, the efficacy evaluation criteria for obstetrical DIC are also defined to enable follow-up of the clinical efficacy of DIC therapy.

  7. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pathways operate in parallel on different cell surfaces. Using this model, a better understanding of the reactions in vivo during coagulation is achieved, together with answers related to clinical-based questions like „why haemophiliacs bleed?”.

  8. Quality Control and Assurance for Coagulation Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭黎明

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coagulation laboratory aids the clinician in assessing not only the bleeding patient but also the thrombotic patient. The techniques of coagulation laboratory are used to evaluate not only the coagulation system but also the anti-coagulation system, fibrinolytic system,platelet and vascular endothelial function. Enzymes, inhibitors, plasma factors and co-factors, cellular release products, and cell receptors can be measured in coagulation laboratory.

  9. Pharmaceutical Approval Update

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenberg, Marvin M.

    2014-01-01

    Ibrutinib (Imbruvica) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, tasimelteon (Hetlioz) for non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder, and anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (Feiba) to prevent or reduce bleeding in hemophilia A or B

  10. Functional regions in coagulation factor VIII explored by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, E.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms behind the function of factor VIII (FVIII) have remained poorly understood. FVIII acts in the blood coagulation cascade as cofactor for activated factor IX (FIXa) in the membrane bound activated factor X generating (FXase) complex. A functional absence in FVIII leads to the

  11. Multifrequency acoustics as a probe of mesoscopic blood coagulation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Rajendran, Gokulnath; Ercole, Ari; Seshia, Ashwin

    2016-08-01

    Coagulation is a complex enzymatic polymerisation cascade. Disordered coagulation is common in medicine and may be life-threatening yet clinical assays are typically bulky and/or provide an incomplete picture of clot mechanical evolution. We present the adaptation of an in-plane acoustic wave device: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation at multiple harmonics to determine the time-evolution of mesoscale mechanical properties of clot formation in vitro. This approach is sensitive to changes in surface and bulk clot structure in various models of induced coagulopathy. Furthermore, we are able to show that clot formation at surfaces has different kinetics and mechanical strength to that in the bulk, which may have implications for the design of bioprosthetic materials. The "Multifrequency acoustics" approach thus enables unique capability to portray biological processes concerning blood coagulation.

  12. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  13. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Infectious Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2010-01-01

    Severe infection and inflammation almost invariably lead to hemostatic abnormalities, ranging from insignificant laboratory changes to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation. Systemic inflammation as a result of severe infection leads to activation of coagulation, due to tissue factor-mediate

  14. Calcium Chloride as a Co-Coagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Kristofer

    2015-01-01

    As populations continue to grow, the demand for fresh drinking water is increasing. This puts a lot of pressure on drinking water producers to strive for more efficient solutions and techniques. Many producers worldwide use surface water as a raw water source, which they often treat through coagulation and flocculation techniques. This is done by adding coagulant (e.g. metal coagulants), creating instability in the suspension, causing flocculation. In this work, PIX-311 (a FeCl3 coagulant pro...

  15. The coagulant response in sepsis and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi

    2010-01-01

    Critically ill patients often have systemic activation of both inflammation and coagulation. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activ

  16. 21 CFR 864.5400 - Coagulation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coagulation instrument. 864.5400 Section 864.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....5400 Coagulation instrument. (a) Identification. A coagulation instrument is an automated...

  17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated......-complexed DNA fragments, Annexin V, thrombomodulin, syndecan-1), coagulation activation/inhibition (prothrombinfragment 1+2, thrombin/antithrombin-complexes, antithrombin, protein C, activated protein C, endothelial protein C receptor, protein S, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, vWF), factor consumption...

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulation or acute coagulopathy of trauma shock early after trauma? A prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Sorensen, Anne Marie; Perner, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    -complexed DNA fragments, Annexin V, thrombomodulin, syndecan-1), coagulation activation/inhibition (prothrombinfragment 1+2, thrombin/antithrombin-complexes, antithrombin, protein C, activated protein C, endothelial protein C receptor, protein S, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, vWF), factor consumption......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is debated whether the early trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) in severely injured patients reflects disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with a fibrinolytic phenotype, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock (ACoTS) or yet other entities. This study investigated...

  19. Systemic coagulation parameters in mice after treatment with vascular targeting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottstein Claudia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular targeting of malignant tumors has become a clinically validated new treatment approach with clear patient benefit. However clinical studies have also revealed that some types of vascular targeting agents (VTAs are prone to coagulation system side effects. It is therefore essential to predetermine coagulation parameters in preclinical studies. As of to date, this has rarely been done, predominantly due to technical issues. The goal of this study was to establish and apply a standardized process, whereby systemic coagulation activation can be routinely measured in mice. Results We have evaluated a number of sampling techniques and coagulation tests regarding their suitability for this purpose. We were able to adapt two assays measuring soluble fibrin, a marker for a prethrombotic status. Thus, soluble fibrin could be measured for the first time in mice. All assays were validated in a positive control model for systemic coagulation activation, i.e. lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia. Based on our results, we selected a panel of coagulation tests, which are both feasable and informative for preclinical testing of VTAs: soluble fibrin, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, free antithrombin III, white blood cell counts and platelet counts. The effect of tumor transplants on coagulation parameters was evaluated using this panel. We then applied this set of assays in treatment studies with a VTA developed in our laboratory to investigate a potential systemic coagulation activation. Conclusion We have established a standardized panel of assays that can be used to test murine blood samples for coagulation activation in preclinical studies. All tests are feasible to perform in any research laboratory without specialized equipment. In addition, this is the first report to measure soluble fibrin, an early marker of systemic coagulation activation, in mice. The panel was applied on tumor bearing mice and mice treated with a VTA

  20. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  1. Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makruasi, Nisa

    2015-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic activation of blood coagulation, generation of thrombin, and leading to disturbance of the microvasculature. In this article, definition and diagnostic criteria of DIC depend on the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of DIC, only low quality evidence is used in general practice. Many diagnostic tests and repeated measurement are required. For the treatment of DIC, there is no good quality evidence. The most important treatment for DIC is the specific treatment of the conditions associated DIC. Platelets and/or plasma transfusion may be also necessary if indicated. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard for diagnosis and treatment of DIC, we use only low quality evidence in general practice.

  2. Gene Therapy for Coagulation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swystun, Laura L; Lillicrap, David

    2016-04-29

    Molecular genetic details of the human coagulation system were among the first successes of the genetic revolution in the 1980s. This information led to new molecular diagnostic strategies for inherited disorders of hemostasis and the development of recombinant clotting factors for the treatment of the common inherited bleeding disorders. A longer term goal of this knowledge has been the establishment of gene transfer to provide continuing access to missing or defective hemostatic proteins. Because of the relative infrequency of inherited coagulation factor disorders and the availability of safe and effective alternative means of management, the application of gene therapy for these conditions has been slow to realize clinical application. Nevertheless, the tools for effective and safe gene transfer are now much improved, and we have started to see examples of clinical gene therapy successes. Leading the way has been the use of adeno-associated virus-based strategies for factor IX gene transfer in hemophilia B. Several small phase 1/2 clinical studies using this approach have shown prolonged expression of therapeutically beneficial levels of factor IX. Nevertheless, before the application of gene therapy for coagulation disorders becomes widespread, several obstacles need to be overcome. Immunologic responses to the vector and transgenic protein need to be mitigated, and production strategies for clinical grade vectors require enhancements. There is little doubt that with the development of more efficient and facile strategies for genome editing and the application of other nucleic acid-based approaches to influence the coagulation system, the future of genetic therapies for hemostasis is bright. PMID:27126652

  3. Fragmentation and Coagulation in Supramolecular (Co)polymerization Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvoort, Albert J; Eikelder, Huub M M Ten; Hilbers, Peter A J; de Greef, Tom F A

    2016-04-27

    The self-assembly of molecular building blocks into one-dimensional supramolecular architectures has opened up new frontiers in materials science. Due to the noncovalent interactions between the monomeric units, these architectures are intrinsically dynamic, and understanding their kinetic driving forces is key to rationally programming their morphology and function. To understand the self-assembly dynamics of supramolecular polymerizations (SP), kinetic models based on aggregate growth by sequential monomer association and dissociation have been analyzed. However, fragmentation and coagulation events can also play a role, as evident from studies on peptide self-assembly and the fact that aggregations can be sensitive to mechanical agitations. Here, we analyze how fragmentation and coagulation events influence SP kinetics by theoretical analysis of self-assembling systems of increasing complexity. Our analysis starts with single-component systems in which aggregates are able to grow via an isodesmic or cooperative nucleation-elongation mechanism. Subsequently, equilibration dynamics in cooperative two-component supramolecular copolymerizations are investigated. In the final part, we reveal how aggregate growth in the presence of competing, kinetically controlled pathways is influenced by fragmentation and coagulation reactions and reveal how seed-induced growth can give rise to block copolymers. Our analysis shows how fragmentation and coagulation reactions are able to modulate SP kinetics in ways that are highly system dependent. PMID:27163054

  4. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties using a novel zirconium coagulant against traditional ferric and alum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter; Sharp, Emma; Pidou, Marc; Molinder, Roger; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale.

  5. Thrombin-Responsive Gated Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticles As Coagulation Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Ribes, Àngela; Mas, Núria; Aznar, Elena; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, M Dolores; Murguía, Jose R; Venkataraman, Abbaraju; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of achieving sophisticated actions in complex biological environments using gated nanoparticles is an exciting prospect with much potential. We herein describe new gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) loaded with an anticoagulant drug and capped with a peptide containing a thrombin-specific cleavage site. When the coagulation cascade was triggered, active thrombin degraded the capping peptidic sequence and induced the release of anticoagulant drugs to delay the clotting process. The thrombin-dependent response was assessed and a significant increase in coagulation time in plasma from 2.6 min to 5 min was found. This work broadens the application of gated silica nanoparticles and demonstrates their ability to act as controllers in a complex scenario such as hemostasis. PMID:26794474

  6. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. S. Hansen; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Non-sticky latex beads and sticky diatoms were used as models to describe mutual coagulation between sticky and non-sticky particles. in mixed suspensions of beads and Thalassiosira nordenskjoeldii, both types of particles coagulated into mixed aggregates at specific rates, from which the interspecific coagulation efficiency could be calculated. Stickiness between beads and T. nordenskjoeldii was 50% of that of T. nordenskjoeldii in monospecific suspensions, and this ratio remained constant t...

  7. Coagulation-fragmentation model for animal group-size statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-guo; Pego, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    We study coagulation-fragmentation equations inspired by a simple model proposed in fisheries science to explain data for the size distribution of schools of pelagic fish. Although the equations lack detailed balance and admit no $H$-theorem, we are able to develop a rather complete description of equilibrium profiles and large-time behavior, based on recent developments in complex function theory for Bernstein and Pick functions. In the large-population continuum limit, a scaling-invariant r...

  8. Coagulation in patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel; Poll, Tom van der

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of patients with severe sepsis, systemic activation of coagulation is present. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between coagulation and inflammation that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation, but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. Molecular pathways that contribute to inflammation-induced activation of coagulation have been precisely identified. Proinflammatory cytokines and other mediators are capable of activating the coagulation system and downregulating important physiological anticoagulant pathways. Activation of the coagulation system and ensuing thrombin generation is dependent on expression of tissue factor on activated mononuclear cells and endothelial cells, and is insufficiently counteracted by TFPI. Simultaneously, endothelial-bound anticoagulant mechanism, in particular the protein C system, is shutoff by proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, fibrin removal is severely inhibited, because of inactivation of the fibrinolytic system, caused by an upregulation of its main inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Increased fibrin formation and impaired removal lead to (micro)vascular thrombosis, which may result in tissue ischemia and subsequent organ damage. The cornerstone of the management of coagulation in sepsis is the specific and vigorous treatment of the underlying disorder. Strategies aimed at the inhibition of coagulation activation may theoretically be justified and have been found beneficial in experimental and initial clinical studies. Heparin may be an effective anticoagulant approach and alternative strategies comprise restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways. PMID:25590524

  9. C-reactive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L D Kozmin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available C-refctive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests. O.P. Bliznukov, L.D. Kostin, A.J. Martinov, T.A. Lisitsina, T.M. Reshetnyak, V.J. Lauga Objective. To study influence of different CRP forms on blood clotting time in standard phospholipid clotting tests. Material and methods. Purified native CRP. monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M, immune complexes of native CRP and rabbit polyclonal anti-CRP antibodies (1.6 M were added to blood plasma of healthy donors. Blood clotting time was registered using optical coagulometer. Phospholipid dependent prothrombin time (PT, activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, kaolin clotting time (KCT with kaolin and ellagic acid, dilute Russel viper venom time (dRVVT were determined. Results. Native CRP was able to increase blood clotting time in all mentioned clotting tests, excluding prothrombin time. CRP influence on blood clotting time showed a concentration dependence. Polyclonal rabbit anti-CRP antibodies had no inhibitory effect on CRP prolonged blood clotting time. Monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M had no influence on blood clotting time in all phospholipid-dependent clotting tests.

  10. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is in troduced inthis paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AiCI3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCI3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing,flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  11. SC response characteristics of two kinds of coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万东; 宋爽; 史惠祥

    2002-01-01

    Automatic coagulant dosage control with streaming current (SC) technique is introduced in this paper. Aluminum and ferric coagulants are widely used in surface water treatment. The SC response characteristics of P-AlCl3 aluminum coagulant and P-FeCl3 ferric coagulant were investigated in this work. Bench-scale water treatment results were obtained from jar tests including rapid mixing, flocculation and undisturbed sedimentation. Results showed that aluminum coagulant is more sensitive than ferric coagulant to SC response.

  12. Coagulation Biomarkers in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; M. Schultz; T. van der Poll

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses coagulation biomarkers in critically ill patients where coagulation abnormalities occur frequently and may have a major impact on the outcome. An adequate explanation for the cause is important, since many underlying disorders may require specific treatment and supportive ther

  13. Investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants from seeds of different leguminose species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of seeds of plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia Ceratonia siliqua and Amorpha fruticosa, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water. This water was prepared by adding kaolin into tap water, just before the test. Active components were extracted from ground seeds with distilled water. The coagulation ability of this extract was assessed by the use of standard jar test measurements in water with various initial turbidity. Investigation of these natural coagulants was confirmed their positive coagulation activity. Of all plants that have been examined, the seed extract from Ceratonia siliqua appeared to be one of the most effective coagulants for water treatment. A dose of 20 mg/l of this coagulant resulted in 100% coagulation activity for clarification of water with 17.5 NTU initial turbidity.

  14. Textile wastewater purification through natural coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. T.

    2011-09-01

    A new coagulant obtained through polymerization of Acacia mearnsii de Wild tannin extract has been characterized in the removal of two dangerous dye pollutants: Alizarin Violet 3R and Palatine Fast Black WAN. This coagulant is lab-synthesized according to the etherification of tannins with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and formaldehyde and its performance in dye removal in terms of efficiency was high. Reasonably low coagulant dosages (ca. 50 mg L-1) reaches high capacity levels (around 0.8 for Alizarin Violet 3R and 1.6 for Palatine Fast Black WAN mg dye mg-1 of coagulant) and pH and temperature are not extremely affecting variables. The systems coagulant dyes were successfully modeled by applying the Langmuir hypothesis. q max and b parameters were obtained with an adjusted correlation factor ( r 2) above 0.8.

  15. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF FLUIDO-COAGULANT BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tase

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood fluidity is controlled by complex physiological systems. Normally, the fine balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis prevents both bleeding and thrombosis. The accelerated urbanization we are living last decades modifies the basic environment, confining the human being to biochemical and metabolic remodeling. The alteration of this balance in favour of coagulation leads to thrombosis, the major challenge of the 21st century medicine. There are interesting changes not only in human’s anthropological evolution, but also from birth to death. The HORUS study performed by american and egyptian researchers investigated the prevalence of atherosclerosis in antique and modern Egyptians. Despite the belief that atherosclerosis is a modern disease, it seems to be evidences of atherosclerosis in Egyptian mummies. Despite multiple differences, between 30 and 60 years, the prevalence of atherosclerosis was quite similar in antique and modern Egyptians, respectively.

  16. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  17. [The importance of preanalytics for the coagulation laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Georg; Slavka, G; Perkmann, T; Haushofer, A

    2010-05-01

    Due to their complex preanalytics coagulation tests show a higher rate of rejected samples due to insufficient quality and a higher intra- and inter-individual test variability. In the last years several guidelines addressed this issue in an effort to standardize preanalytic procedures. However, in daily laboratory work, these guidelines frequently cannot be fully executed, due to technical limitations or sample transport logistics. In this manuscript several important issues in sample collection, handling and transportation will be discussed. Since the stability and variability of routine coagulation tests such as prothrombin time and partial prothrombin time are significantly influenced by a number of variables such as tube type, manufacturer, reagents used and analyzer systems, it is recommended that each laboratory develops its own manuals for sample collection, based on published data and internal evaluations.

  18. Extensive small-angle X-ray scattering studies of blood coagulation factor VIIa reveal interdomain flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Charlotte Rode; Nolan, David; Persson, Egon;

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) is used in the treatment of replacement therapy resistant hemophilia patients, and FVIIa is normally activated upon complex formation with tissue factor (TF), potentially in context with structural rearrangements. The solution behavior of uncomplexed FVIIa...

  19. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  20. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Anu; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-09-15

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amount of NOM has been observed over the past 10-20 years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i) negative effect on water quality by causing colour, taste and odor problems, (ii) increased coagulant and disinfectant doses (which in turn results in increased sludge volumes and production of harmful disinfection by-products), (iii) promoted biological growth in distribution system, and (iv) increased levels of complexed heavy metals and adsorbed organic pollutants. NOM can be removed from drinking water by several treatment options, of which the most common and economically feasible processes are considered to be coagulation and flocculation followed by sedimentation/flotation and sand filtration. Most of the NOM can be removed by coagulation, although, the hydrophobic fraction and high molar mass compounds of NOM are removed more efficiently than hydrophilic fraction and the low molar mass compounds. Thus, enhanced and/or optimized coagulation, as well as new process alternatives for the better removal of NOM by coagulation process has been suggested. In the present work, an overview of the recent research dealing with coagulation and flocculation in the removal of NOM from drinking water is presented. PMID:20633865

  1. Enhanced coagulation of ferric chloride aided by tannic acid for phosphorus removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunan; Xing, Xin-Hui; Liu, Zehua; Cui, Liwen; Yu, Anfeng; Feng, Quan; Yang, Haijun

    2008-05-01

    Phosphorus removal from wastewater is of great importance. In the present study, ferric chloride was selected as the coagulant, and tannic acid (TA), a natural polymer, as the coagulant aid to develop an effective coagulation process with the emphasis of phosphorus recovery from different types of wastewater. The results showed that TA can accelerate the settling speed by forming flocs with large size, reduce the residual Fe(III) to eliminate the yellow color caused by Fe(III), and slightly increase the phosphorus removal efficiency. The precipitate formed by TA-aided coagulation showed the advantage of releasing phosphorus faster than ferric phosphate, indicating the possibility of phosphorus recovery from wastewater as slow release fertilizer. To further understand the structural characteristics of the precipitate, analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were employed. The analytical results indicated that TA-Fe-P complex was formed during the coagulation/flocculation processes. Solid phase in the precipitate consisted of TA-Fe-P complex, Fe-TA complex and/or ferric hydroxyphosphate. PMID:18395769

  2. Coagulation Changes During Graded Orhostatic Stress and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Cvirn, Gerhard; Schlagenhauf, Aaxel; Leschnik, Bettina; Koestenberger, Martin; Roessler, Andreas; Jantscher, Andreas; Waha, James Elvis; Wolf, Sabine; Vrecko, Karoline; Juergens, Guenther; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2013-02-01

    Background: Orthostatic stress has been introduced as a novel paradigm for activating the coagulation system. We examined whether graded orthostatic stress (using head up tilt, HUT + lower body negative pressure, LBNP) until presyncope leads to anti / pro-coagulatory changes and how rapidly they return to baseline during recovery. Methodology: Eight male subjects were enrolled in this study. Presyncopal runs were carried out using HUT + LBNP. At minute zero, the tilt table was brought from 0° (supine) to 70 ° head-up position for 4 min, after which pressure in the LBNP chamber was reduced to -15, -30, and -45 mm Hg every 4 min. At presyncope, the subjects were returned to supine position. Coagulatory responses and plasma mass density (for volume changes) were measured before, during and 20 min after the orthostatic stress. Whole blood coagulation was examined by means of thrombelastometry. Platelet aggregation in whole blood was examined by using impedance aggregometry. Thrombin generation parameters, prothrombin levels, and markers of endothelial activation were measured in plasma samples. Results: At presyncope, plasma volume was 20 % below the initial supine value. Blood cell counts, prothrombin levels, thrombin peak, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels increased during the protocol, commensurate with hemoconcentration. The markers of endothelial activation (tissue factor, TF, tissue plasminogen activator, t-PA) and the markers of thrombin generation (Prothrombin fragments 1 and 2, F1+2, and thrombin-antithrombin complex, TAT) increased significantly. During recovery, all the coagulation parameters returned to initial supine values except F1 +2 and TAT. Conclusion: Head-up tilt/LBNP leads to activation of the coagulation system. Some of the markers of thrombin formation are still at higher than supine levels during recovery.

  3. Coagulation/flocculation/flotation/nanofiltration processes using Moringa Oleifera as coagulant of Eutrophized river

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Franciele P.; Bongiovani, Milene C.; Silva, Mariana O.; Coldebella, Priscila F.; Amorim, M. T. Pessoa de; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds as natural coagulant in coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF), followed by nanofiltration (NF) for Microcystis protocystis and microcystin-LR removal. The methodology adopted in this work was performed in two steps: 1) coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the MO extracted in saline solution of potassium chloride (KCl-1M) and sodium chloride (NaCl-1M) in op...

  4. Coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chloride:Effects of pH and coagulant dosage☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wei; Zhongguo Zhang; Dan Liu; Yue Wu; Jun Wang; Qunhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation mechanisms of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) at various dosages were studied using a conventional jar test at different final and initial pH values during treating kaolin suspension. The optimal final pH and dosages for PACl were obtained based on residual turbidity and zeta potential of flocs. The coagulation zones at various PACl dosages and solution pH values were developed and compared with those of alum. It is found that the optimal mechanism under acidic condition is charge neutralization, while alkaline condition wil facilitate the coagulation of PACl. Both charge neutralization coagulation and sweep coagulation can achieve high coagulation efficiency under the alkaline condition ranging from final pH 7.0 to 10.0. Stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep zones occur successively with increasing PACl dosages with the final pH values fixed at 7.0 and 8.0, but restabilization zone disappears at final pH 10.0. When the final pH is not controlled and consequently decreases with increasing PACl dosage, no typical sweep zone can be observed and the coagulant efficiency decreases at high PACl dosage. It seems that the final pH is more meaningful than the initial pH for coagulation. Charge neutralization coagulation efficiency is dominated by zeta potential of flocs and PACl precipitates. The charge neutralization and sweep coagulation zones of PACl are broader in the ranges of coagulant dosage and pH than those of alum. The results are helpful for us to treat water and wastewa-ter using PACl and to understand the coagulation process of PACl.

  5. Effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency of coagulants recovery by acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Jui; Wang, Wen-May; Wei, Ming-Jun; Chen, Jiann-Long; He, Ju-Liang; Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Wu, Chih-Chao

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Al-coagulant sludge characteristics on the efficiency ofcoagulant recovery by acidification with H2SO4. Two sludge characteristics were studied: types of coagulant and textures of the suspended solid in raw water. The coagulant types are aluminium sulphate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl); the textures of the suspended solid are sand-based and clay-based. Efficiency of aluminium recovery at a pH of 2 was compared for different sludges obtained from water treatment plants in Taiwan. The results showed that efficiency of aluminium recovery from sludge containing clayey particles was higher than that from sludge containing sandy particles. As for the effect of coagulant types, the aluminium recovery efficiency for sludge using PACl ranged between 77% and 100%, whereas it ranged between 65% and 72% for sludge using aluminium sulphate as the coagulant. This means using PACl as the coagulant could result in higher recovery efficiency of coagulant and be beneficial for water treatment plants where renewable materials and waste reduction as the factors for making decisions regarding plant operations. However, other metals, such as manganese, could be released with aluminium during the acidification process and limit the use of the recovered coagulants. It is suggested that the recovered coagulants be used in wastewater treatment processes. PMID:23437650

  6. IMPACT OF OBESITY ON ENDOTOXIN-INDUCED DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duburcq, Thibault; Tournoys, Antoine; Gnemmi, Viviane; Hubert, Thomas; Gmyr, Valery; Pattou, François; Jourdain, Mercé

    2015-10-01

    An early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis occurs during sepsis, leading to the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Obesity has been demonstrated to be a hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state, but its impact on DIC has never been studied. In this study, we aimed to determine if obesity impairs DIC in an acute endotoxic shock model using minipigs. This was a prospective, comparative, and experimental ancillary study approved by the Animal Ethics Committee. Pigs were chosen as a clinically relevant species, resembling humans in coagulation reactions. Four groups of five "Yucatan" minipigs were studied: lean and obese control groups, a lean lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group receiving Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS), and an obese LPS group receiving the same endotoxin dose. We measured standard coagulation parameters (prothrombin time [PT], platelet count, and fibrinogen levels), thrombin-antithrombin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. All measurements were performed at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 min. Results were given as median with interquartile ranges. At baseline, platelet count (477 [428 - 532] G/L vs. 381 [307 - 442] G/L; P = 0.005) and fibrinogen levels (4.6 [3.8 - 5.2] g/L vs. 2 [1.8 - 2.9] g/L; P coagulation parameters (PT, platelet count, and fibrinogen levels) and the increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes (581 [382 - 1,057] μg/mL vs. 247 [125 - 369] μg/mL at 150 min; P = 0.03) were significantly more important in the obese LPS group compared with those in the lean LPS group. Concerning the fibrinolytic reaction, we found a slightly more elevated increase of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the obese LPS group at 300 min (481 [365 - 617] ng/mL vs. 355 [209 - 660] ng/mL; P = 0.66). In our model of endotoxic shock, obese pigs developed a more severe DIC with a more severe procoagulant response.

  7. [New oral anticoagulants - influence on coagulation tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, L; Nagler, M; Wuillemin, W A

    2014-01-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) represent alternative antithrombotic agents for prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic diseases. They act either by inhibition of the clotting factor Xa or IIa (thrombin). As a consequence, they influence several coagulation assays (for example prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time). Because of the short half-life of these new agents, these changes show great variations in the course of 24 hours. Furthermore, there are significant differences of laboratory results depending on the used reagents. We explain the influence of apixaban, rivaroxaban (factor Xa inhibitors) and dabigatran (thrombin inhibitor) on the most commonly used coagulation assays. Besides we show that this influence depends on the way of action of the drug as well as on the principle of the coagulation assay. Being aware of this relationships helps to interpret the results of coagulation assays under influence of NOACs correctly.

  8. Toward a better understanding of coagulation for dissolved organic nitrogen using polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guocheng; Wang, Qian; Yin, Jun; Li, Zhongwu; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Bozhi; Fan, Gongduan; Wan, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The increase of agricultural related activities and the lack of effective waste control has led to an increase of organic nitrogen in water. The development of coagulants to effectively remove dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a high priority in the water treatment industry. We developed a polymeric zinc-iron-phosphate (ZnFeP) coagulant and investigated its coagulation effect on DON removal. Optimum coagulant for coagulation for DON and TDN removals was characterized by the dense convex-concave packing structure differing from other zinc-based coagulant, polycrystalline structure and high content colloidal species, which could account up to 87% of the total colloidal species. Coagulation experiments showed the DON removal rate to vary greatly depending on principal components and their interaction with metals, phosphate and hydroxyl. DON removal efficiency increased with the increase of colloidal species. The coagulation was also dependent on coagulant dosage and water quality parameters: Coagulation efficiency increased with coagulant dosage in the investigated range of 1-16 mg/l, and a pH of 6 was found to be superior for the coagulation. DON removal efficiency was also higher than and linearly correlated with total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) removal, which implies that an effective coagulation for TDN is also effective for DON. The findings in this study indicate that coagulation of DON is largely influenced by coagulant composition and species. We also found the removal of DON by our newly developed polymeric ZnFeP coagulant to be effective. PMID:27192355

  9. Comparison of Al,Fe,Zr Performance on Coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prasobhan, Pratheesh

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses an investigation on and comparison of the coagulation performances of aluminium, iron and zirconium coagulants on real wastewater collected in Norway. This work was carried out from January 2014 to May 2014. Coagulation is an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. Aluminium and iron coagulants have been in use for many years as part of wastewater treatment. In recent years however, research has been focused on other new coagulants such...

  10. Effects of nucleotides and nucleosides on coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bune, Laurids; Thaning, Pia; Johansson, Pär I;

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotides, including ADP, ATP and uridine triphosphate (UTP), are discharged profusely in the circulation during many pathological conditions including sepsis. Sepsis can cause hypotension and systemic activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in humans, which may cause disseminated...... intravascular coagulation. We investigated whether nucleotide-induced cardiovascular collapse as provoked by systemic infusion of adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP and nitric oxide affected the haemostatic system as assessed by whole blood thromboelastography (TEG) analysis. Ten pigs received a randomized infusion...

  11. Fibrinolysis and the control of blood coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, John C.; Hajjar, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrin plays an essential role in hemostasis as both the primary product of the coagulation cascade and the ultimate substrate for fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis efficiency is greatly influenced by clot structure, fibrinogen isoforms and polymorphisms, the rate of thrombin generation, the reactivity of thrombus-associated cells such as platelets, and the overall biochemical environment. Regulation of the fibrinolytic system, like that of the coagulation cascade, is accomplished by a wide array of...

  12. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. • The optimal removal efficiencies for the four coagulants were achieved at pH 7.5. • The removal efficiency of AgNPs was affected by the natural water characteristics. • TEM and XRD showed that AgNPs or silver-containing NPs were adsorbed onto the flocs. -- Abstract: Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca2+ and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions

  13. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

  14. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  15. Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xipeng; Wang, Ena; Kavanagh, John J; Freedman, Ralph S

    2005-06-21

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) represents the most frequent cause of death in the United States from a cancer involving the female genital tract. Contributing to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients, are the metastases to the peritoneum and stroma that are common in this cancer. In one study, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on fresh tissue to profile gene expression in patients with EOC. This study showed a number of genes with significantly altered expression in the pelvic peritoneum and stroma, and in the vicinity of EOC implants. These genes included those encoding coagulation factors and regulatory proteins in the coagulation cascade and genes encoding proteins associated with inflammatory responses. In addition to promoting the formation of blood clots, coagulation factors exhibit many other biologic functions as well as tumorigenic functions, the later including tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Coagulation pathway proteins involved in tumorigenesis consist of factor II (thrombin), thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptors), factor III (tissue factor), factor VII, factor X and factor I (fibrinogen), and fibrin and factor XIII. In a recent study we conducted, we found that factor XII, factor XI, and several coagulation regulatory proteins, including heparin cofactor-II and epithelial protein C receptor (EPCR), were also upregulated in the peritoneum of EOC. In this review, we summarize evidence in support of a role for these factors in promoting tumor cell progression and the formation of ascites. We also discuss the different roles of coagulation factor pathways in the tumor and peritumoral microenvironments as they relate to angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Since inflammatory responses are another characteristic of the peritoneum in EOC, we also discuss the linkage between the coagulation cascade and the cytokines/chemokines involved in inflammation. Interleukin-8, which is considered an

  16. Ovarian cancer, the coagulation pathway, and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh John J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC represents the most frequent cause of death in the United States from a cancer involving the female genital tract. Contributing to the overall poor outcome in EOC patients, are the metastases to the peritoneum and stroma that are common in this cancer. In one study, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on fresh tissue to profile gene expression in patients with EOC. This study showed a number of genes with significantly altered expression in the pelvic peritoneum and stroma, and in the vicinity of EOC implants. These genes included those encoding coagulation factors and regulatory proteins in the coagulation cascade and genes encoding proteins associated with inflammatory responses. In addition to promoting the formation of blood clots, coagulation factors exhibit many other biologic functions as well as tumorigenic functions, the later including tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Coagulation pathway proteins involved in tumorigenesis consist of factor II (thrombin, thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptors, factor III (tissue factor, factor VII, factor X and factor I (fibrinogen, and fibrin and factor XIII. In a recent study we conducted, we found that factor XII, factor XI, and several coagulation regulatory proteins, including heparin cofactor-II and epithelial protein C receptor (EPCR, were also upregulated in the peritoneum of EOC. In this review, we summarize evidence in support of a role for these factors in promoting tumor cell progression and the formation of ascites. We also discuss the different roles of coagulation factor pathways in the tumor and peritumoral microenvironments as they relate to angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. . Since inflammatory responses are another characteristic of the peritoneum in EOC, we also discuss the linkage between the coagulation cascade and the cytokines/chemokines involved in inflammation. Interleukin

  17. EVALUATION OF INDUSTRIAL DYEING WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH COAGULANTS AND POLYELECTROLYTE AS A COAGULANT AID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Nabi Bidhendi;A. Torabian;H. Ehsani;N. Razmkhah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl3, FeSO4 and MgCl2 were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in a laboratory scale settling column unit. Parameters such as color, COD, TSS, turbidity and settled sludge volume have been evaluated. The optimum coagulant dose and pH value were determined by comparing the effectiveness of these coagulants. Results showed other coagulants except lime could eliminate color and COD successfully. In this case, FeSO4 was chosen as an optimum coagulant for color removal because of the lowest required coagulant dose, minimum settled sludge volume and maximum decolorization.

  18. Changes in humic acid conformation during coagulation with ferric chloride: implications for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siéliéchi, J-M; Lartiges, B S; Kayem, G J; Hupont, S; Frochot, C; Thieme, J; Ghanbaja, J; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, J B; Barrès, O; Kamga, R; Levitz, P; Michot, L J

    2008-04-01

    Electrophoretic mobility, pyrene fluorescence, surface tension measurements, transmission electron microscopy on resin-embedded samples, and X-ray microscopy (XRM) were combined to characterize the aggregates formed from humic colloids and hydrolyzed-Fe species under various conditions of pH and mixing. We show that, at low coagulant concentration, the anionic humic network is reorganized upon association with cationic coagulant species to yield more compact structures. In particular, spheroids about 80nm in size are evidenced by XRM at pH 6 and 8 just below the optimal coagulant concentration. Such reorganization of humic colloids does not yield surface-active species, and maintains negative functional groups on the outside of humic/hydrolyzed-Fe complex. We also observe that the humic network remains unaffected by the association with coagulant species up to the restabilization concentration. Upon increasing the coagulant concentration, restructuration becomes limited: indeed, the aggregation of humic acid with hydrolyzed-Fe species can be ascribed to a competition between humic network reconformation rate and collision rate of destabilized colloids. A decrease in stirring favors the shrinkage of humic/hydrolyzed-Fe complexes, which then yields a lower sediment volume. Elemental analyses also reveal that the iron coagulant species are poorly hydrolyzed in the destabilization range. This suggests that destabilization mechanisms such as sweep flocculation or adsorption onto a hydroxyde precipitate are not relevant to our case. A neutralization/complexation destabilization mechanism accompanied by a restructuration of flexible humic network is then proposed to occur in the range of pHs investigated. PMID:18155268

  19. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation. PMID:27114461

  20. Increased mortality in systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients with high levels of coagulation factor VIIa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyseni, A.; Kemperman, H.; De Lange, D. W.; de Groot, P. G.; Linssen, M.; Kesecioglu, J.; Lisman, T.; Roest, M.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe tissue factor (TF)- Factor VIIa (FVIIa) complex has a pivotal role in inflammatory and coagulation responses in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Because zymogen FVII (FVII) and FVIIa compete for binding to TF, their plasma levels determine if a c

  1. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-05

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity.

  2. Dysfunction in the coagulation system and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, S; Amaral, O B; Mezzasalma, M A U; Panizzutti, R; Nardi, A E

    2016-01-01

    Although different hypotheses have been formulated to explain schizophrenia pathogenesis, the links between them are weak. The observation that five psychotic patients on chronic warfarin therapy for deep-vein thrombosis showed long-term remission of psychotic symptoms made us suspect that abnormalities in the coagulation pathway, specifically low tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, could be one of the missing links. Our hypothesis is supported by a high prevalence of conditions affecting tPA activity in drug-naive schizophrenia, such as antiphospholipid antibodies, elevated cytokine levels, hyperinsulinemia and hyperhomocysteinemia. We recently screened a group of schizophrenia patients and controls for conditions affecting tPA activity. Free-protein S deficiency was highly prevalent among patients, but not found in controls. Free-protein S and functional protein C are natural anticoagulants that form complexes that inhibit tPA inhibitors. All participants had normal protein C levels, suggesting that protein S could have a role in schizophrenia, independent of protein C. Chronic patients and those studied during acute episodes had between three and six conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity, while patients in remission had up to two, which led us to postulate that multiple conditions affecting tPA and/or protein S activity could contribute to the full expression of schizophrenia phenotype. This paper describes the physiological roles of tPA and protein S, reviewing how their activity influences pathogenesis and comorbidity of schizophrenia. Next, it analyzes how activity of tPA and protein S is influenced by biochemical abnormalities found in schizophrenia. Last, it suggests future directions for research, such as studies on animal models and on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia aiming at increasing tPA and protein S activity. PMID:26731441

  3. The link between inflammation and coagulation: influence on the interpretation of diagnostic laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Teresa; Mathews, Karol; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony; Wood, Darren

    2011-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the complex relationship between inflammation and coagulation and a review of routinely available laboratory and point-of-care tests for the detection of inflammation and coagulopathies. In the management of cases requiring ongoing laboratory and clinical evaluation, examination of these two major pathologic processes may assist with diagnosis and improve outcome. Early identification of a pathologic inflammatory process may allow prevention of its progression to syndromes carrying a poorer prognosis, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

  4. Combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunlei; Zhang, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Combined deficiency of factor V (FV) and FVIII (F5F8D) is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by simultaneous decreases of both coagulation factors. This review summarizes recent reports on the clinical presentations, treatments, and molecular mechanism of F5F8D. Genetic studies identified LMAN1 and MCFD2 as causative genes for this disorder, revealing a previously unknown intracellular transport pathway shared by the two important blood coagulation factors. LMAN1 and MCFD2 form a Ca2+-dependent cargo receptor complex that functions in the transport of FV/FVIII from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. Disrupting the LMAN1-MCFD2 receptor, complex formation is the primary molecular defect of missense mutations leading to F5F8D. The EF-hand domains of MCFD2 are necessary and sufficient for the interactions with both LMAN1 and FV/FVIII. Similarly, the carbohydrate recognition domain of LMAN1 contains distinct and separable binding sites for both MCFD2 and FV/FVIII. Therefore, FV and FVIII likely carry duel sorting signals that are separately recognized by LMAN1 and MCFD2 and necessary for the efficient ER-to-Golgi transport. FV and FVIII likely bind LMAN1 through the high-mannose N-linked glycans under the higher Ca2+ conditions in the ER and dissociate in the lower Ca2+ environment of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. PMID:23852824

  5. Studies on the Tumor Vasculature and Coagulant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Asti, Esterina; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis represents one aspect in the complex process that leads to the generation of the vascular tumor stroma. The related functional constituents include responses of endothelial, mural, bone marrow-derived, and resident inflammatory cells as well as activation of coagulation and fibrinolytic systems in blood. Multiple molecular and cellular effectors participate in these events, often in a tumor-specific manner and with changes enforced through the microenvironment, genetic evolution, and responses to anticancer therapies. To capture various elements of these interactions several surrogate assays have been devised, which can be mechanistically useful and are amenable to quantification, but are individually insufficient to describe the underlying complexity and are best used in a targeted and combinatorial manner. Below, we present a survey of angiogenesis assays and experimental approaches to analyze vascular events in cancer. We also provided specific examples of validated protocols, which are less described, but enable the straightforward analysis of vascular structures and coagulant properties of cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27581013

  6. Monitoring Thermal Coagulation with Ultrasonic Textures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei; ZHANG Su; CHEN Ya-zhu; CHEN Lei; HU Bing; MA Wei-yin

    2007-01-01

    The feasibility of using B-mode ultrasound image textures and pattern recognition technique to characterize the thermal coagulation in vitro during radiofrequency ablation was investigated.The changes of ultrasonic textures in the different regions of samples varied with the heating time in the in-vitro experiments, which would result in that the coagulated and noncoagulated regions of tissue had different ultrasonic textures.Using support vector machine to extract the ultrasonic texture features and characterize the state of tissue, the size and boundaries of thermal lesions could be detected and measured more exactly than only using the gray scale information of B-mode ultrasound image.The proposed method would be applied to the image-guided radiofrequency ablation (IGRA) procedure for monitoring the thermal coagulation.

  7. Coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hang-yan; XIU Dian-rong; LI Zhi-fei; WANG Gang

    2009-01-01

    Background The coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma is abnormal and the reason is not very clear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the coagulation function in patients with pancreatic carcinoma.Methods From June 2004 to December 2007, 132 patients received diagnosis and treatment in our hospital. The coagulative parameters including the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels were collected and studied retrospectively.Results The average fibrinogen levels in patients with pancreatic carcinoma, (476.21±142.05) mg/dl, were significantly higher than in patients with cholangiolithiasis, (403.28±126.41) mg/dl (P 0.05).Conclusions The level of fibrinogen in patients with pancreatic carcinoma was elevated. The elevated fibrinogen level may be associated with invasiveness and lymphatic metastasis. Using vitamin K in perioperation management did not reduce intraoperative blood loss.

  8. Comparison study of metastasis hepatic coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our contribution we are interested in tissue coagulation by Nd-YAG and Ar lasers in order to know which laser is necessary to use for the destruction of hepatic metastasis. For that we have developed a mathematical model, in which the liver tissue is considered homogeneous, and isotropic, the absorbed energies is optimized by the beam broadening model and the transfer of heat is modeled by the bioheat equation. The solution of this equation by the finite volumes method gives the space-time variation of the temperature, which makes it possible to determine the necrosis depth by using the Arrhenius integral. The results obtained show that the temperature of coagulation is reached for strong intensity in the case of the Nd-YAG laser compared with the Ar laser, and that the volume of the coagulated zone is considerable in the case of the Nd-YAG laser, from this fact it is selected in gastro-enterology. (author)

  9. Modification of a commercial thromboelastography instrument to measure coagulation dynamics with three-dimensional biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Morgan J; Olver, Christine S; Fisher, Ellen R

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic constructs with complex geometries have immense potential for use in a multitude of blood-contacting applications. Understanding coagulation phenomena is arguably the most critical aspect for applications involving synthetic biomaterials; however, real-time evaluation of the clot formation while interfacing with these materials is difficult to achieve in a reproducible and robust manner. Here, work representing first steps toward addressing this deficit is presented, wherein modified consumables for a clinical instrument (a Thromboelastograph(®)) have been fabricated. Thromboelastography (TEG) measures viscoelastic properties throughout clot formation and therefore provides clinically relevant coagulation measurements in real time (i.e., kinetics and strength of clot formation). Through our modification, TEG consumables can readily accommodate three-dimensional materials (e.g., those for regenerative tissue applications). The authors performed proof-of-concept experiments using polymer scaffolds with a range of surface properties and demonstrated that variations in surface properties resulted in differences in blood plasma coagulation dynamics. For example, the maximum rate of thrombus generation ranged from 22.2 ± 2.2 (dyn/cm(2))/s for fluorocarbon coated scaffolds to 8.7 ± 1.0 (dyn/cm(2))/s for nitrogen-containing scaffolds. Through this work, the ability to make real-time coagulation activity measurements during constant coagulation factor interface with biomedically relevant materials is demonstrated. PMID:27126596

  10. Post-treatment of sanitary landfill leachate by coagulation-flocculation using chitosan as primary coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Inara Oliveira do Carmo; Guedes, Ana Rosa Pinto; Perelo, Louisa Wessels; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan was chosen as an alternative primary coagulant in a complementary coagulation-flocculation treatment of sanitary landfill leachate with the aim of removing recalcitrant organic matter. In order to optimize the process conditions, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied. To evaluate the performance of the process using chitosan, we also carried out tests with aluminium sulphate (Al(2) (SO(4))(3).14 H(2)O) as coagulant. In addition, acute toxicity tests were carried using the duckweed Lemna minor and the guppy fish Poecilia reticulata as test organisms. The analytic hierarchy process was employed for selecting the most appropriate coagulant. Mean values of true colour removal efficiency of 80% and turbidity removal efficiency of 91.4% were reached at chitosan dosages of 960 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5. The acute toxicity tests showed that organisms were sensitive to all samples, mainly after coagulation-flocculation using chitosan. CE(50) for L. minor was not determined because there was no inhibition of the average growth rate and biomass production; LC(50) for P. reticulata was 23% (v v(-1)). Multi-criteria analysis showed that alum was the most appropriate coagulant. Therefore, chitosan as primary coagulant was not considered to be a viable alternative in the post-treatment of landfill leachate. PMID:27387003

  11. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  12. Quantifying interspecific coagulation efficiency of phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    the interspecific coagulation efficiency could be calculated. Stickiness between beads and T. nordenskjoeldii was 50% of that of T. nordenskjoeldii in monospecific suspensions, and this ratio remained constant throughout 12 experiments covering 1 order of magnitude variation in the stickiness level of T....... nordenskjoeldii. Mutual coagulation between Skeletonema costatum and the non-sticky cel:ls of Ditylum brightwellii also proceeded with hall the efficiency of S. costatum alone. The latex beads were suitable to be used as 'standard particles' to quantify the ability of phytoplankton to prime aggregation...

  13. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  14. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D.; Judd, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgi...

  15. The Interface between Inflammation and Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Demetz; Ilka Ott

    2012-01-01

    The intimate connection between coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular disease has moved more and more into focus of clinical research. This paper focuses on the essential components of this interplay in the settings of cardiovascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Tissue factor, the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, plays a central role via causing a proinflammatory response through activation of coagulation factors and thereby initiating coagul...

  16. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  17. The relationship between inflammation and the coagulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Goda; Schultz, Marcus J; Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation and coagulation play pivotal roles in host defence. As phylogenetically old responses, there is extensive cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation in enabling an adequate immune response against potentially injurious stimuli. Immune cells are important in the initiation of coagul

  18. Diagnosis of overt disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically Ill adults by Sonoclot coagulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Tong, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xing-Qin; Duan, Peng-Kai; Tang, You-Qing; Su, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) diagnosis is hampered by the limited availability of reliable clinical or laboratory tests. Currently available tests are time consuming and expensive. We investigated whether coagulation and platelet function analyses using the Sonoclot system were suitable for overt DIC diagnosis in critically ill adults. This was an observational diagnostic study performed in 498 patients presenting with an underlying disorder associated with DIC. Overt DIC patients were identified according to an International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) score of >5. Coagulation and platelet parameters were analyzed using the Sonoclot system, and compared with ISTH as the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curves were used to evaluate the value of the Sonoclot parameters. There were no differences for age or gender between the groups. Significant correlations were observed between activated clotting time (ACT) and ISTH score (r = 0.7; P coagulation dysfunction in patients with overt DIC.

  19. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  20. Laboratory testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2010-06-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relies on clinical signs and symptoms, identification of the underlying disease, the results of laboratory testing, and differentiation from other pathologies. The clinical features mainly depend on the underlying cause of the DIC. The laboratory diagnosis of DIC uses a combination of tests because no single test result alone can firmly establish or rule out the diagnosis. Global tests of hemostasis may initially provide evidence of coagulation activation and later in the process provide evidence of consumption of coagulation factors, but their individual diagnostic efficiency is limited. Fibrinolytic markers, in particular D-dimer, are reflective of activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis, so that a normal finding can be useful for ruling-out DIC. Decreased levels of the natural anticoagulants (in particular, antithrombin and protein C) are frequently observed in patients with DIC, but their measurement is not normally incorporated into standard diagnostic algorithms. New tests are being explored for utility in DIC, and some additional tests may be useful on a case-by-case basis, depending on the proposed cause of the DIC or their local availability. For example, clot waveform analysis is useful but currently limited to a single instrument. Also, procalcitonin is an inflammatory biomarker that may be useful within the context of septic DIC, and activated factor X clotting time is an emerging test of procoagulant phospholipids that also seems to hold promise in DIC.

  1. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids, emulsi

  2. Chronic Rhinosinusitis and the Coagulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Young; Cho, Seong H; Takabayashi, Tetsuji; Schleimer, Robert P

    2015-09-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic diseases in adults and severely affects quality of life in patients. Although various etiologic and pathogenic mechanisms of CRS have been proposed, the causes of CRS remain uncertain. Abnormalities in the coagulation cascade may play an etiologic role in many diseases, such as asthma and other inflammatory conditions. While studies on the relationship between asthma and dysregulated coagulation have been reported, the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CRS has only been considered following recent reports. Excessive fibrin deposition is seen in nasal polyp (NP) tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and is associated with activation of thrombin, reduction of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and upregulation of coagulation factor XIII-A (FXIII-A), all events that can contribute to fibrin deposition and crosslinking. These findings were reproduced in a murine model of NP that was recently established. Elucidation of the mechanisms of fibrin deposition may enhance our understanding of tissue remodeling in the pathophysiology of NP and provide new targets for the treatment of CRSwNP. PMID:26122502

  3. Haemostatic effects of recombinant coagulation factor VIIa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisman, Johannes Antonius

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has recently become available for treatment of patients with inhibitor-complicated haemophilia. It has been postulated that rFVIIa could become a universal haemostatic agent. Case reports and small studies confirm efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in a variet

  4. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari; Jaehan Kim; Ahlam Abuawad; Mubeena Naeem; Huadong Cui; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure”) THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation as...

  5. Optimized coagulation of high alkalinity, low temperature and particle water: pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Dongsheng; Yan, Mingquan; Ye, Changqing; Yang, Min; Ge, Xiaopeng

    2007-08-01

    The Yellow River in winter as source water is characterized as high alkalinity, low temperature and low particle concentrations, which have brought many difficulties to water treatment plants. This study fully examines the optimized coagulation process of the Yellow River by conventional and pre-polymerized metal coagulants, pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as the primary coagulants or coagulant aids. For all the metal coagulants, polyaluminum chlorides are superior to traditional metal coagulants due to their stable polymeric species and low consumption of alkalinity. The removal of natural organic matter by monomeric metal coagulants can be improved through pH adjustment, which is in accordance with the higher concentration of polymeric species formed at corresponding pH value. With the addition of polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids, the coagulation performance is significantly improved. The effective removal of dissolved organic matter is consistent with high charge density, while molecular weight is relatively important for removing particles, which is consistent with polyelectrolytes as primary coagulants. These results suggest that the coagulation mechanisms in the removal of dissolved organic matter and particles are different, which may be exploited for optimized coagulation for the typical source water in practice.

  6. Improvement of paint effluents coagulation using natural and synthetic coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulhassan, M A; Souabi, S; Yaacoubi, A; Baudu, M

    2006-11-01

    The coagulant iron chloride and the flocculants Polysep 3000 (PO), Superfloc A-1820 (SU) and Praestol 2515 TR (PR) have been used in this study to show the efficiency of coagulation flocculation process in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of organic and colouring matters from the paint industry wastewater. This study also includes the amount of produced sludge. The results indicate that FeCl(3) is efficient at pH range 8-9 and at optimal dose of 650 mgl(-1). Iron chloride allows the removal of 82% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 94% of colour. However, sequential addition of coagulant and polymeric additives enhance clearly pollutant removal and produces less decanted sludge compared to the results obtained when the coagulant is used alone. The removal efficiency of COD reaches 91% and that of colour 99%. Coagulation-biflocculation process is more effective than the coagulation-monoflocculation one. The sequential addition of iron chloride, Polysep 3000 (cationic flocculant) and Praestol 2515 TR (anionic flocculant) seems to be the most suitable combination for the treatment of the paint industry wastewaters.

  7. Study on the removal of acid dyes using chitosan as a natural coagulant/coagulant aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonoozi, M H; Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Arami, M

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan was selected as a natural coagulating agent for the removal of acid dyes (Acid Blue 292; AB292, and Acid Red 398; AR398) from dye-containing solutions. The study was organised in two phases. In phase 1, chitosan was used alone as a natural coagulant for the removal of the dyes. For this purpose, the effect of different parameters including pH, chitosan dosage and initial dye concentration on the dye removal efficiency was examined. In phase 2 of the study, the application of chitosan as a natural coagulant aid in conjunction with polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was assessed. According to the results of phase 1, the best removal efficiencies occurred in an acidic pH range (less than 6) for both of the dyes. Also, excellent dye removal results (about 90%) were achieved with relatively low dosages of chitosan (30-35 mg L(-1) for AB292 and 50-60 mg L(-1) for AR398). However, the initial concentration of the dyes severely influenced the coagulation performance of chitosan, which can constrain the performance of chitosan as a natural coagulant. On the basis of the results of phase 2, chitosan, as a natural coagulant aid, noticeably enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC, especially in the case of AB292. Small amounts of chitosan (3 or 5 mg L(-1)) enhanced the dye removal efficiency of PAC up to 2.5 times for AB292.

  8. Thyroid Storm Complicated by Bicytopenia and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Yoshinori; Sakanishi, Yuta; Nagae, Kou; Tokushima, Midori; Tago, Masaki; Tomonaga, Motosuke; Yoshioka, Tsuneaki; Hyakutake, Masaki; Sugioka, Takashi; Yamashita, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Delirium • diarrhea • fever • hypertension • hyperventilation • tachycardia • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Endocrinology and Metabolic Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The clinical presentation of thyroid storm includes fever, tachycardia, hypertension, and neurological abnormalities. It is a serious condition with a high mortality rate. Furthermore, some other complications affect the clinical course of thyroid storm. Although it is reported that prognosis is poor when thyroid storm is complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) and leukopenia, reports of such cases are rare. Case Report: A 23-year-old man presented with delirium, high pyrexia, diarrhea, and weight loss of 18 kg over 2 months. According to the criteria of Burch and Wartofsky, he was diagnosed with thyroid storm on the basis of his symptom-complex and laboratory data that confirmed the presence of hyperthyroidism. Investigations also found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which are very rare complications of thyroid storm. We successfully treated him with combined therapy including anti-thyroid medication, despite leukopenia. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in ensuring a good outcome for patients with this rare combination of medical problems. PMID:25072662

  9. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations <0.02 mg/L were attained by tailoring PACl properties (Ala percentage ≤0.5%, basicity ≥85%). The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm.

  10. The removal of anionic surfactants from water in coagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Jadwiga; Elektorowicz, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory study on the effectiveness of the coagulation process in removing surfactants from water. The application of traditional coagulants (aluminium sulfate and iron chlorides) has not brought satisfactory results, the reduction in anionic surfactant (AS) content reached 7.6% and 10%, respectively. Adding cationic polyelectrolyte (Zetag-50) increased the removal efficiency to 24%. Coagulation using a polyelectrolyte alone proved to be more efficient, the reduction in surfactant content fluctuated at a level of about 50%. Complete surfactant removal was obtained when powdered activated carbon was added 5 minutes before the basic coagulant to the coagulation process. The efficiency of surfactant coagulation also increased after the application of powdered clinoptilolite, but to a smaller degree. Then the removal of AS was found to be improved by dosing powdered clinoptilolite simultaneously or with short delay after the addition of the basic coagulant. PMID:23837351

  11. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  12. Self-similar behavior for multicomponent coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼丽; 卢志明; 刘宇陆

    2014-01-01

    Self-similar behavior for the multicomponent coagulation system is investi-gated analytically in this paper. Asymptotic self-similar solutions for the constant ker-nel, sum kernel, and product kernel are achieved by introduction of different generating functions. In these solutions, two size-scale variables are introduced to characterize the asymptotic distribution of total mass and individual masses. The result of product kernel (gelling kernel) is consistent with the Vigli-Ziff conjecture to some extent. Furthermore, the steady-state solution with injection for the constant kernel is obtained, which is again the product of a normal distribution and the scaling solution for the single variable coag-ulation.

  13. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  14. EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES ON COAGULATING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Thirty young, healthy, nonsmoking women (mean age approximately 28 years taking low-dose oral contraceptive pills were recruited for the study of the effects of these pills on coagulating factors. Twenty subjects were taking LD pill (Ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg, levonorgestrel 0.15 mg and 10 others were taking Cilest (Ethinyl estradiol 0.035 mg, Norgestimate 0.25 mg for six months. The control subjects did not receive any oral contraceptives or other medications. Our results showed that:"n1. There is no significant difference between the effects of LD and Cilest (with a different progestin content on coagulating factors."n2. No significant changes were observed between both LD users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n3. No significant changes were observed between both Cilest users and controls in PT, APTT, and fibrinogen levels."n

  15. Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks: porosity matters

    CERN Document Server

    Ormel, C W; Tielens, A G G M

    2006-01-01

    Context: Sticking of colliding dust particles through van der Waals forces is the first stage in the grain growth process in protoplanetary disks, eventually leading to the formation of comets, asteroids and planets. A key aspect of the collisional evolution is the coupling between dust and gas motions, which depends on the internal structure (porosity) of aggregates. Aims: To quantify the importance of the internal structure on the collisional evolution of particles, and to create a new coagulation model to investigate the difference between porous and compact coagulation in the context of a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Methods: We have developed simple prescriptions for the collisional evolution of porosity of grain-aggregates in grain-grain collisions. Three regimes can then be distinguished: `hit-and-stick' at low velocities, with an increase in porosity; compaction at intermediate velocities, with a decrease of porosity; and fragmentation at high velocities. (..) Results: (..) We can discern three diff...

  16. Cross Talk Pathways Between Coagulation and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Jonathan H; Conway, Edward M

    2016-04-29

    Anatomic pathology studies performed over 150 years ago revealed that excessive activation of coagulation occurs in the setting of inflammation. However, it has taken over a century since these seminal observations were made to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which these systems interact and the extent to which they participate in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases. There is, in fact, extensive cross talk between coagulation and inflammation, whereby activation of one system may amplify activation of the other, a situation that, if unopposed, may result in tissue damage or even multiorgan failure. Characterizing the common triggers and pathways are key for the strategic design of effective therapeutic interventions. In this review, we highlight some of the key molecular interactions, some of which are already showing promise as therapeutic targets for inflammatory and thrombotic disorders. PMID:27126649

  17. Coagulation-Fragmentation Model for Animal Group-Size Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degond, Pierre; Liu, Jian-Guo; Pego, Robert L.

    2016-10-01

    We study coagulation-fragmentation equations inspired by a simple model proposed in fisheries science to explain data for the size distribution of schools of pelagic fish. Although the equations lack detailed balance and admit no H-theorem, we are able to develop a rather complete description of equilibrium profiles and large-time behavior, based on recent developments in complex function theory for Bernstein and Pick functions. In the large-population continuum limit, a scaling-invariant regime is reached in which all equilibria are determined by a single scaling profile. This universal profile exhibits power-law behavior crossing over from exponent -2/3 for small size to -3/2 for large size, with an exponential cutoff.

  18. Brownian coagulation at high particle concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Trzeciak, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of Brownian coagulation, whereby particles are brought together by thermal motion and grow by collisions, is one of the most fundamental processes influencing the final properties of particulate matter in a variety of technically important systems. It is of importance in colloids, emulsions, flocculation, air pollution, soot formation, materials manufacture and growth of interstellar dust, to name a few of its applications. With continuous progress in particulate matter processing...

  19. [Interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschter, R; Hessel, S; Hofstetter, A; Keiditsch, E; Rothenberger, K H; Schneede, P; Frank, F

    1993-07-01

    We report on the new method of interstitial laser coagulation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The procedure is based on the interstitial application of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, delivered through a new light guide system. Such light applicators coagulate constant tissue volumes in a homogeneous manner, as proven by in vitro studies in different tissues, including surgically removed prostate adenoma. The extent of the coagulation is determined by laser power and irradiation time. At 5 W, for example, and during a 10-min period, this zone reached a diameter of up to 20 mm. Temperatures generated in the process were over 100 degrees C, as measured by time/space resolution. These results were confirmed by in vivo studies in canine prostates. In the course of 7 weeks, the coagulated areas formed scars with degeneration and fibrosis, accompanied by marked shrinking. Neighbouring organs were not affected. The method was successfully transferred to clinical practice. The application of the light guides to the lateral lobes was performed percutaneously from the perineum under transrectal ultrasound guidance. The median lobe was punctured transurethrally under direct vision. Twenty-seven patients with an average age of 67.7 years were treated between July 1991 and March 1992. At the time of evaluation 15 patients had a follow-up of more than 2 months. They experienced a mean increase of peak flow rate from 6.6 to 15.2 ml/s and a mean decrease of residual volume from 206 to 38 ml. This was accompanied by a marked lessening of symptoms. The average prostate weight decreased from 63 to 44 g. Sexually active patients did not experience retrograde ejaculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690498

  20. Coagulation Factor IX for Hemophilia B Therapy


    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, N.; Kovnir, S.; Vorobiev, I.; Gabibov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Factor IX is a zymogen enzyme of the blood coagulation cascade. Inherited absence or deficit of the IX functional factor causes bleeding disorder hemophilia B, which requires constant protein replacement therapy. Reviewed herein are the current state in the manufacturing of FIX, improved variants of the recombinant protein for therapy, transgenic organisms for obtaining FIX, and the advances in the gene therapy of hemophilia B.

  1. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Kim, Jaehan; Abuawad, Ahlam; Naeem, Mubeena; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-01-01

    Thymoquinone (THQ) is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF) and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased ("pure") THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ's ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies. PMID:27043539

  2. Disseminated intravascular coagulation: testing and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Hatada, Tsuyoshi

    2014-09-25

    Abnormalities of the hemostatic system in patients with DIC result from the sum of vectors for hypercoagulation and hyperfibrinolysis. DIC is classified into hyperfibrinolysis, hypercoagulation, massive bleeding or nonsymptomatic types according to the balance of the two vectors. Both the antithrombin (AT) and protein C (PC) levels are significantly low in patients with septic DIC, and reduced amounts of AT and PC result in the lack of inhibition of thrombin and activated FVIII, respectively. Thrombin activates FVIII, while activated FVIII accelerates the coagulation pathway to generate thrombin; thus activation of the coagulation system persists. Three sets of diagnostic criteria have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis and Japanese Association for Acute Medicine, respectively. Although these three diagnostic criteria score hemostatic abnormalities using similar global coagulation tests, the sensitivity and/or specificity for death differ. Treatment with AT or activated PC may not improve the outcomes of patients with sepsis at the early stage, although they may improve the outcomes in those with DIC. Therefore, new diagnostic criteria for determining the appropriate time to initiate anticoagulant treatment are required.

  3. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  4. Multiorgan dysfunction in a gravid woman with placental abruption and disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezić Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent obstetrical cause of coagulation disorders as disseminated intravascular coagulation is placental abruption, which can be found in women without any apparent clinical disturbances or in the state of established preeclampsia. Hypertension occurs in 5-8% of all pregnancies and may be complicated by preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a complex clinical syndrome with insufficiently clear pathophysiology based on the damage of the vascular endothelium. As a result of this, generalized endothelial disruption in preeclampsia, a multiorgan dysfunction, can develop, most frequently reflected in the clinical presentation with hematological and renal disturbances and with a disordered function of the liver and central nervous system. We are presenting a case of a gravid woman with poorly regulated hypertension that resulted from development of preeclampsia, later complicated by placental abruption and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC with multi-organ dysfunction. The importance of rapid recognition of coagulation disorder and the attempt at surgical treatment aiming at removal of the triggering mechanisms of DIC was shown, suggesting all the symptomatic therapeutic measures would be ineffective. Although our patient was surgically treated in the phase of generalized disorder characterized by development of coma, acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal insufficiency when mortality was 70%, the recovery of functions of all involved organs was achieved, except for the renal function that required chronic haemodialysis treatment.

  5. Global fibrinolytic capacity in pediatric patients with sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Ali; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Kose, Dogan; Dogan, Murat

    2006-10-01

    There are many complex pathophysiologic changes of the coagulation system in sepsis. The fibrinolytic system was evaluated in septic children using the global fibrinolytic capacity (GFC), a new technique reflecting the overall fibrinolytic activity. The study consisted of 24 children with sepsis, 36 children with sepsis plus disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and 20 healthy age-matched control individuals. Compared with controls, 86% of sepsis patients and 87% of sepsis plus DIC patients had decreased GFC levels. Between the sepsis plus DIC and sepsis groups there was no significant difference in terms of GFC levels. While 19 patients (52.7%) died in the sepsis plus DIC group, only three patients (12.5%) died in the sepsis group. When survivors and nonsurvivors were compared in terms of coagulation tests, there were significant differences for protein C, antithrombin, platelet, fibrinogen, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, prothrombin time, and white blood cell values. In conclusion, the level of GFC reduced in most of the pediatric sepsis patients but no difference was observed between patients with sepsis and patients with sepsis plus DIC. While inhibition of fibrinolysis is an important finding in sepsis, the mortality is mainly associated with the presence of end-organ damage and the status of coagulation parameters.

  6. Therapeutic modulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, Sara C; Bastarache, Julie A; Ware, Lorraine B

    2011-09-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are characterized by excessive intraalveolar fibrin deposition, driven, at least in part by inflammation. The imbalance between activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis in patients with ALI/ARDS favors fibrin formation and appears to occur both systemically and in the lung and airspace. Tissue factor (TF), a key mediator of the activation of coagulation in the lung, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS. As such, there have been numerous investigations modulating TF activity in a variety of experimental systems in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for ALI/ARDS. This review will summarize current understanding of the role of TF and other proteins of the coagulation cascade as well the fibrinolysis pathway in the development of ALI/ARDS with an emphasis on the pathways that are potential therapeutic targets. These include the TF inhibitor pathway, the protein C pathway, antithrombin, heparin, and modulation of fibrinolysis through plasminogen activator- 1 (PAI-1) or plasminogen activators (PA). Although experimental studies show promising results, clinical trials to date have proven unsuccessful in improving patient outcomes. Modulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis has complex effects on both hemostasis and inflammatory pathways and further studies are needed to develop new treatment strategies for patients with ALI/ARDS. PMID:21401517

  7. Enrichment of trace metals in water utilizing the coagulation of soybean protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enrichment of trace metals in water with a coagulated soybean protein and the complex-forming character of heavy metal ions with the soybean protein were investigated by means of emission spectrography. Fixed amounts of soybean milk (collector) and delta-gluconic lactone (coagulant) were added to a sample solution containing various metal ions, and then the mixture was heated to boiling in order to coagulate the protein. The coagulum (soybean curd) separated from the suspension with a centrifuge was burned to ashes with a low temperature plasma asher. Then metals enriched in the soybean curd were determined by means of emission spectrography. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.4--5.0 by adding suitable amounts of delta-gluconic lactone for the complete coagulation of the soybean protein. The proposed method can be applied to the collection and enrichment of various metal ions such as gold, silver, mercury, platinum, cadmium, beryllium, palladium, antimony, gallium, indium, cerium, lanthanum, thorium, yttrium, zirconium, etc. Those metals are not detectable in the original soybean. (auth.)

  8. Treatment of Leachate by Coagulation-Flocculation using different Coagulants and Polymer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mao Rui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate will be treated by using coagulation-flocculation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in a number of diverse disciplines, including biochemistry, cheese manufacturing, rubber manufacturing, and in water and waste water treatment. It is effective for removing high concentration organic pollutant and heavy metals in wastewater. However, coagulationflocculation examined the effectiveness of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride (PAC1  as well as the use of synthetic polymers on the removal of suspended solid (SS, color, COD and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N from leachate. The coagulant dosage has typically been determined through jar test, which requires a long experiment time in a field water treatment plant.

  9. Mechanism of natural organic matter removal by polyaluminum chloride: effect of coagulant particle size and hydrolysis kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ni, Jinren; Qu, Jiuhui; Chow, Christopher W K; Liu, Hailong

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of natural organic matter (NOM) removal by AlCl(3) and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was investigated through bench-scale tests. The fraction distributions of NOM and residual Al after coagulation in solution, colloid and sediment were analyzed as changes of coagulant dosage and pH. The influence of NOM, coagulant dose and pH on coagulation kinetics of AlCl(3) was investigated using photometric dispersion analyzer compared with PACl. Monomeric Al species (Al(a)) shows high ability to satisfy some unsaturated coordinate bonds of NOM to facilitate particle and NOM removal, while most of the flocs formed by Al(a) are small and difficult to settle. Medium polymerized Al species (Al(b)) can destabilize particle and NOM efficiently, while some flocs formed by Al(b) are not large and not easy to precipitate as compared to those formed by colloidal or solid Al species (Al(c)). Thus, Al(c) could adsorb and remove NOM efficiently. The removal of contaminant by species of Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c) follows mechanisms of complexation, neutralization and adsorption, respectively. Unlike preformed Al(b) in PACl, in-situ-formed Al(b) can remove NOM and particle more efficiently via the mechanism of further hydrolysis and transfer into Al(c) during coagulation. While the presence of NOM would reduce Al(b) formed in-situ due to the complexation of NOM and Al(a).

  10. The Interface between Inflammation and Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Demetz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The intimate connection between coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular disease has moved more and more into focus of clinical research. This paper focuses on the essential components of this interplay in the settings of cardiovascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Tissue factor, the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, plays a central role via causing a proinflammatory response through activation of coagulation factors and thereby initiating coagulation and downstream cellular signalling pathways. Regarding activated clotting factors II, X, and VII, protease-activated receptors provide the molecular link between coagulation and inflammation. Hereby, PAR-1 displays deleterious as well as beneficial properties. Unravelling these interrelations may help developing new strategies to ameliorate the detrimental reciprocal aggravation of inflammation and coagulation.

  11. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Klančnik

    2014-01-01

    The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99...

  12. Recovery of struvite via coagulation and flocculation using natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-01-01

    One of the major setbacks of struvite recovery processes is the difficulty in harvesting struvite crystals. This study evaluates the use of different coagulants to improve precipitation of struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H20) crystals. Chitosan and poly(diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (Poly-DADMAC) as a coagulant-flocculent and alginate and bentonite as a coagulant aid have been examined in jar tests. Also, a continuous three-phase process, i.e., struvite crystallization, coagulation/flocculation and precipitation process, was set up for real wastewater. Addition of chitosan as the coagulant and bentonite as the coagulant aid was significantly more efficient in forming struvite flocs in comparison to Poly-DADMAC alone or with coagulant aid, which did not show any positive effect. The calculated average settling velocity of struvite with chitosan-bentonite addition in synthetic and in real wastewater increased by approximately 5.3 and 2.8 folds, respectively, compared with that of no coagulant/flocculent addition. Phosphorus recovery of over 70% was achieved by the continuous process. Findings in this study clearly confirmed the possibility of using chitosan and bentonite as an efficient coagulant-flocculent to enhance the recovery of struvite crystals.

  13. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. PMID:27060831

  14. The effect of garlic on coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Yeganeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: There are many reports on anti-thrombotic properties of garlic. Also, regarding the simultaneous consumption of garlic and Warfarine or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, some warning recommendations are published. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of garlic on coagulation tests, and in case of any demonstrative anticoagulation effect, the patients, particularly those with coagulation disorders, could be given appropriate advice on proper consumption of garlic.Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial in which 50 volunteer students were selected based on information collected using appropriate questionnaires. The students were tested for coagulation assays including bleeding time (BT, clotting time (CT, prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PIT, clot retraction (CR, and platelets count (PC before and after consumption of garlic. Data were analyzed using SPPS and T-test. The average values of tests obtained in two stages of experiment were further compared statistically. Results: The results of our study on subjects (30 females and 20 males with an average age of 21.7 years showed that there was no significant change in values obtained for CT, PT, PC and CR (p>0.05 following consumption of garlic. However, a significant increase in PTT values was found following consumption of garlic (the p values for samples collected after 24 hours and 4 hours were 0.001 and 0.012 respectively. There was also a significant difference (p=0.027 in BT 24 hours after garlic consumption. Regarding the results of similar tests among two genders, no significant difference was found.Conclusion: Following consumption of garlic, there was a significant increase in PIT and BT, the effect being more obvious after 24 hours. The data of present study regarding the inhibitory effect of garlic on platelet activities is consistent with those reported by some other researches which is also

  15. Coagulation-Inflammatory Network: Anti-inflammatory Effect of Natural Coagulation Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺石林

    2001-01-01

    @@ Considerable evidence has accumulated to indicated that the serine protease in blood clotting process not only participate in the activation of coagulation factors,but also result in a series of cell responses particularly involved in inflammation process through appropriate receptors.

  16. The Diagnosis and Man Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flelcher B.; Taylor.Jr

    2003-01-01

    @@ This review describes disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) as a syndrome in which hemostatic factors are activated and products are generated. This syndrome ranges in severity from an obvious decompensated coagulopathy (overt-DIC) to the subclinical compensated activation of hemostatic factors(non-overt DIC). Ths first part of this review emphasizes two points: First, activation of the hemostatic system is controlled by a vast network of capillaries and venules through anticoagulant and antiinflammatory regulatory factors that operate from the endothelium( e. G. , protein C and thrombomodulin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor).

  17. Monitoring Oral Anticoagulant Therapy: Measuring Coagulant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attermann, Jorn

    Life-long oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with vitamin K antagonists is offered to patients with increased risk of thrombosis, e.g. patients with artificial heart valves or with atrial fibrillation. It is estimated that in 1992 in the Nordic countries 0.3 – 0.5% of the population was undergoing...... daily anticoagulant therapy. The therapy necessitates close monitoring of coagulant activity, since excess doses of anticoagulant medicine may lead to life-threatening bleedings. Traditionally, patients on OAT are required to pay regular visits to a physician, who decides on drug dosage adjustments...

  18. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to <1 mg/L but in practice, this option would incur significant costs. The treatment performance of the purified recovered coagulants was compared to that of virgin reagent with reference to key water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material. PMID:26521220

  19. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to treatment performance of the purified recovered coagulants was compared to that of virgin reagent with reference to key water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material.

  20. Plasma and plasma components in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Levi; E. de Jonge; T. van der Poll

    2006-01-01

    A variety of clinical conditions can cause systemic activation of coagulation that ranges from insignificant laboratory changes to severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC consists of a widespread systemic activation of coagulation, resulting in diffuse fibrin deposition in small and

  1. Thymoquinone Modulates Blood Coagulation in Vitro via Its Effects on Inflammatory and Coagulation Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandhana Muralidharan-Chari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (THQ is a major component of black seeds. Given that both THQ and black seeds exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities, we hypothesized that THQ will affect cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT, which is primarily triggered by tissue factor (TF and inflammation. The effect of both black seed-extracted and purchased (“pure” THQ on normal blood coagulation was tested with in vitro thromboelastography (TEG and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT coagulation assays. The effect of pure THQ on CAT was tested with aPTT assay using pancreatic cancer cell lines that are either positive or negative for TF, and with TEG assay using lipopolysaccharide as an inflammatory trigger. Additionally, the direct effect of THQ on the inactivation of factors IIa and Xa was assessed. Since TNF-α facilitates crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis by triggering the NF-κB pathway, we tested THQ’s ability to interfere with this communication with a luciferase assay. Both extracted and pure THQ had minimal effects on normal blood coagulation. Pure THQ reversed CAT initiated by both TF and inflammation to basal levels (p < 0.001. Mechanistically, while THQ had minimal to no effect on factor IIa and Xa inactivation, it strongly reduced the effects of TNF-α on NF-κB elements (p < 0.001. THQ has a minimal effect on basal coagulation and can reverse CAT in vitro, possibly by interfering with the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation. This study suggests the utility of THQ as a preventative anticoagulant and/or as a supplement to existing chemotherapies and anticoagulant therapies.

  2. Understanding effects of water characteristics on natural organic matter treatability by PACl and a novel PACl-chitosan coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mega; Liu, Sanly; Chow, Christopher W K; Drikas, Mary; Amal, Rose; Lim, May

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between water characteristics and removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and a newly developed coagulant obtained by hybridising PACl with chitosan (PACl-chitosan) for two different types of water. Using UV-visible spectroscopy analysis, we showed that PACl-chitosan is more effective than PACl for treating water samples that contain higher levels of activated polyhydroxyaromatic moieties. As a result, a lower level of total trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) was detected for synthetic water treated with PACl-chitosan coagulant compared to water treated with PACl only. In contrast, no difference was observed for the total THMFP that were formed following coagulation with either coagulant, for water sample containing the same level of organic carbon concentration, but lower levels of polyhydroxyaromatic moieties. Our work shows how the complex characteristics and interactions of organic matter with coagulant component can affect the outcome of the treatment process, and in this case, enhance the treatment. The use of PACl-chitosan was also shown to produce larger floc for both water samples; this again, can lead to better removal.

  3. The loss of homeostasis in hemostasis: new approaches in treating and understanding acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Karen M; Abrams, Charles S

    2012-02-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) profoundly increases the morbidity and mortality of patients who have sepsis. Both laboratory and clinical research advanced the understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of DIC. This, in turn, gave rise to improved therapies and patient outcomes. Beginning with a stimulus causing disruption of vascular integrity, cytokines and chemokines cause activation of systemic coagulation and inflammation. Seemingly paradoxically, the interplay between coagulation and inflammation also inhibits endogenous anticoagulants, fibrinolytics, and antiinflammatory pathways. The earliest documented and best-studied microbial cause of DIC is the lipopolysaccharide endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria. Extensive microvascular thrombi emerge in the systemic vasculature due to dysregulation of coagulation. The result of this unrestrained, widespread small vessel thromboses multiorgan system failure. Consumption of platelets and coagulation factors during this process can lead to an elevated risk of hemorrhage. The management of these patients with simultaneous hemorrhage and thrombosis is complex and challenging. Definitive treatment of DIC, and attenuation of end-organ damage, requires control of the inciting cause. Currently, activated protein C is the only approved therapy in the United States for sepsis complicated by DIC. Further research is needed in this area to improve clinical outcomes for patients with sepsis.

  4. Removal of acetaminophen and naproxen by combined coagulation and adsorption using biochar: influence of combined sewer overflow components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chanil; Oh, Jeill; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-07-01

    The combined coagulation and adsorption of targeted acetaminophen and naproxen using activated biochar and aluminum sulfate were studied under various synthetic "combined sewer overflow" (CSO) conditions. The biochar demonstrated better adsorption performance for both acetaminophen and naproxen (removal, 94.1 and 97.7%, respectively) than that of commercially available powdered activated carbon (removal, 81.6 and 94.1%, respectively) due to superior carbonaceous structure and surface properties examined by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The adsorption of naproxen was more favorable, occupying active adsorption sites on the adsorbents by naproxen due to its higher adsorption affinity compared to acetaminophen. Three classified CSO components (i.e., representing hydrophobic organics, hydrophilic organics, and inorganics) played different roles in the adsorption of both adsorbates, resulted in inhibition by humic acid complexation or metal ligands and negative electrostatic repulsion under adsorption and coagulation combined system. Adsorption alone with biochar was determined to be the most effective adsorptive condition for the removal of both acetaminophen and naproxen under various CSO conditions, while both coagulation alone and combined adsorption and coagulation failed to remove the acetaminophen and naproxen adequately due to an increase in ionic strength in the presence of spiked aluminum species derived from the coagulant. PMID:25680690

  5. Attach importance to the early diagnosis and treatment of acute coagulation dysfunction after major war trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie-Shou; Li, You-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Coagulation dysfunction after major war trauma is conventionally attributed to consumption and dilution of coagulation factors. However, recent studies have identified an acute coagulation dysfunction at the early stage after trauma. This coagulation dysfunction due to endogenous coagulation disturbance at the early stage after trauma is called acute traumatic coagulation dysfunction (ATCD), and the patients with ATCD would have an increased complication rate and mortality. Standard coagulati...

  6. Nanoparticle assisted coagulation of aqueous alumina suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fatih Çetinel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal processing of ceramics offers a high potential to achieve homogeneous microstructures with improved material properties. In this study, a novel forming method is investigated, which was already applied successfully for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites (CMC, but is also considered to be a suitable direct casting technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties. The so-called nanoparticle assisted coagulation method (NPAC represents a modification of the hydrolysis-assisted solidification (HAS technique. It promises green components with high green strength, uniform density as well as homogeneous and tailored microstructure. Electrostatically stabilized colloidal suspensions with high solid loadings were produced by dispersing various fractions of submicron alumina powder and aluminium hydroxide nano-powder in water without use of any organic binder. Rheology and coagulation kinetics of suspensions and green part properties were studied regarding to modifications of pH value, setting temperature, amount of setting agent, amount of nano-powder, solids loading and process parameters like ultrasound treatment. It could be revealed that the homogeneous core-shell arrangement of submicron and nanoparticles in the colloidal state can be transmitted to the green state, which improves the microstructure and green density of the green parts. For this, the NPAC method is seen as a promising technique for the fabrication of advanced ceramics with tailored microstructure and properties.

  7. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  8. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Pise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  9. Activation of blood coagulation in autoimmune skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Massimo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Crosti, Carlo; Marzano, Angelo V

    2009-09-01

    The immune system and blood coagulation are simultaneously activated in several inflammatory systemic disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha, induce the expression of tissue factor, the main initiator of blood coagulation. Activated proteases of coagulation in turn act on protease-activated receptors, inducing the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines. This cross-talk between inflammation and coagulation amplifies and maintains the activation of both systems. This review focuses on three skin disorders: chronic urticaria (CU), which is considered autoimmune in approximately 50% of cases, bullous pemphigoid (BP), which is the prototype of autoimmune blistering disease, and psoriasis, which is an immune-mediated dermatitis. In CU, the activation of coagulation, which is due to the involvement of eosinophils and tissue factor pathways with the generation of thrombin, has local implications by increasing dermal vascular permeability. Preliminary data indicate that anticoagulant treatment with heparin and warfarin may be effective in reducing the symptoms of this disorder. In BP, the activation of coagulation seems to have both local and systemic implications. Locally, eosinophils and thrombin participate in bulla formation and tissue damage; systemically, the activation of coagulation may explain the increased thrombotic risk observed in these patients. In psoriasis, the activation of coagulation seems to be mainly systemic, potentially contributing to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with this disease. PMID:20477646

  10. Influence of blood flow on the coagulation cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The influence of diffusion and convetive flows on the blood coagulation cascade is investigated for a controlled perfusion experiment. We present a cartoon model and reaction schemes for parts of the coagulation cascade with sunsequent set up of a mathematical model in two space dimensions plus one...

  11. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  12. Coagulation of micro-polluted Pearl River water with IPF-PACls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; SUN Wei; WANG Dong-sheng; TANG Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    Water samples collected from early March 2001 to the end of April 2002 at the branch of Pearl River around the Guangzhou City were analyzed for its micro-polluted characteristics. The coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chlorides(PACls) was then examined focusing on the effect of primary water quality and speciation distribution. The results showed that PACls exhibit better coagulation efficiency than alum in accordance with the different speciation.The turbidity removal property of PACls is evidently better than alum at Iow dosage. While in neutral zone (about 6.5-7.5), the turbidity removal of PACls decreases owing to the restabilization of particles at higher dosage. The organic matters in raw water exhibit marked influence on coagulation. In acidic zone, organic matters complex with polymer species and promote the formation of flocs. With an increase in pH, the complexation of organics with polymer species gradually decreases, and the removal of organics mainly depends on adsorption. The effect is evidently improved with the raise of B value.

  13. Hyperprolactinemia during antipsychotics treatment increases the level of coagulation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishioka M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Masamichi Ishioka, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Norio Sugawara, Hanako Furukori, Shuhei Kudo, Kazuhiko Nakamura Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Objective: The strong association between psychiatric patients who receive antipsychotics and the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE is known. Although previous reports suggest that hyperprolactinemia often increases markers of activated coagulation, few studies have examined the direct relationship between the prolactin level elevated by antipsychotics and activated markers of activated coagulation.Method: The participants included 182 patients with schizophrenia (male =89, female =93 who received antipsychotic treatments for at least 3 months. Markers of VTE (D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, and thrombin–antithrombin complex and serum prolactin concentrations were measured.Results: Prolactin levels were significantly correlated with the logarithmic transformation of the D-dimer (r=0.320, P=0.002 and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product levels (r=0.236, P=0.026 but not of the thrombin–antithrombin complex level (r=0.117, ns among men. However, no correlations were found between the VTE markers and prolactin levels among women. These results were confirmed using multiple regression analyses that included demographic factors and antipsychotic dosages. Conclusion: The current study indicates that hyperprolactinemia is associated with an increase in markers of activated coagulation among men receiving antipsychotics. This finding clinically implies that monitoring and modulating prolactin levels among men are important to decrease the risk of VTE. Keywords: prolactin, antipsychotics, venous thromboembolism

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in term and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Alex; Fischer, Doris; Nold, Marcel F; Wong, Flora Y

    2010-06-01

    Among critically ill patients, the risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is probably highest in neonates. Low plasma reserves in pro- and anticoagulant coagulation factors, intravascular volume contraction after birth, and a high incidence of hypoxia and sepsis in critically ill newborns rapidly lead to a decompensation of the coagulation system in this population. Global coagulation tests and single-factor plasma levels have to be interpreted in the context of age-corrected normal ranges. Platelet consumption and reduced protein C plasma levels have diagnostic value; the latter also has prognostic potential in neonates with DIC and sepsis. Therapeutic success relies heavily on reversal of the underlying condition. Some coagulation-specific therapies have been explored in small studies and case series with varying success and sometimes conflicting results. Therefore, larger controlled trials in this common and serious condition are urgently needed.

  15. Performance and characterization of a new tannin-based coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Sánchez-Martín, J.; Gómez-Muñoz, C.

    2012-09-01

    Diethanolamine and formaldehyde were employed to cationize tannins from black wattle. This novel coagulant called CDF was functionally characterized in removing sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (anionic surfactant) and Palatine Fast Black WAN (azoic dye). Refined tannin-derived commercial coagulants exhibited similar efficiency, while CDF presented higher coagulant ability than alum, a usual coagulant agent. Low doses of CDF (ca. 100 mg L-1) were able to remove more than 70 % of surfactant and more than 85 % of dye (initial pollutant concentration of ca. 100 mg L-1) and it presented no temperature affection and worked at a relatively wide pH range. Surfactant and dye removal responded to the classical coagulant-and-adsorption models, such as Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim or Gu and Zhu in the case of surfactant, and Langmuir and Freundlich in the case of dye.

  16. The Role for Coagulation Markers in Mild Snakebite Envenomations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa S. Moriarity

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The majority of patients seeking medical treatment for snakebites do not suffer from severe envenomation. However, no guidelines exist for ordering coagulation markers in patients with minimal or moderate envenomation, nor in those who do not receive antivenom. In this study, we sought to determine whether it was possible to limit the practice of ordering coagulation studies to those patients suffering severe envenomation, rattlesnake envenomation, or both.Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all cases of crotalid snakebite presenting to an adult emergency department (ED from April 1998 to June 2006. Each chart was abstracted for patient’s age, gender, type of snake (if known, severity of envenomation at initial presentation, coagulation test results, whether antivenom was administered, and whether the patient was admitted.Results: Over an approximately 8-year period, 131 snakebite cases presented that met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 (26.7% had some type of coagulation marker abnormality. Limiting coagulation testing to patients suffering severe envenomation or rattlesnake envenomation would have resulted in failure to identify 89% or 77%, respectively, of the 35 patients who were found to have at least 1 abnormal coagulation marker.Conclusion: Our study failed to identify a subset of patients that could be defined as low risk or for whom coagulation marker testing could be foregone. This study suggests that coagulation tests should be routinely performed on all patients presenting to the ED with complaints of envenomation by copperheads, moccasins, or rattlesnakes. Further clarification of when coagulation markers are indicated may require a prospective study that standardizes snake identification and the timing of coagulation marker testing. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:68–74.

  17. Stimulation of Naive Monocytes and PBMCs with Coagulation Proteases Results in Thrombin-Mediated and PAR-1-Dependent Cytokine Release and Cell Proliferation in PBMCs Only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, L.; Falkenburg, W. J. J.; Schutgens, R. E. G.; Roosendaal, G.; van Veghel, K.; Biesma, D. H.; Lafeber, F. P. J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are stimulated by proteolytic cleavage of their extracellular domain. Coagulation proteases, such as FVIIa, the binary TF-FVIIa complex, free FXa, the ternary TF-FVIIa-FXa complex and thrombin, are able to stimulate PARs. Whereas the role of PARs on platelets is w

  18. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  19. Treatment of Textile Wastewaterby Adsorption and Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite of wastewater treatment was carried out using activated charcoal as adsorbent to remove COD, BOD, color in which various parameters like adsorbent dose, contact duration, temperature and agitator speed were considered. The adsorbent behavior can be explained on the basis of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Maximum removal (87.6, 81.0 and 90.0% of COD, BOD and color respectively was found at adsorbent dosage of 11 g/L. Also, the textile mill wastewater was treated with different doses of coagulants like alum, ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate at constant contact duration (4 hours and room temperature (300 K. Percentage reduction (maximum corresponds to 80.2, 74.0 and 84.9% was obtained for removal of COD, BOD and color respectively.

  20. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Abed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence.

  1. Using chloramine as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation of Yellow River water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Considering that contaminated raw water mostly contains high Ammonia-N and a majority of water treatment plants use prechlorination process in China, efficiency of chloramines as a coagulant aid in enhancing coagulation was investigated by Jar stirring and pilot-scale tests, using Yellow River water containing high concentration of natural organic matters (NOM) and bromide in winter. The jar tests results showed that, compared with no preoxidation, preformed chloramine apparently decreased the turbidity of settled and filtered water with low dosage (2.0 mg/L), and the aid-coagulation efficiency was further enhanced with the increase of chlorine (Cl2) to Ammonia-N (N) ratio. Pilot-scale studies indicated that, in comparison to the case without preoxidation, the turbidity removal efficiency of flotation and filtration effluent water was significantly improved, the particle counts of filtered water were decreased 63.4%, the average rate of filter head loss was reduced 18.2%, and filter run time was prolonged 15.7%. Therefore, chloramine preoxidation may substantially enhance the particle separation efficiency.

  2. Field-theory methods in coagulation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coagulating systems are systems of chaotically moving particles that collide and coalesce, producing daughter particles of mass equal to the sum of the masses involved in the respective collision event. The present article puts forth basic ideas underlying the application of methods of quantum-field theory to the theory of coagulating systems. Instead of the generally accepted treatment based on the use of a standard kinetic equation that describes the time evolution of concentrations of particles consisting of a preset number of identical objects (monomers in the following), one introduces the probability W(Q, t) to find the system in some state Q at an instant t for a specific rate of transitions between various states. Each state Q is characterized by a set of occupation numbers Q = (n1, n2, ..., ng, ...), where ng is the total number of particles containing precisely g monomers. Thereupon, one introduces the generating functional Ψ for the probability W(Q, t). The time evolution of Ψ is described by an equation that is similar to the Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional Bose field. This equation is solved exactly for transition rates proportional to the product of the masses of colliding particles. It is shown that, within a finite time interval, which is independent of the total mass of the entire system, a giant particle of mass about the mass of the entire system may appear in this system. The particle in question is unobservable in the thermodynamic limit, and this explains the well-known paradox of mass-concentration nonconservation in classical kinetic theory. The theory described in the present article is successfully applied in studying the time evolution of random graphs.

  3. Effect of coagulation pretreatment on the fouling of ultrafiltration membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bing-zhi; CHEN Yan; GAO Nai-yun; FAN Jin-chu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect and mechanism of preventing membrane fouling,by coagulation pretreatment,in terms of fractional component and molecular weight of natural organic matter(NOM).A relatively higher molecular weight(MW)of hydrophobic compounds was responsible for a rapid decline in the ultrafiltration flux.Coagulation could effectively remove the hydrophobic organics.resulting in the increase of flux.It was found that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds,which could remove inadequately by coagulation.was responsible for tlle slow declining flux.The fluxes in the filtration of coagulated water and supematant water were compared and the results showed that a lower MW of neutral hydrophilic compounds remained in the supernatant water after coagulation could be rejected by a membrane,resulting in fouling.It was also found that the coagulated flocs could absorb neutral hydrophilic compounds effectively.Therefore,with the coagulated flocs formed on the membrane surface,the flux decline could be improved.

  4. A short contemporary history of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to a widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. There is ample experimental and pathological evidence that the fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ failure. The massive and ongoing activation of coagulation may result in depletion of platelets and coagulation factors, which may cause bleeding (consumption coagulopathy). The syndrome of DIC is well known in the medical literature for centuries, although a more precise description of the underlying mechanisms had to await the 20th century. Initial ideas on a role of the contact activation system as the primary trigger for the systemic activation of coagulation as well as a presumed hyperfibrinolytic response in DIC have been found to be misconceptions. Experimental and clinical evidence now indicate that the initiation of coagulation in DIC is caused by tissue factor expression, which in combination with downregulated physiological anticoagulant pathways and impaired fibrinolysis leads to widespread fibrin deposition. In addition, an extensive bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammation may further contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC.

  5. Thromboelastometry in patients with severe sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivula, Mirka; Pettilä, Ville; Niemi, Tomi T; Varpula, Marjut; Kuitunen, Anne H

    2009-09-01

    Severe sepsis induces coagulopathy, which may lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Thromboelastometry is a point-of-care whole blood coagulation monitor, which has been validated in human endotoxemia model. We assessed thromboelastometry in severe sepsis and overt DIC and investigated its applicability in differentiating sepsis-related coagulation disturbances. Thromboelastometry (EXTEM and FIBTEM tests) and traditional coagulation assays were analyzed in 28 patients with severe sepsis, 12 of who fulfilled the criteria of overt DIC on admission. Ten healthy persons served as controls. Coagulation parameters, clotting time, clot formation time (CFT), alpha angle, maximal clot firmness (MCF) and lysis index at 60 min, were registered. In patients with overt DIC, EXTEM MCF, CFT and alpha angle differed from that in both healthy controls and patients without DIC, indicating hypocoagulation (MCF 52, 63 and 68 mm; CFT 184, 88 and 73 s; and alpha angle 58, 72 and 76 degrees , respectively, P coagulation assays showed progressively worsening coagulopathy from controls to septic patients without DIC and further to those with overt DIC. We conclude that thromboelastometry may be a valuable tool in assessing whole blood coagulation capacity in patients with severe sepsis with and without overt DIC.

  6. Fuzzy Based Auto-coagulation Control Through Photometric Dispersion Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白桦; 李圭白

    2004-01-01

    The main role of water treatment plants is to supply high-quality safe drinking water. Coagulation is one of the most important stages of surface water treatment. The photometric dispersion analyzer(PDA) is a new optical method for flocculation monitoring, and is feasible to realize coagulation feedback control. The on line modification of the coagulation control system' s set point( or optimum dosing coagulant) has influenced the application of this technology in water treatment plant for a long time. A fuzzy control system incorporating the photometric dispersion analyzer was utilized in this coagulation control system. Proposed is a fuzzy logic inference control system by using Takagi and Sugeno' s fuzzy if-then rule for the self-correction of set point on line. Programmed is the dosing rate fuzzy control system in SIEMENS small-scale programmable logic controller. A 400 L/min middle-scale water treatment plant was utilized to simulate the reaction. With the changes of raw water quality, the set point was modified correctly in time, as well as coagulant dosing rate, and residual turbility before filtration was eligible and stable. Results show that this fuzzy inference and control system performs well on the coagulation control system through PDA.

  7. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  8. Distribution functions and moments in the theory of coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different distribution functions and their moments used in the Theory of coagulation are summarized and analysed. Relations between the moments of these distribution functions are derived and the physical meaning of individual moments is briefly discussed. The time evolution of the moment of order zero (total number concentration) during the coagulation process is analysed for the general kernel of the Smoluchowski equation. On this basis the time evolution of certain physically important quantities related to this moment such as mean particle size, surface and volume as well as surface concentration is described. Equations for the half time of coagulation for the general collision frequency factor are derived. (orig.)

  9. Current Pathological and Laboratory Considerations in the Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hock; Alhamdi, Yasir; Abrams, Simon T

    2016-11-01

    Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface. In addition to the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) following cellular activation and damage, respectively, there is the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular histones and cell-free DNA. Extracellular histones are increasingly recognized as significantly pathogenic in critical illnesses through direct cell toxicity, the promotion of thrombin generation, and the induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Clinically, high circulating levels of histones and histone-DNA complexes are associated with multiorgan failure, DIC, and adverse patient outcomes. Their measurements as well as that of other DAMPs and molecular markers of thrombin generation are not yet applicable in the routine diagnostic laboratory. To provide a practical diagnostic tool for acute DIC, a composite scoring system using rapidly available coagulation tests is recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Its usefulness and limitations are discussed alongside the advances and unanswered questions in DIC pathogenesis.

  10. The event-driven constant volume method for particle coagulation dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method, which tracks small numbers of the dispersed simulation parti- cles and then describes the dynamic evolution of large numbers of real particles, consti- tutes an important class of methods for the numerical solution of population balance modeling. Particle coagulation dynamics is a complex task for MC. Event-driven MC ex- hibits higher accuracy and efficiency than time-driven MC on the whole. However, these available event-driven MCs track the "equally weighted simulation particle population" and maintain the number of simulated particles within bounds at the cost of "regulating" com- putational domain, which results in some constraints and drawbacks. This study designed the procedure of "differently weighted fictitious particle population" and the corresponding coagulation rule for differently weighted fictitious particles. And then, a new event-driven MC method was promoted to describe the coagulation dynamics between differently weighted fictitious particles, where "constant number scheme" and "stepwise constant number scheme" were developed to maintain the number of fictitious particles within bounds as well as the constant computational domain. The MC is named event-driven constant volume (EDCV) method. The quantitative comparison among several popular MCs shows that the EDCV method has the advantages of computational precision and computational efficiency over other available MCs.

  11. Current Pathological and Laboratory Considerations in the Diagnosis of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng Hock; Alhamdi, Yasir; Abrams, Simon T

    2016-11-01

    Systemically sustained thrombin generation in vivo is the hallmark of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Typically, this is in response to a progressing disease state that is associated with significant cellular injury. The etiology could be infectious or noninfectious, with the main pathophysiological mechanisms involving cross-activation among coagulation, innate immunity, and inflammatory responses. This leads to consumption of both pro- and anticoagulant factors as well as endothelial dysfunction and disrupted homeostasis at the blood vessel wall interface. In addition to the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) following cellular activation and damage, respectively, there is the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as extracellular histones and cell-free DNA. Extracellular histones are increasingly recognized as significantly pathogenic in critical illnesses through direct cell toxicity, the promotion of thrombin generation, and the induction of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Clinically, high circulating levels of histones and histone-DNA complexes are associated with multiorgan failure, DIC, and adverse patient outcomes. Their measurements as well as that of other DAMPs and molecular markers of thrombin generation are not yet applicable in the routine diagnostic laboratory. To provide a practical diagnostic tool for acute DIC, a composite scoring system using rapidly available coagulation tests is recommended by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Its usefulness and limitations are discussed alongside the advances and unanswered questions in DIC pathogenesis. PMID:27578502

  12. GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo simulation of particle coagulation based on the inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Kruis, F. E.

    2013-09-01

    Simulating particle coagulation using Monte Carlo methods is in general a challenging computational task due to its numerical complexity and the computing cost. Currently, the lowest computing costs are obtained when applying a graphic processing unit (GPU) originally developed for speeding up graphic processing in the consumer market. In this article we present an implementation of accelerating a Monte Carlo method based on the Inverse scheme for simulating particle coagulation on the GPU. The abundant data parallelism embedded within the Monte Carlo method is explained as it will allow an efficient parallelization of the MC code on the GPU. Furthermore, the computation accuracy of the MC on GPU was validated with a benchmark, a CPU-based discrete-sectional method. To evaluate the performance gains by using the GPU, the computing time on the GPU against its sequential counterpart on the CPU were compared. The measured speedups show that the GPU can accelerate the execution of the MC code by a factor 10-100, depending on the chosen particle number of simulation particles. The algorithm shows a linear dependence of computing time with the number of simulation particles, which is a remarkable result in view of the n2 dependence of the coagulation.

  13. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities of Bothrops lanceolatus (Fer de lance) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lôbo de Araújo, A; Kamiguti, A; Bon, C

    2001-01-01

    Bothrops lanceolatus venom contains caseinolytic, phospholipase, esterase and haemorrhagic activities. We have investigated the coagulant and anticoagulant actions of B. lanceolatus venom on human citrated plasma and on purified plasma components. Although B. lanceolatus venom up to 50 microg/ml was unable to clot citrated plasma, at concentrations > or = 5 microg/ml the venom dose-dependently clotted purified human fibrinogen, indicating the presence of a thrombin-like enzyme. Human plasma (final concentration > or = 12.5%) dose-dependently inhibited the venom-induced fibrinogen clotting. This finding suggested that endogenous plasma protease inhibitors can affect the venom's action on fibrinogen. To investigate this possibility, B. lanceolatus venom was incubated with different plasma protease inhibitors and the activity on fibrinogen tested. alpha(2)-Macroglobulin and alpha(1)-antitrypsin did not interfere with the coagulant activity of the venom whereas the antithrombin-III/heparin complex partially inhibited this activity. A non-toxic, acidic phospholipase A(2) purified from B. lanceolatus venom prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time in human plasma from 39.7+/-0.5 s (control with saline) to 60.2+/-0.9 s with 50 microg of PLA(2) (p<0.001), suggesting an anticoagulant activity associated with this enzyme. This anticoagulant activity may account for some of the effects of the venom on blood coagulation. PMID:10978756

  14. “ STUDY OF COAGULATION PROFILE IN CLINICALLY DIAGNOSED CASES OF ACUTE DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION USING ISTH CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopade

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC is a pathological activation of coagulation (blood clotting mechanisms that happens in response to a variety of diseases. It involves the generation of intravascular fibrin (small blood c lots and the consumption of pro - coagulants and platelets. It results in the disruption of normal coagulation mechanism and abnormal bleeding occurs from the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract and surgical wounds. It was the prospecti ve study of 60 patients of acute DIC, in which coagulation profile were studied from December 2010 to October 2012 . 40 controls were studied. Control group include healthy voluntary blood donors. The coagulation profile was studied and DIC scoring was p erformed using the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis [ISTH] criteria. Among the coagulation profile, the sensitivity and specificity of the parameters to diagnose and to assess the severity of DIC, in the decreasing order of frequency wer e of platelet count, D - dimer, PT and APTT. Fibrinogen level was not depleted below the significant level (<1 gm/l in majority cases of DIC. According to the ISTH criteria, DIC scores among cases was ≥ 5.

  15. Removal of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by coagulation: effects of coagulants, typical ions, alkalinity and natural organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Ye, Y Y; Qi, J; Li, F T; Tang, Y L

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of removing titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) from water by coagulation, as well as to find the optimal coagulant and experimental conditions for TiO2 NP removal, four types of coagulant were adopted: polyferric sulfate (PFS), ferric chloride (FeCl3), polyaluminum chloride (PACl), and alum (Al2(SO4)3). It was found that the removal of TiO2 NPs by coagulation was affected by ionic strength, alkalinity, as well as types and dosages of coagulants. PFS and FeCl3 achieved much higher removal efficiency of TiO2 NPs than PACl and Al2(SO4)3 did. For 30 mg/L TiO2 NPs, a dosage of 0.3 mM PFS (as Fe) achieved 84% removal after coagulation followed by 30 min settlement. Optimal ionic strength (0.1 M NaCl or 0.03 M CaCl2) is of vital importance for the performance of PFS. Na2SO4 is unfavorable for the performance of PFS. Optimal alkalinity (0.01-0.03 M NaHCO3) is necessary for FeCl3 to remove TiO2 NPs. Natural organic matter, as represented by humic acid (HA) up to 11 mg/L, reduces the removal of TiO2 NPs by coagulation. These findings indicate that coagulation is a good option for the removal of TiO2 NPs from water, and more attention should be paid to the effects of water quality when using coagulation to remove TiO2 NPs from aqueous matrices. This provides a possible solution to alleviate the potential hazard caused by TiO2 NPs.

  16. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  17. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  18. Influence of natural coagulants on isoflavones and antioxidant activity of tofu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, C R; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2010-08-01

    Tofu (instead of preparing using synthetic coagulant) was prepared using coagulants of plant origin (Citrus limonum, Garcinia indica, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus acidus and Passiflora edulis). Total crude protein and fat contents were highest in tofu prepared using G. indica and T. indica (72.5% dbw) compared to synthetic coagulant. Tofu prepared with natural coagulants had signifi cantly higher antioxidant activity compared to synthetic coagulant. Bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides (daidzin and genistin) into their corresponding bioactive aglycones (daidzein and genistein) was observed in tofu. The difference between glucosides and aglycones contents in soy milk was significant but there was not much difference in tofu coagulated with synthetic and natural coagulants.

  19. Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride and Tobacco Leaf as Coagulant and Coagulant Aid in Post-Treatment of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurfarahim Rusdizal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to treat stabilized leachate by applying polyaluminium chloride (PAC and tobacco leaf extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Experimental results indicated that the tobacco leaves were positively charged. The removal rate of the chemical oxygen demand, using 1500 mg/L PAC as a sole coagulant, was approximately 63% and increased to 91% when 1000 mg/L PAC was mixed with 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf. Additionally, 1500 mg/L PAC with 250 - 1000 mg/L tobacco leaf and 54% ammoniacal nitrogen was removed, compared with only 46% reduction using 1500 mg/L with only 46% reduction.

  20. Impacts of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine on coagulation performance and membrane fouling in coagulation/ultrafiltration combined process with different Al-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Gao, Baoyu; Li, Ruihua; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-09-01

    Two kinds of aluminum-based coagulants and epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) were used in the treatment of humic acid-kaolin simulated water by coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) hybrid process. Coagulation performance, floc characteristics, including floc size, compact degree, and strength were investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration experiments were conducted by a dead-end batch unit to implement the resistance analyses to explore the membrane fouling mechanisms. Results showed that DAM-ECH aid significantly increased the UV254 and DOC removal efficiencies and contributed to the formation of larger and stronger flocs with a looser structure. Aluminum chloride (Al) gave rise to better coagulation performance with DAM-ECH compared with poly aluminum chloride (PACl). The consequences of ultrafiltration experiments showed that DAM-ECH aid could reduce the membrane fouling mainly by decreasing the cake layer resistance. The flux reductions for PACl, Al/DAM-ECH (dosing both Al and DAM-ECH) and PACl/DAM-ECH (dosing both PACl and DAM-ECH) were 62%, 56% and 44%, respectively. Results of this study would be beneficial for the application of PACl/DAM-ECH and Al/DAM-ECH composite coagulants in water treatment processes. PMID:27295439

  1. Thrombomodulin: A Bifunctional Modulator of Inflammation and Coagulation in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Okamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulated interplay between inflammation and coagulation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Therapeutic approaches that simultaneously target both inflammation and coagulation hold great promise for the treatment of sepsis. Thrombomodulin is an endogenous anticoagulant protein that, in cooperation with protein C and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, serves to maintain the endothelial microenvironment in an anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant state. A recombinant soluble form of thrombomodulin has been approved to treat patients suffering from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and has thus far shown greater therapeutic potential than heparin. A phase II clinical trial is currently underway in the USA to study the efficacy of thrombomodulin for the treatment of sepsis with DIC complications. This paper focuses on the critical roles that thrombomodulin plays at the intersection of inflammation and coagulation and proposes the possible existence of interactions with integrins via protein C. Finally, we provide a rationale for the clinical application of thrombomodulin for alleviating sepsis.

  2. Bak-Sneppen Type Models and Coagulation-Fragmentation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinfeld, M.

    2008-09-01

    We suggest a construction that allows us to bring methods of denumerable Markov chain theory and coagulation-fragmentation processes to bear on the question of locating the threshold in Bak-Sneppen type models.

  3. Moringa coagulant as a stabilizer for amorphous solids: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhende, Santosh; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2012-06-01

    Stabilization of amorphous state is a focal area for formulators to reap benefits related with solubility and consequently bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In the present work, an attempt has been made to explore the potential of moringa coagulant as an amorphous state stabilizer by investigating its role in stabilization of spray-dried (amorphous) ibuprofen, meloxicam and felodipine. Thermal studies like glass forming ability, glass transition temperature, hot stage microscopy and DSC were carried out for understanding thermodynamic stabilization of drugs. PXRD and dissolution studies were performed to support contribution of moringa coagulant. Studies showed that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between drug and moringa coagulant are responsible for amorphous state stabilization as explored by ATR-FTIR and molecular docking. Especially, H-bonding was found to be predominant mechanism for drug stabilization. Therein, arginine (basic amino acid in coagulant) exhibited various interactions and played important role in stabilization of aforesaid amorphous drugs. PMID:22359158

  4. Advances on Mechanisms of Coagulation with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhua LI; Suju WEI

    2013-01-01

    Recently, researchers have been increasingly finding coagulation disorders are commonly the first sign of malignancy. It has now been established that cancer development leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, and conversely, excessive activation of blood coagulation profoundly influences cancer progression. In patients with lung cancer, a sustained stimulation of blood coagulation takes place. Cancer cells trigger coagulation through expression of tissue factor, and affect coagulation thro...

  5. Influence of Blood Lipids on Global Coagulation Test Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of blood lipids have been associated with high levels of coagulation factors. We investigated whether blood lipids influence the results of global coagulation tests, including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombin generation assay (TGA). Methods PT, aPTT, and TGA, along with procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, were measured in 488 normal individuals. Vitamin K status was assessed with prothrombin-induced by vitamin K absen...

  6. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Bazrafshan; Ferdos Kord Mostafapour; Mehdi Farzadkia; Kamal Aldin Ownagh; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation an...

  7. Drinking Water Production by Coagulation and Membrane Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Machenbach, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water production with low-pressure hollow-fibre membranes is becoming increasingly more widespread as replacement for conventional separation technology. Upstream coagulation can mitigate fouling layer formation on membranes and allows removal of colloidal and soluble compounds smaller than the membrane pores. However, integrating membrane systems with coagulation bears the risk of impaired system performance due to unfavourable aggregate characteristics. This is of particular impor...

  8. Coagulation-flocculation studies of waste-waters

    OpenAIRE

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing coagulationflocculation mechanisms, the extrapolation of data from laboratory experiments, and the optimal design of a coagulation-flocculation plant have not been fully elucidated.The present studies have been car...

  9. Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment

  10. Removal of dispersant-stabilized carbon nanotubes by regular coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Liu; Changli Liu; Jing Zhang; Daohui Lin

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation followed by sedimentation,as a conventional technique in the water treatment plant,can be the first line of defense against exposures of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)to aquatic organisms and human beings,which has been rarely documented.This study investigated the removal of dispersant-stabilized CNT suspensions by poly aluminum chloride(PAC1)and KAI(SO4)2·12H2O (alum),with a focus on the effects of dispersant type,coagulant type and dosage.PAC1 performed better than alum in the removal of tannic acid-,humic acid-,and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate-stabilized CNTs,but worse for polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether(TX100)-stabilized CNTs.Neither coagulant could effectively precipitate cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-stabilized CNTs.The removal by PAC1 first increased up to a plateau and then decreased with the continued increase of coagulant dosage.However,the removal rates leveled off but did not decrease after achieving their highest level with the continued addition of alum.The coagulation and flocculation of the CNT suspensions by PAC1 could be regulated mainly by the mechanism of adsorption charge neutralization,whereas the coagulation by alum mainly involved electrical double-layer compression.

  11. Coagulation-flocculation in leachate treatment using modified micro sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaldiri, Nur Hanani; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    Sanitary landfill leachate is considered as highly polluted wastewater, without any treatment, discharging into water system will cause underground water and surface water pollutions. This study was to investigate the treatability of the semi-aerobic landfill leachate via coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), cationic polymer, and modified micro sand. Leachate was collected from Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) located in Penang, Malaysia. Coagulation-flocculation was performed by using jar test equipment and the effect of pH, dose of coagulant and dose of polymer toward removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and suspended solid (SS) were examined. Micro sand was also used in this study to compare settling time of coagulation-flocculation process. The optimum pH, dose of coagulant (PAC) and dose of polymer (cationic) achieved were 7.0, 1000 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively. The dose of micro sand used for the settling time process was 300 mg/L. Results showed that 52.66% removal of COD, 97.16% removal of SS and 96.44% removal of color were achieved under optimum condition. The settling times for the settling down of the sludge or particles that formed during coagulation-flocculation process were 1 min with modified sand, 20 min with raw micro sand and 45 min without micro sand.

  12. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  13. The effects of coagulants on the structure of PBO materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-huan; HUANG Yu-dong; MENG Lin

    2006-01-01

    PBO materials possess super mechanical properties and high thermal and chemical resistance due to their special rigid-rod backbones with heterocyclic chemical structure and supermolecular microstructure. But these structures may be affected by a series of preparing technologies, among which the coagulant is even more important. In this paper the chemical and microstructure changes of PBO materials coagulated with different solvents were investigated. Analyses of molecular weight and chemical structure of PBO coagulated indicate that the heterocyclic ring of PBO will experience cleavage in coagulation and in this stage water plays an important role. The final structure of PBO materials may involve several intermediate structures lying between benzoxazole and the open ring. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) 2θ scans and scanning probe microscope (SPM) show that the microstructure of PBO materials coagulated in solvents with different properties will change a lot and those coagulants with the smaller rate of diffusion like methanol can cause more ordered molecule alignment containing fewer voids.

  14. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities.

  15. Coagulation of humic waters for diffused pollution control and the influence of coagulant type on DOC fractions removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of organic coagulants for treatment of typically humic peat extraction runoff water by comparing their performance with that of ferric sulphate (FS). The influence of coagulant type on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fractions removed was analysed in detail using LC-OCD-OND (size exclusion liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon and organic nitrogen detection) fractionation techniques. In general, lower coagulant dosage was needed under acidic (pH 4.5) than neutral (pH 6.5) conditions. Chitosan (Chit) and poly (diallyldimethyl) ammonium chloride (pDMAC) required significantly lower dosage (40-55%) than FS for acceptable purification, while a tannin-based coagulant (Tan2) required substantially higher dosage (55-75%) independent of water pH. FS demonstrated the best removal of DOC (<81%) and phosphorus (<93%) followed by pDMAC, while Chit and Tan2 achieved the highest removal of suspended solids (SS) (<58%), with flocs formed by Tan2 presenting the best settling properties. Higher molecular weight (MW) DOC fractions were more efficiently removed by all coagulants, with FS being the most efficient (biopolymers 69% and humic substances 91%), followed by Tan2. FS also displayed satisfactory removal of lower MW fractions (building blocks ∼46% and low MW neutrals 62%). Overall, FS was the best performing coagulant. Nevertheless, the organic polymers demonstrated satisfactory overall performance, achieving purification rates mostly inside the requirements set by Finnish environmental authorities. PMID:27401835

  16. Properties and coagulation mechanisms of polyferric silicate sulfate with high concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Polyferric silicate sulfate (PFSS) with high concentration was prepared using the composite-poly method. The coagulation properties and mechanisms of this new complex were probed using TEM, Fe-Ferron timed complex-colorimetric method, and infrared spectrum method. The results showed that the flocculating effect of polyferric silicate sulfate had an advantage over polyferric sulfate (PFS), as the optimum coagulation effect could be obtained when the Si/Fe mole ratio was 0.75 in accordance with its macrostructure of PFSS.According to the Fe-Ferron timed complex-colorimetric method, the Si species was mainly Sic, whereas, the Fe species were Fea and Fec in the copolymerization system. The infrared spectra indicated that the structure of these new flocculants was formed by polymers,mainly by olation, which was different from polyferric sulfate, and the vibration of M-OH-M of around 1100 cm-1, also proved that there existed Fe-OH-Fe and its polymers in some forms.

  17. Tissue Factor/Factor FVII Complex Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease. Are Things Going Well?

    OpenAIRE

    Petrillo, Gianluca; Cirillo, Plinio; D’Ascoli, Greta-Luana; Maresca, Fabio; Ziviello, Francesca; Chiariello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Blood coagulation is a complex biological mechanism aimed to avoid bleeding in which a highly regulated and coordinated interplay of specific proteins and cellular components respond quickly to a vascular injury. However, when this mechanisms occurs in the coronary circulation, it has not a “protective” effect, but rather, it plays a pivotal role in determining acute coronary syndromes. Coagulation recognizes Tissue Factor (TF), the main physiological initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pa...

  18. A quantitative comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for boron removal from boron-containing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    This paper provides a quantitative comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation approaches based on boron removal. Electrocoagulation process delivers the coagulant in situ as the sacrificial anode corrodes, due to a fixed current density, while the simultaneous evolution of hydrogen at the cathode allows for pollutant removal by flotation. By comparison, conventional chemical coagulation typically adds a salt of the coagulant, with settling providing the primary pollutant removal path. Chemical coagulation was carried out via jar tests using aluminum chloride. Comparison was done with the same amount of coagulant between electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation processes. Boron removal obtained was higher with electrocoagulation process. In addition, it was seen that chemical coagulation has any effect for boron removal from boron-containing solution. At optimum conditions (e.g. pH 8.0 and aluminum dose of 7.45 g/L), boron removal efficiencies for electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation were 94.0% and 24.0%, respectively.

  19. Argon Plasma Coagulation Combined with Covered Stent Placement for Management of Tracheobronchial Stenoses/occlusions as well as Esophagorespiratory Fistulas

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwu WANG; Lingfei LUO; Yunzhi ZHOU; Ma, Hongming; Li, Jing; Zou, Heng; Li, Dongmei; Zhang, Nan

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective It is a complex problem and difficult treatment for tracheobronchial stenoses/occlusions involving in carina. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and bifurcated covered Z-type stents (CZTS) placement for the treatment of tracheobronchus stenoses and esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF). Methods Thirty-two cases with airway disorders were retrospectively reviewed for the treatment of APC and CZTS placeme...

  20. Cleavage of human high molecular weight kininogen markedly enhances its coagulant activity. Evidence that this molecule exists as a procofactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, C F; Silver, L D; Schapira, M; Colman, R W

    1984-01-01

    High molecular weight kininogen (HMW)-kininogen, the cofactor of contact-activated blood coagulation, accelerates the activation of Factor XII, prekallikrein, and Factor XI on a negatively charged surface. Although prekallikrein and Factor XI circulate as a complex with HMW-kininogen, no physical association has been demonstrated between Factor XII and HMW-kininogen, nor has the order of adsorption to surfaces of these proteins been fully clarified. In this report we explore the requirements ...

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF COAGULATION PROCESS FOR THE PRUT RIVER WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Postolachi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented research was to optimize the treatment process of the Prut River water. In order to realize the proposed goal, there were studied the following factors which can improve the process of coagulation: (i the influence of stirring speed during coagulation and (ii the influence of the concentration of the coagulant solution added in the process of coagulation. The optimal conditions of coagulation were established using the Jar-test method. Application of the recommended procedure contribute to the reduction of the coagulant dose, the contact time, the aluminum concentration in water and the expenses for water treatment.

  2. Improvement of wastewater treatment by use of natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Prodanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge and other organic sludges from wastewater treatment processes are usually anaerobically digested prior to application on land. The purpose of digestion is to convert bulky, odorous sludges to relatively inert material that can be rapidly dewatering. The important benefit of this process is a biogas production, too. It is proper to enlarge primary sludge production in a primary settler by adding some coagulation aids, with aim to increase a biogas production, as much as possible. The most common coagulant is alum, but presence of large quantities of aluminum salts in sludge has a harmful impact on digestion and digested sludge application. Some natural coagulants, that have a numerous advantages, can be used instead of alum. Natural coagulants could be extracted from a different plant material, and considering the fact that they are of organic nature, the biogas yield can be enhanced by their presence. A plant material that remains after extraction can be used as a feed. The aim of this paper is a consideration of potential environmental benefits of substitution of alum by natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in sewage wastewater treatment process.

  3. Back to the future: testing in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Cheng-Hock; Downey, Colin

    2005-11-01

    Following on from the first clinical observations on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the nineteenth century, the dawn of laboratory testing for DIC began with the availability of assays that characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation. Markedly increased clotting times were the hallmark of DIC. As the understanding of the biochemistry of haemostasis and thrombosis improved, new tests were developed based on the molecular players that participate in the process. However, many are non-specific for DIC and/or are unwieldy in performance to keep apace with the demands of the acute clinical setting. The renewed emphasis in DIC for the modern laboratory of the twenty-first century has seen a return to the simple, rapid and practical global tests of coagulation within scoring systems that also capture the pathophysiological continuum by trend analysis. Additionally, new technologies based on these simple tests of coagulation hold promise in also indicating the in vivo interplay between coagulation and inflammation during DIC.

  4. Removal of perfluorooctanoate from surface water by polyaluminium chloride coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Zhou, Qin; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Fan, Qing

    2011-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been detected in surface water all over the world, and little is known of its removal by coagulation in water treatment plants. In this study, polyaluminium chloride (PACl) was used to remove PFOA from surface water, and the effects of coagulant dose, solution pH, temperature, and initial turbidity on the removal of both PFOA and suspended solids (SS) from water were investigated. Since the SS had high sorption affinity for PFOA, most PFOA was adsorbed on the particles and removed via the SS removal in the coagulation process. PFOA concentrations in aqueous phase decreased with increasing initial turbidity and PACl dose, while they increased with increasing solution pH and temperature. Other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) with different C-F chain lengths and functional groups were also compared with PFOA. It was proved that hydrophobic interaction played an important role in the adsorption of PFOA on the SS. The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) before the coagulation process significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of PFOA in water, and the residual PFOA concentrations in water were less than 1 μg/L after the addition of 1-16 mg/L PAC and subsequent coagulation when the initial PFOA concentrations were in the range of 0.5-3 mg/L. PMID:21163511

  5. Principles of dielectric blood coagulometry as a comprehensive coagulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Machida, Kenzo; Nagasawa, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    Dielectric blood coagulometry (DBCM) is intended to support hemostasis management by providing comprehensive information on blood coagulation from automated, time-dependent measurements of whole blood dielectric spectra. We discuss the relationship between the series of blood coagulation reactions, especially the aggregation and deformation of erythrocytes, and the dielectric response with the help of clot structure electron microscope observations. Dielectric response to the spontaneous coagulation after recalcification presented three distinct phases that correspond to (P1) rouleau formation before the onset of clotting, (P2) erythrocyte aggregation and reconstitution of aggregates accompanying early fibrin formation, and (P3) erythrocyte shape transformation and/or structure changes within aggregates after the stable fibrin network is formed and platelet contraction occurs. Disappearance of the second phase was observed upon addition of tissue factor and ellagic acid for activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively, which is attributable to accelerated thrombin generation. A series of control experiments revealed that the amplitude and/or quickness of dielectric response reflect platelet function, fibrin polymerization, fibrinolysis activity, and heparin activity. Therefore, DBCM sensitively measures blood coagulation via erythrocytes aggregation and shape changes and their impact on the dielectric permittivity, making possible the development of the battery of assays needed for comprehensive coagulation testing. PMID:26368847

  6. WATER PURIFICATION BY COAGULATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ULTRASONIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera Borisovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors carried out experiments on the in-fluence of ultrasound on the subsidence of suspended materials. The efficiency of coagulation process in wa-ter purification in ultrasound field is estimated. The influence of ultrasound on the water with suspended materials before introducing coagulant was a condition of the experiment. The magnetostriction method for obtaining ultrasound oscillations with the help of ultra-sound generator of batch production was applied. The samples were chosen and the coagulation process was controlled using standard procedures. The experimental data was obtained which estimate the efficiency in-crease in the subsidence of suspended materials de-pending on the duration of ultrasound processing. Dur-ing one minute of ultrasound processing the following results were obtained: the subsidence efficiency in-creased by 25.83 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 2.5 mg/l; the subsidence efficiency increased by 23.70 % in case of coagulant share Al2O3 5.0 mg/l.

  7. Nanoparticle coagulation in a planar jet via moment method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large eddy simulations of nanoparticle coagulation in an incompressible planar jet were performed. The particle is described using a moment method to approximate the particle general dynamics equations. The time-averaged results based on 3000 time steps for every case were obtained to explore the influence of the Schmidt number and the Damkohler number on the nanoparticle dynamics. The results show that the changes of Schmidt number have the influence on the number concentration of nanoparticles only when the particle diameter is less than 1 nm for the fixed gas parameters. The number concentration of particles for small particles decreases more rapidly along the flow direction, and the nanoparticles with larger Schmidt number have a narrower distribution along the transverse direction. The smaller nanoparticles coagulate and disperse easily,grow rapidly hence show a stronger polydispersity. The smaller coagulation time scale can enhance the particle collision and coagulation. Frequented collision and coagulation bring a great increase in particle size. The larger the Damkohler number is, the higher the particle polydispersity is.

  8. Changing common sense: Anti-platelet/coagulation therapyagainst cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, anti-platelet/coagulation therapy hadnot been recommended for patients with cirrhosis.Although venous thrombosis is one of the representativecomplications of cirrhosis and ischemic disordersassociated with atherosclerosis are not infrequent incirrhotic patients, many clinicians have tended to hesitateto introduce anti-platelet/coagulation therapy to theirpatients. Undoubtedly, this is due to the increased riskof hemorrhagic diathesis in cirrhotic patients. However,accumulating evidence has revealed the benefits ofanti-platelet/coagulation therapy for cirrhotic patients.In addition to the safety of the therapy carried outagainst cardiovascular diseases in cirrhotic patients,some clinical data have indicated its preventive effecton venous thrombosis. Moreover, the efficacy of antiplatelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis itself hasbeen demonstrated both clinically and experimentally.The conceptual basis for application of anti-platelet/coagulation therapy against cirrhosis was constructedthrough two pathologic studies on intrahepatic thrombosisin cirrhotic livers. It may be better to use thrombopoietinreceptoragonists, which have been tested as a treatmentfor cirrhosis-related thrombocytopenia, in combinationwith anti-platelet drugs to reduce the risk of venousthrombosis. During the last decade, the World Journalof Gastroenterology , a sister journal of World Journal ofHepatology , has been one of the main platforms of activediscussion of this theme.

  9. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  10. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  11. Removal Natural Organic Matter (NOM in Peat Water from Wetland Area by Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Hybrid Process with Pretreatment Two-Stage Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Mahmud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary problem encountered in the application of membrane technology was membrane fouling. During this time, hybrid process by coagulation-ultrafiltration in drinking water treatment that has been conducted by some research, using by one-stage coagulation. The goal of this research was to investigate the effect of two-stage coagulation as a pretreatment towards performance of the coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process for removal NOM in the peat water. Coagulation process, either with the one-stage or two-stage coagulation was very good in removing charge hydrophilic fraction, i.e. more than 98%. NOM fractions of the peat water, from the most easily removed by the two-stage coagulation and one-stage coagulation process was charged hydrophilic>strongly hydrophobic>weakly hydrophobic>neutral hydrophilic. The two-stage coagulation process could removed UV254 and colors with a little better than the one-stage coagulation at the optimum coagulant dose. Neutral hydrophilic fraction of peat water NOM was the most influential fraction of UF membrane fouling. The two-stage coagulation process better in removing the neutral hidrophilic fraction, while removing of the charged hydrophilic, strongly hydrophobic and weakly hydrophobic similar to the one-stage coagulation. Hybrid process by pretreatment with two-stage coagulation, beside can increased removal efficiency of UV254 and color, also can reduced fouling rate of the ultrafiltration membraneIt must not exceed 250 words, contains a brief summary of the text, covering the whole manuscript without being too elaborate on every section. Avoid any abbreviation, unless it is a common knowledge or has been previously stated.

  12. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent aerosol coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reade, Walter Caswell

    There are numerous systems-including both industrial applications and natural occurring phenomena-in which the collision/coagulation rates of aerosols are of significant interest. Two examples are the production of fine powders (such as titanium dioxide) and the formation of rain drops in the atmosphere. During the last decade, it has become apparent that dense aerosol particles behave much differently in a turbulent fluid than has been previously assumed. Particles with a response time on the order of the small-scale fluid time scale tend to collect in regions of low vorticity. The result is a particle concentration field that can be highly non-uniform. Sundaram and Collins (1997) recently demonstrated the effect that turbulence can have on the particle collision rate of a monodisperse system. The collision rates of finite-inertia particles can be as much as two orders of magnitude greater than particles that precisely follow the fluid streamlines. Sundaram and Collins derived a general collision expression that explicitly accounted for the two phenomena that affect the collision rate-changes in the particle concentration field and changes in the particle relative velocities. The result of Sundaram and Collins has generated further interest in the turbulent-aerosol problem. This thesis shows that, in addition to changing the rate that an aerosol size distribution might form, turbulence has the potential of dramatically changing the shape of the distribution. This result is demonstrated using direct numerical simulation of a turbulent-aerosol system over a wide range of particle parameters, and a moderate range of turbulence levels. Results show that particles with a small (but finite) initial inertia have the greatest potential of forming broad size distributions. The shape of the resulting size distribution is also affected by the initial size of the particles. Observations are explained using the statistics identified by Sundaram and Collins (1997). A major

  13. Home water treatment by direct filtration with natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raveendra; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2005-03-01

    Seeds of the plant species Strychnos potatorum and Moringa oleifera contain natural polyelectrolytes which can be used as coagulants to clarify turbid waters. In laboratory tests, direct filtration of a turbid surface water (turbidity 15-25 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 280-500 cfu ml(-1), and fecal coliforms 280-500 MPN 100 ml(-1)), with seeds of S. potatorum or M. oleifera as coagulant, produced a substantial improvement in its aesthetic and microbiological quality (turbidity 0.3-1.5 NTU, heterotrophic bacteria 5-20 cfu ml(-1) and fecal coliforms 5-10 MPN 100 ml(-1)). The method appears suitable for home water treatment in rural areas of developing countries. These natural coagulants produce a 'low risk' water; however, additional disinfection or boiling should be practised during localised outbreaks/epidemics of enteric infections.

  14. Heparanase—A Link between Coagulation, Angiogenesis, and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Nadir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparanase that was cloned from and is abundant in the placenta is implicated in cell invasion, tumor metastasis, and angiogenesis. Recently we have demonstrated that heparanase may also affect the hemostatic system in a non-enzymatic manner. Heparanase was shown to up-regulate tissue factor (TF expression and interact with tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI on the cell surface, leading to dissociation of TFPI from the cell membrane of endothelial and tumor cells, resulting in increased cell surface coagulation activity. More recently, we have shown that heparanase directly enhances TF activity, resulting in increased factor Xa production and activation of the coagulation system. Data indicate increased levels and possible involvement of heparanase in vascular complications in pregnancy. Taking into account the prometastatic and proangiogenic functions of heparanase, overexpression in human malignancies, and abundance in platelets and placenta, its involvement in the coagulation machinery is an intriguing novel arena for further research.

  15. [Traumatic abruption of the placenta with disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, R; Malär, A-U; Benz-Wörner, J; Scherer, M; Hodel, M; Gähler, A; Haberthür, C; Konrad, C

    2012-10-01

    Trauma in pregnancy is infrequent and a systematic primary strategy constitutes a real challenge for the interdisciplinary team. With a high fetal mortality rate and a substantial maternal mortality rate traumatic placental abruption is a severe emergency which every anesthetist should be aware of. After hemodynamic stabilization of the mother and control of the viability of the fetus the therapy of traumatic placental abruption consists mostly of an immediate caesarean section. Coagulopathy by depletion of coagulation factors as well as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have to be expected and consequently a massive blood loss must be anticipated. Thrombelastography provides assistance for fast differential diagnosis and goal-directed treatment of the disturbed sections of the coagulation cascade.

  16. Exact results for the Boltzmann equation and Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost no analytical solutions have been found for realistic intermolecular forces, largely due to the complicated structure of the collision term which calls for the construction of simplified models, in which as many physical properties are maintained as possible. In the first three chapters of this thesis such model Boltzmann equations are studied. Only spatially homogeneous gases with isotropic distribution functions are considered. Chapter I considers transition kernels, chapter II persistent scattering models and chapter III very hard particles. The second part of this dissertation deals with Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for the size distribution function in a coagulating system, with chapters devoted to the following topics: kinetics of gelation and universality, coagulation equations with gelation and exactly soluble models of nucleation. (Auth./C.F.)

  17. A loop of coagulation factor VIIa influencing macromolecular substrate specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelke, Jais R; Persson, Egon; Rasmussen, Hanne B;

    2006-01-01

    . The resulting variant exhibited increased intrinsic activity, concurrent with maturation of the active site, a less accessible N-terminus, and, interestingly, an altered macromolecular substrate specificity reflected in an increased ability to cleave factor IX (FIX) and a decreased rate of FX activation....../Met(298{156})Lys-FVIIa with almost the same activity and specificity profile. We conclude that a lysine residue in position 298{156} of FVIIa requires a hydrophilic environment to be fully accommodated. This position appears critical for substrate specificity among the proteases of the blood coagulation......Coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) belongs to a family of proteases being part of the stepwise, self-amplifying blood coagulation cascade. To investigate the impact of the mutation Met(298{156})Lys in FVIIa, we replaced the Gly(283{140})-Met(298{156}) loop with the corresponding loop of factor Xa...

  18. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation for heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbal, F.; Camci, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) removal from metal plating wastewater by electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was investigated. Chemical coagulation was performed using either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride, whereas electrocoagulation was done in an electrolytic cell using aluminum or iron electrodes. By chemical coagulation, Cu-, Cr-, and Ni-removal of 99.9 % was achieved with aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride dosages of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. Removal of metals by electrocoagulation was affected by the electrode material, wastewater pH, current density, number of electrodes, and electrocoagulation time. Electrocoagulation with iron electrodes at a current density of 10 mA cm{sup -2}, electrocoagulation time of 20 min, and pH 3.0 resulted in 99.9 % Cu-, 99.9 % Cr-, and 98 % Ni-removal. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Exploration by radioactive fibrinogen of intrarenal coagulation phenomena. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The participation of fibrin deposits in kidney pathology was studied by the use of a radioactive tracer involved in the coagulation phenomenon: iodine 131-labelled fibrinogen. The isotopic exploration consists of a fibrinogen kinetics study combined with external counting over the kidney regions. The different stages of the procedure are described: separation, purification and labelling of fibrinogen; characteristics of the radioactive fibrinogen used; practical details of the examination itself; data analysis method. A chapter devoted to verifications and discussions of the procedure is followed by a report on the exploration of intrarenal coagulation phenomena in 30 kidney disease patients. In conclusion, the study of fibrinogen kinetics is considered as the most suitable method to detect local or slight intravascular coagulation phenomena. The sensitivity of the isotopic exploration is very satisfactory. The main criticism directed against this method is that the exploration is general and therefore blind

  20. Characteristics of meso-particles formed in coagulation process causing irreversible membrane fouling in the coagulation-microfiltration water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Q; Yamamura, H; Murata, N; Aoki, N; Yonekawa, H; Hafuka, A; Watanabe, Y

    2016-09-15

    In coagulation-membrane filtration water treatment processes, it is still difficult to determine the optimal coagulation condition to minimize irreversible membrane fouling. In microfiltration (MF), meso-particles (i.e., 20 nm-0.5 μm) are thought to play an important role in irreversible membrane fouling, especially their characteristics of particle number (PN) and zeta potential (ZP). In this study, a new nanoparticle tracker combined a high-output violet laser with a microscope was developed to identify the physicochemical characteristics of these microscopic and widely dispersed meso-particles. The effects of pH and coagulant dose on ZP and PN of micro-particles (i.e., >0.5 μm) and meso-particles were investigated, and then coagulation-MF tests were conducted. As the result, irreversible membrane fouling was best controlled for both types of membranes, while meso-particle ZP approached zero at around pH 5.5 for both types of natural water. Since PN was greatest under these conditions, ZP is more important in determining the extent of irreversible membrane fouling than PN. However, the acidic condition to neutralize meso-particles is not suitable for actual operation, as considering residual aluminum concentration, pipe corrosion, and chlorination efficiency. It is therefore necessary to investigate coagulants or other methods for the appropriate modification of meso-particle characteristics.

  1. Influence of tri-iodinated water soluble X-ray contrast medium for uro, angio and cholangiography on the plasmic coagulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vitro coagulation studies comprising overall and individual factor determinations were carried out with the aim of clarifying the nature of unforeseen incidents arising from the use of contrast media in X-ray diagnosis. In all tests a reproducible, dose-dependent, exponential coagulation inhibition was obtained, and resulted in complete inhibition at higher dose levels. This effect occurred by a factor of ten earlier, on average, with iodine ipamide, representative of liver passage bile CM, compared to uro, and angiographic CM diatrozoate and iodine thalamate used for kidney passage. Hepatotrophic CM act initially hypercoagulative at low dises through activation of the thrombin coagulase complex; later inhibition of coagulation sets in through direct fixation on functional proteins and their subsequent denaturation. A discussion is given of the importance of direct physico-chemical toxicity, histamine liberation reactions and cellular reactions, and the controversial role of the complement system is presented. (orig./MG)

  2. The Present Situation on Disseminated Intravascular. Coagulation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽霖

    2001-01-01

    @@ DIC is not a clinical entity in itself. Instead, it always occurs secondary to a broad spectrum of various diseases. DIC may be defined as an acquired syndrome characterized by the activation of intravascular coagulation up to intravascular fibrin formation. Although the trigger for the activation of the coagulation system may vary depending on the underlying condition, it is usually mediated by several cytokines. Thrombin generation proceeds via the (extrinsic) tissue factor/factor Ⅶ a route and simultaneous depression of inhibitory mechanisms, such as the protein C and protein S system. In addition, impaired fibrin degradation, dur to high circulating levels of PAI-1, contributes to enhanced introvascular fibrin deposition.

  3. Chemical wastewater treatment: A concept for optimal dosing of coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaweera, H.

    1997-01-01

    A concept for optimisation of the coagulant dosing for domestic wastewater treatment is presented and evaluated. The concept is based on the real-time estimation of the optimal coagulant dosage using on on-line water quality measurements of the raw water. A preliminary project was established in 1992 and was completed in 1993. Laboratory- and pilot scale evaluation of the concept was followed. Finally, a consortium between NIVA, ANØ (Avløpssambandet Nordre Øyeren) and Alfa Laval Automation (e...

  4. Relationships between milk coagulation property traits analyzed with different methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, D; Kaart, T; Vallas, M; Jõudu, I; Henno, M; Ancilotto, L; Cassandro, M; Pärna, E

    2011-09-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) analysis is performed using a wide range of methodologies in different countries and laboratories, using different instruments, coagulant activity in the milk, and type of coagulant. This makes it difficult to compare results and data from different research. The aims of this study were to propose a method for the transformation of values of rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a(30)) and to predict the noncoagulation (NC) probability of milk samples analyzed using different methodologies. Individual milk samples were collected during the morning milking in October 2010 from each of 165 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in 2 freestall barns in Italy, and sent to 3 laboratories for MCP analysis. For each laboratory, MCP analysis was performed using a different methodology: A, with a computerized renneting meter instrument using 0.051 international milk clotting units (IMCU)/mL of coagulant activity; B, with a Lattodinamografo (Foss-Italia, Padova, Italy) using 0.051 IMCU/mL of coagulant activity; and C, with an Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frépillon, France) using 0.120 IMCU/mL of coagulant activity. The relationships between MCP traits were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses for each pair of methodologies. For each MCP trait, 2 regression models were applied: model 1 was a single regression model, where the dependent and independent variables were the same MCP trait determined by 2 different methodologies; in model 2, both a(30) and RCT were included as independent variables. The NC probabilities for laboratories with the highest number of NC samples were predicted based on the RCT and a(30) values measured in the laboratories with lower number of NC samples using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis. The percentages of NC samples were 4.2, 11.5, and 0.6% for A, B, and C, respectively. The transformation of MCP traits was more precise with model 1 for RCT (R(2): 0.77-0.82) than for a(30

  5. The mechanism and properties of acid-coagulated milk gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanokphat Phadungath

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid-coagulated milk products such as fresh acid-coagulated cheese varieties and yogurt areimportant dairy food products. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms involved in gel formation, physical properties of acid gels, and the effects of processing variables such as heat treatment and gelation temperature on the important physical properties of acid milk gels. This paper reviews the modern concepts of possible mechanisms involved in the formation of particle milk gel aggregation, along with recent developments including the use of techniques such as dynamic low amplitude oscillatory rheology to observe the gel formation process, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to monitor gel microstructure.

  6. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  7. Ipomoea dasysperma seed gum: an effective natural coagulant for the decolorization of textile dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Rashmi; Bhattacharya, Bani; Dixit, Awantika; Singh, Vandana

    2006-10-01

    An investigation of dye decolorization from synthetic dye solutions using the non-ionic, water-soluble, high molecular weight seed gums Ipomoea dasysperma and guar gum as coagulants was undertaken. The use of galactomannans derived from plants in this system presents a sustainable method of textile effluent treatment. These natural coagulants extracted from plants proved to be workable alternatives to conventional coagulants like polyaluminum chloride, as they are biodegradable, safe to human health, are cost effective when compared to imported chemicals and have a wider effective dosage range for flocculation of various colloidal suspensions. Coagulant dose and coagulation pH are important factors influencing the mechanism of coagulation. Also the type and chemical structure of the dye plays an important role in the coagulation process. The seed gums alone were found to be effective for decolorization of direct dye and in combination with PAC their coagulation efficiency was well extended even for reactive and acid dyes.

  8. Pregelation Behaviour of Coagulation Processes with the Constant-Reaction-Number Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; CHEN Xiao-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    @@ We propose an irreversible binary coagulation model with a constant-reaction-number kernel, in which, among all the possible binary coagulation reactions, only p reactions are permitted to take place at every time.

  9. Expression patterns and action analysis of genes associated with blood coagulation responses during rat liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Feng Zhao; Wei-Min Zhang; Cun-Shuan Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To study the blood coagulation response after partial hepatectomy (PH) at transcriptional level.METHODS:After PH of rats, the associated genes with blood coagulation were obtained through reference to the databases, and the gene expression changes in rat regenerating liver were analyzed by the Rat Genome 230 2.0 array.RESULTS: It was found that 107 genes were associated with liver regeneration. The initially and totally expressing gene numbers occurring in initiation phase of liver regeneration (0.5-4 h after PH), G0/G1 transition (4-6 h after PH), cell proliferation (6-66 h after PH), cell differentiation and structure-function reconstruction (66-168 h after PH) were 44, 11, 58, 7 and 44, 33,100, 71 respectively, showing that the associated genes were mainly triggered in the forepart and prophase, and worked at different phases. According to their expression similarity, these genes were classified into 5 groups:only up-, predominantly up-, only down-, predominantly down-, up- and down-regulation, involving 44, 8, 36,13 and 6 genes, respectively, and the total times of their up- and down-regulation expression were 342 and 253, respectively, demonstrating that the number of the up-regulated genes was more than that of the downregulated genes. Their time relevance was classified into 15 groups, showing that the cellular physiological and biochemical activities were staggered during liver regeneration. According to gene expression patterns,they were classified into 29 types, suggesting that their protein activities were diverse and complex during liver regeneration.CONCLUSION: The blood coagulation response is enhanced mainly in the forepart, prophase and anaphase of liver regeneration, in which the response in the forepart, prophase of liver regeneration can prevent the bleeding caused by partial hepatectomy, whereas that in the anaphase contributes to the structure-function reorganization of regenerating liver. In the process,107 genes associated with liver

  10. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  11. Effect of combined therapy of danaparoid sodium and tranexamic acid on chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontachi, Yasuo; Asakura, Hidesaku; Arahata, Masahisa; Kadohira, Yasuko; Maekawa, Mio; Hayashi, Tomoe; Yamazaki, Masahide; Morishita, Eriko; Saito, Masanori; Minami, Shinji; Nakao, Shinji

    2005-09-01

    Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a well-known complication of aortic aneurysm. A 63-year-old man with bleeding tendency and a large palpable abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was diagnosed as having fibrinolysis dominant DIC by the excessive activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis (plasmin -alpha2 plasmin inhibitor complex concentration is usually >4 microg/ml). Although several treatments were tried, DIC could not be controlled until the patient was given combined therapy of danaparoid (1,250 U/12 h, bolus IV) and tranexamic acid (0.5 g x 3/day, oral administration). This therapy may be beneficial when control for bleeding is required without restricting the ambulatory movement of patients by continuous drip. PMID:16127203

  12. Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debnath; Suster, Michael A; Stavrou, Evi; Gurkan, Umut A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy (DS) of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor employs a three-dimensional (3D), parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Using an impedance analyzer and after a 5-point calibration, the sensor is shown to measure the real part of complex relative dielectric permittivity of human whole blood in a frequency range of 10kHz to 100MHz. The temporal variation of dielectric permittivity at 1MHz for human whole blood from three different healthy donors shows a peak in permittivity at ~ 4 to 5 minutes, which also corresponds to the onset of CaCl2-initiated coagulation of the blood sample verified visually. PMID:26737635

  13. Integrated laboratory coagulation tests in hypercoagulation diagnosis and thrombosis risk assessment. Part I. The pathophysiology of thrombosis and hypercoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Lipets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a fatal hemostatic disorders occurring in various conditions ranging from pregnancy and surgery to cancer, sepsis and heart attack. Despite the availability of different anticoagulants and accumulated clinical experience, proving their effectiveness, thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This is largely due to the fact that conventional laboratory coagulation tests are not sufficiently sensitive to the hypercoagulable state, and they are difficult to use for assessing the risk of thrombosis. Specific molecular markers (D-dimers, fibrinopeptide, thrombin-antithrombin complex are more effective, but also have a large number of disadvantages. A possible solution is the use of integrated test, which simulate in vitro the majority of the physiological coagulation processes. In the first part of this paper the biochemical processes that cause the risk of thrombosis were discussed.

  14. Systemic versus localized coagulation activation contributing to organ failure in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    In the pathogenesis of sepsis, inflammation and coagulation play a pivotal role. Increasing evidence points to an extensive cross-talk between these two systems, whereby inflammation not only leads to activation of coagulation but coagulation also considerably affects inflammatory activity. The intricate relationship between inflammation and coagulation may not only be relevant for vascular atherothrombotic disease in general but has in certain clinical settings considerable consequences, for...

  15. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by ‘quorum acting'

    OpenAIRE

    Kastrup, Christian J; Boedicker, James Q.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Bian, Yao; Pompano, Rebecca R; Kline, Timothy R.; Sylvestre, Patricia; Shen, Feng; Leppla, Stephen H.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2008-01-01

    Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation factors, they have not been shown to directly initiate the coagulation cascade that precedes clot formation. Here we demonstrated, using microfluidics and surface patterning, that the spatial localization of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Ba...

  16. Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; NISHIJIMA, Wataru; OKADA, Mitsumasa

    1999-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0 mol l-1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500 ml of low turbid water (50 NTU). Coagulation efficiencies were evaluated based on the dosage required to remove kaolinite...

  17. Demonstration of the Coagulation and Diffusion of Homemade Slime Prepared under Acidic Conditions without Borate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, Naho; Fueda, Kazuki; Miyagawa, Korin; Kanno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) precipitates in many kinds of aqueous salt solutions. While sodium sulfate, a coagulant for PVA fiber, precipitates PVA to yield a white rigid gel, coagulation of PVA with aluminum sulfate, a coagulant for water treatment, yields a slime-like viscoelastic fluid. One type of homemade slime is prepared under basic…

  18. Characterization of coagulation factor synthesis in nine human primary cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty, Monireh; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Spek, C. Arnold; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    The coagulation/fibrinolysis system is essential for wound healing after vascular injury. According to the standard paradigm, the synthesis of most coagulation factors is restricted to liver, platelets and endothelium. We challenged this interpretation by measuring coagulation factors in nine human

  19. Inflammation-associated activation of coagulation and immune regulation by the protein C pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hartmut

    2014-05-01

    The inflammation-induced activation of the protein C pathway provides negative feedback inhibition of coagulation and exerts coagulation-independent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. The balance between these activities of aPC modulates the outcome of diverse inflammatory diseases such as encephalitis, diabetes, and sepsis; and is affected by naturally occurring aPC-resistance of coagulation factor V Leiden.

  20. Coagulation and Adsorption Treatment of Printing Ink Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of the study was to improve the efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC and colour removal from the wastewater samples polluted with flexographic printing ink following coagulation treatments with further adsorption onto activated carbons and ground orange peel. The treatment efficiencies were compared to those of further flocculation treatments and of coagulation and adsorption processes individually. Coagulation was a relatively effective single-treatment method, removing 99.7% of the colour and 86.9% of the organic substances (TOC from the printing ink wastewater samples. Further flocculation did not further eliminate organic pollutants, whereas subsequent adsorption with 7 g/l of granular activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 35.1%, and adsorption with 7 g/l of powdered activated carbon further reduced organic substances by 59.3%. Orange peel was an inappropriate adsorbent for wastewater samples with low amounts of pollution, such as water that had been treated by coagulation. However, in highly polluted printing ink wastewater samples, the adsorption treatment with ground orange peel achieved efficiencies comparable to those of the granular activated carbon treatments.

  1. Reduction of turbidity of water using locally available natural coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md; Fakhruddin, A N M; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2011-01-01

    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed.

  2. Diagnostic criteria and laboratory tests for disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hatada, Tuyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Three diagnostic criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) have been established by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) and the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. The diagnostic criteria involving global coagulation tests, such as the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare criteria and the ISTH overt diagnostic criteria, are first-generation DIC diagnostic criteria, those involving global coagulation tests and changes in these tests such as the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine criteria, are second-generation DIC diagnostic criteria, and those including non-overt DIC diagnostic criteria involving global coagulation tests, changes in these tests and hemostatic molecular markers will be the future (third-generation) DIC diagnostic criteria. There are no significant differences in the three diagnostic criteria with respect to predicting poor outcomes. Therefore, the third generation of diagnostic criteria including hemostatic molecular markers is expected to be established. Standardization and the determination of adequate cutoff values should be required for each laboratory test.

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in malaria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laltanpuii Sailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is seen in <5% of patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and is more common in cerebral malaria. Here, we report the diagnosis and management of a case of severe P. falciparum malaria with DIC.

  4. Blood coagulation factor Xa as an emerging drug target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Borensztajn; C.A. Spek

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Factor (F) Xa is well-known as an important player in the coagulation cascade responsible for thrombin generation. More recently, FXa emerged as an essential player in cell biology via activation of proteaseactivated receptors (PAR)-1 and -2. This pleiotropic role of FXa forms the basi

  5. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  6. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed.

  7. Removal of dyes from textile wastewater by chemical coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Janezcko, Marta; GAYDARDZHIEV, Stoyan

    2006-01-01

    Dye removal mechanisms from textile effluents has been studied by means of surface charge measurempents and image analysis of floc sludge (size, shape, sedimentation properties). Reactive Black 5 and Acid Black 1 commercial dyes have been tested as simulated effluent water solutions treated with synthetic primary coagulants.

  8. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion. PMID:25799161

  9. Involvement of coagulation and hemostasis in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnicki, Antoni

    2012-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) are idiopathic, intestinal and systemic inflammatory disorders which are immunologically mediated with the activation of plasma proteolytic cascades. The activation of coagulation in IBD is related to the activity and colonic extension of the disease, but may still be persistent in a quiescent stage. Factor XIII seems to be as much a coagulation factor as a connective tissue factor which may contribute to intestinal healing. Fibrinolytic capacity is reduced in systemic circulation of IBD patients. Platelets activation is a feature of IBD which contributes to a pathogenic inflammatory sequel. There is evidence that coagulation activation may in turn mediate and amplify inflammatory cascades in IBD, especially via activating PARs related pathways. The etiology of thromboembolism in IBD seems to be multifactorial but is largely attributable to the coagulation activation and platelet aggregation during systemic inflammation. Thromboembolic (TE) complications in both Crohn's disease and UC appear to have at least 3-4 fold increased risk of developing compared to control patients. Currently, no single TE laboratory marker has a predictive value, but a recently developed endogenous thrombin potential test may have a potentially predicative value in IBD. At present, no interaction between IBD and inherited factors of thrombophilia has been found. An efficacy of heparin treatment in UC is still controversial, although heparin is safe in UC flare. Prophylactic anticoagulation against TE is currently not fully defined, however, high - risk patients should be considered for using a moderate dose of heparin. PMID:22272910

  10. Coagulation changes following traumatic brain injury and shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In these studies, we have shown that coagulation and innate immunity pathways respond to trauma within minutes. Furthermore, the appearance of dysfunction of platelets as well as activation of the endothelium is rapidly manifested. Interestingly, many of these changes were attenuated by treatment...

  11. The gangue preparation coagulant (PFASS) experiment research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jing-hua; LIU Zhi-bin; LUO Ke-Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to design a new technological process system to take the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate(PFASS) and to apply it in wastewater processing, the chemical composition analysis was carried on to the Fuxin gangue, adopted the orthogonal experiment method to obtain optimum response condition of with the acid pickling taking the aluminum in the gangue and with alkali extracting taking the silicon in the gangue,The experiments indicate that the sample chemistry content which tests elect completely conform to the preparation inorganic polymer water treatment coagulant request standard.Used the polymeric ferric aluminum silicate sulfate results in which with the system take as the coagulant of treatment wastewater, used the mercerizing degree, the wastewater pH value, the coagulation time, the coagulant throws increment factors and so on to test and verify its influence on the waste water processing. The result indicates that by using this craft production PFASS in waste water processing, after the processed waste water achieves the emission standard, the processing effect is good.

  12. Nanofiltration based water reclamation from tannery effluent following coagulation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, J; Mondal, D; Chakraborty, S; Sikder, J; Curcio, S; Arafat, H A

    2015-11-01

    Coagulation-nanofiltration based integrated treatment scheme was employed in the present study to maximize the removal of toxic Cr(VI) species from tannery effluents. The coagulation pretreatment step using aluminium sulphate hexadecahydrate (alum) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). A nanofiltration unit was integrated with this coagulation pre-treatment unit and the resulting flux decline and permeate quality were investigated. Herein, the coagulation was conducted under response surface-optimized operating conditions. The hybrid process demonstrated high chromium(VI) removal efficiency over 98%. Besides, fouling of two of the tested nanofiltration membranes (NF1 and NF3) was relatively mitigated after feed pretreatment. Nanofiltration permeation fluxes as high as 80-100L/m(2)h were thereby obtained. The resulting permeate stream quality post nanofiltration (NF3) was found to be suitable for effective reuse in tanneries, keeping the Cr(VI) concentration (0.13mg/L), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (65mg/L), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) (142mg/L), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (108mg/L), Total Solids (TS) (86mg/L) and conductivity levels (14mho/cm) in perspective. The process water reclaiming ability of nanofiltration was thereby substantiated and the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid system was thus affirmed. PMID:26188702

  13. Coagulation-flocculation studies of waste-waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing coagulationfloccu

  14. Removal of Heavy Metals in Effluent by Adsorption and Coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Ting LI; Xia LI; Bing Ru ZHANG; Qing Hua OUYANG

    2004-01-01

    The silicate colloids with an average diameter 100 nm, were prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TES), NH4OH (30%) and then modified by (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane ( APS). The colloids can adsorb heavy metals such as Pb and Cr in effluent and after adsorption the colloids can be separated by coagulation of aluminum sulfate. The removal of heavy metals is up to 99%.

  15. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  16. Monitoring of tissue coagulation during thermotherapy using optoacoustic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    In this paper we have applied the laser optoacoustic technique for real time noninvasive monitoring of thermal damage in tissues. Changes in tissue optical properties during coagulation were detected by measuring and analysing amplitude and temporal characteristics of optoacoustic signals. Coagulation of liver, myocardium and prostate was induced by interstitial continuous wave Nd : YAG laser irradiation of the samples or by conductive heating. Real time detection of thermally-induced changes in optical properties was performed with sensitive wide-band acoustic transducers. Combination of optoacoustic and diffuse reflectance technique was applied for determination of tissue optical properties: effective attenuation, total diffuse reflectance, reduced scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient. The optical properties did not change up to temperature of coagulation (about 53{sup 0}C) and sharply increased during heating up to 70{sup 0}C. Monitoring of the expansion of interstitial coagulation front within freshly excised canine tissues was performed in real time with spatial resolution of about 0.6 mm. The results of our study suggest that this technique can potentially be used for real time precise thermotherapy of malignant and benign lesions at depths of the order of the centimetre.

  17. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0

  18. Removal of arsenite by simultaneous electro-oxidation and electro-coagulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical reactor was built and used to remove arsenite from water. In this reactor, arsenite can be oxidized into arsenate, which was removed by electro-coagulation process simultaneously. The reactor mainly included dimension stable anode (DSA) and iron plate electrode. Oxidation of arsenite will occur at the DSA electrode in the electrochemical process. Meantime, the iron ions can be generated by the electro-induced process and iron oxides will form. Thus, the arsenic was removed by coagulation process. Influencing factors on the removal of arsenite were investigated. It is found that Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions promoted the removal of arsenite. However, Cl-, CO32-, SiO32-, and PO43- ions inhibited the arsenic removal. And, it is observed that the inhibition effect was the largest in the presence of PO43-. Furthermore, it is observed that the removal efficiency of arsenate is the largest in the pH value of 8. Increase or decrease of pH value did not benefit to the arsenite removal. Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to analyze the floc particles, it is suggested that the removal mechanism of As(III) in this system seems to be oxidative of As(III) to As(V) and to be removed by adsorption/complexation with metal hydroxides generated in the process.

  19. Inflammation and the coagulation system in tuberculosis: Tissue Factor leads the dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Nadia; Dieli, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, drives the formation of granulomas, structures in which both immune cells and the bacterial pathogen cohabit. The most abundant cells in granulomas are macrophages, which contribute as both cells with bactericidal activity and as targets for M. tuberculosis infection and proliferation during the entire course of infection. The mechanisms and factors involved in the regulation and control of macrophage microenvironment-specific polarization and plasticity are not well understood, as some granulomas are able to control bacteria growth and others fail to do so, permitting bacterial spread. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Venkatasubramanian et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 464-479] show that mice lacking the tissue factor gene in myeloid cells have augmented M. tuberculosis growth and increased inflammation in the lungs. This suggests that tissue factor, an initiator of coagulation, is important for the generation of fibrin, which supports granuloma formation. This article demonstrates for the first time the involvement of tissue factor in inducing effective immunity against M. tuberculosis, and sheds new lights on the complex interplay between host inflammatory response, the coagulation system, and the control of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:26763085

  20. Point of Care Perioperative Coagulation Management in Liver Transplantation and Complete Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Piangatelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation (LT is a serious hemostatic challenge in patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT. Advances in monitoring systems have improved surgery in this setting. We report the successful application of a point-of-care (POC rotational viscoelastic thromboelastometry-guided (TEM testing system (ROTEM which allowed management of coagulation during LT in a 64-year-old cirrhotic patient with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD score of 16. Perioperatively, the patient showed complete PVT, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, recanalization of the umbilical vein, and portosystemic shunt. Macroscopic liver and spleen adherences with collateral circulation were evident. Coagulation factors and fibrinolysis were assessed preoperatively and at graft reperfusion to evaluate the need of hemostatic therapy. Based on ROTEM findings, the patient received 16 g of human fibrinogen concentrate, half preoperatively (with prothrombin complex concentrate 2000 IU, tranexamic acid 1 g, and platelets 2 IU, and two doses of 4 g before and after graft reperfusion; we achieved normalization of all monitored parameters. No ischemia-reperfusion syndrome was present. Postoperatively portal vein flux at Color-Doppler ultrasonography was normal. After a 3-day ICU stay, the patient was moved to the Department of Surgery and discharged on day 14. The postoperative course was uneventful and did not require any further haemostatic therapy.

  1. Sonoclot Signature Analysis in Patients with Liver Disease and Its Correlation with Conventional Coagulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Liver disease patients have complex hemostatic defects leading to a delicate, unstable balance between bleeding and thrombosis. Conventional tests such as PT and APTT are unable to depict these defects completely. Aims. This study aimed at analyzing the abnormal effects of liver disease on sonoclot signature by using sonoclot analyzer (which depicts the entire hemostatic pathway and assessing the correlations between sonoclot variables and conventional coagulation tests. Material and Methods. Clinical and laboratory data from fifty inpatients of four subgroups of liver disease, including decompensated cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis with HCC and acute-on-chronic liver failure were analyzed. All patients and controls were subjected to sonoclot analysis and correlated with routine coagulation parameters including platelet count, PT, APTT, fibrinogen, and D-dimer. Results. The sonoclot signatures demonstrated statistically significant abnormalities in patients with liver disease as compared to healthy controls. PT and APTT correlated positively with SONACT (P<0.008 and <0.0015, resp. while platelet count and fibrinogen levels depicted significant positive and negative correlations with clot rate and SONACT respectively. Conclusion. Sonoclot analysis may prove to be an efficient tool to assess coagulopathies in liver disease patients. Clot rate could emerge as a potential predictor of hypercoagulability in these patients.

  2. Sonoclot coagulation analysis: a useful tool to predict mortality in overt disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Peng; Yu, Min; Qian, Min; Tong, Huasheng; Su, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) contributes to high mortality. The study was performed to investigate Sonoclot as a potential predictor of 30-day survival in overt DIC. This cohort included 237 consecutive critically ill patients with overt DIC, admitted to a 15-bed multidisciplinary ICU between July 2010 and July 2013. Hemostasis was analyzed with Sonoclot, including activated clotting time (ACT), clot rate, and platelet function, as well as routine clotting test at admission to the critical care center. Sonoclot variables differed in survivors and nonsurvivors. Mean ACT was prolonged (289.9 ± 200.5 vs. 194.8 ± 126.6 s; P < 0.001) and platelet function (1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 1.6 ± 1.2; P = 0.010) was reduced in nonsurvivors. The clot rate was not different. Cox proportional-hazard model showed that ACT and platelet function correlated independently with survival (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis suggested that patients with one pathological Sonoclot findings have better outcome (P < 0.05). After ACT and platelet function were introduced, the receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve of model achieved 0.876 (P < 0.05), with a specificity of 82.6% and a sensitivity of 80.5% in prediction of 30-day survival by multivariate analyses. Our data suggest that the Sonoclot can predict mortality in critically ill patients with overt DIC.

  3. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliaritsi, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece); Zoumpoulakis, L. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Simitzis, J. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Vassiliou, P. [Iaso General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Hristoforou, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece)]. E-mail: eh@metal.ntua.gr

    2006-04-15

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications.

  4. EFFECT OF PROTEIN SHORTAGE AND CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON QUALITY TRAITS AND MODELLING OF COAGULATION, CURD FIRMING AND SYNERESIS OF HOLSTEIN-FRESIAN MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Cesaro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of diets with optimal (CP 15% DM or suboptimal (CP 12.3% DM protein content, supplemented (CLA+ or not (CLA- with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA on some cheesemaking properties. Twenty Holstein-Fresian mid lactating dairy cows have been reared following a 4×4 Latin square experimental design of 4 periods, 3 weeks each. Individual milk samples, collected during the third week of each period, were analysed for chemical composition, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP: RCT, k20 and a30 and for recording curd firmness (CF every 15 s over a 90 min period. Data acquired from each sample were used to model CF over time calculating the following parameters: rennet coagulation time (RCTeq, asymptotic potential CF (CFP, CF rate constant (kCF, syneresis rate constant (kCF, maximum CF achieved within 90 min (CFmax and time to CFmax (tmax. Data were analysed using period, diet and group (random as sources of variation. Cows evidenced a strong individual variability within groups and were classified as early (RCT20 min coagulating cows. Dietary protein shortage reduced milk protein and lactose content, while rpCLA supplementation depressed milk fat synthesis. Results showned that traditional MCP parameters were worsened by reduction of dietary protein in the case of milk produced by early coagulating cows, while rpCLA supplementation affected negatively all three traits on all cows. The study of CF model parameters evidenced that CP12 diets have improved CF (CFP and CFmax respect to CP15 when fed to late coagulating cows while worsened CF (CFP and CFmax and reduced kCF when fed to early coagulating cows. The results of the present study underline the complex relationship between dietary fat and protein and their consequences on milk technological properties highlighting the need for further investigations.

  5. Quartz crystal microbalance-with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for real time measurements of blood coagulation density and immune complement activation on artificial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marcus; Andersson, Jonas; Sellborn, Anders; Berglin, Mattias; Nilsson, Bo; Elwing, Hans

    2005-07-15

    A recently developed variant of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) called QCM-with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) allows simultaneous and simple measurements of changes in adsorbed mass as well as the viscoelastic property (D-factor) of deposited protein layers on the sensor surface. We have taken the QCM-D technology a step further and demonstrated its advantages in the study of protein assembly as a consequence of surface induced immune complement activation, or contact activated blood coagulation. In the present study we have continued our QCM-D investigations of surface assembly of fibrin clot formation and complement activation and incubated differently modified quartz sensor surfaces in blood plasma and sera. Polymer surfaces used were spin-coated polyethylene, poly(ethylene terephtalate), poly(methylmetacrylate) and poly(dimethylsiloxane). Also used were sputtered titanium and heparin grafted surfaces. In this investigation we found that we could describe the surface induced coagulation with four independent parameters: (1) Time of onset of coagulation, (2) fibrin deposition rate, (3) total frequency shift at stable plateau, and (4) fibrin clot density. The most important finding was that the blood plasma clot density can be assessed with the use of D determinations and that the clot density varied significantly with the chemical composition of the surface. However, the D-factor did not give any new analytical information about the possible complement activation mechanisms. Nevertheless, the QCM-D was found to be a reliable tool for the analysis of surface induced complement activation. We also compared the QCM-D technique with traditional enzyme immuno assay (EIA) measurements of soluble products from the surface activation of the complement and coagulation systems. We found that the results from EIA and QCM-D measurements corresponded well for the complement activation but not for the coagulation, probably due to the biological complexity of the coagulation

  6. Obstetric hemorrhage and coagulation: an update. Thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, and conventional coagulation tests in the diagnosis and prediction of postpartum hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Natascha M; Lancé, Marcus D; de Groot, Reneé; Beckers, Erik A M; Henskens, Yvonne M; Scheepers, Hubertina C J

    2012-07-01

    Globally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In the current treatment of severe PPH, first-line therapy includes transfusion of packed cells and fresh-frozen plasma in addition to uterotonic medical management and surgical interventions. In persistent PPH, tranexamic acid, fibrinogen, and coagulation factors are often administered. Secondary coagulopathy due to PPH or its treatment is often underestimated and therefore remains untreated, potentially causing progression to even more severe PPH. In most cases, medical and transfusion therapy is not based on the actual coagulation state because conventional laboratory test results are usually not available for 45 to 60 minutes. Thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry are point-of-care coagulation tests. A good correlation has been shown between thromboelastometric and conventional coagulation tests, and the use of these in massive bleeding in nonobstetric patients is widely practiced and it has been proven to be cost-effective. As with conventional laboratory tests, there is an influence of fluid dilution on coagulation test results, which is more pronounced with colloid fluids. Fibrinogen seems to play a major role in the course of PPH and can be an early predictor of the severity of PPH. The FIBTEM values (in thromboelastometry, reagent specific for the fibrin polymerization process) decline even more rapidly than fibrinogen levels and can be useful for early guidance of interventions. Data on thromboelastography and thromboelastometry in pregnant women are limited, particularly during the peripartum period and in women with PPH, so more research in this field is needed. PMID:22926249

  7. Effect of two-stage coagulant addition on coagulation-ultrafiltration process for treatment of humic-rich water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yu, Wen-zheng; Shen, Ji-min; Gregory, John

    2011-08-01

    A novel two-stage coagulant addition strategy applied in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (UF) process for treatment of humic-rich water at neutral pH was investigated in this study. When aluminum sulfate (alum) doses were set at a ratio of 3:1 added during rapid mix stage and half way through flocculation stage, the integrated process of two-stage alum addition achieved almost the same organic matter removal as that of conventional one-stage alum addition at the same overall dose. Whereas membrane fouling could be effectively mitigated by the two-stage addition exhibited by trans-membrane pressure (TMP) developments. The TMP developments were found to be primarily attributed to external fouling on membrane surface, which was closely associated with floc characteristics. The results of jar tests indicated that the average size of flocs formed in two-stage addition mode roughly reached one half larger than that in one-stage addition mode, which implied a beneficial effect on membrane fouling reduction. Moreover, the flocs with more irregular structure and lower effective density resulted from the two-stage alum addition, which caused higher porosity of cake layer formed by such flocs on membrane surface. Microscopic observations of membrane surface demonstrated that internal fouling in membrane pores could be also remarkably limited by two-stage alum addition. It is likely that the freshly formed hydroxide precipitates were distinct in surface characteristics from the aged precipitates due to formation of more active groups or adsorption of more labile aluminum species. Consequently, the flocs could further connect and aggregate to contribute to preferable properties for filtration performance of the coagulation-UF process. As a simple and efficient approach, two-stage coagulant addition strategy could have great practical significance in coagulation-membrane processes. PMID:21704354

  8. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  9. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  10. Mechanisms during suspended solids and phosphate concentration variations in wastewater coagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamperuma, Lelum Duminda; Ratnaweera, Harsha Chandima; Martsul, A

    2016-10-01

    Coagulation-flocculation process is one of the most commonly used treatment process in water and wastewater treatment. Particles (PA) and phosphates (P) removal are the main objectives in wastewater coagulation. There is a general agreement on the dominant mechanism of PA and P removal during coagulation. While it is agreed that the PA and P removal reactions are competitive and takes place simultaneously, there is no clear understanding on the ratio of distribution of coagulants among the PA and P removal. The ratio can be significantly influenced by the content of PA and P, in addition to other water and coagulant quality factors. This paper attempts to provide a qualitative ratio of coagulant distribution based on PA:P proportion in raw water and OH:Al ratio in coagulants. PMID:26857441

  11. Advances on Mechanisms of Coagulation with Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua LI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have been increasingly finding coagulation disorders are commonly the first sign of malignancy. It has now been established that cancer development leads to an increased risk of thrombosis, and conversely, excessive activation of blood coagulation profoundly influences cancer progression. In patients with lung cancer, a sustained stimulation of blood coagulation takes place. Cancer cells trigger coagulation through expression of tissue factor, and affect coagulation through expression of thrombin, release of microparticles that augment coagulation and so on. Coagulation also facilitates tumour progression through release of platelet granule contents, inhibition of natural killer cells and recruitment of macrophages. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC accounts for about 80%-85% of all lung malignancies. In the present review, we summarized the newly updated data about the physiopathological mechanisms of various components of the clotting system in different stages of carcinogenesis in NSCLC.

  12. Reaction mode between Si and Fe and evaluation of optimal species in poly-silicic-ferric coagulant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ying; YU Shui-li; YU Yan-zhen; QIU Li-ping; HUI Ban

    2007-01-01

    A kind of Fe-polysilicate polymer, poly-silicic-ferric (PSF) coagulant was prepared by co-polymerization (hydroxylation of mixture of Fe3+ and fresh polysilicic acid (PS)), in which PSF0.5, PSF1 and PSF3 denotes Si/Fe molar ratio of 0.5, 1 and 3, respectively. The effects of Si/Fe ratio and reaction time (co-polymerization time or aging time) on the reaction mode between Si and Fe were studies, and the optimal species of PSF was evaluated by changing pH during the preparation of PSF and coagulation tests. The results showed that the characteristics of PSF are largely affected by both reaction time and Si/Fe ratio. PSF is found to be a essential complex of Si, Fe, and many other ions. The reaction mode between Si and Fe differs with various Si/Fe ratios. The pH of PSF0.5, PSF1 or PSF3 tended to be stable when reaction time 10, 25 or 55 min, respectively, which is almost consistent with the time reaching the relative stable morphology that is just the optimal species of higher coagulation efficiency. The optimal reaction time reaching optimal species can be evaluated by measuring the pH change during the polymerization process.

  13. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  14. Monocyte tissue factor-dependent activation of coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys is inhibited by simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A Phillip; Passam, Freda H; Antoniak, Silvio; Marshall, Stephanie M; McDaniel, Allison L; Rudel, Lawrence; Williams, Julie C; Hubbard, Brian K; Dutton, Julie-Ann; Wang, Jianguo; Tobias, Peter S; Curtiss, Linda K; Daugherty, Alan; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Luyendyk, James P; Moriarty, Patrick M; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Furie, Barbara C; Furie, Bruce; Johns, Douglas G; Temel, Ryan E; Mackman, Nigel

    2012-02-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. It also is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which hypercholesterolemia produces a procoagulant state remain undefined. Atherosclerosis is associated with accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins within atherosclerotic lesions. Small quantities of oxidized lipoproteins are also present in the circulation of patients with coronary artery disease. We therefore hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia leads to elevated levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in plasma and that this induces expression of the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) in monocytes. In support of this hypothesis, we report here that oxLDL induced TF expression in human monocytic cells and monocytes. In addition, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia had elevated levels of plasma microparticle (MP) TF activity. Furthermore, a high-fat diet induced a time-dependent increase in plasma MP TF activity and activation of coagulation in both LDL receptor-deficient mice and African green monkeys. Genetic deficiency of TF in bone marrow cells reduced coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice, consistent with a major role for monocyte-derived TF in the activation of coagulation. Similarly, a deficiency of either TLR4 or TLR6 reduced levels of MP TF activity. Simvastatin treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys reduced oxLDL, monocyte TF expression, MP TF activity, activation of coagulation, and inflammation, without affecting total cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that the prothrombotic state associated with hypercholesterolemia is caused by oxLDL-mediated induction of TF expression in monocytes via engagement of a TLR4/TLR6 complex. PMID:22214850

  15. Usefulness of human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays in domestic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Anna-Marie Bloch; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2002-01-01

    of commercial human coagulation and fibrinolysis assays for use with porcine plasma. In total, 22 functional and immunologic assays were applied to plasma obtained from domestic pigs, and the following blood coagulation and fibrinolysis variables were measured: prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin...... that 11 of 12 functional assays, but only 3 of 10 immunoassays, were applicable to porcine plasma, and we determined the normal range of these variables. We conclude that human functional assays are useful in porcine plasma, whereas only a few immunologic assays can be used. However, precautions must...... be taken in interpretation of the results and in extrapolation toward human results because possible differences between porcine and human values can be due to species variations and/or methodologic errors....

  16. The structure of dust aggregates in hierarchical coagulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dominik, Carsten; Borel, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Dust coagulation in interstellar space and protoplanetary disks is usually treated as one of 2 extreme cases: Particle-Cluster Aggregation and Cluster-Cluster Aggregation. In this paper we study the process of hierarchical growth, where aggregates are built from significantly smaller aggregates (but not monomers). We show that this process can be understood as a modified, PCA-like process that produces porous, but non-fractal particles whose filling factor is chiefly determined by the porosity of the building blocks. We also show that in a coagulation environment where relative velocities are driven by turbulence, a logarithmically flat mass distribution (equal mass per mass decade) as it is typically found in environments where fragmentation replenishes small grains, leads to a situation where small particles and aggregates dominate the growth of large ones. Therefore, in such environments, hierarchical growth should be seen as the norm. Consequently, we predict that the aggregates in such environments are n...

  17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in obstetric and gynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnana, Martina; Franchi, Massimo; Danese, Elisa; Gotsch, Francesca; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by a massive, widespread, and ongoing activation of the coagulation system, secondary to a variety of clinical conditions. Many obstetric complications, such as abruptio placentae, amniotic fluid embolism, endotoxin sepsis, retained dead fetus, post-hemorrhagic shock, hydatidiform mole, and gynecologic malignancies, might trigger DIC. In these gynecologic and obstetric settings, DIC is usually associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. No single laboratory test is sensitive or specific enough to diagnose DIC definitively, but it can be diagnosed by using a combination of multiple clinical and laboratory tests that reflect the pathophysiology of the syndrome. At present, the therapeutical approach to pregnancy- and gynecologic-related DIC comprises the specific and aggressive treatment of the underlying disease, eventually followed by a supportive blood product replacement therapy and restoration of physiological anticoagulant pathways. This article reviews the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis, and therapy of pregnancy- and gynecologic-related DIC.

  18. Thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, Craig S

    2009-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the physiologic result of pathologic overstimulation of the coagulation system. Despite multiple triggers, a myriad of laboratory abnormalities, and a clinical presentation ranging from gross hemostatic failure to life-threatening thrombosis, or even both simultaneously, a simplified clinical approach augmented by a few readily available tests allows prompt identification of the process and elucidation of treatment opportunities. Platelet counts in DIC may be low, especially in acute sepsis-associated DIC, yet increased in malignancy-associated chronic DIC. Thrombotic risk is not a function of the platelet count, and thrombocytopenia does not protect the patient from thrombosis. The stratification of both thrombotic risk and hemorrhagic risk will be addressed.

  19. Coagulation changes following traumatic brain injury and shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In these studies, we have shown that coagulation and innate immunity pathways respond to trauma within minutes. Furthermore, the appearance of dysfunction of platelets as well as activation of the endothelium is rapidly manifested. Interestingly, many of these changes were attenuated by treatment...... with valproic acid (VPA). These most notably included coagulation and endothelial activation as well as platelet dysfunction. These results add to the growing body of evidence indicating a protective effect of VPA following trauma, and suggests that this may in part be mediated through an attenuation...... of the above-mentioned pathways. Furthermore, these results indicate that VPA treatment may be effective in other pathological settings such as coagulopathy following trauma or sepsis....

  20. Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in the Craniocerebral Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Altinel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury is one of the most important cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. It occurs because of blood loss and hemodilution due to fluid resuscitation. The incidence of trauma associated DIC is mainly higher in the craniocerebral traumas. Even though craniocerebral trauma related DIC is well defined, the pathophysiology has been poorly characterized in the literature. Due to the fact that brain tissue is highly significant for procoagulant molecules, craniocerebral traumas are closely related to DIC. In the current study, 30 patients admitted to emergency room have been considered on the first and fifth day of admission to the hospital for the coagulation tests to evaluate DIC in both two groups. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 488-495

  1. A Stochastic Algorithm for Parametric Sensitivity in Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bailleul, I; Kraft, M

    2009-01-01

    In this article a stochastic particle system approximation to the parametric sensitivity in the Smoluchowski coagulation equation is introduced. The parametric sensitivity is the derivative of the solution to the equation with respect to some parameter, where the coagulation kernel depends on this parameter. It is proved that the particle system converges weakly to the sensitivity as the number of particles N increases. A Monte Carlo algorithm is developed and variance reduction techniques are applied. Numerical experiments are conducted for two kernels: the additive kernel and one which has been used for studying soot formation in a free molecular regime. It is shown empirically that the techniques for variance reduction are indeed very effective and that the order of convergence is O(1/N). The algorithm is then compared to an algorithm based on a finite difference approximation to the sensitivity and it is found that the variance of the sensitivity estimators are considerably lower than that for the finite ...

  2. Coupling algorithm for calculating sensitivities of Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    CERN Document Server

    Man, Peter L W; Bailleul, Ismael F; Kraft, Markus

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two new stochastic algorithms for calculating parametric derivatives of the solution to the Smoluchowski coagulation equation are presented. It is assumed that the coagulation kernel is dependent on these parameters. The new algorithms (called `Single' and `Double') work by coupling two Marcus-Lushnikov processes in such a way as to reduce the difference between their trajectories, thereby significantly reducing the variance of central difference estimators of the parametric derivatives. In the numerical results, the algorithms are shown have have a O(1/N) order of convergence as expected, where N is the initial number of particles. It was also found that the Single and Double algorithms provide much smaller variances. Furthermore, a method for establishing `efficiency' is considered, which takes into account the variances as well as CPU run times, and the `Double' is significantly more `efficient' compared to the `Independent' algorithm in most cases.

  3. Impact of Endothelial Microparticles on Coagulation, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis in Age-Related Vascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial microparticles (EMPs are complex vesicular structures that originate from plasma membranes of activated or apoptotic endothelial cells. EMPs play a significant role in vascular function by altering the processes of inflammation, coagulation, and angiogenesis, and they are key players in the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases. Circulating EMPs are increased in many age-related vascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebral ischemia, and congestive heart failure. Their elevation in plasma has been considered as both a biomarker and bioactive effector of vascular damage and a target for vascular diseases. This review focuses on the pleiotropic roles of EMPs and the mechanisms that trigger their formation, particularly the involvement of decreased estrogen levels, thrombin, and PAI-1 as major factors that induce EMPs in age-related vascular diseases.

  4. Comparisons of species and coagulation effects of PFS solution and solid PFS from pyrite cinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅杰; 龚竹青; 刘立华; 陈白珍

    2002-01-01

    Pyrite cinder is a kind of solid waste of sulfuric acid industry. After mixing pyrite cinders with sulfuric acid, ferric sulfate was obtained by heating, maturing, dissolving and filtrating. Suitable amounts of FeSO4 * 7H2O and NaClO3 were added into ferric sulfate solution and polyferric sulfate(PFS) solution was produced. Solid PFS was made by concentrating and drying PFS solution. Time-dependent complex colorimetric tests were done while ferron agent reacted with Fe3+ in the solution. The results show that the proportion of transitional low polymeric species and high polymeric species are increased after PFS solution is transferred into solid PFS. It was discovered by jar tests that solid PFS has very good coagulation effects relevant to the increase of transitional lower polymeric species.

  5. SEPSIS-ASSOCIATED DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION AND THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Semeraro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is almost invariably associated with haemostatic abnormalities ranging from subclinical activation of blood coagulation (hypercoagulability, which may contribute to localized venous thromboembolism, to acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, characterized by massive thrombin formation and widespread microvascular thrombosis, partly responsible of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, and subsequent consumption of platelets and coagulation proteins causing, in most severe cases, bleeding manifestations. There is general agreement that the key event underlying this life-threatening sepsis complication is the overwhelming inflammatory host response to the infectious agent leading to the overexpression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistically, the latter, together with the micro-organism and its derivatives, causes DIC by 1 up-regulation of procoagulant molecules, primarily tissue factor (TF, which is produced mainly by stimulated monocytes-macrophages and by specific cells in target tissues; 2 impairment of physiological anticoagulant pathways (antithrombin, protein C pathway, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, which is orchestrated mainly by dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs; and 3 suppression of fibrinolysis due to increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 by ECs and likely also to thrombin-mediated  activation of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI. Notably, clotting enzymes non only lead to microvascular thrombosis but can also elicit cellular responses that amplify the inflammatory reactions. Inflammatory mediators can also cause, directly or indirectly, cell apoptosis or necrosis and recent evidence indicates that products released from dead cells, such as nuclear proteins (particularly extracellular histones, are able to propagate further inflammation, coagulation, cell death and MODS. These insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of DIC and MODS may have important implications for the

  6. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE AS A COAGULANT, RECOVERY AND REUSE

    OpenAIRE

    M.Shariat; M.Kashefi-Alasl

    1982-01-01

    In order to prevent water losses through disposing hydrous sludge during treatment of water, also recovery and reuse of chemicals; treatment by magnesium carbonate as a coagulant was examined in batch and continuous systems. 600 mg/1 MgCO3 as optimum dosage reduced 80% turbidity of a highly turbid water containing 200 NTU. Sulfates decreased, but hardness and alkalinity showed some increases. Recarbonation by CO2 resulted in recovery of 45% of magnesium carbonate which was used again as part ...

  7. Color removal in textile dye wastewaters by means of coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Inge, Thomas Benjamin

    1996-01-01

    In textile mill wastewater effluent, highly colored and stable dyes are formidable and somewhat insusceptible to removal treatment processes. Recent governmental regulations have made it necessary to remove most color before discharging the treated wastewater to surface waters. Chemical coagulation is successful in some cases at reducing wastewater color to acceptable levels. Also anaerobic biological treatment is usually successful in destroying the dyes and color in the wastewater. Aerob...

  8. Laundry wastewater treatment using coagulation and membrane filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Šostar-Turk, Sonja; Petrinić, Irena; Simonič, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from laundry wastewater treatment using conventional methods namely precipitation/coagulation and the flocculation process with adsorption on granular-activated carbon (GAC) and an alternative method, membrane filtrations, namely ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Chemical analyses showed that parameter values of untreated wastewater like temperature, pH, sediment substances, total nitrogen and phosphorous, COD, BOD5, and the amount of anio...

  9. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Zhi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods: Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results: Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins. Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions: To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet

  10. Interplay between coagulation and vascular inflammation in sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkenbaugh, Erica; Pawlinski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is the most common inherited hematologic disorder that leads to the irreversible damage of multiple organs. Although sickling of red blood cells and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease the importance of hemolytic anemia and vasculopathy has been recently recognized. Hypercoagulation state is another prominent feature of sickle cell disease and is mediated by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways. Growing eviden...

  11. Interaction between Cryptosporidium oocysts and water treatment coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, H A; Shanker, S R; Pashley, R M; Karaman, M E

    2001-09-01

    The electrokinetic properties of gamma-irradiated Cryptosporidium oocysts in the presence of coagulants (ferric chloride and alum) and coagulant aids (DADMAC based cationic polyelectrolytes) have been studied. The zeta potential of the oocysts was unaffected by the addition of ferric chloride at all pH values (3-10) studied. Addition of alum resulted in reversal of the oocysts charge, which suggests that the initial stage in the coagulation process leading to floc formation proceeds via the adsorption of hydrolysed aluminium species. The cationic polyelectrolyte Magnafloc LT35 was adsorbed onto iron flocs at doses of 0.1 mg/L even against an electrostatic barrier. The cationic polyelectrolyte only adsorbed and caused charge reversal at the oocyst surface at around 0.4 mg/L, suggesting a lower affinity for this surface. These results indicate that the oocysts, unlike inorganic colloidal materials such as metal oxides, appear to possess a lower surface density of active or charged sites. The lower density of sites, combined with the rapid precipitation of iron salts, may be responsible for the lack of specific adsorption of either hydroxylated ferric species or primary iron hydroxide particles on the oocysts. Further, this suggests that a process of sweep flocculation, where oocysts are engulfed in flocs during coagulation and floc formation, is the more likely mechanism involved. By comparison, it is likely that the specific interaction of hydrolysed aluminium species with the oocysts surface would result in a stronger link at the oocyst-floc interface and that the flocculation process may initially proceed via charge neutralisation. PMID:11487115

  12. Applying coagulation, flocculation and discfiltration in tertiary treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Reducing eutrophication in our surface waters caused by nutrient overload is of importance in order to ensure an environment in ecological balance for future generations. Municipal wastewater treatment plants are the main point source of nutrients emissions. Effluent water can be treated by introducing a final advanced treatment step to existing wastewater treatment plants. The present thesis concerns addition of coagulation, polymer aided flocculation and discfiltration usi...

  13. Coagulation-flocculation pretreatment of oil sands process affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrezaei, P.; El-Din, M.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This presentation addressed the issue of water use in the oil sands industry and efforts to use this limited resource more efficiently. Three wastewater treatment schemes for oil sands tailings ponds were proposed, notably primary, secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment involves the removal of suspended solids using physical-chemical treatments. Secondary treatment involves the removal of dissolved solids and organics using chemical oxidation, ultrafiltration or nanofiltration. Tertiary treatment involves removal of residual organics/solids using biological activated carbon filtration, sand filtration or reverse osmosis. The composition of oil sands process water (OSPW) was also discussed with reference to suspended solids, salts, hydrocarbons, other dissolved organics (such as naphthenic acids and phenols), ammonia, inorganic compounds and trace elements. The conventional coagulation/flocculation process is essential in industrial wastewater treatment. It is cost effective, easy to operate and energy efficient. The process is used because small suspended and colloidal particles and dissolved constituents cannot be removed quickly by sedimentation. A chemical method must be used. Coagulation/flocculation brings small suspended and colloidal particles into contact so that they collide, stick and grow to a size that settles readily. Alum is the predominant and least expensive water treatment coagulant used for the coagulation/flocculation process. It provides positively charged ions to neutralize the negative charge of colloidal particles resulting in aggregation. It creates big settling flocs that enmesh colloids as it settles. The factors affecting the process include pH, chemical type, chemical concentration, rapid mixing intensity, slow mixing intensity and time. tabs., figs.

  14. Extraction of Water Treatment Coagulant from Locally Abundant Kaolin Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Fidelis Chigondo; Benias Chomunorwa Nyamunda; Vuyo Bhebhe

    2015-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation is contributing to water pollution. There is a need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminants as the demand for clean water rises. A study is carried out to investigate the extraction of alum from locally abundant kaolin clays using sulphuric acid. Alum is a coagulant that is used for raw water treatment. The kaolin clay and alum were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of particle size, calcination...

  15. Infrared coagulation versus rubber band ligation in early stage hemorrhoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Gupta

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for early stages of hemorrhoids is always debated. Some are more effective but are more painful, others are less painful but their efficacy is also lower. Thus, comfort or efficacy is a major concern. In the present randomized study, a comparison is made between infrared coagulation and rubber band ligation in terms of effectiveness and discomfort. One hundred patients with second degree bleeding piles were randomized prospectively to either rubber band ligation (N = 54 or infrared coagulation (N = 46. Parameters measured included postoperative discomfort and pain, time to return to work, relief in incidence of bleeding, and recurrence rate. The mean age was 38 years (range 19-68 years. The mean duration of disease was 17.5 months (range 12 to 34 months. The number of male patients was double that of females. Postoperative pain during the first week was more intense in the band ligation group (2-5 vs 0-3 on a visual analogue scale. Post-defecation pain was more intense with band ligation and so was rectal tenesmus (P = 0.0059. The patients in the infrared coagulation group resumed their duties earlier (2 vs 4 days, P = 0.03, but also had a higher recurrence or failure rate (P = 0.03. Thus, we conclude that band ligation, although more effective in controlling symptoms and obliterating hemorrhoids, is associated with more pain and discomfort to the patient. As infrared coagulation can be conveniently repeated in case of recurrence, it could be considered to be a suitable alternative office procedure for the treatment of early stage hemorrhoids.

  16. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment for disseminated intravascular coagulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Hideo; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Aota, Takumi; Yamashita, Yoshiki

    2015-02-01

    As the development of a hypercoagulable state in the setting of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induces localized infection, therapy for DIC should be evaluated according to the findings of examinations for both severe sepsis and DIC. DIC is classified into the following types: "bleeding type," "organ failure type," "asymptomatic type," and "complication type." The "bleeding type" and "organ failure type" are considered to reflect the "plasmin inhibitor (PI) deficiency type" and "antithrombin (AT) deficiency type," respectively. In order to improve the diagnosis of DIC, in particular limitations in global coagulation tests, the Japanese Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis recently proposed tentative diagnostic criteria for DIC using hemostatic molecular markers and AT. The recommendations for treatment of DIC, especially the use of AT concentrates, recombinant activated protein C and thrombomodulin, vary among several guidelines for the management of DIC. These agents inhibit the effects of key proteases in activating coagulation and consequently exert an anti-inflammatory effect on DIC. Hence, it is necessary to extensively evaluate these agents in well-conducted clinical trials.

  17. Dust grain coagulation modelling : From discrete to continuous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruta, P.; Hendrix, T.; Keppens, R.

    2016-07-01

    In molecular clouds, stars are formed from a mixture of gas, plasma and dust particles. The dynamics of this formation is still actively investigated and a study of dust coagulation can help to shed light on this process. Starting from a pre-existing discrete coagulation model, this work aims to mathematically explore its properties and its suitability for numerical validation. The crucial step is in our reinterpretation from its original discrete to a well-defined continuous form, which results in the well-known Smoluchowski coagulation equation. This opens up the possibility of exploiting previous results in order to prove the existence and uniqueness of a mass conserving solution for the evolution of dust grain size distribution. Ultimately, to allow for a more flexible numerical implementation, the problem is rewritten as a non-linear hyperbolic integro-differential equation and solved using a finite volume discretisation. It is demonstrated that there is an exact numerical agreement with the initial discrete model, with improved accuracy. This is of interest for further work on dynamically coupled gas with dust simulations.

  18. COAGULATION PARAMETERS IN THE AMERICAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardhouse, Sara; Eshar, David; Beaufrère, Hugues

    2016-06-01

    American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) are commonly kept in zoologic collections. When presented to veterinarians in states of health and illness, evaluation of selected coagulation parameters can aid in assessment of various coagulopathies, as well as other disease processes such as septicemia, vasculitis, and hepatic disease. Sixteen American flamingos (eight males, eight females) were presented for annual health evaluations. A blood sample was collected from the medial metatarsal vein, and prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, and fibrin degradation products (FDPs) were evaluated using an automated hemostasis analyzer. Results were reported as median and range (minimum-maximum): PT = 72.7 (39 to >100 sec), APTT = 97.5 (6.1 to >200 sec), fibrinogen = 184 (138-364 mg/dl), and FDPs = 20 μg/ml). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of coagulation parameters in American flamingos. Knowledge of coagulation parameters will allow for better clinical assessment and management of American flamingos. PMID:27468017

  19. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  20. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  1. Interstitial laser coagulation therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Thomas A.; Alsudani, Mohammed

    1996-05-01

    Alternatives to the side-firing laser method include controlled destruction of prostatic adenoma by an atraumatic saline cooled laser fiber introduced endoscopically into the prostate under visual and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) control. Laser light produces intense heating and interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) occurs with characteristic TRUS changes which are used to control the volume of tissue destruction. The prostatic urethral lining is preserved which may reduce laser side effects). Thirty-six men with symptomatic BPH were treated by ILC between April 1994 and September 1995. All were discharged home on the first post-operative day and reviewed periodically to 12 months post-treatment with measurement of IPSS, flow rate (FR), residual volume, complications, potency and TRUS. Seventeen men (47%) voided immediately, 15 (42%) performed intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) for 3.5 days (2 - 5). Four men (11%) required catheterization for 1/52. Thirty-five men tolerated the treatment well, requiring only mild oral analgesia. One man developed dysuria and required early transurethral resection revealing a large volume of coagulative necrosis. Improvement in symptoms and flow rate developed from 1 - 30 days later. There were no significant complications. Hyperechoic and cystic zones developed at the ILC site which persisted to 12 months. This clinical study indicates the feasibility and safety of intense heating by ILC with visible and ultrasound control to coagulate the adenoma while preserving the urethra. Changes are easily seen on TRUS, symptomatic improvement is good and there have been minimal urethral symptoms or complications.

  2. Coagulation and complement system in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helling, H; Stephan, B; Pindur, G

    2015-01-01

    Activation of coagulation and inflammatory response including the complement system play a major role in the pathogenesis of critical illness. However, only limited data are available addressing the relationship of both pathways and its assessment of a predictive value for the clinical outcome in intense care medicine. Therefore, parameters of the coagulation and complement system were studied in patients with septicaemia and multiple trauma regarded as being exemplary for critical illness. 34 patients (mean age: 51.38 years (±16.57), 15 females, 19 males) were investigated at day 1 of admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Leukocytes, complement factors C3a and C5a were significantly (p complement system as part of the inflammatory response is a significant mechanism in septicaemia, whereas loss and consumption of blood components including parts of the coagulation and complement system is more characteristic for multiple trauma. Protein C in case of severe reduction might be of special concern for surviving in sepsis. Activation of haemostasis was occurring in both diseases, however, overt DIC was not confirmed in this study to be a leading mechanism in critically ill patients. MOF score, lactate, C1-inhibitor and prothrombin time have been the only statistically significant predictors for lethal outcome suggesting that organ function, microcirculation, haemostasis and inflammatory response are essential elements of the pathomechanism and clinical course of diseases among critically ill patients.

  3. Tissue Factor, Blood Coagulation, and Beyond: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence shows a broad spectrum of biological functions of tissue factor (TF. TF classical role in initiating the extrinsic blood coagulation and its direct thrombotic action in close relation to cardiovascular risks have long been established. TF overexpression/hypercoagulability often observed in many clinical conditions certainly expands its role in proinflammation, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound repairs, embryonic development, cell adhesion/migration, innate immunity, infection, pregnancy loss, and many others. This paper broadly covers seminal observations to discuss TF pathogenic roles in relation to diverse disease development or manifestation. Biochemically, extracellular TF signaling interfaced through protease-activated receptors (PARs elicits cellular activation and inflammatory responses. TF diverse biological roles are associated with either coagulation-dependent or noncoagulation-mediated actions. Apparently, TF hypercoagulability refuels a coagulation-inflammation-thrombosis circuit in “autocrine” or “paracrine” fashions, which triggers a wide spectrum of pathophysiology. Accordingly, TF suppression, anticoagulation, PAR blockade, or general anti-inflammation offers an array of therapeutical benefits for easing diverse pathological conditions.

  4. The impact of interactions between algal organic matter and humic substances on coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivokonsky, Martin; Naceradska, Jana; Brabenec, Tomas; Novotna, Katerina; Baresova, Magdalena; Janda, Vaclav

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on the effects of molecular interactions between two natural organic matter (NOM) fractions, peptides/proteins derived from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (MA proteins) and peat humic substances (HS), on their removal by coagulation. Coagulation behaviour was studied by the jar tests with MA protein/HS mixtures and with single compounds (MA proteins or HS). Aluminium sulphate was used as a coagulant. Besides MA proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. For the MA protein/HS mixture, the removal rates were higher (80% versus 65%) and the dose of coagulant substantially lower (2.8 versus 5.5 mg L(-1) Al) than for coagulation of single HS, indicating the positive effect of protein-HS interactions on the coagulation process. The optimum coagulation pH was 5.2-6.7 for MA proteins and 5.5-6 for HS by alum. The optimum pH for the removal of MA protein/HS mixture ranged between pH 5.5-6.2, where the charge neutralization of negatively charged acidic functional groups of organic molecules by positively charged coagulant hydroxopolymers lead to coagulation. MA proteins interacted with HS, probably through hydrophobic, dipole-dipole and electrostatic interactions, even in the absence the coagulant. These interactions are likely to occur within a wide pH range, but they result in coagulation only at low pH values (pH coagulation process and a rise in coagulant demand.

  5. Influence of the composition of common bean extracts on their coagulation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukić Dragana V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation are the most used methods for removal of turbidity of water. Recently, many studies have focused on the investigation of natural coagulants for this purpose. In view of the fact that extracts of common bean have coagulation activity, this study is concerned with the chemical composition of these extracts and their influence on the coagulation activity. Extraction was conducted with distilled water, 0.5M NaCl and 1M NaCl and total sugars content, proteins, phytic acid and total phenolics content and their coagulation activity were determined in the obtained extracts. These experiments confirmed that an extraction time of 10 minutes is sufficient for the extraction of active coagulant components from common bean seeds and that water is satisfactorily efficient and most economical solvent.

  6. Mathematical modelling of the formation of rennet-induced gels by plant coagulants and chymosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, C L; Lucey, J A; Pires, E M

    2001-08-01

    Rheological properties of reconstituted skim milk coagulated with plant coagulants Cynara cardunculus L., Cynara humilis L. and chymosin was monitored by dynamic low amplitude oscillation. There are no published reports on the modelling of the gelation behaviour of milk by plant coagulants. Three mathematical models, Scott Blair. Douillard and Carlson, were fitted to the storage modulus (G') as function of time curves. For all coagulants. Scott Blair model was the most efficient in modelling the gelation process, and gave both the smallest residuals and standard error of residuals, Se (P gels with slightly higher G' values than chymosin, but after longer incubation times chymosin gels had higher G' values. It was concluded that the Scott Blair model was the best equation to follow the gelation of milk induced by both plant coagulants as well as chymosin. Modelling is an important and useful method for comparing the gelation process in gels formed by different types of coagulants. PMID:11694051

  7. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B.; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual al...

  8. Crosstalk between Inflammation and Coagulation in Acute Pancreatitis - Experimental and Clinical Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In various inflammatory conditions a close interplay between inflammation and coagulation is known to exist, where coagulation factor VII (FVII) and tissue factor (TF) are considered to be pivotal players. In this thesis the crosstalk between inflammation and coagulation in acute pancreatitis (AP) has been investigated. The results from the first paper, where active site inactivated FVII (FVIIai) is given as pre-treatment in a rat model of severe AP, show a decreased inflammatory respo...

  9. Application of low-mixing energy input for the coagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasarukkai, Yamuna S; Gagnon, Graham A

    2015-11-01

    Rapid-mixing tanks with mechanical mixers are a common design used in treatment plants. Yet, the role of such rapid-mixing systems on the effectiveness of the coagulation performance is unclear. This study looked at optimizing the direct energy used in the coagulation process for removal of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM). The role of coagulation mixing intensity (G-value) on total organic carbon (TOC) and turbidity removal was examined for the water types with high organic content, with a specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) of at least 2-2.5 units of m(-1) of absorbance per mg/L. A standard jar test using ferric sulfate coagulant was performed to optimize the chemical condition in coagulation for removal of dissolved organics as well as particles. The jar test analysis at an acidic pH (4.5 ± 0.3) required an iron dose coagulant concentration and resulted in above 75% of TOC removal. The influence of coagulation mixing on TOC and turbidity removal was evaluated at G varying from 0 to 1500 s(-1) at the optimized coagulant dose and pH conditions for enhanced coagulation. In this study, a combined effective removal of TOC and turbidity was achieved at a low-mixing intensity range of 110 s(-1) Coagulation operated at G greater than 450 s(-1) showed negligible improvement in TOC removal. Minimizing energy consumption in enhanced coagulation is feasible at the proposed mixing intensity range (i.e., 110 s(-1) coagulation. These findings represent an opportunity for energy savings for the water industry without sacrificing quality.

  10. Contribution to the probabilistic and numerical study of homogeneous Coagulation - Fragmentation equations

    OpenAIRE

    Cepeda, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of systems of particles undergoing successive coagulations and fragmentations. In the deterministic case, we deal with measure-valued solutions of the coagulation - multifragmentation equation. We also study, on the other hand, its stochastic counterpart: coalescence - multifragmentation Markov processes. In Chapter 1 we only take into account coagulation phenomena. We consider the Smoluchowski equation (which is deterministic) and the Marcus-Lushnikov proc...

  11. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Jelena M.; Šćiban Marina B.; Antov Mirjana G.; Kukić Dragana V.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with...

  12. Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna R Velez

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a complex disease, potentially induced by several etiologic factors from multiple pathophysiologic pathways. To dissect the genetic risk factors of PTB a large-scale high-throughput candidate gene association study was performed examining 1536 SNP in 130 candidate genes from hypothesized PTB pathways. Maternal and fetal DNA from 370 US Caucasian birth-events (172 cases and 198 controls was examined. Single locus, haplotype, and multi-locus association analyses were performed separately on maternal and fetal data. For maternal data the strongest associations were found in genes in the complement-coagulation pathway related to decidual hemorrhage in PTB. In this pathway 3 of 6 genes examined had SNPs significantly associated with PTB. These include factor V (FV that was previously associated with PTB, factor VII (FVII, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. The single strongest effect was observed in tPA marker rs879293 with a significant allelic (p = 2.30x10(-3 and genotypic association (p = 2.0x10(-6 with PTB. The odds ratio (OR for this SNP was 2.80 [CI 1.77-4.44] for a recessive model. Given that 6 of 8 markers in tPA were statistically significant, sliding window haplotype analyses were performed and revealed an associating 4 marker haplotype in tPA (p = 6.00x10(-3. The single strongest effect in fetal DNA was observed in the inflammatory pathway at rs17121510 in the interleukin-10 receptor antagonist (IL-10RA gene for allele (p = 0.01 and genotype (p = 3.34x10(-4. The OR for the IL-10RA genotypic additive model was 1.92 [CI 1.15-3.19] (p = 2.00x10(-3. Finally, exploratory multi-locus analyses in the complement and coagulation pathway were performed and revealed a potentially significant interaction between a marker in FV (rs2187952 and FVII (rs3211719 (p

  13. Thrombocytopenia in the experimental leptospirosis of guinea pig is not related to disseminated intravascular coagulation

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    HU Bao-Yu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombocytopenia is commonly observed in severe leptospirosis. However, previous studies on coagulation alterations during leptospirosis resulted in inconsistent conclusions. Some findings showed that the prominent levels of thrombocytopenia observed in severe leptospirosis did not reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC syndrome, while the others reached the conclusion that the hemorrhages observed in leptospirosis were due to DIC. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether DIC is an important feature of leptospirosis. Methods The leptospirosis model of guinea pig was established by intraperitoneal inoculation of Leptospira interrogans strain Lai. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry staining were used to detect the pathologic changes. Platelet thrombus or fibrin thrombus was detected by HE, Martius Scarlet Blue (MSB staining and electron microscopy. Hemostatic molecular markers such as 11-dehydrogenate thromboxane B2 (11-DH-TXB2, thrombomodulin (TM, thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, D-Dimer and fibrin (ogen degradation products (FDPs in the plasma were examined by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to evaluate the hematological coagulative alterations in leptospirosis models. Results Pulmonary hemorrhage appeared in the model guinea pig 24 hours after leptospires intraperitoneal inoculation, progressing to a peak at 96 hours after the infection. Leptospires were detected 24 hours post-inoculation in the liver, 48 hours in the lung and 72 hours in the kidney by immunohistochemistry staining. Spiral form of the bacteria was initially observed in the liver, lung and kidney suggestive of intact leptospires, granular form of leptospires was seen as the severity increased. Platelet aggregation in hepatic sinusoid as well as phagocytosis of erythrocytes and platelets by Kupffer cells were both observed. Neither platelet thrombus

  14. Effects of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution on Perioperative Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Elderly Patients Undergoing Hepatic Carcinectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-rong Guo; Jun Yu; Xiao-ju Jin; Jin-man Du; Wei Guo; Xiao-hong Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of acute normovolemie hemodilution (ANH) on coagulation func-tion and fibrinolysis in elderly patients undergoing hepatic carcinectomy.Methods Thirty elderly patients (aged 60-70 years) with liver cancer (American Society of Anesthe-siologists physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ) scheduled for hepatic carcinectomy from February 2007 to February 2008 were randomly divided into ANH group (n= 15) and control group (n= 15). After tracheal intubation, patients in ANH group and control group were infused with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (130/0.4), and basic liquid containing 6% HES and routine Ringer's solution, respectively. In all the studied patients, blood samples were drawn at five different time points: before anesthesia induction (T1), 30 minutes after ANH (T2), I hour after start of operation (T3), immediately after operation (T4), and 24 hours after operation (T5). Then co-agulation function, soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC), prothrombin fragment (F1+2), and platelet membrane glycoprotein (activated GPIIb/GPIIIa and P-selectin) were measured.Results The perioperative blood loss was not significantly different between the two groups (P> 0.05). The volume of allogeneic blood transfusion in ANH group was significantly smaller than that in control group (350.5±70.7 mL vs. 457.8±181.3 mL, P0.05). SFMC and F1 +2 increased in both groups, but without statistical significance. P-selectin expression on the platelet surface of ANH group was significantly low-ered at T2 and T3 compared with the level at T1 (P< 0.05). Compared with control group, P-selectin was sig-nificandy lower in ANH group at T2-T5 (all P<0.05).Conclusions In elderly patients undergoing resection of liver cancer, ANH may not hamper fibri-nolysis and coagulation function. It could therefore be safe to largely reduce allogeneic blood transfusion.

  15. Extraction and partial purification of coagulation active components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An active coagulation component was extracted from common bean seed by NaCl solution and the obtained crude extract was partially purified through a sequence of steps that included precipitation of protein by ammonium sulphate, desalting by dialysis and anion exchange. A turbid water was treated by protein fractions obtained in the anion- exchange elution process by stepwise increase in NaCl concentration. The jar tests were conducted at various dosages of eluates. Different mode of relation between coagulation activity and applied coagulant dose for each protein fraction indicated the existence of different mechanisms of coagulation/flocculation, depending of characteristics of different proteins in the fractions.

  16. Removal of water turbidity by natural coagulants obtained from chestnut and acorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sćiban, Marina; Klasnja, Mile; Antov, Mirjana; Skrbić, Biljana

    2009-12-01

    The ability of seed extracts of several species of chestnut and acorn to act as natural coagulants was tested using a synthetic turbid water. Active components were extracted from ground seeds of Horse chestnut and acorns of some species of family Fagaceae: Common oak, Turkey oak, Northern red oak and European chestnut. All investigated extracts had coagulation capabilities and their amounts depended on pH values and initial turbidities. The seed extracts from European chestnut and Common oak acorn were the most efficient expressing the highest coagulation activities, about 80% and 70%, respectively, in both low and medium investigated water turbidities at the lowest coagulant dose 0.5 ml/L.

  17. Recent acquisitions in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippi Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is a disorder characterized by both acute generalized, widespread activation of coagulation, which results in thrombotic complications due to the intravascular formation of fibrin, and diffuse hemorrhages, due to the consumption of platelets and coagulation factors. Systemic activation of coagulation may occur in a variety of disorders, including sepsis, severe infections, malignancies, obstetric or vascular disorders, and severe toxic or immunological reactions. In this review, we briefly report the present knowledge about the pathophysiology and diagnosis of DIC. Particular attention is also given to the current standard and experimental therapies of overt DIC.

  18. Preparation, characterisation and application of novel composite coagulants for surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoupanos, N D; Zouboulis, A I

    2011-06-01

    The development of the Inorganic Polymeric Flocculants (IPFs) can be regarded as significant progress in the coagulation-flocculation field. However, the IPFs may be less efficient when compared to the organic polymers (polyelectrolytes) regarding their aggregation abilities. In order to increase further their flocculation efficiency, the combination of a cationic IPF (polyaluminium chloride, PACl) and an anionic polyelectrolyte in one unique reagent is proposed in this study. During this investigation, several composite coagulants were prepared, which differ on the preparation method and polyelectrolyte content. Major typical properties of the prepared coagulants were examined, i.e. pH, turbidity, conductivity, Al species distribution. The composition, structure and morphology of the composite coagulants were studied in detail as well, with the application of FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Their coagulation performance was investigated in the treatment of a model water sample (simulating surface water) and compared to the respective coagulation performance of PACl and the polyelectrolyte applied as separated reagents (common procedure). Finally, the kinetics of coagulation was studied with application of the Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA). From the results, it was revealed that interactions take place between the Al species and the polyelectrolyte molecules, which probably lead to the formation of new, "composite" species. The properties of the composite coagulants are significantly affected by these interactions, leading to more effective water treatment. The simplification of the overall treatment process and the cost-effectiveness are considered as the major advantages of the composite coagulants. PMID:21555140

  19. The effects of chemical coagulants on the decolorization of dyes by electrocoagulation using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erick B.; Hung, Yung-Tse; Mulamba, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the efficiency of electrocoagulation (ECF) coupled with an addition of chemical coagulant to decolorize textile dye. Tests were conducted using Box Behnken methodology to vary six parameters: dye type, weight, coagulant type, dose, initial pH and current density. The combination of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation was able to decolorize dye up to 99.42 % in 30 min of treatment time which is remarkably shorter in comparison with using conventional chemical coagulation. High color removal was found to be contingent upon the dye type and current density, along with the interactions between the current density and the coagulant dose. The addition of chemical coagulants did enhanced treatment efficiency.

  20. Heparins with reduced anti-coagulant activity reduce myocardial reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, William H; Kennedy, Thomas P

    2011-05-01

    Heparin which is desulfated at the 2-O and 3-O positions (ODSH) has reduced anti-coagulant properties, and reduced interaction with heparin antibodies. Because of the reduced anti-coagulant effect, ODSH can be safely administered to animals and humans intravenously at doses up to 20 mg/kg, resulting in a serum concentration of up to 250µg/ml. Administration of ODSH causes a 35% reduction in infarct size in dogs and pigs subjected to coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion when given 5 min before reperfusion. ODSH has anti-inflamatory effects, manifest as a decrease in neutrophil infiltration into ischemic tissue at high doses, but this effect does not entirely account for the reduction in infarct size. ODSH decreases Na(+) and Ca(2+) loading in isolated cardiac myocytes subjected to simulated ischemia. This effect appears due to an ODSH-induced reduction in an enhanced Na(+) influx via the Na channel in the membrane of cardiac myocyes caused by oxygen radicals generated during ischemia and reperfusion. Reduction in Na(+) influx decreases Ca(2+) loading by reducing Ca2(+) influx via Na/Ca exchange, thus reducing Ca(2+) - dependent reperfusion injury. ODSH does not appear to interact with antibodies to the heparin/platelet factor 4 complex, and does not cause heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Because of these therapeutic and safety considerations, ODSH would appear to be a promising heparin derivative for prevention of reperfusion injury in humans undergoing thrombolytic or catheter-based reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction. The review article discussed the use of heparin and the discussion of some of the important patents, including: US6489311; US7478358; PCTUS2008070836 and PCTUS2009037836.

  1. Coagulation kinetics beyond mean field theory using an optimised Poisson representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, James [Department of Mathematics, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ford, Ian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-21

    Binary particle coagulation can be modelled as the repeated random process of the combination of two particles to form a third. The kinetics may be represented by population rate equations based on a mean field assumption, according to which the rate of aggregation is taken to be proportional to the product of the mean populations of the two participants, but this can be a poor approximation when the mean populations are small. However, using the Poisson representation, it is possible to derive a set of rate equations that go beyond mean field theory, describing pseudo-populations that are continuous, noisy, and complex, but where averaging over the noise and initial conditions gives the mean of the physical population. Such an approach is explored for the simple case of a size-independent rate of coagulation between particles. Analytical results are compared with numerical computations and with results derived by other means. In the numerical work, we encounter instabilities that can be eliminated using a suitable “gauge” transformation of the problem [P. D. Drummond, Eur. Phys. J. B 38, 617 (2004)] which we show to be equivalent to the application of the Cameron-Martin-Girsanov formula describing a shift in a probability measure. The cost of such a procedure is to introduce additional statistical noise into the numerical results, but we identify an optimised gauge transformation where this difficulty is minimal for the main properties of interest. For more complicated systems, such an approach is likely to be computationally cheaper than Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Coagulation of Agglomerates Consisting of Polydisperse Primary Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeli, E; Eggersdorfer, M L; Pratsinis, S E

    2016-09-13

    The ballistic agglomeration of polydisperse particles is investigated by an event-driven (ED) method and compared to the coagulation of spherical particles and agglomerates consisting of monodisperse primary particles (PPs). It is shown for the first time to our knowledge that increasing the width or polydispersity of the PP size distribution initially accelerates the coagulation rate of their agglomerates but delays the attainment of their asymptotic fractal-like structure and self-preserving size distribution (SPSD) without altering them, provided that sufficiently large numbers of PPs are employed. For example, the standard asymptotic mass fractal dimension, Df, of 1.91 is attained when clusters are formed containing, on average, about 15 monodisperse PPs, consistent with fractal theory and the literature. In contrast, when polydisperse PPs with a geometric standard deviation of 3 are employed, about 500 PPs are needed to attain that Df. Even though the same asymptotic Df and mass-mobility exponent, Dfm, are attained regardless of PP polydispersity, the asymptotic prefactors or lacunarities of Df and Dfm increase with PP polydispersity. For monodisperse PPs, the average agglomerate radius of gyration, rg, becomes larger than the mobility radius, rm, when agglomerates consist of more than 15 PPs. Increasing PP polydispersity increases that number of PPs similarly to the above for the attainment of the asymptotic Df or Dfm. The agglomeration kinetics are quantified by the overall collision frequency function. When the SPSD is attained, the collision frequency is independent of PP polydispersity. Accounting for the SPSD polydispersity in the overall agglomerate collision frequency is in good agreement with that frequency from detailed ED simulations once the SPSD is reached. Most importantly, the coagulation of agglomerates is described well by a monodisperse model for agglomerate and PP sizes, whereas the detailed agglomerate size distribution can be obtained by

  3. MAGNESIUM CARBONATE AS A COAGULANT, RECOVERY AND REUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Shariat

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent water losses through disposing hydrous sludge during treatment of water, also recovery and reuse of chemicals; treatment by magnesium carbonate as a coagulant was examined in batch and continuous systems. 600 mg/1 MgCO3 as optimum dosage reduced 80% turbidity of a highly turbid water containing 200 NTU. Sulfates decreased, but hardness and alkalinity showed some increases. Recarbonation by CO2 resulted in recovery of 45% of magnesium carbonate which was used again as part of coagulants in continuous system. A mixture of magnesium carbonate and calcium oxide (lime was examined. 600 mg/1 MgCO3+250 mg/1 CaO as optimum dosage showed 90% reduction in turbidity, 10% reduction in both hardness and alkalinity and almost 60% reduction in sulfates. Recarbonation of sludge resulted in 73.5% recovery for magnesium carbonate and 40% for the lime, which were used again in a continuous system. Six hours operation of a continuous system with a detention time of 1 hour confirmed results obtained from batch analysis. A third trial was experienced with a mixture of magnesium carbonate+sodium carbonate. Although the total hardness showed more decreases, but the turbidity reduction was not satisfactory. As the conclusion, treatment of water by a mixture of MgCO3+ CaO is our choice. There will be no water losses in this method, resulting additional incomes by selling the 15-20% saved water and savings in expenditure and cost of coagulants. Cost of new constructions and CO2 production seems insignificant, comparing to savings and new income.

  4. Moment methods for coagulation, breakage and coalescence problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Russell Bertrum, Jr.

    This work advances the art of modeling coagulation, breakage and coalescence of agglomerated particles. Such models apply to industrial particle processing unit operations and their analogs (e.g., polymerization and depolymerization). Direct calculation of particle-size distribution evolution proceeds by a division of the size spectrum into many small sections. The computing resources required preclude coupling this approach with detailed equipment piece or process flowsheet simulations. Conventional moment models are computationally less demanding, but sacrifice distribution detail. In this work, a moment approach is developed which restores that lost detail, and includes: (1) a closure rule for solving the general dynamic moment problem, (2) basis sets upon which to reconstruct the distributions from the moment solutions, and (3) a technique to guide the reconstruction. The basis sets are founded upon a new, general class of distribution functions which contains many of the familiar distribution functions. Coalescence alters an agglomerate's surface area without changing its volume. In addition, the coalescence time scale may differ from those characteristic of the volume-altering processes of coagulation and breakage. For these reasons, a single distribution variable (e.g., volume) is generally inadequate to describe coalescing populations. In this work, a bivariate formulation is developed which casts the particle distribution as the product of a marginal distribution in volume and a volume-conditional distribution in surface area. Reconstruction of the full bivariate distribution hinges on a relationship between the bivariate moments and the conditional area moments. These developments are facilitated by a generalization of breakage daughter distributions, and the discernment of bivariate breakage types, leading to the specification of bivariate daughter distributions. Insight toward the moment methodology comes from approximate analytical steady

  5. PENGARUH KOAGULAN DAN KONDISI KOAGULASI TERHADAP PROFIL PROTEIN CURD KEDELAI SERTA KORELASINYA TERHADAP TEKSTUR [Effect of Coagulant and Coagulation Condition to Soybean Curd Protein Profile and Its Correlation to Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahrul Syah1,2*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to study the effect of coagulation parameters to the electrophoretical profile of coagulated soybean protein as well as to texture properties and perception. Several coagulation parameters such as type of coagulant, concentration or age of coagulant, and coagulation temperature were studied. The type of coagulant used in this study were GDL (glucono delta Lactone and tofu whey. The concentrations of GDL were 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.2% and the ages of tofu whey were 1 day, 2 days, and 3 days. Two coagulation temperatures, 60°C and 80°C, were applied. The results of curd protein profile and texture profile analysis showed that coagulant type and coagulation condition did not affect the electrophoretical profile of soybean coagulated protein. However, the proportion of each subunit was affected significantly. Texture profiles, such as hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess, were also affected by coagulant type and coagulation condition. Based on the subunits proportion, it can be concluded that 11 S and 7S protein proportions as well as the 11S/7S ratio correlated significantly with the hardness and gumminess of soybean curd made by tofu whey.

  6. Intracellular coagulation inhibits the extraction of proteins from Prochloron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, R.; Lewin, R. A.; Fall, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Protein extraction from the prokaryotic alga Prochloron LP (isolated from the ascidian host Lissoclinum patella) was complicated by an irreversible loss of cell fragility in the isolated algae. Accompanying this phenomenon, which is termed intracellular coagulation, was a redistribution of thylakoids around the cell periphery, a loss of photosynthetic O2 production, and a drastic decrease in the extractability of cell proteins. Procedures are described for the successful preparation and transport of cell extracts yielding the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase as well as other soluble proteins.

  7. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, B F; Thomson, D B; O'Neill, S

    1985-05-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations were significantly (P less than 0.001) below the reference range in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) secondary to nonlymphomatous neoplasia, acute necrotizing pancreatitis, sepsis, chronic active hepatitis, and heat stroke. There was no statistical evidence of a group effect. Decrease in fibronectin concentration was associated with severe DIC, although no attempt was made to correlate fibronectin concentration with prognosis. These findings parallel those reported for severely ill human beings with diseases associated with DIC. They exemplify the potential of spontaneous diseases in animals as models for the study of human disease. PMID:4003893

  8. Primary Intrarenal Neuroblastoma with Hypertension and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Shahin Shamsian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary intrarenal neuroblastoma (IRNB is a rare condition. Intrarenal neuroblastoma typically results from direct renal invasion from an adrenal neuroblastoma, but true intrarenal neuroblastoma originates either sequestered adrenal rests during the fetal life or intrarenal sympathetic ganglia. Clinical, radiological, and pathological correlation is very essential for diagnosis and appropriate management of this type of unusual cases. The distinction of this rare tumor from Wilms’ tumor is an important challenge since both tumors have major differences in prognostic and therapeutic response. We present a 3-year-old boy of primary intrarenal neuroblastoma with extensive abdominal and mediastinal mass, persistent hypertension, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC.

  9. Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa labelled with the fac-99 mTc(CO)3-core: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a putative new radiopharmaceutical for imaging in acute bleeding lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob; Christensen, Jesper B.; Olsen, Ole H.;

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation in blood is initiated when coagulation factor VII (FVII) binds to exposed TF and is activated to FVIIa, and the TF/ FVIIa complex may therefore provide a marker of vascular injury potentially applicable in diagnostic imaging of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods: Recombinant...... yield and in 495% radiochemical purity. Pull down experiments showed that the biological activity (binding to tissue factor and to anti-FVII antibody) of the radiolabelled product remained intact in the formulation mixture as well as in human serum. By computer modeling analysis, two candidate sites for...

  10. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckler, Ferreira Filho Sidney; Margarida, Marchetto; Rosemeire, Alves Laganaro

    2013-08-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water. This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption, combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant. The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests. The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition. Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L, and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L. The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L). Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant, showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process. The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass. For both cases of PAC dosing, upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point, the MIB removal efficiency was similar. However, MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application. This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores. This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation. PMID:24520695

  11. Improved virus removal by high-basicity polyaluminum coagulants compared to commercially available aluminum-based coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, N; Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Oshiba, A; Marubayashi, T; Sato, S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of basicity, sulfate content, and aluminum hydrolyte species on the ability of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulants to remove F-specific RNA bacteriophages from river water at a pH range of 6-8. An increase in PACl basicity from 1.5 to 2.1 and the absence of sulfate led to a reduction of the amount of monomeric aluminum species (i.e., an increase of the total amount of polymeric aluminum and colloidal aluminum species) in the PACl, to an increase in the colloid charge density of the PACl, or to both and, as a result, to high virus removal efficiency. The efficiency of virus removal at around pH 8 observed with PACl-2.1c, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high colloidal aluminum content, was larger than that observed with PACl-2.1b, a nonsulfated high-basicity PACl (basicity 2.1-2.2) with a high polymeric aluminum content. In contrast, although extremely high basicity PACls (e.g., PACl-2.7ns, basicity 2.7) effectively removed turbidity and UV260-absorbing natural organic matter and resulted in a very low residual aluminum concentration, the virus removal ratio with PACl-2.7ns was smaller than the ratio with PACl-2.1c at around pH 8, possibly as a result of a reduction of the colloid charge density of the PACl as the basicity was increased from 2.1 to 2.7. Liquid (27)Al NMR analysis revealed that PACl-2.1c contained Al30 species, which was not the case for PACl-2.1b or PACl-2.7ns. This result suggests that Al30 species probably played a major role in virus removal during the coagulation process. In summary, PACl-2.1c, which has high colloidal aluminum content, contains Al30 species, and has a high colloid charge density, removed viruses more efficiently (>4 log10 for infectious viruses) than the other aluminum-based coagulants-including commercially available PACls (basicity 1.5-1.8), alum, and PACl-2.7ns-over the entire tested pH (6-8) and coagulant dosage (0.54-5.4 mg-Al/L) ranges.

  12. Coagulation behavior and floc properties of compound bioflocculant-polyaluminum chloride dual-coagulants and polymeric aluminum in low temperature surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2015-04-01

    This study was intended to compare coagulation behavior and floc properties of two dual-coagulants polyaluminum chloride-compound bioflocculant (PAC-CBF) (PAC dose first) and compound bioflocculant-polyaluminum chloride (CBF-PAC) (CBF dose first) with those of PAC alone in low temperature drinking water treatment. Results showed that dual-coagulants could improve DOC removal efficiency from 30% up to 34%. Moreover, CBF contributed to the increase of floc size and growth rate, especially those of PAC-CBF were almost twice bigger than those of PAC. However, dual-coagulants formed looser and weaker flocs with lower breakage factors in which fractal dimension of PAC-CBF flocs was low which indicates a looser floc structure. The floc recovery ability was in the following order: PAC-CBF>PAC alone>CBF-PAC. The flocculation mechanism of PAC was charge neutralization and enmeshment, meanwhile the negatively charged CBF added absorption and bridging effect. PMID:25872730

  13. Extraction of Water Treatment Coagulant from Locally Abundant Kaolin Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Chigondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation is contributing to water pollution. There is a need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminants as the demand for clean water rises. A study is carried out to investigate the extraction of alum from locally abundant kaolin clays using sulphuric acid. Alum is a coagulant that is used for raw water treatment. The kaolin clay and alum were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The effects of particle size, calcination temperature, calcination time, acid-kaolin clay ratio, acid concentration, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimum leaching conditions for the calcined kaolin clay were found to be particle size 100 µm, acid-kaolin clay weight ratio 6 : 1, acid concentration 4 M, leaching temperature 100°C, and leaching time 90 min. Under optimised conditions, 66.95% (w/w aluminum sulphate was extracted. The results showed that sulphuric acid could be used on a large scale to extract alum from kaolin clay. The extracted alum showed similar structural and physical characteristics compared with commercial alum. A dosage of 40 mg/L of the extracted alum showed effective coagulant properties with a great potential of treating raw water.

  14. Characterization of water treatment sludge and its reuse as coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Ahad, Abdul; Alam, Mehtab

    2016-11-01

    Coagulation-flocculation process results in the generation of large volume of waste or residue, known as water treatment sludge (WTS), in the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Sustainable management of the inevitable waste requires careful attention from the plant operators and sludge managers. In this study, WTS produced with the optimum alum dose of 30 ml/L at the laboratory scale has been treated with sulphuric acid to bring forth a product known as sludge reagent product (SRP). The performance of SRP is evaluated for its efficiency in removing the colloidal suspensions from the Yamuna river water over wide pH range of 2-13. 1% sludge acidified with sulphuric acid of normality 2.5 at the rate of 0.05 ml/ml sludge has been observed as the optimum condition for preparing SRP from WTS. The percentage turbidity removal is greater at higher pH value and increases with increasing the dosage of SRP. The optimum SRP dosage of 8 ml/L in the pH range of 6-8 performed well in removing the colloidal suspension and other impurities from the Yamuna water. The quality of treated water met the prescribed standards for most of the quality parameters. Thus, SRP has the potential to substitute the conventional coagulants partially or completely in the water treatment process, depending on the quality needed at the users end. PMID:27544647

  15. First assembly times and equilibration in stochastic coagulation-fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a fully stochastic theory for coagulation and fragmentation (CF) in a finite system with a maximum cluster size constraint. The process is modeled using a high-dimensional master equation for the probabilities of cluster configurations. For certain realizations of total mass and maximum cluster sizes, we find exact analytical results for the expected equilibrium cluster distributions. If coagulation is fast relative to fragmentation and if the total system mass is indivisible by the mass of the largest allowed cluster, we find a mean cluster-size distribution that is strikingly broader than that predicted by the corresponding mass-action equations. Combinations of total mass and maximum cluster size under which equilibration is accelerated, eluding late-stage coarsening, are also delineated. Finally, we compute the mean time it takes particles to first assemble into a maximum-sized cluster. Through careful state-space enumeration, the scaling of mean assembly times is derived for all combinations of total mass and maximum cluster size. We find that CF accelerates assembly relative to monomer kinetic only in special cases. All of our results hold in the infinite system limit and can be only derived from a high-dimensional discrete stochastic model, highlighting how classical mass-action models of self-assembly can fail

  16. Effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglis, Mitchell; Wilder, Donna; Reid, Thomas; Bakaltcheva, Irina

    2002-02-01

    It is not yet clear what exact mechanisms are at work in hibernating animals that prevent clot formation and maintain tissue perfusion under conditions of very slow blood flow and increased blood viscosity brought about by the low temperatures. It has been shown that the total amino acid pool increases more then two fold in hibernating animals with taurine accounting for about 50% of this increase [Storey et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85(21): 8350-4]. This work investigates the effect of taurine on platelets and the plasma coagulation system. Taurine was added at different concentrations in the range between 5 and 25 mM to donor plasma. Using STA/STA Compact coagulation analyzer the following tests were performed: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and thrombin time (TT). At the highest concentration tested (25 mM) taurine prolonged TT by 9%. The prolongation was statistically significant but not clinically significant retaining TT within normal limits (16.7-20.7 s). PT and APTT remained unchanged by taurine. The effect of taurine on platelets was assessed by platelet aggregation by thrombin, extent of platelet shape change (ESC) induced by ADP, and thrombelastography. Taurine at 5 mM final concentration inhibited platelet aggregation by 10%. Increasing taurine concentration to 25 mM did not result in a further augmentation of the inhibitory effect. ESC was unaffected by taurine. Clot strength determined by thrombelastography also remained unchanged by taurine. PMID:11918831

  17. Freeze-out and coagulation in pre-protostellar collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Flower, D R

    2005-01-01

    We study the changes in physical and chemical conditions during the collapse of a pre--protostellar core, starting from initial conditions appropriate to a dense molecular cloud and proceeding to the ``completely depleted'' limit. We follow the evolution of the ionization degree and the ionic composition as functions of time and density. The processes of freeze--out on to the dust grains and coagulation of the grains were treated simultaneously with the chemical evolution of the medium.When proceeding at close to its maximum rate, coagulation has important consequences for the degree of ionization and the ionic composition of the medium, but its effect on the freeze--out of the neutral species is modest.An innovation of our study is to calculate the grain charge distribution which is significant because H+ ions recombine on the surfaces of negatively charged grains. We also consider the observational result that N-containing species, such as NH3 and N2H+,remain in the gas phase at densities for which CO and o...

  18. Use of snake venom fractions in the coagulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, N A

    1998-07-01

    Snake venom toxins are now regularly used in the coagulation laboratory for assaying haemostatic parameters and as coagulation reagents. Snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (SVTLE) are used for fibrinogen and fibrinogen breakdown product assay as well as detecting dysfibrinogenaemias. Significantly, because SVTLE are not inhibited by heparin, they can be used for defibrinating samples that contain the anticoagulant before assay of haemostatic variables. Prothrombin activators are found in many snake venoms and are used in prothrombin assays, for studying dysprothrombinaemias and preparing meizothrombin and non-enzymic prothrombin. Russell's viper (Daboia russelli) venom (RVV) contains a number of compounds useful in the assay of factors V, VII, X, platelet factor 3 and lupus anticoagulants. Activators from the taipan, Australian brown snake and saw-scaled viper have been used to assay lupus anticoagulants. Protein C and activated protein C resistance can be measured by means of RVV and Protac, a fast acting inhibitor from Southern copperhead snake venom and von Willebrand factor can be studied with Botrocetin from Bothrops jararaca venom. Finally, phospholipase A2 enzymes and the disintegrins, a family of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing proteins found in snake venoms, show great potential for the study of haemostasis including, notably, platelet glycoprotein receptors GPIIb/IIIa and Ib. PMID:9712287

  19. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation for simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Haibo; ZHENG; Chuguang

    2006-01-01

    The process of dynamic evolution in dispersed systems due to simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition is described mathematically by general dynamic equation (GDE). Monte Carlo (MC) method is an important approach of numerical solutions of GDE. However, constant-volume MC method exhibits the contradictory of low computation cost and high computation precision owing to the fluctuation of the number of simulation particles; constant-number MC method can hardly be applied to engineering application and general scientific quantitative analysis due to the continual contraction or expansion of computation domain. In addition, the two MC methods depend closely on the "subsystem" hypothesis, which constraints their expansibility and the scope of application. A new multi-Monte Carlo (MMC) method is promoted to take account of GDE for simultaneous particle coagulation and deposition. MMC method introduces the concept of "weighted fictitious particle" and is based on the "time-driven" technique. Furthermore MMC method maintains synchronously the computational domain and the total number of fictitious particles, which results in the latent expansibility of simulation for boundary condition, the space evolution of particle size distribution and even particle dynamics. The simulation results of MMC method for two special cases in which analytical solutions exist agree with analytical solutions well, which proves that MMC method has high and stable computational precision and low computation cost because of the constant and limited number of fictitious particles. Lastly the source of numerical error and the relative error of MMC method are analyzed, respectively.

  1. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  2. Development of a control system for in-line coagulation in an ultrafiltration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, Bastiaan; Betlem, Ben H. L.; Roffel, Brian

    2007-01-01

    A control system for the in-line coagulation applied in an ultrafiltration process was developed. The dosing strategy aims to apply a minimal coagulant dose while maintaining desirable process performance by regulating the initial filtration resistance. This is achieved by a feedback controller. It

  3. A novel mutation in a patient with congenital coagulation factor Ⅻ deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Ying; YE Xu; PANG Ying; DAI Jing; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Xu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Human coagulation factor Ⅻ(FⅫ),also called Hageman factor,is a plasma plycoprotein that is functionally deficient in individuals with Hageman trait:which is an inhefited trait discovered by chance during preoperative blood coagulation screening tests.FⅫ is a single-chain 596-amino-acid zymogen of a serine protease with an approximate molecular weight of 80 000.

  4. Early activation of the coagulation system during lower body negative pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, M; Johansson, P I; Nielsen, L B;

    2009-01-01

    We considered that a moderate reduction of the central blood volume (CBV) may activate the coagulation system. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) is a non-invasive means of reducing CBV and, thereby, simulates haemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that coagulation markers would increase following...

  5. Application of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder For Iron (III Coagulation on Local Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadillah Utami Prasetyaningtyas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the effect of the use of powder moringa seed to coagulant mass and coagulation process, and its effectiveness to increase the quality of pure water. This research uses factorial research design and statistic test MANOVA. To analyse water quality, the researcher uses Fe parameter.  A graphic of coagulant mass and time for each parameter is used to analyse the data. Based on the research result, the uses of moringa seed as coagulant in each 300 mL mineral water gives a possitives result to the river water sample using 100 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, well water sample using 500 mg coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 60 minutes, tap water sample using 300 mg  coagulant mass and sedimentations time for 90 minutes. The effective coagulant that increase the water quality on well water is 98,32% of moringa seed powder, on river water is 96,64%  and for tap water is 25,62%.

  6. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Efendiev, Messoud A.;

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into...

  7. Biosynthesis of bifunctional iron oxyhydrosulfate by Acidithiobacillus ferroxidans and their application to coagulation and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Min; Song, Zibo; Jie, Shiqi; Zhu, Jianyu; Zhu, Yaowu; Liu, Xinxing

    2016-02-01

    Coagulation and adsorption are important environmental technologies, which were widely applied in water treatment. In this study, a type of villous iron oxyhydrosulfate with low crystallinity, high content iron, sulfate and hydroxyl was synthesized by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which possessed coagulation and heavy metal adsorption ability simultaneously. The results showed that the Cu(II) adsorption capacity increased within a small range over the pH range of 3.0-5.0 but increased evidently over the range of 6.0-8.0. The maximal Cu(II) adsorption capacity of sample Af and Gf reached 50.97 and 46.08mg/g respectively. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) adsorption was 6.0, and the maximal adsorption capacity reached 51.32 and 59.57mg/g. The Langmuir isotherm can better describe the adsorption behavior of Cr(VI). Coagulation performance of the iron oxyhydrosulfate (Sh) has been significantly enhanced by polysilicic acid (PSA), which was mainly determined by PSA/Sh ratio, pH and coagulant dosage. Coagulation efficiency maintained approximately at 98% when the PSA/Sh ratio ranged from 0.4/0.1 to 1.0/0.1. Polysilicic acid worked efficiently in wide pH range extending, from 2 to 3.5. Coagulation performance improved significantly with the increasing of the coagulant dosage at lower dosage range, while, at higher dosage range, the improvement was not evident even with more coagulant addition.

  8. Dust coagulation and fragmentation in molecular clouds. II. The opacity of the dust aggregate size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, C.W.; Min, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Dominik, C.; Paszun, D.

    2011-01-01

    The dust size distribution in molecular clouds can be strongly affected by ice-mantle formation and (subsequent) grain coagulation. Following previous work where the dust size distribution has been calculated from a state-of-the art collision model for dust aggregates that involves both coagulation

  9. Dust coagulation and fragmentation in molecular clouds: II. The opacity of the dust aggregate size distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W. Ormel; M. Min; A.G.G.M. Tielens; C. Dominik; D. Paszun

    2011-01-01

    The dust size distribution in molecular clouds can be strongly affected by ice-mantle formation and (subsequent) grain coagulation. Following previous work where the dust size distribution has been calculated from a state-of-the art collision model for dust aggregates that involves both coagulation

  10. Simultaneous removal of multiple pesticides from water: effect of organically modified clays as coagulant aid and adsorbent in coagulation-flocculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Saha, Ajoy; Gajbhiye, V T; Gupta, Suman; Manjaiah, K M; Varghese, Eldho

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water sources with agrochemical residues became a major concern in the twenty-first century. Coagulation-flocculation is the most widely used water-treatment process, but the efficiency to remove pesticides and other organic pollutants are limited compared to adsorption process. Thus, simultaneous action of adsorption on normal bentonite or organo-modified montmorillonite clays [modified with octadecylamine (ODA-M) and octadecylamine + amino-propyltriethoxysilane (ODAAPS-M)] followed by coagulation-flocculation by alum and poly aluminium chloride has been evaluated for removal of 10 different pesticides, namely atrazine, lindane, metribuzin, aldrin, chlorpyriphos, pendimethalin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, p,p'-DDT, cypermethrin and two of its metabolites, endosulphan sulphate and p,p'-DDE, from water. The coagulation without integration of adsorption was less effective (removal % varies from 12 to 49) than the adsorption-coagulation integrated system (removal % varies from 71 to 100). Further, coagulation integrated with adsorption was more effective when organically modified montmorillonite was used as adsorbent compared to normal bentonite. The removal efficiency of organic clay depends upon the concentration of pesticides, doses of clay minerals, and efficiency was more for ODAAPS-M as compared to ODA-M. The combination of ODAAPS-M-clay with coagulants was also used efficiently for the removal of pesticides from natural and fortified natural water collected and the results exhibit the usefulness of this remediation technique for application in water decontamination and in treatment of industrial and agricultural waste waters.

  11. Novel online sensor technology for continuous monitoring of milk coagulation and whey separation in cheesemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Colette C; Castillo, Manuel; Payne, Fred A; O'Donnell, Colm P; Leedy, Megan; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2007-10-31

    The cheese industry has continually sought a robust method to monitor milk coagulation. Measurement of whey separation is also critical to control cheese moisture content, which affects quality. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that an online optical sensor detecting light backscatter in a vat could be applied to monitor both coagulation and syneresis during cheesemaking. A prototype sensor having a large field of view (LFV) relative to curd particle size was constructed. Temperature, cutting time, and calcium chloride addition were varied to evaluate the response of the sensor over a wide range of coagulation and syneresis rates. The LFV sensor response was related to casein micelle aggregation and curd firming during coagulation and to changes in curd moisture and whey fat contents during syneresis. The LFV sensor has potential as an online, continuous sensor technology for monitoring both coagulation and syneresis during cheesemaking.

  12. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time.

  13. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time. PMID:26743649

  14. Virus host protein interaction network analysis reveals that the HEV ORF3 protein may interrupt the blood coagulation process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansheng Geng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is endemic worldwide and a major cause of acute liver disease in developing countries. However, the molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease are not well understood for HEV infection. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3 of HEV encodes a small phosphoprotein, which is assumed to be involved in liver pathology and clinical disease. In this study, the interactions between the HEV ORF3 protein and human proteins were investigated using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis. Thirty two proteins were shown to interact with genotype 1 ORF3, 28 of which have not been reported previously. These novel interactions were evaluated by coimmunoprecipitation of protein complexes from transfected cells. We found also that the ORF3 proteins of genotype 4 and rabbit HEV interacted with all of the human proteins identified by the genotype 1 ORF3 protein. However, the putative ORF3 protein derived from avian HEV did not interact with the majority of these human proteins. The identified proteins were used to infer an overall interaction map linking the ORF3 protein with components of the host cellular networks. Analysis of this interaction map, based on functional annotation with the Gene Ontology features and KEGG pathways, revealed an enrichment of host proteins involved in complement coagulation, cellular iron ion homeostasis and oxidative stress. Additional canonical pathway analysis highlighted the enriched biological pathways relevant to blood coagulation and hemostasis. Consideration of the clinical manifestations of hepatitis E reported previously and the results of biological analysis from this study suggests that the ORF3 protein is likely to lead to an imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis by interacting with host proteins and triggering the corresponding pathological processes. These results suggest critical approaches to further study of the pathogenesis of the HEV ORF3 protein.

  15. Removal of selected azo dyes from textile wastewater by chemical coagulation/flocculation: implication of the dye destabilization mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Janeczko, M.; GAYDARDZHIEV, Stoyan; Ay, P.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the coagulation/flocculation of six commercially used textile azo dyes coagulated with synthetic primary coagulants are discussed in the paper. Surface charge measurement of coagulated dye-flocs was employed to find a correlation between its sign and the level of colour removal. Additionally, flocs characterization was done with the aim to link data with surface charge and on this basis to outline the predominant mechanism of colour removal. Based on the results obtained, the e...

  16. Microalgae harvesting by pH adjusted coagulation-flocculation, recycling of the coagulant and the growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Abdul Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J; Alghasal, Ghamza Saed H S

    2016-09-01

    Coagulation-flocculation can be considered as one of the least energy intensive microalgae biomass harvesting processes. However, cost of the coagulant and biomass contamination are two critical issues that need to be considered. In this study, ferric chloride (72-96mg/L) was used to effectively harvest Scenedesmus sp. (530mg/L) - grown in BG-11 media and wastewater. Reducing the culture pH below 6.5, greatly improved the harvesting efficiency. Acidic solution (pH 1.0) was very effective to recover (almost 90%) the associated iron from the harvested biomass. Scenedesmus sp. was able to grow in the supernatant and utilize the residual iron in it. Iron extracted solution, with a supplementation of 9.8mg/L ferric chloride, was able to achieve similar harvesting efficiency. The potential recovery of iron from the harvested biomass and its reuse in the harvesting can improve the biomass quality for subsequent downstream processing while reducing the cost. PMID:27318160

  17. Ventilation dependence of concentration metrics of Ultra-fine Particles in a coagulating household smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S; Sreekanth, B; Mayya, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Role of Ultra-fine Particles (UFPs) in causing adverse health effects among large population across the world, attributable to household smoke, is being increasingly recognized. However, there is very little theoretical perspective available on the complex behavior of the UFP metrics with respect to controlling factors, such as ventilation rate and particle emission rate from the combustion sources. This numerical study examines through coagulation dynamics, the dependence of UFP metrics, viz., number (PN), mass (PM(0.1)) and surface area (PA(0.1)) concentrations below 0.1 μm diameter, on ventilation and the number emission rate from household smoke. For strong sources, the steady-state concentrations of these metrics are found to increase initially with increasing Air Exchange Rate (AER), reach a peak value and then decrease. Counter correlations are seen between UFP metric and PM(2.5) concentrations. The concepts of Critical Air Exchange Rate (CAER) and Half-Value Air Exchange Rate (HaVAER) have been introduced which indicate a feasibility of mitigation of PM(0.1) and PA(0.1), unlike PN, by ventilation techniques. The study clearly brings forth complex differential behavior of the three UFP metrics. The results are further discussed. PMID:26795205

  18. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, Keren S.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Bruggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we sh

  19. Argon plasma coagulation for treatment of hemorrhagic radiation gastroduodenitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Shu-Ji; Aoyama, Nobuo; Shirasaka, Daisuke; Inoue, Takashi; Kuroda, Kohei; Ebara, Shigeyuki; Tamura, Takao; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kasuga, Masato [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    A 79-year-old man who had received radiotherapy for portal vein thrombosis due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) 5 months earlier, showed progressive anemia and melena. Endoscopy on admission revealed diffuse bleeding from multiple telangiectasias on the anterior wall of the antrum and bulbus. We treated this patient with a new non-contact hemostatic method: the argon plasma coagulator (APC). The melena stopped after the first session and the hemoglobin level remained stable for 7 months. No delayed complications have been observed. Gastrointestinal bleeding from chronic radiation gastroduodenitis is rarely reported compared with radiation proctitis. This case demonstrates that APC is effective for hemostasis of diffuse bleeding from radiation gastroduodenitis, just as for radiation protitis. (author)

  20. Potential diagnostic markers for disseminated intravascular coagulation of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Toshiaki; Ito, Takashi; Maruyama, Ikuro; Jilma, Bernd; Brenner, Thorsten; Müller, Marcella C A; Juffermans, Nicole P; Thachil, Jecko

    2016-03-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired thrombo-haemorrhagic disorder which arises in clinical scenarios like sepsis, trauma and malignancies. The clinic-laboratory diagnosis of DIC is made in a patient who develops the combination of laboratory abnormalities in the appropriate clinical scenario. The most common laboratory parameters in this setting have been the clotting profile, platelet count, serum fibrinogen and fibrin degradation markers. These tests had the advantage that they could be performed easily and in most laboratories. However, with the better understanding of the pathophysiology of DIC, in recent years, more specific tests have been suggested to be useful in this setting. The newer tests can also prove to be useful in prognostication in DIC. In addition, they may provide assistance in the selection and monitoring of patients diagnosed with DIC.

  1. VISUAL OUTCOME AFTER LASER PHOTO COAGULATION IN DIA BETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual outcome after laser photocoag ulation in diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: One eye each of 100 patients were enrolled in our pro spective, randomized, clinical trial study with proliferative diabetic retinopathy/ maculopathy were assessed for visual outcome after treating them wit h laser photocoagulation. RESULTS: We observed that 62 (62% patients showed improvement by 1 or more lines on Snell’s chart, 26 (26% deteriorated from baseline visual acuity. The overall mean improved was 0.56 lines on Snell’s chart that is clinically significant. CONCLUSION: The results of present collection of hundred patients show a favourable influence of photo coagulation on the improvement and preservation of baseline visual acuity. Timely focal and grid laser photocoagulation helps in improving and stabilizing the visual acuity in patien ts with diabetic macular edema.

  2. Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration

  3. Does tramadol affect coagulation status of patients with malignancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Ayten; Akay, Meltem Olga; Ceyhan, Dilek; Andıc, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study investigated the direct effects of tramadol on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies in vitro. Materials and Methods: Citrated whole-blood samples from 21 patients with gynecologic tumors were spiked ex vivo with 2 or 6 μl/ml tramadol. Thrombelastography (TEG) analysis was performed using ROTEM® to assess clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT) and maximum clot formation (MCF). Results: In the INTEM assay, CT (P 0.05). Blood medicated with tramadol (6 μl/ml) clotted slowly (increased CT and CFT). Conclusion: The changes observed by TEG demonstrated that tramadol impairs hemostasis in a concentration-dependent manner in the whole blood of women with gynecologic malignancies in vitro. PMID:25097280

  4. COAGULATION-AND-SORPTION PURIFICATION OF WATER FROM HUMIC SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Slavinskaya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deep desalination of natural waters involves considerable difficulties associated with removal of humic and fulvic acids. Application of activated carbons for this purpose is inefficient. Besides, thermal regeneration of such a sorbent outside the filter is required.Results. Synthetic porous anion exchangers capable of not only absorbing organic impurities but also desorbing on load treatment with alkali in the same filter, appeared to be perspective. Obtained optimal parameters of anion exchanger operation were corroborated in industrial desalting plants.Conclusion. It is shown that removal of humic acids by sorption is more profitable than removal by coagulation in the context of environmental protection. In addition, the possibility of use of re-generators of desalting anion filters for anionite-sorbent treatment was proved to be real.

  5. Surface and Electrical Properties of Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilkaya, S. S.; Okutan, M.; Içelli, O.; Yalçın, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The Electro-Coagulated Thermal Waste (ECTW) sample of the impedance spectroscopy investigation for electrical modulus and conductivity are presented. Electrical properties via temperature and frequency dependent impedance spectroscopy were investigated. Real and imaginary parts of electrical modulus were measured at various frequencies and a related Cole-Cole plot was acquired as well. The surface resistivity of the ECTW was measured by the four-point probe measurement technique, yielding a relatively high surface resistivity. As a result of this study, an effective building shielding material, which is a cost effective alternative, is proposed. The activation energy values were calculated from the Arrhenius plots at different frequencies. The transition region in this plot may be attributed to activation of ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.

  6. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoniyi, Omolaja; Onajobi, Funmi

    2003-11-01

    Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant commonly grown in the Tropics, is traditionally used as a haemostatic. Investigation of the coagulant activity of the latex of Jatropha curcas showed that whole latex significantly (Platex, however, prolonged the clotting time: at high dilutions, the blood did not clot at all. This indicates that Jatropha curcas latex possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests on plasma confirm these observations. Solvent partitioning of the latex with ethyl acetate and butanol led to a partial separation of the two opposing activities: at low concentrations, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a procoagulant activity, while the butanol fraction had the highest anticoagulant activity. The residual aqueous fraction had no significant effect on the clotting time of blood and the PT but slightly prolonged the APTT.

  7. Optimisation of chemical purification conditions for direct application of solid metal salt coagulants: Treatment of peatland-derived diffuse runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisangela Heiderscheidt; Jaakko Saukkoriipi; Anna-Kaisa Ronkanen; Bjφrn Klφve

    2013-01-01

    The drainage of peatland areas for peat extraction,agriculture or bioenergy requires affordable,simple and reliable treatment methods that can purify waters rich in particulates and dissolved organic carbon.This work focused on the optimisation of chemical purification process for the direct dosage of solid metal salt coagulants.It investigated process requirements of solid coagulants and the influence of water quality,temperature and process parameters on their performance.This is the first attempt to provide information on specific process requirements of solid coagulants.Three solid inorganic coagulants were evaluated:aluminium sulphate,ferric sulphate and ferric aluminium sulphate.Pre-dissolved aluminium and ferric sulphate were also tested with the objective of identifying the effects of in-line coagulant dissolution on purification performance.It was determined that the pre-dissolution of the coagulants had a significant effect on coagulant performance and process requirements.Highest purification levels achieved by solid coagulants,even at 30% higher dosages,were generally lower (5%-30%) than those achieved by pre-dissolved coagulants.Furthermore,the mixing requirements of coagulants pre-dissolved prior to addition differed substantially from those of solid coagulants.The pH of the water samples being purified had a major influence on coagulant dosage and purification efficiency.Ferric sulphate (70 mg/L) was found to be the best performing solid coagulant achieving the following load removals:suspended solids (59%-88%),total organic carbon (56%-62%),total phosphorus (87%-90%),phosphate phosphorus (85%-92%) and total nitrogen (33%-44%).The results show that the use of solid coagulants is a viable option for the treatment of peatland-derived runoff water if solid coagulant-specific process requirements,such as mixing and settling time,are considered.

  8. Simple and rapid methods for purification and characterization of active coagulants from the seeds of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marobhe, N J; Dalhammar, G; Gunaratna, K R

    2007-06-01

    The coagulating properties of aqueous crude extracts and purified proteins of Vigna unguiculata and Parkinsonia aculeata seeds, which are traditional water coagulants in rural areas of Tanzania, were studied. The coagulation activity assays were done using one millilitre (ml) of kaolin water samples. Coagulating proteins were purified in two-step ion exchange chromatography. The properties of coagulant protein were compared with Moringa oleifera. Coagulating components eluted by 0.6 M NaCl in both coagulants are cationic proteins that have the molecular mass of about 6 kDa, which is very similar to that of M. oleifera. The proteins of V. unguiculata and P. aculeata eluted by 0.3 M NaCl also harbour coagulation activity but proteins eluted with 0.6 M NaCl have higher activity. The dosage for coagulation using purified proteins of both coagulants is about 5 to 10 times lower than that of crude seed extracts. The optimum floc settling time of water treated by crude seed extracts and purified proteins ranged between two and two and half hours. Coagulating proteins of both coagulants eluted by 0.6 M NaCl are thermoresistant and retained coagulation activity of 87% to 92% after boiling for two hours at 80 degrees C and one hour at 95 degrees C. Thermotolerant proteins of V. unguiculata eluted by 0.6 M NaCl and P. aculeata have wider pH range of 5.5 to 8.5 for coagulation activity than those of M. oleifera proteins. The present investigation reveals the possibility of using purified natural coagulants for water treatment to produce safe drinking water.

  9. Benign intracranial hypertension associated to blood coagulation derangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niglio Alferio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benign Intracranial Hypertension (BIH may be caused, at least in part, by intracranial sinus thrombosis. Thrombosis is normally due to derangements in blood coagulation cascade which may predispose to abnormal clotting activation or deficiency in natural inhibitors' control. The aim of the study is to examine the strength of the association between risk factors for thrombosis and BIH. Patients and methods The incidence of prothrombotic abnormalities among a randomly investigated cohort of 17 patients with BIH, was compared with 51 healthy subjects matched for sex, age, body mass index, height and social background. Results The number of subjects with protein C deficiency was significantly higher in patients than in controls (3 vs 1, p Increased plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, fibrinopeptide A (FPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated in patients group (5.7 ± 1.15 nM vs 0.45 ± 0.35 nM; 8.7 ± 2.5 ng/mL vs 2.2 ± 1.25 ng/mL; 45.7 ± 12.5 ng/mL vs 8.5 ± 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; p Discussion In agreement with other authors our data suggest a state of hypercoagulability in BIH associated with gene polymorphisms. Our findings also showed that mutations in cardiovascular genes significantly discriminate subjects with a BIH history. The association between coagulation and gene derangements, usually regarded to as cryptogenic, may suggest a possible pathogenetic mechanism in BIH. So, a prothrombotic tendency may exist that would, at least in part, explain some cases of BIH. Although based on a small population, these findings raise the exciting possibility of using these haemostatic factors as markers for selecting high-risk subjects in BIH disease.

  10. Phase III study on surface construction and biocompatibility of polymer materials as cardiovascular devices:coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-lin; Wang Dong-an

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the cardiovascular device, biomaterials applied under the blood-contact conditions should have anti-thrombotic, anti-biodegradable and anti-infective properties. OBJECTIVE: To develop novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering and to explore the biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. METHODS:We retrieved PubMed and WanFang databases for relevant articles publishing from 1983 to 2014. The key words were "biocompatibility, blood compatibility, biomedical materials, biomedical polymer materials" in English and Chinese, respectively. Those unrelated, outdated and repetitive papers were excluded. Literatures addressing the blood compatibility of biomedical polymer materials were summarized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The blood-implant interaction and the anti-coagulant surface modification of biomaterials were analyzed. The biocompatibility, blood compatibility and cytocompatibility of the surface-modified polymer biomaterials were determined based on the coagulant and anti-coagulant coating modification. The coagulant and anti-coagulant surface modification of polymer biomaterials and the research on their biocompatibility and endothelial cel compatibility are crucial for developing novel polymer materials for implantation and intervention in cardiovascular tissue engineering. Through in-depth studies of the types and applications of polymer biomaterials, cardiovascular medical devices and implantable soft tissue substitutes, the differences between the surface and the body wil be reflected in the many layers of molecules extending from the surface to the body. Two major factors, surface energy and molecular mobility, determine the body/surface behaviors that include body/surface differences and phase separation. Considering the difference between the body/surface composition

  11. Network-Based Biomarkers for Cold Coagulation Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Therapeutic Effects of Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the reverse docking methodology was applied to predict the action targets and pathways of Shaofu Zhuyu decoction (SFZYD bioactive ingredients. Furthermore, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM cold coagulation blood stasis (CCBS syndrome was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats with an ice-water bath and epinephrine, and SFZYD was used to treat CCBS syndrome. A metabolomic approach was used to evaluate changes in the metabolic profiles and to analyze the pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD actions. Twenty-three potential protein targets and 15 pathways were discovered, respectively; among these, pathways are associated with inflammation and immunological stress, hormone metabolism, coagulation function, and glycometabolism. There were also changes in the levels of endogenous metabolites of LysoPCs and glucuronides. Twenty endogenous metabolites were identified. Furthermore, the relative quantities of 6 endogenous metabolites in the plasma and 5 in the urine were significantly affected by SFZYD (P<0.05. The pharmacological mechanism of SFZYD was partially associated with glycerophospholipid metabolism and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that TCM CCBS pattern induced by ice water and epinephrine was complex and related to multiple metabolic pathways. SFZYD did regulate the TCM CCBS by multitargets, and biomarkers and SFZYD should be used for the clinical treatment of CCBS syndrome.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of new-polyaluminum chloride-chitosan composite coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mega; Liana, Ayu E; Liu, Sanly; Lim, May; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng; Drikas, Mary; Amal, Rose

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the formulation of a novel polyaluminum chloride-chitosan composite coagulant that improves the coagulation process for natural organic matter (NOM) removal was investigated. The performance of the composite coagulant was tested using two water sources (synthetic and natural water) to develop a better understanding on the behaviour of the composite coagulant. Fourier Transform-Infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ferron analysis and zeta potential studies were performed to characterise the composite coagulant. FT-IR analysis showed that there is an intermolecular interaction between Al species and chitosan molecules, while ferron analysis indicated that the distributions of Al(a), Al(b), and Al(c) in PACl-chitosan are different from those in PACl. At a low Al dosage (2.16 mg L⁻¹), a much higher removal of NOM from synthetic water, as evidenced from UV₂₅₄ and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) measurements, was achieved by the composite coagulants in comparison to that removed by PACl or PACl and chitosan added separately. For natural water from the Myponga Reservoir, both polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and PACl-chitosan composite coagulants demonstrated similar dissolved organic carbon (DOC) percentage removal, whereas PACl-chitosan gave a slight improvement in removing the UV₂₅₄ absorbing components of NOM.

  13. Simultaneous optimization of multiple performance characteristics in coagulation-flocculation process for Indian paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, R; Saseetharan, M K

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process in wastewater generated from the paper and pulp industry using a grey relational analysis (GRA)-based Taguchi method. Process parameters included types and doses of natural coagulants and coagulant aid, and pH. To track the efficiency of the treatment process, the following responses were chosen for optimization: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity of wastewater, alone or in combination or all together. Analysis of variance showed that the type and dose of the coagulant aid were the most significant parameters, followed by pH and the dose of the coagulant; the type of coagulant used was found to be insignificant in the coagulation-flocculation process. Optimization of process parameters to achieve lower turbidity and greater removal of COD and TDS was verified in a separate confirmatory experiment, which showed improvements in COD and TDS removal and a decrease in turbidity of 8.2, 6.35 and 26.17%, respectively, with the application of the Taguchi method and GRA. PMID:22828300

  14. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  15. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  16. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 40 nm and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and a radioactive plume. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  17. Behavior of Aluminum Based Coagulants in Treatment of Surface Water–Assessment of Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Treated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spînu (Gologan Daniela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-polymerized inorganic aluminum coagulants have high efficiency in reducing turbidity, total, dissolved, biodegradable organic carbon and microbiological content of surface waters used for drinking, while obtaining low concentrations of residual aluminum after the coagulation phase. Correlation between turbidity raw water and coagulant dose is logarithmic being influenced by temperature and organic content of surface waters. The coagulant’s effect on the organic content of the raw water is closely related to the microbiological concentration and can thus determine the mathematical correlations between the two types of parameters after the coagulation-flocculation stage that can be used to assess the water biostability coagulant action.

  18. Thromboelastometry (TEM) findings in disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of endotoxinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöchl, Herbert; Solomon, Cristina; Schulz, Arthur; Voelckel, Wolfgang; Hanke, Alexander; Van Griensven, Martijn; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl

    2011-01-01

    Standard coagulation tests have a low specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing disseminated intravascular coagulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether whole blood thromboelastometry (TEM) detects lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in coagulation. Blood samples from 10 pigs were drawn at baseline, before and at the end of LPS infusion and 2, 3, 4 and 5 h after the start of endotoxinemia. Simultaneous to TEM, standard coagulation tests and extended coagulation analysis including tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were performed. Endotoxinemia resulted in a significant acceleration of the nonactivated TEM (NATEM) clotting time 2 h after the end of LPS infusion; in contrast, the changes in international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time suggested delayed initiation of coagulation. NATEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) and fibrin-based thromboelastometry test (FIBTEM)-MCF decreased significantly from baseline until the last time point (from 64.6 ± 7.8 and 35.1 ± 12.8 mm to 52.8 ± 4.6 and 21.4 ± 11.8 mm, respectively; P = 0.01 for both parameters). A sharp, transient increase of t-PA had no effect on maximum lysis in the NATEM test. PAI-1 increased significantly 3 h after the start of LPS infusion, paralleled by a decrease in maximum lysis. In conclusion, TEM was superior to standard coagulation tests in reflecting initial activation of coagulation during endotoxinemia. TEM further suggested consumption of coagulation substrate; at the same time, inhibition of plasminogen activation was accompanied by improved clot stability. Further investigations are necessary to establish the clinical relevance of these findings.

  19. Effect of Milk Fat Substitution of Rennet Milk Induced Coagulation on Physico-Chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Imène Felfoul; Salwa Bornaz; Wiem Belhadj Hmida; Ali Sahli; Hamadi Attia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to study the effect of milk fat substitution by (W1/O/W2) multiple emulsions based on olive oil in comparison with full and low-fat milks on milk behavior during rennet coagulation. Therefore, based on the turbidimetric and conductivimetric methods, a follow up of enzymatic coagulation is realized. Drainage of renneted gels was followed by syneresis study and cheese yield. The comparison between the coagulation aptitude of low fat milk and milk-olive oil emulsi...

  20. Effect of Brownian Coagulation on the Liquid-liquid Decomposition in Gas-atomized Alloy Drops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiuzhou ZHAO; Lingling GAO; Jie HE; L.Ratke

    2006-01-01

    Modeling and simulation have been carried out for Al-Pb alloys to investigate the Brownian coagulation effect on the microstructure development in a gas-atomized drop during the liquid-liquid decomposition.The results indicate that Brownian coagulation has a weak effect on the nucleation and a relatively strong effect on coarsening the minority phase droplets. The influence of Brownian coagulation on the liquid-liquid decomposition decreases with the increase in the diameter (or the decrease in the cooling rate) of the atomized drop.

  1. Combined removal of phosphorus and organic micro pollutants by adsorption onto powdered activated carbon and coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Godo Pla, Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Jar test experiments were collected to study the removal of phosphorus and of the dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODf) at different coagulant dosages. Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Waßmannsdorf, Münchehofe and Ruhleben, and influent water from the surface water treatment plant (SWTP) Tegel were tested for this study. The CODf removal depends on the coagulant dose. CODf was removed from 10%, applying a coagu-lant dose of 4 mg Fe/l, to 23% applying a 12 mg Fe/l dose. Rem...

  2. Coupled coagulation of aerosol particles at large Knudsen and small Péclet numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At large Knudsen number, the medium can be approximated by a molecular system, and the equa tion for the pair-distribution function is then established. When the Péclet number is small, the matched asymptotic ex pansions of singular perturbation theory is used to solve the equation of the pair-distribution function. A third-order ex pansion for the dimensionless coagulation rate (Nusselt number) is thus obtained. Comparison of numeric results of the coagulation rate in a molecular system and that in a continuous medium has shown that the coagulation rate in a molecu lar system is much larger than that in a continuous medium.

  3. Optimization of process parameters for COD removal by Coagulation Treatment using Box–Behnken design

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sangeetha; Sivakumar, V.; A Sudha; KS Priyenka Devi

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation treatment of sago wastewater was studied and laboratory studies were carried out using alum as coagulant. Coagulation treatment conditions were optimised through response surface methodology (RSM). Operational parameters namely dosage of alum (Al2 (SO4)3) (mg/l), pH and wastewater concentration (g/l) were varied between 50-150mg/l, 3–5 and 10-30g/l respectively. The results were analysed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimum condition at 100mg/l of alum dosage, 4.5 pH...

  4. Effect of coagulants and extent of colour removal from textile effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conclusions to study the effectiveness of coagulants were arrived at following a general survey conducted to evaluate the commonly used coagulants during after treatment procedures in textile industries. The survey also indicated that only a few textiles industries go a step further to treat the waste water before disposal to the surrounding water bodies. It was hoped that a general picture would be obtained partaining to the dye pollution in the environment. Moreover, the efficiency of a particular coagulant on bases of dye type was investigated. (author)

  5. Effects of Glucides on Thermal Denaturation and Coagulation of Whey Proteins Studied by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongo Antoine, Etou; Abena, A. A.; Gbeassor, M.; Chaveron, H.

    The thermal coagulation of whey proteins concentrates was inhibited by various glucides. The disaccharides, saccharose and lactose, were most effective and the amino sugar, glucosamine, least effective in this respect. Ultraviolet absorption and light-scattering measurements on thermal denaturation and coagulation of both unfractionated and individual whey proteins (α-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin and bovine serum albumin) showed that saccharose promotes the denaturation of these proteins but inhibits their subsequent coagulation. These results are interpreted in terms of the effect of saccharose on the hydrophobic interactions between solvent and protein.

  6. Comparison of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine with other cationic organic polymers as coagulation aids of polyferric chloride in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Ruihua; Song, Wen; Bu, Fan; Zhao, Shuang; Jia, Ruibao; Song, Wuchang

    2016-04-15

    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) copolymer was acquired by polycondensation of hazardous reagents: epichlorohydrin (analytical reagent, A.R.) and dimethylamine (A.R.) with ethanediamine (A.R.) as cross-linker. Its coagulation and membrane performance as coagulation aid of polyferric chloride (PFC) was evaluated by comparing with other two cationic coagulation aids: poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) in humic acid-kaolin (HA-Kaolin) simulated water treatment. Firstly, optimum dosages of PFC&DAM-ECH, PFC&PDMDAAC and PFC&PAM were identified according to their coagulation performance. Then their impacts (under optimum dosages) on membrane fouling of regenerated cellulose (RC) ultra-membrane disc in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were reviewed. Results revealed that small addition of DAM-ECH was the effective on turbidity and DOC removal polymer. Furthermore, in the following ultra-filtration process, external membrane fouling resistance was demonstrated to be the dominant portion of the total membrane fouling resistance under all circumstances. Meanwhile, the internal membrane fouling resistance was determined by residual of micro-particles(1) that cannot be intercepted by cake layer or ultrafiltration membrane. PMID:26775103

  7. Enhanced Coagulation-Flocculation Performance of Iron-Based Coagulants: Effects of PO4(3- and SiO3(2- Modifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available PO4(3- and SiO3(2- are often used as modifier to improve stability and aggregating ability of the iron-base coagulants, however, there are few reports about their detailed comparison between the coagulation performance and mechanisms. In this study, three coagulants--polyferric phosphoric sulfate (PFPS, polysilicon ferric sulfate (PFSS, and polyferric sulfate (PFS were synthesized; their structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning electron microscope (SEM. Alkali titration and Ferron species analysis were employed to investigate the hydrolysis performance and species distribution. Jar test was conducted to measure their coagulation behaviors at different dosage, pH, and temperatures in which the flocs properties were measured. The results showed that a number of new compounds were formed due to the presence of PO4(3- and SiO3(2-. Moreover, PFPS and PFSS had similar level in Fea as well as Feb. Among them, PFPS produced more multi-core iron atoms polymer and content of Feb, and the formed flocs were larger and denser. It exhibited superior coagulation performance in terms of turbidity reduction, UV254 removal and residual ferric concentration. Jar test and floc breakage/regrowth experiments indicated other than charge neutrality, the dominated mechanism involved in PFSS was the adsorption between polysilicic acid and solution particle, while PFPS was sweeping, entrapment/adsorption resulting from larger polymer colloid of Fe-P chemistry bond.

  8. Changing trends in anti-coagulant therapies. Are heparins and oral anti-coagulants challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, J; Iqbal, O; Cunanan, J; Demir, M; Wahi, R; Clarke, M; Adiguzel, C; Bick, R

    2008-06-01

    The conventional management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders is based on the use of heparin, oral anticoagulants and aspirin. Despite progress in the sciences, these drugs still remain a challenge and mystery. The development of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHS) and the synthesis of heparinomimetics represent a refined use of heparin. Additional drugs will continue to develop. However, none of these drugs will ever match the polypharmacology of heparin. Aspirin still remains the leading drug in the management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders. The newer antiplatelet drugs such as adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors, GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors and other specific inhibitors have limited effects and have been tested in patients who have already been treated with aspirin. Warfarin provides a convenient and affordable approach in the long-term outpatient management of thrombotic disorders. The optimized use of these drugs still remains the approach of choice to manage thrombotic disorders. The new anticoagulant targets, such as tissue factor, individual clotting factors, recombinant forms of serpins (antithrombin, heparin co-factor II and tissue factor pathway inhibitors), recombinant activated protein C, thrombomodulin and site specific serine proteases inhibitors complexes have also been developed. There is a major thrust on the development of orally bioavailable anti-Xa and IIa agents, which are slated to replace oral anticoagulants. Both the anti-factor Xa and anti-IIa agents have been developed for oral use and have provided impressive clinical results. However, safety concerns related to liver enzyme elevations and thrombosis rebound have been reported with their use. For these reasons, the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve the orally active antithrombin agent Ximelagatran for several indications. The synthetic pentasaccharide (Fondaparinux) has undergone clinical development. Unexpectedly, Fondaparinux also produced major

  9. Combination of coagulation and catalytic wet oxidation for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenich; Laari, A; Nissen, M; Kallas, J

    2001-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) is a well established process for purification of concentrated municipal and industrial wastewaters. Many attempts have been made to modify the WO process or to create a suitable combination of processes. This work was undertaken to investigate wet oxidation integrated with coagulation, i.e. to treat the sludge remaining after coagulation with a WO process. The possibility of regeneration of the used coagulant was also considered. Two waters from paper mills were used: TMP (thermomechanical pulp) circulation water and membrane concentrate. About 50% of the COD in the original water can be removed by coagulation using Fe2(SO4)3. The results from the wet oxidation experiments show the positive effect of iron in the chemical sludge as a catalyst. The efficiency of the WO process was enhanced almost by 100%. The remaining dissolved organic matter can be easily removed biologically. PMID:11695452

  10. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  11. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  12. Analysis of the coagulation of human blood cells on diamond surfaces by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, V.; Fontana, M.; Guo, Zhao Jing; Ceragioli, H. J.; Peterlevitz, A. C.

    2004-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and coagulation of human blood cells in contact with solid surfaces. Blood was extracted from the veins of healthy adult donors and the samples were used immediately after extraction, deposited either on borosilicate glass or diamond substrates. Some blood samples were anti-coagulated by adding heparin for single cell AFM imaging. No chemicals were used for attaching or immobilizing the cells. The diamond substrates were produced by chemical vapour deposition (CVD diamond) using a hot-filament CVD system fed with ethanol highly diluted in hydrogen. AFM imaging of isolated cells (anti-coagulated by heparin) was only possible on the glass substrates due to the lack of adherence of the cells to the diamond surface. The coagulation results suggest that blood clotting on diamond produces a less rough surface than blood clotting on glass.

  13. Disseminated intravascular coagulation does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Sandra; Meindl-Böhmer, Alexandra; Nowak, Götz; Moennig, Volker

    2013-03-23

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a multi-systemic disease that can be accompanied by severe haemorrhagic lesions. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are still far from being understood, though disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was discussed as a major factor. In the presented study, the direct thrombin inhibitor hirudin was used in an attempt to elucidate the role of the coagulation system in the pathogenesis of CSF-induced haemorrhagic lesions. Two groups of piglets (n=5) were infected with highly virulent CSF virus (CSFV) strain CSF0634. One group underwent daily treatment with hirudin, the other served as untreated challenge infection control. Assessment of clinical signs using a clinical score system, coagulation tests, and blood counts were performed daily. Both groups developed acute-lethal CSF with haemorrhagic lesions. Although changes in the coagulation system were seen in the late stages of CSFV infection, our results strongly suggest that DIC does not present the crucial event in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic lesions.

  14. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  15. Electro-Coagulation: A Step towards Chemical-Free Water Treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Tito, Duarte Novaes

    2016-01-01

    This work will focus on presenting the principles of electro-coagulation, clarifying what are the key process parameters and demonstrating the applicability of the technology by showcasing large-scale case studies and process performance data.

  16. Coagulation competence for predicting perioperative hemorrhage in patients treated with lactated Ringer's vs. Dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Per Ingemar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative hemorrhage may depend on coagulation competence and this study evaluated the influence of coagulation competence on blood loss during cystectomy due to bladder cancer. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing radical cystectomy were included in a randomized controlled trial to...... receive either lactated Ringer's solution or Dextran 70 (Macrodex ®) that affects coagulation competence. RESULTS: By thrombelastography evaluated coagulation competence, Dextran 70 reduced "maximal amplitude" (MA) by 25 % versus a 1 % reduction with the administration of lactated Ringer's solution (P <0.......001). Blinded evaluation of the blood loss was similar in the two groups of patients - 2339 ml with the use of Dextran 70 and 1822 ml in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.27). Yet, the blood loss was related to the reduction in MA (r = -0.427, P = 0.008) and by multiple regression analysis independently...

  17. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  18. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%). PMID:17141409

  19. Aberrant coagulation causes a hyper-inflammatory response in severe influenza pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Tang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infects the respiratory tract in humans and causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Aggressive inflammation, known as a cytokine storm, is thought to cause most of the damage in the lungs during IAV infection. Dysfunctional coagulation is a common complication in pathogenic influenza, manifested by lung endothelial activation, vascular leak, disseminated intravascular coagulation and pulmonary microembolism. Importantly, emerging evidence shows that an uncontrolled coagulation system, including both the cellular (endothelial cells and platelets) and protein (coagulation factors, anticoagulants and fibrinolysis proteases) components, contributes to the pathogenesis of influenza by augmenting viral replication and immune pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on the underlying mechanisms of the dysfunctional coagulatory response in the pathogenesis of IAV. PMID:27041635

  20. Removing Boron from an Aqueous Solution Using Turmeric Extract-Aided Coagulation-Flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boron exists in an environment naturally either through weathering of rocks or volcanic activity but due to anthropogenic activity, boron had been distributed widely into our surroundings. Boron was a problematic pollutant due to the difficulty to remove it from the water. Turmeric which had been widely used as a spice and traditional medicine, were investigated to determine its capabilities to aid in coagulation-flocculation process to remove boron. Optimizing coagulation-flocculation process might be effective to remove boron to a lower concentration. Approach: In this study, the optimum parameter for pH, dose of aluminium sulfate (alum and a dose of turmeric extract were determined by conducting a set of jar test experiment. The coagulation-flocculation process was performed to study the effectiveness of the turmeric extract as a coagulant aid in boron removal. Results: The result demonstrated that coagulation-flocculation process with the aid of turmeric extract can remove boron effectively at optimum conditions rather than coagulation-flocculation process without the aid of turmeric extract. The optimum conditions for boron removal were achieved at pH 7, an alum dosage of 18, 367 mg L-1 and turmeric extract dosage of 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Result showed that removal of boron depends on pH, alum dosage and turmeric extract dosage. The boron removal percentage of the aqueous solution using the coagulation-flocculation process aided by the addition of turmeric extract and without the addition of turmeric extract were 95 and 62%, respectively. In addition, there was a significance difference between both processes. Turmeric extract as a coagulant aid demonstrated promising performance in boron removal and can be used as an alternative treatment to treat boron-containing wastewater.

  1. Pharmacogenetic typing for oral anti-coagulant response among factor V Leiden mutation carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risha Nahar

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Pre-prescription genotyping for coumarin drugs, if introduced in Indians with inherited thrombophilia (in whom oral anti-coagulant therapy may be necessary, is likely to identify 9.7% (hypersensitive subjects in whom the optimum anti-coagulation may be achieved with reduced dosages, 44.3% (normal sensitivity who may require higher dose and also 55.6% (hyper and moderate sensitivity subjects who are likely to experience bleeding episodes.

  2. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Abdul Rehman Memon; Abdul Kareem Shah

    2012-01-01

    Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) ...

  3. [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, L; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L; Leroux, D; Audet, D

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  4. Therapeutic Modulation of Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Acute Lung Injury and the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sebag, Sara C.; Bastarache, Julie A.; Ware, Lorraine B.

    2011-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are characterized by excessive intra-alveolar fibrin deposition, driven, at least in part by inflammation. The imbalance between activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis in patients with ALI/ARDS favors fibrin formation and appears to occur both systemically and in the lung and airspace. Tissue factor (TF), a key mediator of the activation of coagulation in the lung, has been implicated in the pathogenesis ...

  5. Effects of Slow-Mixing on the Coagulation Performance of Polyaluminum Chloride (PACI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongguo; LIU Dan; HU Dandan; LI Duo; REN Xiaojing; CHENG Yanjun; LUAN Zhaokun

    2013-01-01

    Conventional jar tests and on-line size monitoring were used to investigate the effects of slow-mixing intensity and duration on residual turbidity and floc size during charge neutralization coagulation and sweep flocculation with polyaluminnm chloride.The compensatory effect of slow-mixing on coagulation performance following inadequate or excessive rapid-mixing was also examined.It is found that slow-mixing intensity has a more marked positive effect on charge neutralization coagulation than on sweep flocculation.The optimal root-meansquare velocity gradient,G,for slow-mixing is 15 s for both coagulation mechanisms,and charge neutralization coagulation requires a longer slow-mixing duration.The optimal slow-mixing duration,based on residual turbidity,is longer than the time to form the largest mean flocs.The optimal product of G and mixing duration,GT,for slow-mixing during charge neutralization coagulation (13500) are higher than that during sweep flocculation (4500)and both are less than the range of values recommended by the American Water Works Association (24000-84000).The optimal GT value under various slow-mixing conditions increases with G.Appropriate extension of slow-mixing duration during charge neutralization coagulation can improve coagulation performance after an inadequate or excessive rapid-mixing duration,but during sweep flocculation,appropriate shortening of slow-mixing duration after an excessive rapid-mixing or appropriate extension of slow-mixing duration after an inadequate rapid-mixing is favorable.

  6. Effects of pre-ozonation on organic matter removal by coagulation with IPF-PACI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-long; WANG Dong-sheng; SHI Bao-you; WANG Min; TANG Hong-xiao

    2006-01-01

    Ozone plays an important role as a disinfectant and oxidant in potable water treatment practice and is increasingly being used as a pre-oxidant before coagulation. The purpose of this study is to obtain insight into the mechanisms that are operative in pre-ozonized coagulation. Effects ofpre-ozonation on organic matter removal during coagulation with IPF-PACl were investigated by using PDA (photometric disperse analysis), apparent molecular weight distribution and chemical fractionation. The dynamic formation of flocs during coagulation process was detected. Changes of aquatic organic matter (AOM) structure resulted from the influence of pre-ozonation were evaluated. Results show that dosage of O3 and characteristics of AOM are two of the major factors influencing the performance of O3 on coagulation. No significant coagulation-aid effect of O3 was observed for all experiments using either AlCl3 or PACl. On the contrary, with the application of pre-ozonation, the coagulation efficiency of AlCl3 was significantly deteriorated,reflected by the retardation of floc formation, and the removal decreases of turbidity, DOC, and UV254. However, if PACl was used instead of AlCl3, the adverse effects of pre-ozonation were mitigated obviously, particularly when the O3 dosage was less than 0.69(mg O3/mg TOC). The difference between removals of UV254 and DOC indicated that pre-ozonation greatly changed the molecular structure of AOM, but its capability of mineralization was not remarkable. Only 5% or so DOC was removed by pre-ozonation at0.6-0.8 mg/L alone. Fractionation results showed that the organic products of pre-ozonation exhibited lower molecular weight and more hydrophilicity, which impaired the removal of DOC in the following coagulation process.

  7. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC MATTER FROM SURFACE WATER USING COAGULANTS WITH VARIOUS BASICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Dąbrowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are a natural admixture of surface water and determine the level of organic pollution of water and colour intensity. Application of coagulation process in surface water treatment allows for decrease turbidity and colour of water, as well as organic matter content. In Poland most drinking water treatment plants use aluminium sulphate as a coagulant. Research works on pre-hydrolysed coagulants, e.g. polyaluminium chlorides (general formula Aln(OHmCl3n-m are also carried out. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation process using polyaluminium chlorides with different basicity, in reducing the level of pollution of surface water with organic substances. Apart from the typical indicators used to evaluate the content of organic compounds, the potential for trihalomethanes formation THM-FP was also determined. The influence of the type of coagulant (low, medium, highly alkaline on the efficiency of organic compound removal, determined as total organic carbon TOC, oxidisability OXI, absorbance UV254, was stated. Under the conditions of the coagulation (pH 7.2-7.4, temperature of 19-21°C, the best results were obtained using highly alkaline polyaluminium chlorides PAX-XL19F, PAX-XL1905 and PAX-XL1910S, decrease in TOC and OXI by 43-46%, slightly worse - 40-41% using low alkaline PAX18. Using the medium alkaline coagulants PAX-XL61 and PAXX-XL69, 30-35% removal of organic matter was obtained. Despite various effects of dissolved organic carbon removal, depending on the used coagulant, THM-FP in purified water did not differ significantly and ranged from 10.0 to 10.9 mgCHCl3 m-3. It was by 37-42% lower than in surface water.

  8. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  9. Characterization of cake layer structure on the microfiltration membrane permeability by iron pre-coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wang; Siru Pan; Dongping Luo

    2013-01-01

    A cake layer is formed by coagulation aggregates under certain transmembrane pressure in the coagulation-microfiltration (MF) process.The characteristics of humic acid aggregates coagulated by different iron-based coagulants,such as charge,size,fractal dimension and compressibility,have an effect on the cake layer structure.At the optimum iron dose of 0.6 to 0.8 mmol/L for ferric chloride (FC) and polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) pre-coagulation,at the point of charge neutralization for near zero zeta potential,the aggregate particles produced possess the greatest size and highest fractal dimension,which contributes to the cake layer being most loose with high porosity and low compressibility.Thus the membrane filterability is better.At a low or high iron dose of FC and PFS,a high negative or positive zeta potential with high charge repulsion results in so many small aggregate particles and low fractal dimension that the cake layer is compact with low porosity and high compressibility.Therefore the membrane fouling is accelerated and MF permeability becomes worse.The variation of cake layer structure as measured by scanning electric microscopy corresponds with the fact that the smaller the coagulation flocs size and fractal dimension are,the lower the porosity and the tighter the cake layer conformation.This also explains the MF membrane flux variation visually and accurately.

  10. pH modeling for maximum dissolved organic matter removal by enhanced coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankun Xie; Dongsheng Wang; John van Leeuwen; Yanmei Zhao; Linan Xing; Christopher W. K. Chow

    2012-01-01

    Correlations between raw water characteristics and pH after enhanced coagulation to maximize dissolved organic matter (DOM)removal using four typical coagulants (FeCl3,Al2(SO4)3,polyaluminum chloride (PAC1) and high performance polyaluminum chloride (HPAC)) without pH control were investigated.These correlations were analyzed on the basis of the raw water quality and the chemical and physical fractionations of DOM of thirteen Chinese source waters over three seasons.It was found that the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants was influenced by the content of removable DOM (i.e.hydrophobic,and higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) DOM),the alkalinity and the initial pH of raw water.A set of feed-forward semi-empirical models relating the final pH after enhanced coagulation for each of the four coagulants with the raw water characteristics were developed and optimized based on correlation analysis.The established models were preliminarily validated for prediction purposes,and it was found that the deviation between the predicted data and actual data was low.This result demonstrated the potential for the application of these models in practical operation of drinking water treatment plants.

  11. Impacts of Coagulation Pretreatment on MF Filtration and a Comparative Study of Different Membrane Module Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi-feng; Kim Seung-hyun; Yun Jong-sup; Moon Seong-yong

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the regulatory requirements and the forthcoming Disinfectant/Disinfection By-Products (D/DBP)Rule will require that drinking water treatment facilities be operated to achieve maximum removals of particles and disinfectant tolerant microorganisms as well as natural organic matter (NOM). For drinking water production, the use of membrane filtration processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration (MF/UF) alone to satisfy the turbidity, particle and microorganism removal a requirement of the surface water treatment regulation (SWTR) is not enough. MF/UF treatment processes can achieve only nominal (10 percent) removal of disinfection by-products (DBP) precursors (James, et al., 1995). On the other hand, too fast fouling can make the filtration processes more difficult to carry on. To solve these problems, many authors have been interested in installing coagulation pretreatment before membrane filtration to improve membrane performance. However, previous studies reported conflicting results. Some supported the effectiveness of coagulation pretreatment, while others contended that coagulation aggravated membrane performance. This research aims to identify the effects of coagulation pretreatment on membrane filtration through a pilot study using PVDF membrane in combination with analyzing the rationale of coagulation. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the different impacts on membrane performance of using different membrane modules (the submerged module and pressured module). The results showed that coagulation pretreatment greatly improved the membrane performance, extending the filtration time as well as reducing the permeated organic level, and that the submerged module is much more efficient than the pressured module.

  12. Two-component Brownian coagulation: Monte Carlo simulation and process characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo Zhao; Chu guang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The compositional distribution within aggregates of a given size is essential to the functionality of composite aggregates that are usually enlarged by rapid Brownian coagulation.There is no analytical solution for the process of such two-component systems.Monte Carlo method is an effective numerical approach for two-component coagulation.In this paper,the differentially weighted Monte Carlo method is used to investigate two-component Brownian coagulation,respectively,in the continuum regime,the freemolecular regime and the transition regime.It is found that ( 1 ) for Brownian coagulation in the continuum regime and in the free-molecular regime,the mono-variate compositional distribution,i.e.,the number density distribution function of one component amount (in the form of volume of the component in aggregates) satisfies self-preserving form the same as particle size distribution in mono-component Brownian coagulation; (2) however,for Brownian coagulation in the transition regime the mono-variate compositional distribution cannot reach self-similarity; and (3) the bivariate compositional distribution,i.e.,the combined number density distribution function of two component amounts in the three regimes satisfies a semi self-preserving form.Moreover,other new features inherent to aggregative mixing are also demonstrated; e.g.,the degree of mixing between components,which is largely controlled by the initial compositional mass fraction,improves as aggregate size increases.

  13. Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water by coagulation: mechanisms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yueping; Niu, Junfeng; Xu, Zesheng; Gao, Ding; Shi, Jianghong; Sun, Xiaomin; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-11-15

    In this study, alum (Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O), ferric chloride (FeCl3⋅6H2O) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water. The influencing factors, including pH and natural organic matter (NOM), were investigated. A positive correlation was found between the size of the flocs and the removal efficiency of PFOX (X=S and A). The removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA were 32% and ∼12%, respectively, when 50 mg/L of FeCl3⋅6H2O was added as the coagulant at the initial pH. Coagulation achieved high removal ratios for PFOX under acidic conditions (∼47.6% and 94.7% for PFOA and PFOS at pH 4, respectively). In addition, increasing NOM concentrations decreased the removal rates of PFOX because of the existence of competitive adsorption between NOM molecules and PFOX on the surface of the coagulants and flocs. The combination of adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC) and coagulation increased the removal ratios up to >90% for PFOX at the initial concentration of 1mg/L, implying that the adsorption enhanced coagulation. Meantime, the experiments with natural water showed that coagulation is a feasible method to remove PFOS and PFOA from surface water.

  14. Influential factors of formation kinetics of flocs produced by water treatment coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunde Wu; Lin Wang; Bing Hu; Jian Ye

    2013-01-01

    The growth rate and size of floc formation is of great importance in water treatment especially in coagulation process.The floc formation kinetics and the coagulation efficiency of synthetic water were investigated by using an on-line continuous optical photometric dispersion analyze and the analysis of water quality.Experimental conditions such as alum dosage,pH value for coagulation,stirring intensity and initial turbidity were extensively examined.The photometric dispersion analyze results showed that coagulation of kaolin suspensions with two coagulants (alum and polyaluminium chloride) could be taken as a two-phase process:slow and rapid growth periods.Operating conditions with higher coagulant doses,appropriate pH and average shear rate might be particularly advantageous.The rate of overall floc growth was mainly determined by a combination of hydraulic and water quality conditions such as pH and turbidity.The measurement of zeta potential indicates that polyaluminium chloride exhibited higher charge-neutralizing ability than alum and achieved lower turbidities than alum for equivalent Al dosages.Under the same operating conditions,the alum showed a higher grow rate,but with smaller floc size.

  15. Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water by coagulation: mechanisms and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yueping; Niu, Junfeng; Xu, Zesheng; Gao, Ding; Shi, Jianghong; Sun, Xiaomin; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-11-15

    In this study, alum (Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O), ferric chloride (FeCl3⋅6H2O) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) were used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from water. The influencing factors, including pH and natural organic matter (NOM), were investigated. A positive correlation was found between the size of the flocs and the removal efficiency of PFOX (X=S and A). The removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA were 32% and ∼12%, respectively, when 50 mg/L of FeCl3⋅6H2O was added as the coagulant at the initial pH. Coagulation achieved high removal ratios for PFOX under acidic conditions (∼47.6% and 94.7% for PFOA and PFOS at pH 4, respectively). In addition, increasing NOM concentrations decreased the removal rates of PFOX because of the existence of competitive adsorption between NOM molecules and PFOX on the surface of the coagulants and flocs. The combination of adsorption by powdered activated carbon (PAC) and coagulation increased the removal ratios up to >90% for PFOX at the initial concentration of 1mg/L, implying that the adsorption enhanced coagulation. Meantime, the experiments with natural water showed that coagulation is a feasible method to remove PFOS and PFOA from surface water. PMID:25168583

  16. ACTION OF HIGH-DISPERSED SILICA ON BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Chernyshenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using of high-dispersed silica based sorbents is a new and prospective method of bleeding arrest. Studies of high-dispersed silica haemostatic action during superficial wounds were promising for its surgery usage. However the mechanisms of haemostatic effects of high-dispersed silica are still unknown. Our investigations were focused on high-dispersed silica action on activation of some blood coagulation factors and clearing of its blood arresting mechanisms. Activation of individual coagulation factors was measured using specific chromogenic substrates. It was shown that high-dispersed silica increases the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic blood coagulation pathway factors which was initiated by «Activated partial thromboplastin time» and thromboplastin. Blood coagulation factor X was determined as a target of high-dispersed silica using highspecific activators from the snake venoms. Observed increasing of factor X activation could be the consequence of the adsorption of the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway factors on sorbent surface. Obtained results give a possibility to speculate about high-dispersed silica effects on blood coagulation increasing.

  17. Enhanced coagulation for turbidity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal from river Kansawati water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sumit; Goel, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimum coagulant doses for turbidity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal and evaluate the extent to which TOC can be removed by enhanced coagulation. Jar tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine optimum doses of alum for the removal of turbidity and Natural Organic Matter (NOM) from river water. Various other water quality parameters were measured before and after thejar tests and included: UV Absorbance (UVA) at 254 nm, microbial concentrations, TDS, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, and pH. The optimum alum dose for removal of turbidity and TOC was 20 mg/L for the sample collected in November 2009 and 100 mg/L for the sample collected in March 2010. In both cases, the dose for enhanced coagulation was significantly higher than that for conventional coagulation. The gain in TOC removal was insignificant compared to the increase in coagulant dose required. This is usual for low TOC (alkalinity water. Other water samples with higher TOC need to be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of enhanced coagulation.

  18. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  19. Treatment of textile dye wastewaters using ferrous sulphate in a chemical coagulation/flocculation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation/flocculation treatment using FeSO4 x 7H2O as a coagulant is evaluated in this work for the removal of organic compounds and colour from synthetic effluents simulating the cotton, acrylic and polyester dyeing wastewaters. The coagulant dose, temperature, pH, stirring speed and stirring time that maximized the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour for each effluent are determined for the coagulation process. The effect of the stirring speed, stirring time and the dose of flocculant (Magnafloc 155 or Superfloc C-573) on the flocculation stage is also evaluated for effluents pretreated by coagulation at the optimal conditions previously determined. The obtained results showed that the optimal operating conditions are different for each effluent, and the process (coagulation/flocculation) as a whole was efficient in terms of colour removal (-91% for cotton, -94% for acrylic effluents; polyester effluent is practically colourless). However, the DOC removal observed is not significant (33% for polyester, -45% for cotton and -28% for acrylic effluents). On the other hand, the remaining dissolved iron content is appropriate for further integrating the treatment with an iron-catalysed Fenton process, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals in the overall treatment. PMID:23837323

  20. Thermoporometry study of coagulation bath temperature effect on polyacrylonitrile fibers morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhanipour, Payman, E-mail: p.sobhanipour@aut.ac.ir [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cheraghi, Reza [Textile Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84154-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Volinsky, Alex A. [University of South Florida, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Meso-porosity of wet-spun polyacrylonitrile fibers was characterized by thermoporometry. {yields} The shape of fibers cross-section altered from bean to circular with coagulation temperature. {yields} The average pore size and pore volume of the fibers increased with coagulation temperature. - Abstract: The effect of coagulation bath temperature on the morphology of wet-spun polyacrylonitrile fibers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and thermoporometry, a calorimetric technique based on lowering liquid triple point temperature inside the pores. Fibers were fabricated at two coagulation bath temperatures of 5 {sup o}C and 60 {sup o}C. The shape of nascent fibers cross-section transforms from bean to circular and pore size increases with coagulation temperature. Porosity parameters including average pore size and pore size distribution, pore volume and internal surface area were determined by thermoporometry. The average pore size and pore volume of the fibers increase with coagulation temperature. Low heating rate of 0.1 {sup o}C/min during thermoporometry measurements is the key parameter to ensure that test conditions are close to equilibrium. This study shows that thermoporometry can be employed to characterize closed meso-porosity of wet-spun fibers inaccessible by other standard porosimetry methods.

  1. Treatment of phosphate-containing oily wastewater by coagulation and microfiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin; SUN Yu-xin; HUANG Zhi-feng; LIU Xing-qin; MENG Guang-yao

    2006-01-01

    The oily wastewater generated from pretreatment unit of electrocoating industry contains oils, phosphate, organic solvents,and surfactants. In order to improve the removal efficiencies of phosphate and oils, to mitigate the membrane fouling, coagulation for ceramic membrane microfiltration of oily wastewater was performed. The results of filtration tests show that the membrane fouling decreased and the permeate flux and quality increased with coagulation as pretreatment. At the coagulant Ca (OH)2 dosage of 900 mg/L, the removal efficiency of phosphate was increased from 46.4% without coagulation to 99.6%; the removal of COD and oils were 97.0% and 99.8%, respectively. And the permeate flux was about 70% greater than that when Ca(OH)2 was not used. The permeate obtained from coagulation and microfiltration can be reused as make-up water, and the recommended operation conditions for pilot and industrial application are transmembrane pressure of 0.10 MPa and cross-flow velocity of 5 m/s. The comparison results show that 0.2 μm ZrO2 microfilter with coagulation could be used to perform the filtration rather than conventional ultrafilter, with very substantial gain in flux and removal efficiency of phosphate.

  2. A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A; Gunaratna, K R; Henriksson, Hongbin; Brumer, Harry; Dalhammar, Gunnel

    2005-06-01

    Use of extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO) is of great interest for low-cost water treatment. This paper discusses water and salt extraction of a coagulant protein from the seed, purification using ion exchange, its chemical characteristics, coagulation and antimicrobial properties. The coagulant from both extracts is a cationic protein with pI greater than 9.6 and molecular mass less than 6.5 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis of the purified water extract indicated that it contained at least four homologous proteins, based on MS/MS peptide sequence data. The protein is thermoresistant and remained active after 5h heat treatment at 95 degrees C. The coagulant protein showed both flocculating and antibacterial effects of 1.1--4 log reduction. With samples of high turbidity, the MO extract showed similar coagulation activity as alum. Cecropin A and MO extract were found to have similar flocculation effects for clay and microorganisms. Simple methods for both the purification and assay of MO coagulating proteins are presented, which are necessary for large-scale water treatment applications. PMID:15921719

  3. Optical coherence tomography-guided laser microsurgery for blood coagulation with continuous-wave laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Wang, Zu-Yi; Chi, Chun-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Chan, Ming-Che; Lee, Ya-Ju

    2015-11-16

    Blood coagulation is the clotting and subsequent dissolution of the clot following repair to the damaged tissue. However, inducing blood coagulation is difficult for some patients with homeostasis dysfunction or during surgery. In this study, we proposed a method to develop an integrated system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser microsurgery for blood coagulation. Also, an algorithm for positioning of the treatment location from OCT images was developed. With OCT scanning, 2D/3D OCT images and angiography of tissue can be obtained simultaneously, enabling to noninvasively reconstruct the morphological and microvascular structures for real-time monitoring of changes in biological tissues during laser microsurgery. Instead of high-cost pulsed lasers, continuous-wave laser diodes (CW-LDs) with the central wavelengths of 450 nm and 532 nm are used for blood coagulation, corresponding to higher absorption coefficients of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. Experimental results showed that the location of laser exposure can be accurately controlled with the proposed approach of imaging-based feedback positioning. Moreover, blood coagulation can be efficiently induced by CW-LDs and the coagulation process can be monitored in real-time with OCT. This technology enables to potentially provide accurate positioning for laser microsurgery and control the laser exposure to avoid extra damage by real-time OCT imaging.

  4. Coupling effect of Brownian motion and laminar shear flow on colloid coagulation: a Brownian dynamics simulation study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Sheng-Hua; Sun Zhi-Wei; Li Xu; Jin Tong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous orthokinetic and perikinetic coagulations(SOPCs)are studied for small and large Peclet numbers(Pe)using Brownian dynamics simulation.The results demonstrate that the contributions of the Brownian motion and the shear flow to the overall coagulation rate are basically not additive.At the early stages of coagulation with small Peclet numbers,the ratio of overall coagulation rate to the rate of pure perikinetic coagulation is proportional to Pe1/2,while with high Peclet numbers,the ratio of overall coagulation rate to the rate of pure orthokinetic coagulation is proportional to pe-1/2.Moreover,our results show that the aggregation rate generally changes with time for the SOPC,which is different from that for pure preikinetic and pure orthokinetic coagulations.By comparing the SOPC with pure preikinetic and pure orthokinetic coagulations,we show that the redistribution of particles due to Brownian motion can play a very important role in the SOPC.In addition,the effects of redistribution in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the shear flow direction are different.This perspective explains the behavior of coagulation due to the joint effects of the Brownian motion(perikinetic)and the fluid motion(orthokinetic).

  5. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  6. Interference of iron as a coagulant on MIB removal by powdered activated carbon adsorption for low turbidity waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferreira Filho SIDNEY SECKLER; Marchetto MARGARIDA; Alves Laganaro ROSEMEIRE

    2013-01-01

    Powered activated carbon (PAC) is widely used in water treatment plants to minimize odors in drinking water.This study investigated the removal of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by PAC adsorption,combined with coagulation using iron as a coagulant.The adsorption and coagulation process were studied through different case scenarios of jar tests.The analysis evaluated the effect of PAC dosing in the liquid phase immediately before or after the coagulant addition.Ferric sulphate was used as the coagulant with dosages from 10 to 30 mg/L,and PAC dosages varied from 10 to 40 mg/L.The highest MIB removal efficiency (about 70%) was achieved without the coagulant addition and with the highest PAC dosage (40 mg/L).Lower MIB removal efficiencies were observed in the presence of coagulant,showing a clear interference of the iron precipitate or coagulant in the adsorption process.The degree of interference of the coagulation process in the MIB removal was proportional to the ratio of ferric hydroxide mass to the PAC mass.For both cases of PAC dosing,upstream and downstream of the coagulant injection point,the MIB removal efficiency was similar.However,MIB removal efficiency was 15% lower when compared with experiments without the coagulant application.This interference in the MIB adsorption occurs potentially because the coagulant coats the surface of the carbon and interferes with the MIB coming in contact with the carbon's surface and pores.This constraint requires an increase of the PAC dosage to provide the same efficiency observed without coagulation.

  7. The Influence of Dosing Modes of Coagulate on Arsenic Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different dosing modes, including one single dosing mode and two sequential dosing modes, were applied in high-arsenic contaminated water treatment. The results illustrated that the As (V soluble and the As (V nonspecifically sorbed were the insignificant species from Fe-As (V samples in the sequential dosing mode, while they were higher in the single dosing mode. However, it could be further concluded that the mobility of the Fe-As (V in sequential dosing mode was greater than that in single dosing mode. Besides, the main arsenic speciation governing the arsenic-borne coagulates was the As (V associated with poorly crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe in sequential or single dosing mode. Moreover, the particle size distribution analysis indicated that the sequential dosing mode was more prevalent in neutralizing and adsorbing the As (V compared with the single dosing mode. In the FT-IR spectra, the presence of arsenic was highlighted by a well resolved band at 825–829 cm−1. The positions of the As–O stretching vibration bands were shifted gradually as the dosing mode changed from the single to the sequential. This result could be related to the distribution of arsenic speciation in different dosing modes.

  8. Mesoscopic Modeling of Blood Clotting: Coagulation Cascade and Platelets Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Alireza; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    The process of clot formation and growth at a site on a blood vessel wall involve a number of multi-scale simultaneous processes including: multiple chemical reactions in the coagulation cascade, species transport and flow. To model these processes we have incorporated advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) of multiple species into an extended version of Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method which is considered as a coarse-grained Molecular Dynamics method. At the continuum level this is equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equation plus one advection-diffusion equation for each specie. The chemistry of clot formation is now understood to be determined by mechanisms involving reactions among many species in dilute solution, where reaction rate constants and species diffusion coefficients in plasma are known. The role of blood particulates, i.e. red cells and platelets, in the clotting process is studied by including them separately and together in the simulations. An agonist-induced platelet activation mechanism is presented, while platelets adhesive dynamics based on a stochastic bond formation/dissociation process is included in the model.

  9. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Jixian; Tian, Jiayu; Ma, Fang; Tu, Gang; Du, Maoan

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density=1 mA/cm(2), pH=4-7, water temperature=18-36 degrees C, algae density=0.55 x 10(9)-1.55 x 10(9) cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m(3). The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view. PMID:20042280

  10. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm2, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 109-1.55 x 109 cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m3. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  11. Electro-coagulation-flotation process for algae removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shanshan, E-mail: luck81919@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China); Yang Jixian; Tian Jiayu; Ma Fang; Tu Gang; Du Maoan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, Hei Longjiang (China)

    2010-05-15

    Algae in surface water have been a long-term issue all over the world, due to their adverse influence on drinking water treatment process as well as drinking water quality. The algae removal by electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) technology was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that aluminum was an excellent electrode material for algae removal as compared with iron. The optimal parameters determined were: current density = 1 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH = 4-7, water temperature = 18-36 deg. C, algae density = 0.55 x 10{sup 9}-1.55 x 10{sup 9} cells/L. Under the optimal conditions, 100% of algae removal was achieved with the energy consumption as low as 0.4 kWh/m{sup 3}. The ECF performed well in acid and neutral conditions. At low initial pH of 4-7, the cell density of algae was effectively removed in the ECF, mainly through the charge neutralization mechanism; while the algae removal worsened when the pH increased (7-10), and the main mechanism shifted to sweeping flocculation and enmeshment. The mechanisms for algae removal at different pH were also confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Furthermore, initial cell density and water temperature could also influence the algae removal. Overall, the results indicated that the ECF technology was effective for algae removal, from both the technical and economical points of view.

  12. Links between coagulation, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis in kidney pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Álvarez, Beatriz; Liapis, Helen; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) involves nephron injury leading to irreversible nephron loss, ie, chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both AKI and CKD are associated with distinct histological patterns of tissue injury, but kidney atrophy in CKD involves tissue remodeling with interstitial inflammation and scarring. No doubt, nephron atrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and renal dysfunction are associated with each other, but their hierarchical relationships remain speculative. To better understand the pathophysiology, we provide an overview of the fundamental danger response programs that assure host survival upon traumatic injury from as early as the first multicellular organisms, ie, bleeding control by coagulation, infection control by inflammation, epithelial barrier restoration by re-epithelialization, and tissue stabilization by mesenchymal repair. Although these processes assure survival in the majority of the populations, their dysregulation causes kidney disease in a minority. We discuss how, in genetically heterogeneous population, genetic variants shift balances and modulate danger responses toward kidney disease. We further discuss how classic kidney disease entities develop from an insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs. Finally, we discuss molecular pathways linking, for example, inflammation and regeneration or inflammation and fibrosis. Understanding the causative and hierarchical relationships and the molecular links between the danger response programs should help to identify molecular targets to modulate kidney injury and to improve outcomes for kidney disease patients.

  13. Coagulation syndrome: Delayed perforation after colorectal endoscopic treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kingo; Hirasawa; Chiko; Sato; Makomo; Makazu; Hiroaki; Kaneko; Ryosuke; Kobayashi; Atsushi; Kokawa; Shin; Maeda

    2015-01-01

    Various procedure-related adverse events related to colonoscopic treatment have been reported. Previous studies on the complications of colonoscopic treatment have focused primarily on perforation or bleeding. Coagulation syndrome(CS), which is synonymous with transmural burn syndrome following endoscopic treatment, is another typical adverse event. CS is the result of electrocoagulation injury to the bowel wall that induces a transmural burn and localized peritonitis resulting in serosal inflammation. CS occurs after polypectomy, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR), and even endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD). The occurrence of CS after polypectomy or EMR varies according previous reports; most report an occurrence rate around 1%. However, artificial ulcers after ESD are largely theoretical, and CS following ESD was reported in about 9% of cases, which is higher than that for CS after polypectomy or EMR. Most cases of post-polypectomy syndrome(PPS) have an excellent prognosis, and they are managed conservatively with medical therapy. PPS rarely develops into delayed perforation. Delayed perforation is a severe adverse event that often requires emergency surgery. Since few studies have reported on CS and delayed perforation associated with CS, we focused on CS after colonoscopic treatments in this review. Clinicians should consider delayed perforation in CS patients.

  14. On the Coagulation and Size Distribution of Pressure Confined Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xu; Lin, D N C

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the Pipe Nebula have led to the discovery of dense starless cores. The mass of most cores is too small for their self gravity to hold them together. Instead, they are thought to be pressure confined. The observed dense cores' mass function (CMF) matches well with the initial mass function (IMF) of stars in young clusters. Similar CMF's are observed in other star forming regions such as the Aquila Nebula, albeit with some dispersion. The shape of these CMF provides important clues to the competing physical processes which lead to star formation and its feedback on the interstellar media. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical origin of the the mass function of starless cores which are confined by a warm, less dense medium. We consider the coagulation between the cold cores and their ablation due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by their relative motion through the warm medium. We are able to reproduce the observed CMF among the starless cores in the Pipe nebula. Our results indicate...

  15. Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater using interior micro-electrolysis/Fenton oxidation-coagulation and biological degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Yao; Zhang, Tingting; Ji, Fangying; Xu, Xuan

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of steroid hormones produces wastewater that is difficult to manage and characterize due to its complex components and high levels of toxicity and bio-refractory compounds. In this work, interior micro-electrolysis (IME) and Fenton oxidation-coagulation (FOC) were investigated as wastewater pretreatment processes in combination with biological treatments using a hydrolysis acidification unit (HA) and two-stage biological contact oxidation (BCO) in laboratory and field experiments. In laboratory experiments with an average initial COD load of about 15,000 mg/L, pH of 4, Fe-C/water (V/V) ratio of 1:1, air/water ratio of 10, and reaction time of 180 min, IME achieved a COD removal efficiency of 31.8% and a 1.7-fold increase in the BOD5/COD (B/C) ratio of wastewater. The Fe(2+) concentration of 458.5 mg/L in the IME effluent meets the requirements of the Fenton oxidation (FO) process. FOC further reduced the COD with an efficiency of 30.1%, and the B/C ratio of the wastewater reached 0.59. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) analysis showed that complex higher molecular weight organic compounds in the wastewater were degraded after the pretreatment process. In addition, a field experiment with a continuous flow of 96 m(3)/d was conducted for over 90 d. The combined process system operated steadily, though the Fe-C fillings should be soaked in a sulfuric acid solution (5‰) for 12 h to recover activity every two weeks. The COD and BOD5 concentrations in the final effluent were less than 90 mg/L and 15 mg/L, respectively. PMID:26953729

  16. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica Livaja Koshiar

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte

  17. Proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed as a natural coagulant for potential application in water turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antov, Mirjana G; Sćiban, Marina B; Petrović, Nada J

    2010-04-01

    The ability of coagulation active proteins from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed for the removal of water turbidity was studied. Partial purification of protein coagulant was performed by precipitation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis and anion exchange chromatography. Adsorption parameters for ion-exchange process were established using dialysate extract. Results revealed that the highest values of the adsorbed protein were achieved in 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 0.51 mg protein/mL matrix. Partially purified coagulant at initial turbidity 35 NTU expressed the highest value of coagulation activity, 72.3%, which was almost 22 times higher than those obtained by crude extract considering applied dosages. At the same time, the increase in organic matter that remained in water after coagulation with purified protein coagulant was more than 16 times lower than those with crude extract, relatively to its content in blank.

  18. Application of Combined Chemical Coagulation-Electro  Coagulation Process for Treatment  of the Zahedan Cattle Slaughterhouse Wastewater 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat, and lard. In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards.Materials and Methods: At present study, slaughterhouse wastewater after initial analysis was tested for survey of coagulation process using Poly aluminum chloride (PAC at various doses (25-100 mg/L. Then we measured the concentrations of wastewater pollutants (BOD5, COD, TKN, TSS and fecal Coliforms. Later, we transferred the effluent to the electrocoagulation unit and we evaluated the removal efficiency of pollutants in the range 10 to 40 volts of electric potential during 60 min.Results: It was found that the efficiency of chemical coagulation process using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC as coagulant increases with increasing doses (from 25 to 100 mg/L; we achieved maximum removal efficiency during the chemical coagulation for parameters of BOD5, COD, TSS, and TKN at 100 mg/L of PAC equivalent to 44.78%, 58.52%, 59.9%, and 39.58% respectively. Moreover, the results showed that with increasing the electric potential and reaction time, the yield increases linearly so that maximum removal efficiency at a dose of 100 mg/L PAC, an electrical potential of 40 volts and a reaction time of 60 minutes for the parameters BOD5, COD, TSS, and TKN was 99.18% 99.25%, 82.55%, and 93.97% respectively.Conclusion: The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation processes for pollutants removal from the slaughterhouse wastewaters

  19. Use of coagulants in treatment of olive oil wastewater model solutions by induced air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyssami, B; Kasaeian, A B

    2005-02-01

    Natural polyelectrolytes are suitable coagulants for the treatment of industrial and minicipal wastewaters because they are safe and have environmental benefits. Chitosan, a natural cationic polyelectrolyte, and other similar coagulants were used in the treatment of an olive oil water suspension as a model for the processing wastewater. The effect of chitosan, starch, alum and ferric chloride on the coagulation of oil droplets were determined by the jar test apparatus and turbidometric measurements. Olive oil emulsion samples were prepared by the use of surface active agents and other agents that could form stable oil water emulsions. The effect of parameters such as pH, ionic strength and optimum dosage of the coagulants were determined in the jar test experiments. Following the jar experiments, with the optimum concentration of the suitable coagulant, the emulsions were placed in an induced air flotation (IAF) cell to separate the coagulated oil droplets from solution. In the air flotation experiments, the effect of temperature, surfactant concentration and air flowrate were determined on the decrease of turbidity and COD of the emulsion samples. In the jar experiments, chitosan and alum used together at concentrations of 15 and 25 ppm, respectively, at pH 6 produced the lowest turbidity values. In the air flotation experiments, a concentration of 100 ppm of chitosan, an air flowrate of 3 l/min, aeration time of 45 s, temperature of 20 degrees C and pH 6 produced optimum levels. At optimum conditions of coagulation and flotation stages, the COD of the olive oil emulsion could be reduced by 95%.

  20. Rapid removal of fine particles from mine water using sequential processes of coagulation and flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M.; Lee, H.J.; Shim, Y. [Korean Mine Reclamation Corporation MIRECO, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    2010-07-01

    The processes of coagulation and flocculation using high molecular weight long-chain polymers were applied to treat mine water having fine flocs of which about 93% of the total mass was less than 3.02 {mu} m, representing the size distribution of fine particles. Six different combinations of acryl-type anionic flocculants and polyamine-type cationic coagulants were selected to conduct kinetic tests on turbidity removal in mine water. Optimization studies on the types and concentrations of the coagulant and flocculant showed that the highest rate of turbidity removal was obtained with 10 mg L{sup -1} FL-2949 (coagulant) and 12 mg L{sup -1} A333E (flocculant), which was about 14.4 and 866.7 times higher than that obtained with A333E alone and that obtained through natural precipitation by gravity, respectively. With this optimized condition, the turbidity of mine water was reduced to 0 NTU within 20 min. Zeta potential measurements were conducted to elucidate the removal mechanism of the fine particles, and they revealed that there was a strong linear relationship between the removal rate of each pair of coagulant and flocculant application and the zeta potential differences that were obtained by subtracting the zeta potential of flocculant-treated mine water from the zeta potential of coagulant-treated mine water. Accordingly, through an optimization process, coagulation-flocculation by use of polymers could be advantageous to mine water treatment, because the process rapidly removes fine particles in mine water and only requires a small-scale plant for set-up purposes owing to the short retention time in the process.

  1. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  2. An assessment of the utility of unselected coagulation screening in general hospital practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Johnny

    2011-03-01

    Coagulation screening using prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is widely used. We performed an audit of coagulation screening in an Irish teaching hospital. We analysed PT and\\/or APTT results received during normal working hours during a 1-week period in our hospital. Abnormal results due to anticoagulants were excluded from further study. In samples with PT longer than 15.5 s and\\/or APTT longer than 42 s, we proceeded to 1: 1 mixing studies if the PT was prolonged and 1: 1 mixing studies, factor XII assay and lupus screen if the APTT was prolonged. We also obtained referral source for all samples and clinical details for abnormal samples. Six hundred and seventy-one coagulation requests were received during the study period. Three hundred and eighteen of 671 (47.4%) coagulation requests were for monitoring of anticoagulation. Three hundred and fifty-three of 671 (52.6%) requests were for coagulation screening rather than anticoagulant monitoring. In the coagulation screens received, PT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). PT was longer than 20 s in four of 353 cases (1.1%). APTT was prolonged in 19 of 353 (5.4%). APTT was longer than 50 s in four of 353 (1.1%). No patients with abnormal PT or APTT had any bleeding sequelae during the study period. Unregulated coagulation screening has a low yield of abnormal results; the majority of these abnormal results show mild prolongation of PT or APTT with no evidence that they are associated with an increased bleeding risk.

  3. Hi-tech of the prostate: interstitial laser coagulation of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschter, Rolf; Hofstetter, Alfons G.; Hessel, Stefan F. F.; Keiditsch, Ernst; Rothenberger, Karl-Heinz; Schneede, Peter; Frank, Klaus H.

    1992-06-01

    We report on the new technique of interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate (ILCP) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Basic experiments by use of a Nd:YAG laser in combination with a newly designed fiber tip homogeneously distributing the laser irradiation have been performed in potato, muscle, liver, and surgically removed human BPH-tissue to determine the volume of coagulation. The coagulation zone surrounding the probe was well defined and homogeneous. The size was dependent on laser power and irradiation time. Carbonization was never present except in darker tissues irradiated with high energy. Volume and time resolved measurements correlated well with the size of coagulation. 10 W and 5 minutes, for example, resulted in a coagulation zone of 17 X 15 mm. Comparable results have been seen in in-vivo experiments in surgically exposed canine prostates. Specimen for macroscopic and microscopic examination were taken immediately after treatment and after 5 and 35 days. The well demarked coagulation necrosis of the early stage resulted in cystic degeneration and fibrosis in the later stages. This was combined with shrinkage and reduction in volume. The urothelium of the urethra, the external sphincter and the rectum showed no damage. Until now, 15 patients suffering from obstructive symptoms due to BPH have been treated with interstitial laser coagulation. The probes were inserted from the perineum into the center of each lateral lobe of the prostate by transrectal ultrasound guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic guidance, while the median lobe was treated by urethroscopic control. Dependent on the size of the prostate irradiation, time was 5 to 10 minutes per lobe at a power setting of 5 to 10 W.

  4. Initiator Systems Effect on Particle Coagulation and Particle Size Distribution in One-Step Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene

    OpenAIRE

    Baijun Liu; Yajun Wang; Mingyao Zhang; Huixuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Particle coagulation is a facile approach to produce large-scale polymer latex particles. This approach has been widely used in academic and industrial research owing to its higher polymerization rate and one-step polymerization process. Our work was motivated to control the extent (or time) of particle coagulation. Depending on reaction parameters, particle coagulation is also able to produce narrowly dispersed latex particles. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investi...

  5. Surface charge studies - an important approach for investigation of color removal from textile wastewaters by chemical coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    GAYDARDZHIEV, Stoyan; Ay, P.

    2003-01-01

    Results concerning surface charge characterizations of coagulated dye with an aim to evaluate the predominant destabilization mechanism taking place during colour removal by chemical coagulation are presented. A model wastewater comprising of commercially used dye with a CI “Reactive Red 2” was studied. The effect of the combination coagulant/flocculant on colour removal by filtration and sedimentation was evaluated in terms of progression of sludge surface charge. On that basis, an implicati...

  6. A Preliminary Study of Banana Stem Juice as a Plant-Based Coagulant for Treatment of Spent Coolant Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Habsah Alwi; Juferi Idris; Mohibah Musa; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of banana stem juice as a natural coagulant for treatment of spent coolant wastewater was investigated . Three main parameters were studied, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SSs), and turbidity of effluent. Coagulation experiments using jar test were performed with a flocculation system where the effects of spent coolant wastewater pH as well as banana stem juice dosage on coagulation effectiveness were examined. The highest recorded COD, SS, and turbi...

  7. Protective Properties of Flavonoid Extract of Coagulated Tofu (Curdled Soy Milk) Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ndatsu Yakubu; Umaru Alhassan Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The total flavonoid contents of the various coagulated tofu and the hepatoprotective potential of all tofu flavonoid extracts were investigated. Tofu was prepared from locally sourced coagulants (steep water, alum, lemon, and lemon peel ash extract). Total flavonoid contents of all coagulated tofu were investigated as established in vitro flavonoid assay. The hepatoprotective activities of tofu flavonoid extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell toxicity in rats was also investigate...

  8. Behavior of Aluminum Based Coagulants in Treatment of Surface Water–Assessment of Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Treated Water

    OpenAIRE

    Spînu (Gologan) Daniela; Racoviteanu Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Pre-polymerized inorganic aluminum coagulants have high efficiency in reducing turbidity, total, dissolved, biodegradable organic carbon and microbiological content of surface waters used for drinking, while obtaining low concentrations of residual aluminum after the coagulation phase. Correlation between turbidity raw water and coagulant dose is logarithmic being influenced by temperature and organic content of surface waters. The coagulant’s effect on the organic content of the raw water is...

  9. Supportive management strategies for disseminated intravascular coagulation. An international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Hunt, Beverley J; Kinasewitz, Gary T; Wada, Hideo; Ten Cate, Hugo; Thachil, Jecko; Levi, Marcel; Vicente, Vicente; D'Angelo, Armando; Di Nisio, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    The cornerstone of the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is the treatment of the underlying condition triggering the coagulopathy. However, a number of uncertainties remain over the optimal supportive treatment. The aim of this study was to provide evidence and expert-based recommendations on the optimal supportive haemostatic and antithrombotic treatment strategies for patients with DIC. A working group defined five relevant clinical scenarios. Published studies were systematically searched in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (up to May 2014). Seven internationally recognised experts were asked to independently provide clinical advice. A two-phase blinded data collection technique was used to reach consensus. Only three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the supportive management of DIC were identified. The RCTs (overall less than 100 patients) investigated the use of fresh frozen plasma and platelet transfusion and found no differences in survival between the intervention and control groups. The experts' approach was heterogeneous, although there was consensus that supportive management should vary according to the underlying cause, clinical manifestations and severity of blood test abnormalities. Platelet transfusion should be given to maintain platelet count > 50×10⁹/l in case of bleeding while a lower threshold of 20 to 30×10⁹/l may be used in DIC without bleeding. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin is advised until bleeding ensues or platelet count drops below 30×10⁹/l. In conclusion, in the absence of solid evidence from RCTs, an individualised supportive management of DIC is advisable based on the type of underlying disease, presence of bleeding or thrombotic complications and laboratory tests results.

  10. Laser probes for noninvasive coagulation of subsurface tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chia-Chun; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Varkarakis, Ioannis M.; Lima, Guilherme; Franco, Nicholas; Hayman, Michael H.; Nicol, Theresa; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2006-02-01

    Previous ex vivo tissue studies utilizing deep laser heating combined with contact cooling of the tissue surface produced noninvasive thermal destruction of subsurface tissue structures in skin and liver samples. This study describes the design and preliminary in vivo testing of two integrated laser/cooling probes for simultaneous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and sapphire contact cooling of liver and skin tissues in an in vivo, acute porcine model for potential use in laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. Nd:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 1.06 μm, power of 20 W, 7.5-mm-diameter spot, 500-ms pulse length, and repetition rate of 0.625 Hz, was delivered to the tissue with a total irradiation time of 16 s. The tissue surface was continuously cooled with a sapphire plate maintained at -5 °C, and with pre- and post-ablation cooling times measuring 120 s and 30 s, resulting in a total operation time of 166 s per a lesion. Thermal lesions were created in liver and skin at a 1-mm depth below the tissue surface and with a 3-4 mm diameter. The laser parameters and lesion dimensions were comparable to previous ex vivo tissue studies. Preliminary in vivo animal studies demonstrate noninvasive creation of subsurface thermal lesions in tissue using Nd:YAG laser irradiation in conjunction with sapphire contact cooling. Chronic wound healing studies will be necessary to optimize the laser and cooling parameters. Potential clinical applications include endoscopic laser treatment of female stress urinary incontinence and thermal coagulation of early stage bladder tumors.

  11. New lab-made coagulant based on Schinopsis balansae tannin extract: synthesis optimization and preliminary tests on refractory water pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, J.; Beltrán-Heredia, J.; Coco-Rivero, B.

    2014-09-01

    Quebracho colorado tannin extract was used as a coagulant raw material for water and wastewater treatment. The chemical synthesis follows a Mannich reaction mechanism and provides a fully working coagulant that can remove several pollutants from water. This paper addresses the optimization of such synthesis and confirms the feasibility of the coagulant by testing it in a preliminary screening for the elimination of dyes and detergents. The optimum combination of reagents was 6.81 g of diethanolamine (DEA) and 2.78 g of formaldehyde (F) per g of tannin extract. So obtained coagulant was succesfully tested on the removal of 9 dyes and 8 detergents.

  12. Initiator Systems Effect on Particle Coagulation and Particle Size Distribution in One-Step Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baijun Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Particle coagulation is a facile approach to produce large-scale polymer latex particles. This approach has been widely used in academic and industrial research owing to its higher polymerization rate and one-step polymerization process. Our work was motivated to control the extent (or time of particle coagulation. Depending on reaction parameters, particle coagulation is also able to produce narrowly dispersed latex particles. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the role of the initiator system in determining particle coagulation and particle size distribution. Under the optimal initiation conditions, such as cationic initiator systems or higher reaction temperature, the time of particle coagulation would be advanced to particle nucleation period, leading to the narrowly dispersed polymer latex particles. By using a combination of the Smoluchowski equation and the electrostatic stability theory, the relationship between the particle size distribution and particle coagulation was established: the earlier the particle coagulation, the narrower the particle size distribution, while the larger the extent of particle coagulation, the larger the average particle size. Combined with the results of previous studies, a systematic method controlling the particle size distribution in the presence of particle coagulation was developed.

  13. Application of an expert system using neural network to control the coagulant dosing in water treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHANG; Dayong LUO

    2004-01-01

    The coagulation process is one of the most important stages m water treatment plant, which involves many comlex physical and chemical phenomena. Moreover, coagulant dosing rate is non-linearly correlated to raw water characteristics such as turbidity, conductivity, PH, temperature, etc. As such, coagulation reaction is hard or even impossible to control satisfactorily by conventional methods. Based on neural network and rule models, an expert system for determining the optimum chemical dosage rate is developed and used m a water treatment work, and the results of actual runs show that in the condition of satisfying the demand of drinking water quality, the usage of coagulant is lowered.

  14. Inhaled unfractionated heparin improves abnormalities of alveolar coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in endotoxemia-induced lung injury rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zong-yu; WU Sheng-nan; ZHU Zhao-zhong; YANG Ba-xian; ZHU Xi

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome presents with not only local inflammation,but also pulmonary coagulopathy which is characterized by an alveolar procoagulant response,anticoagulant inhibition,fibrinolytic supression and fibrin deposition.We thus had hypothesized that if aerosolized unfractionated heparin was inhaled into alveolar spaces,it could block the procoagulant tendency,lessen depletion of coagulation factors,and even influence the inflammatory response.We also assessed the effects of different administration regimens of heparin.Methods Male Wistar rats were given inhaled heparin starting 30 minutes before (prophylactic heparin) or 2 hours after (therapeutic heparin) intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered at 6-hour intervals; control groups received inhaled normal saline with or without being exposed to LPS.Thrombin-antithrombin complexes,activated protein C,tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (t-PNu-PA),plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAl-1),tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage,and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity,and histology score were measured at three time-points.PAI-1/(t-PA + u-PA) was calculated based on the before-mentioned parameters.Statistical analysis was made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc test or Student's t test in the case of heterogeneity of variance.Results An alveolar procoagulant reaction,depressed fibrinolysis,and inflammatory response occurred in endotoxemia-induced lung injury.Local prophylactic application of heparin attenuated coagulation and early inflammation,promoted fibrinolysis,and reduced the histology score.Therapeutic application of heparin had similar,but weaker effects.Conclusions Intrapulmonary application of unfractionated heparin by inhalation might inhibit alveolar procoagulant reaction and the early inflammatory response,promote flbrinolysis,and alleviate pulmonary pathology in endotoxemia

  15. Relationship between coagulation factors and urticaria%凝血因子与荨麻疹的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁碧华; 朱慧兰

    2009-01-01

    荨麻疹是一种常见的、复发性的皮肤病.其发病机制复杂,至今尚未完全清楚.近年来有学者提出荨麻疹发病可能与凝血状态有关,并对凝血酶原片段F1+2、D二聚体、因子Ⅶ和因子Ⅻ等凝血因子进行相关研究,认为慢性荨麻疹患者体内存在外源性凝血级联反应激活以及纤溶状态,凝血酶生成可能在荨麻疹的发病中起着作用.抗凝治疗在荨麻疹药物治疗中显示出一定的临床应用前景.%Urticaria is a common, recurrent and refractory skin disease. The exact pathogenic mechanism of urticaria is complex and unclear. It has been proposed that the development of urticaria is associated with coagulation status. Related studies on thrombinogen fragment F (1+2), D dimmer, factor Ⅶ and factor Ⅻ revealed the activation of extrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade and signs of fibrinolysis in patients with chronic urticaria. Thromhin generation may play a key role in the pathogenesis of urticaria. And anticoagulant drugs have exhibited a good prospect in the medication of urticaria.

  16. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

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    Mahdi Babaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml. The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor.

  17. Coagulation-Adsorption Hybrid Process for the Treatment of Dyes and Pigments Wastewater

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    Abdul Karim Shah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to improve the effectiveness of dyes and pigments wastewater treatment. Hybrid system of adsorption and coagulation was applied for the reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS. Activated carbon adsorbent was prepared from a waste of sugar industry boiler. It was processed through physicochemical treatment with sulfuric acid following grinding, sieving, washing and drying unit operations. Combined wastewater of dyes and pigments manufacturing plant was treated with a hybrid process of coagulation and adsorption. FeCl 3, FeSO 4and Alum coagulants were tested individually and found them less effective. It was revealed that FeCl 3 coagulation, adsorption and hybrid process reduced COD (41, 51 and 54%, Color (67, 70 and 89%, turbidity (69, 71 and 90% and TSS (82, 93 and 97% respectively. Combination of FeCl3 -SBFA (Sugarcane Bagasse Fly Ash proved 90% efficient in removal than coagulation as an individual process. 4g adsorbent dose was optimized for this hybrid process

  18. Effect of fibrinogen on blood coagulation detected by optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous work demonstrated that an optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique and the parameter 1/e light penetration depth (d1/e) were able to characterize the whole blood coagulation process in contrast to existing optical tests that are performed on plasma samples. To evaluate the feasibility of the technique for quantifying the effect of fibrinogen (Fbg) on blood coagulation, a dynamic study of d1/e of blood in various Fbg concentrations was performed in static state. Two groups of blood samples of hematocrit (HCT) in 35, 45, and 55% were reconstituted of red blood cells with: 1) treated plasma with its intrinsic Fbg removed and commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L−1); and 2) native plasma with commercial Fbg added (0–8 g L−1). The results revealed a typical behavior due to coagulation induced by calcium ions and the clotting time is Fbg concentration-dependent. The clotting time was decreased by the increasing amount of Fbg in both groups. Besides, the blood of lower HCT with various levels of Fbg took shorter time to coagulate than that of higher HCT. Consequently, the OCT method is a useful and promising tool for the detection of blood-coagulation processes induced with different Fbg levels. (paper)

  19. Dynamic Modeling of the Human Coagulation Cascade Using Reduced Order Effective Kinetic Models

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    Adithya Sagar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a novel modeling approach which combines ordinary differential equation (ODE modeling with logical rules to simulate an archetype biochemical network, the human coagulation cascade. The model consisted of five differential equations augmented with several logical rules describing regulatory connections between model components, and unmodeled interactions in the network. This formulation was more than an order of magnitude smaller than current coagulation models, because many of the mechanistic details of coagulation were encoded as logical rules. We estimated an ensemble of likely model parameters (N = 20 from in vitro extrinsic coagulation data sets, with and without inhibitors, by minimizing the residual between model simulations and experimental measurements using particle swarm optimization (PSO. Each parameter set in our ensemble corresponded to a unique particle in the PSO. We then validated the model ensemble using thrombin data sets that were not used during training. The ensemble predicted thrombin trajectories for conditions not used for model training, including thrombin generation for normal and hemophilic coagulation in the presence of platelets (a significant unmodeled component. We then used flux analysis to understand how the network operated in a variety of conditions, and global sensitivity analysis to identify which parameters controlled the performance of the network. Taken together, the hybrid approach produced a surprisingly predictive model given its small size, suggesting the proposed framework could also be used to dynamically model other biochemical networks, including intracellular metabolic networks, gene expression programs or potentially even cell free metabolic systems.

  20. Improvement of NOM Removal from Water Resources by Modifying the Coagulation Process

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    F Vaezi, A Mohagheghian, J Nouri, MR Eshraghian, A Ghasri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the regulations on DBPs, interest in NOM removal is increasing and many water treatment plants in developed countries have started to measure the concentration of TOC in their finished waters. Promulgation of the rules will substantially increase these efforts in other countries too. Since the cost of TOC (and DBPs determination was high, it was decided to study the traditional analysis of COD as a surrogate measure to detect the organic constituents in raw water and the extent to which optimized coagulation with ferric chloride can increase COD removal. The two water samples studied belonged to Karaj and Jajrood Rivers. For both samples the observed values of COD removal by coagulation at lower pH (about 1-1.5 pH values less than the regular pH were about 85-95 percent without making water turbidity unacceptable. In order to determine the effects of organic content on coagulation, synthetic samples were also prepared with much higher COD values. Again, considerable increases in COD removal have been observed for most of these samples only by decreasing 0.5-2 pH value. The results indicated that a modified coagulation process without need to much increasing the amount of coagulant can be developed for these water samples.

  1. Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-02-01

    It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  2. Coagulation and flocculation in the preparation of drinking water in a pilot plant

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    Iličić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the practical part in this article was to explore the influence of different parameters on coagulation and flocculation processes as well as the influence of this stage on other stages in water purification. Analysis of the water samples was conducted in the chemical laboratory of Banja Luka Municipal Waterworks using standard methods for analyzing drinking water. The results are presented as diagrams that show the dependence of different parameters as a function of the residual turbidity and the content of natural organic matters in water. The following conclusions were drawn It is necessary to conduct the chemical treatment of raw water with the aim to satisfy chemical and bacteriological standards for drinking water. The best results were achieved with Al2(SO4s as coagulant,. Counterrecoil sludge in an amount of 2-3% in relation with the total quantity of water has a positive impacts on coagulation-flocculation processes. 4. For effective purification, all the conditions for coagulation-flocculation must be adjusted for the filter to have a longer useful life. One of example is correction of the pH to pH=7, coagulant dose 20 mg/L Al2(SO4s, flocculant dose 0.1 mg/L PE, counterrecoil sludge dose 90 L/h PM.

  3. Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2014-11-01

    Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.

  4. Chemical coagulants and Moringa oleifera seed extract for treating concrete wastewater

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    Heber Martins de Paula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from concrete plants has a high pH and a high concentration of suspended solids, necessitating treatment before reuse or discharge into the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of two chemical coagulants, aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO43 and iron chloride (FeCl3, and a natural coagulant, Moringa oleifera (MO, all in their soluble forms, in the treatment of wastewater from concrete plants. To this end, the efficiencies of the three coagulants, in combinations with different proportions, were tested. The quality parameters of the wastewater obtained after the treatments were compared to the limit values for non-potable water. The use of coagulants in their soluble form potentiates their effect, especially when preparing the MO extract, i.e., greater amounts of the protein responsible for the coagulation is extracted. A mixture with MO and Al2(SO43 in a 20:80 proportion showed the best results, with 97.5% of the turbidity removed at 60 min. of sedimentation, allowing the treated water to be used for washing vehicles and flushing toilets. The FeCl3 treatment produced a high concentration of chlorides, which could cause corrosion problems, and is therefore not recommended for concrete wastewater treatment.

  5. Assessment of Coagulant Synergy for the Depollution of Binder Emulsion Plant Effluent

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    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Binder emulsion plant effluent is a source of intense pollution when discharged into the environment without proper degree of treatment due to its strong color as well as higher total suspended solids (TSS and chemical oxygen demand (COD contents. An empirical study was conducted to optimize the effect of the coagulants used for the removal of Color, Turbidity, TSS, and COD from binder emulsion effluent. The coagulants, used with and without the induction of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC to enhance the decrease in pollution concentration, included Ferrous Sulfate, Ferric Chloride, Alum and Lime. Ferric Chloride used in combination with PAC produced a synergistic effect in terms of effluent depollution and transpired into efficient removal of effluent COD (83%, Color (98%, Turbidity (97% and TSS (96%. Induction of PAC with all the coagulants combined proved highly effective as well in decreasing the effluent COD, color, Turbidity and TSS by 91%, 99%, 99% and 97% respectively. In a combined process of coagulation and adsorption, combination of ferric chloride and PAC gave effective results in terms of pollutants removal by around 90% as compared to combination of PAC with other coagulants, yielding removal percentages of lower than 50%.

  6. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  7. Effect of high pressures on the enzymatic activity of commercial milk protein coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold; Jankowska, Agnieszka

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of high pressures in the range of 100-1000 MPa/15 min, applied in 100 MPa increments, on the coagulating and proteolytic activity of commercial coagulants produced with genetic engineering methods: Maxiren, Chymogen, Chymax and of a natural rennin preparation, Hala. The coagulating activity of Hala preparation differed compared with the other preparations, due to greater resistance to high pressures, especially in the range of 500-600 MPa. The preparations produced with genetic engineering methods lost their capability for milk protein coagulation by 500 MPa. Pressurization at 200 MPa contributed to their reduced capability for casein macroproteolysis. In contrast, an increase in Chymax, Chymogen, Maxiren and Hala preparations' hydrolytic capability for the macroproteolysis of isoelectric casein was observed upon pressure treatment at 100 and 400 MPa and for microproteolysis after pressure treatment at 200 MPa. Storage (48 h/5°C) of the pressurized preparations had an insignificant effect on their coagulating and proteolytic activities.

  8. Treatment of Surface water in lebanon by using the coagulation-flocculation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of application of environmental protection laws in Lebanon. Anthropic effluents are directly discharged in the course of rivers. More specially two coastal rivers (GHadir and Ibrahim)located near Beirut. Treatment of these surface waters is done by coagulation-flocculation process by using Al13 coagulant. The elimination of suspended matters in Ghadir and Ibrahim rivers is studied by simple jar test coupled to measurement of supernatant turbidity and sediment volume. Physical and chemical parameters of water before and after treatment are given by Atomic absorption and ion chromatography analysis. The optimal coagulation concentration of Al was defined relatively to lowest concentration of Aluminum needed for maximum turbidity removal in treated water. This study showed that hydrolysis of aluminum salts before adding to water is relevant to the use of similar quantities of Al for the coagulation-flocculation process that eliminates primarily suspended matter in river. Restabilisation is shown in all Jar tests of Ibrahim river, but not in Ghadir where buffering effect is elevated. Results also showed that waters with low turbidity request low concentration of aluminum for the destabilization process. For this, Ibrahim water treatment was found better than river Ghadir characterized by higher inputs of anthropogenic effluents in its course. In all cases, cationic exchanges with Al13 polycations within the sediments caused the release of calcium and the elevation of its concentration in the supernatant. Sulfate concentration diminished continuously in supernatant after the addition of the optimal coagulation concentration of aluminum. (author)

  9. Evaluating coagulation pretreatment on poultry processing wastewater for dissolved air flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2012-01-01

    Eleven metal coagulants and one polyelectrolyte were assessed for their suitability in assisting a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system aimed at treating poultry processing wastewater. Preliminary jar tests determined that a combination of 800 mg/L of FeCl(3) (ferric chloride) and 900 mg/L of Floccin 1115 would provide the best treatment by removing at least 98% of the total suspended solids (TSS) and 97% of the volatile suspended solids (VSS), while providing a 97% increase in water clarity. Final flotation tests suggested that the flocculated particles could be carried to the surface with 40% recycle ratio of the DAF. The resulting supernatant indicated 94.7% increase in clarity (± 1.4%), 97.3% reduction in TSS (± 0.5%), 96.6% reduction in VSS (±1.1%), 91% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD), and nearly 100% removal of fats, oils, and greases (FOGs). Despite the high removal efficiencies, flotation was found not to be critically necessary for treatment because the high concentration of coagulants caused settling of the flocs to occur just as rapidly. Potential coagulant overdosing is suspected at the higher end of the tested coagulant concentrations due to limited alkalinity in the wastewater. However, lack of residual metal (coagulant) ions in water may be linked to reactions leading to phosphate precipitation. The exact effect of the competing phosphate reaction on treatment efficiency is not clearly evident from this present study. PMID:22871004

  10. Optimization of coagulation-flocculation process for palm oil mill effluent using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A L; Ismail, S; Bhatia, S

    2005-04-15

    The coagulation-flocculation process incorporated with membrane separation technology will become a new approach for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment as well as water reclamation and reuse. In our current research, a membrane pilot plant has been used for POME treatment where the coagulation-flocculation process plays an important role as a pretreatment process for the mitigation of membrane fouling problems. The pretreated POME with low turbidity values and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. Therefore, treatment optimization to serve these purposes was performed using jar tests and applying a response surface methodology (RSM) to the results. A 2(3) full-factorial central composite design (CCD) was chosen to explain the effect and interaction of three factors: coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH. The CCD is successfully demonstrated to efficiently determine the optimized parameters, where 78% of water recovery with a 20 NTU turbidity value can be obtained at the optimum value of coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH at 15 000 mg/L, 300 mg/L, and 6, respectively. PMID:15884382

  11. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals.

  12. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals. PMID:26837833

  13. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF LANDFILL LEACHATE IN VIETNAM BY COMBINING COAGULATION AND OZONATION PROCESS

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    Van Huu Tap

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachate is a problematic pollution that should be solved in Viet Nam. This study presents some experimental results of removals of COD and color from landfill leachate by using coagulation and ozonation processes to determine the optimal reaction conditions. In pre-treatment stage by coagulation, the results showed that the removals obtained from three types of coagulants showed a maximum at the concentration of more than 3,000 mg L-1 under the pH region from 7 to 8. The results also indicated that the significant removals of COD and color were obtained at the concentration of 1,500 mg L-1 and that PAC was the most suitable coagulant for the pre-treatment stage. The removals of COD and color in the pre-treatment stage were approximately 30 and 70%, respectively. Ozonation process was applied to leachate after coagulation. The experiments are done with effective of pH between 5 and 10, reaction time between 20 and 120 min and the amount of COD between 3 and 12 kg. The optimum pH at ozonation was 8 and the highest removals of COD and color were 57 and 80%, respectively. In addition, the optimal reaction time and the amount of COD were 60 min and 3 kg, respectively.

  14. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay among coagulation factor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Shahbazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Haemostasis prevents blood loss following vascular injury. It depends on the unique concert of events involving platelets and specific blood proteins, known as coagulation factors. The clotting system requires precise regulation and coordinated reactions to maintain the integrity of the vasculature. Clotting insufficiency mostly occurs due to genetically inherited coagulation factor deficiencies such as hemophilia. Materials and Methods: A relevant literature search of PubMed was performed using the keywords coagulation factors, Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and premature translation termination codons. Search limitations included English language and human-based studies. Results: Mutations that cause premature translation termination codons probably account for one-third of genetically inherited diseases. Transcripts bearing aberrant termination codons are selectively identified and eliminated by an evolutionarily conserved posttranscriptional pathway known as nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD. There are many pieces of evidence of decay among coagulation factor genes. However, the hemophilia gene (F8 does not seem to be subjected to NMD. Since the F8 gene is located on the X-chromosome, a connection between X-linked traits and mRNA decay could be assumed. Conclusion: Considering that not all genes go through decay, this review focuses on the basics of the mechanism in coagulation genes. It is interesting to determine whether this translation-coupled surveillance system represents a general rule for the genes encoding components of the same physiological cascade.

  15. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio vs. dissolved organics removal by coagulation – A review

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    Djamel Ghernaout

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio as a function of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic contents removal by coagulation process. It is well established that coagulation process could bring a reduction in dissolved organic carbon of around 30–60% by increasing the coagulant dose and optimising reaction pH, in which large organic molecules with hydrophobic property was removed preferentially. Furthermore, the literature affirmed that the greater removal of UV-absorbing substances indicates that alum coagulation preferentially removed the hydrophobic fraction of the total organic carbon. For the hydrophobic fraction, it needs to be removed entirely without its transformation into hydrophilic fractions by coagulation process avoiding pre-chlorination/pre-oxidation due to the risk of organic molecules fragmentation. Determining the exact numerical values of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratio for raw water and treated water at different stages of the treatment processes in a water treatment plant, as for the DCO/DBO5 ratio in the case of wastewater treatment, would help on more focusing on OM control and removal.

  16. [Serious Coagulation Dysfunction in a Patient with Gallstone-related Cholecystitis Successfully Treated with Vitamin K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Saki; Tanaka, Akiko; Tsuchida, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Kazuko; Sawa, Teiji

    2016-04-01

    An 85-year-old woman with a diagnosis of choledocholithiasis due to common duct stones gradually developed severe coagulation dysfunction over the course of 27 days after hospitalization. Initial clinical findings were fever, general malaise, and obstructive jaundice. She was treated with fasting, and received cephem antibiotics containing N-methyl-thio-tetrazole. Because the common duct stones were not removed endoscopically, cholecystectomy was scheduled. Coagulation on admission was normal, but gradually became impaired. On the scheduled day of the operation, 27 days after hospitalization, coagulation [both prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)] were severely impaired PT, < 10%; PT-international normalized ratio, 6.29; and APTT, 71.6 s. No other abnormalities were identified. Surgery was postponed and antibiotics were discontinued. Simultaneously, administration of vitamin K was initiated. Six days after starting vitamin K, coagulation dysfunction had resolved and the surgery was safely performed under general anesthesia combined with thoracic epidural anesthesia. Care is warranted regarding coagulation dysfunction due to vitamin K deficiency in patients with hepatobiliary disease treated by fasting and antibiotics. PMID:27188119

  17. Limited promiscuity of HLA-DRB1 presented peptides derived of blood coagulation factor VIII.

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    Simon D van Haren

    Full Text Available The formation of inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII is a severe complication in the treatment of hemophilia A patients. The induction of anti-FVIII antibodies is a CD4(+ T cell-dependent process. Activation of FVIII-specific CD4(+ T cells is dependent on the presentation of FVIII-derived peptides on MHC class II by antigen-presenting cells. Previously, we have shown that FVIII-pulsed human monocyte-derived dendritic cells can present peptides from several FVIII domains. In this study we show that FVIII peptides are presented on immature as well as mature dendritic cells. In immature dendritic cells half of the FVIII-loaded MHC class II molecules are retained within the cell, whereas in LPS-matured dendritic cells the majority of MHC class II/peptide complexes is present on the plasma membrane. Time-course studies revealed that presentation of FVIII-derived peptides was optimal between 12 and 24 hours after maturation but persisted for at least 96 hours. We also show that macrophages are able to internalize FVIII as efficiently as dendritic cells, however FVIII was presented on MHC class II with a lower efficiency and with different epitopes compared to dendritic cells. In total, 48 FVIII core-peptides were identified using a DCs derived of 8 different donors. Five HLA-promiscuous FVIII peptide regions were found - these were presented by at least 4 out of 8 donors. The remaining 42 peptide core regions in FVIII were presented by DCs derived from a single (30 peptides or two to three donors (12 peptides. Overall, our findings show that a broad repertoire of FVIII peptides can be presented on HLA-DR.

  18. Comparison of two ultrasonic coagulating shears in sealing pulmonary vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavan D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Devanathan Raghavan,1 John A Howington,2 Duan Broughton,1 Cortney E Henderson,1 Jeffrey W Clymer1 1Preclinical Research, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2NorthShore University HealthSystem, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Ultrasonic cutting and coagulating devices have been used successfully in thoracic applications such as pulmonary resection or artery harvesting, but few studies have evaluated their use in sealing pulmonary vessels. In this study we compared two commercially available devices, Harmonic Ace+ (HAR, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Cincinnati OH, USA and SonoSurg (SS, Olympus America, Center Valley, PA, USA, in a canine preclinical model. There were three sections to the study: acute, survival, and ex vivo (burst pressure. Hemostasis of sealed pulmonary arteries and veins was assessed for the initial application and during a simulated hypertensive crisis, both immediately after vessel sealing and after a survival period of 30 days. Other intraoperative measures were also evaluated, including transection time, tissue sticking, tissue tags, and char on the seal. Histological evaluation was performed both after initial sealing and after the survival period. Burst pressure of sealed vessels was measured ex vivo. For both devices, hemostasis was excellent, including those measurements made under simulated hypertensive crisis. There were no differences in any of the intraoperative measures or thermal damage evaluated histologically. Wound healing was normal. The burst pressures for ex vivo vessels sealed by HAR (median 619.2 mmHg were significantly higher than those of SS (350.3 mmHg, P = 0.022. Both devices displayed acceptable characteristics in sealing canine pulmonary arteries and veins. The only difference observed was that HAR produced burst pressures 76.8% greater than SS, which may lead to a lower percentage of failures in the region of physiological interest. Use of ultrasonic devices in thoracic applications provides a high

  19. Explorative investigation of biomarkers of brain damage and coagulation system activation in clinical stroke differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Undén, Johan; Strandberg, Karin; Malm, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as nov......: This exploratory study indicated that blood levels of biomarkers GFAP and APC-PCI, prior to neuroimaging, may rule out ICH in a mixed stroke population.......INTRODUCTION: A simple and accurate method of differentiating ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is potentially useful to facilitate acute therapeutic management. Blood measurements of biomarkers of brain damage and activation of the coagulation system may potentially serve as novel...... diagnostic tools for stroke subtypes. METHODS: Ninety-seven stroke patients were prospectively investigated in a multicenter design with blood levels of brain biomarkers S100B, neuron specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) as well as a coagulation biomarker, activated protein C...

  20. Normal saline influences coagulation and endothelial function after traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dekker, Simone E; Sillesen, Martin; Bambakidis, Ted;

    2014-01-01

    of endothelial activation (E-selectin, Intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1), coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), and natural anticoagulation (activated protein C [aPC]) were determined in serum and brain whole cell lysates. RESULTS: Serum levels of aPC were greater in the NS group (203 ± 30......). Circulating ICAM-1 levels were increased in the NS group (151 ± 9 ng/mL) compared with the HEX (100 ± 9 ng/mL; P coagulation, natural......BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of trauma-related deaths. These insults disrupt coagulation and endothelial systems. This study investigated whether previously reported differences in lesion size and brain swelling during normal saline (NS...