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Sample records for anti-immunocomplex assay phaia

  1. Enhanced Sensitive Immunoassay: Noncompetitive Phage Anti-Immune Complex Assay for the Determination of Malachite Green and Leucomalachite Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To develop a more sensitive immunoassay for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG), we identified the immunocomplex binding phage-borne peptides for use in the noncompetitive phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA). An anti-LMG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to select immunocomplex binding peptides from a circular random eight-amino-acid phage-displayed library. After three rounds of panning-elution, five peptides that bound the LMG–mAb immunocomplex were obtained. One of the phage-borne peptide clones that resulted in an assay with the highest sensitivity was chosen for further research. The concentration of LMG producing 50% of the saturated signal and the limit of detection of the assay were 7.02 and 0.55 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 1.35 to 21.56 ng/mL. The PHAIA based on the same antibody was 16 times more sensitive compared to the competitive immunoassay. PHAIA was used to analyze LMG, MG, and two mixtures of spiked fish samples, with validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. Results showed a good correlation (R2LMG = 0.9841; R2MG = 0.993; R2Mixture = 0.9903) between the data of PHAIA and HPLC, thus the assay was an efficient method for monitoring food safety. PMID:25077381

  2. Determination of anti-canine IgG using a continuous filtration/dissolution system based on the formation of a high-molecular size immunocomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F D; Arce, C; Moreno, A; Fernández Romero, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-10-31

    A method for the determination of monoclonal antibody anti-canine-IgG based on a continuous filtration/dissolution system is presented as prototype for further developments. The basis of the system is the continuous formation of a high-molecular immunocomplex, which is temporally retained on a microfilter located prior to the detector. The immunochemical method consists of the development of a sandwich type heterogeneous non-competitive reaction to yield a high molecular immunocomplex, as a result of the affinity interaction between streptavidin and biotincanine IgG and the immunoreaction between canine IgG and mAb anti-canine IgG, which occurs in solution. Goat anti-mouse IgG labelled with peroxidase is used as tracer. The extension of the immunoreaction is monitored fluorimetrically via the condensation product between 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the peroxidase retained on the filter. The method provides a dynamic range from 10(-4) to 500 mug l(-1) with an IC(50) of 0.554 mug 1(-1) (for a biotin-IgG dilution of 1:250, chi(2)=0.6085, r(2)=0.9991, n=14) and a precision, expressed as R.S.D.%, lower than 4.7%. After modifications, the method here proposed can be extended for monitoring analytes of interest in the agrochemical, food and environmental areas, as far as permitted by the availability to produce the corresponding monoclonal antibody.

  3. Covalent decoration of adenovirus vector capsids with the carbohydrate epitope αGal does not improve vector immunogenicity, but allows to study the in vivo fate of adenovirus immunocomplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Ramona F; Espenlaub, Sigrid; Hoffmeister, Andrea; Kron, Matthias W; Kreppel, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Adenovirus-based vectors are promising tools for genetic vaccination. However, several obstacles have to be overcome prior to a routine clinical application of adenovirus-based vectors as efficacious vectored vaccines. The linear trisaccharide epitope αGal (alpha-Gal) with the carbohydrate sequence galactose-α-1,3-galactosyl-β-1,4-N-acetylglucosamine has been described as a potent adjuvant for recombinant or attenuated vaccines. Humans and α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mice do not express this epitope. Upon exposure of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient organisms to αGal in the environment, large amounts of circulating anti-Gal antibodies are produced consistently. Immunocomplexes formed between recombinant αGal-decorated vaccines and anti-Gal antibodies exhibit superior immunogenicity. We studied the effects of the trisaccharide epitope on CD8 T cell responses that are directed specifically to vector-encoded transgenic antigens. For that, covalently αGal-decorated adenovirus vectors were delivered to anti-Gal α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mice. We generated replication-defective, E1-deleted adenovirus type 5 vectors that were decorated with αGal at the hexon hypervariable regions 1 or 5, at fiber knob, or at penton base. Surprisingly, none of the adenovirus immunocomplexes being formed from αGal-decorated adenovirus vectors and anti-Gal immunoglobulins improved the frequencies of CD8 T cell responses against the transgenic antigen ovalbumin. Humoral immunity directed to the adenovirus vector was neither increased. However, our data indicated that decoration of Ad vectors with the αGal epitope is a powerful tool to analyze the fate of adenovirus immunocomplexes in vivo.

  4. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT anti-HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Gesa; Pelzer, Claudia; Beckert, Christian; Hausmann, Michael; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2005-10-01

    The ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay is a fully automated high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). To further enhance the performance of this test, the assay was modified to improve the specificity for blood donor specimens. The specificity of the enhanced ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay was evaluated by screening blood donor samples randomly collected from various German blood banks, as well as hospitalized patient samples derived from Germany and the US. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels and on a commercially available worldwide anti-HCV genotype performance panel. Apparent specificity of the modified ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay in a blood donor population consisting of 3811 specimens was 99.92%, compared to 99.76% for the current on-market assay. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels. Seroconversion sensitivity equivalent to or better than the current on-market product was observed by testing 33 seroconversion panels. This study demonstrates that the modified version of the ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay shows improved specificity for blood donor specimens compared to the current assay on market without compromising sensitivity. With the availability of the improved ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay and the recent launch of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, the ARCHITECT system now offers a full hepatitis/retrovirus menu with excellent performance on a high throughput, random access, automated analyzer, ideally suited for blood screening and diagnostic applications.

  5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for total sennosides using anti-sennside A and anti-sennoside B monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Total sennosides concentration is a very important factor when rhubarb and senna will be used as crude drugs. However, one-step analytical technique for total sennosides has not been reported except HPLC. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total sennosides concentration by using the combination of anti-sennoside A (SA) and anti-sennoside B (SB) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in a single assay has been investigated. Total sennosides concentration in rhubarb and senna samples determined by newly developed assay system showed good agreement with those analyzed by ELISA using anti-SA MAb and anti-SB MAb, respectively.

  6. Emerging Technologies and Generic Assays for the Detection of Anti-Drug Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Partridge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-drug antibodies induced by biologic therapeutics often impact drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics response, clinical efficacy, and patient safety. It is critical to assess the immunogenicity risk of potential biotherapeutics in producing neutralizing and nonneutralizing anti-drug antibodies, especially in clinical phases of drug development. Different assay methodologies have been used to detect all anti-drug antibodies, including ELISA, radioimmunoassay, surface plasmon resonance, and electrochemiluminescence-based technologies. The most commonly used method is a bridging assay, performed in an ELISA or on the Meso Scale Discovery platform. In this report, we aim to review the emerging new assay technologies that can complement or address challenges associated with the bridging assay format in screening and confirmation of ADAs. We also summarize generic anti-drug antibody assays that do not require drug-specific reagents for nonclinical studies. These generic assays significantly reduce assay development efforts and, therefore, shorten the assay readiness timeline.

  7. Comparison of Two Assays to Determine Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis in relation to Other Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases: Assaying Anti-Modified Citrullinated Vimentin Antibodies Adds Value to Second-Generation Anti-Citrullinated Cyclic Peptides Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lizette Díaz-Toscano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA plays a relevant role in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. To date, it is still unclear if the use of several tests for these autoantibodies in the same patient offers additional value as compared to performing only one test. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of using two assays for ACPA: second-generation anti-citrullinated cyclic peptides antibodies (anti-CCP2 and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV antibodies for the diagnosis of RA. We compared three groups: RA (n=142, chronic inflammatory disease (CIRD, n=86, and clinically healthy subjects (CHS, n=56 to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios (LR of these two assays for the presence of RA. A lower frequency of positivity for anti-CCP2 was found in RA (66.2% as compared with anti-MCV (81.0%. When comparing RA versus other CIRD, sensitivity increased when both assays were performed. This strategy of testing both assays had high specificity and LR+. We conclude that adding the assay of anti-MCV antibodies to the determination of anti-CCP2 increases the sensitivity for detecting seropositive RA. Therefore, we propose the use of both assays in the initial screening of RA in longitudinal studies, including early onset of undifferentiated arthritis.

  8. Antitumor activity of IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes exerts synergism with that of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer-bound doxorubicin conjugate due to its low immunosuppressive activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomala, Jakub; Chmelová, Helena; Strohalm, Jiří; Ulbrich, Karel; Šírová, Milada; Říhová, Blanka; Kovář, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 8 (2011), s. 2002-2012 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500200712; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA ČR GP301/07/P192; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : IL-2 immunocomplexes * NK cells * HPMA copolymer-bound doxorubicin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.444, year: 2011

  9. A Dual Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Test-strip Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Albumin and Creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Kiba, Yuya; Mizutani, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrochemical sensor based on a test-strip assay with immunochemistry and enzyme reactions has been developed for the determination of albumin and creatinine. Each nitrocellulose membrane with an immobilization area of an anti-albumin antibody or three enzymes was prepared in the device with three working electrodes for measuring albumin, creatinine, and ascorbic acid, as well as an Ag/AgCl electrode used as a counter/pseudo-reference electrode. The reactions of three enzymes were initiated by flowing a solution containing creatinine to detect an oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed by albumin and antibody labeled with glucose oxidase (GOx). Captured GOx catalyzed the reduction of Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-), which was oxidized electrochemically to determine the captured albumin. The responses for creatinine and albumin increased with the concentrations in millimolar order and over the range 18.75 - 150 μg mL(-1), respectively. The present sensor would be a distinct demonstration for producing quantitative dual-assays for various biomolecules used for clinical diagnoses.

  10. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-07-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive samples, 704 fresh syphilis-negative samples, 48 preselected potentially interfering samples, and 30 "borderline" samples and was compared head to head with the commercially available Lumipulse G TP-N. In this study, the HISCL anti-TP assay was in perfect agreement with the applied testing algorithms with an overall agreement of 100%, comparable to that of Lumipulse G TP-N (99.63%). The sensitivity and specificity of the HISCL anti-TP assay were 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.42% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.37% to 100%), respectively. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its favorable sensitivity and specificity, the HISCL anti-TP assay may represent a new choice for syphilis screening in high-volume laboratories. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Anti-HLA Antibodies Using Two Commercially Available Luminex-Based Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kevin J; See, Sarah B; Farr, Maryjane A; Restaino, Susan W; Serban, Geo; Latif, Farhana; Li, Lingzhi; Colombo, Paolo C; Vlad, George; Ray, Bryan; Vasilescu, Elena R; Zorn, Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Allospecific anti-HLA antibodies (Abs) are associated with rejection of solid organ grafts. The 2 main kits to detect anti-HLA Ab in patient serum are commercialized by Immucor and One Lambda/ThermoFisher. We sought to compare the performance of both platforms. Background-adjusted mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values were used from both platforms to compare sera collected from 125 pretransplant and posttransplant heart and lung transplant recipients. Most HLA class I (94.5%) and HLA class II (89%) Abs with moderate to high MFI titer (≥4000) were detected by both assays. A modest correlation was observed between MFI values obtained from the 2 assays for both class I ( r = 0.3, r 2 = 0.09, P < 0.0001) and class II Ab ( r = 0.707, r 2 = 0.5, P < 0.0001). Both assays detected anti-class I and II Ab that the other did not; however, no specific HLA allele was detected preferentially by either of the 2 assays. For a limited number of discrepant sera, dilution resulted in comparable reactivity profiles between the 2 platforms. Immucor and One Lambda/ThermoFisher assays have a similar, albeit nonidentical, ability to detect anti-HLA Ab. Although the correlation between the assays was present, significant variances exist, some of which can be explained by a dilution-sensitive "prozone" effect.

  12. Anti-Candida activity and brine shrimp toxicity assay of Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruliza, K M A; Fernandez, L; Jegathambigai, R; Sasidharan, S

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma (G.) boninense is a white rot fungus, which can be found in the palm oil tree. Several studies have shown that G. boninense has antimicrobial and antagonistic properties. However, there is limited information reported on antifungal properties especially on Candida (C) albicans. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the anti-Candida activity of G. boninense against C albicans. Crude methanolic extracts of G. boninense was obtained by maceration method with 70% methanol. Anti-Candida test was carried out using disc diffusion assay, broth dilution method, time killing profile and brine shrimp toxicity assay. Anti-Candida activity indicated that the mean zone of inhibition was 12.5 +/- 0.6 mm. The MIC value for C. albicans found to be 3.125 mg/ml. The result from time-killing profile showed that the growth of C albicans was inhibited hence decreases its exponential phase. For brine shrimp toxicity assay, the LC50 value was 3.59 mg/ml which proved that the extract of G. boninense is not toxic.

  13. Evaluation of the HISCL Anti-Treponema pallidum Assay as a Screening Test for Syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Rao, Chenli; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. This study examined the performance of the recently launched HISCL anti-Treponema pallidum (anti-TP) assay as a screening test for syphilis in a high-volume laboratory. The HISCL anti-TP assay was tested in 300 preselected syphilis-positive sample...

  14. Targeting Anti-Cancer Active Compounds: Affinity-Based Chromatographic Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Seidl, Claudia; Moaddel, Ruin; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Affinity-based chromatography assays encompass the use of solid supports containing immobilized biological targets to monitor binding events in the isolation , identification and/or characterization of bioactive compounds. This powerful bioanalytical technique allows the screening of potential binders through fast analyses that can be directly performed using isolated substances or complex matrices. An overview of the recent researches in frontal and zonal affinity-based chromatography screening assays, which has been used as a tool in the identification and characterization of new anti-cancer agents, is discussed. In addition, a critical evaluation of the recently emerged ligands fishing assays in complex mixtures is also discussed. PMID:27306095

  15. Pertussis serology: assessment of IgG anti-PT ELISA for replacement of the CHO cell assay*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALBY, TINE; SØRENSEN, CHARLOTTE; PETERSEN, JESPER WESTPHAL; KROGFELT, KAREN ANGELIKI

    2010-01-01

    Dalby T, Sørensen C, Petersen JW, Krogfelt KA. Pertussis serology: assessment of IgG anti-PT ELISA for replacement of the CHO cell assay. APMIS 2010; 118: 968–72. Two types of serological assays are commonly used for the assessment of pertussis vaccine-induced antibodies; the Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO cell) assay and the immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti pertussis toxin (PT) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgG anti-PT ELISA). Recently, both the techniques have been modified to improve performance with sera with interfering activity (CHO cell assay) or with heat-treated sera (IgG anti-PT ELISA). These two improved techniques were compared by the analysis of 100 individual serum samples from a previous clinical trial and 213 sera from a longitudinal serum collection from 20 Danish adults recently vaccinated with the Danish acellular pertussis vaccine. The comparison showed a significant linear correlation between the results of the two assays with a p-value of ELISA can be used as a replacement for the often troublesome and time-consuming CHO cell assay for the measurement of vaccine-induced human antibodies to PT. PMID:21091778

  16. Comparative Assessment of Anti-HLA Antibodies Using Two Commercially Available Luminex-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Clerkin, MD, MSc

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions. Immucor and One Lambda/ThermoFisher assays have a similar, albeit nonidentical, ability to detect anti-HLA Ab. Although the correlation between the assays was present, significant variances exist, some of which can be explained by a dilution-sensitive “prozone” effect.

  17. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay: analysis of borderline reactive sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Laffont, Catherine; Kechkekian, Aurore; Doglio, Alain; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    Routine use of the automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc for diagnosis of hepatitis B is limited in case of borderline reactive sera with low signal close to the cut-off index. In order to determine the significance of anti-HBc detection when borderline reactivity occurs using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay, a comparative study was designed. 3540 serum samples collected over a 2-month period in the hospital of Nice were examined for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). One hundred seven samples with sufficient volume and with borderline reactivity by the ARCHITECT assay were tested by two other anti-HBc assays, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA, AxSYM Core, Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) and an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA, VIDAS Anti-HBc Total II, bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Only 46 samples were confirmed by the AxSYM and the VIDAS assays. Additional serological information linked to patient history showed that the remaining samples (61) were false positives (11), had low titer of anti-HBc antibodies (13), or were inconclusive (37). This comparative study highlighted the existence of a grey zone around the cut-off index. Confirmative results through a different immunoassay are needed to confirm the diagnosis of HBV on borderline reactive sera using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay.

  18. Radiometric immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-hormone-binding protein antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, E.A.; Dame, M.C.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    A radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of monoclonal antibodies to hormone-binding proteins has been developed. The assay involves incubating hybridoma supernatants in microtiter wells that have been coated with goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. Any mouse IgG in the test supernatant is thus specifically retained in the wells. Radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes are then incubated in the wells. The presence of anti-binding protein antibodies in the supernatant is indicated by specific retention of radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes in the wells. Crude antigen preparations, such as tissue homogenates, can be used to detect antibodies. The assay is capable of detecting antibody at concentrations 20 ng/ml (approx. 100 pM IgG). The RISA has been used successfully to screen for monoclonal antibodies to the intracellular receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and should be useful for the detection of antibodies to ligand-binding proteins in general

  19. Development of a TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay for detection of Single Nucleotides Polymorphisms associated with anti-malarial drug resistance

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    Kamau Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-malarial drug resistance poses a threat to current global efforts towards control and elimination of malaria. Several methods are used in monitoring anti-malarial drug resistance. Molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP for example are increasingly being used to identify genetic mutations related to anti-malarial drug resistance. Several methods are currently being used in analysis of SNP associated with anti-malarial drug resistance and although each one of these methods has unique strengths and shortcoming, there is still need to improve and/or develop new methods that will close the gap found in the current methods. Methods TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assays for detection of SNPs associated with anti-malarial drug resistance were designed for analysis on Applied Biosystems PCR platform. These assays were designed by submitting SNP sequences associated with anti-malarial drug resistance to Applied Biosystems website. Eleven SNPs associated with resistance to anti-malarial drugs were selected and tested. The performance of each SNP assay was tested by creating plasmid DNAs carrying codons of interests and analysing them for analysis. To test the sensitivity and specificity of each SNP assay, 12 clinical samples were sequenced at codons of interest and used in the analysis. Plasmid DNAs were used to establish the Limit of Detection (LoD for each assay. Results Data from genetic profiles of the Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and sequence data from 12 clinical samples was used as the reference method with which the performance of the SNP assays were compared to. The sensitivity and specificity of each SNP assay was establish at 100%. LoD for each assay was established at 2 GE, equivalent to less than 1 parasite/μL. SNP assays performed well in detecting mixed infection and analysis of clinical samples. Conclusion TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assay provides a good alternative tool in

  20. A Renewable and Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunosenor Based on Magnetic RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 Sandwich-Type Nano-Immunocomplexes

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    Ning Gan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasensitive and renewable electrochemiluminescence (ECL immunosensor was developed for the detection of tumor markers by combining a newly designed trace tag and streptavidin-coated magnetic particles (SCMPs. The trace tag (RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 was prepared by loading Ru(bpy32+(RuL-conjuged secondary antibodies (RuL-Ab2 on RuL@SiO2 (RuL-doped SiO2 doped Au (RuL@SiO2-Au. To fabricate the immunosensor, SCMPs were mixed with biotinylated AFP primary antibody (Biotin-Ab1, AFP, and RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 complexes, then the resulting SCMP/Biotin-Ab1/AFP/RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 (SBAR sandwich-type immunocomplexes were absorbed on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE for detection. The immunocomplexes can be easily washed away from the surface of the SPCE when the magnetic field was removed, which made the immunosensor reusable. The present immunosensor showed a wide linear range of 0.05–100 ng mL–1 for detecting AFP, with a low detection limit of 0.02 ng mL–1 (defined as S/N = 3. The method takes advantage of three properties of the immunosensor: firstly, the RuL@SiO2-Au~RuL-Ab2 composite exhibited dual amplification since SiO2 could load large amount of reporter molecules (RuL for signal amplification. Gold particles could provide a large active surface to load more reporter molecules (RuL-Ab2. Accordingly, through the ECL response of RuL and tripropylamine (TPA, a strong ECL signal was obtained and an amplification analysis of protein interaction was achieved. Secondly, the sensor is renewable because the sandwich-type immunocomplexes can be readily absorbed or removed on the SPCE’s surface in a magnetic field. Thirdly, the SCMP modified probes can perform the rapid separation and purification of signal antibodies in a magnetic field. Thus, the present immunosensor can simultaneously realize separation, enrichment and determination. It showed potential application for the detection of AFP in human sera.

  1. Performance Characteristics of Different Anti-Double-Stranded DNA Antibody Assays in the Monitoring of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Michael Mahler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to evaluate different anti-double-stranded DNA assays for their performance characteristics in monitoring disease activity fluctuations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods. 36 active SLE patients were followed monthly. At each study visit (total n=371, blood was collected and disease activity was scored using the SELENA-SLEDAI (excluding anti-dsDNA or complement components and by a physician’s global assessment (PGA. Four anti-dsDNA tests were compared. Linear mixed-effects models with random intercept and fixed slopes were used to evaluate the relationship between the longitudinal fluctuations of disease activity and anti-dsDNA titers. Results. At enrollment, positivity for QUANTA Lite and high-avidity anti-dsDNA assay was both 64% and significantly lower than anti-dsDNA positivity by QUANTA Flash (83% and CLIFT (96%. Linear mixed-effects modeling indicated that the change in clinical SELENA-SLEDAI scores was associated with the titers of all anti-dsDNA with QUANTA Flash yielding the highest marginal R2 (0.15; p<0.01. QUANTA Flash was the only anti-dsDNA assay significantly associated with the change in PGA (marginal R2=0.05; p<0.01. Conclusion. These data indicate that anti-dsDNA antibodies determined by QUANTA Flash have a value in monitoring SLE disease activity.

  2. Limitations of a hemolytic plaque assay for IgG-anti-IgG rheumatoid factor-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, A J; Dresser, D W

    1987-09-24

    An attempt has been made to develop a hemolytic plaque assay capable of detecting homophile IgG rheumatoid factor (RF)-producing cells. Anti-immunoglobulin allotype-developing reagents were used to distinguish between target and effector IgG. The hemolytic assay has been used to demonstrate an apparently high level of homophile IgM and IgG RF-producing cells in the spleens and lymph nodes of mice stimulated by LPS. However, it appears that a large proportion of the plaques obtained in these assays are due to an artefact resulting from cross-linking of target and effector molecules by the developing reagents. In the case of IgM RF the artefact depends on the presence of a small contamination of the target IgG by IgM, allowing cross-linking of target and effector IgM by the anti-mu-specific developing reagent. With the IgG RF, cross-reactivity of the rabbit anti-Ighb allotype-developing serum for the 'wrong' (Igha) allotype, normally undetectable, becomes sufficient to be biologically relevant when the developing antibody is complexed by being bound to its target (Ighb) allotype. Nevertheless anti-allotype reagents may afford an accurate means of detecting homophile IgG RF producing cells using other assay systems.

  3. Identifying rapidly parasiticidal anti-malarial drugs using a simple and reliable in vitro parasite viability fast assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, María; Viera, Sara; Crespo, Benigno; Franco, Virginia; Gómez-Lorenzo, María G; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Angulo-Barturen, Íñigo; Sanz, Laura María; Gamo, Francisco-Javier

    2015-11-05

    The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins threatens to undermine the effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination anti-malarial therapy. Developing suitable drugs to replace artemisinins requires the identification of new compounds that display rapid parasite killing kinetics. However, no current methods fully meet the requirements to screen large compound libraries for candidates with such properties. This study describes the development and validation of an in vitro parasite viability fast assay for identifying rapidly parasiticidal anti-malarial drugs. Parasite killing kinetics were determined by first culturing unlabelled erythrocytes with P. falciparum in the presence of anti-malarial drugs for 24 or 48 h. After removing the drug, samples were added to erythrocytes pre-labelled with intracellular dye to allow their subsequent identification. The ability of viable parasites to re-establish infection in labelled erythrocytes could then be detected by two-colour flow cytometry after tagging of parasite DNA. Thus, double-stained erythrocytes (with the pre-labelled intracellular dye and the parasite DNA dye) result only after establishment of new infections by surviving parasites. The capacity of the test anti-malarial drugs to eliminate viable parasites within 24 or 48 h could, therefore, be determined. The parasite viability fast assay could be completed within 48 h following drug treatment and distinguished between rapidly parasiticidal anti-malarial drugs versus those acting more slowly. The assay was validated against ten standard anti-malarial agents with known properties and results correlated well with established methods. An abbreviated assay, suitable for adaption to medium-high throughput screening, was validated and applied against a set of 20 compounds retrieved from the publically available Medicines for Malaria Venture 'Malaria Box'. The quantification of new infections to determine parasite viability offers important

  4. [Requirement of standardizing anti-HBs assay methods in Japan for HBV infection-preventing strategy--discrepancy of anti-HBs measurements among three different kits widely used in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2006-09-01

    The strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by administrating an HB vaccine is changing worldwide; however, this is not the case in Japan. An important concern about the HBV infection-preventing strategy in Japan may be that the assay methods for the antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are not standardized. The minimum protective anti-HBs titer against HBV infection has been established as 10 mIU/ml by World Health Organization (WHO) -standardized assay methods worldwide, but that is still determined as a "positive" test result by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) method in Japan. We compared anti-HBs measurements in given samples among PHA(Mycell II, Institute of Immunology), chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) (Lumipulse, Fujirebio), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Architect, Abbott), all of which are currently in wide use in Japan. First, anti-HBs measurements in serum from individuals who received a yeast-derived recombinant HB vaccine composed of the major surface protein of either subtype adr or subtype ayw were compared. The results clearly showed that in subtype adr-vaccinees CLIA underestimated the anti-HBs amount compared with CLEIA and PHA, but in ayw-vaccinees, the discordance in the measurements among the three kits was not prominent. Second, anti-HBs measurements in standard or calibration solutions of each assay kit were compared. Surprisingly, CLEIA showed higher measurements in all three kit-associated standard or calibration solutions than CLIA. Thus, the anti-HBs titer of 10 mIU/ml is difficult to introduce in Japan as the minimum protective level against HBV infection. Efforts to standardize anti-HBs assay methods are expected to share international evidence about the HBV infection-preventing strategy.

  5. Detection of serum anti-sperm antibody in infertile couples with dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Xiaoxian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new method for rapid detection of serum anti-sperm antibody in infertile couples. Methods: Human sperm antigen was prepared from pooled semen specimens of fertile males. Nitro-cellulose membrane was used as solid-phase carrier of the antigen. Colloidal gold pellet combined goat anti-human IgG was taken as labelled antibody. A dot-immunogold filtration assay system was established for test of serum anti-human sperm antibody. Serum specimens from 137 infertile couples were tested and the result compared with flat from ELISA. Results: The human sperm antigen would react with the anti-sperm antibody in the tested serum over the cellulose membrane through filtration and the result could be read with naked eye within 6 minutes. In this study of 137 infertile coupled, the anti-sperm antibody was positive in 21.9% of the female serum specimens and 13.19% of the males. Compared with the result from ELISA, the consistency rate was 96.1%. The sensitivity of the assay was 90.2% and specificity was 95.4%. The p reparation was stable after 6 months refrigerator storage. Conclusion: This newly developed DIGFA is very adequate for rap id detection of anti-sperm antibody and deserves popularization. (authors)

  6. EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity assays for determination of neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Brown, J Edward; Torabazar, Nahid R; Smith, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant ricin toxin A-chain 1-33/44-198 vaccine (RVEc), developed at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases as a vaccine candidate, is under investigation in a phase 1 clinical study. To effectively evaluate the immunogenicity of this ricin vaccine and to eliminate the use of radioactive material, an EL4 cell-based colorimetric toxin neutralization activity (TNA) assay using a CellTiter 96 AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay Reagent has been developed, optimized, and applied in the vaccine efficacy studies. The TNA assay measures the protective neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies in animal sera by determining the cell viability after ricin exposure in the assay system and comparing it to a purified mouse polyclonal antiricin IgG standard curve. The standard curve of the anti-ricin TNA assay closely fits a four-parameter logistic regression model. The unknown test sample concentration was expressed as microg/mL, but not the 50% effective concentration (EC50), which was determined by most TNA assays. The neutralizing endpoint titers, not the 50% effective dilution (ED50), of human specimens were measured with the TNA assay in support of the clinical study of the RVEc vaccine. The optimal amount of ricin toxin, EL4 cells, and concentration of standards used in the assay system was established to minimize false-negative and false-positive results of serum specimens from the nonclinical and clinical studies of RVEc. The testing conditions were adjusted to optimize assay performance. The colorimetric TNA assay replaced a radioactive TNA assay previously used in the ricin vaccine studies.

  7. Identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using IgG platelet antibody detection and crossmatch system assay with Galileo Echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristofaro, Julie; Frassati, Coralie; Montagnie, Rolande; Basire, Agnes; Merieux, Yves; Picard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia is the most frequent and the most dangerous clinical condition involving anti-human platelet antigens (HPA)-1a allo-antibodies. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunization requires rapid and accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment. The Capture-P Ready-Screen assay (C-PRS) is a new qualitative immunoassay to detect IgG anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and anti-HPA allo-antibodies. The aim of this study is to assess the identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using the C-PRS assay, associated with HLA class I stripping reagents, on the automated benchtop analyzer Galileo Echo. Forty-nine sera were analyzed: without anti-HLA class I or anti-HPA allo-antibodies, with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies, with anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies, among which with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies. None of the samples without allo-antibodies were reactive. Only anti-HLA antibodies, detected by cytotoxicity-dependent complement and not by Luminex, remained positive before and after stripping reagents. Of the 13 samples, anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies that were correctly identified before and after incubation with HLA assassin reagent were 70% and 85%, respectively. Anti-glycoprotein auto-antibodies and anti-HLA allo-antibodies do not interfere with the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This preliminary study indicates that further improvement of the test will be helpful in developing a clinically useful assay in the future.

  8. A surface plasmon resonance assay for characterisation and epitope mapping of anti-GLP-1 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Lasse; Gurevich, Leonid

    2018-04-19

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been subject to substantial pharmaceutical research regarding the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, quantification of GLP-1 levels remains complicated due to the low circulation concentration and concurrent existence of numerous metabolites, homologous peptides, and potentially introduced GLP-1 receptor agonists. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) facilitates real-time monitoring allowing a more detailed characterisation of the interaction compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In this paper, we describe the development of the first SPR assays for characterisation of anti-GLP-1 antibodies for ELISA purposes. Binding responses were obtained on covalently immobilised anti-GLP-1 antibodies at 12°C, 25°C, and 40°C and fitted to a biomolecular (1:1) interaction model showing association rates of 1.01 × 10 3 to 4.54 × 10 3  M -1  s -1 and dissociation rates of 3.56 × 10 -5 to 1.56 × 10 -3  s -1 leading to affinities of 35.2 to 344 nM, depending on the temperature. Determination of thermodynamic properties revealed an enthalpy driven interaction (ΔH polar amino acids (ΔC p  < 0). Pair-wise epitope mapping was performed on captured anti-GLP-1 antibodies followed by subsequent interaction with GLP-1 (7-36) and other anti-GLP-1 antibodies. A global evaluation of every binding response led to an epitope map elucidating the potential of various anti-GLP-1 antibody pairs for sandwich ELISA and hence pinpointing the optimal antibody combinations. The SPR assays proved capable of providing vital information for ELISA development endorsing it as a useful optimisation tool. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes: A renascence of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2016), e1102829 ISSN 2162-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Anti-IL-2 mAb * cancer immunotherapy * IL-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.719, year: 2016

  10. Verification of responses of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to anti-androgens, vinclozolin and flutamide, in short-term assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ataru; Takanobu, Hitomi; Tamura, Ikumi; Yamamuro, Masumi; Iguchi, Taisen; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2014-05-01

    Various testing methods for the detection of the endocrine disruptive activities of chemicals have been developed in freshwater fish species. However, a few relatively easier specific methods for detecting anti-androgenic activities are available for fish. The aim of this study was to verify the papillary process in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) as an indicator of the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals. Japanese medaka were exposed to two types of anti-androgenic compounds, vinclozolin and flutamide, using two short-term assays; one was conformed to the existing short-term reproduction assay using adult fish (adult test) and the other was a test based on the same methods but using juvenile fish at the beginning of exposure (juvenile test). Significant decreases in male papillary processes were observed in the juvenile test treated with the highest concentration of both antiandrogens (640 µg l(-1) vinclozolin and 1000 µg l(-1) flutamide); however, no significant effects were observed in the adult test. Consequently, our results indicate that papillary processes in Japanese medaka can be used as the end-point for screening the anti-androgenic activity of chemicals using juvenile fish for a specific period based on the existing short-term reproduction assay. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cell based assays for anti-Plasmodium activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgethi-Morule, Thabang; N'Da, David D

    2016-03-10

    Malaria remains one of the most common and deadly infectious diseases worldwide. The severity of this global public health challenge is reflected by the approximately 198 million people, who were reportedly infected in 2013 and by the more than 584,000 related deaths in that same year. The rising emergence of drug resistance towards the once effective artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has become a serious concern and warrants more robust drug development strategies, with the objective of eradicating malaria infections. The intricate biology and life cycle of Plasmodium parasites complicate the understanding of the disease in such a way that would enhance the development of more effective chemotherapies that would achieve radical clinical cure and that would prevent disease relapse. Phenotypic cell based assays have for long been a valuable approach and involve the screening and analysis of diverse compounds with regards to their activities towards whole Plasmodium parasites in vitro. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of malaria eradication by 2020, new generation drugs that are active against all parasite stages (erythrocytic (blood), exo-erythrocytic (liver stages and gametocytes)) are needed. Significant advances are being made in assay development to overcome some of the practical challenges of assessing drug efficacy, particularly in the liver and transmission stage Plasmodium models. This review discusses primary screening models and the fundamental progress being made in whole cell based efficacy screens of anti-malarial activity. Ongoing challenges and some opportunities for improvements in assay development that would assist in the discovery of effective, safe and affordable drugs for malaria treatments are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-competitive ELISA with broad specificity for microcystins and nodularins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Akter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective methods with sufficient sensitivities for preliminary screening of cyanobacterial toxins are in high demand for assessing water quality and safety. We have recently developed a highly sensitive and rapid time-resolved fluorometry based non-competitive immunoassay for detection of microcystins and nodularins. The assay is based on a synthetic broad-specific anti-immunocomplex antibody SA51D1 capable of recognizing the immunocomplex formed by a generic anti-Adda monoclonal antibody (mAb bound to either microcystins or nodularins. Using the same antibody pair, here we describe a very simple and cost-efficient non-competitive ELISA test for microcystins and nodularins based on conventional alkaline phosphatase (AP activity measurement. The recombinant SA51D1 single-chain fragment of antibody variable domain (scFv was produced as a fusion with bacterial alkaline phosphatase in Escherichia coli. After one step affinity purification through His-tag, the scFv-AP fusion protein could directly be used in the assay. For the assay, toxin standard/sample, biotinylated anti-Adda mAb and the scFv-AP were incubated together for one hour on streptavidin-coated microtiter wells, washed and AP activity was then measured by incubating (1 h at 37 ˚C with chromogenic substrate para-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP. The assay was capable of detecting all the eleven tested toxin variants (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, LA -LY, -LF -LW, -WR, and nodularin-R below WHO guide line value of 1 µg L-1. The detection limit (based on blank+3SD response for microcystin-LR was ~0.2 µg L-1. The assay was verified using spiked (0.25 - 4 µg L-1 of microcystin-LR tap, river and lake water samples with recoveries from 64 to 101%. The assay showed good correlation (r2>0.9 with four reference methods for its performance in detecting extracted intracellular microcystin/nodularin from 17 natural surface water samples. The described easy-to-perform assay

  13. Alteraciones de la solubilización e inhibición de la precipitación de inmunocomplejos en la anemia drepanocítica Alterations of the solubilization and inhibition of the precipitation of immunocomplexes in sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Merlín Linares

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los fenómenos de solubilización e inhibición de la precipitación de inmunocomplejos en un grupo de 39 pacientes con anemia drepanocítica en crisis hepática (13 y en estado basal (26, utilizando como modelo el complejo125 I-toxoide tetánico/anti-toxoide tetánico. La inhibición de la precipitación estuvo disminuida en la crisis hepática y en el estado basal, con valores normales de la actividad hemolítica de la vía clásica y de los niveles séricos del C4, mientras que la disminución de la solubilización en la crisis hepática estuvo relacionada con una disminución de la actividad hemolítica de la vía alternativa, la actividad hemolítica del factor B y los niveles del componente C3, y con un aumento de los inmunocomplejos circulantes. Nuestros resultados sugieren la posible utilidad de estos mecanismos para evaluar otras funciones del complemento, no detectadas mediante una determinación de la actividad hemolítica, como medida de la función de las vías clásica y alternativaThe phenomena of solubilization and inhibition of the precipitation of immunocomplexes were studied in a group of 39 patients with sickle cell anemia in hepatic crisis (13 and in basal state (26, using as a model the tetanus toxoid/anti-tetanus toxoid complex125 I. The inhibition of the precipitation was reduced in the hepatic crisis and in the basal state with normal values of the haemolytic activity of the classical pathway and of the serum levels of C4, whereas the reduction of the solubilization in the hepatic crisis was related to a lowering of the haemolytic activity of the alternative pathway, the haemolytic activity of factor B and the levels of component C3, and to an increase of the circulating immunocomplexes. Our results suggest the possible usefulness of these mechanisms to evaluate other functions of the complement not detected by a determination of the haemolytic activity, as a measure of the function of..the classical and

  14. Development and Validation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Binding Anti-Drug Antibodies against Interferon Beta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Ingenhoven

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo develop and validate a method for the detection of binding anti-drug antibodies (ADAs against interferon beta (IFN-β in human serum as part of a European initiative (ABIRISK aimed at the prediction and analysis of clinical relevance of anti-biopharmaceutical immunization to minimize the risk.MethodA two-tiered bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA format was selected and validated according to current recommendations. Screening assay: ADA in serum samples form complexes with immobilized IFN-β and biotinylated IFN-β, which are then detected using HRP labeled Streptavidin and TMB substrate. Confirmation assay: Screen “putative positive” samples are tested in the presence of excess drug (preincubation of sera with 0.3 µg/mL of soluble IFN-β and percentage of inhibition is calculated.ResultsThe assay is precise, and the sensitivity of the assay was confirmed to be 26 ng/mL using commercially available polyclonal rabbit antihuman IFN-β in human sera as the positive control.ConclusionAn ultrasensitive ELISA for IFN-β-binding ADA testing has been validated. This will form the basis to assess anti-biopharmaceutical immunization toward IFN-β with regards to its clinical relevance and may allow for the development of predictive tools, key aims within the ABIRISK consortium.

  15. Systematic comparison of drug-tolerant assays for anti-drug antibodies in a cohort of adalimumab-treated rheumatoid arthritis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, Karien; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Verbeek, Gerrit; Nurmohamed, Michael T.; Wolbink, Gerrit Jan; van der Kleij, Desiree; Rispens, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Drug interference complicates assessment of immunogenicity of biologicals and results in an underestimation of anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. Drug-tolerant assays have the potential to overcome such limitations. However, to which extent drug-tolerant assays provide an unbiased picture of the

  16. Performance evaluation of a novel chemiluminescence assay for detection of anti-GBM antibodies: an international multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Radice, Antonella; Sinico, Renato A; Damoiseaux, Jan; Seaman, Andrea; Buckmelter, Kristen; Vizjak, Alenka; Buchner, Carol; Binder, Walter L; Fritzler, Marvin J; Cui, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the non-collagen region (NC1) of the alpha-3 subunit of collagen IV represent a serological hallmark in the diagnosis of Goodpasture's syndrome (GPS). The objective of our study was to carefully analyze the performance characteristics of a novel anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). Sera from patients with GPS (n = 90) were collected from four clinical centers. Samples from different disease groups (n = 397) and healthy individuals (n = 400) were used as controls. All samples were tested for anti-GBM antibodies by a rapid, random access CIA (QUANTA Flash™ GBM). Most of the samples were also tested using other methods including different commercial anti-GBM IgG assays and research assays for anti-GBM IgA and IgM. The sensitivity and specificity of the novel CIA was 95.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 89.0-98.8%] and 99.6% (95% CI 98.9-99.9%), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed good discrimination between GPS patients and controls. The area under the curve was 0.98 (CI 0.96-1.0). The three anti-GBM antibody-positive samples from the control group were from two healthy individuals and one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient. All three individuals had low levels of anti-GBM antibodies [20, 24 and 25 chemiluminescent unit (CU), cutoff 20 CU]. When the results of the new CIA were compared to other methods, good agreement was observed: 95.8% (kappa = 0.92) versus EliA™ GBM, 97.4% (kappa = 0.95) versus both BINDAZYME™ Anti-GBM and QUANTA Lite® GBM. Anti-GBM IgA was detectable in low concentrations in patients with GPS and was associated with anti-GBM IgG but was less useful in discriminating GPS patients and controls. No discrimination was found for anti-GBM IgM. The novel QUANTA Flash™ GBM CIA demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity and had good agreement with other methods. Our data confirm that ∼5% of patients with GPS do not have detectable levels of

  17. Comparison of cell-based and non-cell-based assay platforms for the detection of clinically relevant anti-drug neutralizing antibodies for immunogenicity assessment of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jenny; Wala, Iwona; Han, Hong; Nagatani, Janice; Barger, Troy; Civoli, Francesca; Kaliyaperumal, Arunan; Zhuang, Yao; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-04-01

    Anti-drug neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) formed due to unwanted immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein point towards a mature immune response. NAb detection is important in interpreting the therapeutic's efficacy and safety in vivo. In vitro cell-based NAb assays provide a physiological system for NAb detection, however are complex assays. Non-cell-based competitive ligand binding (CLB) approaches are also employed for NAb detection. Instead of cells, CLB assays use soluble receptor and conjugated reagents and are easier to perform, however have reduced physiological relevance. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of CLB assays to established cell-based assays to determine the former's ability to detect clinically relevant NAbs towards therapeutics that (i) acted as an agonist or (ii) acted as antagonists by binding to a target receptor. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the performance of cell-based and CLB NAb assays for erythropoietin (EPO) and two anti-receptor monoclonal antibodies (AMG-X and AMG 317). Clinically relevant NAb-positive samples identified previously by a cell-based assay were assessed in the corresponding CLB format(s). A panel of 12 engineered fully human anti-EPO monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested in both EPO NAb assay formats. Our results showed that the CLB format was (i) capable of detecting human anti-EPO MAbs of differing neutralizing capabilities and affinities and (ii) provided similar results as the cell-based assay for detecting NAbs in patient samples. The cell-based and CLB assays also behaved comparably in detecting NAbs in clinical samples for AMG-X. In the case of anti-AMG 317 NAbs, the CLB format failed to detect NAbs in more than 50% of the tested samples. We conclude that assay sensitivity, drug tolerance and the selected assay matrix played an important role in the inability of AMG 317 CLB assays to detect clinically relevant NAbs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of anti-IgA antibodies by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homburger, H.A.; Smith, J.R.; Jacob, G.L.; Laschinger, C.; Naylor, D.H.; Pineda, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    To enable the detection of IgG class, anti-IgA antibodies and to investigate the possible occurrence of IgE class, anti-IgA antibodies, we developed a solid phase immunoradiometric assay, which uses purified IgA coupled covalently to microcrystalline cellulose as an immunosorbent. Radiolabeled, Fc specific anti-IgG and anti-IgE antibodies were used to detect specific aIgA after incubation of test sera or controls with the immunosorbent. IgG-aIgA were detected by the IRA in 100 and 67% of control sera with class specific and limited specificity aIgA. The IRA was sensitive to approximately two ng of class specific IgG-aIgA. IgG-aIgA also were detected by IRA in 7.9% of sera from patients with urticarial transfusion reactions and 73% of sera from patients with ataxia telangiectasia and IgA deficiency. Sera from 50 normal blood donors did not have detectable IgG-aIgA. Tests for IgE-aIgA were negative in all cases, including control sera with class specific IgG-aIgA. We conclude that the IRA is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection of class specific and limited specificity IgG-aIgA, and that IgE-aIgA do not mediate urticarial transfusion reactions

  19. Ultrasensitive and accelerated detection of ciguatoxin by capillary electrophoresis via on-line sandwich immunoassay with rotating magnetic field and nanoparticles signal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Chaoying; Luan, Wenxiu; Li, Xiufeng; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiliang

    2015-08-12

    A sensitive and rapid on-line immunoassay for the determination of ciguatoxin CTX3C was developed based on a capillary mixing system, which was integrated with capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation and electrochemical (EC) detection. In the sandwich immunoassay system, anti-CTX3C-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were used as immunosensing probes, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-CTX3C antibody were bound onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and used as recognition elements. Online formation of immunocomplex was realized in capillary inlet end with an external rotating magnetic field. Compared with classical HPLC-MS and ELISA, the assay adopting AuNPs as multienzyme carriers and online sandwich immunoassay format with rotating magnetic field exhibited higher sensitivity and shorter assay time. The linear range of the assay for CTX3C was from 0.6 to 150 ng/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9948 (n = 2), and the detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.09 ng/L. The developed assay showed satisfying reproducibility and stability, and it was successfully applied for the quantification of CTX3C in fish samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multicenter analytical performance evaluation of a fully automated anti-Müllerian hormone assay and reference interval determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anckaert, E.; Öktem, M.; Thies, A.; Cohen-Bacrie, M.; Daan, N. M P; Schiettecatte, J.; Müller, C.; Topcu, D.; Gröning, A.; Ternaux, F.; Engel, C.; Engelmann, S.; Milczynski, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an established biomarker for assessing ovarian reserve and predicting response to controlled ovarian stimulation. Its routine clinical use is hampered by the variability and low-throughput of available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The

  1. Development and Validation of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Binding Anti-Drug Antibodies against Interferon Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Kramer, Daniel; Jensen, Poul Erik Hyldgaard

    2017-01-01

    to be 26 ng/mL using commercially available polyclonal rabbit antihuman IFN-β in human sera as the positive control. CONCLUSION: An ultrasensitive ELISA for IFN-β-binding ADA testing has been validated. This will form the basis to assess anti-biopharmaceutical immunization toward IFN-β with regards to its......OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a method for the detection of binding anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) against interferon beta (IFN-β) in human serum as part of a European initiative (ABIRISK) aimed at the prediction and analysis of clinical relevance of anti-biopharmaceutical immunization...... to minimize the risk. METHOD: A two-tiered bridging enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format was selected and validated according to current recommendations. Screening assay: ADA in serum samples form complexes with immobilized IFN-β and biotinylated IFN-β, which are then detected using HRP labeled...

  2. Study of phytochemical, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Jaya; Muhammad, BushraTaj; Thapa, Pratiksha; Shrestha, Bhupal Govinda

    2017-02-08

    There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii. We observed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugars and glycosides in the plant extract and the plant showed moderate anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity. The IC 50 values of Allium wallichii in different cancer cell lines are 69.69 μg/ml for Prostate cancer (PC3) cell line, 55.29 μg/ml for Breast Cancer (MCF-7) cell line and 46.51 μg/ml for cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line as compared to Doxorubicin (0.85 μg/ml). The cell viability assay using FACS showed that the IC 50 value of Allium wallichii for Burkitt's lymphoma (B-Lymphoma) cell line was 3.817 ± 1.99 mg/ml. Allium wallichii can be an important candidate to be used as an anticancer agent. Separation of pure compounds with bioassay guided extraction, spectrometric analysis and subsequent cytotoxicity assay of the pure bioactive compounds from Allium wallichii is highly recommended as the crude extract itself showed promising cytotoxicity.

  3. The role of the time-kill kinetics assay as part of a preclinical modeling framework for assessing the activity of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Hannelore I; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M; de Vogel, Corné P; van der Meijden, Aart; Verbon, Annelies; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2017-07-01

    Novel treatment strategies for tuberculosis are urgently needed. Many different preclinical models assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity are available, but it is yet unclear which combination of models is most predictive of clinical treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the role of our in vitro time kill-kinetics assay as an asset to a predictive preclinical modeling framework assessing anti-tuberculosis drug activity. The concentration- and time-dependent mycobacterial killing capacities of six anti-tuberculosis drugs were determined during exposure as single drugs or in dual, triple and quadruple combinations towards a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and drug resistance was assessed. Streptomycin, rifampicin and isoniazid were most active against fast-growing M. tuberculosis. Isoniazid with rifampicin or high dose ethambutol were the only synergistic drug combinations. The addition of rifampicin or streptomycin to isoniazid prevented isoniazid resistance. In vitro ranking showed agreement with early bactericidal activity in tuberculosis patients for some but not all anti-tuberculosis drugs. The time-kill kinetics assay provides important information on the mycobacterial killing dynamics of anti-tuberculosis drugs during the early phase of drug exposure. As such, this assay is a valuable component of the preclinical modeling framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-human neutrophil antigen-1a, -1b, and -2 antibodies in neonates and children with immune neutropenias analyzed by extracted granulocyte antigen immunofluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Rie; Kurita, Emi; Taniguchi, Kikuyo; Karakawa, Shuhei; Okada, Satoshi; Kihara, Hirotaka; Fujii, Teruhisa; Kobayashi, Masao

    2017-11-01

    Anti-human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies have been implicated in the development of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (NAN) and autoimmune neutropenia (AIN). There are many conventional assay methods that detect anti-HNA antibodies. However, a method to measure multiple samples and detect several anti-HNA antibodies simultaneously is needed. We developed a new method, the extracted granulocyte antigen immunofluorescence assay (EGIFA), to analyze anti-HNA-1a, -1b, and -2 antibodies in sera. The results obtained by EGIFA were evaluated in comparison with those from several standard assay methods. Anti-HNA antibodies in serum samples from nine familial cases with suspected NAN (n = 19) and children with suspected AIN (n = 88) were also measured by EGIFA. The evaluation of nine serum samples with anti-HNA antibodies suggested that EGIFA demonstrated equivalent specificity and superior sensitivity to monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of granulocyte antigens and had comparable sensitivity to the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test. EGIFA successfully detected anti-HNA-1a or -1b antibodies in seven of nine familial cases with suspected NAN. EGIFA detected anti-HNA antibodies in 40.9% of children with suspected AIN. Among them, isolated anti-HNA-1a or -1b antibody was detected in 4.5 or 12.5% of children, respectively, and anti-HNA-2 antibody was identified in 3.4% of children. The 30.8% (16 of 52) of children negative for anti-HNA antibody by EGIFA were positive for anti-HLA antibody. EGIFA facilitated the measurement of anti-HNA-1a, -1b, and/or -2 antibodies in sera. The prompt measurement of anti-HNA antibodies will improve the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with suspected NAN or AIN. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  6. Improved quantification of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for measuring anti-MDA5 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gono, Takahisa; Okazaki, Yuka; Murakami, Akihiro; Kuwana, Masataka

    2018-04-09

    To compare the quantitative performance for measuring anti-MDA5 antibody titer of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems: an in-house ELISA and the commercial MESACUP TM anti-MDA5 test. Anti-MDA5 antibody titer was measured in sera from 70 patients with dermatomyositis using an in-house ELISA and the MESACUP TM anti-MDA5 test side-by-side. For the commercial ELISA kit, serum samples diluted 1:101 were used according to the manufacturer's protocol, but serial dilutions of sera were also examined to identify the optimal serum dilution for quantification. The anti-MDA5 antibody titers measured by the in-house and commercial ELISAs were positively correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p = .0001), but the antibody titer measured by the commercial ELISA was less sensitive to change after medical treatment, and 37 (80%) of 46 anti-MDA5-positive sera had antibody titer exceeding the quantification range specified by the manufacturer (≥150 index). Experiments using diluted serum samples revealed that diluting the sera 1:5050 improved the quantitative performance of the MESACUP TM anti-MDA5 test, including a better correlation with the in-house ELISA results and an increased sensitivity to change. We improved the ability of the commercial ELISA kit to quantify anti-MDA5 antibody titer by altering its protocol.

  7. Development and validation of cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays for measuring neutralizing anti-drug antibodies against interferon beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanrud, Christina; Ryner, Malin; Luft, Thomas; Jensen, Poul Erik; Ingenhoven, Kathleen; Rat, Dorothea; Deisenhammer, Florian; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Pallardy, Marc; Sikkema, Dan; Bertotti, Elisa; Kramer, Daniel; Creeke, Paul; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (NAbs) against therapeutic interferon beta (IFNβ) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are measured with cell-based bioassays. The aim of this study was to redevelop and validate two luciferase reporter-gene bioassays, LUC and iLite, using a cut-point approach to identify NAb positive samples. Such an approach is favored by the pharmaceutical industry and governmental regulatory agencies as it has a clear statistical basis and overcomes the limitations of the current assays based on the Kawade principle. The work was conducted following the latest assay guidelines. The assays were re-developed and validated as part of the "Anti-Biopharmaceutical Immunization: Prediction and analysis of clinical relevance to minimize the risk" (ABIRISK) consortium and involved a joint collaboration between four academic laboratories and two pharmaceutical companies. The LUC assay was validated at Innsbruck Medical University (LUCIMU) and at Rigshospitalet (LUCRH) Copenhagen, and the iLite assay at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm. For both assays, the optimal serum sample concentration in relation to sensitivity and recovery was 2.5% (v/v) in assay media. A Shapiro-Wilk test indicated a normal distribution for the majority of runs, allowing a parametric approach for cut-point calculation to be used, where NAb positive samples could be identified with 95% confidence. An analysis of means and variances indicated that a floating cut-point should be used for all assays. The assays demonstrated acceptable sensitivity for being cell-based assays, with a confirmed limit of detection in neat serum of 1519 ng/mL for LUCIMU, 814 ng/mL for LUCRH, and 320 ng/mL for iLite. Use of the validated cut-point assay, in comparison with the previously used Kawade method, identified 14% more NAb positive samples. In conclusion, implementation of the cut-point design resulted in increased sensitivity to detect NAbs. However, the clinical significance of these low

  8. Quantitation of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies by enzymoimmunoassay: methodology and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virella, G; Hyman, B

    1991-01-01

    We have developed enzymoimmunoassays (EIA) for the quantitation of antibodies (Ab) to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (TT, DT) using Immulon I plates coated with the appropriate toxoid. A preparation of human tetanus immunoglobulin with a known concentration of anti-TT Ab was used as calibrator of the anti-TT antibody assay. The assay of anti-DT Ab is calibrated with a pool of human sera whose anti-DT Ab concentration was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using a horse anti-DT with known Ab concentration as calibrator. A peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgG was used in both assays. ABTS was used as substrate, and the reaction was stopped after 1 min incubation with citric acid and the OD measured at 414 nm on a Vmax reader. The assays have been applied to a variety of clinical situations. In patients suspected of having tetanus, the quantitation of antibodies has been helpful in establishing a diagnosis. In patients with a history of hypersensitivity to tetanus toxoid, verification of the levels of anti-TT antibody may prevent unnecessary and potentially harmful immunizations. The assays have also been used for the diagnostic evaluation of the humoral immune response to TT and DT, both in pediatric patients and in immunosuppressed patients. Several non-responders have been detected, and we have recently used the assay to monitor the effects of fish oil administration on the humoral immune response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The hybrid EIA test: a specific and sensitive assay for the detection of woodchuck antibody to hepatitis surface antigen (anti-WHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, I; Glass, R G

    1988-05-01

    'Ausria II' polystyrene beads (Abbott Labs, N. Chicago) are reacted with woodchuck serum positive for WHsAg in a dilution predetermined by titration. This modified bead is used in a blocking assay to detect the presence of antibody to the surface antigen of woodchuck hepatitis virus (anti-WHs). Serum containing woodchuck anti-WHs and commercial horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-HBs are sequentially added. A drop in optical density at 492 nm of 50% or more due to the blocking of HRP conjugated anti-HBs by anti-WHs compared with a control (negative woodchuck serum) is a measure of anti-WHs. The ease and simplicity of converting readily available 'Ausria II' beads to specific reagents for detecting anti-WHs should be welcomed by investigators studying WHV. The method described is both sensitive and reproducible.

  10. Detection of anti-spermatozoal antibodies by a 125I-protein-A radioimmunological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czuppon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    A newly developed solid-phase radioimmunobinding assay (RIBA) using detergent-solubilized sperm antigen has been used to evaluate anti-sperm antibodies. Results showed that none of the fertile females and males were positive in the RIBA, whereas approximately 6% of the females and 3% of the males with unexplained infertility were positive. These results are similar to those obtained using a chemically synthesized spermatozoal decapeptide antigen. The RIBA is simple to perform, requires no vital or intact spermatozoa, and large numbers of sera (up to 400) can be processed in one day with a total incubation time of 90 min. (Auth.)

  11. Rapid, Sensitive, Enzyme-Immunodotting Assay for Detecting Cow Milk Adulteration in Sheep Milk: A Modern Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Luis A.; Razquín, Pedro; Lampreave, Fermín; Alava, María A.; Calvo, Miguel

    1998-12-01

    Specificity, sensitivity, and experimental simplicity make the immunoenzymatic assay suitable for a variety of laboratories dedicated to diverse activities such as research, quality control in food analysis, or clinical biochemistry. In these assays, the antibody that specifically recognizes the antigen is covalently attached to an enzyme. Once the antigen-antibody immunocomplex is formed, the enzymatic reaction gives a colored product that allows the detection of the initial antigen. The aim of this work was the design of a new laboratory project appropriate for use in courses of biochemistry, immunochemistry, or analytical chemistry. The assay described here detects the presence of cow milk in milk of other species. The main application is the detection of cow milk in sheep milk and cheese. Specific proteins, immunoglobulins (IgG) of the fraudulent bovine milk, are specifically recognized and retained by antibodies immobilized on a membrane. The binding of a second antibody covalently attached to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) allows the development of a visible signal. Thus, students can rapidly detect milk adulterations using a specific, sensitive, and safe experimental approach. The experiment allows students to apply their theoretical knowledge, resulting in a stimulating experience of solving a real problem during a 4-hour laboratory period.

  12. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoyuki; Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo; Abe, Hideaki; Tanuma, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V max ) and the michaelis constant (k m ) of PARG reaction were 4.46 μM and 128.33 μmol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 μM. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  13. Development and validation of cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays for measuring neutralizing anti-drug antibodies against interferon beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanrud, Christina; Ryner, Malin; Luft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    a normal distribution for the majority of runs, allowing a parametric approach for cut-point calculation to be used, where NAb positive samples could be identified with 95% confidence. An analysis of means and variances indicated that a floating cut-point should be used for all assays. The assays......Neutralizing anti-drug antibodies (NAbs) against therapeutic interferon beta (IFNβ) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are measured with cell-based bioassays. The aim of this study was to redevelop and validate two luciferase reporter-gene bioassays, LUC and iLite, using a cut-point approach...... to identify NAb positive samples. Such an approach is favored by the pharmaceutical industry and governmental regulatory agencies as it has a clear statistical basis and overcomes the limitations of the current assays based on the Kawade principle. The work was conducted following the latest assay guidelines...

  14. The nontoxic natural compound Curcumin exerts anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive properties against malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, Christian; Polacin, Margareth; Priester, Maike; Seifert, Volker; Kögel, Donat; Weissenberger, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    New drugs are constantly sought after to improve the survival of patients with malignant gliomas. The ideal substance would selectively target tumor cells without eliciting toxic side effects. Here, we report on the anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive properties of the natural, nontoxic compound Curcumin observed in five human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines in vitro. We used monolayer wound healing assays, modified Boyden chamber trans-well assays, and cell growth assays to quantify cell migration, invasion, and proliferation in the absence or presence of Curcumin at various concentrations. Levels of the transcription factor phospho-STAT3, a potential target of Curcumin, were determined by sandwich-ELISA. Subsequent effects on transcription of genes regulating the cell cycle were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Effects on apoptosis were determined by caspase assays. Curcumin potently inhibited GBM cell proliferation as well as migration and invasion in all cell lines contingent on dose. Simultaneously, levels of the biologically active phospho-STAT3 were decreased and correlated with reduced transcription of the cell cycle regulating gene c-Myc and proliferation marking Ki-67, pointing to a potential mechanism by which Curcumin slows tumor growth. Curcumin is part of the diet of millions of people every day and is without known toxic side effects. Our data show that Curcumin bears anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive properties against GBM cells in vitro. These results warrant further in vivo analyses and indicate a potential role of Curcumin in the treatment of malignant gliomas

  15. Comparison of a newly developed automated and quantitative hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for clinical usefulness in confirming anti-HCV results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesli, Recep; Polat, Hakki; Terzi, Yuksel; Kurtoglu, Muhammet Guzel; Uyar, Yavuz

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health care problem. Diagnosis of HCV infection is mainly based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies as a screening test with serum samples. Recombinant immunoblot assays are used as supplemental tests and for the final detection and quantification of HCV RNA in confirmatory tests. In this study, we aimed to compare the HCV core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test may be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test and to assess the diagnostic values of the total HCV core antigen test by determining the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity rates compared with the HCV RNA test. Sera from a total of 212 treatment-naive patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen both with the Abbott Architect test and with the molecular HCV RNA assay consisting of a reverse transcription-PCR method as a confirmatory test. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 96.3%, 100%, 100%, and 89.7%, respectively. The levels of HCV core antigen showed a good correlation with those from the HCV RNA quantification (r = 0.907). In conclusion, the Architect HCV antigen assay is highly specific, sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, reproducible, cost-effective, and applicable as a screening, supplemental, and preconfirmatory test for anti-HCV assays used in laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.

  16. PM1-Alpha ELISA: the assay of choice for the detection of anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2009-03-01

    A characteristic serological feature of patients suffering from the overlap polymyositis and scleroderma (PM/Scl) syndrome are antibodies to the human counterpart of the yeast exosome referred to as the PM/Scl complex. Historically, the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies was laborious and relied largely on indirect immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion techniques. In 1992 the major autoantigen PM/Scl-100 was identified and cloned. Subsequently, the major epitopes were mapped and one of these, termed PM1-Alpha, became the antigen for a novel ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies. Comparative studies with other methods using other PM/Scl autoantigens have shown that the PM1-Alpha ELISA has higher sensitivity and specificity than assays that employed recombinant PM/Scl-75c and PM/Scl-100. Anti-PM1-Alpha antibodies were identified in 55.0% of sera from PM/Scl overlap syndrome patients, but were also seen in 7.9% of SSc and in 7.5% of PM patients. The frequency in other systemic autoimmune diseases and in infectious diseases was significant lower. In summary, the data derived from individual studies suggest that PM1-Alpha may become the "gold standard" for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies.

  17. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  18. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay of staphylococcal enterotoxin B in food using enzyme-nanosilica-doped carbon nanotubes for signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Tang, Juan; Su, Biling; Chen, Guonan

    2010-10-27

    A new sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in food was developed using horseradish peroxidase-nanosilica-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (HRPSiCNTs) for signal amplification. Rabbit polyclonal anti-SEB antibodies immobilized on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) and covalently bound to the HRPSiCNTs were used as capture antibodies and detection antibodies, respectively. In the presence of SEB analyte, the sandwich-type immunocomplex could be formed between the immobilized anti-SEB on the SPCE and anti-SEB-labeled HRPSiCNTs, and the carried HRP could catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2 with the help of thionine. The high content of HRP in the HRPSiCNTs could greatly amplify the electrochemical signal. Under optimal conditions, the reduction current increased with the increase of SEB in the sample, and exhibited a dynamic range of 0.05-15 ng/mL with a low detection limit (LOD) of 10 pg/mL SEB (at 3σ). Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were below 10%. In addition, the assay was evaluated with SEB spiked samples including watermelon juice, soymilk, apple juice, and pork food, receiving excellent correlation with results from commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  19. One-step immunochromatographic visual assay for anti-transglutaminase detection in organ culture system: An easy and prompt method to simplify the in vitro diagnosis of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tola, Marco; Marino, Mariacatia; Casale, Rossella; Borghini, Raffaele; Tiberti, Antonio; Donato, Giuseppe; Occhiuzzi, Umberto; Picarelli, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) and endomysium antibodies (EMA) are detectable in duodenal culture media of celiac disease (CD) patients. To improve the management of this organ culture system, we evaluated the anti-tTG occurrence by immunochromatographic assay (ICA). A total of 103 CD patients and 41 disease controls underwent duodenal biopsy for the organ culture. In culture supernatants, IgA anti-tTG were tested by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ICA, IgA EMA were searched by indirect immunofluorescence analysis (iIFA). Endomysium antibodies and anti-tTG measured by ELISA were positive in culture media of all CD patients, while anti-tTG detected by ICA were positive in culture media of 87/103 CD patients. Anti-tTG ICA scores significantly correlated with anti-tTG ELISA values (r=.71, Pculture media of most CD patients and the intensity of indicative lines depends on the anti-tTG concentration. Sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy achieved with ICA are lower than those obtained with ELISA but, given that the first is a more easy and prompt method, data suggest the possibility of utilizing it in the in vitro diagnosis of CD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. New molecular settings to support in vivo anti-malarial assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamontes-Rosa, Noemí; Alejandre, Ane Rodriguez; Gomez, Vanesa; Viera, Sara; Gomez-Lorenzo, María G; Sanz-Alonso, Laura María; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso

    2016-03-08

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is now commonly used as a method to confirm diagnosis of malaria and to differentiate recrudescence from re-infection, especially in clinical trials and in reference laboratories where precise quantification is critical. Although anti-malarial drug discovery is based on in vivo murine efficacy models, use of molecular analysis has been limited. The aim of this study was to develop qPCR as a valid methodology to support pre-clinical anti-malarial models by using filter papers to maintain material for qPCR and to compare this with traditional methods. FTA technology (Whatman) is a rapid and safe method for extracting nucleic acids from blood. Peripheral blood samples from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii, or P. falciparum were kept as frozen samples or as spots on FTA cards. The extracted genetic material from both types of samples was assessed for quantification by qPCR using sets of specific primers specifically designed for Plasmodium 18S rRNA, LDH, and CytB genes. The optimal conditions for nucleic acid extraction from FTA cards and qPCR amplification were set up, and were confirmed to be suitable for parasite quantification using DNA as template after storage at room temperature for as long as 26 months in the case of P. berghei samples and 52 months for P. falciparum and P. yoelii. The quality of DNA extracted from the FTA cards for gene sequencing and microsatellite amplification was also assessed. This is the first study to report the suitability of FTA cards and qPCR assay to quantify parasite load in samples from in vivo efficacy models to support the drug discovery process.

  1. Polystyrene tube radioimmunoabsorbent assay for IgE anti-penicillin antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, V.; Delgado, R.G.; Daroca, P.; Lahoz, C.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay technique has been developed based on the binding capacity of polystyrene for proteins. The method was tested on sera from thirteen patients with suspected penicillin allergy, five healthy controls, and three patients with seasonal pollen reactions. The results were compared with those obtained by the radio-allergoabsorbent method (RAST) and with basophil degranulation by penicillin. A penicillin/ovalbumin conjugate (pen-OA) was prepared and polystyrene tubes were incubated with pen-OA, 3% human serum albumin to block free sites, 1/10 dilution of test serum, anti-IgE antiserum specific for epsilon chains, and 125 I-IgE. The tubes were washed after the incubation period and the empty tubes counted in a γ scintillation counter. The specificity of the method was tested by an inhibition assay. The technique seemed more sensitive than the RAST method, the results were reproducible and in general showed good correlation with those of the RAST method. This polystyrene tube radioimmunoabsorbent method therefore provides a simple, specific and sensitive diagnostic technique for penicillin allergy. (U.K)

  2. The role of interferon gamma release assays in the monitoring of response to anti-tuberculosis treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Junaid; Pillay, Manormoney; Jeena, Prakash

    2014-09-01

    Successful control of childhood TB requires early diagnosis, effective chemotherapy and a method of evaluating the response to therapy. Identification of suitable biomarkers that predict the response to anti-TB therapy may allow the duration of treatment to be shortened. The majority of biomarker studies in paediatric TB have focused on the role of T cell-based interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) in the diagnosis of either latent or active disease. Little has been published on the role of IGRAs in the monitoring response to therapy in children. We reviewed the available literature to ascertain the value of IGRAs in the monitoring of response to anti-TB therapy in children. We explored the results of the few studies that have investigated the role of IGRAs as markers of response to anti-TB treatment in children. We conclude that the role of IGRAs as surrogate markers appears promising. Robust clinical trials are, however, needed to entrench the value of IGRAs as surrogate biomarkers of response to anti-TB therapy in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of five hepatitis delta virus marker assays for detection of antigen and antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Bezeaud, A; Rosenswajg, M; Guillin, M C

    1989-01-01

    Five commercially available assays for hepatitis delta (HD) virus markers were compared for sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility: three assays for antibody (anti-HD), provided by Diagnostics Pasteur, Organon Teknika, and Abbott Laboratories, and two assays for antigen (HD Ag), from Pasteur and Organon Teknika. The assay from Organon Teknika is the less sensitive assay for anti-HD detection. Although the sensitivities of the Pasteur and Abbott assays for anti-HD detection are similar,...

  4. Nanoparticle-based sandwich electrochemical immunoassay for carbohydrate antigen 125 with signal enhancement using enzyme-coated nanometer-sized enzyme-doped silica beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Su, Biling; Tang, Juan; Ren, Jingjing; Chen, Guonan

    2010-02-15

    A novel nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassay of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) as a model was designed to couple with a microfluidic strategy using anti-CA125-functionalized magnetic beads as immunosensing probes. To construct the immunoassay, thionine-horseradish peroxidase conjugation (TH-HRP) was initially doped into nanosilica particles using the reverse micelle method, and then HRP-labeled anti-CA125 antibodies (HRP-anti-CA125) were bound onto the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, which were used as recognition elements. Different from conventional nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunoassays, the recognition elements of the immunoassay simultaneously contained electron mediator and enzyme labels and simplified the electrochemical measurement process. The sandwich-type immunoassay format was used for the online formation of the immunocomplex in an incubation cell and captured in the detection cell with an external magnet. The electrochemical signals derived from the carried HRP toward the reduction of H(2)O(2) using the doped thionine as electron mediator. Under optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunoassay exhibited a wide working range from 0.1 to 450 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.1 U/mL CA125. The precision, reproducibility, and stability of the immunoassay were acceptable. The assay was evaluated for clinical serum samples, receiving in excellent accordance with results obtained from the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Concluding, the nanoparticle-based assay format provides a promising approach in clinical application and thus represents a versatile detection method.

  5. A biotin-drug extraction and acid dissociation (BEAD) procedure to eliminate matrix and drug interference in a protein complex anti-drug antibody (ADA) isotype specific assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongmei; Klem, Thomas; Yang, Jinsong; Qiu, Yongchang; Pan, Luying

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses in patients receiving protein therapeutics treatment is an important safety assessment for regulatory agencies, drug manufacturers, clinicians and patients. Recombinant human IGF-1/IGFBP-3 (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) is a 1:1 formulation of naturally occurring protein complex. The individual IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 proteins have multiple binding partners in serum matrix with high binding affinity to each other, which presents challenges in ADA assay development. We have developed a biotin-drug extraction with acid dissociation (BEAD) procedure followed by an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) direct assay to overcome matrix and drug interference. The method utilizes two step acid dissociation and excess biotin-drug to extract total ADA, which are further captured by soluble biotin-drug and detected in an ECL semi-homogeneous direct assay format. The pre-treatment method effectively eliminates interference by serum matrix and free drug, and enhances assay sensitivity. The assays passed acceptance criteria for all validation parameters, and have been used for clinical sample Ab testing. This method principle exemplifies a new approach for anti-isotype ADA assays, and could be an effective strategy for neutralizing antibody (NAb), pharmacokinetic (PK) and biomarker analysis in need of overcoming interference factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assay of anti-HBs antibodies using a recombinant antigen and latex particle counting: comparison with five commercial tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, L M; Cornu, C; Masson, P L; Robert, A R; Becheanu, D; Lamy, M E; Cambiaso, C L

    1991-05-01

    An assay of anti-HBs antibodies based on agglutination of latex particles coated with recombinant HBs-antigen was compared with Abbott radioimmunoassay (Abbott-RIA), which uses a human plasma-derived antigen. The population examined consisted of 76 Abbott-RIA anti-HBs-negative prevaccinated subjects and 1044 serum samples anti-HBs found positive by Abbott-RIA, including 283 samples of subjects vaccinated either with a human plasma-derived vaccine (group A; n = 180) or with a recombinant vaccine (group B; n = 103). Correlation coefficients between the two techniques were respectively r = 0.89 for the whole population (n = 1044), r = 0.98 in group A and r = 0.74 in group B. Anti-HBs titres were higher with latex than with RIA in group B as shown by the regression slopes: latex = 508 + 1.11 RIA in group A and latex = -1138 + 3.97 RIA in group B, suggesting that some vaccinated subjects from group B produced antibodies against epitopes proper to the recombinant antigen. In the prevaccinated population and in group A, the latex results were compared with those of radioimmunoassays (Abbott, Sorin) and enzyme immunoassays (Behring, Roche, Pasteur). Only the Roche-EIA detected anti-HBs in the prevaccinated subjects. The correlation between the various immunoassays was r greater than 0.96 only for values higher than 100 IU/l.

  7. A High Throughput Screening Assay for Anti-Mycobacterial Small Molecules Based on Adenylate Kinase Release as a Reporter of Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Forbes

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is well-established to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens for which new antimicrobial therapies are needed. Herein, we describe the development of a high throughput screening assay for the identification of molecules that are bactericidal against Mycobacteria. The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. We demonstrate that the assay is selective for mycobactericidal molecules and detects anti-mycobacterial activity at concentrations below the minimum inhibitory concentration of many molecules. Thus, the AK assay is more sensitive than traditional growth assays. We have validated the AK assay in the HTS setting using the Mtb surrogate organism M. smegmatis and libraries of FDA approved drugs as well as a commercially available Diversity set. The screen of the FDA-approved library demonstrated that the AK assay is able to identify the vast majority of drugs with known mycobactericidal activity. Importantly, our screen of the Diversity set revealed that the increased sensitivity of the AK assay increases the ability of M. smegmatis-based screens to detect molecules with relatively poor activity against M. smegmatis but good to excellent activity against Mtb.

  8. Evaluation of the 2. generation radio-receptional assay for anti-TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Comparison with 1. generation and anti-thyroperoxidae antibodies (AbTPO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanella, L.; Ceriani, L.; Garacini, S.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of autoantibodies to the TSH-receptor (TRAb) by radio-receptor assays (RRA) is widely requested in clinical practice for the diagnostic work-up of Graves' disease and its differentiation from diffuse thyroid autonomy. Additionally, TRAb measurement can be useful during antithyroid drug treatment of Graves' disease to evaluate the risk of relapse after therapy discontinuation. Nevertheless, some patients affected by Graves' disease are TRAb-negative when 1. generation assay is used. In this study the diagnostic performance of a newly developed 2. generation TRAb assay (TRAK human DYNOtest(R), BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) was evaluated in 74 untreated patients affected by Graves' disease, in 53 untreated patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in 88 patients affected by euthyroid nodular goiter. It was also compared the new TRAb assay with the 1. generation test (TRAK(R) Assay, BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and anti-thyroperoxidase assay (AbTPO DYNOtest(R), BRAHMS GmbH, Berlin). The 2. generation TRAb assay showed the better diagnostic sensitivity in Graves' disease (97%) with respect to the 1. generation assay (85%) and AbTPO assay (64%). The AbTPO assay was positive in 50 of 53 (94%) patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. The 1. and 2. generation TRAb assays were positive in 4 (7%) and 7 (13%) of 53 patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis, respectively. No patients affected by nodular goiter showed positive 1. and 2. generation TRAb assay while AbTPO levels were positive in 8 of 88 patients (specificity 91%). In conclusion, the 2. generation TRAb assay is clearly more sensitive than the 1. generation test and should be used in clinical practice to minimize the incidence of TRAb-negative Graves' disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic role of 2. generation TRAb assay in Graves' disease. The assay of AbTPO is the best marker for autoimmune thyroiditis but is clearly less

  9. Evaluation of the 2. generation radio-receptional assay for anti-TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Comparison with 1. generation and anti-thyroperoxidae antibodies (AbTPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanella, L.; Ceriani, L.; Garacini, S. [University Hospital Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Lab. of Endocrinology and Thyroid Unit, Varese (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    The detection of autoantibodies to the TSH-receptor (TRAb) by radio-receptor assays (RRA) is widely requested in clinical practice for the diagnostic work-up of Graves' disease and its differentiation from diffuse thyroid autonomy. Additionally, TRAb measurement can be useful during antithyroid drug treatment of Graves' disease to evaluate the risk of relapse after therapy discontinuation. Nevertheless, some patients affected by Graves' disease are TRAb-negative when 1. generation assay is used. In this study the diagnostic performance of a newly developed 2. generation TRAb assay (TRAK human DYNOtest(R), BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) was evaluated in 74 untreated patients affected by Graves' disease, in 53 untreated patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in 88 patients affected by euthyroid nodular goiter. It was also compared the new TRAb assay with the 1. generation test (TRAK(R) Assay, BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and anti-thyroperoxidase assay (AbTPO DYNOtest(R), BRAHMS GmbH, Berlin). The 2. generation TRAb assay showed the better diagnostic sensitivity in Graves' disease (97%) with respect to the 1. generation assay (85%) and AbTPO assay (64%). The AbTPO assay was positive in 50 of 53 (94%) patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. The 1. and 2. generation TRAb assays were positive in 4 (7%) and 7 (13%) of 53 patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis, respectively. No patients affected by nodular goiter showed positive 1. and 2. generation TRAb assay while AbTPO levels were positive in 8 of 88 patients (specificity 91%). In conclusion, the 2. generation TRAb assay is clearly more sensitive than the 1. generation test and should be used in clinical practice to minimize the incidence of TRAb-negative Graves' disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic role of 2. generation TRAb assay in Graves' disease. The assay of AbTPO is the best marker for

  10. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  11. An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG, which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY, an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG.

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Švajdlenka, Emil; Berchová-Bímová, Kateřina

    2017-04-30

    For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS) and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA), have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS)-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC 50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL -1 , respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC 50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL -1 . This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  13. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Its Bioactive Constituents Exhibit Antiviral Activity against HSV-2 and Anti-enzymatic Properties against Urease by an ESI-MS Based Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif T. S. Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its phytochemicals have been shown to possess a wide range of pharmacologic properties. In this study, aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (AEHS and its bioactive constituent protocatechuic acid (PCA, have been evaluated in vitro for their antiviral activity against HSV-2 clinical isolates and anti-enzymatic activity against urease. Antiherpetic activity was evaluated by the titer reduction assay in infected Vero cells, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by the neutral red dye-uptake method. Anti-urease activity was determined by a developed Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS-based assay. PCA showed potent anti-HSV-2 activity compared with that of acyclovir, with EC50 values of 0.92 and 1.43 µg∙mL−1, respectively, and selectivity indices > 217 and > 140, respectively. For the first time, AEHS was shown to exert anti-urease inhibition activity, with an IC50 value of 82.4 µg∙mL−1. This, combined with its safety, could facilitate its use in practical applications as a natural urease inhibitor. Our results present Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and its bioactive compound PCA as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of HSV-2 infection and the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.

  14. The multicenter study of a new assay for simultaneous detection of multiple anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in myositis and interstitial pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Nakashima

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autoantibodies to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs are useful in the diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM with interstitial pneumonia (IP. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA system using a mixture of recombinant ARS antigens and tested its utility in a multicenter study. METHODS: We prepared six recombinant ARSs: GST-Jo-1, His-PL-12, His-EJ and GST-KS expressed in Escherichia coli, and His-PL-7 and His-OJ expressed in Hi-5 cells. After confirming their antigenic activity, with the exception of His-OJ, we developed our ELISA system in which the five recombinant ARSs (without His-OJ were mixed. Efficiency was confirmed using the sera from 526 Japanese patients with connective tissue disease (CTD (IIM n = 250, systemic lupus erythematosus n = 91, systemic sclerosis n = 70, rheumatoid arthritis n = 75, Sjögren's syndrome n = 27 and other diseases n = 13, 168 with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP and 30 healthy controls collected from eight institutes. IIPs were classified into two groups; idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF (n = 38 and non-IPF (n = 130. RESULTS were compared with those of RNA immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 97.1% and 99.8%, respectively when compared with the RNA immunoprecipitation assay. Anti-ARS antibodies were detected in 30.8% of IIM, 2.5% of non-myositis CTD, and 10.7% of IIP (5.3% of IPF and 12.3% of non-IPF. Anti-ARS-positive non-IPF patients were younger and more frequently treated with glucocorticoids and/or immunosuppressants than anti-ARS-negative patients. CONCLUSION: A newly established ELISA detected anti-ARS antibodies as efficiently as RNA immunoprecipitation. This system will enable easier and wider use in the detection of anti-ARS antibodies in patients with IIM and IIP.

  15. Further characterization of benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced comet assay effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Schütz, Petra; Piberger, Ann Liza; Speit, Günter

    2016-03-01

    The present study aims to further characterize benzo[a]pyrene diol-epoxide (BPDE)-induced comet assay effects. Therefore, we measured DNA effects by the comet assay and adduct levels by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in human lymphocytes and A549 cells exposed to (±)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide [(±)-anti-BPDE] or (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide [(+)-anti-BPDE]. Both, the racemic form and (+)-anti-BPDE, which is the most relevant metabolite with regard to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, induced DNA migration in cultured lymphocytes in the same range of concentrations to a similar extent in the alkaline comet assay after exposure for 2h. Nevertheless, (+)-anti-BPDE induced significantly enhanced DNA migration after 16 and 18h post-cultivation which was not seen in response to (±)-anti-BPDE. Combination of the comet assay with the Fpg (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) protein did not enhance BPDE-induced effects and thus indicated the absence of Fpg-sensitive sites (oxidized purines, N7-guanine adducts, AP-sites). The aphidicolin (APC)-modified comet assay suggested significant excision repair activity of cultured lymphocytes during the first 18h of culture after a 2 h-exposure to BPDE. In contrast to these repair-related effects measured by the comet assay, HPLC analysis of stable adducts did not reveal any significant removal of (+)-anti-BPDE-induced adducts from lymphocytes during the first 22h of culture. On the other hand, HPLC measurements indicated that A549 cells repaired about 70% of (+)-anti-BPDE-induced DNA-adducts within 22h of release. However, various experiments with the APC-modified comet assay did not indicate significant repair activity during this period in A549 cells. The conflicting results obtained with the comet assay and the HPLC-based adduct analysis question the real cause for BPDE-induced DNA migration in the comet assay and the reliability of the APC-modified comet assay for the

  16. Immunoradiometric assay for cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies; Assay development and evaluation in blood transfusion practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapper, P.E.; Cleator, G.M.; Prinja-Wolks, D.; Morris, D.J. (Medical School, Manchester (United Kingdom). Department of Medical microbiology, Virology Unit); Morell, G. (Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, manchester (United Kingdom))

    1990-03-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (radio-immunosorbent test; RIST) for the detection of IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 4 (human cytomegalovirus (CMV)) has been developed. The technique utilizes CMV antigen passively adsorbed to a polyvinyl microtitration plate and a radiolabelled murine monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody to detect binding of human antibody to the 'solid phase' reagent. The assay was optimized, and its specifity confirmed by testing paired acute and convalescent sera from patients with acute CMV or other human herpesvirus infections. To determine the assay's sensitivity 1433 blood donor sera were examined. The RIST was more sensitive than a standard complement fixation (CFT). Use of a monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody in the RIST reduced non-specific binding to the control uninfected cell antigen such that blood donor sera could be tested in the assay using only a CMV antigen without generating an unacceptable false positive rate. (author). 23 refs.; 1 tab.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician. PMID:19714222

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  19. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dipstick assay for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, H. Rogier; Koelewijn, Rob; Hofwegen, Henk; Gilis, Henk; Wetsteyn, Jose C. F. M.; Wismans, Pieter J.; Sarfati, Claudine; Vervoort, Tony; van Gool, Tom

    2007-01-01

    A homemade enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Academic Medical Center ELISA [AMC-ELISA]) and a dipstick assay for the detection of anti-Strongyloides stercoralis antibodies in serum were developed and evaluated together with two commercially available ELISAs (IVD-ELISA [IVD Research, Inc.

  20. Electrochemical studies of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, and its assay in tablets and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JALDAPPAGARI SEETHARAMAPPA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of nevirapine, an anti-HIV drug, at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by voltammetric techniques. Nevirapine showed one well defined irreversible oxidation peak with a potential of 0.749 V in phosphate buffer at pH 10. The effects of different electrolytes, pH and scan rate on the electrochemical behaviour of nevira¬pine were examined to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The oxidation peak current was found to vary linearly with the concentration of nevirapine in the range of 5.0 – 350 µM. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were calculated and found to be 1.026 µM and 3.420 µM, respectively. The low relative standard deviation values of inter-day and intra-day assays highlighted the good reproducibility of the proposed m¬ethod for assay of nevirapine. Further, a sensitive and accurate differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the determination of nevirapine concentrations in pharma¬ceutical formulations.

  1. Clinical Scenarios for Discordant Anti-Xa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Vera-Aguilera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Xa test measures the activity of heparin against the activity of activated coagulation factor X; significant variability of anti-Xa levels in common clinical scenarios has been observed. Objective. To review the most common clinical settings in which anti-Xa results can be bias. Evidence Review. Guidelines and current literature search: we used PubMed, Medline, Embase, and MEDION, from 2000 to October 2013. Results. Anti-Xa test is widely used; however the assay underestimates heparin concentration in the presence of significant AT deficiency, pregnancy, end stage renal disease, and postthrombolysis and in patients with hyperbilirubinemia; limited published data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of anti-Xa assays for managing UH therapy is available. Conclusions and Relevance. To our knowledge this is the first paper that summarizes the most common causes in which this assay can be affected, several “day to day” clinical scenarios can modify the outcomes, and we concur that these rarely recognized scenarios can be affected by negative outcomes in the daily practice.

  2. Performance of hepatitis B assays on the Bayer ADVIA Centaur Immunoassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, Josef; Denoyel, Gérard; Karwowska, Sylwia; Reamer, Randy; Schmalz, John; Wright, Ted; Preisel-Simmons, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Bayer HealthCare LLC, Diagnostics Division, has developed several new assays on the ADVIA Centaur immunoassay system for the detection of markers of hepatitis B virus infection in human serum and plasma. This panel includes assays for: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), a confirmatory test method for HBsAg, antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), IgM and IgG antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc Total) and IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgM). These assays employ magnetic particle separation technology with direct chemiluminescence for optimal assay performance. All of the assays are fully automated, require sample volumes ranging from 15 microl to 100 microl (with the exception of the ADVIA Centaur HBsAg Confirmatory Assay, which requires 2 x 100 microl), and have throughputs of up to 240 tests per hour. The five ADVIA Centaur HBV assays were tested in extensive performance evaluations conducted at two sites in Europe. The performance evaluations, which included samples from HBV-infected individuals, blood donors, hospitalized/clinical patients, and HBV vaccinees (for Anti-HBs evaluation), generated performance data in support of obtaining the Communautés Européennes (CE) mark for European market distribution. The HBV performance evaluations resulted in an overall diagnostic specificity > 99%, i.e. 99.94% for the ADVIA Centaur HBsAg Assay, 100% for the ADVIA Centaur Anti-HBs Assay, 100% for the ADVIA Centaur HBc IgM Assay and 99.94% for the ADVIA Centaur HBc Total Assay. All of the ADVIA Centaur assays showed a very good diagnostic sensitivity on these populations with 100% for the ADVIA Centaur HBsAg Assay, 99.0% for the ADVIA Centaur Anti-HBs Assay, 98.53% for the ADVIA Centaur HBc IgM Assay and 100% for the ADVIA Centaur HBc Total Assay. The ADVIA Centaur HBsAg Confirmatory Test confirmed 100% of the positive HBsAg samples. Testing of interfering substances and potential cross-reacting samples for all ADVIA

  3. Laboratory assessment of anti-thrombotic therapy in heart failure, atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease: insights using thrombelastography and a micro-titre plate assay of thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y C; Xiong, Q; Ranjit, P; Lip, G Y H; Blann, A D

    2016-08-01

    As heart failure, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation all bring a risk of thrombosis, anti-thrombotic therapy is recommended. Despite such treatment, major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke still occur, implying inadequate suppression of thrombus formation. Accordingly, identification of patients whose haemostasis remains unimpaired by treatment is valuable. We compared indices for assessing thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis by two different techniques in patients on different anti-thrombotic agents, i.e. aspirin or warfarin. We determined fibrin clot formation and fibrinolysis by a microplate assay and thromboelastography, and platelet marker soluble P selectin in 181 patients with acute or chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease who were taking either aspirin or warfarin. Five thromboelastograph indices and four microplate assay indices were different on aspirin versus warfarin (p indices rate of clot formation and rate of clot dissolution were independently related to aspirin or warfarin use (p ≤ 0.001). Five microplate assay indices, but no thrombelastograph index, were different (p indices were different (p ≤ 0.002) in warfarin users. The microplate assay indices of lag time and rate of clot formation were abnormal in chronic heart failure patients on aspirin, suggesting increased risk of thrombosis despite anti-platelet use. Soluble P selectin was lower in patients on aspirin (p = 0.0175) but failed to correlate with any other index of haemostasis. The microplate assay shows promise as a tool for dissecting thrombogenesis and fibrinolysis in cardiovascular disease, and the impact of antithrombotic therapy. Prospective studies are required to determine a role in predicting thrombotic risk.

  4. PCR-based assays versus direct sequencing for evaluating the effect of KRAS status on anti-EGFR treatment response in colorectal cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianfeng Shan

    Full Text Available The survival rate of colorectal cancer (CRC patients carrying wild-type KRAS is significantly increased by combining anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb with standard chemotherapy. However, conflicting data exist in both the wild-type KRAS and mutant KRAS groups, which strongly challenge CRC anti-EGFR treatment. Here we conducted a meta-analysis in an effort to provide more reliable information regarding anti-EGFR treatment in CRC patients.We searched full reports of randomized clinical trials using Medline, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO, and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO. Two investigators independently screened the published literature according to our inclusive and exclusive criteria and the relative data were extracted. We used Review Manager 5.2 software to analyze the data.The addition of anti-EGFR mAb to standard chemotherapy significantly improved both progression-free survival (PFS and median overall survival (mOS in the wild-type KRAS group; hazard ratios (HRs for PFS and mOS were 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.58-0.84] and 0.83 [95% CI, 0.75-0.91], respectively. In sub-analyses of the wild-type KRAS group, when PCR-based assays are employed, PFS and mOS notably increase: the HRs were 0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.88] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.96], respectively. In sub-analyses of the mutant KRAS group, neither PCR-based assays nor direct sequencing enhance PFS or mOS.Our data suggest that PCR-based assays with high sensitivity and specificity allow accurate identification of patients with wild-type KRAS and thus increase PFS and mOS. Furthermore, such assays liberate patients with mutant KRAS from unnecessary drug side effects, and provide them an opportunity to receive appropriate treatment. Thus, establishing a precise standard reference test will substantially optimize CRC-targeted therapies.

  5. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  6. Monitoring low molecular weight heparins at therapeutic levels: dose-responses of, and correlations and differences between aPTT, anti-factor Xa and thrombin generation assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owain Thomas

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH's are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH's include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH's varying affinities for FXa and thrombin.To examine the effects of two different LMWH's on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests' concordance.Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR and Hemochron Jr (HCJ and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat. Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents.Methods' mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11 and 69s (SD 14 for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21 and 140s (SD 28 for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62-0.87, whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80-0.92.aPTT displays a linear dose-response to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa's present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is a promising method for monitoring LMWH's.

  7. A sensitive radioimmunoassay for the detection of monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morahan, G.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed in order to detect anti-idiotypic antibodies in the supernatants of hybrid cells. This assay is both sensitive and specific for anti-idiotypic (but not anti-allotypic) antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies present in test supernatants are bound by an anti-immunoglobulin coated solid phase. Subsequent incubation with a source of mouse immunoglobulin 'blocks' unreacted anti-immunoglobulin antibodies on the solid phase. Anti-idiotypic antibodies are then detected by their ability to bind 125 I-labelled idiotype-bearing antibody. This paper describes the use of this assay to detect monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies in 2 systems; the cross-reactive idiotype of A/J anti-ABA antibodies, and the idiotype expressed by the myeloma protein HOPC 8. Similarly, 125 I-labelled anti-idiotype antibodies may be used in this assay to detect monoclonal idiotype-bearing antibodies. Further modifications are described which would allow the detection of monoclonal anti-allotype antibodies. (Auth.)

  8. Validation of high throughput screening of human sera for detection of anti-PA IgG by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as an emergency response to an anthrax incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Vera A.; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Maniatis, Panagiotis; Epperson, Monica; Sabnis, Amit; Schiffer, Jarad

    2017-01-01

    To improve surge testing capability for a response to a release of Bacillus anthracis, the CDC anti-Protective Antigen (PA) IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was re-designed into a high throughput screening format. The following assay performance parameters were evaluated: goodness of fit (measured as the mean reference standard r2), accuracy (measured as percent error), precision (measured as coefficient of variance (CV)), lower limit of detection (LLOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), dilutional linearity, diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and diagnostic specificity (DSP). The paired sets of data for each sample were evaluated by Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) analysis. The goodness of fit was 0.999; percent error between the expected and observed concentration for each sample ranged from −4.6% to 14.4%. The coefficient of variance ranged from 9.0% to 21.2%. The assay LLOQ was 2.6 μg/mL. The regression analysis results for dilutional linearity data were r2 = 0.952, slope = 1.02 and intercept = −0.03. CCC between assays was 0.974 for the median concentration of serum samples. The accuracy and precision components of CCC were 0.997 and 0.977, respectively. This high throughput screening assay is precise, accurate, sensitive and specific. Anti-PA IgG concentrations determined using two different assays proved high levels of agreement. The method will improve surge testing capability 18-fold from 4 to 72 sera per assay plate. PMID:27814939

  9. Anti-inflammatory, anti-cholinergic and cytotoxic effects of Sida rhombifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Siau Hui; Teh, Soek Sin; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian

    2017-12-01

    Sida (Malvaceae) has been used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of diarrhoea, malarial, gastrointestinal dysentery, fevers, asthma and inflammation. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and anti-cholinergic activities of Sida rhombifolia Linn. whole plant for the first time. S. rhombifolia whole plant was extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The plant extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant (DPPH, FIC and FRAP), anti-inflammatory (NO and protein denaturation inhibitions), cytotoxic (MTT) and anti-cholinesterase (AChE) properties in a range of concentrations to obtain IC 50 values. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the n-hexane extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities by scavenging DPPH radicals and ferrous ions with EC 50 of 380.5 and 263.4 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, the n-hexane extract showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activity with IC 50 of 52.16 and 146.03 μg/mL for NO and protein denaturation inhibition assays, respectively. The same extract also revealed the strongest effects in anti-cholinesterase and cytotoxic tests at the concentration of 100 μg/mL, AChE enzyme inhibition was 58.55% and human cancer cells, SNU-1 and Hep G2 inhibition was 68.52% and 47.82%, respectively. The phytochemicals present in the n-hexane extract are palmitic acid, linoleic acid and γ-sitosterol. The present study revealed that the n-hexane extract possessed relatively high pharmacological activities in anti-inflammation, cytotoxicity and anti-cholinesterase assays. Thus, further work on the detail mechanism of the bioactive phytochemicals which contribute to the biological properties are strongly recommended.

  10. Synergistic Use of Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs) and “Capillary Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)” for High Sensitivity and Fast Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cho, Hyo Young; Jeong, Bongjin; Byun, Sangwon; Huh, JaeDoo; Kim, Young Jun

    2017-01-01

    Using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on “capillary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)”, we produced highly sensitive and rapid assays, which are the major attributes for point-of-care applications. First, in order to understand the size effect of AuNPs, AuNPs of varying diameters (5 nm, 10 nm, 15 nm, 20 nm, 30 nm, and 50 nm) conjugated with Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anti-C reactive protein (antiCRP) (AuNP•antiCRP-HRP) were used for well-plate ELISA. AuNP of 10 nm produced the largest optical density, enabling detection of 0.1 ng/mL of CRP with only 30 s of incubation, in contrast to 10 ng/mL for the ELISA run in the absence of AuNP. Then, AuNP of 10 nm conjugated with antiCRP-HRP (AuNP•antiCRP-HRP) was used for “capillary ELISA” to detect as low as 0.1 ng/mL of CRP. Also, kinetic study on both 96-well plates and in a capillary tube using antiCRP-HRP or AuNP•antiCRP-HRP showed a synergistic effect between AuNP and the capillary system, in which the fastest assay was observed from the “AuNP capillary ELISA”, with its maximum absorbance reaching 2.5 min, while the slowest was the typical well-plate ELISA with its maximum absorbance reaching in 13.5 min. PMID:29278402

  11. [Comparison of the performance of the ECLusys anti-HCV reagent with the Lumipulse f and HISCL 2000-i HCVAb assays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Aya; Iwahara, Kunihiro; Suga, Yasuyuki; Uchiyama, Sachinori; Maekawa, Masato

    2012-09-01

    We compared the ECLusys Anti-HCV (ECL) reagent to the Lumipulse f (LPf) and HISCL (HIS) HCV assays. In a correlation test using 210 routine clinical specimens measured using the Lumipulse method (96 positive and 114 negative), most of the results were consistent for all specimens. In a dilution sensitivity test using three different routine positive specimens, the ECL assay enabled detection at higher levels of sensitivity than either the LPf or the HIS assay. Moreover, when the distribution of the cut-off index (C.O.I.) values of the routine LPf negative specimens were compared to those on the ECL and HIS assays, it was found that on the ECL assay, most of the specimens had cut-off index values < 0.1, indicating a more clear-cut distribution. In a specificity test using high RF positive specimens(n = 33), pregnancy specimens (n = 35), cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody positive specimens (n = 36), and high M protein positive specimens (n = 21), the ECL assay yielded positive results for a CMV antibody positive specimen and three high M protein positive specimens. Further testing using samples from the same patients collected on different days than these four samples resulted in a second positive result for the CMV positive specimen, and single antigen measurement yielded a Core/NS3 positive result, as well, suggesting past infection. However, since negative results were obtained for the three M protein positive specimens, the possibility of this being a ECLusys non-specific reaction could not be ruled out. The above results confirmed that the ECL assay provides superior fundamental performance, and possesses test performance nearly identical to that of the existing measurement methods that are widely used at a large number of facilities, and would therefore be a suitable assay for use in routine HCV antibody screening.

  12. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay and flow cytometry. The anti-inflammatory effects of OCB were assessed by a nitric oxide (NO) assay ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... officially used at the 11th Winter Olympics Games of 1972 in ... well known for its beneficial properties on body condition ...

  13. Anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against anti-HBs among the patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Suzuki, H; Ueno, Y; Nagatomi, R; Kanno, A; Otsuki, M; Toyota, T

    1990-08-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) against anti-HBs were found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis type B. Anti-idiotypic antibodies were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using horseradish peroxidase conjugated mouse monoclonal anti-HBs. Ten of 72 HBsAg positive sera contained anti-Id (13.9%). The prevalence of anti-Id did not appear to correlate with HBeAg/anti-HBe system. However, HB virus specific DNA polymerase activity was significantly higher in anti-Id positive sera. In the sera obtained from the patients treated with predonisolone before, anti-Id positive rate was higher than that in the patients without a history of predonisolone therapy. These results suggest that anti-Id may be related to the immunoregulatory mechanism of HB virus replication.

  14. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Liying; Ma, Zhongsu; Cheng, Jia; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-12-23

    Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs) on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG) concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C) was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  15. Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of serum ferritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yao [China Inst. of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2007-06-15

    This assay is a solid phase, two-site fluoroimmunometric assay based on the direct sandwish technique. Standards or samples containing ferritin are first reacted with immobilized anti-ferritin antibodies. Then the europium-lablled antibodies are reacted with the bound antigen. The range of this assay is 2-1000 ng/mL. The analytical sentivity is better than 0.05 ng/mL. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation are both below 5%; This kit was compared with Wallac DELFIA kit. The correlation is r=0.96. (authors)

  16. An Aptamer Bio-barCode (ABC) assay using SPR, RNase H, and probes with RNA and gold-nanorods for anti-cancer drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jacky Fong-Chuen; Yang, Chengbin; Tsang, Hing Lun; Lau, Pui Man; Yong, Ken-Tye; Ho, Ho Pui; Kong, Siu Kai

    2017-10-07

    With modifications to an ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed a next generation aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) assay to detect cytochrome-c (Cyto-c), a cell death marker released from cancer cells, for anti-cancer drug screening. An aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library that is capable of binding to its target with high affinity and specificity based on its unique DNA sequence and 3D structure after folding. Similar to the BBC assay, Cyto-c is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Ab) and an aptamer specifically against Cyto-c to form sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab]-[Cyto-c]-[Aptamer]). After washing and melting, our aptamers, acting as a DNA bio-barcode, are released from the sandwiches and hybridized with the probes specially designed for RNase H for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. In an aptamer-probe duplex, RNase H digests the RNA in the probe and releases the intact aptamer for another round of hybridization and digestion. With signal enhancement effects from gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on probes for SPR sensing, the detection limit was found to be 1 nM for the aptamer and 80 pM for Cyto-c. Without the time-consuming DNA amplification steps by PCR, the detection process of this new ABC assay can be completed within three hours. As a proof-of-concept, phenylarsine oxide was found to be a potent agent to kill liver cancer cells with multi-drug resistance at the nano-molar level. This approach thus provides a fast, sensitive and robust tool for anti-cancer drug screening.

  17. Recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig)A1 and IgA2 anti-D used for detection of IgA deficiency and anti-IgA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif K; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA.......To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA....

  18. Validation of high throughput screening of human sera for detection of anti-PA IgG by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) as an emergency response to an anthrax incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Vera A; Steward-Clark, Evelene; Maniatis, Panagiotis; Epperson, Monica; Sabnis, Amit; Schiffer, Jarad

    2017-01-01

    To improve surge testing capability for a response to a release of Bacillus anthracis, the CDC anti-Protective Antigen (PA) IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was re-designed into a high throughput screening format. The following assay performance parameters were evaluated: goodness of fit (measured as the mean reference standard r 2 ), accuracy (measured as percent error), precision (measured as coefficient of variance (CV)), lower limit of detection (LLOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), dilutional linearity, diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and diagnostic specificity (DSP). The paired sets of data for each sample were evaluated by Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) analysis. The goodness of fit was 0.999; percent error between the expected and observed concentration for each sample ranged from -4.6% to 14.4%. The coefficient of variance ranged from 9.0% to 21.2%. The assay LLOQ was 2.6 μg/mL. The regression analysis results for dilutional linearity data were r 2  = 0.952, slope = 1.02 and intercept = -0.03. CCC between assays was 0.974 for the median concentration of serum samples. The accuracy and precision components of CCC were 0.997 and 0.977, respectively. This high throughput screening assay is precise, accurate, sensitive and specific. Anti-PA IgG concentrations determined using two different assays proved high levels of agreement. The method will improve surge testing capability 18-fold from 4 to 72 sera per assay plate. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corn silk is a well-known ingredient frequently used in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of crude flavonoids extracted from corn silk (CSFs on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that treatment with 300 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg of CSFs significantly reduced the body weight loss, water consumption, and especially the blood glucose (BG concentration of diabetic mice, which indicated their potential anti-diabetic activities. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA assays were also performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant effects. Besides, several serum lipid values including total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were reduced and the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (HDL-C was increased. The anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the CSFs suggest a potential therapeutic treatment for diabetic conditions.

  20. Immunoradiometric assay for cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, P.E.; Cleator, G.M.; Prinja-Wolks, D.; Morris, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (radio-immunosorbent test; RIST) for the detection of IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 4 [human cytomegalovirus (CMV)] has been developed. The technique utilizes CMV antigen passively adsorbed to a polyvinyl microtitration plate and a radiolabelled murine monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody to detect binding of human antibody to the 'solid phase' reagent. The assay was optimized, and its specifity confirmed by testing paired acute and convalescent sera from patients with acute CMV or other human herpesvirus infections. To determine the assay's sensitivity 1433 blood donor sera were examined. The RIST was more sensitive than a standard complement fixation (CFT). Use of a monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody in the RIST reduced non-specific binding to the control uninfected cell antigen such that blood donor sera could be tested in the assay using only a CMV antigen without generating an unacceptable false positive rate. (author). 23 refs.; 1 tab

  1. Colloidal gold-based immunochromatographic strip assay for the rapid detection of three natural estrogens in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxing; Guo, Lingling; Liu, Liqiang; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai

    2018-09-01

    In this study, we developed highly sensitive and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against estrone (E 1 ), 17β-estradiol (17β-E 2 ), and estriol (E 3 ). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of anti-E 1 , anti-17β-E 2 , and anti-E 3 mAbs were 0.46, 0.36, and 0.39 ng/mL, respectively, based on competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) results. A rapid colloidal gold-based immunoassay strip assay was developed for the determination of E 1, 17β-E 2 , and E 3 residues in milk samples. The assay had a visual cut-off value of 5 ng/mL, and required 10 min to assess with the naked eye. The results obtained from the immunochromatographic strip assay were consistent with those obtained from ic-ELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The immunochromatographic strip assay is useful and rapid for the detection of E 1 , 17β-E 2 , and E 3 in milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Idiotypic network. Assay and use of anti-idiotype antibodies in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revillard, J.P.; Oliva, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief history of idotypes, the structural basis of antibody and T cell receptor (Ti) diversity, the definition of various types of idiotopes, the idiotypic cascade and the network concept are presented. Some anti-idiotypic antibodies represent the internal image of the antigen and may be used to prepare anti-idiotypic vaccines. Other anti-idiotypic antibodies bind to cellular receptors and can mimick or antagonize the biological effects of the natural ligands (hormones, neurotransmitters etc...). The concept of regulatory idiotopes (Idx) and their use in the manipulation of the network offer new possibilities for the control for auto-antibody production. The main medical applications of idiotypy are briefly considered including cancer, transplantation, allergy and auto-immune diseases. Finally the methodology applicable to the detection and titration of anti-idiotypes is described [fr

  3. The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin derivatives on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiphatwatcharaded, Chawapon; Puthongking, Ploenthip; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Sakolchai, Sumon; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs).Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protectivity against H 2 O 2 induced cellular damage was performed via MTT assay in HGF cells. According to the standard anti-oxidant assays, the antioxidant power of AMLT and BMLT were slightly less than MLT in FRAP and superoxide scavenging assays. In the NO scavenging and TBARs assays, BMLT and AMLT were more potent than MLT, whereas DPPH assays demonstrated that MLT was more potent than others. BMLT and AMLT had more potent anti-oxidant and protective activities against H 2 O 2 in HGF cells as compared with MLT. MLT derivatives demonstrated different anti-oxidant activities as compared with MLT, depending upon assays. These findings imply that N-indole substitution of MLT may help to improve hydrogen atom transfer to free radicals but electron transfer property is slightly decreased. Anti-oxidant and protective effects of melatonin derivatives (AMLT and BMLT) on human gingival fibroblasts imply the potential use of these molecules as alternative therapeutics for chronic inflammatory oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Value of the detection of anti-HBc by radioimmunological assay in liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noly, J.C.; Sepetjan, M.; Chevallier, P.; Trepo, C.

    1983-01-01

    Detection of anti-HBc by radioimmunossay was carried out on 1365 sera obtained from 947 liver disease patients. Anti-HBc always confirmed HBV infection in patients with HBs antigenemia. By contrast in the absence of detectable HBs Ag or anti-HBs, anti-HBc often becomes the only serological clue suggesting evidence of recent or ongoing HBV infection. Since anti-HBc may persist for prolonged period of time following acute HB infection only distinction between the IgG and IgM classes of anti-HBc may help to distinguish between persistant or past infection [fr

  5. Molecularly characterized solvent extracts and saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L show high anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, brine shrimp and fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad eAyaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, GC-MS to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr, its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex, chloroform (Ph.Chf, ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc, n-Butanol (Ph.Bt, aqueous (Ph.Aq, saponins (Ph.Sp were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed on Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line using brine shrimps and MTT cells viability assays. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131 and 164 compounds respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75 and 461.53 µg/ml respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19 and 342.53 µg/ml respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50 and 71.50% cytotoxicity respectively at 1000 µg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160 and 175 µg/ml respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

  6. Structure-Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Relationships of Purpurin and Related Anthraquinones in Chemical and Cell Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Nam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone (9,10-anthraquinone and several hydroxy derivatives, including purpurin (1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone, anthrarufin (1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone, and chrysazin (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone, were evaluated for antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in chemical assays and mammalian cells (murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Several tests were used to assess their activities: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical; ABTS radical cation; hydrogen peroxide scavenging; reduction of potassium ferricyanide; chelation of ferrous ions; inhibition of lipid peroxidation; inhibition of nitric oxide generation; scavenging of the intracellular hydroxyl radical; expression of NLRP3 polypeptide for inflammasome assembly; and quantitation of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β for inflammasome activation. The results show that purpurin, from the root of the madder plant (Rubia tinctorum L., exhibited the highest antioxidative activity in both chemical and cultured cell antioxidant assays. The antioxidative activities of the other three anthraquinones were lower than that of purpurin. In addition, purpurin could down-regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, suggesting that it might protect foods against oxidative damage and prevent in vivo oxidative stress and inflammation. Structure-activity relationships and the significance of the results for food quality and human health are discussed.

  7. Anti-oxidation activity of different types of natural Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Li, P; Dong, T T; Tsim, K W

    2001-05-01

    Cordyceps, one of the well-known traditional Chinese medicines, consists of the dried fungus Cordyceps sinensis growing on the larva of the caterpillar. It is commonly used for the replenishment of body health. One of the known pharmacological effects is its anti-oxidation activity. However, there is a great variation of the quality in different sources of Cordyceps. Here, the water extracts of various sources of natural C. sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia were analyzed for their anti-oxidation activity by using three different assay methods such as the xanthine oxidase assay, the induction of hemolysis assay and the lipid peroxidation assay. The results showed that Cordyceps, in general, possesses a strong anti-oxidation activity in all assays tested. However, both natural and cultured Cordyceps showed the lowest inhibition in the lipid peroxidation when compared with the other two assay methods. The cultured Cordyceps mycelia had equally strong anti-oxidation activity as compared to the natural Cordyceps. Besides, the anti-oxidation activities were increased to 10-30 folds in the partially purified polysaccharide fractions from the cultured Cordyceps mycelia, which suggested that the activity could be derived partly from Cordyceps polysaccharides.

  8. Bioactivity assays and application of 125I labeled human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Pingping; Meng Zhiyun; Dou Guifang; Wu Yingliang; Wang Minwei

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the bioactivity and application of 125 I labeled human mouse chimeric monoclonal SM03, SM03 was labeled with 125 I using Indogen method. The labeled mixture was purified by Sephacryl S-300 HR separation chromospectry. The purity and concentration of separated fractions were determined by HPLC and Protein Assay Kit, respectively. Competitive binding method and ELISA method were used for bioactivity assays. 125 I-SM03 was applied to screen cell lines which express the most abundant CD22 antigen. The purity and recovery of 125 I-SM03 were >99% and >47%, respectively. The bioactivity of 125 I- SM03 and SM03 hasn't significant difference in statistics. Ramos cell line had the strongest special radioactivity when 125 I-SM03 bound with in Raji, Daudi and Ramos cell lines. Indogen method is a good way to label Human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03 and the label will not affect the activity of SM03. The 125 I-SM03 not only can be used for detect agent, but also may be put into market for NHL therapy. (authors)

  9. Quantification of anti-Leishmania antibodies in saliva of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos-Barreda, Ana; Escribano, Damián; Bernal, Luis J; Cerón, José J; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia

    2017-08-15

    Detection of serum anti-Leishmania antibodies by quantitative or qualitative techniques has been the most used method to diagnose Canine Leishmaniosis (CanL). Nevertheless, saliva may represent an alternative to blood because it is easy to collect, painless and non-invasive in comparison with serum. In this study, two time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) for quantification of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in saliva were developed and validated and their ability to distinguish Leishmania-seronegative from seropositive dogs was evaluated. The analytical study was performed by evaluation of assay precision, sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, serum from 48 dogs (21 Leishmania-seropositive and 27 Leishmania-seronegative) were analyzed by TR-IFMAs. The assays were precise, with an intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation lower than 11%, and showed high level of accuracy, as determined by linearity under dilution (R 2 =0.99) and recovery tests (>88.60%). Anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibodies in saliva were significantly higher in the seropositive group compared with the seronegative (pLeishmania IgA antibodies between both groups were observed. Furthermore, TR-IFMA for quantification of anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibodies in saliva showed higher differences between seropositive and seronegative dogs than the commercial assay used in serum. In conclusion, TR-IFMAs developed may be used to quantify anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in canine saliva with an adequate precision, analytical sensitivity and accuracy. Quantification of anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibodies in saliva could be potentially used to evaluate the humoral response in CanL. However, IgA in saliva seemed not to have diagnostic value for this disease. For future studies, it would be desirable to evaluate the ability of the IgG2 assay to detect dogs with subclinical disease or with low antibody titers in serum and also to study the antibodies behaviour in saliva during the

  10. Specific binding assay technique; standardization of reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, K.G.; Roitt, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The standardization of a labelled constituent, such as anti-IgE, for use in a specific binding assay method is disclosed. A labelled ligand, such as IgE, is standardized against a ligand reference substance, such as WHO standard IgE, to determine the weight of IgE protein represented by the labelled ligand. Anti-light chain antibodies are contacted with varying concentrations of the labelled ligand. The ligand is then contacted with the labelled constituent which is then quantitated in relation to the amount of ligand protein present. The preparation of 131 I-labelled IgE is described. Also disclosed is an improved specific binding assay test method for determining the potency of an allergen extract in serum from an allergic individual. The improvement involved using a parallel model system of a second complex which consisted of anti-light chain antibodies, labelled ligand and the standardized labelled constituent (anti-IgE). The amount of standardized labelled constituent bound to the ligand in the first complex was determined, as described above, and the weight of ligand inhibited by addition of soluble allergen was then used as a measure of the potency of the allergen extract. (author)

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody in type 1 diabetes mellitus: Comparison between radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Takashi; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Tomokazu; Mizutani, Yukako; Okada, Hayami; Tsukamoto, Masami; Odori, Shinji; Nakagawachi, Reiko; Kawaguchi, Yaeko; Yoshioka, Fumi; Yamada, Kazunori; Shimatsu, Akira; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sakane, Naoki

    2017-07-01

    The distributer of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody assay kit using radioimmunoassay (RIA) recently announced its discontinuation, and proposed an alternative kit using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic values of the anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody by RIA and ELISA among type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and control participants. A total of 79 type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and 79 age-matched controls were enrolled and assessed using RIA and ELISA. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values were calculated for cut-off values (RIA = 1.5 U/mL and ELISA = 5.0 U/mL, respectively). Kappa coefficients were used to test for agreements between the RIA and ELISA methods regarding the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values for diagnosing type 1 diabetes mellitus were 57.0, 97.5, 95.7, and 69.4% by RIA, and 60.8, 100.0, 100.0 and 71.8% by ELISA, respectively. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus using the RIA and ELISA methods showed substantial agreement with the kappa values of 0.74 for all participants, and of 0.64 for the acute type; however, there was moderate agreement with the kappa value of 0.56 for the slowly progressive type. The present study suggests that both anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody by RIA and ELISA was useful for diagnosing type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, in the slowly progressive type, the degree of agreement of these two kits was poorer compared with those in all participants or in the acute type. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Performance study of the automated immunoassay test anti-hepatitis C virus VIDAS® for the qualitative detection of antibodies anti-hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salvetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV represents a major worldwide public health problem requiring global action for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this infection. HCV is the leading cause of chronic liver disease, including chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma and it is responsible for about 350,000 deaths yearly. Anti-HCV assays remain the first choice for screening HCV infection in most clinical laboratories. The anti-HCV VIDAS® (bioMérieux, Marcy L’Etoile, France test has been recently launched and we aimed to evaluate its performance compared with other widely used methods. Materials and methods: Routine anti-HCV screening of clinical samples was carried out on the ARCHITECT® i2000SR platform (Abbot Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA; out of 8876 samples tested from October 2012 to May 2013, 70 sera with low positive anti-HCV results (1≤S/CO<8 were collected. These samples were tested for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies using anti-HCV VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM HCV score assays (Innogenetics NV, Ghent, Belgium. Results and conclusions: Positive anti-HCV results were obtained in 61.4% and 41.4% of sera tested with VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM, respectively. Concordance between methods was 63.2% for ARCHITECT® and VIDAS®, 42.6% for ARCHITECT® and INNO-LIATM, and 79.4% for VIDAS® and INNO-LIATM. Anti-HCV VIDAS® demonstrated superior specificity compared to the anti-HCV test ARCHITECT®; therefore, this assay has been introduced in our routine analysis as a second level screening test to select samples to be subjected to confirmatory anti- HCV immunoblot.

  14. Production and assay of forskolin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, L.T.; Ho, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Forskolin (Fo), a cardiovascular active diterpene of plant origin, has been widely used as a research tool in regulation of the catalytic activity of adenylate cyclase (AC). A linear relationship of Fo binding to plasma membrane with activation of AC has been reported. The present abstract describes the production and assay of Fo antibodies (AB). 7-0-Hemisuccinyl-7-deacetyl Fo, coupled to either human serum albumin or goat IgG, was injected into goats to elicit AB to Fo haptan. AB to Fo in antiserum or an isolated IgG fraction was tested by two assay methods, a radioimmunoassay using 3 H-Fo as a tracer and a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using horse radish peroxidase-rabbit anti goat IgG as indicator. The titers for Fo antiserum were 4000-10,000. In the defined assay condition, approximately 20-25% of the added 3 H-Fo was found to bind to AB. The bound radioactivity was displaced by Fo-HSA or Fo-goat IgG or free unlabelled Fo ranging from 0.5-50 pmol/tube, or 5-500 nM. The IC 50 was approximately 8-10 pmol/tube or 80-100 nM. The binding of HRP-rabbit anti goat IgG in the ELISA was inhibited by proper Fo conjugate. The development of methods for production and assay for Fo AB may be useful in the study of mechanism of activation of AC by Fo and Fo-like compound

  15. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, V; Sruthi, V; Padmaja, B; Asha, V V

    2011-04-12

    To determine anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities of Cuscuta reflexa in cell lines (in vitro). Anti-inflammatory activity of the water extract was analysed in vitro using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory reactions in murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The expression of COX-2 and TNF-α genes involved in inflammation was analysed by SQ RT-PCR. EMSA was conducted to analyse the influence of the extract on NF-κB signalling. Anti-cancer activity was analysed on Hep3B cells by MTT assay, DAPI staining, annexin V staining and SQ-RT PCR analysis of BAX, Bcl-2, p53 and survivin. The extract down regulated LPS induced over expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells; blocked NF-κB binding to its motifs and induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells as evidenced from MTT, DAPI staining and annexin V staining assays. The extract up regulated pro-apoptotic factors BAX and p53, and down regulated anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin. The study showed that Cuscuta reflexa inhibits LPS induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells through interplay of TNF-α, COX-2 and NF-κB signalling. It induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells through the up regulation of p53, BAX and down regulation of Bcl-2 and survivin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Autoreactive lymphocytes in thyroid disorders. 2. Comparison of anti-thyroglobulin antibody production by plaque-forming cell, radio-immunological and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Siersbaek-Nielsen, K; Hoeier-Madsen, M; Larsen, F; Husby, S

    1986-01-01

    Blood mononuclear cells (MNC) from 9 randomly selected patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were stimulated in vitro with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator. The secretion of immunoglobulins (Ig) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) was assayed by means of haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays, radioimmune assay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Total Ig and TgAb production was maximal using MNC cultured at 1.0 x 10/sup 6//ml as estimated by PFC, RIA and ELISA. The Ig and TgAb production as measured by RIA and ELISA was 1.5 - 3 times higher after 12 days' culture compared to 6 days' culture. Ig and TgAb production measured by PFC-assays at day 6 correlated positively to the results obtained by RIA and ELISA at day 12. PWM-induced TgAb secretion correlated positively to TgAb titres in serum. As judged by PFC, TgAb production was found in 8/9 patients; about 5% (range 0 - 7.9%) of the total PWM-stimulated IgG-secreting cells were involved in TgAb secretion. TgAb production as measured by ELISA and RIA was found in 6/9 patients. By reference to an affinity-purified human TgAb preparation, the TgAb secretion was about 0.7% (range 0 - 21.3%) of the total PWM-induced IgG secretion.

  17. Anti-plasmodial and anti-inflammatory activities of cyclotide-rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... orthodox anti-malarial treatments, and in search of relief, people living in ... the world today are still derived from natural sources.5. An important role in ..... each assay plate. Effect of CRF on LPS-evoked tumor necrosis factor ..... to contribute to the inflammatory cascade by increasing vascular permeability.

  18. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, C G; Deepak, M; Viswanatha, G L; Savinay, G; Hanumantharaju, V; Rajendra, C E; Halemani, Praveen D

    2013-04-13

    To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC(50) value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC(50) of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a modified IRMA for anti-D quantitation, using 3H protein A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumasia, A.; Gupte, S.

    1993-01-01

    A modified immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using tritiated ( 3 H) protein A was developed to estimate anti-D concentration. The main advantages of the assay were longer shelf life of the labelled reagent (more than two years); minimum radiation hazard and; low non specific binding. Levels of anti-D were estimated in 23 Rh (D) immunized women. A good correlation of anti-D concentration (μg/ml) with Rh antibody titre was observed (r=+ 0.89, P 3 H protein A IRMA correlated well with the severity of Rh-HDN. This assay could quantitate anti-D in sera having exclusively IgG 3 subtype. (author). 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Measurement of immunoglobulin production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffe, L.M.; Maini, R.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Meretey, K.

    1981-01-01

    A simple solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for IgG and IgM is described. Supernatants from lymphocyte cultures are incubated in microtitre plates which have been precoated with anti-IgG or anti-IgM. Subsequent binding of 125 I-labelled anti-immunoglobulin is measured and IgG and IgM in supernatants are estimated from the standard curve constructed for each assay. The assay is specific for human IgG and IgM, is able to detect nanogram amounts and offers advantages over other techniques for evaluating in vitro lymphocyte function. (Auth.)

  1. [Evaluation of the Performance of Two Kinds of Anti-TP Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Huang, Li-Qin; Wang, Rui; Jia, Jun-Jie; Wu, Shuo; Zhang, Jing; Ge, Hong-Wei

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and precision of 2 kinds of anti-treponema pallidum (anti-TP) ELISA reagents in our laboratory for detecting the anti-TP in voluntary blood donors, so as to provide the data support for use of ELISA reagents after introduction of chemiluminescene immunoassay (CLIA). The route detection of anti-TP was performed by using 2 kinds of ELISA reagents, then 546 responsive positive samples detected by anti-TP ELISA were collected, and the infections status of samples confirmed by treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test was identified. The confirmed results of responsive samples detected by 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents were compared, the accuracy of 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents was analyzed by drawing ROC and comparing area under curve (AUC), and precision of 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents was compared by statistical analysis of quality control data from 7.1 2016 to 6.30 2017. There were no statistical difference in confirmed positive rate of responsive samples and weak positive samples between 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents. The responsive samples detected by 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents accounted for 85.53%(467/546) of all responsive samples, the positive rate confirmed by TPPA test was 82.87%. 44 responsive samples detected by anti-TP ELISA reagent A and 35 responsive samples detected by anti-TP ELISA reagent B were confirmed to be negative by TPPA test. Comparison of AUC showed that the accuracy of 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents was more high, the difference between 2 reagents was not statistically significant. The coefficient of variation (CV) of anti-TP ELISA reagent A and B was 14.98% and 18.04% respectively, which met the precision requirement of ELISA test. The accuracy and precision of 2 kinds of anti-TP ELISA reagents used in our laboratory are similar, and using any one of anti-TP ELISA reagents all can satisfy the requirements of blood screening.

  2. TLC-bioautographic evaluation of in vitro anti-tyrosinase and anti-cholinesterase potentials of sandalwood oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Dey, Satyahari

    2013-02-01

    Sandalwood oil, rich in sesquiterpenoid alcohols, has been used in traditional medicinal systems as a relaxant and coolant. Besides, sandalwood oil is used as an ingredient in numerous skin fairness enhancing cosmetics. However, there is no available information on biological activities that relate to the above applications. Hence, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-cholinesterase potentials of sandalwood oil were probed by both TLC-bioautographic and colorimetric methods. Results obtained from colorimetric assays indicated that sandalwood oil is a potent inhibitor of tyrosinase (IC50 = 171 microg mL(-1)) and cholinesterases (IC50 = 4.8-58 microg mL(-1)), in comparison with the positive controls used in the assays, kojic acid and physostigmine, respectively. The TLC-bioautographic assays indicated that alpha-santalol, the major constituent of the oil, is a strong inhibitor of both tyrosinase and cholinesterase. These in vitro results indicate that there is a great potential of this essential oil for use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, as well as in skin-care.

  3. Anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 67.05μg/ml (ABTS). Methanol extract was able to inhibit inflammation by in vitro about 85-90% (HRBC stabilization method) and in vivo about 40-45% (Paw oedema method) anti-inflammatory assays compared to standard produced 50.04% at 6h period. In cytotoxicity assay (MTT assay) methanolic extract exhibited IC50 ...

  4. Two-site immunoradiometric assay for the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, V J.C.; Jones, H M; Thompson, R J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Clinical School

    1981-06-18

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is described. The method utilizes immobilized anti-human creatine kinase BB antibodies and /sup 125/I-labelled anti-human creatine kinase MM antibodies and can specifically detect creatine kinase MB in the presence of approximately 1000-fold excess of creatine kinase MM or BB. Native kinase MB prepared from human heart and creatine kinase MB prepared by hybridisation of purified human creatine kinase MM and creatine kinase BB appeared to react identically in the assay. Serum estimations on patients with suspected myocardial infarction correlated with the presence of MB band on electrophoresis but preliminary results suggest that the two-site immunoradiometric assay may be more sensitive.

  5. Screening of plant resources with anti-ice nucleation activity for frost damage prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Fukuda, Satoshi; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some polyphenols have anti-ice nucleation activity (anti-INA) against ice-nucleating bacteria that contribute to frost damage. In the present study, leaf disk freezing assay, a test of in vitro application to plant leaves, was performed for the screening of anti-INA, which inhibits the ice nucleation activity of an ice-nucleating bacterium Erwinia ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. The application of polyphenols with anti-INA, kaempferol 7-O-β-glucoside and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, to the leaf disk freezing assay by cooling at -4--6 °C for 3 h, revealed that both the compounds showed anti-INAs against E. ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. Further, this assay also revealed that the extracts of five plant leaves showed high anti-INA against E. ananas in water droplets on leaf surfaces, indicating that they are the candidate resources to protect crops from frost damage.

  6. Anti-nitric oxide production, anti-proliferation and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract from Tithonia diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsit Hiransai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the immunomodulation caused by the aqueous leaf extract of T. diversifolia, resulting from the inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-M-induced PBMCs proliferation and LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Although the anti-oxidative activity was presented in the chemical-based anti-oxidant assay, the extract cannot protect cell death from stress conditions.

  7. Anti-angiogenic activity and phytochemical screening of fruit fractions from Vitex agnus castus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Giovanna; Costa, Rosaria; D'Angelo, Valeria; Russo, Marina; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Dugo, Giacomo; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2017-12-01

    Although the antitumour activity of Vitex agnus castus fruits has been already addressed, no work has yet assessed their anti-angiogenic potential. To this purpose, several extractive fractions of such fruits were tested on zebrafish embrios by EAP assay, so that only the bioactive fractions could be subsequently tested on the chick chorioallantoic membrane by CAM assay. Bioactive fractions were also phytochemically screened to identify those bioactive compounds responsible for anti-angiogenic activity. A marked inhibition of vessel formation was detected only in zebrafish embryos treated with chloroform or ethyl acetate fractions. Considering CAM assay, chloroform fraction induced a strong reduction of microvasculature and haemoglobin content; while lower anti-angiogenic effects of the ethyl acetate fraction were determined. Phytochemical analyses confirmed the presence of several bioactive anti-angiogenic compounds. Overall, obtained preliminary results highlighted a potential anti-angiogenic activity of V. agnus castus fruits.

  8. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surached Thitimuta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE (Camellia sinensis L.. The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE’s principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl4-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl4 intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  9. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitimuta, Surached; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2017-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE) ( Camellia sinensis L.). The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl₄-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE's principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl₄-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl₄ intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  10. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity Determination of One Hundred Kinds of Pure Chemical Compounds Using Offline and Online Screening HPLC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidant activity of one hundred kinds of pure chemical compounds found within a number of natural substances and oriental medicinal herbs (OMH. Three different methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of DPPH radical-scavenging activity, ABTS radical-scavenging activity, and online screening HPLC-ABTS assays. The results indicated that 17 compounds exhibited better inhibitory activity against ABTS radical than DPPH radical. The IC50 rate of a more practical substance is determined, and the ABTS assay IC50 values of gallic acid hydrate, (+-catechin hydrate, caffeic acid, rutin hydrate, hyperoside, quercetin, and kaempferol compounds were 1.03 ± 0.25, 3.12 ± 0.51, 1.59 ± 0.06, 4.68 ± 1.24, 3.54 ± 0.39, 1.89 ± 0.33, and 3.70 ± 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. The ABTS assay is more sensitive to identifying the antioxidant activity since it has faster reaction kinetics and a heightened response to antioxidants. In addition, there was a very small margin of error between the results of the offline-ABTS assay and those of the online screening HPLC-ABTS assay. We also evaluated the effects of 17 compounds on the NO secretion in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and also investigated the cytotoxicity of 17 compounds using a cell counting kit (CCK in order to determine the optimal concentration that would provide an effective anti-inflammatory action with minimum toxicity. These results will be compiled into a database, and this method can be a powerful preselection tool for compounds intended to be studied for their potential bioactivity and antioxidant activity related to their radical-scavenging capacity.

  11. In vitro anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, D; Feizizadeh, S; Akbari, V; Jafarian-Dehkordi, A

    2013-10-01

    Considering the emergence of antibiotic resistance, scientists are interested in using new antimicrobial agents in the treatment of infectious diseases including infections of the enteric systems. Lactic acid bacteria have the great potential to produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit and control pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-bacterial and anti-adherence properties of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus against Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of L. delbrueckii was investigated using disc diffusion and spot on lawn methods. In vitro anti-adhesion effect of L. delbrueckii against E. coli was examined using Caco-2 cells. In anti-adhesion assay, three competition conditions including competitive inhibition, adhesion inhibition, and displacement were examined. In spot on lawn method the zone of growth inhibition of E. coli by L. delbrueckii was 21.1 mm. The cell free supernatant of L. delbrueckii showed a good antibacterial activity against E. coli which was mainly related to lactic acid produced by L. delbrueckii. When two bacteria added simultaneously (competitive inhibition) degree of inhibition of E. coli binding by L. delbrueckii was 77%. In adhesion inhibition assay, L. delbrueckii was able to exclude E. coli adherence by around 43.5%. Displacement assay showed that L. delbrueckii had strong displacement ability toward E. coli and reduction of E. coli attachment by bound L. delbrueckii was 81.3%. The results suggest that L. delbrueckii may be able to inhibit E. coli infection in the gut; however more studies including in vivo studies need to be performed.

  12. A two-site immunoradiometric assay for the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, V.J.C.; Jones, H.M.; Thompson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is described. The method utilizes immobilized anti-human creatine kinase BB antibodies and 125 I-labelled anti-human creatine kinase MM antibodies and can specifically detect creatine kinase MB in the presence of approximately 1000-fold excess of creatine kinase MM or BB. Native kinase MB prepared from human heart and creatine kinase MB prepared by hybridisation of purified human creatine kinase MM and creatine kinase BB appeared to react identically in the assay. Serum estimations on patients with suspected myocardial infarction correlated with the presence of MB band on electrophoresis but preliminary results suggest that the two-site immunoradiometric assay may be more sensitive. (Auth.)

  13. Analysis of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using high-sensitivity HBsAg assays in hepatitis B virus carriers in whom HBsAg seroclearance was confirmed by conventional assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Itaru; Nakajima, Tomoaki; Suii, Hirokazu; Tatsumi, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Masakatsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Arakawa, Tomohiro; Kuwata, Yasuaki; Ohmura, Takumi; Hige, Shuhei; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Toyota, Joji

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the utility of high-sensitivity hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) assays compared with conventional HBsAg assays. Using serum samples from 114 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers in whom HBsAg seroclearance was confirmed by conventional HBsAg assays (cut-off value, 0.05 IU/mL), the amount of HBsAg was re-examined by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays (cut-off value, 0.005 IU/mL). Cases negative for HBsAg in both assays were defined as consistent cases, and cases positive for HBsAg in the high-sensitivity HBsAg assay only were defined as discrepant cases. There were 55 (48.2%) discrepant cases, and the range of HBsAg titers determined by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays was 0.005-0.056 IU/mL. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of nucleos(t)ide analog therapy, liver cirrhosis, and negative anti-HBs contributed to the discrepancies between the two assays. Cumulative anti-HBs positivity rates among discrepant cases were 12.7%, 17.2%, 38.8%, and 43.9% at baseline, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively, whereas the corresponding rates among consistent cases were 50.8%, 56.0%, 61.7%, and 68.0%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus DNA negativity rates were 56.4% and 81.4% at baseline, 51.3% and 83.3% at 1 year, and 36.8% and 95.7% at 3 years, among discrepant and consistent cases, respectively. Hepatitis B surface antigen reversion was observed only in discrepant cases. Re-examination by high-sensitivity HBsAg assays revealed that HBsAg was positive in approximately 50% of cases. Cumulative anti-HBs seroconversion rates and HBV-DNA seroclearance rates were lower in these cases, suggesting a population at risk for HBsAg reversion. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  14. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for HBe Ag and anti-HBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froesner, G G; Deinhardt, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie; Sugg, U [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Transfusionswesen mit Blutbank; Haas, H [Staedtische Krankenanstalten Esslingen (Germany, F.R.). Zentrallabor; Overby, R L [Abbott Labs., North Chicago, IL (USA)

    1978-04-01

    A highly sensitive solid phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of hepatitis Be-antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe is described. Iodine-125 labelled anti-HBe is used as a tracer. The assay is about 500 foLd more sensitive than immunodiffusion.

  15. Antioxidant and Anti-quorum Sensing Potential of Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ozgur; Sahin, Mehtap Donmez; Akdamar, Gultekin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, anti-quorum sensing, and antioxidant activities, and chemical composition of Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum extracts were evaluated. Determination of the antioxidant activity was revealed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic content assay, and the β -carotene/linoleic acid assay. The detection of phenolic compounds was determined using RP-HPLC. Anti-quorum sensing activity and violacein inhibition activity were determined using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and C. violaceum ATCC 112 472, respectively. The determination of anti-swarming activity was carried out with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. In DPPH and total phenolic content assays, the water extract exhibited good antioxidant activity. In the β -carotene-linoleic acid assay, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts exhibited good lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, demonstrating 96.95 ± 0.03 % and 95.35 ± 0.00 % at 2.5 mg/mL concentrations, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds of the extracts were determined as rutin, naringin, catechin hydrate, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were found to contain a high level of violacein inhibition and anti-quorum sensing activity. The ethanol extract also showed weak anti-swarming activity. In this first study that used Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum extracts, it was revealed that the water extract has antioxidant activity and the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts have anti-quorum sensing activity depending on the phenolic compounds that it contained. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer′s disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. Objective: The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Results: Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Conclusions: Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer′s disease.

  17. Immunoassay of serum polypeptide hormones by using 125I-labelled anti(-immunoglobulin G) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Nicholas, H

    1975-03-01

    1. A technique for indirectly labelling antibodies to polypeptide hormones, by combining them with radioactively labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) is described. (a) 125I-labelled anti-(rabbit immunoglobulin G) and anti-(guinea-pig immunoglobulin G) antibodies with high specific radioactivity were prepared after purification of the antibodies on immunoadsorbents containing the respective antigens. (b) Rabbit immunoglobulin G antibodies to human growth hormone, porcine glucagon and guinea-pig immunoglobulin G antibodies to bovine insulin and bovine parathyroid hormone were combined with immunoadsorbents containing the respective polypeptide hormone antigen. (c) The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the polypeptide hormones were reacted with 125-I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies directed against the appropriate species of immunoglobulin G,and the anti-hormone antibodies were combined with the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent. (d) 125I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and anti-hormone antibodies were simultaneously eluted from the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent by dilute HCl, pH 2.0. After elution the anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and antihormone antibodies were allowed to recombine at pH 8.0 and 4 degrees C. 2. The resultant immunoglobulin G-anti-immunoglobulin G complex was used in immunoradiometric (labelled antibody) and two-site assays of the respective polypeptide hormone. 3. By using these immunoassays, concentrations down to 90pg of human growth hormone/ml, 100 pg of bovine insulin/ml, 80 pg of bovine parathyroid hormone/ml and 150 pg of glucagon/ml were readily detected. Assays of human plasma for growth hormone and insulin by these methods showed good agreement with results obtained by using a directly 125I-labelled anti-hormone antibody in an immunoradiometric assay of human growth hormone or by radioimmunoassay of human insulin. 4. The method described allows immunoradiometric or two-site assays to be performed starting with as

  18. Thiazoline peptides and a tris-phenethyl urea from Didemnum molle with anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenyu; Harper, Mary Kay; Pond, Christopher D; Barrows, Louis R; Ireland, Chris M; Van Wagoner, Ryan M

    2012-08-24

    As part of our screening for anti-HIV agents from marine invertebrates, the MeOH extract of Didemnum molle was tested and showed moderate in vitro anti-HIV activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a large-scale extract allowed the identification of two new cyclopeptides, mollamides E and F (1 and 2), and one new tris-phenethyl urea, molleurea A (3). The absolute configurations were established using the advanced Marfey's method. The three compounds were evaluated for anti-HIV activity in both an HIV integrase inhibition assay and a cytoprotective cell-based assay. Compound 2 was active in both assays with IC(50) values of 39 and 78 μM, respectively. Compound 3 was active only in the cytoprotective cell-based assay, with an IC(50) value of 60 μM.

  19. An improved microculture-hemolytic spot assay for the study of carrier-specific antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotkes, P; Weisman, Z; Mozes, E; Bentwich, Z

    1984-11-30

    A microculture system based on limiting dilution and a hemolytic spot assay was adapted for study of the carrier-specific anti-hapten response in vitro. Spleen or lymph node cells from normal mice or mice immunized with NIP-ovalbumin (NIP-OVA) or NIP-human thyroglobulin (NIP-Tg) were cultured for 5 days by the microculture technique. The anti-hapten (anti-NIP) response was measured by assaying the supernatants of the microcultures in a hemolytic spot test with NIP coupled to sheep red blood cells. A micro-ELISA reader was adapted to read the degree of lysis in the spot assay which gives an objective quantitation of the degree of lysis and thus reduces the number of culture replicates. In vivo induced specific helper cells in mice immunized with the carrier protein, human thyroglobulin, as well as carrier-specific T cell factors, gave rise to carrier-specific anti-NIP responses. The microculture system may enhance the expression of T-cell helper function when suppressor cells or their precursors are present in the initial cell preparation.

  20. Development and Fit-for-Purpose Validation of a Soluble Human Programmed Death-1 Protein Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yan G; Yuan, Xiling; Newitt, John A; Peterson, Jon E; Gleason, Carol R; Haulenbeek, Jonathan; Santockyte, Rasa; Lafont, Virginie; Marsilio, Frank; Neely, Robert J; DeSilva, Binodh; Piccoli, Steven P

    2015-07-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) protein is a co-inhibitory receptor which negatively regulates immune cell activation and permits tumors to evade normal immune defense. Anti-PD-1 antibodies have been shown to restore immune cell activation and effector function-an exciting breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy. Recent reports have documented a soluble form of PD-1 (sPD-1) in the circulation of normal and disease state individuals. A clinical assay to quantify sPD-1 would contribute to the understanding of sPD-1-function and facilitate the development of anti-PD-1 drugs. Here, we report the development and validation of a sPD-1 protein assay. The assay validation followed the framework for full validation of a biotherapeutic pharmacokinetic assay. A purified recombinant human PD-1 protein was characterized extensively and was identified as the assay reference material which mimics the endogenous analyte in structure and function. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was determined to be 100 pg/mL, with a dynamic range spanning three logs to 10,000 pg/mL. The intra- and inter-assay imprecision were ≤15%, and the assay bias (percent deviation) was ≤10%. Potential matrix effects were investigated in sera from both normal healthy volunteers and selected cancer patients. Bulk-prepared frozen standards and pre-coated Streptavidin plates were used in the assay to ensure consistency in assay performance over time. This assay appears to specifically measure total sPD-1 protein since the human anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, and the endogenous ligands of PD-1 protein, PDL-1 and PDL-2, do not interfere with the assay.

  1. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for C-reactive protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for C-reactive protein (CRP) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid-phase support for anti-CRP antibodies. 125 I-labelled immunopurified anti-CRP antibody was used to quantitate the amount of CRP taken up by the solid phase. Unbound label was easily and rapidly removed by decantation after sedimenting the particles on a magnet. The assay could detect 1 μg CRP/l and had a range of up to 10 mg/l with the portion of the standard curve between 10 μg/l and 2-3 mg/l being linear. Fifty samples per hour could be processed manually from serum to CRP result with an intra-assay CV of 5.2% and an inter-assay CV of 10.0%, based on 5 replicates of 5 samples with CRP levels between 2 mg/l and 180 mg/l run in 5 separate assays. Fifty clinical samples were assayed in parallel with a standard electroimmunoassay and yielded a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.975 and a slope of 0.98. With its single, brief incubation step including all reagents and its simple phase separation procedure the present method may be the assay of choice when precise measurement of CRP concentrations is required rapidly. (Auth.)

  2. Drug Target Interference in Immunogenicity Assays: Recommendations and Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhandong Don; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Gorovits, Boris; Maia, Mauricio; Sumner, Giane; Theobald, Valerie; Wu, Yuling; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj

    2017-11-01

    Sensitive and specific methodology is required for the detection and characterization of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs). High-quality ADA data enables the evaluation of potential impact of ADAs on the drug pharmacokinetic profile, patient safety, and efficacious response to the drug. Immunogenicity assessments are typically initiated at early stages in preclinical studies and continue throughout the drug development program. One of the potential bioanalytical challenges encountered with ADA testing is the need to identify and mitigate the interference mediated by the presence of soluble drug target. A drug target, when present at sufficiently high circulating concentrations, can potentially interfere with the performance of ADA and neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays, leading to either false-positive or, in some cases, false-negative ADA and NAb assay results. This publication describes various mechanisms of assay interference by soluble drug target, as well as strategies to recognize and mitigate such target interference. Pertinent examples are presented to illustrate the impact of target interference on ADA and NAb assays as well as several mitigation strategies, including the use of anti-target antibodies, soluble versions of the receptors, target-binding proteins, lectins, and solid-phase removal of targets. Furthermore, recommendations for detection and mitigation of such interference in different formats of ADA and NAb assays are provided.

  3. Antioxidant, Iron-chelating and Anti-glucosidase Activities of Typha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron chelating activity was assessed using a ferrozine-based assay. Anti- glucosidase activity was determined using 4-nitrophenyl ... flavonoid (TF) content was determined based an aluminum chloride colorimetric assay [6]. TF content was ..... Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation protects from diabetes and loss of β-cell.

  4. Development of resazurin-based assay in 384-well format for high throughput whole cell screening of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense strain STIB 900 for the identification of potential anti-trypanosomal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kah Tee; Zahari, Zuriati; Amanah, Azimah; Zainuddin, Zafarina; Adenan, Mohd Ilham

    2016-03-01

    To accelerate the discovery of novel leads for the treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), it is necessary to have a simple, robust and cost-effective assay to identify positive hits by high throughput whole cell screening. Most of the fluorescence assay was made in black plate however in this study the HTS assay developed in 384-well format using clear plate and black plate, for comparison. The HTS assay developed is simple, sensitive, reliable and reproducible in both types of plates. Assay robustness and reproducibility were determined under the optimized conditions in 384-well plate was well tolerated in the HTS assay, including percentage of coefficient of variation (% CV) of 4.68% and 4.74% in clear and black 384-well plate, signal-to-background ratio (S/B) of 12.75 in clear 384-well plate and 12.07 in black 384-well plate, Z' factor of 0.79 and 0.82 in clear 384-well plate and black 384-well plate, respectively and final concentration of 0.30% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in both types of plate. Drug sensitivity was found to be comparable to the reported anti-trypanosomal assay in 96-well format. The reproducibility and sensitivity of this assay make it compliant to automated liquid handler use in HTS applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polysaccharides from Sargassum thunbergii: Monthly variations and anti-complement and anti-tumour activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weihua; Liu, Ge; Zhong, Weihong; Sun, Chaomin; Zhang, Quanbin

    2017-12-01

    Monthly variations of polysaccharides from Sargassum thunbergii and their anti-complement and anti-tumour activities were investigated. It was observed that an increase in fucose and total sugar contents occurred during the growth period (from early April to mid-June), accompanied by a decrease in molar ratios of other monosaccharides to fucose. The highest yields were obtained from early July to early September, which was in accordance with the significant increase in molar ratio of glucose to fucose and decrease in molar ratio of other monosaccharides to fucose. And the above results suggested that S. Thunbergii synthesized large amount of laminaran, the storage substance of brown algae, during the senescence period. However, sulfate contents were relatively stable in the life cycle of S. thunbergii. These results suggested that S. thunbergii synthesized complex sulfated heteropolysacchairdes during inactive period, while during other periods, it synthesized more sulfated galactofucan. All polysaccharides showed anti-complement activity, suggesting that the harvesting time did not influence the anti-complement activities. In the anti-tumour assay in vitro, the polysaccharides taken during the senescence period had much lower anti-tumour activity, suggesting that fucoidan, but not laminaran, determined the anti-tumour activities. Therefore, polysaccharides from S. thunbergii might have great potential in anti-complement and anti-tumour application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and angiogenic activity of polysaccharide extract obtained from Tibetan kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria Rosa Machado; Boller, Christian; Zibetti, Rosiane Guetter Mello; de Souza, Daiany; Pedroso, Luciana Lopes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The search for new bioactive molecules is a driving force for research pharmaceutical industries, especially those molecules obtained from fermentation. The molecules possessing angiogenic and anti-inflammatory attributes have attracted attention and are the focus of this study. Angiogenic activity from kefir polysaccharide extract, via chorioallantoic membrane assay, exhibited a pro-angiogenic effect compared with vascular endothelial factor (pro-angiogenic) and hydrocortisone (anti-angiogenic) activity as standards with an EC50 of 192ng/mL. In terms of anti-inflammatory activity determined via hyaluronidase enzyme assay, kefir polysaccharide extract inhibited the enzyme with a minimal activity of 2.08mg/mL and a maximum activity of 2.57mg/mL. For pharmaceutical purposes, kefir polysaccharide extract is considered to be safe because it does not inhibit VERO cells in cytotoxicity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting Anti-Cancer Active Compounds: Affinity-Based Chromatographic Assays

    OpenAIRE

    de Moraes, Marcela Cristina; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia; Seidl, Claudia; Moaddel, Ruin; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Affinity-based chromatography assays encompass the use of solid supports containing immobilized biological targets to monitor binding events in the isolation , identification and/or characterization of bioactive compounds. This powerful bioanalytical technique allows the screening of potential binders through fast analyses that can be directly performed using isolated substances or complex matrices. An overview of the recent researches in frontal and zonal affinity-based chromatography screen...

  8. EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using a LOX-inhibitor screening assay kit according to the ... and the Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Antimicrobial activities ..... the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) root bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Root bark of mulberry (Morus alba L.) has been used in herbal medicine as anti-phlogistic, liver protective, kidney protective, hypotensive, diuretic, anti-cough and analgesic agent. However, the anti-cancer activity and the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of mulberry root bark have not been elucidated. We performed in vitro study to investigate whether mulberry root bark extract (MRBE) shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. Methods In anti-inflammatory activity, NO was measured using the griess method. iNOS and proteins regulating NF-κB and ERK1/2 signaling were analyzed by Western blot. In anti-cancer activity, cell growth was measured by MTT assay. Cleaved PARP, ATF3 and cyclin D1 were analyzed by Western blot. Results In anti-inflammatory effect, MRBE blocked NO production via suppressing iNOS over-expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, MRBE inhibited NF-κB activation through p65 nuclear translocation via blocking IκB-α degradation and ERK1/2 activation via its hyper-phosphorylation. In anti-cancer activity, MRBE deos-dependently induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells, SW480. MRBE treatment to SW480 cells activated ATF3 expression and down-regulated cyclin D1 level. We also observed that MRBE-induced ATF3 expression was dependent on ROS and GSK3β. Moreover, MRBE-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation was mediated from cyclin D1 proteasomal degradation, which was dependent on ROS. Conclusions These findings suggest that mulberry root bark exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. PMID:24962785

  10. ELISA with double antigen sandwich for screening specific serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiqing; Shi Zhixu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To select a sensitive and specific laboratory examination suitable for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors. Methods: The serum anti-TP antibody in 11271 blood donors were detected using ELISA with double antigen sandwich and the outcomes were compared with those using RPR assay. The conflicting specimen were confirmed by repeating the test with TPHA assay. Results: The positive rates of serum anti-TP antibody by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR was 0.36% (41/11271) and 0.26% (29/11271), respectively. The coincidence of the detecting outcomes by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR with TPHA was 97.5% (40/41) and 63.41%(26/41) respectively. Conclusion: Compared with RPR assay, ELISA with double antigen sandwich has higher sensibility and specificity for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

  11. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodakarim Nastaran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain. Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy, Solanum surattense (Burm.f. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw. showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time.

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain) and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain), using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy), Solanum surattense (Burm.f.) and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml) and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time. PMID:20462416

  13. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-06-27

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test. Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested. Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

  14. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  15. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g respectively. The DPPH assay exhibited potent anti-oxidant abilities with IC50 8.8 µg/mL. Significant thrombolytic activity was demonstrated by clot lysis method (45.1 ± 0.8%. The methanol extract showed significant membrane stabilization on human red blood cell with IC50 value of 37.4 µg/mL. There was a significant correlation (R2>0.98 with total phenolic content versus anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The above results confirmed that E. bicolor could be a promising anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  16. A new scintillation proximity assay-based approach for the detection of KRAS mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Young; Lim, Jae-Cheong; Cho, Eun-Ha; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Radioisotope Research Div.

    2016-04-01

    KRAS is very commonly mutated resulting in a constitutively activated protein, which is independent of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand binding and resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. Although KRAS is frequently studied, there is still no uniform standard for detecting of KRAS mutations. In this report, a new scintillation proximity assay-based approach is described that determines the relative affinities of wild-type and mutated KRAS to the anti-KRAS antibody. We performed in vitro experiments using normal human colonic cells (CCD18Co), KRAS wild type (Caco-2) and KRAS mutant (HCT 116) cell lines to determine the relative affinities of wild type or mutated KRAS toward an anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. The process consists of two primary steps: immunoprecipitation from cell lysate to enrich the KRAS protein and the scintillation proximity assay of the immunoprecipitant to determine the relative affinity against the antibody. A fixed concentration of cell lysates was purified by the immunoprecipitation method. The expressions of the KRAS protein in all cell lines was quantitatively confirmed by western blot analysis. For the scintillation proximity assay, the KRAS standard protein was radiolabeled with {sup 125}I by a simple mixing process in the iodogen tube immediately at room temperature immediately before use. The obtained CPM (count per minute) values of were used to calculate the KRAS concentration using purified KRAS as the standard. The calculated relative affinities of 7 μg of Caco-2 and HCT 116 immunoprecipitants for the anti-KRAS antibody were 77 and 0%, respectively. The newly developed scintillation proximity assay-based strategy determines the relative affinities of wild-type or mutated KRAS towards the anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. This determination can help distinguish mutated KRAS from the wild type protein. The new SPA based approach for detecting KRAS mutations is applicable to many other cancer-related mutations.

  17. A new scintillation proximity assay-based approach for the detection of KRAS mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Young; Lim, Jae-Cheong; Cho, Eun-Ha; Jung, Sung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    KRAS is very commonly mutated resulting in a constitutively activated protein, which is independent of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand binding and resistant to anti-EGFR therapy. Although KRAS is frequently studied, there is still no uniform standard for detecting of KRAS mutations. In this report, a new scintillation proximity assay-based approach is described that determines the relative affinities of wild-type and mutated KRAS to the anti-KRAS antibody. We performed in vitro experiments using normal human colonic cells (CCD18Co), KRAS wild type (Caco-2) and KRAS mutant (HCT 116) cell lines to determine the relative affinities of wild type or mutated KRAS toward an anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. The process consists of two primary steps: immunoprecipitation from cell lysate to enrich the KRAS protein and the scintillation proximity assay of the immunoprecipitant to determine the relative affinity against the antibody. A fixed concentration of cell lysates was purified by the immunoprecipitation method. The expressions of the KRAS protein in all cell lines was quantitatively confirmed by western blot analysis. For the scintillation proximity assay, the KRAS standard protein was radiolabeled with 125 I by a simple mixing process in the iodogen tube immediately at room temperature immediately before use. The obtained CPM (count per minute) values of were used to calculate the KRAS concentration using purified KRAS as the standard. The calculated relative affinities of 7 μg of Caco-2 and HCT 116 immunoprecipitants for the anti-KRAS antibody were 77 and 0%, respectively. The newly developed scintillation proximity assay-based strategy determines the relative affinities of wild-type or mutated KRAS towards the anti-KRAS monoclonal antibody. This determination can help distinguish mutated KRAS from the wild type protein. The new SPA based approach for detecting KRAS mutations is applicable to many other cancer-related mutations.

  18. Molecular Biological Study of Anti-cancer Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chan-Yol

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available To study anti-cancer effect and molecular biological mechanism of bee venom for aqua-acupuncture, the effects of bee venom on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay, tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, flow cytometric analysis, and activity of caspase-3 protease activity assay. To explore whether anti-cancer effects of bee venom are associated with the transcriptional control of gene expression, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of apoptosis-related genes was performed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The MTT assay demonstrated that cell viability was decreased by bee venom in a dose-dependant manner. 2. Significant induction of apoptosis was identified using tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, and flow cytometric analysis of sub G1 fraction. 3. In analysis of caspase-3 protease activity, the activity had increased significantly, in a dose-dependant manner. 4. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the apoptosis-related genes showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated whereas Bax was up-regulated by bee venom treatment.

  19. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Non-Competitive Immunoassay for Specific Detection of Nodularin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana Akter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodularin (NOD is a cyclic penta-peptide hepatotoxin mainly produced by Nodularia spumigena, reported from the brackish water bodies of various parts of the world. It can accumulate in the food chain and, for safety reasons, levels of NOD not only in water bodies but also in food matrices are of interest. Here, we report on a non-competitive immunoassay for the specific detection of NOD. A phage display technique was utilized to interrogate a synthetic antibody phage library for binders recognizing NOD bound to an anti-ADDA (3-Amino-9-methoxy-2,6,8-trimethyl-10-phenyldeca-4(E,6(E-dienoic acid monoclonal antibody (Mab. One of the obtained immunocomplex binders, designated SA32C11, showed very high specificity towards nodularin-R (NOD-R over to the tested 10 different microcystins (microcystin-LR, -dmLR, -RR, -dmRR, -YR, -LY, -LF, -LW, -LA, -WR. It was expressed in Escherichia coli as a single chain antibody fragment (scFv fusion protein and used to establish a time-resolved fluorometry-based assay in combination with the anti-ADDA Mab. The detection limit (blank + 3SD of the immunoassay, with a total assay time of 1 h 10 min, is 0.03 µg/L of NOD-R. This represents the most sensitive immunoassay method for the specific detection of NOD reported so far. The assay was tested for its performance to detect NOD using spiked (0.1 to 3 µg/L of NOD-R water samples including brackish sea and coastal water and the recovery ranged from 79 to 127%. Furthermore, a panel of environmental samples, including water from different sources, fish and other marine tissue specimens, were analyzed for NOD using the assay. The assay has potential as a rapid screening tool for the analysis of a large number of water samples for the presence of NOD. It can also find applications in the analysis of the bioaccumulation of NOD in marine organisms and in the food chain.

  20. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys. (Auth.)

  1. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M. (National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, London (UK))

    1982-10-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys.

  2. Serial interferon-gamma release assays during treatment of active tuberculosis in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Choon-Taek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA in monitoring responses to anti-tuberculosis (TB treatment is not clear. We evaluated the results of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT assay over time during the anti-TB treatment of adults with no underlying disease. Methods We enrolled soldiers who were newly diagnosed with active TB and admitted to the central referral military hospital in South Korea between May 1, 2008 and September 30, 2009. For each participant, we preformed QFT-GIT assay before treatment (baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months after initiating anti-TB medication. Results Of 67 eligible patients, 59 (88.1% completed the study protocol. All participants were males who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-negative and had no chronic diseases. Their median age was 21 years (range, 20-48. Initially, 57 (96.6% patients had positive QFT-GIT results, and 53 (89.8%, 42 (71.2%, and 39 (66.1% had positive QFT-GIT results at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The IFN-γ level at baseline was 5.31 ± 5.34 IU/ml, and the levels at 1, 3, and 6 months were 3.95 ± 4.30, 1.82 ± 2.14, and 1.50 ± 2.12 IU/ml, respectively. All patients had clinical and radiologic improvements after treatment and were cured. A lower IFN-γ level, C-reactive protein ≥ 3 mg/dl, and the presence of fever (≥ 38.3°C at diagnosis were associated with negative reversion of the QFT-GIT assay. Conclusion Although the IFN-γ level measured by QFT-GIT assay decreased after successful anti-TB treatment in most participants, less than half of them exhibited QFT-GIT reversion. Thus, the reversion to negativity of the QFT-GIT assay may not be a good surrogate for treatment response in otherwise healthy young patients with TB.

  3. Preparation of anti-CEA and anti-goat γ-globulin sera for radioimmunologic assay of carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk-Glazman, H.; Breborowicz, J.

    1977-01-01

    Goats were immunized with purified carcinoembryonic antigen, and the suitability of the antisera for clinical assays of carcinoembryonic antigen was characterized. Reactivity of equine sera to goat γ-globulin as a precipitating factor in the radioimmunologic double antibody technique was also evaluated. (author)

  4. Establishment of colloid gold immunity chromatography assay for cardiac troponin I (cTnI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dezhi; Chen Jiying; Qin Lili; Zhao Baojian; Zhang Chunming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish the colloid gold Immunity chromatography assay for cardiac troponin I. Methods: To purify cTnI from human cardiac muscle and immunize rabbit with it. cTnI antibody of rabbit anti-human cardiac muscle has been prepared and colloid gold immunity chromatography assay was established by using immunity chromatography technology. Results: Anti-serum titles of cTnI were 1:100000, Ka=2.38 x 10 9 L/mol; Methodological index: Sensitivity: 5 ng/ml; Specificity: cTnI is no cross-reaction with cTnT, cTnC and CK-MB. conclusion: The assay is highly specific, quick and simple. It can be widely used for the early diagnosis of AMI and scientific research. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurements of soluble HLA-G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M; Dahl, M; Buus, S

    2014-01-01

    . We report a novel method, a competitive immunoassay, for measuring HLA-G5/sHLA-G1 in biological fluids. The sHLA-G immunoassay is based upon a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) principle. It includes a recombinant sHLA-G1 protein in complex with β2-microglobulin and a peptide...... as a standard, biotinylated recombinant sHLA-G1 as an indicator, and the MEM-G/9 anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the capture antibody. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were evaluated. Testing with different recombinant HLA class I proteins and different anti-HLA class I mAbs showed....../ml. An intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5% at 88 ng/ml and an inter-assay CV of 23.1% at 39 ng/ml were determined. An assay based on the competitive sHLA-G ELISA may be important for measurements of sHLA-G proteins in several conditions: assisted reproduction, organ transplantation, cancer...

  6. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in vivo in mice injected with Hela cells. The parameters measured were tumor volume and weight. In vitro anti-tumor effects of PDC were assessed by measuring expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9 and P53 proteins in Hela cells via ELISA assay. Thymus ...

  7. Development and evaluation of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization assay to detect antibodies to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna; Goldberg, Tony; Marcquenski, Susan; Olson, Wendy; Goetz, Frederick; Hershberger, Paul; Hart, Lucas M.; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a target of surveillance by many state and federal agencies in the United States. Currently, the detection of VHSV relies on virus isolation, which is lethal to fish and indicates only the current infection status. A serological method is required to ascertain prior exposure. Here, we report two serologic tests for VHSV that are nonlethal, rapid, and species independent, a virus neutralization (VN) assay and a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that the VN assay had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 42.9%; the anti-nucleocapsid-blocking ELISA detected nonneutralizing VHSV antibodies at a specificity of 88.2% and a sensitivity of 96.4%. The VN assay and ELISA are valuable tools for assessing exposure to VHSV.

  8. A ''reverse'' solid-phase radio-immuno-assay for IgM-antibodies to hepatitis A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, O.H.; Matter, L.; Krishna, R.V.; Krech, U.H.

    1981-01-01

    A ''reverse'' solid-phase radio-immuno-assay for IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus (HAV) was developed. Anti-human IgM immunoglobulins were bound on the wells of polyvinylchloride microtiter plates. Serum specimens were incubated in the anti-human IgM coated wells and bound IgM antibodies were then assayed for antigen specificity by subsequent incubations with HAV antigen and 125 I-labelled human anti-HAV IgG. The test showed a high sensitivity and specificity for anti-HAV IgM antibodies. No false-positive reactions were observed either in the sera from patients with hepatobiliary disorders other than HAV infection or in the sera containing both rheumatoid factor and anti-HAV IgG antibodies. In acute HAV infections specific IgM antibodies were present already in the first specimens taken within a few days after the onset of jaundice. The persistence of the IgM antibodies was from 4 to 6 months. IgM antibody titers up to 1,000,000 were observed in the acute phase of HAV infection. In routine diagnostic work the titration of the sera was not necessary, since a reliable qualitative result was obtained by testing the sera in a single dilution of 1:100. A similar ''reverse'' immuno-assay principle may be adaptable for the diagnostic determination of IgM antibodies to different viral and microbial antigens. (author)

  9. Extracts and compounds with anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activity from Castanea mollissina Blume (Chinese chestnut).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Gao, Hui-yuan; Baba, Masaki; Okada, Yoshihito; Okuyama, Toru; Wu, Li-jun; Zhan, Li-bin

    2014-10-28

    Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut), as a food product is known for its various nutrients and functional values to the human health. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-diabetic complications and anti-cancer activities of the bioactive compounds present in C. mollissima. The kernels (CK), shells (CS) and involucres (CI) parts of C. Blume were extracted with 90% alcohol. The water suspension of these dried alcohol extracts were extracted using EtOAc and n-BuOH successively. The n-BuOH fraction of CI (CI-B) was isolated by silica gel column, Sephadex LH 20 column and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMBC, HMQC and ESI-Q-TOF MS, All the fractions and compounds isolated were evaluated on human recombinant aldose reductase (HR-AR) assay, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation assay and human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells inhibitory assay. CI-B was found to show a significant inhibitory effect in above biological screenings. Six flavonoids and three polyphenolic acids were obtained from CI-B. They were identified as kaempferol (1), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-[6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-[2''-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and kaempferol-3-O-[2", 6"-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside (6), casuariin (7), casuarinin (8) and castalagin (9). Compounds 2-9 were found to show higher activity than quercetin (positive control) in the AR assay. Compounds 3-6, 8, and 9 showed stronger inhibitory effects than amino guanidine (positive control) on AGEs production. Compounds 4-6, 7, and 8 showed much higher cytotoxic activity than 5-fluorouracil (positive control) against the human COLO 320 DM colon cancer cells. Our results suggest that flavonoids and polyphenolic acids possesses anti-diabetes complications and anti

  10. Optimisation of the microplate resazurin assay for screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of phytochemical extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Taryn E; Li, Haoxin; Colquhoun, Caitlyn D; Johnson, John A; Webster, Duncan; Gray, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Because of increased resistance to current drugs, there is an urgent need to discover new anti-mycobacterial compounds for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs. The microplate resazurin assay (MRA) is commonly used to evaluate natural products and synthetic compounds for anti-mycobacterial activity. However, the assay can be problematic and unreliable when screening methanolic phytochemical extracts. To optimise the MRA for the screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of phytochemical extracts using Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. The effects of varying assay duration, resazurin solution composition, solvent (dimethyl sulphoxide - DMSO) concentration and type of microtitre plate used on the results and reliability of the MRA were investigated. The optimal bioassay protocol was applied to methanolic extracts of medicinal plants that have been reported to possess anti-mycobacterial activity. The variables investigated were found to have significant effects on the results obtained with the MRA. A standardised procedure that can reliably quantify anti-mycobacterial activity of phytochemical extracts in as little as 48 h was identified. The optimised MRA uses 2% aqueous DMSO, with an indicator solution of 62.5 µg/mL resazurin in 5% aqueous Tween 80 over 96 h incubation. The study has identified an optimal procedure for the MRA when used with M. tuberculosis H37Ra that gives rapid, reliable and consistent results. The assay procedure has been used successfully for the screening and bioassay-guided fractionation of anti-mycobacterial compounds from methanol extracts of Canadian medicinal plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Versatile High-Throughput Fluorescence Assay for Monitoring Cas9 Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Kyle J; Light, Yooli K; Saada, Edwin A; Schoeniger, Joseph S; Harmon, Brooke

    2018-06-05

    The RNA-guided DNA nuclease Cas9 is now widely used for the targeted modification of genomes of human cells and various organisms. Despite the extensive use of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) systems for genome engineering and the rapid discovery and engineering of new CRISPR-associated nucleases, there are no high-throughput assays for measuring enzymatic activity. The current laboratory and future therapeutic uses of CRISPR technology have a significant risk of accidental exposure or clinical off-target effects, underscoring the need for therapeutically effective inhibitors of Cas9. Here, we develop a fluorescence assay for monitoring Cas9 nuclease activity and demonstrate its utility with S. pyogenes (Spy), S. aureus (Sau), and C. jejuni (Cje) Cas9. The assay was validated by quantitatively profiling the species specificity of published anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins, confirming the reported inhibition of Spy Cas9 by AcrIIA4 and Cje Cas9 by AcrIIC1 and no inhibition of Sau Cas9 by either anti-CRISPR. To identify drug-like inhibitors, we performed a screen of 189 606 small molecules for inhibition of Spy Cas9. Of 437 hits (0.2% hit rate), six were confirmed as Cas9 inhibitors in a direct gel electrophoresis secondary assay. The high-throughput nature of this assay makes it broadly applicable for the discovery of additional Cas9 inhibitors or the characterization of Cas9 enzyme variants.

  12. Immunocapture loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for the detection of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ling; Yen, Chon-Ho; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2017-11-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was used for rapid canine parvovirus (CPV) diagnosis. To reduce the time required and increase the sensitivity of the assay, an immunocapture (IC) technique was developed in this study to exclude the DNA extraction step in molecular diagnostic procedures for CPV. A polyclonal rabbit anti-CPV serum was produced against VP2-EpC that was cloned via DNA recombination. The polyclonal anti-VP2-EpC serum was used for virus capture to prepare microtubes. IC-LAMP was performed to amplify a specific CPV target gene sequence from the CPV viral particles that were captured on the microtubes, and the amplicons were analyzed using agarose electrophoresis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-LAMP-ELISA) and lateral-flow dipstick (IC-LAMP-LFD). The detection sensitivities of IC-LAMP, IC-LAMP-ELISA, and IC-LAMP-LFD were 10 -1 , 10 -1 , and 10 -1 TCID 50 /mL, respectively. Using the IC-LAMP-ELISA and IC-LAMP-LFD assays, the complete CPV diagnostic process can be achieved within 1.5h. Both of the developed IC-LAMP-based assays are simple, direct visual and efficient techniques that are applicable to the detection of CPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  14. Novel immunoradiometric assay of thyroglobulin in serum with use of monoclonal antibodies selected for lack of cross-reactivity with autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechaczyk, M.; Baldet, L.; Pau, B.; Bastide, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A multisite immunoradiometric assay for measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg), designated Magnogel-IRMA-Tg, has been developed, involving magnetic microbeads (Magnogel). This assay is based on the use of five anti-Tg monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against three antigenic regions on the Tg molecule that are not recognized by anti-Tg autoantibodies (aAbs). Four of these MAbs, directed against two antigenic domains, were coupled to the magnetic beads and were used to trap the serum antigen. Another MAb, directed against the third region, was iodinated and served as the labeled second antibody. The Magnogel-IRMA-Tg technique is reproducible, rapid, and sensitive (lower detection limit, 3 micrograms/L). The assay reliably measures serum Tg in the presence of anti-Tg aAbs

  15. A murine monoclonal antibody based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for almond (Prunus dulcis L.) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengna; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Liu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2013-11-13

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-almond soluble protein rabbit polyclonal antibodies as capture antibodies and murine monoclonal antibody 4C10 as the detection antibodies was developed. The assay is specific and sensitive (3-200 ng almond protein/mL) for almond detection. The standardized assay is accurate (assay variability assay did not register any cross-reactivity with the tested food matrices, suggesting the assay to be almond amandin specific. The assay could detect the presence of declared almond in the tested matched commercial samples. Further, the assay reliably detected the presence of almonds in the laboratory prepared food samples spiked with almond flour.

  16. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  17. Anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening effects of jucá (Libidibia ferrea Mart.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Barros, Aline Oliveira; Nogueira, Jéssica Rodrigues; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo da; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2016-11-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the human body that may be accelerated due to extrinsic causes. Libidibia ferrea, popularly known as jucá, is a small tree, which possesses an abundant phenolic composition with potential antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening potentials of jucá trunk bark (LFB) and pod (LFP) extracts. A comprehensive analysis of LFB and LFP phenolic composition was accomplished by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Effects on skin degradation were assessed by inhibitory enzymatic activity against elastase, hyaluronidase and collagenase through colorimetric assays. Cellular viability in B16F10 and primary fibroblasts were determined by Trypan Blue exclusion assay. Anti-melanogenic effects on B16F10 cells were evaluated using cellular tyrosinase, melanin content, western blot, and RT-qPCR analyses. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was determined by gelatin zymography and western blot methodologies. LC-MS/MS analyses of LFB and LFP extracts allowed the characterization of 18 compounds, among them, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and secoridoids. Additionally the pod and trunk bark compositions were compared. Hyaluronidase inhibitory activity for both extracts, LFB (IC 50  = 8.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and LFP (IC 50  = 16 ± 0.5 µg/mL), was stronger than standard rutin (IC 50  = 27.6 ± 0.06). Pro-MMP-2 was significantly inhibited by both extracts. LFB and LFP decreased the melanin content in B16F10 due to tyrosinase inhibitory activity. L. ferrea extracts has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle and depigmentant effects.

  18. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (pstar extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (pstar methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  19. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. ... Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TGs) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were assayed using Merck diagnostic kits. For histopathological analysis ...

  20. Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: Comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Ceribelli, Angela; Mordenti, Cristina; Ferrari, Fabio; Carabellese, Nice; Tincani, Angela; Satoh, Minoru; Franceschini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the performance of a line blot assay for the identification of autoantibodies in sera of patients affected by myositis, compared with immunoprecipitation (IP) as gold standard. 66 sera of patients with myositis (23 polymyositis, 8 anti-synthetase syndromes, 29 dermatomyositis and 6 overlap syndromes) were tested by commercial LB (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); 57 sera were analyzed also by IP of K562 cell extract radiolabeled with (35)S-methionine. Inter-rater agreement was calculated with Cohen's k coefficient. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) were detected in 36/57 sera (63%) by IP and in 39/66 sera (59%) by LB. The most frequent MSA found by LB were anti-Jo1 and anti-Mi2 found in 15% (10/66) of sera, followed by anti-NXP2 and anti-SRP detected in 106% (7/66) of sera. Anti-TIF1gamma and anti-MDA5 were found in 6 (9%) and 5 sera (7.6%), respectively. A good agreement between methods was found only for anti-TIF1γ, anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies, while a moderate agreement was estimated for anti-Mi2 and anti-EJ. By contrast, a high discordance rate for the detection of anti-Jo1 antibodies was evident (k: 0.3). Multiple positivity for MSA were found in 11/66 (17%) by LB and 0/57 by IP (p: 0001). Comparing the clinical features of these 11 sera, we found total discrepancies between assays in 3 sera (27.3%), a relative discrepancy due to the occurrence of one discordant autoantibody (not confirmed by IP) in 5 cases (45.5%) and a total discrepancy between LB and IP results, but with a relative concordance with clinical features were found in other 3 sera (27.3%). The semiquantitative results do not support the interpretation of the data. The use of LB assay allowed the detection of new MSA, such as anti-MDA5, anti-MJ and anti-TIF1gamma antibodies, previously not found with routine methods. However, the high prevalence of multiple positivities and the high discondant rate of anti-Jo1 antibodies could create some misinterpretation of the results from the

  1. IgA anti-Actin antibodies in children with celiac disease: comparison of immunofluorescence with Elisa assay in predicting severe intestinal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Stefano

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of serum IgA antibodies against actin filaments (AAA in patients with celiac disease (CD is strongly associated with mucosal damage and severe degrees of villous atrophy. The aims of the present study were (1 to verify the effectiveness of IgA-AAA in newly diagnosed CD patients in a clinical setting (2 to compare the immunofluorescence assay with ELISA assay; (3 to compare the correlation of our IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG-Ab class with mucosal intestinal lesions. Methods 90 patients underwent endoscopy and multiple biopsies for suspected CD on the basis of symptoms, in presence of positive tTG-Ab tests. Twenty biopsied and 25 not-biopsied subjects with negative tTG-Ab were tested as control groups. IgA-AAA assays were performed by indirect immunofluorescence using rat epithelial intestinal cells, and by ELISA with a commercial kit. tTG-Ab assay was a radio-binding assay. Intestinal specimens were collected by upper endoscopy and the histological study was done according to the Marsh's classification modified by Oberhuber (M/O. Auto-antibodies assays and histological evaluation have been performed blindly by skilled operators. Results CD diagnosis was confirmed in 82 patients (type I M/O in 2 patients, IIIA in 18 patients, IIIB in 29 patients and IIIC in 33 patients. Two patients with type 1 lesion in presence of positive tTG-Ab and abdominal complaints, started a gluten free diet. The rate of IgA-AAA positivity (sensitivity by IFI and ELISA in histologically proven celiac disease patients, were 5.5% and 25% patients in IIIA, 27.5% and 34.4% patients in IIIB, 78.8% and 75% in IIIC patients, respectively. Patients with normal or nearly normal mucosa, regardless of tTG-Ab status, presented negative IgA-AAA IFI assay. On the other hand, 1 patient with normal mucosa but positive tTG-Ab, also presented positive IgA-AAA ELISA. All healthy non biopsied

  2. The Lumipulse G HBsAg-Quant assay for screening and quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Song, Guangjun; Guan, Wenli; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Lai

    2016-02-01

    Qualitative HBsAg assay is used to screen HBV infection for decades. The utility of quantitative assay is also rejuvenated recently. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of a novel ultra-sensitive and quantitative assay, the Lumipulse assay, with the Architect and Elecsys assays. As screening methods, specificity was compared using 2043 consecutive clinical routine samples. As quantitative assays, precision and accuracy were assessed. Sera from 112 treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients, four patients undergoing antiviral therapy and one patient with acute infection were tested to compare the correlations. Samples with concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs were also quantified. The Lumipulse assay precisely quantified ultra-low level of HBsAg (0.004 IU/mL). It identified additional 0.98% (20/2043) clinical samples with trance amount of HBsAg. Three assays displayed excellent linear correlations irrespective of genotypes and S-gene mutations (R(2)>0.95, PLumipulse assay did not yield higher HBsAg concentrations in samples with concomitant anti-HBs. Compared with other assays, the Lumipulse assay is sensitive and specific for detecting HBsAg. The interpretation of the extremely low-level results, however, is challenging. Quantitative HBsAg results by different assays are highly correlated, but they should be interpreted interchangeably only after conversion to eliminate the biases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of precision and concordance of quantitative mitochondrial DNA assays: a collaborative international quality assurance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, Emma L.; Sayer, David; Nolan, David; Walker, Ulrich A.; Ronde, Anthony de; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Cote, Helene C. F.; Gahan, Michelle E.; Cherry, Catherine L.; Wesselingh, Steven L.; Reiss, Peter; Mallal, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Background: A number of international research groups have developed DNA quantitation assays in order to investigate the role of mitochondrial DNA depletion in anti-retroviral therapy-induced toxicities. Objectives: A collaborative study was undertaken to evaluate intra-assay precision and between

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  5. Specific binding-adsorbent assay method and test means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of an improved specific binding assay method and test means employing a nonspecific adsorbent for the substance to be determined, particularly hepatitis B surface (HBsub(s)) antigen, in its free state or additionally in the form of its immune complex. The invention is illustrated by 1) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen, 2) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen in the form of immune complex with antibody, 3) a study of adsorption characteristics of various anion exchange materials for HBsub(s) antigen, 4) the use of hydrophobic adsorbents in a radioimmunoadsorbent assay for HBsub(s) antigen and 5) the radioimmunoadsorbent assay for antibody to HBsub(s) antigen. The advantages of the present method for detecting HBsub(s) antigen compared to previous methods include the manufacturing advantages of eliminating the need for insolubilised anti-HBsub(s) and the advantages of a single incubation step, fewer manipulations, storability of adsorbent materials, increased sensitivity and versatility of detecting HBsub(s) antigen in the form of its immune complex if desired. (U.K.)

  6. Aptamer-Phage Reporters for Ultrasensitive Lateral Flow Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Meena; Strych, Ulrich; Kim, Jinsu; Goux, Heather; Dhamane, Sagar; Poongavanam, Mohan-Vivekanandan; Hagström, Anna E V; Kourentzi, Katerina; Conrad, Jacinta C; Willson, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    We introduce the modification of bacteriophage particles with aptamers for use as bioanalytical reporters, and demonstrate the use of these particles in ultrasensitive lateral flow assays. M13 phage displaying an in vivo biotinylatable peptide (AviTag) genetically fused to the phage tail protein pIII were used as reporter particle scaffolds, with biotinylated aptamers attached via avidin-biotin linkages, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) reporter enzymes covalently attached to the pVIII coat protein. These modified viral nanoparticles were used in immunochromatographic sandwich assays for the direct detection of IgE and of the penicillin-binding protein from Staphylococcus aureus (PBP2a). We also developed an additional lateral flow assay for IgE, in which the analyte is sandwiched between immobilized anti-IgE antibodies and aptamer-bearing reporter phage modified with HRP. The limit of detection of this LFA was 0.13 ng/mL IgE, ∼100 times lower than those of previously reported IgE assays.

  7. Field-evaluation of a new lateral flow assay for detection of cellular and humoral immunity against Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobosha, Kidist; Tjon Kon Fat, Elisa M; van den Eeden, Susan J F; Bekele, Yonas; van der Ploeg-van Schip, Jolien J; de Dood, Claudia J; Dijkman, Karin; Franken, Kees L M C; Wilson, Louis; Aseffa, Abraham; Spencer, John S; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Geluk, Annemieke

    2014-05-01

    Field-applicable tests detecting asymptomatic Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection or predicting progression to leprosy, are urgently required. Since the outcome of M. leprae infection is determined by cellular- and humoral immunity, we aim to develop diagnostic tests detecting pro-/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as antibodies against M. leprae. Previously, we developed lateral flow assays (LFA) for detection of cytokines and anti-PGL-I antibodies. Here we evaluate progress of newly developed LFAs for applications in resource-poor settings. The combined diagnostic value of IP-10, IL-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies was tested using M. leprae-stimulated blood of leprosy patients and endemic controls (EC). For reduction of the overall test-to-result time the minimal whole blood assay time required to detect distinctive responses was investigated. To accommodate LFAs for field settings, dry-format LFAs for IP-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies were developed allowing storage and shipment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, a multiplex LFA-format was applied for simultaneous detection of anti-PGL-I antibodies and IP-10. For improved sensitivity and quantitation upconverting phosphor (UCP) reporter technology was applied in all LFAs. Single and multiplex UCP-LFAs correlated well with ELISAs. The performance of dry reagent assays and portable, lightweight UCP-LF strip readers indicated excellent field-robustness. Notably, detection of IP-10 levels in stimulated samples allowed a reduction of the whole blood assay time from 24 h to 6 h. Moreover, IP-10/IL-10 ratios in unstimulated plasma differed significantly between patients and EC, indicating the feasibility to identify M. leprae infection in endemic areas. Dry-format UCP-LFAs are low-tech, robust assays allowing detection of relevant cytokines and antibodies in response to M. leprae in the field. The high levels of IP-10 and the required shorter whole blood assay time, render this cytokine useful to

  8. Field-evaluation of a new lateral flow assay for detection of cellular and humoral immunity against Mycobacterium leprae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidist Bobosha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Field-applicable tests detecting asymptomatic Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae infection or predicting progression to leprosy, are urgently required. Since the outcome of M. leprae infection is determined by cellular- and humoral immunity, we aim to develop diagnostic tests detecting pro-/anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines as well as antibodies against M. leprae. Previously, we developed lateral flow assays (LFA for detection of cytokines and anti-PGL-I antibodies. Here we evaluate progress of newly developed LFAs for applications in resource-poor settings. METHODS: The combined diagnostic value of IP-10, IL-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies was tested using M. leprae-stimulated blood of leprosy patients and endemic controls (EC. For reduction of the overall test-to-result time the minimal whole blood assay time required to detect distinctive responses was investigated. To accommodate LFAs for field settings, dry-format LFAs for IP-10 and anti-PGL-I antibodies were developed allowing storage and shipment at ambient temperatures. Additionally, a multiplex LFA-format was applied for simultaneous detection of anti-PGL-I antibodies and IP-10. For improved sensitivity and quantitation upconverting phosphor (UCP reporter technology was applied in all LFAs. RESULTS: Single and multiplex UCP-LFAs correlated well with ELISAs. The performance of dry reagent assays and portable, lightweight UCP-LF strip readers indicated excellent field-robustness. Notably, detection of IP-10 levels in stimulated samples allowed a reduction of the whole blood assay time from 24 h to 6 h. Moreover, IP-10/IL-10 ratios in unstimulated plasma differed significantly between patients and EC, indicating the feasibility to identify M. leprae infection in endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: Dry-format UCP-LFAs are low-tech, robust assays allowing detection of relevant cytokines and antibodies in response to M. leprae in the field. The high levels of IP-10 and the required

  9. Pathology consultation on anticoagulation monitoring: factor X-related assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, Geoffrey D; Lu, Chuanyi M

    2013-11-01

    To review various anticoagulation therapies and related laboratory monitoring issues, with a focus on factor X-related chromogenic assays. A case-based approach is used to review pertinent published literatures and product inserts of anticoagulation drugs and to look back on clinical use of factor X-related chromogenic assays. The number of anticoagulants available to clinicians has increased greatly in the past decade. Whether and how these anticoagulants should be monitored are areas of uncertainty for clinicians, which can lead to misuse of laboratory assays and suboptimal patient management. Factor X-related assays are of particular concern because of the similar and often confusing test names. Based on a common clinical case scenario and literature review regarding anticoagulant monitoring, an up-to-date discussion and review of the various factor X-related assays are provided, focusing on the differences in test designs and clinical utilities between the chromogenic anti-Xa and chromogenic factor X activity assays. Anticoagulation therapy and related laboratory monitoring are rapidly evolving areas of clinical practices. A good knowledge of relevant laboratory assays and their clinical applications is necessary to help optimize patient care.

  10. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in coeliac disease before and after gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, A; Zauli, D; Muratori, P; Muratori, L; Grassi, A; Bortolotti, R; Petrolini, N; Veronesi, L; Gionchetti, P; Bianchi, F B; Volta, U

    2005-04-01

    Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are markers of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis respectively. To determine the prevalence of anti-S. cerevisiae and perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in a large series of coeliac disease patients before and after gluten free diet, and to correlate anti-S. cerevisiae-positivity with intestinal mucosal damage. One hundred and five consecutive coeliac disease patients and 141 controls (22 ulcerative colitis, 24 Crohn's disease, 30 primary sclerosing cholangitis, 15 postenteritis syndrome, 50 blood donors) were tested for anti-S. cerevisiae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. In coeliac disease anti-S. cerevisiae (immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin A) were slightly less frequent (59%) than in Crohn's disease (75%, P = 0.16) and significantly more frequent than in ulcerative colitis (27%), primary sclerosing cholangitis (30%), postenteritis syndrome (26%) and blood donors (4%) (P = 0.009, P = 0.0002, P = 0.025, P < 0.0001). No correlation was found between anti-S. cerevisiae and degree of mucosal damage. Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies were detected only in one coeliac. After gluten free diet the disappearance of anti-S. cerevisiae-immunoglobulin A (93%) was more frequent than that of immunoglobulin G (17%, P = 0.0001); perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies disappeared in the only coeliac positive at diagnosis. More than half of untreated coeliacs are anti-S. cerevisiae-positive irrespective of the severity of mucosal damage. Differently from immunoglobulin A, anti-S. cerevisiae-immunoglobulin G persisted in more than 80% after gluten free diet. The high prevalence of anti-S. cerevisiae in coeliac disease suggests that they may be the effect of a non-specific immune response in course of chronic small bowel disease.

  11. Comparison of anti-androgenic activity of flutamide, vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and p, p'-DDE in rodent 10-day Hershberger assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Il Hyun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Tae Sung; Moon, Hyun Ju; Kim, In Young; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kil, Kwang Sup; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi Sook; Han, Soon Young

    2004-07-01

    The rodent Hershberger assay proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is in the process of the validating a test method to detecting the androgenic or anti-androgenic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-androgenic properties of flutamide, vinclozolin, procymidone, linuron, and p,p'-DDE in a 10-day Hershberger assay. In the present study, we used immature Sprague-Dawley male rats castrated at 6 weeks of age. Testosterone propionate (TP) was subcutaneously injected for 10 consecutive days at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 mg/kg per day. To compare the anti-androgenic activity of test compounds, flutamide (1, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg per day), a pure androgen antagonist was used as a positive control, and administered by oral gavage after TP (0.4 mg/kg per day) treatment. In addition, vinclozolin (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), procymidone (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), linuron (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day), and p,p '-DDE (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg per day) were also administered by oral gavage after TP (0.4 mg/kg per day) treatment. As expected, TP dose-dependently increased accessory sex organ weights, and statistically significant effects were observed at doses of 0.1 (only seminal vesicles) or 0.2mg/kg per day and above. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly at 0.4 mg/kg per day and above, while serum LH levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Flutamide significantly inhibited the TP-induced re-growth of seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, and Levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC) at 1mg/kg per day and above, and Cowper's glands and glans penis at 5mg/kg per day and above. In contrast to accessory sex organ weights, flutamide did not affect the serum testosterone levels compared to the control at any concentration, but serum LH levels were significantly increased at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg per day. Similar to flutamide, vinclozolin caused a statistically significant decrease in

  12. Simultaneous detection of dual biomarkers from humans exposed to organophosphorus pesticides by combination of immunochromatographic test strip and ellman assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingming; Zhao, Yuting; Wang, Limin; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D; Liu, Fengquan; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-05-01

    A novel sandwich immunoassay based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) has been developed for simultaneously measuring both butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity and the total amount of BChE (including inhibited and active enzyme) from 70 μLpost-exposure human plasma sample. The principle of this method is based on the BChE monoclonal antibody (MAb) capable of acting as both capture antibody and detection antibody. The BChE MAb which was immobilized on the test line was able to recognize both organophosphorus BChE adducts (OP-BChE) and BChE and provided equal binding affinity, permitting detection of the total enzyme amount in post-exposure human plasma samples. The formed immunocomplexes on the test line can further be excised from the test-strip for subsequent off-line measurement of BChE activity using the Ellman assay. Therefore, dual biomarkers of BChE activity and phosphorylation (OP-BChE) will be obtained simultaneously. The whole sandwich-immunoassay was performed on one ICTS, greatly reducing analytical time. The ICTS sensor showed excellent linear responses for assaying total amount of BChE and active BChE ranging from 0.22 to 3.58nM and 0.22-7.17nM, respectively. Both the signal detection limits are 0.10nM. We validated the practical application of the proposed method to measure 124 human plasma samples from orchard workers and cotton farmers with long-term exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). The results were in highly agreement with LC/MS/MS which verified our method is extremely accurate. Combining the portability and rapidity of test strip and the compatibility of BChE MAb as both capture antibody and detection antibody, the developed method provides a baseline-free, low-cost and rapid tool for in-field monitoring of OP exposures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Li; Weiheng Su; Jie Wang; Francesco Pisani; Antonio Frigeri; Tonghui Ma

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  14. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  15. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica. PMID:25206717

  16. Thrombotic risk assessment in antiphospholipid syndrome the role of new antibody specificities and thrombin generation assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Baldovino, Simone; Schreiber, Karen

    2016-01-01

    anticoagulant, a functional coagulation assay, and anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I antibodies, generally detected by solid phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The real challenge for treating physicians is understanding what is the actual weight of aPL in provoking clinical manifestations in each...

  17. Antinociception and anti-inflammation induced by simvastatin in algesiometric assays in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Olavarria, Loreto; Zepeda, Ramiro J; Sierralta, Fernando; Prieto, Juan C

    2011-12-01

    Statins, belonging to a well-known drug class used for lowering cholesterol through competitive inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, also have other pleiotropic properties, such as anti-inflammatory action. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of simvastatin in five models of nociceptive behaviour. Oral gavage administration of simvastatin induced a dose-dependent inhibition of nociception for 1 day in the acetic acid writhing (ED(50) = 5.59 ± 0.07), tail-flick (ED(50) = 112.96 ± 8.00), hot-plate (ED(50) = 134.87 ± 2.20), formalin hind paw (ED(50) = 19.86 ± 1.12 in phase I and 23.30 ± 2.05 in phase II) and orofacial formalin (ED(50) = 5.54 ± 2.74 in phase I and 11.48 ± 1.88 in phase II) tests. However, after 3 days, the values were in the acetic acid writhing (ED(50) = 6.14 ± 0.51), tail-flick (ED(50) = 154 ± 8.88), hot-plate (ED(50) = 136.14 ± 2.94), formalin hind paw (ED(50) = 15.93 ± 0.42 in phase I and 17.10 ± 1.80 in phase II) and orofacial formalin (ED(50) = 6.79 ± 0.66 in phase I and 5.80 ± 1.49 in phase II) tests. This study demonstrated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of simvastatin in five models of tonic or phasic pain. These actions seem to be related to the inhibition of cytokine and prostanoid release and stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis. A possible clinical role of simvastatin could be related to the potentially beneficial effects in the neuropathic pain, and by their pleiotropic properties, they could play a clinical role in anti-inflammatory disease. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  18. Development of fluorescent Plasmodium falciparum for in vitro growth inhibition assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crabb Brendan S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum in vitro growth inhibition assays are widely used to evaluate and quantify the functional activity of acquired and vaccine-induced antibodies and the anti-malarial activity of known drugs and novel compounds. However, several constraints have limited the use of these assays in large-scale population studies, vaccine trials and compound screening for drug discovery and development. Methods The D10 P. falciparum line was transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP. In vitro growth inhibition assays were performed over one or two cycles of P. falciparum asexual replication using inhibitory polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits, an inhibitory monoclonal antibody, human serum samples, and anti-malarials. Parasitaemia was evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. Results Transfected parasites expressed GFP throughout all asexual stages and were clearly detectable by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Measurement of parasite growth inhibition was the same when determined by detection of GFP fluorescence or staining with ethidium bromide. There was no difference in the inhibitory activity of samples when tested against the transfected parasites compared to the parental line. The level of fluorescence of GFP-expressing parasites increased throughout the course of asexual development. Among ring-stages, GFP-fluorescent parasites were readily separated from uninfected erythrocytes by flow cytometry, whereas this was less clear using ethidium bromide staining. Inhibition by serum and antibody samples was consistently higher when tested over two cycles of growth compared to one, and when using a 1 in 10 sample dilution compared to 1 in 20, but there was no difference detected when using a different starting parasitaemia to set-up growth assays. Flow cytometry based measurements of parasitaemia proved more reproducible than microscopy counts. Conclusions Flow cytometry based assays using GFP

  19. Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for the determination of anti-native DNA antibodies. Evaluation d'une technique radio-immunologique pour la detection des anticorps anti-ADN natif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanet, C.; Soulie, E.; Absalon, Y.B.; Ocwieja, T.; Abuaf, N. (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (FR))

    1991-01-01

    The anti-native DNA antibodies were measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) type Farr assay in the sera from 648 patients: 108 with active or inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 181 with clinical symptoms of another connective tissue disease, 171 with liver diseases, 29 with different pathology and 159 normal sera were obtained from a blood bank. The anti-DNA kit has been calibrated against the first international units/ml. This assay has proved to be sensitive and specific, and appears to be reliable for the diagnosis and follow-up of SLE patients. The authors propose a new reference cut-off level higher than producer's one.

  20. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B and casein as substrates for 124-v-Mos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stabel Silvia

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mos proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase with crucial function during meiotic cell division in vertebrates. Based on oncogenic amino acid substitutions the viral derivative, 124-v-Mos, displays constitutive protein kinase activity and functions independent of unknown upstream effectors of mos protein kinase. We have utilized this property of 124-v-Mos and screened for novel mos substrates in immunocomplex kinase assays in vitro. Results We generated recombinant 124-v-Mos using the baculovirus expression system in Spodoptera frugiperda cells and demonstrated constitutive kinase activity by the ability of 124-v-Mos to auto-phosphorylate and to phosphorylate vimentin, a known substrate of c-Mos. Using this approach we analyzed a panel of acidic and basic substrates in immunocomplex protein kinase assays and identified novel in vitro substrates for 124-v-Mos, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, alpha-casein and beta-casein. We controlled mos-specific phosphorylation of PTP1B and casein in comparative assays using a synthetic kinase-inactive 124-v-Mos mutant and further, tryptic digests of mos-phosphorylated beta-casein identified a phosphopeptide specifically targeted by wild-type 124-v-Mos. Two-dimensional phosphoamino acid analyses showed that 124-v-mos targets serine and threonine residues for phosphorylation in casein at a 1:1 ratio but auto-phosphorylation occurs predominantly on serine residues. Conclusion The mos substrates identified in this study represent a basis to approach the identification of the mos-consensus phosphorylation motif, important for the development of specific inhibitors of the Mos protein kinase.

  1. Anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies in the Brown Norway rat: detection by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.; Peters, D.K.; Lockwood, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described for the detection of IgG autoantibodies to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) induced in the Brown Norway rat by mercuric chloride. The assay involves the adsorption of a collagenase digest of GBM to plastic microtitre plates and detection of bound antibody with affinity purified radiolabelled rabbit anti-rat IgG. Comparison with existing immunofluorescence methods for detection of anti-GBM antibody showed that the solid-phase RIA is highly sensitive, allowing detection of antibody in solutions with as low as 0.5 ng protein/ml. The assay is suitable for detection of anti-GBM antibody both in serum and in eluates from nephritic kidneys. The assay proved to be specific in competitive studies of inhibition brought about by GBM, keyhole limpet antigen and ovalbumin. This solid-phase RIA is reproducible, robust and easy to perform. (Auth.)

  2. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  3. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ayan Israeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Edema Factor (EF, the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules.

  4. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for determination of IgG subclass antibodies in Human Sera (''IgG subclass RAST'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurup, R.; Soendergaard, I.; Weeke, B.; University of Copenhagen, Denmark); Magnusson, C.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    We report the development of a three-layer immunoradiometric assay (TIRA) for measurement of IgG antibodies of all four subclasses in human sera. The first layer consists of diluted human serum, the second layer is monoclonal mouse antibodies to human IgG subclasses, and the third layer is 125 I-labelled rabbit anti-mouse IgG. Monoclonal anti-IgGI, anti-IgG3 and anti-IgG4 reacted only with their complementary IgG subclass, whereas the anti-IgG2 showed slight cross-reactivity to immunoglobins of other subclasses and classes and to light chain proteins. The observed cross-reactivity was found to be without importance, when the TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies. Equipotency was established by use of appropriate dilutions of the monoclonal antibodies, and the assay was calibrated by use of human reference serum. The TIRA therefore permits reliable inter-individual and intra-individual comparisons of the IgG antibody response in all four subclasses. Non-specific binding obtained with pooled normal human serum was below 0.33%. Inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 18 and 27%. The TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies to timothy grass pollen in sera from grass pollen allergies undergoing immunotherapy. (author)

  5. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiser, Susann; Koskenkorva, Taija S; Schwarz, Katrin; Wilhelm, Maria; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2016-07-21

    Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000) does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the mechanisms that may

  6. Anti-ulcer, anti-protozoan and anti-cancer activities of irradiated κ-carrageenan: some biological effects of irradiated food grade-carrageenan on various gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; Cruz, Angela C; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; De Guzman, Roche Ray C.; Abilo, Rhea Mae L.; Gutierrez, Ana Kamila O.; Deocaris, Chester C.

    2001-01-01

    κ carrageenan and its radiolytic products are both shown to strongly inhibit pepsin activity based on our in vitro peptic ulcer model. Generated Lineweaver-Burke (LB) plots resemble the trend for competitive inhibition except that the changes in the slopes are too large rendering Km to approach a negative value. Our observations corroborate with the published dual behavior of carrageenan in inhibiting peptic ulcers, that is, by exerting simultaneously both enzyme (E) competitive inhibition and substrate (S) occlusion. Irradiated-carrageenan does not display anti-protozoan activity against Tetrahymena and pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica, and anti-tumor potential based on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) nauplus tests and the MTT assay with human MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. (Author)

  7. One or two serological assay testing strategy for diagnosis of HBV and HCV infection? The use of predictive modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John V; Easterbrook, Philippa; Sands, Anita R

    2017-11-01

    Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost. Our objective was to examine the diagnostic outcomes of a one- versus two-assay serological testing strategy. These data were used to inform recommendations in the 2017 WHO Guidelines on hepatitis B and C testing. Few published studies have compared diagnostic outcomes for one-assay versus two-assay serological testing strategies for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Therefore, the principles of Bayesian statistics were used to conduct a modelling exercise to examine the outcomes of a one-assay versus two-assay testing strategy when applied to a hypothetical population of 10,000 individuals. The resulting model examined the diagnostic outcomes (true and false positive diagnoses; true and false negative diagnoses; positive and negative predictive values as a function of prevalence; and total tests required) for both one-assay and two-assay testing strategies. The performance characteristics assumed for assays used within the testing strategies were informed by WHO prequalification assessment findings and systematic reviews for diagnostic accuracy studies. Each of the presumptive testing strategies (one-assay or two-assay) was modelled at varying prevalences of HBsAg (10%, 2% and 0.4%) and of anti-HCV (40%, 10%, 2% and 0.4%), aimed at representing the range of testing populations typically encountered in WHO Member States. When the two-assay testing strategy was considered, the model assumed the independence of the

  8. Validation of a KHV antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, S M; Wang, Q; Zeng, W; Li, Y; Wang, Y; Matras, M; Reichert, M; Fichtner, D; Lenk, M; Morin, T; Olesen, N J; Skall, H F; Lee, P-Y; Zheng, S; Monaghan, S; Reiche, S; Fuchs, W; Kotler, M; Way, K; Bräuer, G; Böttcher, K; Kappe, A; Kielpinska, J

    2017-11-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes KHV disease (KHVD). The virus is highly contagious in carp or koi and can induce a high mortality. Latency and, in some cases, a lack of signs presents a challenge for virus detection. Appropriate immunological detection methods for anti-KHV antibodies have not yet been fully validated for KHV. Therefore, it was developed and validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect KHV antibodies. The assay was optimized with respect to plates, buffers, antigens and assay conditions. It demonstrated high diagnostic and analytical sensitivity and specificity and was particularly useful at the pond or farm levels. Considering the scale of the carp and koi industry worldwide, this assay represents an important practical tool for the indirect detection of KHV, also in the absence of clinical signs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, Brian C; Grebe, Stefan K G; Carranza Leon, B Gisella; Castro, M Regina; Clark, Penelope M; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Spencer, Carole A; Turcu, Adina F; Algeciras-Schimnich, Alicia

    2015-08-01

    Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) by mass spectrometry (Tg-MS) is emerging as a tool for accurate Tg quantification in patients with anti-Tg autoantibodies (TgAbs). The objective of the study was to perform analytical and clinical evaluations of two Tg-MS assays in comparison with immunometric Tg assays (Tg-IAs) and Tg RIAs (Tg-RIAs) in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients. A total of 589 samples from 495 patients, 243 TgAb-/252 TgAb+, were tested by Beckman, Roche, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms Tg and TgAb assays, two Tg-RIAs, and two Tg-MS assays. The frequency of TgAb+ was 58%, 41%, 27%, and 39% for Roche, Beckman, Siemens-Immulite, and Thermo-Brahms, respectively. In TgAb- samples, clinical sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 74%-100%, respectively, were observed across all assays. In TgAb+ samples, all Tg-IAs demonstrated assay-dependent Tg underestimation, ranging from 41% to 86%. In TgAb+ samples, the use of a common cutoff (0.5 ng/mL) for the Tg-MS, three Tg-IAs, and the USC-RIA improved the sensitivity for the Tg-MSs and Tg-RIAs when compared with the Tg-IAs. In up to 20% of TgAb+ cases, Tg-IAs failed to detect Tg that was detectable by Tg-MS. In Tg-RIAs false-high biases were observed in TgAb+ samples containing low Tg concentrations. Tg-IAs remain the method of choice for Tg quantitation in TgAb- patients. In TgAb+ patients with undetectable Tg by immunometric assay, the Tg-MS will detect Tg in up to 20% additional cases. The Tg-RIA will detect Tg in approximately 35% cases, but a significant proportion of these will be clinical false-positive results. The undetectable Tg-MS seen in approximately 40% of TgAb+ cases in patients with disease need further evaluation.

  10. An indirect antibody assay using haptenated antigen and 125I-labelled anti-hapten antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalberse, R.C.; Amsterdam Univ.

    1978-01-01

    Hapten (trinitrophenyl) was coupled to antigen (ovalbumin). The haptenated antigen was bound by anti-ovalbumin antibody and binding was quantitated with 125 I-labelled anti-hapten antibodies. Thus, with a single radioactive reagent, antibodies against a variety of antigens can be detected while the problems inherent in a labelled antiglobulin binding test are avoided. In the ovalbumin system, the haptenated antigen binding test proved to be approximately 20 times as sensitive as the iodinated ovalbumin binding test

  11. Determination of Antioxidant and Anti-Melanogenesis Activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) while anti-melanogensis activity was evaluated by tyrosinase enzyme activity and B16 melanoma cell assays (melanin inhibition and cytotoxicity).

  12. Fast detection of atrazine in corn using thermometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Zhiwei; Ning, Baoan; Liu, Ming; Bai, Jialei; Peng, Yuan; Song, Nan; Lv, Zhiqiang; Wang, Ying; Sun, Siming; Su, Xuan; Zhang, Yihong; Gao, Zhixian

    2013-09-07

    Fast detection is important in screening large-scale samples. This study establishes a direct competitive ELISA method (dcTELISA) based on an enzyme thermistor for fast atrazine (ATZ) detection. ATZ competes with β-lactamase-labeled ATZ (ATZ-E) for the binding sites on anti-ATZ monoclonal antibody (mAb). The mAb are covalently bound to Controlled Pore Glass (CPG) in an immunoreactor to form immunocomplexes with ATZ and ATZ-E. Several parameters of biosensor performance were optimized, such as the ATZ-E concentration, concentration and nature of the substrate, flow rate, and effect of temperature on the sensor response. After optimization, the assay time for a single sample was 12 min. The work process and result were compared with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The detection results exhibited a recovery rate of 88% to 107% in ATZ-spiked fresh cut corn stalks and silage samples. The results obtained via dcTELISA had good correlation with that of HPLC, and the biosensor response was reproducible and stable even when used continuously for over 4 months. All these properties suggested that the fast detection method, dcTELISA, may be used to detect pesticide residue in large-scale samples.

  13. CLINICAL-EVALUATION OF A MODIFIED ELISA, USING PHOTOBIOTINYLATED DNA, FOR THE DETECTION OF ANTI-DNA ANTIBODIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HYLKEMA, MN; HUYGEN, H; KRAMERS, C; VANDERWAL, TJ; DEJONG, J; VANBRUGGEN, MCJ; SWAAK, AJG; BERDEN, JHM; SMEENK, RJT; Hylkema, Machteld

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of anti-dsDNA antibodies is important for the diagnosis and the follow-up of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For routine detection of anti-dsDNA, the Farr assay and the immunofluorescence technique (IFT) on Crithidia luciliae proved to be very useful. The anti-dsDNA

  14. Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay for the determination of anti-native DNA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanet, C.; Soulie, E.; Absalon, Y.B.; Ocwieja, T.; Abuaf, N.

    1991-01-01

    The anti-native DNA antibodies were measured by a radioimmunoassay (RIA) type Farr assay in the sera from 648 patients: 108 with active or inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 181 with clinical symptoms of another connective tissue disease, 171 with liver diseases, 29 with different pathology and 159 normal sera were obtained from a blood bank. The anti-DNA kit has been calibrated against the first international units/ml. This assay has proved to be sensitive and specific, and appears to be reliable for the diagnosis and follow-up of SLE patients. The authors propose a new reference cut-off level higher than producer's one [fr

  15. Preliminary screening of some traditional zulu medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Opoku, A R; Geheeb-Keller, M; Hutchings, A D; Terblanche, S E; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    1999-12-15

    Aqueous and methanolic extracts from different parts of nine traditional Zulu medicinal plants, of the Vitaceae from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa were evaluated for therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial agents. Of the twenty-nine crude extracts assayed for prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, only five methanolic extracts of Cyphostemma natalitium-root, Rhoicissus digitata-leaf, R. rhomboidea-root, R. tomentosa-leaf/stem and R. tridentata-root showed significant inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1). The extracts of R. digitata-leaf and of R. rhomboidea-root exhibited the highest inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with 53 and 56%, respectively. The results suggest that Rhoicissus digitata leaves and of Rhoicissus rhomboidea roots may have the potential to be used as anti-inflammatory agents. All the screened plant extracts showed some degrees of anti-microbial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The methanolic extracts of C. natalitium-stem and root, R. rhomboidea-root, and R. tomentosa-leaf/stem, showed different anti-microbial activities against almost all micro-organisms tested. Generally, these plant extracts inhibited the gram-positive micro-organisms more than the gram-negative ones. Several plant extracts inhibited the growth of Candida albicans while only one plant extract showed inhibitory activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All the plant extracts which demonstrated good anti-inflammatory activities also showed better inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.

  16. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Cai, Weixi; Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2016-06-15

    Total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean were determined by colorimetric methods. Vitexin and isovitexin contents in mung bean were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant effects were evaluated with DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of beans were evaluated by protease and aldose reductase inhibitory assays, respectively. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains. The result showed that mung bean hull was the most abundant with vitexin at 37.43 mg/g and isovitexin at 47.18 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phytochemicals and bioactivities were most predominantly contributed by the bean hulls with exception for condensed tannin of mung bean; which was more abundant in the cotyledon than its hull. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular assays for the detection of prostate tumor derived nucleic acids in peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Martin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in American men. Although serum PSA testing is widely used for early detection, more specific prognostic tests are needed to guide treatment decisions. Recently, the enumeration of circulating prostate epithelial cells has been shown to correlate with disease recurrence and metastasis following definitive treatment. The purpose of our study was to investigate an immunomagnetic fractionation procedure to enrich circulating prostate tumor cells (CTCs from peripheral blood specimens, and to apply amplified molecular assays for the detection of prostate-specific markers (PSA, PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion mRNAs. Results As few as five prostate cancer cells were detected per 5 mL of whole blood in model system experiments using anti-EpCAM magnetic particles alone or in combination with anti-PSMA magnetic particles. In our experiments, anti-EpCAM magnetic particles alone exhibited equivalent or better analytical performance with patient samples compared to a combination of anti-EpCAM + anti-PSMA magnetic particles. Up to 39% of men with advanced prostate cancer tested positive with one or more of the molecular assays tested, whereas control samples from men with benign prostate hyperplasia gave consistently negative results as expected. Interestingly, for the vast majority of men who tested positive for PSA mRNA following CTC enrichment, their matched plasma samples also tested positive, although CTC enrichment gave higher overall mRNA copy numbers. Conclusion CTCs were successfully enriched and detected in men with advanced prostate cancer using an immunomagnetic enrichment procedure coupled with amplified molecular assays for PSA, PCA3, and TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion mRNAs. Our results indicate that men who test positive following CTC enrichment also exhibit higher detectable levels of non-cellular, circulating prostate-specific mRNAs.

  18. [Evaluation of serum PIVKA-II by Lumipulse PrestoII assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Kani, Satomi; Goto, Takaaki; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Matsuura, Kentaro; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Moriyama, Kazushige; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Sachiko; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-03-01

    Measurements of serum concentrations of Des-gamma-carboxy Prothrombin (PIVKA-II) are widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, in Lumipulsef assay, it was reported that antibodies against alkaline phosphatase (ALP) derived from anti bleeding sheets led false high values of PIVKA-II in the patients with HCC resection. To improve the previous issue, newly developed Lumipulse PrestoII assay was examined. (1) The assay was reliable and positively correlated with the previous assays (Lumipulse f and Picolumi, R = 0.997 and 0.994 (n=115), respectively). (2) Eleven cases, which had false high values of PIVKA-II by the Lumipulsef assay, were examined by the PrestoII assay with excess of inactive ALP. The false high values of 10 cases were improved, but only one was still high. False reactivity of this case was stronger than other cases, more effective adsorption was required. (3) Comparing the absorbent activity of inactive ALP among 6 different kinds, we found inactive ALP with much higher adsorbent activity. When this inactive ALP was applied to assay, false high values of PIVKA-II were improved in all 11 cases. In conclusion, the PrestoII assay, which applies the inactive ALP with high activity, is reliable and useful for clinical screening.

  19. Prophylactic anti-D preparations display variable decreases in Fc-fucosylation of anti-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Rick; Della Valle, Luciana; Verhagen, Onno J H M; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes; Ligthart, Peter; de Haas, Masja; Kumpel, Belinda; Wuhrer, Manfred; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2015-03-01

    RhIG is obtained from hyperimmunized healthy anti-D donors (HIDs) boosted with D+ red blood cells (RBCs). One hypothesis for its mechanism of action is fast clearance of opsonized D+ RBCs through Fcγ receptor (FcγR)III. Levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G Fc-fucosylation influence interactions with FcγRIII, with less Fc-fucosylation strengthening the interaction. Anti-D IgG1 Fc-glycosylation patterns in 93 plasma samples from 28 male and 28 female Dutch HIDs and RhIG were analyzed with mass spectrometry. The Fc-glycosylation profiles of HIDs were evaluated with regard to their immunization history. HID sera demonstrated clearly lowered anti-D Fc-fucosylation compared to normal IgG fucosylation (93%); this was more pronounced for female than for male HIDs (47% vs. 65%, p = 0.001). RhIG preparations from seven manufacturers varied greatly in the level of Fc-fucosylation (56%-91%). The level of fucosylation slightly increased upon repeated immunization, although it remained fairly constant over time. The RhIG from the different manufacturers all demonstrated increased Fc-galactosylation (64%-82%) compared to total IgG (38%-51%). RhIG preparations vary in Fc-fucosylation and all demonstrate increased galactosylation. Despite not knowing the exact working mechanism, immunoprophylaxis could perhaps be optimized by selection of donors whose anti-D have low amounts of Fc-fucose, to increase the clearance activity of anti-D preparations, as well as high amounts of galactosylation, for anti-inflammatory effects. Implementing a biologic assay in the standardization of RhIG preparations might be considered. © 2014 AABB.

  20. Recruitment of beta-arrestin2 to the dopamine D2 receptor: insights into anti-psychotic and anti-parkinsonian drug receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klewe, Ib V; Nielsen, Søren M; Tarpø, Louise

    2008-01-01

    , SNPA all acted as partial agonists with decreasing efficacy in the BRET assay. In contrast, a wide selection of typical and atypical anti-psychotics was incapable of stimulating beta-arrestin2 recruitment to the D2 receptor. Moreover, we observed that haloperidol, sertindole, olanzapine, clozapine...

  1. New findings on the d(TGGGAG) sequence: Surprising anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; Zarrelli, Armando; Liekens, Sandra; Noppen, Sam; Pannecouque, Christophe; Di Fabio, Giovanni

    2018-02-10

    The biological relevance of tetramolecular G-quadruplexes especially as anti-HIV agents has been extensively reported in the literature over the last years. In the light of our recent results regarding the slow G-quadruplex folding kinetics of ODNs based on d(TGGGAG) sequence, here we report a systematic anti-HIV screening to investigate the impact of the G-quadruplex folding on their anti-HIV activity. In particular, varying the single stranded concentrations of ODNs, it has been tested a pool of ODN sample solutions with different G-quadruplex concentrations. The anti-HIV assays have been designed favouring the limited kinetics involved in the tetramolecular G4-association based on the d(TGGGAG) sequence. Aiming to determine the stoichiometry of G-quadruplex structures in the same experimental conditions of the anti-HIV assays, a native gel electrophoresis was performed. The gel confirmed the G-quadruplex formation for almost all sample solutions while showing the formation of high order G4 structures for the more concentrated ODNs solutions. The most significant result is the discovery of a potent anti-HIV activity of the G-quadruplex formed by the natural d(TGGGAG) sequence (IC 50  = 14 nM) that, until now, has been reported to be completely inactive against HIV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maj Obaseki

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assays. ... bonariensis affirms the anti-inflammatory property of the plant and the phytochemicals ..... Plasma for liver function tests was obtained by centrifuging the.

  3. The Evaluation and Utilization of Marine-derived Bioactive Compounds with Anti-obesity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiu; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic throughout the world. There is thus increasing interest in searching for natural bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effect. A number of marine compounds have been regarded as potential sources of bioactive compounds and are associated with an anti-obesity effect. Marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect and their current applications, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are summarized in this review. in order to make contributions to the development of marine-derived functional food against obesity. In this review, an overview of marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect, including marine polysaccharides, marine lipid, marine peptides, marine carotenoids is intensively made with an emphasis on their efficacy and mechanism of action. Meanwhile, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are discussed. We summarize these methods into three categories: in vitro assay (including adsorption experiments and enzyme inhibitory assay), cell line study, animal experiments and clinical experiments. In addition, a brief introduction of the current applications of marine bioactive compounds with anti-obesity activity is discussed. Marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. In the past decades, numerous novel compounds with anti-obesity activity have been obtained from marine organisms, and many of them have been applied to industrial production such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Further studies are needed to explore the above-mentioned facts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Flow cytometric immunobead assay for quantitative detection of platelet autoantibodies in immune thrombocytopenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Juping; Ding, Mengyuan; Yang, Tianjie; Zuo, Bin; Weng, Zhen; Zhao, Yunxiao; He, Jun; Wu, Qingyu; Ruan, Changgeng; He, Yang

    2017-10-23

    Platelet autoantibody detection is critical for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) diagnosis and prognosis. Therefore, we aimed to establish a quantitative flow cytometric immunobead assay (FCIA) for ITP platelet autoantibodies evaluation. Capture microbeads coupled with anti-GPIX, -GPIb, -GPIIb, -GPIIIa and P-selectin antibodies were used to bind the platelet-bound autoantibodies complex generated from plasma samples of 250 ITP patients, 163 non-ITP patients and 243 healthy controls, a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated secondary antibody was the detector reagent and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) signals were recorded by flow cytometry. Intra- and inter-assay variations of the quantitative FCIA assay were assessed. Comparisons of the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy between quantitative and qualitative FCIA or monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigen (MAIPA) assay were performed. Finally, treatment process was monitored by our quantitative FCIA in 8 newly diagnosed ITPs. The coefficient of variations (CV) of the quantitative FCIA assay were respectively 9.4, 3.8, 5.4, 5.1 and 5.8% for anti-GPIX, -GPIb, -GPIIIa, -GPIIb and -P-selectin autoantibodies. Elevated levels of autoantibodies against platelet glycoproteins GPIX, GPIb, GPIIIa, GPIIb and P-selectin were detected by our quantitative FCIA in ITP patients compared to non-ITP patients or healthy controls. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of our quantitative assay were respectively 73.13, 81.98 and 78.65% when combining all 5 autoantibodies, while the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MAIPA assay were respectively 41.46, 90.41 and 72.81%. A quantitative FCIA assay was established. Reduced levels of platelet autoantibodies could be confirmed by our quantitative FCIA in ITP patients after corticosteroid treatment. Our quantitative assay is not only good for ITP diagnosis but also for ITP treatment monitoring.

  5. [AntiEGFRnano inhibites proliferation and migration of estrogen-dependent Ishikawa cells of human endometrial cancer cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Zhen-yu; Lu, Wu-guang; Cao, Peng; Hu, Yun-long; Zhou, Xing; Xue, Ping-ping; Shen, Li; Sun, Hai-xiang

    2012-10-01

    Nanobody is a kind of antibody from camel, which misses light chain. Nanobody has the same antigen binding specificity and affinity as mAb. Moreover, because of its small molecular weight, high stability and easy preparation, nanobody has great value of biomedical applications. In this study, we successfully prepared highly pure antiEGFR nanobody in E.coli using genetic engineering techniques. Cell proliferation assay (CCK-8 assay) and migration experiments (cell scratch test and Transwell assay) indicated that the recombinant antiEGFRnano can significantly inhibit the proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells. These results provide a new way of thinking and methods for EGFR-targeted therapy of endometrial cancer.

  6. Low-energy ED-XRF spectrometry application in gold assaying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marucco, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    The performances of a low-energy dispersive XRF spectrometer in gold assaying are evaluated by a series of analysis on international standards and other certified gold alloys with. Results of standard-free analysis based on fundamental parameters method compared to results of multi-standard method, demonstrate a large gain of accuracy by drawing appropriate calibration curves with use of 1 to 16 matrix-specific standards. The accuracy of gold assaying has improved by a factor of 10, as compared to the conventional touchstone test. This rather economical technique satisfies then numerous precious alloys analyst needs, representing an excellent alternative to the traditional method for quick anti-fraud controls

  7. Effects of gamma radiation immunogenicity of ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) of rabies virus and purification of anti-RNPs antibodies for diagnosis; Efeitos da radiacao gama na imunogenicidade das ribonucleoproteinas (RNPs) do virus da raiva e purificacao de anticorpos anti-RNPs para diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Elena Boamorte da

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the direct immunofluorescence test for laboratory diagnosis and serological evaluation of rabies. To achieve this test, fluorescent anti-ribo nucleoproteins (RNPs) conjugates, produced from purified IgGs of RNP-immunized animals are employed. The aims of the present study were: investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the immunogenicity of RNPs, as well as to compare two chromatographic methodologies for the purification of anti-RNPs immunoglobulins. Sera from animals immunized with either native or irradiated RNPs were compared by direct immunofluorescence and immuno enzymatic assays. Our results indicate that the animals immunized with irradiated antigen requested a lower number of doses to reach high antibody titers. The immunofluorescence assays indicated that the conjugates produced with the anti-irradiated RNPs IgGs showed similar specificity to its anti-native counterpart, but with a higher definition of the virus inclusions. The purification methods were compared by Bradford and electrophoresis assays. According to the results, we concluded that the affinity-based process resulted in higher yields, lower execution time, and higher purity of the antibodies. (author)

  8. Systematic review with meta-analysis: diagnostic performance of the combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies serum assays for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagari, R M; Rabitti, S; Greenwood, D C; Eusebi, L H; Vestito, A; Bazzoli, F

    2017-10-01

    The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays (panel test) is a non-invasive tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. However, the diagnostic reliability of this test is still uncertain. To assess the diagnostic performance of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. Medline via PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library databases and abstracts of international conferences proceedings were searched from January 1995 to December 2016 using the primary keywords "pepsinogens," "gastrin," "atrophic gastritis," "gastric precancerous lesions." Studies were included if they assessed the accuracy of the serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis using histology according to the updated Sydney System as reference standard. Twenty studies with a total of 4241 subjects assessed the performance of serum panel test for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis regardless of the site in the stomach. The summary sensitivity was 74.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 62.0-84.3) and the specificity was 95.6% (95%CI, 92.6-97.4). With a prevalence of atrophic gastritis of 27% (median prevalence across the studies), the negative predictive value was 91%. Few studies with small sample size assessed the performance of the test in detecting the site of atrophic gastritis. The combination of pepsinogen, gastrin-17 and anti-H. pylori antibodies serological assays appears to be a reliable tool for the diagnosis of atrophic gastritis. This test may be used for screening subjects or populations at high risk of gastric cancer for atrophic gastritis; however, a cost-effectiveness analysis is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Role of anti c-mpl antibody in systemic lupus erythematosus with thrombocytopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tuo; Huang, Ci Bo; Lai, Bei; Zhao, Li Ke; Chen, Ying Juan; Zhao, Yue Tao; Zhang, Chun Mei; Zeng, Xiao Feng

    2012-04-18

    To determine whether anti-thrompoietin receptor (TPO-R, c-mpl) antibody contributes to thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erytematosus (SLE) and explore the pathogenic role of this antibody. Sera from 24 SLE patients with thrombocytopenia, 27 SLE patients having normal platelet counts with a history of thrombocytopenia, 18 SLE patients with neither thrombocytopenia nor post thrombocytopenia and 18 healthy controls were collected. Anti c-mpl antibodies were detected by an indirected ELISA assay. The serum TPO levels were measured by an ELISA assay. Clinical findings, autoantibody profiles, and SLEDAI were evaluated. Serum anti c-mpl antibodies were detected in 18.8% of the SLE patientis. The frequency of this antibody in SLE with thrombocytopenia, SLE with a history of thrombocytopenia and SLE without thrombocytopenia were of no difference (P=0.600). In the patients with anti c-mpl antibodies, their platelet counts were decreased(P=0.025) and serum TPO levels elevated(P=0.038) than those in the patients without, while there were no differences between the two groups in C3, C4, ESR, CRP level, the frequency of ANA, dsDNA, ANCA and SLEDAI. Anti c-mpl antibody contributes to SLE-associated thrombocytopenia by functionally blocking an interaction between thrombopoietin and c-mpl, which might inhibit TPO-dependent megakaryocyte proliferation and differentiation.

  10. Synthesis and anti-angiogenic effect of conjugates between serum albumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Birgitte; Struve, Casper; Friis, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. Covalent linkage of naproxen to human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to target it efficiently to the liver and this may potentially be exploited for liver-selective inhibition of angiogenesis. With the aim...... effect on endothelial cells at or above the level of the non-conjugated NSAIDs in an in vitro angiogenesis assay....

  11. Qualification and application of a surface plasmon resonance-based assay for monitoring potential HAHA responses induced after passive administration of a humanized anti Lewis-Y antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolar, O H J; Stranner, S; Zinoecker, I; Mudde, G C; Himmler, G; Waxenecker, G; Nechansky, A

    2006-06-16

    A sensitive, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay monitoring potential human-anti-human antibody (HAHA) reactions against the monoclonal antibody (mAb) IGN311 is presented. The latter is a fully humanized Lewis-Y carbohydrate specific mAb that is currently tested in a passive immune therapy approach in a clinical phase I trial. For the SPR experiments a BIACORE 3000 analyzer was used. The ligand IGN311 was covalently coupled to the carboxy-methylated dextran matrix of a CM5 research grade chip (BIACORE). In the course of a fully nested experimental design, a four parameter logistic equation was identified as appropriate calibration model ranging from 0.3 microg/mL (lower limit of quantitation, LLOQ) to 200 microg/mL (upper limit of quantitation, ULOQ) using an anti-idiotypic mAb ('HAHA mimic') as calibrator. The bias ranged from -2.4% to 5.5% and the intermediate precision expressed as 95% CI revealed values from 5.6% to 8.3%. Specificity was evaluated using six human serum matrices from healthy donors spiked with calibrator at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) with >80% of values being recovered with less than 25% relative error. The qualified assay was applied to monitor potentially induced HAHA reactivity in 11 patients from a clinical phase I trial with passively administered IGN311. Of the 11 patients, one high HAHA responder and several low responders were identified. Protein-G depletion experiments with human serum samples revealed that the observed response is predominantly caused by IgG binding to the ligand. The characteristics of these HAHA responses were all of the so-called 'Type I' which is defined by a peak response around day 15 that decreases from this point steadily suggesting that some kind of tolerance is established. Therefore, this type of HAHA response is regarded as non critical for the patient's safety.

  12. Fatal hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn associated with anti-Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry; Pham, Bach-Nga; Arnaud, Lionel; Fleutiaux, Sophie; Brossard, Yves; Guerin, Bénédicte; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Rouger, Philippe; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves

    2008-09-01

    Jr(a) is a high-prevalence red cell (RBC) antigen. The clinical significance of anti-Jr(a) is controversial. When hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) occurred, most reported cases were clinically mild. We report the first case of fatal HDFN due to anti-Jr(a). A 28-year-old Caucasian woman with transfusion history was monitored at the 29th week of pregnancy (G4P1). An ultrasound scan showed fetal cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly. An antibody directed against a high-prevalence antigen was detected, but without conclusive identification. An emergency cesarean section was performed at the 36th week. The newborn was hydropic and showed severe anemia. Death occurred 30 hours after birth. Serologic methods were performed to investigate the mother's RBCs and serum. An in vitro functional cellular assay and semiquantitative measurement of anti-Jr(a) were used to determine the clinical significance of the antibody. Anti-Jr(a) was identified in the serum and Jr(a-) phenotype was confirmed. The anti-Jr(a) titer was 1024, with predominant immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and minor IgG4 subclasses. The functional cellular assay was consistent with an antibody unlikely to cause HDFN. Semiquantitative measurement of anti-Jr(a) showed a reactivity equivalent to a 25 IU per mL (5 microg/mL) concentration of anti-D, a value associated with a significant risk of HDFN. This is the first documented case of fatal HDFN due to anti-Jr(a). Therefore, we recommend close monitoring of pregnant women with a high-titer anti-Jr(a), especially those with an incompatible transfusion history and/or multiple pregnancies. This case report provides new arguments about the clinical significance of anti-Jr(a) in the transfusion setting.

  13. A New Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for a Total Anti-T Lymphocyte Globulin Determination: Development, Analytical Validation, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Michela; La Nasa, Giorgio; Bernardo, Maria E; Piras, Eugenia; Avanzini, Maria A; Regazzi, Mario; Locatelli, Franco

    2017-06-01

    Anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) modulates the alloreactivity of T lymphocytes, reducing the risk of immunological posttransplant complications, in particular rejection and graft-versus-host disease, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We developed and validated a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to measure serum levels of total ATLG and evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the drug in children with β-Thalassemia, receiving allogeneic HSCT. Diluted serum samples were incubated with Goat-anti-Rabbit IgG antibody coated on a microtiter plate and then, with Goat-anti-Human IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase. After incubation and washings, substrate solution was added and absorbance was read at 492 nm. ATLG concentrations in samples were determined by interpolation from a standard curve (range: 200-0.095 ng/mL), prepared by diluting a known amount of ATLG in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Low, medium, and high-quality control concentrations were 1.56, 6.25, and 25 ng/mL, respectively. This method was developed and validated within the acceptance criteria in compliance with the Guidelines for a biological method validation: the sensitivity of the method was 0.095 ng/mL. We analyzed serum samples from 14 children with β-Thalassemia who received ATLG (Grafalon) at a dose of 10 mg/kg administered as intravenous (IV) infusion on days -5, -4, and -3 before HSCT (day 0). Blood sampling for PK evaluation was performed on days -5, -4, and -3 before and after drug infusion; and then from day -2 to +56. The median total ATLG levels pre-IVand post-IV were 0 and 118 mcg/mL on day -5; 85.9 and 199.2 mcg/mL on day -4; 153 and 270.9 mcg/mL on day -3, respectively. The median PK values of CL was 0.0029 (range: 0.0028-0.0057) L·kg·d, Vd was 0.088 (range: 0.025-0.448) L/kg and t1/2 was 20.2 (range: 5.8-50.2) days. These data suggest that given the marked interindividual variability of total ATLG disposition, the development of

  14. Nucleic acid amplification of HIV-1 integrase sequence subtypes CRF01_AE and B for development of HIV anti-integrase drug resistance genotyping assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlar, F. R.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    To anticipate the potential use of anti-integrase drugs in Indonesia for treatment of HIV-1 infection, the development of a drug resistance genotyping assay for anti-integrase is crucial in identifying the genetic drug resistance profile of Indonesian HIV-1 strains. This experiment aimed to amplify a target region in the integrase gene of Indonesian HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE and B that contain genetic mutations known to confer resistance to anti-integrase drug. Eleven archived plasma samples from individuals living with HIV-1 were obtained from the Virology and Cancer Pathobiology Research Center for Health Service (VCPRC FKUI-RSCM) laboratory. One of the plasma samples contained HIV-1 subtype B, and the remaining plasma samples contained subtype CRF01_AE. The target regions for all samples were amplified through RT-PCR, with an annealing temperature of 55 °C, using the primer pair AE_POL 4086F and AE_POL 5232R that were designed by VCPRC FKUI-RSCM. The results of this experiment show that 18.2% (2/11) of the samples were successfully amplified using the one-step RT-PCR. While the primer pair was effective in amplifying the target region in the integrase gene sequence for subtype B (100%; 1/1), it had a low efficacy (10%, 1/10) for subtype CRF01_AE. In conclusion, the primer pair can be used to amplify the target region in Indonesian HIV-1 strain subtypes CRF01_AE and B. However, optimization of the PCR condition and an increased number of samples would help to determine an accurate representation of the efficacy of the primer pair.

  15. Effects of the anti-malarial compound cryptolepine and its analogues in human lymphocytes and sperm in the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Rajendran C; Emerce, Esra; Wright, Colin W; Karahalil, Bensu; Karakaya, Ali E; Anderson, Diana

    2011-12-15

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the genus Plasmodium. It causes one million deaths per year in African children under the age of 5 years. There is an increasing development of resistance of malarial parasites to chloroquine and other currently used anti-malarial drugs. Some plant products such as the indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine have been shown to have potent activity against P. falciparum in vitro. On account of its toxicity, cryptolepine is not suitable for use as an antimalarial drug but a number of analogues of cryptolepine have been synthesised in an attempt to find compounds that have reduced cytotoxicity and these have been investigated in the present study in human sperm and lymphocytes using the Comet assay. The results suggest that cryptolepine and the analogues cause DNA damage in lymphocytes, but appear to have no effect on human sperm at the assessed doses. In the context of antimalarial drug development, the data suggest that all cryptolepine compounds and in particular 2,7-dibromocryptolepine cause DNA damage and therefore may not be suitable for pre clinical development as antimalarial agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of antibodies to the extractable nuclear antigens by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Khalil A.; Fzizal, Abul A.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies are a group of autoantibodies that are directed against various components of the cell nucleus. Antibodies to these antigens are closely associated with connective tissue disease. Early diagnosis of these diseases can prove very difficult and therefore clinicians rely on the use of anti-ENA antibody testing for the exclusion. Old methods of testing are time consuming and require great skills. For these reasons clinical immunology laboratories are switching to testing for anti-ENA antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The latter assays are more sensitive and require little skills. In the present study we have investigated a number of different ELISA preparations. The study was conducted at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital during the period 2003. We tested a number of ENA-positive and negative samples using 3 different commercial ELISA preparations and compared the results with traditional CCIE-assay. The present study revealed that some ELISA preparations can be more sensitive than CCIE method. Laboratories still using later method should switch to ELISA. However it is important that laboratories evaluate a long range of different ELISA preparations before selecting the most optimal one. In addition it is recommended that laboratories then audit results in order to determine true significance of such results. Finally until the true significance of ELISA generated results is known, positive ENA-results should be interpreted in conjunction with the clinical picture and this would require close liaison in between the clinical immunology laboratory and clinicians

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated co...

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of animal oils from the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Delporte, Carla; Valenzuela-Barra, Gabriela; Silva, Ximena; Vargas-Arana, Gabriel; Lima, Beatriz; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2014-10-28

    Animal oils and fats from the fishes Electrophorus electricus and Potamotrygon motoro, the reptiles Boa constrictor, Chelonoidis denticulata (Geochelone denticulata) and Melanosuchus niger and the riverine dolphin Inia geoffrensis are used as anti-inflammatory agents in the Peruvian Amazon. The aim of the study was to assess the topic anti-inflammatory effect of the oils/fats as well as to evaluate its antimicrobial activity and fatty acid composition. The oils/fats were purchased from a traditional store at the Iquitos market of Belen, Peru. The topic anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by the mice ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) at the dose of 3mg oil/ear. Indomethacine and nimesulide were used as reference anti-inflammatory drugs. The application resembles the traditional topical use of the oils. The antimicrobial effect of the oils/fats was assessed by the microdilution test against reference strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis. The fatty acid composition of the oils/fats (as methyl esters) was determined by GC and GC-MS analysis after saponification. All oils/fats showed topic anti-inflammatory activity, with better effect in the TPA-induced mice ear edema assay. The most active drugs were Potamotrygon motoro, Melanosuchus niger and Geochelone denticulata. In the AA-induced assay, the best activity was found for Potamotrygon motoro and Electrophorus electricus oil. The oil of Electrophorus electricus also showed a weak antimicrobial effect with MIC values of 250 µg/mL against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis-MI. The main fatty acids in the oils were oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. Topical application of all the oils/fats investigated showed anti-inflammatory activity in the mice ear edema assay. The effect can be related with the identity and composition of the fatty acids in the samples. This study gives support to the traditional

  19. Anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-arthritic activity of amides and extract obtained from Piper amalago in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Arrigo, Jucicléia; Balen, Eloise; Júnior, Ubirajara Lanza; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Barison, Andersson; Sugizaki, Mario Mateus; Leite Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida

    2016-02-17

    Piper amalago (Piperaceae) has been used in folk medicine as an analgesic. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of extract and pure amides obtained from P. amalago on pain to provide a pharmacological basis for their use in traditional medicine. This study evaluated the anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic and anti-depressive activities of the ethanolic extract of P. amalago (EEPA) and the amides N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine (1) and N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(E),4(E)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine (2) obtained from P. amalago in animal models. Mice treated daily with EEPA (100mg/kg, p.o.) were assayed for 20 days for knee edema (micrometer measurement), mechanical hyperalgesia (analgesiometer analysis), heat sensitivity and immobility (forced swim test) in the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) model. Cold (acetone test) and mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic von Frey analysis) responses were evaluated for 15 days in rats treated with oral EEPA (100mg/kg) in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Meanwhile, mice were evaluated for carrageenan-induced edema and mechanical hyperalgesia and for nociception using the formalin model after a single administration of EEPA (100mg/kg) or amides 1 and 2 (1mg/kg). Amides (1) and (2) were detected and isolated from the EEPA. The EEPA inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia, knee edema, and heat hyperalgesia, but not depressive-like behavior, induced by the intraplantar injection of CFA. When evaluated in the SNI model, the EEPA inhibited mechanical and cold hyperalgesia. The EEPA, 1 and 2 prevented the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan and the anti-nociceptive effects in both phases of formalin nociception. The EEPA did not induce alterations in the open field test. The EEPA was effective for inhibition of pain and arthritic parameters but was not effective against depressive-like behavior; additionally, it did not alter locomotor activity. The

  20. Anal lymphogranuloma venereum infection screening with IgA anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific major outer membrane protein serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Smelov, Vitaly; Ouburg, Sander; Pleijster, Jolein; Geskus, Ronald B; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; Fennema, Johannes S A; Morré, Servaas A

    2010-12-01

    Anal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L (Ct+/LGV+), are endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal non-LGV biovar Ct infections (Ct+/LGV-) can be eradicated with 1 week doxycycline, whereas Ct+/LGV+ infections require 3-week doxycycline. To differentiate Ct+/LGV+ from Ct+/LGV- infections, biovar-specific Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) are standard, but also expensive and laborious. A chlamydia-specific serological assay could serve as an alternative test. MSM were screened for anal Ct+/LGV+ and Ct+/LGV- infections with a commercial nonspecific NAAT and an in house biovar L-specific NAAT. Serum samples were evaluated with chlamydia-specific anti-Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and antilipopolysaccharide assays of IgA and IgG classes. Asymptomatic patients were identified as: (1) no anal complaints or (2) no microscopic inflammation (i.e., <10 leucocytes per high power field in anal smears). The best differentiating assay was subsequently evaluated in 100 Ct+/LGV+ and 100 Ct+/LGV- MSM using different cut-off points. The anti-MOMP IgA assay was the most accurate to differentiate Ct+/LGV+ (n = 42) from Ct+/LGV- (n = 19) with 85.7% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2-93.3) and 84.2% specificity (95% CI, 62.4-94.5), even among asymptomatic patients. In a population comprising 98 Ct+/LGV+ and 105 Ct+/LGV- patients, the anti-MOMP IgA assay scored most accurate when the cut-off point was set to 2.0 with 75.5% (95% CI, 65.8-83.6) sensitivity and 74.3% (95% CI, 64.8-82.3) specificity. The IgA anti-MOMP assay can identify a considerable proportion of the (asymptomatic) anal LGV infections correctly. Yet, biovar L-specific NAAT are still the preferred diagnostic tests in clinical settings.

  1. Development of RIA reagents for detection of serum T3 using magnetic assay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasarnleungwirai, P.; Suprarop, P.; Tanjoy, V.; Saraneeyatham, T.

    1992-01-01

    The T3 RIA assay is widely used for diagnosis of the disease caused by malfunction of thyroid organ. The common methods used are: 1. Liquid phase, second antibody and PEG. 2. Solid phase, cellulose or sepharose. Since these two techniques need expensive refrigerated centrifuges to separate the bound from free, small labs in the remote part of the countries whose budgets are limited cannot use this technique. Magnetic assay technique for T3 detection employ strong magnetic plate for separation thus eliminate the use of costly refrigerated centrifuge. Preparation of magnetizable cellulose particles conjugated to proper anti T3 serum is done by activation of selected magnetizable cellulose particle with CDI (1,1 carbonyl dimidazole). The activated magnetic particles are then coupled to specific antibody in borate buffer pH 8. The assessment of prepared magnetic particle capture anti T3 are done by selecting the proper concentration of anti T3 magnetic particles. The result from both magnetic technique and second antibody/PEG are compared, and they show good correlation

  2. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from Taraxacum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio and extraction time on the yield of PTM were investigated using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The in vitro anti-tumor effect of PTM on MCF-7 cells was investigated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the mechanism of PTM-induced ...

  3. Quantification of circulating mature endothelial cells using a whole blood four-color flow cytometric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Nathalie; Vimond, Nadege; Conforti, Rosa; Griscelli, Franck; Lecluse, Yann; Laplanche, Agnes; Malka, David; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2008-09-15

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are currently proposed as a potential biomarker for measuring the impact of anti-angiogenic treatments in cancer. However, the lack of consensus on the appropriate method of CEC measurement has led to conflicting data in cancer patients. A validated assay adapted for evaluating the clinical utility of CEC in large cohorts of patients undergoing anti-angiogenic treatments is needed. We developed a four-color flow cytometric assay to measure CEC as CD31(+), CD146(+), CD45(-), 7-amino-actinomycin-D (7AAD)(-) events in whole blood. The distinctive features of the assay are: (1) staining of 1 ml whole blood, (2) use of a whole blood IgPE control to measure accurately background noise, (3) accumulation of a large number of events (almost 5 10(6)) to ensure statistical analysis, and (4) use of 10 microm fluorescent microbeads to evaluate the event size. Assay reproducibility was determined in duplicate aliquots of samples drawn from 20 metastatic cancer patients. Assay linearity was tested by spiking whole blood with low numbers of HUVEC. Five-color flow cytometric experiments with CD144 were performed to confirm the endothelial origin of the cells. CEC were measured in 20 healthy individuals and 125 patients with metastatic cancer. Reproducibility was good between duplicate aliquots (r(2)=0.948, mean difference between duplicates of 0.86 CEC/ml). Detected HUVEC correlated with spiked HUVEC (r(2)=0.916, mean recovery of 100.3%). Co-staining of CD31, CD146 and CD144 confirmed the endothelial nature of cells identified as CEC. Median CEC levels were 6.5/ml (range, 0-15) in healthy individuals and 15.0/ml (range, 0-179) in patients with metastatic carcinoma (p<0.001). The assay proposed here allows reproducible and sensitive measurement of CEC by flow cytometry and could help evaluate CEC as biomarkers of anti-angiogenic therapies in large cohorts of patients.

  4. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism profiles in clinical samples by the Trofile and MT-2 assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M.; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.

    2009-01-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the

  5. Effects of gamma radiation immunogenicity of ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) of rabies virus and purification of anti-RNPs antibodies for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Elena Boamorte da

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the direct immunofluorescence test for laboratory diagnosis and serological evaluation of rabies. To achieve this test, fluorescent anti-ribo nucleoproteins (RNPs) conjugates, produced from purified IgGs of RNP-immunized animals are employed. The aims of the present study were: investigate the effects of gamma radiation on the immunogenicity of RNPs, as well as to compare two chromatographic methodologies for the purification of anti-RNPs immunoglobulins. Sera from animals immunized with either native or irradiated RNPs were compared by direct immunofluorescence and immuno enzymatic assays. Our results indicate that the animals immunized with irradiated antigen requested a lower number of doses to reach high antibody titers. The immunofluorescence assays indicated that the conjugates produced with the anti-irradiated RNPs IgGs showed similar specificity to its anti-native counterpart, but with a higher definition of the virus inclusions. The purification methods were compared by Bradford and electrophoresis assays. According to the results, we concluded that the affinity-based process resulted in higher yields, lower execution time, and higher purity of the antibodies. (author)

  6. Physical and biological properties of a novel anti-adhesion material made of thermally cross-linked gelatin film: Investigation of the usefulness as anti-adhesion material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Tsunehito; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Hiroe; Yamanaka, Koki; Tanaka, Shota; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Takamori, Hideki; Nakamachi, Eiji; Ikada, Yoshito; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2018-02-01

    To create more useful, effective and safer anti-adhesion materials, we developed a thermally cross-linked gelatin film. In this study, we examined the physical properties of the film such as the physical strength and the adhesiveness to reveal the handling properties and biological properties, such as the anti-adhesion effect, the influence on cell proliferation, and the cytotoxicity to reveal the anti-adhesion mechanism, especially in comparison with the conventional hyaluronic acid and carboxymethylcellulose film (the conventional film). A tensile test under dry and wet conditions and shearing stress test showed that the gelatin film has significant higher maximum tensile stress and fracture strain than the conventional film. In the study using a rat model of cecum adhesion, the anti-adhesion effect of the gelatin film was significantly superior to that of the conventional film. In the cell proliferation test, the number of fibroblast cells on the gelatin film increased at each time point, while no cell proliferation was observed on the conventional film. Furthermore, in the cytotoxicity test using a colony assay and Live/Dead assay, the extract of the gelatin film had no cytotoxicity, while the extract of the conventional film had cytotoxicity considerably. These results suggest that the gelatin film provides better handling than the conventional film, due to better physical strength and ductility of the film. In addition, the gelatin film has a significantly greater anti-adhesion effect than the conventional film without any cytotoxicity. Therefore, the gelatin film is quite favorable as an anti-adhesion material. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 689-696, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Anti-chromatin antibodies in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gerloni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-chromatin antibodies (Abs in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA. Methods: IgG anti-chromatin Abs were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, in sera of 94 children with JRA (10 children with systemic, 38 with polyarticular and 46 with oligoarticular disease onset. As control group, 33 age- and-sex-matched healthy children (HC were also examined. Results: Abs to chromatin were detected in 24/94 (25,5% of children suffering from JRA. Particularly, the higher prevalence of anti-chromatin Abs has been found in children with oligoarticular (30,4% and polyarticular (23,7% onset JRA. In these groups Abs titers were significantly higher compared to systemic JRA and HC (p=0.003. Anti-chromatin Abs were observed more frequently in patients with oligoarticular disease and chronic uveitis (21,7%. Furthermore, higher levels of anti-chromatin Abs has been found in all the patients treated with anti-TNFα therapy (p<0.0001. Conclusions: our results confirm previous data about the prevalence of anti-chromatin Abs in JRA. These Abs were significantly higher in the group of patients with oligoarticular onset with past or present hystory of ocular involvement and in the group with polyarticular JRA treated with biologic therapy. A long-term follow-up study could be useful to evaluate the potential utility of these autoantibodies.

  8. Water-soluble derivatives of 25-OCH3-PPD and their anti-proliferative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu-Xi; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Wei-Hui; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2017-05-01

    (20R)-25-Methoxyl-dammarane-3β,12β,20-triol (25-OCH 3 -PPD, AD-1) is a dammarane-type sapogenin showing anti-tumor potential. In the search for new anti-tumor agents with higher potency than our previously identified compound 25-OCH 3 -PPD, 11 novel sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives that could improve water solubility and contribute to good drug potency and pharmacokinetic profiles were designed and synthesized. Their in vitro anti-tumor activities in MCF-7, A-549, HCT-116, and BGC-823 cell lines and one normal cell line were tested by standard MTT assay. Results showed that compared with compound 25-OCH 3 -PPD, compounds 1, 4, and 5 exhibited higher cytotoxic activity on almost all cell lines, together with lower toxicity in the normal cell. In particular, compound 1 exhibited the best anti-tumor activity in the in vitro assays. The water solubility of 25-OCH 3 -PPD and its derivatives was tested and the results showed that the solubility of 25-OCH 3 -PPD sulfamic acid and diacid derivatives were better than that of 25-OCH 3 -PPD in water, which may provide valuable data for the research and development of new anti-tumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative assay for the measurement of immune responses directed against the human placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M; Sutcliffe, R G [Glasgow Univ. (UK)

    1982-02-12

    A quantitative in vitro immune assay based on the classical chromium release assay has been developed to detect immune responses directed against alien antigens expressed by the developing foetus and present on the maternal-facing surface of the human placenta. A plasma membrane fraction from the surface of the placenta was prepared and the vesicles thus formed were radiolabelled with /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr-labelled vesicles, by various criteria, were found to be suitable for use as targets in a release assay. Further, by means of experimentally immunised animals, the target membranes were shown to be capable of detecting both cellular and humoral anti-placental activity.

  10. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Juan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Su Biling; Li Qunfang; Qiu Bin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen Guonan, E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. {yields} Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. {yields} Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. {yields} Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. {yields} Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH{sub 4}, and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO{sub 2} (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3{sigma}) in pH 6.0 PBS-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available

  11. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Juan; Tang Dianping; Su Biling; Li Qunfang; Qiu Bin; Chen Guonan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. → Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. → Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. → Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. → Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO 2 ) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH 4 , and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO 2 (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO 2 ) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO 2 nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3σ) in pH 6.0 PBS-H 2 O 2 system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available electrochemiluminescent analyzer.

  12. High-sensitivity immunochromatographic assay for fumonisin B1 based on indirect antibody labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urusov, Alexandr E; Petrakova, Alina V; Gubaydullina, Milyausha K; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Eremin, Sergei A; Kong, Dezhao; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Chuanlai; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-05-01

    To develop a high-sensitivity immunochromatographic test for fumonisin B1 in plant extracts. Unlike conventional immunochromatographic tests, this assay is performed in two stages: competitive reaction with free specific antibodies and identifying immune complexes by their interaction with the anti-species antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles. The use of a new geometry for the test strip membranes and a novel reagent application method ensures the proper order of these stages without additional manipulations. The contact of the ready-to-use test strip with the liquid sample suffices in initiating all stages of the assay and obtaining test results. The developed test was used on corn extracts; its instrumental limit of fumonisin B1 detection was 0.6 ng ml -1 at 15 min of assay duration. The proposed approach is flexible and can be used for a wide range of low molecular compounds. The use of anti-species antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in immunochromatography significantly facilitates the development of test systems by eliminating the need to synthesize and characterize the conjugates with specific antibodies for each new compound to be detected.

  13. Development of a simple method for the immobilization of anti-thyroxine antibody on polystyrene tubes for use in the measurement of total thyroxine in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani Gnanasekar; Shalaka Paradkar; Vijay Kadwad; Ketaki Bapat; Grace Samuel; Sachdev, S.S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method for the immobilisation of anti-thyroxine antibody on to the surface of polystyrene tubes and a simple assay format for the quantitative estimation of total thyroxine in serum. The immobilisation of anti-thyroxine antibody was achieved through passive adsorption of normal rabbit gamma globulin and anti-rabbit antibody raised in goat, as immune bridges. This procedure ensured minimum utilisation of primary and secondary antibody as neat sera without precipitation or affinity purification. The developed assay system using these antibody coated tubes covers a range of 0-240 ng/mL of thyroxine with intra and inter assay variations of less than 10 %. (author)

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of blueberry extract (Vaccinium corymbosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Eliane; Lemos, Marivane; Caliari, Vinícius; Kassuya, Cândida A L; Bastos, Jairo K; Andrade, Sérgio F

    2007-04-01

    Blueberries are among the edible fruits that are recognized best for their potential health benefits. The crude extract from Vaccinium corymbosum was assessed in anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive models. The crude hydroalcoholic extract was administered orally at doses of 100, 200 or 300 mg kg (-1) for all the assays. In the carrageenan test, the crude extract reduced rat paw oedema by 9.8, 28.5 and 65.9%, respectively. For the histamine assay, the reductions of oedema were 70.1, 71.7 and 81.9%, respectively. In the myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, 300 mg kg (-1) crude extract produced a significant inhibition of the MPO activity, at 6 h and 24 h after injection of carrageenan, by 42.8 and 46.2%, respectively. With the granulomatous tissue assay dexamethasone displayed significant activity, whereas the blueberry extract was inactive. For the abdominal constriction test, inhibitions of 49.0, 54.5, 53.5%, respectively, were observed for the crude extract, and 61.4% for indometacin. In the formalin test, the crude extract (200 and 300 mg kg (-1)) and indometacin inhibited only the second phase by 36.2, 35.3 and 45.8%, respectively. Considering that the crude extract of blueberry displayed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, its consumption may be helpful for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  15. Cross reactivities of rabbit anti-chicken horse radish peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cross reactivities of rabbit anti chicken horse radish peroxidase (conjugate) was tested with sera of Chicken, Ducks, Geese, Guinea fowl, Hawks, Pigeons and Turkeys in indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Sera from mammalian species (Bat, Equine and swine) were used as negative ...

  16. Evaluation of Chicken IgY Generated Against Canine Parvovirus Viral-Like Particles and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Assay for Canine Parvovirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Shiqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated against canine parvovirus virus-like particles (CPV-VLPs) antigen using chickens. Anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY was extracted from hen egg yolk and used for developing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CPV in dog feces. The cutoff negative values for anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY were determined using negative fecal samples (already confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In both ELISA and ICA, there was no cross-reaction with other diarrheal pathogens. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea, of which 26.47% were confirmed as CPV-positive samples by PCR, while 29.41% and 32.35% of the samples were found to be positive by ELISA and ICA, respectively. The developed ELISA and ICA exhibited 97.06% and 94.12% conformity with PCR. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed for IgY-based ELISA and ICA. Thus, they could be suitable for routine use in the diagnosis of CPV in dogs.

  17. Hepatitis B circulating immune complexes. Characterization by radioimmunoprecipitation - PEG assay (ripega)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, F; Wattre, P; Dessaint, J P; Capron, A [Institut Pasteur de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    1977-04-01

    Incidence of circulating immune complexes (IC) was investigated in carriers of hepatitis B antigen (HBAg) and/or anti-HB antibodies (anti-HBAb). Three methods were used: radiolabelled C1q binding test (C1qBT), complement fixation test (CFT), and optical density (OD) measurement after dissolution of 3% polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitate of serum. A highly significant correlation was obtained between these three techniques. The level of IC was higher in carriers of HBAg without anti-HBAb than in others. The characterization of HBAg and anti-HBAb in IC was carried out by a new procedure, the radioimmunoprecipitation-PEG assay (RIPEGA). This sensitive and reproducible test was performed by incubation of /sup 125/I-HBAg or /sup 125/I-HBAg with 3% precipitate of the carriers' sera. Separation of free from complexed /sup 125/I-HBAg or /sup 125/I-HBAb was achieved by PEG precipitation. A highly significant correlation was found between the levels of circulating IC evaluated by the C1q-BT and the quantities of HBAg or anti HBAb measured by RIPEGA. RIPEGA was used to quantify HBAg and anti-HBAb present in serum from HBAg and/or anti-HBAb carriers, confirmed by a radioimmunoassay. In preliminary results, RIGPEGA was shown to be more sensitive than classical radioimmunoassay.

  18. Immunodiagnosis of Human Fascioliasis by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and a Micro-ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Silvana; Rodríguez, Mónica I.; Santillán, Graciela; Labbé, Jorge H.; Cabrera, Marta G.; Bellegarde, Enrique J.; Velásquez, Jorge N.; Trgovcic, Jorge E.; Guarnera, Eduardo A.

    2001-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and micro-ELISA were evaluated for their ability to detect anti-Fasciola hepatica antibodies in humans by using excretory-secretory antigen. The sensitivity of each method was 100%, but the specificity was 100% for ELISA and 97% for micro-ELISA. The micro-ELISA could be used as a screening assay and ELISA could be used as a confirmatory method for the serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  19. Automated high-content assay for compounds selectively toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a myoblastic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease.Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6 and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs.We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite.

  20. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Riaz Uddin; Moni Rani Saha; Nusrat Subhan; Hemayet Hossain; Ismet Ara Jahan; Raushanara Akter; Ashraful Alam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equival...

  1. Clinical assessment of anti-viral CD8+ T cell immune monitoring using QuantiFERON-CMV® assay to identify high risk allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with CMV infection complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siok-Keen Tey

    Full Text Available The reconstitution of anti-viral cellular immunity following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is crucial in preventing cytomegalovirus (CMV-associated complications. Thus immunological monitoring has emerged as an important tool to better target pre-emptive anti-viral therapies. However, traditional laboratory-based assays are too cumbersome and complicated to implement in a clinical setting. Here we conducted a prospective study of a new whole blood assay (referred to as QuantiFERON-CMV® to determine the clinical utility of measuring CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses as a prognostic tool. Forty-one evaluable allogeneic HSCT recipients underwent weekly immunological monitoring from day 21 post-transplant and of these 21 (51.2% showed CMV reactivation and 29 (70.7% developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. Patients with acute GvHD (grade ≥ 2 within 6 weeks of transplant showed delayed reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell immunity (p = 0.013 and a higher risk of CMV viremia (p = 0.026. The median time to stable CMV-specific immune reconstitution was 59 days and the incidence of CMV reactivation was lower in patients who developed this than those who did not (27% versus 65%; p = 0.031. Furthermore, a failure to reconstitute CMV-specific immunity soon after the onset of CMV viraemia was associated with higher peak viral loads (5685 copies/ml versus 875 copies/ml; p = 0.002. Hence, QuantiFERON-CMV® testing in the week following CMV viremia can be useful in identifying HSCT recipients at risk of complicated reactivation.

  2. Anti-bacterial activities and phytochemical screening of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-bacterial activity tests were carried out using disc diffusion assay and tube dilution technique, and phytochemical screening was carried out through Thin Layer Chromatography. The crude extracts showed antibacterial effects on M. vaccae, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. M. vaccae was most sensitive, particularly to the ...

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of four assays to detect human T-lymphotropic virus type I or type I/II antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrielink, H.; Reesink, H. W.; Zaaijer, H. L.; van der Poel, C. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Lelie, P. N.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assays that detect human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody (HTLV-I/II) are widely used in the routine screening of blood donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Four commercially available anti-HTLV-I (Fujirebio and Organon Teknika) or -HTLV-I/II assays (Murex and Ortho) were

  4. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-septic potential of phenolic acids and flavonoid fractions isolated from Lolium multiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Son, Young-Ok; Hwang, Jung-Min; Kim, Beom-Tae; Chae, Minseon; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2017-12-01

    Interest has recently renewed in using Lolium multiflorum Lam. (Poaceae) (called Italian ryegrass; IRG) silage as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-septic potential of IRG silage and identified the primary components in IRG active fractions. Total 16 fractions were separated from the chloroform-soluble extract of IRG aerial part using Sephadex LH-20 column before HPLC analysis. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the fractions at doses of 0-100 μg/mL were investigated using various cell-free and cell-mediated assay systems. To explore anti-septic effect of IRG fractions, female ICR and BALB/c mice orally received 40 mg/kg of phenolic acid and flavonoid-rich active fractions F 7 and F 8 every other day for 10 days, respectively, followed by LPS challenge. The active fractions showed greater antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential compared with other fractions. IC 50 values of F 7 and F 8 to reduce LPS-stimulated NO and TNF-α production were around 15 and 30 μg/mL, respectively. Comparison of retention times with authentic compounds through HPLC analysis revealed the presence of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, myricetin and kaempferol in the fractions as primary components. These fractions inhibited LPS-stimulated MAPK and NF-κB activation. Supplementation with F 7 or F 8 improved the survival rates of mice to 70 and 60%, respectively, in LPS-injected mice and reduced near completely serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. This study highlights antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-septic activities of IRG active fractions, eventually suggesting their usefulness in preventing oxidative damage and inflammatory disorders.

  5. Challenges in Modern Anti-Doping Analytical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Christiane; Miller, John; Thevis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The challenges facing modern anti-doping analytical science are increasingly complex given the expansion of target drug substances, as the pharmaceutical industry introduces more novel therapeutic compounds and the internet offers designer drugs to improve performance. The technical challenges are manifold, including, for example, the need for advanced instrumentation for greater speed of analyses and increased sensitivity, specific techniques capable of distinguishing between endogenous and exogenous metabolites, or biological assays for the detection of peptide hormones or their markers, all of which require an important investment from the laboratories and recruitment of highly specialized scientific personnel. The consequences of introducing sophisticated and complex analytical procedures may result in the future in a change in the strategy applied by the Word Anti-Doping Agency in relation to the introduction and performance of new techniques by the network of accredited anti-doping laboratories. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Anti-tumor bioactivities of curcumin on mice loaded with gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Qiao-Xia; Lin, Huan-Ping; Chang, Na

    2017-09-20

    Curcumin, a derivative from the dried rhizome of curcuma longa, has been proven to possess anti-tumor effects. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to explore the anti-tumor mechanisms of curcumin in treating gastric cancer. BALB/C mice grafted with a mouse gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (MFC) were used as the experimental model. Mice received different doses of curcumin after grafting. Tumor size was measured and tumor weight was determined after tumor inoculation. TUNEL assay and flow cytometric analysis were applied to evaluate the apoptosis of the cancer cells. Serum cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α, granzyme B and perforin were detected by ELISA assay. The anti-tumor effect was determined using cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assays and in vivo tumor prevention tests. The expression of DEC1, HIF-1α, STAT3 and VEGF in tumor tissues was examined by immunostaining and analyzed using an Image J analysis system. Compared with controls, tumor growth (size and weight) was significantly inhibited by curcumin treatment (P curcumin treatment group. Splenocyte cells from mice treated with curcumin exhibited higher cytolytic effects on MFC cancer cells than those from mice treated with saline (P curcumin treatment. Our results indicate that curcumin inhibits the proliferation of gastric carcinoma by inducing the apoptosis of tumor cells, activating immune cells to secrete a large amount of cytokines, and down-regulating the DEC1, HIF-1α, VEGF and STAT3 signal transduction pathways.

  7. Anti-inflammation activity of fruit essential oil from Cinnamomum insularimontanum Hayata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Chen, Chi-Jung; Lin, Ting-Yu; Tung, Judia Chen; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the fruit essential oil of Cinnamomum insularimontanum was prepared by using water distillation. Followed by GC-MS analysis, the composition of fruit essential oil was characterized. The main constituents of essential oil were alpha-pinene (9.45%), camphene (1.70%), beta-pinene (4.30%), limonene (1.76%), citronellal (24.64%), citronellol (16.78%), and citral (35.89%). According to the results obtained from nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity assay, crude essential oil and its dominant compound (citral) presented the significant NO production inhibitory activity, IC(50) of crude essential oil and citral were 18.68 and 13.18microg/mL, respectively. Moreover, based on the results obtained from the protein expression assay, the expression of IKK, iNOS, and nuclear NF-kappaB was decreased and IkappaBalpha was increased in dose-dependent manners, it proved that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral was blocked via the NF-kappaB pathway, but it could not efficiently suppress the activity on COX-2. In addition, citral exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the assay of croton oil-induced mice ear edema, when the dosage was 0.1 and 0.3mg per ear, the inflammation would reduce to 22% and 83%, respectively. The results presented that the fruit essential oil of C. insularimontanum and/or citral may have a great potential to develop the anti-inflammatory medicine in the future.

  8. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2013-01-01

    Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay and conver......Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay...

  9. An improved haemolytic plaque assay for the detection of cells secreting antibody to bacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Heilmann, C

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of conjugate polysaccharide vaccines for human use have stimulated interest in the use of assays detecting antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) with specificity for bacterial antigens. Here we present improved haemolytic plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays detecting Ab......SC with specificity for tetanus and diphtheria toxoid as well as for Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides. These assays were found to be less time consuming, more economical and yielded 1.9-3.4-fold higher plaque numbers than traditional Jerne-type PFC assays. In the case of anti......-polysaccharide antibodies aggregation of secreted monomeric antibody (IgG) is critical for plaque formation and increases the avidity of binding to target cells....

  10. A modified Plasmodium falciparum growth inhibition assay (GIA) to assess activity of plasma from malaria endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Godfree; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2007-02-01

    Plasma samples from patients undergoing treatment in malaria endemic countries often contain anti-malaria drugs, that may overstate effects of specific antibodies in growth inhibition assays (GIA). We describe a modified assay that uses drug resistant P. falciparum parasites (W2) that circumvents the requirement for dialyzing samples that may likely contain drugs such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP).

  11. Application of a Homogenous Assay for the Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Environmental Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous assay was used to detect 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT spiked into environmental water samples. This assay is based on changes in fluorescence emission intensity when TNT competitively displaces a fluorescently labeled, TNT analog bound to an anti-TNT antibody. The effectiveness of the assay was highly dependent on the source of the sample being tested. As no correlation between pH and assay performance was observed, ionic strength was assumed to be the reason for variation in assay results. Addition of 10x phosphate-buffered saline to samples to increase their ionic strength to that of our standard laboratory buffer (about 0.17 M significantly improved the range over which the assay functioned in several river water samples.

  12. Clinical evaluation of the 2nd generation radio-receptor assay for anti-thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanella, L.; Ceriani, L.; Garancini, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Detection of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor by radioreceptorial assays (RRA) is largely requested in clinical practice for the diagnosis of Graves' disease and its differentiation from diffuse thyroid autonomy. Additionally, TRAb measurement during antithyroid drug treatment can be useful to evaluate the risk of disease's relapse alter therapy discontinuation. Nevertheless, some patients affected by Graves' disease are TRAb negative when 1st generation assay is used. Recently a new RRA method for TRAb assay was developed by using human recombinant TSH-receptor and solid-phase technique. Aim of our work was the comparison between 1st and 2nd generation TRAb assays in Graves' disease patients and, particularly, the evaluation of 2nd generation test in a sub-group of patients affected by Graves' disease but with negative 1st generation TRAb assay. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of a newly developed 2nd generation TRAb assay (DYNOtest(r) TRAK human, BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Germany) in 46 patients affected by Graves' disease with negative 1st generation TRAb assay (TRAK Assay(r), BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Germany) . A control groups of 50 Graves' disease patients with positive 1st generation TRAb assay, 50 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 50 patients affected by nodular goiter were also examined. 41 out of 46 patients affected by Graves' disease with negative 1st generation TRAb assay showed a positive 2nd generation test. The overall sensitivity of the 2nd generation test was significantly improved respect the 1st generation assay in Graves' disease patients (χ 2 = 22.5, p<0.0001). 1 and 3 out of 50 patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis were positive by 1st and 2nd generation TRAB assay, respectively. All these patients showed primary hypothyroidism. No differences resulted in euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis sub-group and in nodular goiter control group. The 2nd generation TRAB assay is clearly more sensitive than the 1

  13. In vitro and in vivo comparison of binding of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Gunma Univ. School of Medicine; Oriuchi, N.; Inoue, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Kuroki, M.; Matsuoka, Y.; Tanada, S.; Murata, H.; Sasaki, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for radioimmunodetection (RAID) of murine anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody (MAb) F33-104 labeled with technetium-99m (99m-Tc) by a reduction-mediated labeling method. Methods: The binding capacity of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with CEA by means of in vitro procedures such as immunoradiometric assay and cell binding assay and the biodistribution of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 in normal nude mice and nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma LS180 tumor were investigated and compared with 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26. Results: The in vitro binding rate of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 with CEA in solution and attached to the cell membrane was significantly higher than 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/261 (31.4 ± 0.95% vs. 11.9 ± 0.55% at 100 ng/mL of soluble CEA, 83.5 ± 2.84% vs. 54.0 ± 2.54% at 10 7 of LS 180 cells). In vivo, accumulation of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 was higher at 18 h postinjection than 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26 (20.1 ± 3.50% ID/g vs. 14.4 ± 3.30% ID/g). 99m-Tc-activity in the kidneys of nude mice bearing tumor was higher at 18 h postinjection than at 3 h (12.8 ± 2.10% ID/g vs. 8.01 ± 2.40% ID/g of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104, 10.7 ± 1.70% ID/g vs. 8.10 ± 1.75% ID/g of 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb BW431/26). Conclusion: 99m-Tc-labeled anti-CEA MAb F33-104 is a potential novel agent for RAID of recurrent colorectal cancer. (orig.) [de

  14. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes and its application to the detection of chicken thyroglobulin autoantibodies and of antibodies to sheep erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, L.C.P. de; Roitt, I.M.; Wick, G.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile solid-phase assay for detection of antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes is described. The assay has been applied to: (1) the detection of IgG and IgM antithyroglobulin autoantibodies in chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis, and (2) the detection of anti-sheep cell antibodies in normal chickens. Thyroglobulin-coated plastic tubes or formaldehyde-fixed sheep erythrocytes were used as the solid phase. Antisera were added in succession to the solid-phase antigen so as to form 3 antibody layers: (1) chicken antibody against the solid-phase antigen; (2) heavy-chain-specific rabbit anti-chicken immunoglobulin; and (3) 125 I-labelled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin. The assay is suitable for routine determinations on large numbers of samples; its sensitivity enables small volumes of serum to be tested and allows considerable economy in the use of valuable class-specific antisera. The radiolabelled reagent can be readily applied to other assays employing rabbit antisera. (Auth.)

  15. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstedt, S.; Rylander, H.

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, 125 I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not. (author)

  16. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, S; Rylander, H [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, /sup 125/I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not.

  17. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for serum amyloid A protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Beer, F.C.; Dyck, R.F.; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay for human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid phase. Rabbit antiserum to SAA was raised by immunization with SAA isolated from acute-phase serum by gel filtration in formic acid. The antiserum was rendered monospecific for SAA by solid-phase immunoabsorption with normal human serum, which contains only traces of SAA, and some was coupled covalently to the cellulose particles. Immunopurified anti-SAA antibodies were isolated from the monospecific anti-SAA serum by binding to, and elution from insolubilized acute-phase serum and were radiolabelled with 125 I. The assay was calibrated with an acute phase serum which contained 6000 times more SAA than normal sera with the lowest detectable level of SAA, and an arbitrary value of 6000 U/l was assigned to this standard. Sera were tested in the native, undenatured state and there was no increase in SAA immunoreactivity following alkali treatment or heating. The assay range was from 1-2000 U/l so that all SAA levels above 6 U/l could be measured on a single (1:6) dilution of serum. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11.7 and 15.0% respectively. Among 100 healthy normal subjects (50 male, 50 female) the median SAA level was 9 U/l, range <1-100, with 93% below 20 U/l and only 2% below the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay (1 U/l). (Auth.)

  18. Correlation of pharmacodynamic activity, pharmacokinetics, and anti-product antibody responses to anti-IL-21R antibody therapeutics following IV administration to cynomolgus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaulding Vikki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-IL-21R antibodies are potential therapeutics for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This study evaluated correlations between the pharmacodynamic (PD activity, pharmacokinetics, and anti-product antibody responses of human anti-IL-21R antibodies Ab-01 and Ab-02 following IV administration to cynomolgus monkeys. Methods The PD assay was based on the ability of recombinant human IL-21 (rhuIL-21 to induce expression of the IL-2RA gene in cynomolgus monkey whole blood samples ex vivo. Monkeys screened for responsiveness to rhuIL-21 stimulation using the PD assay, were given a single 10 mg/kg IV dosage of Ab-01, Ab-02, or a control antibody (3/group, and blood samples were evaluated for PD activity (inhibition of IL-2RA expression for up to 148 days. Anti-IL-21R antibody concentrations and anti-product antibody responses were measured in serum using immunoassays and flow cytometry. Results Following IV administration of Ab-01 and Ab-02 to cynomolgus monkeys, PD activity was observed as early as 5 minutes (first time point sampled. This PD activity had good correlation with the serum concentrations and anti-product antibody responses throughout the study. The mean terminal half-life (t1/2 was ~10.6 and 2.3 days for Ab-01 and Ab-02, respectively. PD activity was lost at ~5-13 weeks for Ab-01 and at ~2 weeks for Ab-02, when serum concentrations were relatively low. The estimated minimum concentrations needed to maintain PD activity were ~4-6 nM for Ab-01 and ~2.5 nM for Ab-02, and were consistent with the respective KD values for binding to human IL-21R. For Ab-01, there was noticeable inter-animal variability in t1/2 values (~6-14 days and the resulting PD profiles, which correlated with the onset of anti-product antibody formation. While all three Ab-01-dosed animals were positive for anti-Ab-01 antibodies, only one monkey (with the shortest t1/2 and the earliest loss of PD activity had evidence of neutralizing anti-Ab-01

  19. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, Hamdi K.; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet

  20. Anti-double stranded DNA antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus : Detection and clinical relevance of IgM-class antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsma, H; Spronk, PE; Hummel, EJ; deBoer, G; terBorg, EJ; Limburg, PC; Kallenberg, CGM

    1996-01-01

    We determined the discriminative value of the Farr assay in comparison to ELISA and Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence assay (IFT) for detecting anti-dsDNA antibodies as a diagnostic tool for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Special attention was paid to the diagnostic significance of

  1. Salivary IgG assay to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in an Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Thirumala Krishnaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: EIAgen H. pylori IgG assay is a noninvasive, moderately accurate, and sensitive method for the detection of H. pylori infection in saliva. Salivary anti H. pylori IgG test prior to endoscopy is a useful screening test for seroepidemiological studies.

  2. Fascaplysin Sensitizes Anti-Cancer Effects of Drugs Targeting AKT and AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-In Oh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin, a natural product isolated from marine sponges, is a potential candidate for the development of anti-cancer drugs. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect of strengthening anti-cancer efficacy of other drugs is poorly understood. Here, we found that fascaplysin increases phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as AKT, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, which are considered therapeutic targets for cancer treatment due to their anti-apoptotic or pro-survival functions in cancer. A cell viability assay revealed that pharmacological suppression of AKT using LY294002 enhanced the anti-cancer effect of fascaplysin in various cancer cells. Similarly, fascaplysin was observed to have improved anti-cancer effects in combination with compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor. Another challenge showed that fascaplysin increased the efficacy of methotrexate (MTX-mediated cancer therapy by suppressing genes related to folate and purine metabolism. Overall, these results suggest that fascaplysin may be useful for improving the anti-cancer efficacy of targeted anti-cancer drugs, such as inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase AKT signaling, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as MTX.

  3. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Pardhanani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299 and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13. Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to

  4. Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish in Vivo Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshal, Karni S.; Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Haider, Jamil; Pardhanani, Pooja; Leung, TinChung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the expanded understanding of tumor angiogenesis phenomenon and how it impacts cancer treatment outcomes, we have yet to develop a robust assay that can quickly, easily, and quantitatively measure tumor-induced angiogenesis. Since the zebrafish/tumor xenograft represents an emerging tool in this regard, the present study strives to capitalize on the ease, effectiveness, and the adaptability of this model to quantify tumor angiogenesis. In order to test a range of responses, we chose two different tumorigenic cell lines, the human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H1299) and the mouse lung adenocarcinoma (CL13). Non-tumorigenic 3T3-L1 cells served as negative control. The cells were grafted near to the perivitelline space of the zebrafish embryos and the angiogenic response was analyzed using whole-mount alkaline phosphatase (AP) vessel staining and fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenic activity was scored based on the length and number of the newly formed ectopic vessels and the percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels. At 2 day-post-implantation, we detected a significant increase in the length and number of ectopic vessels with H1299 cell implantation compared to CL13 cell transplantation, both are higher than 3T3-L1 control. We also observed a significantly higher percentage of embryos with ectopic vessels with H1299 and CL13 transplantation compared to the 3T3-L1 control, but this parameter is not as robust and reliable as measuring the length and number of ectopic vessels. Furthermore, the systemic exposure of zebrafish embryos to an anti-angiogenesis drug (PTK 787, inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase) inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis, suggesting that the assay can be used to evaluate anti-angiogenic drugs. This study implicates the feasibility of using zebrafish xenotransplantation to perform quantitative measurement of the angiogenic activity of cancer cells which can be further extended to measure cancer cell

  5. Rapid activity-directed screening of estrogens by parallel coupling of liquid chromatography with a functional gene reporter assay and mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, W.; Lamoree, M.H.; Houtman, C.J.; Hamers, T.; Somsen, G.W.; Kool, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we developed a new LC nanofractionation platform that combines a human cell (BG1.Luc) gene reporter assay with a high resolution mass spectrometer for the detection and identification of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic compounds in environmental waters. The selection of this assay was

  6. Studies on the utility and mechanism of the V-79 cell metabolic cooperation assay for tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke condensate and its fractions were tested for activity in the V-79 Metabolic Cooperation Assay to determine the usefulness of the assay for analysis of a complex mixture and to compare the results obtained with previously conducted in vivo promoter assays. The whole condensate and several of its fractions were positive in the assay. In general, the Metabolic Cooperation Assay results were comparable to previously published results obtained on mouse skin. The effect of cell density, phorbol 12-myrystate-13-acetate (PMA) exposure time, concentration, pre-exposure and binding activity on the recovery of mutant V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts in the Metabolic Cooperation Assay was determined. A PMA exposure interval of only 1 minute resulted in maximum recovery of mutant cells. PMA began to inhibit metabolic cooperation at an exposure concentration of 0.1 ng/ml. Pre-exposure of cells to PMA increased the recovery of both post-PMA-treated and non-treated mutant cells in a dose-dependent manner. 3 H-PMA was rapidly bound to or taken up by the V-79 cells under assay conditions. The effect of calcium antagonists and representative compounds from several classes of anti-promoters including anti-inflammatory sterols, protease inhibitors, retinoids and cyclic nucleotides on metabolic determined. Each compound was tested for its effect on metabolic cooperation and also for its ability to reverse or modify the inhibitory properties of PMA on inter-cellular communication. Of all the compounds tested only cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was able to antagonize the inhibitory effect of PMA

  7. Use of biomarkers in the discovery of novel anti-schizophrenia drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Thomsen, Morten S; Hansen, Henrik H

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by a diverse symptomatology that often includes positive, cognitive and negative symptoms. Current anti-schizophrenic drugs act at multiple receptors, but little is known about how each of these receptors contributes to their mechanisms of action. Screening of novel...... anti-schizophrenic drug candidates targeting single receptors will be based on biomarker assays that measure signalling pathways, transcriptional factors, epigenetic mechanisms and synaptic function and translate these effects to behavioural effects in animals and humans. This review discusses current...

  8. Development of versatile universal reagent immunoradiometric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    Immunoradiometric assays, which make use of labelled antibodies, potentially offer better sensitivity and specificity than do radioimmunoassays, which use labelled antigens. In addition, they can in principle be performed in a particularly convenient scheme wherein the same labelled reagent may be used for many different analytes - thus serving as a ''universal'' labelled reagent. Thus if the specific antibody for every analyte is raised in rabbits, and an anti-rabbit antibody is labelled, the latter may be added after the specific antibody to quantify the amount of specific antibody bound to analyte and thereby the amount of analyte present. The potential greater sensitivity and specificity of the immunoradiometric procedure, coupled with the potential convenience of the ''universal'' labelled reagent, might allow such immunoradiometric techniques to be used effectively in the study of communicable diseases in developing countries. Development of these procedures was the subject of this investigation. Many components of these procedures had to be explored and provisionally optimized, including coating of assay tubes with ''extraction'' antibody, immunological purification of antibodies, labelling of antibodies, and intermediate steps toward these goals. Applications were thereupon tested using those provisionally optimized components. The ''universal'' labelled reagent, a donkey anti-rabbit antiserum, was successfully used in the assay of TSH; however, cross reactions of the reagent with non-rabbit immunoglobulins and other materials present seriously limited the sensitivity of the method. Using conventional immunoradiometric procedures, circulating TB and amoebic antibodies could be detected in patients suffering from these diseases. Similarly, circulating antigens in the same patients could also be detected, but not with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a reliable analytical system. Numerous improvements will be required before these techniques

  9. Silver nanoparticles: green synthesis using Phoenix dactylifera fruit extract, characterization, and anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Anas Ejaz; Satardekar, Kshitij Vasant; Khan, Rummana Rehman; Tarte, Nanda Amit; Barve, Siddhivinayak Satyasandha

    2018-03-01

    Hydro-alcoholic (2:8 v/v) extract of the pulp of Phoenix dactylifera fruit pulp obtained using Soxhlet extraction (70 °C, 6 h) was found to contain alkaloids, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, proteins, and carbohydrates. An aqueous solution (20% v/v) of the extract led to the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from 0.01 M AgNO3 solution as confirmed by the surface plasmon resonance at 445 nm determined using UV-visible spectroscopy after 24 h. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be mostly spherical and complexed with phytochemicals from the extract. The size of AgNPs ranged from 12.2-140.2 nm with mean diameter of 47.0 nm as characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elemental composition of the AgNPs complexed with the phytochemicals was found to be 80.49% silver (Ag), 15.21% carbon (C), and 4.30% oxygen (O) on a weight basis by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Using the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, an anti-oxidant activity of 89.15% for 1 µg L-1 ultrasonically homogenized ethanolic solution of complexed AgNPs was obtained (equivalent to 0.20 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution), while methanolic solution of plant extract possessed an EC50 value of 3.45% (v/v) (equivalent to 0.11 mg mL-1 gallic acid solution). The plant-nanosilver broth was also found to possess effective anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 as assessed by the disc diffusion assay. However, the plant extract showed negligible anti-microbial activity.

  10. Co-ordinated research program on development of kits for radioimmunometric assays of tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo Castro, B.E.; Perera Negrin, Y.; Pichardo Diaz, D.; Murugiah, R.; Ayala Avila, M.; Gavilondo Cowley, J.; Ruiz Pena, M.; Caso Pena, R.; Hernandez Pagarizabal, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mice were immunized with semen and natural PSA, following three different schemes. Splenocytes from two hyper immune animals were fused with the P3/x63.Ag8.653 myeloma under conventional hybridoma procedures. Stable hybrid cell cultures secreting antibodies specific to natural PSA were obtained by cloning dilutions procedures. With a group of stable hybridoma cultures we developed epitope characterization assays to determine whether the antibodies were capable of recognizing PSA. According to the recognition level in ELISA, the hybridomas were classified in different groups,. We select the best pairs of Mabs for developing a total and free PSA assays based on ELISA or IRMA format. Our total-PSA based on IRMA format presented a good correlation in comparison with CIS bio total PSA assay. We recommend our anti-PSA monoclonal antibodies to develop an IRMA assay for total PSA. Cuban free-PSA assay is under evaluation at present. (author)

  11. Circulating Anti-Elastin Antibody Levels and Arterial Disease Characteristics: Associations with Arterial Stiffness and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Kihyuk; Park, Sungha; Kang, Seok-Min; Choi, Donghoon; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Lee, Sang-Hak

    2015-11-01

    Elastin is a major arterial structural protein, and elastin-derived peptides are related to arterial change. We previously reported on a novel assay developed using aortic elastin peptides; however, its clinical implications remain unclear. In this study, we assessed whether anti-elastin antibody titers reflect the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) or its characteristics. We included 174 CAD patients and 171 age- and sex-matched controls. Anti-elastin antibody titers were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parameters of arterial stiffness, including the augmentation index (AI) and heart-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (hfPWV), were measured non-invasively. The clinical and angiographic characteristics of CAD patients were also evaluated. Associations between anti-elastin levels and vascular characteristics were examined by linear regression analysis. The median blood level of anti-elastin was significantly lower in the CAD group than in the controls [197 arbitrary unit (a.u.) vs. 63 a.u., pelastin were significantly lower in men and in subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, or high hfPWV. Nevertheless, anti-elastin levels were not dependent on atherothrombotic events or the angiographic severity of CAD. In a multivariate analysis, male sex (β=-0.38, pelastin levels. Lower levels of anti-elastin are related to CAD. The association between antibody titers and CAD is linked to arterial stiffness rather than the advancement of atherosclerosis.

  12. Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiparasitic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Laennecia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Martínez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae. Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.

  13. A comparison of sperm agglutination and immobilization assays with a quantitative ELISA for anti-sperm antibody in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D M; Leali, B A; Howe, S E

    1986-08-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that quantitates antisperm antibody in serum was compared with standard sperm agglutination and immobilization assays with the use of sera from 40 normal and 292 subfertile individuals. Quantitation of the assay was accomplished by standardizing assay parameters, including the incorporation of a standard reference curve, the number of whole target sperm, the optimal dilution of serum, the selection of microtiter plate, and the time and temperatures involved in the adsorption and incubation phases. With this method, the level of antisperm antibody binding to target sperm in 40 normal fertile individuals was found to be 2.3 (+/- 1.1 standard deviation [SD]) fg immunoglobulin (Ig)/sperm. An increased mean level of 7.4 +/- 3.7 fg Ig/sperm was determined in 84 infertile patients with positive agglutination and/or immobilization tests. In 208 individuals with negative agglutination and immobilization tests the mean concentration of antisperm antibody was 2.5 +/- 1.3 fg Ig/sperm. Postvasectomy patients assayed by this method had a mean Ig binding value of 7.1 +/- 2.4 fg Ig/sperm. The infertile group with positive agglutination and/or immobilization tests had a significantly higher mean antisperm antibody level than the normal fertile group, according to the Student's t-test for independent samples (P less than 0.001). This indirect serum-based assay reproducibly quantitates antisperm antibody binding to whole target sperm, suggests the normal and abnormal levels of antisperm antibody, and correlates with standard functional assays.

  14. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebach, H.; Uckert, W.; Micheel, B.

    1982-01-01

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle. (author)

  15. Application of a sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and a solid-phase radioimmunoassay to the bovine leukemia virus system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebach, H.; Uckert, W.; Micheel, B. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung)

    Several fluorescence assays with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) conjugated to activated Sepharose 4B were used for the detection of BLV and anti-BLV antibodies. These tests were compared with a solid-phase radioimmunoassay and found to be in the same sensitivity range. Sepharose bead immunofluorescence assay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay can be applied to the diagnosis of BLV infection in cattle.

  16. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Reactivity of human sera in a sensitive, high-throughput pseudovirus-based papillomavirus neutralization assay for HPV16 and HPV18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrana, Diana V.; Buck, Christopher B.; Pang, Y.-Y. S.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Castle, Philip E.; FitzGerald, Peter C.; Krueger Kjaer, Susanne; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Sensitive high-throughput neutralization assays, based upon pseudoviruses carrying a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene, were developed and validated for human papillomavirus (HPV)16, HPV18, and bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1). SEAP pseudoviruses were produced by transient transfection of codon-modified papillomavirus structural genes into an SV40 T antigen expressing line derived from 293 cells, yielding sufficient pseudovirus from one flask for thousands of titrations. In a 96-well plate format, in this initial characterization, the assay was reproducible and appears to be as sensitive as, but more specific than, a standard papillomavirus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The neutralization assay detected type-specific HPV16 or HPV18 neutralizing antibodies (titers of 160-10240) in sera of the majority of a group of women infected with the corresponding HPV type, but not in virgin women. Sera from HPV16 VLP vaccinees had high anti-HPV16 neutralizing titers (mean: 45000; range: 5120-163840), but no anti-HPV18 neutralizing activity. The SEAP pseudovirus-based neutralization assay should be a practical method for quantifying potentially protective antibody responses in HPV natural history and prophylactic vaccine studies

  18. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A P; Rezapkin, G V; Dzagurova, T K; Tkachenko, E A [Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow

    1984-05-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  19. In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was determined using free radical scavenging assays such as DPPH, ABTS and NO2. The antiinflammatory potential was carried out using inhibition of protein denaturation of egg albumin as a model of anti-inflammatory capacity. Results: Both the crude methanolic extract and saponins ...

  20. In-vitro evaluation of anti-trichomonal activities of Eugenia uniflora leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibikunle, Gabriel Femi; Adebajo, Adeleke Clement; Famuyiwa, Funmilayo Gladys; Aladesanmi, Adetunji Joseph; Adewunmi, Clement Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia uniflora, used ethnomedically in some tropical countries as an anti-infective, has shown anti-malarial and anti-trypanocidal activities. Therefore using bioactivity guided fractionation, anti-trichomonal activity of E. uniflora leaf was investigated. Anti-trichomonal activities of leaf methanol extract and its fractions against Trichomonas gallinae as well as their cytotoxicities using an in vitro haemaglutination assay were determined. Anti-trichomonacidal activities of the extract improved on purification up to a stage. Subfractions E(2-5) had LC(50) and LC(90) values of 4.77 - 5.28, 18.49 - 25.00 and 4.53 - 5.18, 18.32 - 19.07 µg/ml at 24 and 48 hrs, respectively that were better than those of metronidazole. Further purification of E(2-5) led to loss of activity suggesting that the active components were probably working synergistically and additively. Demonstration of low haemaglutination titre values of 0.00 - 5.33 by methanolic extract and its partition fractions suggested their low toxicity profile. The established safety of the leaf indicated that its anti-trichomonal activity was not due to non-specific cytotoxicity, hence could be used in ethnomedicine as an anti-trichomonal agent.

  1. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partitioned aqueous and chloroform fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaf of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were examined for anti-proliferative (1-30 mg/mL) and cytotoxic activities (20-400 μg/mL) using the seed radicle inhibition and tadpole mortality assays over a period of 24 and 96 h respectively.

  2. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  3. Data of a fluorescent imaging-based analysis of anti-cancer drug effects on three-dimensional cultures of breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Itou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D cell culture is a powerful tool to study cell growth under 3D condition. To perform a simple test for anti-cancer drugs in 3D culture, visualization of non-proliferated cells is required. We propose a fluorescent imaging-based assay to analyze cancer cell proliferation in 3D culture. We used a pulse-labeling technique with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein Kaede to identify non-proliferated cells. This assay allows us to observe change in cell proliferation in 3D culture by simple imaging. Using this assay, we obtained the data of the effects of anti-cancer drugs, 5-fluorouracil and PD0332991 in a breast cancer cell line, MCF-7.

  4. Evaluation of anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant potential of andrographolide and echiodinin isolated from callus culture of Andrographis paniculata Nees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifullah, Mohmmed; Namsa, Nima Dandu; Mandal, Manabendra; Chiruvella, Kishore Kumar; Vikrama, Paritala; Gopal, Ghanta Rama

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity of andrographolide (AND) and echiodinin (ECH) of Andrographis paniculata. Methods In this study, an attempt has been made to demonstrate the anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity of isolated AND and ECH by broth micro-dilution method and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay, respectively. Structure elucidation was determined by electro-spray ionization-MSD, NMR (1H and 13C) and IR spectra. Results AND was effective against most of the strains tested including Mycobacterium smegmatis, showing broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity with Minimum inhibitory concentration values against Staphylococcus aureus (100 µg/mL), Streptococcus thermophilus (350 µg/mL) Bacillus subtilis (100 µg/mL), Escherichia coli (50 µg/mL), Mycobacterium smegmatis (200 µg/mL), Klebsiella pneumonia (100 µg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (200 µg/mL). ECH showed specific anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a concentration higher than 225 µg/mL. Both AND and ECH were not effective against the two yeast strains, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested in this study. Conclusion This preliminary study showed promising anti-bacterial activity and moderate free radical scavenging activity of AND and ECH, and it may provide the scientific rationale for its popular folklore medicines. PMID:23905016

  5. Anti-Acetylcholinesterase and Antioxidant Appraisal of the Bulb Extracts of Five Sternbergia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts from the bulbs of Turkish Sternbergia Waldst. & Kit. (Amaryllidaceae species; S. candida, S. clusiana, S. fisheriana, S. lutea subsp. lutea, and S. lutea subsp. sicula. Anti-AChE activity was tested by spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate reader at 50, 100, and 200 μg mL -1 concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion-chelating capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, and beta-carotene bleaching assays at 500, 1000, and 2000 μg mL -1. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined via Folin-Ciocalteau’s and AlCl3 reagents, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of S. fischeriana was the most active in anti-AChE assay (90.94% and 98.02% of inhibitions at 100 and 200 μg mL -1 concentrations, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was found to be not significant.

  6. High performance liquid chromatography profiling of health-promoting phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, iron chelating and anti-glucosidase activities of wetland macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Sit, Nam-Weng; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-08-01

    The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health. The objective of this study is to analyze the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of 10 extracts prepared from different plant parts of wetland macrophytes Hanguana malayana, Ludwigia adscendens and Monochoria hastata. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the phytochemical profile of the extracts. Antioxidant assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were performed. Bioactivity assays carried out were anti-lipoxygenase, anti-glucosidase, and iron chelating. Leaf extract of L. adscendens had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (half of maximal effective concentration [EC50] =0.97 mg/mL) and NO (EC50 = 0.31 mg/mL) scavenging activities. The extract also exhibited the highest iron chelating (EC50 = 3.24 mg/mL) and anti-glucosidase (EC50 = 27.5 μg/mL) activities. The anti-glucosidase activity of L. adscendens leaf extract was comparable or superior to those of acarbose, myricetin and quercetin. Correlation between iron chelating and radical scavenging activities among the extracts implies the presence of dual-function phytoconstituents with concurrent iron chelating and radical scavenging activities. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), gallic acid (GA) and myricetin in all or most extracts. M. hastata fruit and leaf extracts had the highest p-hydroxybenzoic acid content. Antioxidant and anti-glucosidase activities of the extracts were correlated with p-CA, GA, and myricetin contents. Our study demonstrated that wetland macrophytes H. malayana, L. adscendens and M. hastata are potential sources of health-promoting phytochemicals with potent therapeutically-relevant bioactivities.

  7. High performance liquid chromatography profiling of health-promoting phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, iron chelating and anti-glucosidase activities of wetland macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Sit, Nam-Weng; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-01-01

    Background: The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of 10 extracts prepared from different plant parts of wetland macrophytes Hanguana malayana, Ludwigia adscendens and Monochoria hastata. Materials and Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the phytochemical profile of the extracts. Antioxidant assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were performed. Bioactivity assays carried out were anti-lipoxygenase, anti-glucosidase, and iron chelating. Results: Leaf extract of L. adscendens had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (half of maximal effective concentration [EC50] =0.97 mg/mL) and NO (EC50 = 0.31 mg/mL) scavenging activities. The extract also exhibited the highest iron chelating (EC50 = 3.24 mg/mL) and anti-glucosidase (EC50 = 27.5 μg/mL) activities. The anti-glucosidase activity of L. adscendens leaf extract was comparable or superior to those of acarbose, myricetin and quercetin. Correlation between iron chelating and radical scavenging activities among the extracts implies the presence of dual-function phytoconstituents with concurrent iron chelating and radical scavenging activities. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), gallic acid (GA) and myricetin in all or most extracts. M. hastata fruit and leaf extracts had the highest p-hydroxybenzoic acid content. Antioxidant and anti-glucosidase activities of the extracts were correlated with p-CA, GA, and myricetin contents. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that wetland macrophytes H. malayana, L. adscendens and M. hastata are potential sources of health-promoting phytochemicals with potent therapeutically-relevant bioactivities. PMID:25298659

  8. (1→3)-β-D-Glucan Assay in Monitoring Response to Anti-Fungal Therapy in Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Jihad; Saling, Christopher; Szabela, Maria; Brown, Melinda; Johnson, Tamara; Goldfarb, Irvin

    2017-03-01

    A case is reported of Candida glabrata infective endocarditis (IE) treated without surgical intervention. The study aim was to: (i) briefly discuss the outcomes of other documented cases of fungal IE managed medically with fluconazole; (ii) discuss the (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay and its previously studied role in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections; and (iii) examine a possible application of the (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay to monitor response to antifungal treatment in patients with Candida endocarditis. The serum Fungitell assay was used to trend (1→3)-β-D-glucan in a patient with Candida endocarditis to determine treatment effectiveness with fluconazole, to provide an appropriate end date for antifungal therapy, and to survey infection suppression while off treatment. The (1→03)-β-D-glucan assay began trending downwards at 197 days into treatment with oral fluconazole. After 16 months of therapy, fluconazole was stopped due to transaminitis. (1→3)-β-Dglucan levels were checked six weeks after the discontinuation of treatment and were negative. The patient has now been off therapy for 21 weeks with no signs of clinical disease, and values remain negative. The present case indicates that a trending (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay may have valuable application in monitoring treatment response and infection suppression for Candida endocarditis.

  9. Synthesis of novel 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 1,2,3-triazole based bis-heterocycles: their anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Syed; Alam, Mohammad Mahboob; Mulakayala, Naveen; Mulakayala, Chaitanya; Vanaja, G; Kalle, Arunasree M; Pallu, Reddanna; Alam, M S

    2012-03-01

    A focused library of novel bis-heterocycles encompassing 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized using click chemistry approach. The synthesized compounds have been tested for their anti-inflammatory activity by using biochemical cyclooxygenase (COX) activity assays and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema. Among the tested compounds, compound 4d demonstrated a potent selective COX-2 inhibition with COX-2/COX-1 ratio of 0.44. Results from carrageenan-induced hind paw edema showed that compounds 4a, 4d, 4e and 4f posses significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to the standard drug Ibuprofen. The compounds showing significant activity were further subjected to anti-nociceptive activity by writhing test. These four compounds have shown comparable activity with the standard Ibuprofen. Further ulcerogenic studies shows that none of these compounds causing gastric ulceration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A FRET-based high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of anthrax protective antigen binding to capillary morphogenesis gene 2 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Rogers

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA, a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2 protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8. Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction is sensitive and robust, with observed Z' values as high as 0.92. Preliminary screens conducted with a library of known bioactive compounds identified tannic acid and cisplatin as inhibitors of the PA-CMG2 interaction. We have confirmed that tannic acid both binds CMG2 and has anti-endothelial properties. In contrast, cisplatin appears to inhibit PA-CMG2 interaction by binding both PA and CMG2, and observed cisplatin anti-angiogenic effects are not mediated by interaction with CMG2. This work represents the first reported high throughput screening assay targeting CMG2 to identify possible inhibitors of both angiogenesis and anthrax intoxication.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D F Buccini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities and the toxic effects of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva for elucidating the modulation mechanism between arthropod saliva and host. Methods: For saliva collection, engorged ticks were obtained from a controlled bovine infestation and collected by natural fall. The ticks were fixed and injected pilocarpine 0.2% for induction of salivation. Saliva was collected, lyophilized and stored at - 80 °C. Cytotoxic activity was assessed by the hemolysis method (25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 μ g/mL and MTT cell viability assay (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μ g/mL for 24, 48 and 72 h. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the method of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity of mice at doses of 10, 15 and 20 mg/kg; antinociceptive activity was assessed using the acetic acid-induced writhing test, and formalin-induced paw-licking in mice at dose of 15 mg/kg. Results: Saliva did not cause erythrocytes hemolysis at any concentration tested, as well as did not decrease cell viability in the MTT assay. Saliva inhibited neutrophil migration by 87% and 73% at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg, respectively. In the nociceptive tests, saliva presented analgesic activity of 69.96% in the abdominal writhing test, and of 84.41% in the formalin test. Conclusions: The study proves that Rhipicephalus microplus saliva has significant in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The data presented herein support the development of further studies to elucidate the active principles of Rhipicephalus microplus saliva and its mechanism of action and, in future, to develop novel anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs.

  12. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Hong, S. W.; Oh, O. D.

    1999-04-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related competitive protein-binding methods began a little over 20 years ago as a cumbersome research methodology in a few specialized laboratories. Endocrinology has been greatly enriched by the new knowledge that has come as a direct result of RIA methods. Establishment of the taxol RIA system will be expected to develop RIA for drug monitoring. Scintillation proximity assay was useful since any separation step is not required, it has the advantage of dealing with multiple samples. The increased sensitivity of the new assay in determining HCV RT([ 125 I]dUTP) suggests that it would be worth investigating whether the system can be applied to analysis. [ 125 I] lodotyramine with 98.5% radiochemical purity. Optimal background counts was certificated using varied radioactivity of radionuclides. Appropriate standard curve was obtained from SPA method successively, and the concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by standard curve. The result concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by synthesized successively and purified by HPLC system. Hybridoma reducing monoclonal anti thyroglobulin antibodies titer is measured by ELISA. These studies play an important role in development of in vitro assay with radionuclides

  13. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Hong, S. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, O. D. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and related competitive protein-binding methods began a little over 20 years ago as a cumbersome research methodology in a few specialized laboratories. Endocrinology has been greatly enriched by the new knowledge that has come as a direct result of RIA methods. Establishment of the taxol RIA system will be expected to develop RIA for drug monitoring. Scintillation proximity assay was useful since any separation step is not required, it has the advantage of dealing with multiple samples. The increased sensitivity of the new assay in determining HCV RT([{sup 125}I]dUTP) suggests that it would be worth investigating whether the system can be applied to analysis. [{sup 125}I] lodotyramine with 98.5% radiochemical purity. Optimal background counts was certificated using varied radioactivity of radionuclides. Appropriate standard curve was obtained from SPA method successively, and the concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by standard curve. The result concentration of hCG from unknown serum was determined by synthesized successively and purified by HPLC system. Hybridoma reducing monoclonal anti thyroglobulin antibodies titer is measured by ELISA. These studies play an important role in development of in vitro assay with radionuclides.

  14. Comparison of printed glycan array, suspension array and ELISA in the detection of human anti-glycan antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochechueva, Tatiana; Jacob, Francis; Goldstein, Darlene R; Huflejt, Margaret E; Chinarev, Alexander; Caduff, Rosemarie; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville; Bovin, Nicolai V; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2011-12-01

    Anti-glycan antibodies represent a vast and yet insufficiently investigated subpopulation of naturally occurring and adaptive antibodies in humans. Recently, a variety of glycan-based microarrays emerged, allowing high-throughput profiling of a large repertoire of antibodies. As there are no direct approaches for comparison and evaluation of multi-glycan assays we compared three glycan-based immunoassays, namely printed glycan array (PGA), fluorescent microsphere-based suspension array (SA) and ELISA for their efficacy and selectivity in profiling anti-glycan antibodies in a cohort of 48 patients with and without ovarian cancer. The ABO blood group glycan antigens were selected as well recognized ligands for sensitivity and specificity assessments. As another ligand we selected P(1), a member of the P blood group system recently identified by PGA as a potential ovarian cancer biomarker. All three glyco-immunoassays reflected the known ABO blood groups with high performance. In contrast, anti-P(1) antibody binding profiles displayed much lower concordance. Whilst anti-P(1) antibody levels between benign controls and ovarian cancer patients were significantly discriminated using PGA (p=0.004), we got only similar results using SA (p=0.03) but not for ELISA. Our findings demonstrate that whilst assays were largely positively correlated, each presents unique characteristic features and should be validated by an independent patient cohort rather than another array technique. The variety between methods presumably reflects the differences in glycan presentation and the antigen/antibody ratio, assay conditions and detection technique. This indicates that the glycan-antibody interaction of interest has to guide the assay selection. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  15. Antimelanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Hazwani Mat; Sim, Kae Shin; Tan, Yee Shin

    2018-01-01

    Five culinary-medicinal mushrooms are commonly available in the Malaysian market: Agaricus bisporus (white and brown), Ganoderma lucidum, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Pleurotus floridanus, and P. pulmonarius. These species were selected for use in the current study, the aim of which was to investigate the antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activity of these mushrooms in an attempt to evaluate their potential use in cosmeceuticals. Mushroom fruiting bodies were extracted with hot water, and the extracts were freeze-dried before testing. The antimelanogenesis activity of the extracts was determined by cell viability assay, measurement of intracellular melanin content, and cellular tyrosinase assay with B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the mushroom extracts was tested by measuring the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-10 excreted by RAW264.7 macrophages. Brown A. bisporus reduced intracellular melanin content to the largest extent-up to 57.05 ± 3.90%-without a cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells. This extract also reduced cellular tyrosinase activity to 17.93 ± 2.65%, performing better than kojic acid, the positive control. In parallel, the extract from brown A. bisporus, at the highest concentration tested, has appreciable anti-inflammatory activity through reductions of NO and TNF-α levels. The other 5 extracts showed moderate antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. In summary, our findings show that A. bisporus (brown) extract has the potential to be used as an ingredient in whitening skincare products and to sooth the inflammatory response on the skin.

  16. Low-molecular-weight fucoidan and high-stability fucoxanthin from brown seaweed exert prebiotics and anti-inflammatory activities in Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-An Hwang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of low-molecular-weight fucoidan (LMF and high-stability fucoxanthin (HS-Fucox in a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory Caco-2 cell line co-culture with B. lactis. Methods: We used various methods such as transepithelial resistance (TER assay, cytokine secretion assay, and tight junction protein mRNA expression assay to examine LMF and HS-Fucox anti-inflammatory properties. Results: LMF and HS-Fucox activated probiotic growth and reduced the inflammation of the intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the combination of LMFHS-Fucox dramatically enhanced the intestinal epithelial barrier and immune function against the lipopolysaccharide effect by inhibiting IL-1β and TNF-α and promoting IL-10 and IFN-γ. Conclusion: These findings suggested that LMF and HS-Fucox, alone or in combination, could be the potential natural compounds to enhance the immune system and have an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal cells.

  17. Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  18. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana

    2017-03-01

    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors.

  19. Anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of a small molecule, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal in Tg2576 Alzheimer’s disease mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD is pathologically characterized by excessive accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ fibrils within the brain and activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. In this study, we examined anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects of 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl-2-butenal (HPB242, an anti-inflammatory compound produced by the tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction. Methods 12-month-old Tg2576 mice were treated with HPB242 (5 mg/kg for 1 month and then cognitive function was assessed by the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. In addition, western blot analysis, Gel electromobility shift assay, immunostaining, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA and enzyme activity assays were used to examine the degree of Aβ deposition in the brains of Tg2576 mice. The Morris water maze task was analyzed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Otherwise were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post hoc test. Results Treatment of HPB242 (5 mg/kg for 1 month significantly attenuated cognitive impairments in Tg2576 transgenic mice. HPB242 also prevented amyloidogenesis in Tg2576 transgenic mice brains. This can be evidenced by Aβ accumulation, BACE1, APP and C99 expression and β-secretase activity. In addition, HPB242 suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Furthermore, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3 in the brain was potently inhibited by HPB242. Conclusions Thus, these results suggest that HPB242 might be useful to intervene in development or progression of neurodegeneration in AD through its anti-inflammatory and anti-amyloidogenic effects.

  20. Evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot assay for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, E; Belden, E L; Roth, D

    1985-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA), an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a dot-blot modification of the ELISA were evaluated for detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (X. c. pv. phaseoli). RIA and the dot blot tests were specific for X. c. pv. phaseoli; however, significant cross reactions occurred in the indirect competitive ELISA when using anti-X. c. pv. phaseoli antiserum against other closely related bacteria. The sensitivity level of all procedures for X. c. pv. phaseoli was approximately l0/sup 5/ colony forming unitsmL. All procedures were unsatisfactory in reliably detecting low levels of X. c. pv. phaseoli directly from extracts of bean seed. However when used in conjunction with ilution plating the dot blot assay and the RIA would be useful in specifically identifying X. c. pv. phaseoli. The relative merits of these tests for identification of X. c. pv. phaseoli are discussed.

  1. Kinase profiling of liposarcomas using RNAi and drug screening assays identified druggable targets

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    Deepika Kanojia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liposarcoma, the most common soft tissue tumor, is understudied cancer, and limited progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic disease. The Achilles heel of cancer often is their kinases that are excellent therapeutic targets. However, very limited knowledge exists of therapeutic critical kinase targets in liposarcoma that could be potentially used in disease management. Methods Large RNAi and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor screens were performed against the proliferative capacity of liposarcoma cell lines of different subtypes. Each small molecule inhibitor was either FDA approved or in a clinical trial. Results Screening assays identified several previously unrecognized targets including PTK2 and KIT in liposarcoma. We also observed that ponatinib, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was the most effective drug with anti-growth effects against all cell lines. In vitro assays showed that ponatinib inhibited the clonogenic proliferation of liposarcoma, and this anti-growth effect was associated with apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase as well as a decrease in the KIT signaling pathway. In addition, ponatinib inhibited in vivo growth of liposarcoma in a xenograft model. Conclusions Two large-scale kinase screenings identified novel liposarcoma targets and a FDA-approved inhibitor, ponatinib with clear anti-liposarcoma activity highlighting its potential therapy for treatment of this deadly tumor.

  2. The different clinical effects of anti-BLyS, anti-APRIL and anti-CD20 antibodies point at a critical pathogenic role of γ-herpesvirus infected B cells in the marmoset EAE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Jagessar, S; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heijmans, Nicole; Bauer, Jan; Laman, Jon D; Oh, Luke; Migone, Thi; Verschoor, Ernst J; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). By contrast, treatment with mAbs against two essential cytokines in B cell activation growth and survival, i.e. BlyS/BAFF and APRIL, was only partially effective. All three mAbs induced depletion of CD20+ B cells from the circulation, albeit with different kinetics and based on distinct mechanisms of action. In the current study we analyzed whether the different clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb or the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL mAbs is due to different depletion of B cells infected with the EBV of marmosets, CalHV3. Employing a novel PCR-based assay, half of the colony of group-housed marmosets was tested positive for CalHV3 DNA in secondary lymphoid organs. The same prevalence was observed in placebo-treated monkeys. In marmosets treated with anti-CD20 mAb the load of CalHV3 DNA in lymphoid organs was substantially reduced, while this was not observed in the monkeys treated with anti-BLyS or anti-APRIL mAbs. To examine the pathogenic role of virus-transformed B cells, we infused EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell (BLC) lines presenting the immunodominant MOG34-56 peptide. We observed in the recipients of MOG34-56 pulsed BLC, but not in their fraternal siblings infused with non-pulsed BLC, activation of anti-MOG34-56 T cells and meningeal inflammation. Collectively, the data show that among CD20+ B cells, the herpesvirus-transformed subset has a particularly important pathogenic role in the marmoset EAE model.

  3. [Immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae for the detection of anti-DNA antibodies. Atypical images and their relationship with Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griemberg, Gloria; Ferrarotti, Nidia F; Svibel, Graciela; Ravelli, Maria R; Taranto, Nestor J; Malchiodi, Emilio L; Pizzimenti, Maria C

    2006-01-01

    Anti-native DNA antibodies can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Crithidia luciliae, displaying an annular image due to a kinetoplast containing double stranded DNA. Other structures such as membrane, flagellum and basal corpuscle can be stained as well, showing what is called atypical fluorescent images. As C. luciliae belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family, which include the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp., it was considered that these atypical images could be caused by cross-reactions. Serological studies for Chagas' disease were performed in 105 serum samples displaying atypical images. Sixty four percent of the samples from non endemic and 78.3% from endemic areas for Chagas' disease showed fluorescence in both, membrane and flagellum (joint image). Fifty samples from normal blood donors and 57 samples from patients with conective tissue diseases were tested with C. luciliae. None of them presented the joint image except for two patients with lupus who were also chagasic. In addition, 54 samples from chagasic patients were studied and all of them presented the joint image. We also studied 46 samples from patients with leishmaniasis from whom 28 were coinfected with T. cruzi. The joint image was observed in 88.0% of the samples with leishmaniasis and in 89.3% of the co-infected samples. The results suggest that C. luciliae could be used as an economical, and of low risk, alternative substrate for the serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease, even though it does not discriminate for Leishmania spp. infection. This study also suggests that whenever atypical images are observed in C. luciliae during the search for anti-DNA antibodies, it would be convenient to submit the patient to clinical and serological tests for the diagnosis of leishmaniosis and Chagas' disease.

  4. Identification of anti-HBV activities in Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. using GRP78 as a drug target on Herbochip®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Iao-Fai; Huang, Min; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tysr; Yao, Pei-Wun; Chou, Yu-Ting; Ng, Sim-Kun; Tsai, Ying-Lin; Lin, Yu-Chang; Zhang, Yun-Feng; Yang, Xiao-Yuan; Lai, Yiu-Kay

    2017-01-01

    Herbochip ® technology is a high throughput drug screening platform in a reverse screening manner, in which potential chemical leads in herbal extracts are immobilized and drug target proteins can be used as probes for screening process [BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:146]. While herbal medicines represent an ideal reservoir for drug screenings, here a molecular chaperone GRP78 is demonstrated to serve as a potential target for antiviral drug discovery. We cloned and expressed a truncated but fully functional form of human GRP78 (hGRP78 1-508 ) and used it as a probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro anti-HBV activity of the herbal extracts were evaluated by MTT and ELISA assays, respectively. Finally, anti-HBV activity was confirmed by in vivo assay using DHBV DNA levels in DHBV-infected ducklings as a model. Primary screenings using GRP78 on 40 herbochips revealed 11 positives. Four of the positives, namely Dioscorea bulbifera , Lasiosphaera fenzlii , Paeonia suffruticosa and Polygonum cuspidatum were subjected to subsequent assays. None of the above extracts was cytotoxic to AML12 cells, but P. cuspidatum extract (PCE) was found to be cytotoxic to HepG2 2.2.15 cells. Both PCE and P. suffruticosa extract (PSE) suppressed secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2 2.2.15 cells. The anti-HBV activity of PSE was further confirmed in vivo. We have demonstrated that GRP78 is a valid probe for anti-HBV drug screening on herbochips. We have also shown that PSE, while being non-cytotoxic, possesses in vitro and in vivo anti-HBV activities. Taken together, our data suggest that PSE may be a potential anti-HBV agent for therapeutic use.

  5. Discovery of Anti-Hypertensive Oligopeptides from Adlay Based on In Silico Proteolysis and Virtual Screening

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    Liansheng Qiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adlay (Coix larchryma-jobi L. was the commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with high content of seed storage protein. The hydrolyzed bioactive oligopeptides of adlay have been proven to be anti-hypertensive effective components. However, the structures and anti-hypertensive mechanism of bioactive oligopeptides from adlay were not clear. To discover the definite anti-hypertensive oligopeptides from adlay, in silico proteolysis and virtual screening were implemented to obtain potential oligopeptides, which were further identified by biochemistry assay and molecular dynamics simulation. In this paper, ten sequences of adlay prolamins were collected and in silico hydrolyzed to construct the oligopeptide library with 134 oligopeptides. This library was reverse screened by anti-hypertensive pharmacophore database, which was constructed by our research team and contained ten anti-hypertensive targets. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE was identified as the main potential target for the anti-hypertensive activity of adlay oligopeptides. Three crystal structures of ACE were utilized for docking studies and 19 oligopeptides were finally identified with potential ACE inhibitory activity. According to mapping features and evaluation indexes of pharmacophore and docking, three oligopeptides were selected for biochemistry assay. An oligopeptide sequence, NPATY (IC50 = 61.88 ± 2.77 µM, was identified as the ACE inhibitor by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC assay. Molecular dynamics simulation of NPATY was further utilized to analyze interactive bonds and key residues. ALA354 was identified as a key residue of ACE inhibitors. Hydrophobic effect of VAL518 and electrostatic effects of HIS383, HIS387, HIS513 and Zn2+ were also regarded as playing a key role in inhibiting ACE activities. This study provides a research strategy to explore the pharmacological mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM proteins based on

  6. Unexplained infertility: identification of anti sperm antibodies using radiometric immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; Elnabarawy, F.; Hamada, T.; Ayiad, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods have been employed to measure anti sperm antibodies with variable sensitivity and specificity in serum and secretion of infertile patients. All of them are not precise means for identification of the presence of anti sperm antibodies for patients with unexplained infertility (Haas et al, 1980). Therefore, the modified radiolabelled anti globulin test, that has been used successfully to identify and quantitate the antibodies directed towards other human cell surfaces, was applied. A total number of 128 subjects in different groups were studied to quantitate the circulating anti sperm antibodies using the modified procedure. The present data revealed that the highest and the most significant incidence were found in the patients secretions (semen and cervical mucus) with unexplained infertility, as well as in the group of males with varicocele. Therefore it is greatly advisable to use the modified radiolabelled technique as a quantitative assay, which will be helpful in management of infertility in patients with unexplained and mediated infertility.3 tab., 4 fig

  7. Anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies: an additional diagnostic marker for APS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnolato, Francesca; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Encabo, Susan; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Bertero, Tiziana; De Micheli, Valeria; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Among the diagnostic assays for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), lupus anticoagulant (LA) is the strongest predictor of thrombosis; however, it presents several limitations as interference with anticoagulant therapy and poor inter-laboratory agreement. Two-thirds of LA activity is apparently due to antibodies against prothrombin (PT), usually detectable by ELISA. Binding of PT to phosphatidylserine (PS) has been shown to enhance solid-phase anti-PT assay sensitivity. To determine the prevalence of antibodies against PS/PT (aPS/PT) in APS, we tested the semiquantitative QUANTA Lite(®) aPS/PT ELISA in a cohort of 80 APS patients. The prevalence of aPS/PT was 81.3%, rising to 87.6% when considering LA-positive subjects only. We observed a strong correlation between aPS/PT and LA (p = 0.006). To note, APS patients with thrombotic manifestations displayed significantly higher IgG aPS/PT titers compared to 20 aPL asymptomatic carriers (p = 0.012). To rule out a possible cross-reactivity of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) with PS/PT complex, we tested two monoclonal aβ2GPI antibodies and an affinity-purified (AP) polyclonal aβ2GPI IgG obtained from the serum of a patient reacting against both β2GPI and PS/PT. The two monoclonal antibodies did not show any reactivity against PS/PT complex, similarly the AP IgGs did not react toward PS/PT antigen while preserved their aβ2GPI activity. Our findings suggest that aPS/PT are a definite antibody population in APS. Moreover, the good correlation between aPS/PT ELISA and LA may support its use as a surrogate test for LA, particularly useful to overcome the technical limitations of the functional assay.

  8. Antioxidative Flavonol Glucuronides and Anti-HBsAg Flavonol from Rotala rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavonol glucuronides, quercetin 3-O-β-d-2″-acetylglucuronide (1 and quercetin 3-O-β-d-2″-acetylglucuronide methyl ester (2, along with four known flavonoids (3-6 were isolated from the whole parts of Rotala rotundifolia. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by application of various spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Biological evaluation showed that all of isolated flavonoid compounds have potent anti-oxidative activities by DPPH and superoxide anion methods, and kaempferol (3 and quercetin (4 exhibited significant anti-HBV activity assayed by anti-HBsAg production. The HPLC fingerprint with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD for quality control of R. rotundifolia partitioned EtOAc layer was also established.

  9. Mechanism of anti-HIV activity of succinylated human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, ME; Berg, HVD; Swart, PJ; Laman, Jon; Meijer, DKF; Kopelman, MHGM; Huisman, H

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we described the interaction of succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA), a negatively charged anti-HIV-1 active protein, with HIV-1 gp120 and in detail with the third variable domain of gp120 (V3 loop). To this end, different assay formats were tested in which gp120- and

  10. The anti-tumor efficacy of nanoparticulate form of ICD-85 versus free form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Mirakabadi, A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs have been intensively studied as a possible way to enhance anti-tumor efficacy while reducing side effects. ICD-85, derived from the venom of two separate species of venomous animals, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activity. In this report polymer based sodium alginate nanoparticles of ICD-85 was used to enhance its therapeutic effects and reduce its side effects. The inhibitory effect was evaluated by MTT assay. The necrotic effect was assessed using LDH assay. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by caspase-8 colorimetric assay kit. Cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cells demonstrated enhanced efficacy of ICD-85 loaded NPs compared to the free ICD-85. The IC50 values obtained in HeLa cells after 48 h, for free ICD-85 and ICD-85 loaded NPs were 26±2.9μg ml-1 and 18±2.5μg ml-1, respectively. While it was observed that free ICD-85 exhibits mild cytotoxicity towards normal MRC-5 cells (IC50>60μg ml-1, ICD-85 loaded NPs was found to have higher efficacy in anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cells in vitro without any significant cytotoxic effect on normal MRC-5 cells. The apoptosis-induction mechanism by both form of ICD-85 on HeLa cells was found to be through activation of caspase-8 with approximately 2 fold greater of ICD-85 loaded NPs as compared to free ICD-85. Our work reveals that although ICD-85 in free form is relatively selective to inhibit the growth of cancer cells via apoptosis as compared to normal cells, but nanoparticulate form increases its selectivity towards cancer cells.

  11. Antibacterial, anti-swarming and anti-biofilm formation activities of Chamaemelum nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Hossein; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Heidari, Hamid; Amiri, Pouya; Yamchi, Jalil Kardan; Shavalipour, Aref; Houri, Hamidreza; Maleki, Abbas; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda

    2015-01-01

    Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) is widely used throughout the world, and has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, and spasmolytic properties. Because of the increasing incidence of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of natural antibacterial sources such as medical herbs for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. Extracts from different plant parts such as the leaves, flowers, fruit, and bark of Combretum albiflorum, Laurus nobilis , and Sonchus oleraceus were found to possess anti-quorum sensing (QS) activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. The P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from patients with different types of infection, including wound infection, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The flowers of C. nobile were dried and the extract was removed using a rotary device and then dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at pH 7.4. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of this extract on P. aeruginosa , and biofilm inhibition was assayed. Eighty percent of the isolated samples (16/20) could form a biofilm, and most of these were isolated from wound infections. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of the C. nobile extract was 6.25-25mg/ml, whereas the MIC was 12.5-50mg/ml. The anti-QS property of C. nobile may play an important role in its antibacterial activity, thus offering an additional strategy in the fight against bacterial infections. However, molecular investigation is required to explore the exact mechanisms of the antibacterial action and functions of this phytocompound.

  12. Evaluation of PLGA containing anti-CTLA4 inhibited endometriosis progression by regulating CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid of mouse endometriosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Ma, Pingchuan; Liu, Lanxia; Ma, Guilei; Ma, Jingjing; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Yijin; Lin, Wanjun; Zhu, Yingjun

    2017-01-01

    Our study investigated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as protein delivery vehicles encapsulate CTLA-4-antibody (anti-CTLA-4) which is essential for CD4+CD25+Treg cells suppressive function exposing superior potential for inhibiting endometriosis progress in mouse model than single anti-CTLA-4. Anti-CTLA-4 loaded PLGA combined to ligands CTLA-4 in surface of CD4+CD25+Treg cells which distributed in peritoneal fluid of mouse endometriosis model. The particle size, zeta potential of the anti-CTLA-4 loaded nanoparticles was detected by dynamic light scattering. Morphology of nanoparticles was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated distribution of anti-CTLA-4 with PLGA or without in peritoneal fluid. Cumulative anti-CTLA-4 release from nanoparticles was evaluated by Micro BCA assay. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid was demonstrated by flow cytometer. In vitro experiment we co-culture ectopic endometrial cells (EEC) with isolated CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid (PF), proliferation and invasion of ectopic endometrial cells (EEC) was measured by BrdU ELISA assay and Matrigel invasion assay. In comparison with anti-CTLA-4 without nanoparticles, the bioconjugates PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 were tolerated in peritoneal fluid with a controlled release of anti-CTLA-4 in 3, 7, 14days. Moreover, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 had superior protective regulation ability to reduce level of CD4+CD25+Treg cells in peritoneal fluid. Most strikingly, in vitro experiment, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 exhibited better ability in inhibiting proliferation and invasion of ectopic endometrial cells in co-culture system compared with anti-CTLA-4. Progressively, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 had better suppressive activity to inhibited IL-10 and TGF-beta secreted by CD4+CD25+Treg cells which indicating that PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 suppressed cells proliferation and invasion through reduced IL-10 and TGF-beta production. Thus, PLGA/anti-CTLA-4 may

  13. Saponins from Panax japonicus attenuate D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Di, Guojie; Yang, Li; Dun, Yaoyan; Sun, Zhiwei; Wan, Jingzhi; Peng, Ben; Liu, Chaoqi; Xiong, Guangrun; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) on D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain ageing, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. SPJ were analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 20 g were randomly divided into four groups: control group (saline), D-gal-treated group (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously), D-gal + SPJ groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally) and vitamin E group (100 mg/kg). Rats were injected corresponding drugs once daily for 8 weeks. Neuroprotective effects of SPJ were evaluated by Morris water maze, histopathological observations, biochemical assays, western blot analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in vivo as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement and apoptosis assay in vitro. Our present study showed that D-gal had a neurotoxic effect in rats and in SH-SY5Y cells due to oxidative stress induction, including decreased total anti-oxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase activity, ultimately leading to spatial learning and memory impairment in rats and ROS accumulation in SH-SY5Y cells. SPJ improved spatial learning and memory deficits, attenuated hippocampus histopathological injury and restored impaired anti-oxidative as well as anti-apoptotic capacities in D-gal-induced ageing rats. In addition, SPJ remarkably decreased lipofuscin levels, increased hippocampus nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue (SIRT1) protein levels and anti-oxidant genes expression such as manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), heme oxygenase (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) in D-gal-induced brain ageing. Our data suggested that D-gal induced multiple molecular and functional changes in brain similar to natural ageing process. SPJ protected brain from D-gal-induced neuronal

  14. [Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma associated with unusual positivity of anti-ATLA (adult T-cell leukemia-cell-associated antigen) antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, T; Okamura, H; Okamura, T; Gondo, H; Kudo, J; Shibuya, T; Harada, M; Niho, Y

    1990-03-01

    A 56-year-old female was admitted because of generalized lymphadenopathy. Based upon histological findings of biopsied lymph node, malignant lymphoma, diffuse large cell type was diagnosed. The surface marker analysis showed that malignant cells were positive for CD4 and CD2 but negative for CD8. Although anti-ATLA (adult T-cell leukemia associated antigen) antibody was negative with the use of a gelatin particle agglutination method (P.A.), other methods such as an indirect immunofluorescence assay (I.F.), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (E.I.A.) and a Western blotting assay revealed the positivity for anti-ATLA antibody. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL/L) was confirmed by the presence of monoclonal integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in biopsied specimen. This case, showing a pattern of P.A. (-) and I.F. (+), is extremely unusual, because I.F. and P.A. show highly close correlation. Thus, it is important to employ different methods for screening of anti-ATLA antibodies in the diagnosis of ATL/L.

  15. Production of human anti-HLA monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M.C.; Mercier, F.; Roger, J.; Varin, M.

    1986-03-01

    Only 40% of the several hundred anti-HLA murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that have been made detect HLA-A,B,C or DR specificities previously defined by human alloantisera, the range of recognized specificities is very narrow, and few of the MAbs have proven useful as tissue typing reagents. In hopes of obtaining HLA typing reagents, the authors are developing a protocol for the production of human anti-HLA MAbs from HLA-antigen (Ag) immunized peripheral blood B cells of volunteering renal patients, immunized to one or more HLA Ags through therapeutic blood transfusions. A simple enrichment of the donor B cells has not been sufficient for anti-HLA MAb production, the authors are currently delineating the conditions necessary for increasing the number of HLA-specific donor B cells by in vitro stimulation with cells expressing the HLA Ag to which the B cell donor is immunized. For the production of MAbs, the stimulated B cells are transformed with Epstein-Barr virus and subsequently fused with KR-4 lymphoblastoid cells. Hybridomas are selected by HAT and Ouabain. Supernatants are screened for anti-HLA activity against lymphocyte targets expressing the original immunizing HLA Ag by complement mediated /sup 51/Cr release assay. Antibody specificity is determined by the complement-dependent microcytotoxicity test used for HLA typing.

  16. Methyl salicylate 2-O-β-d-lactoside alleviates the pathological progression of pristane-induced systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in mice via suppression of inflammatory response and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang-Yang; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Hui-Fang; Lin, Yi-Huang; Chen, Yu-Cai; Yan, Yi; Wu, Ping; Fang, Jian-Song; Yang, Shu-Hui; Du, Guan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with a high incidence rate and insufficient therapy worldwide, is a complex disease involving multiple organs characterized primarily by inflammation due to deposition of immunocomplexes formed by production of autoantibodies. The mechanism of SLE remains unclear, and the disease still cannot be cured. We used pristane to induce SLE in female BALB/c mice. Methyl salicylate 2- O -β-d-lactoside (MSL; 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) was orally administered 45 days after pristane injection for 4.5 months. The results showed that MSL antagonized the increasing levels of multiple types of antibodies and cytokines in lupus mice. MSL was found to suppress joint swelling and have potent inhibitory effect on arthritis-like symptoms. MSL also significantly decreased the spleen index and expression of inflammatory markers in the lupus mice. MSL protected the kidneys of lupus mice from injury through inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines and reducing the IgG and C3 immunocomplex deposits. Further Western blot assays revealed that the downregulation of the intracellular inflammatory signals of NFκB and JAK/STAT3 might be the potential molecular mechanisms of the pharmacological activity of MSL against SLE in vivo. These findings may demonstrate that MSL has the potential to be a useful and highly effective treatment for SLE.

  17. Novel Phenotypic Outcomes Identified for a Public Collection of Approved Drugs from a Publicly Accessible Panel of Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Lee

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays have a proven track record for generating leads that become first-in-class therapies. Whole cell assays that inform on a phenotype or mechanism also possess great potential in drug repositioning studies by illuminating new activities for the existing pharmacopeia. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS pharmaceutical collection (NPC is the largest reported collection of approved small molecule therapeutics that is available for screening in a high-throughput setting. Via a wide-ranging collaborative effort, this library was analyzed in the Open Innovation Drug Discovery (OIDD phenotypic assay modules publicly offered by Lilly. The results of these tests are publically available online at www.ncats.nih.gov/expertise/preclinical/pd2 and via the PubChem Database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ (AID 1117321. Phenotypic outcomes for numerous drugs were confirmed, including sulfonylureas as insulin secretagogues and the anti-angiogenesis actions of multikinase inhibitors sorafenib, axitinib and pazopanib. Several novel outcomes were also noted including the Wnt potentiating activities of rotenone and the antifolate class of drugs, and the anti-angiogenic activity of cetaben.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels Water Extract on RAW 264.7 Induced with Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dry root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv. Diels, also known as “female ginseng”, is a popular herbal drug amongst women, used to treat a variety of health issues and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the detailed molecular mechanism for anti-inflammatory effects of Angelica sinensis root water extract (ASW. The anti-inflammatory effect of ASW on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages was evaluated by the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT, Griess reagent assay, multiplex cytokine assay, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and Fluo-4 calcium assay. ASW restored cell viability in RAW 264.7 at concentrations of up to 200 µg/mL. ASW showed notable anti-inflammatory effects. ASW exhibited IC50 = 954.3, 387.3, 191.7, 317.8, 1267.0, 347.0, 110.1, 573.6, 1171.0, 732.6, 980.8, 125.0, and 257.0 µg/mL for interleukin (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCP-1, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, IL-10, and intracellular calcium, respectively. Additionally, ASW inhibited the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and the LPS-induced mRNA expression of CHOP (GADD153, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1, first apoptosis signal receptor (FAS, and c-Fos, NOS2, and PTGS2 (COX2 in RAW 264.7 significantly (p < 0.05. Data suggest that ASW exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 via NO-bursting/calcium-mediated JAK-STAT pathway.

  19. Anti-mycobacterial peptides: made to order with delivery included.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, James; O' Mahony, Jim

    2011-01-01

    "TB is too often a death sentence. It does not have to be this way,"- Nelson Mandela. Despite the success of anti-mycobacterial drugs over the past 70 years, mycobacterial disease, particularly tuberculosis is still responsible for millions of annual deaths worldwide. Additionally, the emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR-TB) Tuberculosis has motivated calls by the World Health Organization (WHO) for novel drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests. Consequently, the identification and evaluation of a range of anti-mycobacterial compounds against pathogenic mycobacterial species is of paramount importance. My colleagues and I at Cork Institute of Technology (CIT) and University College Cork (UCC) have tackled this issue through the initial optimization of the rapid, robust and inexpensive microtitre alamarBlue assay (MABA) and subsequent employment of this assay to facilitate the rapid assessment of a new wave of potential therapeutic compounds, namely bacteriocins, in particular type 1 bacteriocins known as lantibiotics. The gene encoded nature of these peptides facilitates their genetic manipulation and consequent activities as anti-microbial agents. In this regard, it may be possible to one day develop diverse populations of anti-mycobacterial bacteriocins with species specific activities. This may in turn provide more targeted therapies, resulting in less side effects, shorter treatment times and thus better patient compliance. Although current drug regimes are effective in the interim, previous lessons have taught us not to be complacent. In the words of the Intel founder Andrew Grove, 'Success breeds complacency. Complacency breeds failure. Only the paranoid survive'. Armed with knowledge of previous failures, it is the duty of the scientific community to anticipate future bacterial resistance and have an arsenal of compounds standing by in such an eventuality.

  20. antiEGFR conjugated gold nanoparticles for increasing radiosensitivity in lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, Geetanjali; Sarma, Asitikantha; Avasthi, Devesh K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the set back that lies in lung cancer treatment is the over expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). EGFR is a transmembrane receptor that is highly expressed in lung cancer that leads to cell survival, proliferation and spread of the disease. Over the years, EGFR inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, are being used in combination with radiotherapy in lung cancer patients so as to achieve better results. In the recent time, application of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) in diagnosis and treatment of cancer has been extensively used in biomedical research. Among various applications, there is considerable use of AuNPs seen on the dose enhancement effect (radiosensitization) in radiation therapy of cancer. The conjugation of AuNP with monoclonal antibody antiEGFR (antiEGFR-AuNP) may provide excellent agent to sensitize the cells to heavy ion radiation. We synthesized AuNPs by citrate reduction method. Most of AuNPs were in the size range of 6-8 nm as studies by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). These AuNPs were found to be non toxic in A549 cells and thus biocompatible. Further, we conjugated AuNPs with antiEGFR (antiEGFR-AuNP). The conjugation was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. A549 cells were treated with antiEGFR-AuNP. TEM was carried out of ultrathin cross sections of antiEGFR-AuNP treated A549 cells to check the attachment internalization of AuNPs. We observed that the AuNPs are attached on the cell membrane as well as internalized in cytoplasm. Upon exposure of antiEGFR-AuNP treated cells to heavy ion 12 C beam, showed increase in radiosensitization as studied by survival assay and MTT assay. We will also explain the EGFR expression and cell cycle proliferation in A549 cells upon heavy ion beam irradiation of these. The study aims to overcome the current limitations of cancer-targeted therapies and improve the treatment modality of lung cancer. (author)

  1. A novel anti-tumor inhibitor identified by virtual screen with PLK1 structure and zebrafish assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, one of the key regulators of mitosis, is a target for cancer therapy due to its abnormally high activity in several tumors. Plk1 is highly conserved and shares a nearly identical 3-D structure between zebrafish and humans. The initial 10 mitoses of zebrafish embryonic cleavages occur every∼30 minutes, and therefore provide a rapid assay to evaluate mitosis inhibitors including those targeting Plk1. To increase efficiency and specificity, we first performed a computational virtual screen of∼60000 compounds against the human Plk1 3-D structure docked to both its kinase and Polo box domain. 370 candidates with the top free-energy scores were subjected to zebrafish assay and 3 were shown to inhibit cell division. Compared to general screen for compounds inhibiting zebrafish embryonic cleavage, computation increased the efficiency by 11 folds. One of the 3 compounds, named I2, was further demonstrated to effectively inhibit multiple tumor cell proliferation in vitro and PC3 prostate cancer growth in Xenograft mouse model in vivo. Furthermore, I2 inhibited Plk1 enzyme activity in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 values of I2 in these assays are compatible to those of ON-01910, a Plk1 inhibitor currently in Phase III clinic trials. Our studies demonstrate that zebrafish assays coupled with computational screening significantly improves the efficiency of identifying specific regulators of biological targets. The PLK1 inhibitor I2, and its analogs, may have potential in cancer therapeutics.

  2. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N.; Andrade Junior, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a 60 Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author)

  3. In Vivo Anti-estrogenic Effects of Menadione on Hepatic Estrogen-responsive Gene Expression in Male Medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Kohra, Shinya; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2008-01-01

    Menadione, a synthetic vitamin K3, exhibits anti-estrogenic activity on in vitro assay. However, the in vivo anti-estrogenic effects of menadione have not been determined, while correlations between biological effects and structural changes are unclear. Thus, we investigated the in vivo anti-estrogenic activity of menadione under fluorescent light and dark conditions. Suppression of the hepatic estrogen response genes vitellogenin1 (VTG1), VTG2 and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) was used as an in...

  4. A Plasmodium falciparum screening assay for anti-gametocyte drugs based on parasite lactate dehydrogenase detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Alessandro, S.; Silvestrini, F.; Dechering, K.; Corbett, Y.; Parapini, S.; Timmerman, M.; Galastri, L.; Basilico, N.; Sauerwein, R.; Alano, P.; Taramelli, D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Plasmodium gametocytes, responsible for malaria parasite transmission from humans to mosquitoes, represent a crucial target for new antimalarial drugs to achieve malaria elimination/eradication. We developed a novel colorimetric screening method for anti-gametocyte compounds based on the

  5. Frequency of anti thyroid peroxidase antibody in patients of vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhokhar, A.; Shaikh, Z.I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of anti thyroid peroxidase antibody in patients suffering from vitiligo with healthy control group. Type of Study: Case control study. Settings: Dermatology Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from 20th March 2010 to 20th July 2011. Material and Methods: Fifty clinically diagnosed patients of vitiligo, age = 18 yrs and both genders with no history of thyroid disease, past or current use of drugs for thyroid disorder or thyroid surgery were included as cases (Group A). Fifty healthy individuals with no evidence of vitiligo or thyroid disorder on history and physical examination and with no family history of vitiligo, matched for age and gender with cases, were included as control (Group B). Serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti TPO) antibodies were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both cases and control. Results: Eight (16%) patients in Group A were anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody positive and forty two (84%) patients were negative while one (2%) patient was anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody positive in Group B and forty nine (98%) patients were negative (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Anti TPO antibody is significantly more common in patients of vitiligo as compared to general population. (author)

  6. Comparison of Six Automated Treponema-Specific Antibody Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Borae G; Yoon, Jihoon G; Rim, John Hoon; Lee, Anna; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Six different Treponema (TP)-specific immunoassays were compared to the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. A total of 615 samples were tested. The overall percent agreement, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity of each assay compared to the FTA-ABS test were as follows: Architect Syphilis TP, 99.2%, 96.8%, and 100%; Cobas Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; ADVIA Centaur Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; HISCL Anti-TP assay kit, 99.7%, 98.7%, and 100%; Immunoticles Auto3 TP, 99.0%, 97.5%, and 99.6%; Mediace TPLA, 98.0%, 98.1%, and 98.0%. All results that were discrepant between the TP-specific assays were associated with samples from noninfectious cases (11 immunoassay false positives and 7 from previous syphilis cases). Our study demonstrated that TP-specific immunoassays generally showed high sensitivities, specificities, and percentages of agreement compared to FTA-ABS, with rare cases of false-positive or false-negative results. Therefore, most TP-specific immunoassays are acceptable for use in screening for syphilis. However, it is important to perform a thorough review of a patient's clinical and treatment history for interpreting the results of syphilis serology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homogeneous plate based antibody internalization assay using pH sensor fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Zimprich, Chad; Dwight, Stephen J; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Urh, Marjeta

    2016-04-01

    Receptor-mediated antibody internalization is a key mechanism underlying several anti-cancer antibody therapeutics. Delivering highly toxic drugs to cancer cells, as in the case of antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), efficient removal of surface receptors from cancer cells and changing the pharmacokinetics profile of the antibody drugs are some of key ways that internalization impacts the therapeutic efficacy of the antibodies. Over the years, several techniques have been used to study antibody internalization including radiolabels, fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry and cellular toxicity assays. While these methods allow analysis of internalization, they have limitations including a multistep process and limited throughput and are generally endpoint assays. Here, we present a new homogeneous method that enables time and concentration dependent measurements of antibody internalization. The method uses a new hydrophilic and bright pH sensor dye (pHAb dye), which is not fluorescent at neutral pH but becomes highly fluorescent at acidic pH. For receptor mediated antibody internalization studies, antibodies against receptors are conjugated with the pHAb dye and incubated with the cells expressing the receptors. Upon binding to the receptor, the dyes conjugated to the antibody are not fluorescent because of the neutral pH of the media, but upon internalization and trafficking into endosomal and lysosomal vesicles the pH drops and dyes become fluorescent. The enabling attributes of the pHAb dyes are the hydrophilic nature to minimize antibody aggregation and bright fluorescence at acidic pH which allows development of simple plate based assays using a fluorescent reader. Using two different therapeutic antibodies--Trastuzumab (anti-HER2) and Cetuximab (anti-EGFR)--we show labeling with pHAb dye using amine and thiol chemistries and impact of chemistry and dye to antibody ration on internalization. We finally present two new approaches using the pHAb dye, which will be

  9. Transcriptome alterations in zebrafish embryos after exposure to environmental estrogens and anti-androgens can reveal endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Viktoria; Wichmann, Arne; Kriehuber, Ralf; Schäfers, Christoph; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors (EDs) is in many cases associated with an unpredictable hazard for wildlife and human health. The identification of endocrine disruptive properties of chemicals certain to enter the aquatic environment relies on toxicity tests with fish, assessing adverse effects on reproduction and sexual development. The demand for quick, reliable ED assays favored the use of fish embryos as alternative test organisms. We investigated the application of a transcriptomics-based assay for estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals with zebrafish embryos. Two reference compounds, 17α-ethinylestradiol and flutamide, were tested to evaluate the effects on development and the transcriptome after 48h-exposures. Comparison of the transcriptome response with other estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds (genistein, bisphenol A, methylparaben, linuron, prochloraz, propanil) showed commonalities and differences in regulated pathways, enabling us to classify the estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies. This demonstrates that different mechanism of ED can be assessed already in fish embryos. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Soluble Tie2 overrides the heightened invasion induced by anti-angiogenesis therapies in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Santiago, Nahir; Hossain, Mohammad B; Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Fan, Xuejun; Gumin, Joy; Marini, Frank C; Alonso, Marta M; Lang, Frederick; Yung, W K; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria

    2016-03-29

    Glioblastoma recurrence after treatment with the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent bevacizumab is characterized by a highly infiltrative and malignant behavior that renders surgical excision and chemotherapy ineffective. Our group has previously reported that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) are aberrantly present at the tumor/normal brain interface after anti-VEGF therapies and their significant role in the invasive outgrowth of these tumors. Here, we aimed to further understand the mechanisms leading to this pro-invasive tumor microenvironment. Examination of a U87MG xenogeneic glioma model and a GL261 murine syngeneic model showed increased tumor expression of angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), a natural ligand of Tie2, after anti-angiogenesis therapies targeting VEGF or VEGF receptor (VEGFR), as assessed by immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of tumor lysates. Migration and gelatinolytic assays showed that Ang2 acts as both a chemoattractant of TEMs and an enhancing signal for their tumor-remodeling properties. Accordingly, in vivo transduction of Ang2 into intracranial gliomas increased recruitment of TEMs into the tumor. To reduce invasive tumor outgrowth after anti-angiogenesis therapy, we targeted the Ang-Tie2 axis using a Tie2 decoy receptor. Using syngeneic models, we observed that overexpression of soluble Tie2 within the tumor prevented the recruitment of TEMs to the tumor and the development of invasion after anti-angiogenesis treatment. Taken together, these data indicate an active role for the Ang2-Tie2 pathway in invasive glioma recurrence after anti-angiogenesis treatment and provide a rationale for testing the combined targeting of VEGF and Ang-Tie2 pathways in patients with glioblastoma.

  11. Study of the Anti-Staphylococcal Potential of Honeys Produced in Northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Grecka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 144 samples of honeys including 95 products from apiaries located in Northern Poland was evaluated. The antibacterial activity of those natural products, their thermal stability, and activity in the presence of catalase was investigated by microdilution assays in titration plates. The MTT assay was performed for the determination of anti-biofilm activity. Spectrophotometric assays were used for the determination of antioxidant potential, total phenolic content, and ability to generate hydrogen peroxide. Some of the investigated honeys exhibited surprisingly high antimicrobial, especially anti-staphylococcal, potential, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of only 1.56% (v/v. Much higher resistance was observed in the case of staphylococci growing as biofilms. Lower concentrations of the product, up to 12.5% (v/v stimulated its growth and effective eradication of biofilm required concentration of at least 25% (v/v. Hydrogen peroxide has been identified as a crucial contributor to the antimicrobial activity of honeys supplied by Polish beekeepers. However, some of the results suggest that phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, play an important role depending on botanical source (both positive, e.g., in the case of buckwheat honeys as well as negative, e.g., in the case of some rapeseed honeys in their antimicrobial potential.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against human angiotensinogen, their characterization and use in an angiotensinogen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, I; Lykkegaard, S; Olsen, A A; Selmer, J; Ballegaard, M

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were produced against human angiotensinogen. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using a high affinity monoclonal antibody as catching antibody and a polyclonal rabbit anti human angiotensinogen antibody as detecting antibody in a "sandwich" ELISA. Linear range of the ELISA was 15-450 pmol/l of human angiotensinogen. Intra- and inter- assay variation coefficients were in the range of 2% to 8%. A correlation coefficient, r = 0.97, (n = 20), with values obtained by radioimmunoassay. This correlation coefficient, obtained by using both normal and pregnant sera, confirmed that the ELISA fulfill the requirements for clinical useful assay. Characterization of the antibodies were performed with respect to affinity constant and epitopes.

  13. Evaluation of HBsAg and anti-HBc assays in saliva and dried blood spot samples according HIV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Geane Lopes; Cruz, Helena Medina; Potsch, Denise Vigo; May, Silvia Beatriz; Brandão-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Pires, Marcia Maria Amendola; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2017-09-01

    Influence of HIV status in HBV markers detection in saliva and dried blood spots (DBS) was not well established. This study aims to evaluate the performance of optimized commercial immunoassay for identifying HBsAg and anti-HBc in saliva and DBS according HIV status. A sum of 535 individuals grouped as HIV + , HBV + , HIV/HBV + and HIV/HBV- were recruited where 347 and 188 were included for HBsAg and anti-HBc evaluation, respectively. Serum, DBS collected in Whatman 903 paper and saliva obtained using salivette device were analyzed using EIA. Increased sample volume and ROC curve analysis for cut off determination were used for DBS and saliva testing. HBsAg detection in saliva and DBS exhibited sensitivities of 80.9% and 85.6% and specificities of 86.8% and 96.3%. Sensitivity of anti-HBc in saliva and DBS were 82.4% and 76.9% and specificities in saliva and DBS were 96.9% and 91.7%. Low sensitivities were observed for HBsAg (62%) and anti-HBc (47%) detection in saliva of HIV/HBV+ individuals. OD values were also lower for HBsAg detection in DBS and saliva of HIV/HBV+ individuals compared to their serum samples. Statistical significance was found for sensitivities in HBsAg detection between saliva and DBS demonstrating high sensitivity for DBS specimens. In conclusion, HIV status or antiretroviral treatment appears to interfere in the performance of HBsAg and anti-HBc detection in DBS and saliva samples using the adapted commercial EIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-actin IgA antibodies in severe coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, A; Muratori, P; Cassani, F; Pappas, G; Muratori, L; Agostinelli, D; Veronesi, L; Bortolotti, R; Petrolini, N; Bianchi, F B; Volta, U

    2004-08-01

    Anti-actin IgA antibodies have been found in sera of coeliacs. Our aim was to define the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-actin IgA in coeliacs before and after gluten withdrawal. One hundred and two biopsy-proven coeliacs, 95 disease controls and 50 blood donors were studied. Anti-actin IgA were evaluated by different methods: (a) antimicrofilament positivity on HEp-2 cells and on cultured fibroblasts by immunofluorescence; (b) anti-actin positivity by enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA); and (c) presence of the tubular/glomerular pattern of anti-smooth muscle antibodies on rat kidney sections by immunofluorescence. Antimicrofilament IgA were present in 27% of coeliacs and in none of the controls. Antimicrofilament antibodies were found in 25 of 54 (46%) coeliacs with severe villous atrophy and in three of 48 (6%) with mild damage (P < 0.0001). In the 20 patients tested, antimicrofilaments IgA disappeared after gluten withdrawal in accordance with histological recovery. Our study shows a significant correlation between antimicrofilament IgA and the severity of intestinal damage in untreated coeliacs. The disappearance of antimicrofilament IgA after gluten withdrawal predicts the normalization of intestinal mucosa and could be considered a useful tool in the follow-up of severe coeliac disease.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of the polyphenol curcumin on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloesch, Burkhard; Becker, Tatjana; Dietersdorfer, Elisabeth; Kiener, Hans; Steiner, Guenter

    2013-02-01

    It has recently been reported that the polyphenol curcumin has pronounced anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. This study investigated possible anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin on the human synovial fibroblast cell line MH7A, and on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MH7A cells and RA-FLS were stimulated either with interleukin (IL)-1β or phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), and treated simultaneously or sequentially with increasing concentrations of curcumin. Release of interleukin (IL)-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In MH7A cells, modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38 and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) were analysed by a reporter gene assay and Western blot, respectively. Pro-apoptotic events were monitored by Annexin-V/7-AAD based assay. Cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and -7 was checked with specific antibodies. Curcumin effectively blocked IL-1β and PMA-induced IL-6 expression both in MH7A cells and RA-FLS. VEGF-A expression could only be detected in RA-FLS and was induced by PMA, but not by IL-1β. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited activation of NF-κB and induced dephosphorylation of ERK1/2. Treatment of FLS with high concentrations of curcumin was associated with a decrease in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The natural compound curcumin represents strong anti-inflammatory properties and induces apoptosis in FLS. This study provides an insight into possible molecular mechanisms of this substance and suggests it as a natural remedy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like RA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-fibrotic and anti-tumorigenic effects of rhein, a natural anthraquinone derivative, in mammalian stellate and carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Anthraquinone compounds have been recognized to possess antiinflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-tumour properties and thus applied in human and veterinary therapeutics as active substances of medicinal products. Amongst the anthraquinones isolated from Rheum palmatum, also known as da-huang, rhein was detected as one of the highest metabolite contents in the bloodstream of mammals. The biological activities of rhein therefore deserve detailed investigation. In this study, we aimed to delineate the mechanism of inhibitory actions of rhein on fibrotic and tumorigenic processes by means of various biochemical assays, such as immunofluorescent staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting analyses in rat pancreatic stellate cells (LTC-14), human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) and human colon carcinoma cells (SW480 and SW620). Our results demonstrated that the application of rhein notably suppressed the mRNA and protein levels of various fibrotic and tumorigenic mediators including alpha-smooth muscle actin, type I collagen, fibronectin, N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinases in the testing mammalian cells. The mechanism of the suppressive actions of rhein was associated with the modulation of the sonic hedgehog and serine-threonine kinase signalling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that rhein may serve as a therapeutic or an adjuvant agent in anti-fibrotic and anti-tumorigenic approaches. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A new and rapid method for immunoglobulin class and subclass determination of mouse monoclonal antibodies using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, M.-J.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.-L.

    1984-01-01

    A solid-phase immunoradiometric assay is described for the detection of mouse immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in unpurified and unconcentrated supernatants of hybridomas. IgG fractions from rabbit antisera specific for mouse immunoglobulin classes and subclasses are used for coating the wells of flexible microtiter plates. Monoclonal antibody present in hybridoma supernatants is bound only to wells that contain the appropriate anti-subclass antibody. The binding of hybridoma antibodies to corresponding IgG subclasses or IgM is then detected by a labeled rabbit anti-mouse antibody binding to all mouse immunoglobulins (heavy and light chains). Thus, only 1 labeled antibody is needed for all assays. The advantages of the method described are the following: results are obtained within a few hours and antibody containing hybridoma supernatants may be used without a concentration step since minute amounts of antibody are detected by the immunoradiometric assay. Cultures producing several subclasses may be early recognized as oligo/polyclonal. (Auth.)

  18. Evaluation of performance of human immunodeficiency virus antigen/antibody combination assays in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Kai; Kao, Cheng-Feng; Lin, Pi-Han; Huang, Hui-Lin; Ho, Shu-Yuan; Wong, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Bo-Chang; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Lee, Chia-Yeh; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Chun-Nan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Yang, Jyh-Yuan

    2017-08-01

    The fourth-generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) combination assay, which can simultaneously detect the presence of anti-HIV antibody and HIV antigen, has been shown to shorten the window period in HIV diagnosis compared with the third-generation HIV antibody immunoassay. This study was aimed to determine the performance of HIV combination assays in Taiwan, where the HIV-1 seroprevalence is 0.007% and HIV-2 infection has never been reported. Performance of three fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination assays (Dia.Pro, Wantai, and Bio-Rad) and one third-generation HIV Ab immunoassay (AxSYM HIV 1/2 gO) was assessed. A total of 152 specimens, including 86 confirmed HIV-seropositive and 66 HIV-seronegative samples, were used in the study. The sensitivity of four assays varied from 98.8% to 100%, and specificity varied from 98.5% to 100%. Performance of the 75 equivocal samples, the HIV status of which was confirmed later, in terms of negative prediction varied from 81.8% to 87.5%. The Bio-Rad and Dia.Pro assays exhibited higher sensitivity for the detection of p24 antigen among the three fourth-generation HIV combination assays. The three fourth-generation HIV Ag/Ab combination assays exhibited better sensitivity, specificity, and negative prediction than the third-generation HIV Ab immunoassay. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Screening of six Ayurvedic medicinal plants for anti-obesity potential: An investigation on bioactive constituents from Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Priyanka; Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar

    2017-02-02

    As an effort to identify newer anti-obesity lead(s) we have selected 13 plant materials from the six plant species which have been reported in Indian Ayurvedic medicine as remedy against complications affecting glucose and lipid homeostasis. In vitro screening of six Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants on anti-adipogenic and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibition potential followed by bioactivity guided isolation from most active plant material. In vitro anti-adipogenic assay using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibition assay were performed for hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of all the plant materials. Bioactivity guided isolation approach was used to identify active constituent for anti-adipogenesis and PL inhibition assay. Inhibition of lipid accumulation and adipogenic transcription factor was measured by oil Red 'O' staining and quantitative real-time PCR method respectively. Ethyl acetate extract of Oroxylum indicum bark was found to be most active in screening of anti-adipogenesis (59.12±1.66% lipid accumulation as compared to control at 50μg/mL dose) and PL inhibition (89.12±6.87% PL inhibition at 250μg/mL dose) assays. Further, three bioactive flavonoids were isolated and identified as oroxylin A, chrysin and baicalein from O. indicum bark. Oroxylin A, chrysin, and baicalein were inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (75.00±5.76%, 70.21±4.23% and 77.21±5.49% lipid accumulation respectively in comparison to control at 50μM dose) and PL enzyme (69.86±2.96%, 52.08±2.14% and 45.06±2.42% PL inhibition respectively at 250μg/mL dose). In addition, oroxylin A and chrysin also inhibited PPARγ and C/EBPα, major adipogenic transcription factors, in 3T3L-1 preadipocytes during adipogenesis process at 50μM dose. The present study augurs the anti-obesity potential of well practiced Ayurvedic herb O. indicum and its flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for High-Throughput Screening of ADAMTS1 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Du

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I motifs-1 (ADAMTS1 plays a crucial role in inflammatory joint diseases and its inhibitors are potential candidates for anti-arthritis drugs. For the purposes of drug discovery, we reported the development and validation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET assay for high-throughput screening (HTS of the ADAMTS1 inhibitors. A FRET substrate was designed for a quantitative assay of ADAMTS1 activity and enzyme kinetics studies. The assay was developed into a 50-µL, 384-well assay format for high throughput screening of ADAMTS1 inhibitors with an overall Z’ factor of 0.89. ADAMTS1 inhibitors were screened against a diverse library of 40,960 total compounds with the established HTS system. Four structurally related hits, naturally occurring compounds, kuwanon P, kuwanon X, albafuran C and mulberrofuran J, extracted from the Chinese herb Morus alba L., were identified for further investigation. The results suggest that this FRET assay is an excellent tool, not only for measurement of ADAMTS1 activity but also for discovery of novel ADAMTS1 inhibitors with HTS.

  1. Thermometric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in continuous flow system: optimization and evaluation using human serum albumin as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrebaeck, C; Börjeson, J; Mattiasson, B

    1978-06-15

    Thermometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TELISA) is described. After the procedure of optimization, human serum albumin was assayed using anti-human serum albumin bound to Sepharose CL 4-B in the enzyme thermistor unit and catalase as label on the free antigen. The model system was used for assays down to 10(-13)M and the preparation of immobilized antibodies was used repeatedly up to 100 times. Comparative studies of the TELISA technique with bromocresol green, immunoturbidimetric and rocket immunoelectrophoretic methods were carried out and showed that TELISA could be used as an alternative method.

  2. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of calyces from Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Reina M; Aragón, Diana M; Ospina, Luis F; Ramos, Freddy A; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

  3. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  4. Development and validation of a luminescence-based, medium-throughput assay for drug screening in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Lalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the world's greatest neglected tropical diseases, is responsible for over 280,000 human deaths per annum. Praziquantel, developed in the 1970s, has high efficacy, excellent tolerability, few and transient side effects, simple administration procedures and competitive cost and it is currently the only recommended drug for treatment of human schistosomiasis. The use of a single drug to treat a population of over 200 million infected people appears particularly alarming when considering the threat of drug resistance. Quantitative, objective and validated methods for the screening of compound collections are needed for the discovery of novel anti-schistosomal drugs.The present work describes the development and validation of a luminescence-based, medium-throughput assay for the detection of schistosomula viability through quantitation of ATP, a good indicator of metabolically active cells in culture. This validated method is demonstrated to be fast, highly reliable, sensitive and automation-friendly. The optimized assay was used for the screening of a small compound library on S. mansoni schistosomula, showing that the proposed method is suitable for a medium-throughput semi-automated screening. Interestingly, the pilot screening identified hits previously reported to have some anti-parasitic activity, further supporting the validity of this assay for anthelminthic drug discovery.The developed and validated schistosomula viability luminescence-based assay was shown to be successful and suitable for the identification of novel compounds potentially exploitable in future schistosomiasis therapies.

  5. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

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    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  6. Comparison between an immunochromatographic test with an amplified ELISA for detecting e antigen and anti-e antigen antibodies in chronic Hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainet Gonzalez, Damian; Palenzuela Gardon, Daniel O; Aguilar Rubido; Julio C

    2009-01-01

    The disappearance of the e antigen and the appearance of anti-e antigen antibodies are two biomarkers that indicate favorable prognosis in Hepatitis B. In this study the Advanced QualityTM immunochromatographic test for detecting those biomarkers was compared to the Vidas semi-quantitative ELISA test. Our hypothesis was that it is possible to use these biomarkers measured in a rapid and simple Advanced QualityTM immunochromatographic test for evaluating the therapeutic response in clinical trials with chronic hepatitis B patients. The two methods were done following the manufacturer's instructions. The sera were taken from 69 patients with chronic hepatitis B of the clinical trial of the CIGB 440 therapeutic candidate. The immunochromatographic test and ELISA for detecting e antigen and anti-e antigen antibodies presented from substantial to almost perfect agreement in the evaluation of the sera of chronic Hepatitis B patients in a clinical trial. The immunochromatographic test for detecting e antigen had a low positive average agreement and a high negative average agreement compared to the ELISA. Nevertheless, the immunochromatographic test for detecting anti-e antigen antibodies had a high negative and positive average agreement in comparison to the ELISA. The immunochromagraphic test for the e antigen had a lower positive average agreement compared to the ELISA and some patients infected with Hepatitis B virus could not be detected by the former assay. The immunochromatographic test for anti-e antigen antibodies showed a similar performance to that of ELISA and could therefore be used in clinical trials for chronic Hepatitis B in health institutions without the need of a highly qualified lab technician. (author)

  7. Diagnostic value of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay for cytomegalovirus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya K

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since interpretation of results of enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA for diagnosis of Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection in India is difficult, its diagnostic value required evaluation. AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic value of ELISA against polymerase chain reaction (PCR in CMV disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Results of ELISA test for CMV antibodies in CMV-DNA PCR positive and negative patients and normal healthy blood donors were analysed. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Anti-CMV antibodies were assayed by ELISA on the sera of 26 CMV PCR positive and 21 PCR negative patients and 35 normal healthy blood donors. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Chi square and Fischer exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Anti-CMV antibodies (IgG or IgG and IgM were present in 20 (76.9% of 26 PCR positive and 13 (61.9% of 21 PCR negative patients. ELISA was negative in six (23.1% of 26 PCR positive patients. Of the 28 paediatric patients, ELISA was positive in 14 (73.7% of 19 PCR positive and three (33.3% of nine PCR negative patients showing a statistically significant difference (Chi square test, P value 0.038. Among the 19 patients having complications after organ transplant, ELISA showed anti-CMV antibodies in six (85.7% of seven PCR positive and 11 (91.7% of 12 PCR negative patients showing no significant difference. CMV-DNA was not detected in the buffy coat of 35 sero-positive blood donors. CONCLUSION: ELISA has no diagnostic value in the detection of CMV activation although it may help in the differential diagnosis of CMV infection in the paediatric age group.

  8. Serological analysis of human IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies by solid-phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Rendell, M.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A single solid-phase assay system which is useful for quantitative measurement of both IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies in human serum has been developed. Insulin-specific immunoglobulins are absorbed from human serum by excess quantities of insulin-agarose. After washes to remove unbound immunoglobulins, radioiodinated Staph A or rabbit anti-human IgE is added to detect bound IgG or IgE anbitodies, respectively

  9. Antibacterial, anti-swarming and anti-biofilm formation activities of Chamaemelum nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kazemian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Chamomile ( Chamaemelum nobile is widely used throughout the world, and has anti-inflammatory, deodorant, bacteriostatic, antimicrobial, carminative, sedative, antiseptic, anti-catarrhal, and spasmolytic properties. Because of the increasing incidence of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of natural antibacterial sources such as medical herbs for the treatment of infectious diseases is necessary. Extracts from different plant parts such as the leaves, flowers, fruit, and bark of Combretum albiflorum, Laurus nobilis , and Sonchus oleraceus were found to possess anti-quorum sensing (QS activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of C. nobile against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formationMETHODS:The P. aeruginosa samples were isolated from patients with different types of infection, including wound infection, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. The flowers of C. nobile were dried and the extract was removed using a rotary device and then dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at pH 7.4. The microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of this extract on P. aeruginosa , and biofilm inhibition was assayed.RESULTS:Eighty percent of the isolated samples (16/20 could form a biofilm, and most of these were isolated from wound infections. The biofilm inhibitory concentration of the C. nobile extract was 6.25-25mg/ml, whereas the MIC was 12.5-50mg/ml.CONCLUSIONS:The anti-QS property of C. nobile may play an important role in its antibacterial activity, thus offering an additional strategy in the fight against bacterial infections. However, molecular investigation is required to explore the exact mechanisms of the antibacterial action and functions of this phytocompound.

  10. Study of antioxidant, anti-protease and anti-urease potential of schiff bases of acetophenone with different amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, D.; Mir, H.

    2014-01-01

    Seven acetophenone-derived Schiff bases were synthesized with different amines including 2-aminobenzoic acid (HL1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (HL2), 2-naphthylamine (HL3), phenylhydrazine (HL4), 1,2-ethanediamine (HL5), 1,2-diaminobenzene (HL6) and 1,4-diaminobenzene (HL7), and were subjected to various assays including FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), phosphomolybdate, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. They were also evaluated for protease and urease inhibitory activities. Based on the results, structure-activity relationship (SAR) was determined. Only two bases, HL1 and HL4, exhibited antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity in DPPH assay. HL4 was most potent (IC50 15 micro g/mL), while HL1 was only slightly active. As HL4 was the only base with hydrogen bonded to nitrogen, most probably it involves hydrogen transfer (HT) mechanism. All the bases exhibited a range of antioxidant activity in assays involving electron transfer (ET). In the reducing power assay, HL5, HL6 and HL7 showed considerable potential while in FRAP assay, HL7 was most active followed by HL3. In phosphomolybdate assay, HL6 had the highest potency followed by HL7, while HL4 and HL3 also displayed good activity. All the bases showed moderate to high lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity. HL7 exhibited highest protease inhibitory activity (EC50 43.9 mu g/mL) followed by HL6 (EC/sub 50/ 52 mu g/mL). HL4 and HL5 did not show protease inhibitory activity at all. HL2 was most potent in inhibiting urease activity (EC50 29.91 mu g/mL). HL5 and HL6 showed moderate activity. The study showed how variation in structures of Schiff bases alters their antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activities. (author)

  11. Azadioxatriangulenium: a long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Luchowski, Rafal; Laursen, Bo W

    2013-01-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy has great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation, as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is on the order of 20–200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatic dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecule assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red-emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time of more than 75%, and an increase in the steady-state anisotropy of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay to detect binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with most other red-emitting organic dyes. (paper)

  12. Azadioxatriangulenium: a long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just Sørensen, Thomas; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-06-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy has great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation, as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is on the order of 20-200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatic dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecule assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red-emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immunoglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time of more than 75%, and an increase in the steady-state anisotropy of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay to detect binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with most other red-emitting organic dyes.

  13. Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf possesses anti-ulcer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Z A; Abdul Hisam, E E; Norhafizah, M; Rofiee, M S; Othman, F; Hasiah, A H; Vasudevan, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-ulcer activity of a methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaf (MEBP). MEBP was administered at doses of 100, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg and its effects on acute toxicity, absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, and pyloric ligation tests in rats were investigated. At a dose of 5,000 mg/kg, MEBP did not cause any signs of toxicity in rats when given orally. Oral administration of MEBP exerted anti-ulcer activity (p < 0.05) in all models tested. However, a dose-dependent protection was observed only in the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration model. Histological studies supported the observed anti-ulcer activity of MEBP. In the pyloric ligation assay, MEBP significantly increased gastric wall mucus secretion (p < 0.05), but did not affect the acidity of the gastric contents. MEBP exhibited anti-ulcer activity, which could be due to the presence of flavonoids, saponins or other polyphenols, thereby validating the traditional use of B. purpurea in the treatment of ulcers. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Actions of four organic acids in radix isatidis on endotoxin-neutralization investigated by kinetic turbidimetric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; He, Ying-jun; Li, You; Gong, Mu-xin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate anti-endotoxin action of four OAs reacted with endotoxin by the LAL assay with KTA. Using a incubating kinetic tube reader and kinetic turbidimetric assay (KTA), the concentration-response time curve of endotoxin reacted with limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) at 37 degrees C were obtained and the action of four organic acids (OAs) on it were investigated. The four OAs were benzoic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid and 2-amino-benzoic acid from Radix isatidis. Meanwhile, the temperature variation caused by endotoxin with the four OAs was studied by the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT). It was showed that a low concentration (1 mg/mL) of the four OAs had a little effect of anti-endotoxin, and when the concentrations of the four OAs were 30 mg/mL, the endotoxin was neutralized completely. The relationships between the concentrations of endotoxin and the OAs were all linear with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.9995, indicating that the four OAs all had strong anti-endotoxin action, while syringic acid had the strongest action among the four OAs with IC50 of 12.84 mg/mL. The investigations of KTA agreed well with the results obtained by means of RPT.

  15. An interferon-gamma release assay test performs well in routine screening for tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Danielsen, Allan; Fløe, Andreas; Lillebæk, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is regarded as proof of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We conducted an evaluation of the IGRA test “T-SPOT.TB” to test its performance during clinical routine use by analysing the positivity rate and odds, effect of season...... and sensitivity. Material and methods: Data from T-SPOT.TB testing together with age and test indications (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) candidate, contact investigation or suspicion of tuberculosis (TB)) were combined with mycobac­teria culture results. Results: A total of 1,809 patients were tested....... Conclusive results were achieved for 1,780 patients (98.4%). Among these, 4.6% of anti-TNFα candidates, 19.3% of contacts and 24.4% of TB suspects tested positive. Compared with anti-TNFα candidates, the odds for a positive result were significantly higher for contact investigations (odds ratio (OR), mean...

  16. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P

  17. A Multiplexed Assay That Monitors Effects of Multiple Compound Treatment Times Reveals Candidate Immune-Enhancing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyan; Henowitz, Liza; Zweifach, Adam

    2018-05-01

    We previously developed a flow cytometry assay that monitored lytic granule exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulated by contacting beads coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. That assay was multiplexed in that responses of cells that did or did not receive the activating stimulus were distinguished via changes in light scatter accompanying binding of cells to beads, allowing us to discriminate compounds that activate responses on their own from compounds that enhance responses in cells that received the activating stimulus, all within a single sample. Here we add a second dimension of multiplexing by developing means to assess in a single sample the effects of treating cells with test compounds for different times. Bar-coding cells before adding them to test wells lets us determine compound treatment time while also monitoring activation status and response amplitude at the point of interrogation. This multiplexed assay is suitable for screening 96-well plates. We used it to screen compounds from the National Cancer Institute, identifying several compounds that enhance anti-LAMP1 responses. Multiple-treatment-time (MTT) screening enabled by bar-coding and read via high-throughput flow cytometry may be a generally useful method for facilitating the discovery of compounds of interest.

  18. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  19. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  20. The evaluation of Recombinant Immunoblot assay (RIBA and HCV-RNA test results in patients with low titer Anti-HCV positivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA or chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA techniques. However, a consensus related to the problem of low titer (Serum/Cut-off; S/C= 1.0 anti-HCV antibodies is still lacking. The study attempts to evaluate the clinical status of the patients with low titer anti-HCV antibodies detected by third generation anti-HCV tests during February 2013- May 2014 retrospectively. Methods: Serum samples were studied by Advia Centaur XP autoanalyser (Bayer-Siemens, Germany for anti-HCV, and line immunoassay (Inno-LIATM HCV Score, İnnogenetics, Belgium for anti-HCV confirmatory test, Cobas AmpliPre/Cobas AMPLICOR HCV Test (Roche diagnostics, Switzerland for HCV RNA. Results: A total of 55.631 serum samples were studied, and 55 of them were anti-HCV positive of which with low antibody levels (sample/cutoff [S/CO]. S/CO values ranged from 1.15 to 6.15. Seventeen (31% of patients who have low antibody levels were defined as positive and 2 (4% patients were intermittent and 36 (65% patients were negative with line immunoassay. HCV-RNA was not detected in any of the samples. Conclusions: It is thought that antibody positivity must be verified in cases of recurrent reactivity when considering the cost-effectiveness of molecular tests. In the study was concluded that the use of molecular tests would be appropriate diagnosis, and the effectiveness of treatment if necessary after evaluation of patients with biochemical analysis. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (4: 553-556

  1. Levels of house dust mite-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in different cat populations using a monoclonal based anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexley, Jennifer; Hogg, Janice E; Hammerberg, Bruce; Halliwell, Richard E W

    2009-10-01

    Levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for the house dust mites (HDMs) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) in 58 cats with clinical signs suggestive of atopic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis cats), 52 cats with no history of allergic or immunological disease (nonallergic cats) and 26 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were measured using a monoclonal anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reactivity to both native and reduced HDM allergens was compared. SPF cats had significantly lower levels of HDM-specific serum IgE than cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats. The difference in levels of HDM-specific IgE in the serum of cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats was significant for native DF allergen, but not for native DP allergen or reduced HDM allergens. The results suggest that DF in its native form may be a significant allergen in cats with allergic dermatitis. The clinical relevance of these reactions, however, remains to be proven.

  2. Nodding syndrome in Tanzania may not be associated with circulating anti-NMDA-and anti-VGKC receptor antibodies or decreased pyridoxal phosphate serum levels-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmann, Anelia; Wallner, Bernd; König, Rebekka; Friedrich, Katrin; Pfausler, Bettina; Deisenhammer, Florian; Griesmacher, Andrea; Seger, Christoph; Matuja, William; JilekAall, Louise; Winkler, Andrea S; Schmutzhard, Erich

    2014-06-01

    Nodding syndrome (NS) is a seemingly progressive epilepsy disorder of unknown underlying cause. We investigated association of pyridoxal-phosphate serum levels and occurrence of anti-neuronal antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex in NS patients. Sera of a Tanzanian cohort of epilepsy and NS patients and community controls were tested for the presence of anti-NMDA-receptor and anti-VGKC complex antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Furthermore pyridoxal-phosphate levels were measured. Auto-antibodies against NMDA receptor or VGKC (LG1 or Caspr2) complex were not detected in sera of patients suffering from NS (n=6), NS plus other seizure types (n=16), primary generalized epilepsy (n=1) and community controls without epilepsy (n=7). Median Pyridoxal-phosphate levels in patients with NS compared to patients with primary generalized seizures and community controls were not significantly different. However, these median pyridoxal-phosphate levels are significantly lower compared to the range considered normal in Europeans. In this pilot study NS was not associated with serum anti-NMDA receptor or anti-VGKC complex antibodies and no association to pyridoxal-phosphate serum levels was found.

  3. Gamma radiation affects the anti-Leishmania activity of Bothrops moojeni venom and correlates with L-amino acid oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempone, A.G.; Lourenco, C.O.; Spencer, P.J.; Rogero, J.R.; Nascimento, N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical

    1999-11-01

    Leishmania causes human disfiguring skin disease in endemic areas of Amazon and North Eastern Brazil. Those parasites present a remarkable resistance to most treatments, except those using toxic antimonial salts. We detected a specific anti-Leishmania activity in snake venoms, using an in vitro promastigote assay. In this report, we analyzed the activity of Bothrops moojeni venom against L. Amazonensis, using whole venom or fractions of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AO). Crude venom of B.moojeni, was fractionated by molecular exclusion chromatography. Activity against promastigotes was detected by respiratory oxidative conversion of MTT in a colorimetric assay and L-AO activity was detected by a colorimetric assay with peroxidase and OPD as revealing reagents. Crude venom was irradiated with 500, 1000, and 2000 Gy in a {sup 60} Co gamma radiation source. The venom had an anti-Leishmania activity of 33 pg/promastigote and the active fraction migrates as 100-150 kDa, close to the size described for L-AOs, and also presented L-AO activity. The radiation reduces both the L-AO and anti-Leishmania activity in a dose dependent effect. Those data suggests the anti-Leishmania activity in this venom is closely related to the L-amino acid oxidase activity and also that radiation could be used as a tool to detect specific activities reduction in water solutions, similarly to observed in dry preparations. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Hashimoto thyroiditis, anti-thyroid antibodies and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, Rayana T; Coelho, Vinícius N; Skare, Thelma L

    2018-01-01

    To study the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), anti-thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin or TgAb and thyroperoxidase or TPOAb) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. To analyze if associated HT, TgAb and/or TPOAb influence clinical or serological profiles, disease activity and/or its cumulative damage. Three hundred and one SLE patients and 141 controls were studied for thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxin, TgAb and TPOAb by chemiluminescence and immunometric assays. Patients' charts were reviewed for serological and clinical profiles. Activity was measured by SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. SLE patients were divided into: (i) with HT; (ii) with anti-thyroid antibodies but without HT; and (iii) without HT and without anti-thyroid antibodies, and were then compared. Furthermore, SLE patients were compared according to the number of positive anti-thyroid antibodies. Hashimoto thyroiditis prevalence in SLE was 12.6% and 5.6% in controls (P = 0.02; odds ratio = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.09-5.2). Lupus patients with HT had less malar rash (P = 0.02) and more anti-Sm (P = 0.04). Anti-Sm was more common in those with two anti-thyroid antibodies than in those with one or negative. The presence of HT or the number of positive autoantibodies did not associate either with disease activity (P = 0.95) or with cumulative damage (P = 0.98). There is a two-fold increased risk of HT in SLE patients. Anti-Sm antibodies favor this association and also double antibody positivity. Disease activity and cumulative damage are not related to HT or with autoantibodies. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Multi-site analytical evaluation of the Abbott ARCHITECT tacrolimus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallemacq, Pierre; Goffinet, Jean-Sebastien; O'Morchoe, Susan; Rosiere, Thomas; Maine, Gregory T; Labalette, Myriam; Aimo, Giuseppe; Dickson, Diana; Schmidt, Ed; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Schmid, Rainer W

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the Abbott ARCHITECT Tacrolimus immunoassay. Proficiency panels and specimens from a population of organ transplant recipients were analyzed in 6 clinical laboratories in Europe and the United States, and the results were compared with other methods. The ARCHITECT assay requires a whole blood specimen pretreatment step with methanol/zinc sulfate to precipitate protein and extract the drug, followed by a 30-minute immunoassay using anti-tacrolimus antibody-coated paramagnetic microparticles and an acridinium-tacrolimus tracer. The assay was free from hematocrit interference in the range 25%-55% and from interference by extremes of cholesterol, triglycerides, bilirubin, total protein, and uric acid. The total percent of coefficient of variations of the assay were 4.9%-7.6% at 3 ng/mL, 2.9%-4.6% at 8.6 ng/mL, and 3.1%-8.2% at 15.5 ng/mL. Limit of detection was Abbott IMx Tacrolimus II immunoassay (4 sites) yielded average biases between -0.94 and +0.26 ng/mL; ARCHITECT assay versus the Dade Dimension Tacrolimus immunoassay (2 sites) yielded average biases of -0.46 and +0.11 ng/mL; and ARCHITECT assay versus LC-MSMS methods at 2 sites yielded average biases of +0.51 and +1.63 ng/mL. Spearman correlation coefficients were >/=0.90 on all method comparisons. The ARCHITECT Tacrolimus assay is a semiautomated, robust, and highly sensitive immunoassay, representing an alternative approach for laboratories not equipped with LC-MSMS, and meets the 1 ng/mL recommendation of LOQ by the European Consensus Conference on Tacrolimus Optimization.

  6. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of seed extracts from six Nigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Premysl; Marsik, Petr; Havlik, Jaroslav; Kloucek, Pavel; Vanek, Tomas; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2009-04-01

    Seed extracts from six species of the genus Nigella (Family Ranunculaceae)-Nigella arvensis, Nigella damascena, Nigella hispanica, Nigella nigellastrum, Nigella orientalis, and Nigella sativa-obtained by successive extraction with n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 strains of pathogenic bacteria and yeast using the microdilution method as well as for anti-inflammatory properties by in vitro cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 assay. Chemical characterization of active extracts was carried out including free and fixed fatty acid analysis. Comparison of antimicrobial activity showed that N. arvensis chloroform extract was the most potent among all species tested, inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial and yeast strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/mL. With the exception of selective inhibitory action of n-hexane extract of N. orientalis on growth of Bacteroides fragilis (MIC = 0.5 mg/mL), we observed no antimicrobial activity for other Nigella species. Anti-inflammatory screening revealed that N. sativa, N. orientalis, N. hispanica, N. arvensis n-hexane, and N. hispanica chloroform extracts had strong inhibitory activity (more than 80%) on COX-1 and N. orientalis, N. arvensis, and N. hispanica n-hexane extracts were most effective against COX-2, when the concentration of extracts was 100 microg/mL in both COX assays. In conclusion, N. arvensis, N. orientalis, and N. hispanica seeds, for the first time examined for antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, revealed their significant activity in one or both assays.

  8. [Study of anti-idiotype antibodies to human monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, R; Takahashi, N; Owaki, I; Kannagi, R; Endo, N; Morita, N; Inoue, M

    1992-02-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 (IgM, lambda), was generated, which reacted specifically with a major of glycolipid present in LS174T colon cancer cells. The glycolipid antigen which reacted with the ll-50 antibody was expected to four sugar residues from its TLC mobility, and it was ascertained that the glycolipid antigen which reacted with ll-50 antibody might be Lc4 antigen [Gal beta 1----3 GLcNAc beta 1----3 Gal beta 1----4 Glc beta 1----1 Cer] judging from TLC immunostaining and ELISA when the reactivity of ll-50 antibody was tested using various pure glycolipids in 3-5 sugar residues as an antigen. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated ll-50 antibody. The serum of the Lc4 antigen recognized by ll-50 antibody was significantly higher in patients with malignant disorders than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). Three mouse monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3 and C5 (all IgG1), were generated by the immunization of BALB/c mice with ll-50 antibody. These anti-idiotype antibodies specifically bound to to human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 and had a significant inhibitory activity towards the binding of ll-50 antibody to the Lc4 antigen. This indicated that these anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5, were paratope-related anti-idiotype antibodies. G3, B3, and C5 were expected to define the nearest idiotope because they could mutually inhibit ll-50 antibody. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5. As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by C5 (Id-C5+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by B3 (Id-B3+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher

  9. Anti-Melanogenic Activity and Cytotoxicity of Pistacia vera Hull on Human Melanoma SKMEL-3 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhail, Parisa; Salimi, Mona; Sarkheil, Pantea; Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa

    2017-07-01

    Pistacia vera seed is a common food and medicinal seed in Iran. It's hull (outer skin) as a significant byproduct of pistachio, is traditionally used as tonic, sedative and antidiarrheal and has been shown to be a rich source of antioxidants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-melanogenic activity of the pistachio hulls in order to discover a new alternative herbal agent to treat skin hyperpigmentation disorders. In this work, antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity of MeOH extract from Pistacia vera hull (MPH) were evaluated in vitro, respectively, by DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase activity assays. Then the effect of MPH on the melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cell were determined followed by 72 h incubation. The results indicated that MPH had valuable DPPH radical scavenging effect and weak anti-tyrosinase activity when compared to the well-known antioxidant (BHT) and tyrosinase inhibitor (kojic acid), respectively. MPH, at a high dose (0.5 mg/mL), showed significant cytotoxic activity (~63%) and strong anti-melanogenic effect (~57%) on SKMEL-3 cells. The effect of MPH in the reduction of melanin content may be related to its cytotoxicity. The results obtained suggest that MPH can be used as an effective agent in the treatment of some skin hyperpigmentation disorders such as melanoma.

  10. Association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alexandre Yazbek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus exposure appears to be an environmental trigger for rheumatoid arthritis that interacts with other risk factors. Relationships among anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status have been observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from different populations. OBJECTIVE: To perform an association analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status in Brazilian patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: In a case-control study, 140 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 143 healthy volunteers who were matched for age, sex, and ethnicity were recruited. Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and shared epitope alleles were identified by genotyping. Smoking information was collected from all subjects. A comparative analysis of anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, the shared epitope, and smoking status was performed in the patient group. Logistic regression analysis models were used to analyze the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. RESULTS: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies were not associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, shared epitope alleles, or smoking status. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity was significantly higher in smoking patients with shared epitope alleles (OR = 3.82. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection, only anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies were found to be independently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 247.9. CONCLUSION: Anti-Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies did not increase the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and were not associated with the rheumatoid arthritis risk factors studied. Smoking

  11. A homogeneous fluorometric assay platform based on novel synthetic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar-Schara, Goenuel; Krab, Ivo M.; Yi, Guohua; Su, Wei Wen

    2007-01-01

    Novel synthetic recombinant sensor proteins have been created to detect analytes in solution, in a rapid single-step 'mix and read' noncompetitive homogeneous assay process, based on modulating the Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) property of the sensor proteins upon binding to their targets. The sensor proteins comprise a protein scaffold that incorporates a specific target-capturing element, sandwiched by genetic fusion between two molecules that form a FRET pair. The utility of the sensor proteins was demonstrated via three examples, for detecting an anti-biotin Fab antibody, a His-tagged recombinant protein, and an anti-FLAG peptide antibody, respectively, all done directly in solution. The diversity of sensor-target interactions that we have demonstrated in this study points to a potentially universal applicability of the biosensing concept. The possibilities for integrating a variety of target-capturing elements with a common sensor scaffold predict a broad range of practical applications

  12. Performance of seven serological assays for diagnosing tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tularemia is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. Serology is frequently the preferred diagnostic approach, because the pathogen is highly infectious and difficult to cultivate. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tularemia specific tests. Methods The Serazym®Anti-Francisella tularensis ELISA, Serion ELISA classic Francisella tularensis IgG/IgM, an in-house ELISA, the VIRapid® Tularemia immunochromatographic test, an in-house antigen microarray, and a Western Blot (WB) assay were evaluated. The diagnosis tularemia was established using a standard micro-agglutination assay. In total, 135 sera from a series of 110 consecutive tularemia patients were tested. Results The diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity of the tests were VIRapid (97.0% and 84.0%), Serion IgG (96.3% and 96.8%), Serion IgM (94.8% and 96.8%), Serazym (97.0% and 91.5%), in-house ELISA (95.6% and 76.6%), WB (93.3% and 83.0%), microarray (91.1% and 97.9%). Conclusions The diagnostic value of the commercial assays was proven, because the diagnostic accuracy was >90%. The diagnostic sensitivity of the in-house ELISA and the WB were acceptable, but the diagnostic accuracy was <90%. Interestingly, the antigen microarray test was very specific and had a very good positive predictive value. PMID:24885274

  13. Uterotrophic and Hershberger assays for endocrine disruption properties of plastic food contact materials polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bu Young; Kyung, Minji; Lim, Seong Kwang; Choi, Seul Min; Lim, Duck Soo; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Plasticizers or plastic materials such as phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), and styrene are widely used in the plastic industry and are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). Although plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are not EDC and are considered to be safe, their potential properties as EDC have not been fully investigated. In this study, plastic samples eluted from plastic food containers (PP or PET) were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats using Hershberger and uterotrophic assays. In the Hershberger assay, 6-wk-old castrated male rats were orally treated for 10 consecutive days with plastic effluent at 3 different doses (5 ml/kg) or vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g) to determine the presence of both anti-androgenic and androgenic effects. Testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered for androgenic evaluation as a positive control, whereas testosterone (0.4 mg/ml/kg) and flutamide (3 mg/kg/day) were administered to a positive control group for anti-androgenic evaluation. The presence of any anti-androgenic or androgenic activities of plastic effluent was not detected. Sex accessory tissues such as ventral prostate or seminal vesicle showed no significant differences in weight between treated and control groups. For the uterotrophic assay, immature female rats were treated with plastic effluent at three different doses (5 ml/kg), with vehicle control (corn oil, 1 ml/100 g), or with ethinyl estradiol (3 μg/kg/d) for 3 d. There were no significant differences between test and control groups in vagina or uterine weight. Data suggest that effluents from plastic food containers do not appear to produce significant adverse effects according to Hershberger and uterotrophic assays.

  14. Study on in vitro anti-tumor activity of Bidens bipinnata L. extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the in vitro anti-tumor activity of Bidens Bipinnata L. extract. MTT assay was used to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of the extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines and human cervical carcinoma (Hela) cell lines, and the IC50 values were calculated. The Bidens ...

  15. Molecular Identification, Enzyme Assay, and Metabolic Profiling of Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soo-Jung; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Jeon, Junhyun; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-06-28

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize selected Trichoderma isolates by metabolic profiling and enzyme assay for evaluation of their potential as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Trichoderma isolates were obtained from the Rural Development Administration Genebank Information Center (Wanju, Republic of Korea). Eleven Trichoderma isolates were re-identified using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. ITS sequence results showed new identification of Trichoderma isolates. In addition, metabolic profiling of the ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid cultures of five Trichoderma isolates that showed the best anti- Phytophthora activities was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiling revealed that Trichoderma isolates shared common metabolites with well-known antifungal activities. Enzyme assays indicated strong cell walldegrading enzyme activities of Trichoderma isolates. Overall, our results indicated that the selected Trichoderma isolates have great potential for use as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

  16. In vitro thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activity with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthium indicum is an important medicinal plant traditionally used in Bangladesh as a folkloric treatment. The current study was undertaken to evaluate thrombolytic, anthelmintic, anti-oxidant, cytotoxic properties with phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of X. indicum leaves. The analysis of phytochemical screening confirmed the existence of phytosetrols and diterpenes. In thrombolytic assay, a significant clot lysis was observed at four concentrations of plant extract compare to the positive control streptokinase (30,000 IU, 15,000 IU and negative control normal saline. The extract revealed potent anthelmintic activity at different concentrations. In anti-oxidant activity evaluation by two potential experiments namely total phenolic content determination and free radical scavenging assay by 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, the leaves extract possess good anti-oxidant property. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the crude extract showed potent (LC50 1.3 μg/mL cytotoxic activity compare to the vincristine sulfate as a positive control (LC50 0.8 μg/mL.

  17. Therapeutic potential of combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY in guinea pigs with allergic rhinitis induced by ovalbumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo-Zhu, Hu; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Dan, He; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Wei-Xu, Hu

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that anti-IL-1β immunoglobulin yolk(IgY) inhibits pathological responses in allergic asthma guinea pigs induced by ovalbumin(OVA). This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can more effectively inhibit allergic inflammation in allergic rhinitis(AR) guinea pigs induced by OVA. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy control. The AR guinea pigs induced by OVA were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group containing negative control animals treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% non-specific IgY treatment group treated with non-specific IgY; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group treated with 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group treated with 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group treated with 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group treated with fluticasone propionate. Cytokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that IL-1β, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-18, IL-22, IL-33, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and OVA-specific IgE levels in the peripheral blood (PB) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) significantly decreased at 2h, 4h or 8h in the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group compared to the AR model group and the 0.1% non-specific IgY treatment group (P<0.05). The data suggest that blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α by intranasal instillation of combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY could be a potential alternative strategy for preventing and treating allergic rhinitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·−, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  19. Heme polymerization inhibition activity (HPIA) assay of synthesized xanthone derivative as antimalarial compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriastuti, Dhina; Jumina, Priatmoko

    2017-03-01

    Xanthone is a phenolic secondary metabolite of Garcinia and Calophyllum herbs which has been clinically proven to display anti malaria activity. In the present paper, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methyl xanthone which has been synthesized from gallic acid and o-cresol in Eaton's reagent was tested for its activity as antimalarial. Thus, HPIA assay of the synthesized xanthones was successfully conducted. The HPIA assay was carried out towards the xanthone, chloroquine diphosphate as positive control and distilled water as negative control in various concentration. The samples were reacted with hematin (ferriprotoporphyrin IX hydroxide) and the absorbance of the precipitate was observed by using Elisa reader. The results of HPIA assay showed that 2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-methyl xanthone and chloroquine have IC50 values of 0.755 and 1.462 mg/mL or 2.92 and 4.57 mM, respectively. 2,3,4-Trihydroxy-5-methyl xanthone displayed better antimalarial activity than chloroquine.

  20. Expression, purification of metallothionein genes from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon yangtsekiense) and development of an anti-metallothionein ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhou, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Using the phoA-fusion technology, the recombinant metallothionein (MT) from freshwater crab (Sinopotamon yangtsekiense) has been successfully produced in Escherichia coli. MT purified from the bacterial suspension showed one polypeptide with a molecular weight of 7 kDa by tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Tricine-SDS-PAGE). Western-blotting confirmed the polypeptides had a specific reactivity with mouse polyclonal MT anti-serum. Based on the purified MT and MT anti-serum, the reaction parameters for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed. The direct coating ELISA showed a higher linear relationship compared to antibody sandwich coating ELISA. The optimal dilution rates of purified MT anti-serum and coating period were shown to be 1:160,000 and 12 hours at 4°C. At 37°C, the appropriate reaction duration of the first antibody and the second antibody were 2 hours and 1 hour, respectively. According to these optimal parameters, the standard linear equation, y = 0.0032x + 0.1769 (R2 = 0.9779, x, y representing MT concentration and OD450 value), was established for the determination of MT concentration with a valid range of 3.9–500 ng/ml. In verification experiments, the mean coefficients of variation of the intra-assay and inter-assay were 3.260% and 3.736%, respectively. According to the result of MT recovery, ELISA with an approaching 100% MT recovery was more reliable and sensitive than the Cd saturation assay. In conclusion, the newly developed ELISA of this study was precise, stable and repeatable, and could be used as a biomarker tool to monitor pollution by heavy metals. PMID:28350826

  1. Anti-mutagenic and Pro-apoptotic Effects of Apigenin on Human Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Hashemi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nDiet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test. This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100. Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when expose to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01 Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro.

  2. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay system to investigate ligand/AdipoR1 interactions that lead to cellular signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Aouida

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a mammalian hormone that exerts anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and cardioprotective effects through interaction with its major ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane localized receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Here, we report a Saccharomyces cerevisiae based method for investigating agonist-AdipoR interactions that is amenable for high-throughput scale-up and can be used to study both AdipoRs separately. Agonist-AdipoR1 interactions are detected using a split firefly luciferase assay based on reconstitution of firefly luciferase (Luc activity due to juxtaposition of its N- and C-terminal fragments, NLuc and CLuc, by ligand induced interaction of the chimeric proteins CLuc-AdipoR1 and APPL1-NLuc (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif 1-NLuc in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking the yeast homolog of AdipoRs (Izh2p. The assay monitors the earliest known step in the adiponectin-AdipoR anti-diabetic signaling cascade. We demonstrate that reconstituted Luc activity can be detected in colonies or cells using a CCD camera and quantified in cell suspensions using a microplate reader. AdipoR1-APPL1 interaction occurs in absence of ligand but can be stimulated specifically by agonists such as adiponectin and the tobacco protein osmotin that was shown to have AdipoR-dependent adiponectin-like biological activity in mammalian cells. To further validate this assay, we have modeled the three dimensional structures of receptor-ligand complexes of membrane-embedded AdipoR1 with cyclic peptides derived from osmotin or osmotin-like plant proteins. We demonstrate that the calculated AdipoR1-peptide binding energies correlate with the peptides' ability to behave as AdipoR1 agonists in the split luciferase assay. Further, we demonstrate agonist-AdipoR dependent activation of protein kinase A (PKA signaling and AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in S. cerevisiae, which are

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol stem bark extract of Prosopis africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Yaro, Abdullahi H; Abodunde, Olajumoke M

    2010-03-01

    Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. (Mimosoideae) is a shrub used for menstrual and general body pain in Nupe land in north central Nigeria. In this study, the methanol extract of the stem bark of Prosopis africana (at doses of 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid-induced writhing assay and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats. The extract significantly (P acetic acid-induced writhing with the highest activity observed at the highest dose, 250 mg/kg (76.89%) comparable to that of piroxicam (83.16%) the standard agent used. In the carrageenan-induced inflammation assay, the extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity (P screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, tannins, and alkaloids. The oral median lethal dose was found to be 3807.9 mg/kg in mice and > 5000 mg/kg in rats. This study supports the folkloric claim of the use of Prosopis africana in the management of pain.

  4. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tropism profiles in clinical samples by the Trofile and MT-2 assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Eoin; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Huang, Wei; Mangas-Ruiz, Marga; Maurer, Irma; Harskamp, Agnes M; Gupta, Soumi; Lie, Yolanda; Petropoulos, Christos J; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B

    2009-11-01

    The recent availability of CCR5 antagonists as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapeutics has highlighted the need to accurately identify CXCR4-using variants in patient samples when use of this new drug class is considered. The Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences) has become the method that is the most widely used to define tropism in the clinic prior to the use of a CCR5 antagonist. By comparison, the MT-2 assay has been used since early in the HIV epidemic to define tropism in clinical specimens. Given that there are few data from direct comparisons of these two assays, we evaluated the performance of the plasma-based Trofile assay and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based MT-2 assay for the detection of CXCR4 use in defining the tropism of HIV isolates derived from clinical samples. The various samples used for this comparison were derived from participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS who underwent consecutive MT-2 assay testing of their PBMCs at approximately 3-month intervals. This unique sample set was specifically selected because consecutive MT-2 assays had demonstrated a shift from negative to positive in PBMCs, reflecting the first emergence of CXCR4-using virus in PBMCs above the level of detection of the assay in these individuals. Trofile testing was performed with clonal HIV type 1 (HIV-1) variants (n = 21), MT-2 cell culture-derived cells (n = 20) and supernatants (n = 42), and plasma samples (n = 76). Among the clonal HIV-1 variants and MT-2 cell culture-derived samples, the results of the Trofile and MT-2 assays demonstrated a high degree of concordance (95% to 98%). Among consecutive plasma samples, detection of CXCR4-using virus was at or before the time of first detection by the MT-2 assay in 5/10 patients by the original Trofile assay and in 9/10 patients by the enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay. Differences in the time to the first detection of CXCR4 use between the MT-2 assay (PBMCs

  5. Anti-pre-S responses and viral clearance in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkowska, A; Dubreuil, P; Poynard, T; Marcellin, P; Loriot, M A; Maillard, P; Pillot, J

    1992-01-01

    Serial sera were collected prospectively during the clinical course of 13 HBsAg carriers with chronic liver disease and analyzed for ALT levels, pre-S1 and pre-S2 antigens and corresponding antibodies and other serological hepatitis B virus markers. In five patients, anti-pre-S1 and anti-pre-S2 antibodies became detectable in multiple serum samples, whereas in eight patients anti-pre-S was never detected or only appeared transiently during the follow-up. The first pattern was associated with normalization of ALT levels and undetectable pre-S antigens and viral DNA by the polymerase chain reaction assay at final follow-up. HBsAg clearance occurred in two of the five patients. The second pattern was one of persistence of HBsAg and pre-S antigens, associated with the presence of serum HBV DNA detectable by spot hybridization or polymerase chain reaction regardless of clinical outcome. These findings demonstrate the occurrence of anti-pre-S antibodies in chronic hepatitis B virus-induced liver disease and associate anti-pre-S appearance with the clearance of hepatitis B virus from serum.

  6. Anti-proliferative effect of 20-hydroxyecdysone in a lepidopteran cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Hatt, Philippe-Jacques; Porcheron, Patrick

    2002-02-01

    Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones involved in the epidermal growth of arthropods, controlling cell proliferation and further differentiation of target cells. The epidermal cell line IAL-PID2, established from imaginal discs of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella kept its sensitivity to ecdysteroids in vitro, cells being able to respond to them by cytological and biochemical changes. When added to the culture medium, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) stopped cell proliferation and induced formation of epithelial-like aggregates. In order to better understand the cellular sequence of ecdysteroids signalling in epidermal cells we used the IAL-PID2 cell line for in vitro investigations of cytological events induced by the moulting hormone. After a 40 h serum deprivation, formazan assay (XTT) was routinely used to evaluate anti-proliferative effects of 20E during cell cycle. We established a more precise timing of the period of cell sensitivity to the hormone during the cell cycle, by the use of the mitotic index and the BrdU incorporation test. These in vitro assays were performed in parallel with the description of some hormone dependant cytological events, using immunofluorescent labelling with anti-beta tubulin/FITC antibodies and DNA staining.

  7. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Ji-Young, E-mail: jiyoung.min@ip-korea.org [Respiratory Viruses Research Laboratory, Discovery Biology Department, Institut Pasteur Korea, 16, Daewangpangyo-ro 712 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 463-400 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-04

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  8. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-01-01

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. - Highlights: • The plant-derived natural product TGBG has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against seasonal influenza A and B viruses. • TGBG has a novel anti-viral mechanism of action that from differs from the currently available anti-influenza drugs. • TGBG hinders nuclear export of the influenza virus ribonucleoprotein (v

  9. Antibody reaction of human anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative sera with Neospora caninum antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Kang, Seung-Won; Choi, Won-Young

    1998-01-01

    Anti-Neospora caninum antibody was detected in anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative human sera by ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Twelve cases out of 172 (6.7%) Toxoplasma-positive sera cross-reacted with both T. gondii and N. caninum antigens, and one out of 110 Toxoplasma-negative sera reacted with N. caninum antigen by ELISA. By western blot, all 12 sera reacted with T. gondii antigens with various banding patterns but specifically at 30 kDa (SAG1) and 22 kD...

  10. Anti-Candida albicans biofilm effect of novel heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sarah; Jabbour, Adel; Sionov, Edward; Alquntar, Abed A; Steinberg, Doron; Srebnik, Morris; Nir-Paz, Ran; Weiss, Aryeh; Polacheck, Itzhack

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to develop new anti-biofilm drugs, examine their activity against Candida albicans biofilm and investigate their structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action. A series of thiazolidinedione and succinimide derivatives were synthesized and their ability to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and destroy pre-formed biofilm was tested. The biofilms' structure, metabolic activity and viability were determined by XTT assay and propidium iodide and SYTO 9 live/dead stains combined with confocal microscopic analysis. The effect of the most active compounds on cell morphology, sterol distribution and cell wall morphology and composition was then determined by specific fluorescent stains and transmission electron microscopy. Most of the compounds were active at sub-MICs. Elongation of the aliphatic side chain resulted in reduced anti-biofilm activity and the sulphur atom contributed to biofilm killing, indicating a structure-activity relationship. The compounds differed in their effects on biofilm viability, yeast-to-hyphal form transition, hyphal morphology, cell wall morphology and composition, and sterol distribution. The most effective anti-biofilm compounds were the thiazolidinedione S8H and the succinimide NA8. We developed novel anti-biofilm agents that both inhibited and destroyed C. albicans biofilm. With some further development, these agents might be suitable for therapeutic purposes.

  11. STUDY OF IMMUNISATION STATUS BY ESTIMATION OF ANTI-HBS ANTIBODY IN POST HEPATITIS B VACCINATED INDIVIDUALS

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    Karthik Pichika Lakshmanan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection is a major public health problem in India. Hepatitis B can be prevented by hepatitis B vaccine, which is the first anticancer vaccine, because it can prevent a form of liver cancer. The protective antibodies induced by vaccination wane gradually over period of time. The aim of the study is to- 1. Estimate serum levels of anti-HBs in individuals vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine. 2. Immunisation status of hepatitis B vaccination in individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS A serological study was carried out from March 2015 to the end of September 2016 aimed at estimating the level of HBsantibody. Total of 330 individuals from healthcare workers, staff and children who have received full course of hepatitis B vaccine were selected for study. In a cross-sectional study, anti-HBs antibody was determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. RESULTS Three hundred and thirty individuals were enrolled in the study, out of which, 136 were men and 194 were women. Majority were in the age group 20 to 40 years. Anti-HBs antibody titre was more than 100 IU/L in 74% individuals. Titre was between 10 IU/L-100 IU/L in 16% individuals. Anti-HBs titre was less than 10 IU/L in 10% individuals. There was a significant decline in the levels of antibody overtime post vaccination. Antibody titre was low in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Low antibody titre was noted in smokers. CONCLUSION In this study, majority had desirable immune response to the HBV vaccine. Diabetes mellitus, long duration post vaccination and positive smoking history have attributed to low anti-HBs titre in subjects who had inadequate levels in our study. As immunological memory persists for long time even in the absence of significant titre of anti-HBs, booster dose vaccination is routinely not advocated for general population. But, healthcare professionals are advised to receive booster dose vaccination at 5 years if anti-HBs value is

  12. Anti-influenza A virus activity of rhein through regulating oxidative stress, TLR4, Akt, MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Wen Wang

    Full Text Available Rhein, an anthraquinone compound existing in many traditional herbal medicines, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities, but its anti-influenza A virus (IAV activity is ambiguous. In the present study, through plaque inhibition assay, time-of-addition assay, antioxidant assay, qRT-PCR, ELISA, and western blotting assays, we investigated the anti-IAV effect and mechanism of action of rhein in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that rhein could significantly inhibit IAV adsorption and replication, decrease IAV-induced oxidative stress, activations of TLR4, Akt, p38, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB pathways, and production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in vitro. Oxidant H2O2 and agonists of TLR4, Akt, p38/JNK and IKK/NF-κB could significantly antagonize the inhibitory effects of rhein on IAV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE and IAV replication. Through an in vivo test in mice, we also found that rhein could significantly improve the survival rate, lung index, pulmonary cytokines, and pulmonary histopathological changes. Rhein also significantly decreased pulmonary viral load at a high dose. In conclusion, rhein can inhibit IAV adsorption and replication, and the mechanism of action to inhibit IAV replication may be due to its ability to suppress IAV-induced oxidative stress and activations of TLR4, Akt, p38, JNK MAPK, and NF-κB signal pathways.

  13. PURIFICATION AND FRACTIONAL ANALYSIS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF WEDELIA TRILOBATA POSSESSING APOPTOTIC AND ANTI-LEUKEMIC ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Uday; Javarasetty, Chethan; Murari, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitch (WT), commonly known as yellow dots or creeping daisy, is a shrub possessing potent biological activities, and is traditionally used a medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani systems of medicines, and it has also been tried against leukemia cell line MEG- 01. In the present study, purification and screening of the plant was done for bioactive compounds in methanolic extract of WT for apoptotic and anti-leukemia activity. Materials and methods: The methanolic extract of WT was initially purified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and screened for the apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities. The positive band of TLC was subjected to silica gel column chromatography for further purification and the fractions obtained from it were screened again for anti-leukemia activity through thymidine uptake assay and apoptotic activity by DNA fragmentation, nuclear staining and flow cytometry assays. The fraction with positive result was subjected to HPLC for analysis of bioactive components. Results: Out of many combinations of solvents, the methanol and dichloromethane combination in the ratio 6:4 has revealed two bands in TLC, among which the second band showed positive results for apoptotic and anti-leukemic activities. Further purification of second band through silica gel chromatography gave five fractions in which the 3rd fraction gave positive results and it shows single peak during compositional analysis through HPLC. Conclusion: The single peak revealed through HPLC indicates the presence of pure compound with apoptotic and anti-leukemia activities encouraging for further structural analysis. PMID:28480428

  14. Antioxidant and Anti-Adipogenic Activities of Trapa japonica Shell Extract Cultivated in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DooJin; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Geunpyo; Kim, Jong Dai

    2017-01-01

    Trapa japonica shell contains phenolic compounds such as tannins. Studies regarding the antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of Trapa japonica shell cultivated in Korea are still unclear. Antioxidant and anti-adipogenic activities were measured by in vitro assays such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, reducing power, superoxide dismutase-like activity, and iron chelating ability in 3T3-L1 cells. We also measured the total phenol and flavonoids contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) in Trapa japonica shell extract. Our results show that TPC and TFC of Trapa japonica shell extract were 157.7±0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and 25.0±1.95 mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. Trapa japonica shell extract showed strong antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and other methods. Especially, the whole antioxidant activity test of Trapa japonica shell extract exhibited higher levels than that of butylated hydroxytoluene as a positive control. Furthermore, Trapa japonica shell extract inhibited lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species production during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Trapa japonica shell extract possessed a significant antioxidant and anti-adipogenic property, which suggests its potential as a natural functional food ingredient. PMID:29333386

  15. Concepts for the assay of unbound thyroxine (FT4) and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odstrchel, G.; Hertl, W.; Ward, F.B.; Travis, K.; Lindner, R.E.; Mason, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Two new concepts for the assay of thyroid related substances are presented. One assay (FT 4 ) is based on a kinetic measurement of T 4 as it desorbs from binder proteins onto solid-phase T 4 antibody. This reaction can be described by a second order rate equation; r = k (IMA) (FT 4 ). The assay is rapid (2 hours) and gives good agreement (sigma = 0.92) with equilibrium dialysis and a normal range of 0.9 - 2.3 ng/dl. This assay uses a small sample size (25 μl) and is unaffected by drugs such as aspirin and dilantin. Pregnant and estrogen treated women gave normal FT 4 values. A new method for the measurement of functionally active TEG is also presented. In this case the labeled T 4 is partitioned between bovine serum albumin and the patient's samples. The complex is then removed from solution by solid-phase anti-TBG. A curve remiscent of an immunoradiometric assay is obtained. The assay has a sensitivity of 4 μg/ml and is unaffected by aspirin, dilantin or the patient's T 4 concentrations. Correlation with 'rocket' electrophoresis is 0.90. The normal range was 20 +- 7 μg/ml with pregnant women giving values greater than 30 μg/ml. Five hereditary deficient patients gave a value equivalent to zero TBG concentration. (orig.) [de

  16. High-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assay for analysis of natural and vaccine-induced antibodies against human papillomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sehr

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive, automated, purely add-on, high-throughput pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (HT-PBNA with excellent repeatability and run-to-run reproducibility was developed for human papillomavirus types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 45, 52, 58 and bovine papillomavirus type 1. Preparation of 384 well assay plates with serially diluted sera and the actual cell-based assay are separated in time, therefore batches of up to one hundred assay plates can be processed sequentially. A mean coefficient of variation (CV of 13% was obtained for anti-HPV 16 and HPV 18 titers for a standard serum tested in a total of 58 repeats on individual plates in seven independent runs. Natural antibody response was analyzed in 35 sera from patients with HPV 16 DNA positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ lesions. The new HT-PBNA is based on Gaussia luciferase with increased sensitivity compared to the previously described manual PBNA (manPBNA based on secreted alkaline phosphatase as reporter. Titers obtained with HT-PBNA were generally higher than titers obtained with the manPBNA. A good linear correlation (R(2 = 0.7 was found between HT-PBNA titers and anti-HPV 16 L1 antibody-levels determined by a Luminex bead-based GST-capture assay for these 35 sera and a Kappa-value of 0.72, with only 3 discordant sera in the low titer range. In addition to natural low titer antibody responses the high sensitivity of the HT-PBNA also allows detection of cross-neutralizing antibodies induced by commercial HPV L1-vaccines and experimental L2-vaccines. When analyzing the WHO international standards for HPV 16 and 18 we determined an analytical sensitivity of 0.864 and 1.105 mIU, respectively.

  17. Soluble multimer of recombinant endostatin expressed in E. coli has anti-angiogenesis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dongmei; Gao Yan; Cao Xiangrong; Zhu Nianchun; Liang Jianfu; Xie Weiping; Zhen Mingying; Zhu Minsheng

    2006-01-01

    The bioactivity, refolding, and multimer formation of endostatin, particularly of recombinant endostatin produced from bacteria, are proved challenging for clinical application. In order to determine the biological activity of recombinant endostatin multimer, first, we expressed endostatin in Escherichia coli and purified it with ion-exchange chromatography. The purified active protein could elicit multimer formation spontaneously, but still has comparable activity. Aim to determine the anti-angiogenic activity of multimer endostatin, by use of RP-HPLC, we then successfully separated endostatin monomer and multimer for subjecting to anti-angiogenesis assay. The results from CAM (chorioallantoic membrane) inhibition assay showed that both monomer and multimer suppressed CAM vascularization significantly. At the dosage of 0.8 μg, inhibition rates of multimeric and monomeric proteins were about 58% and 38%, respectively. Multimeric endostatin exerted a higher activity than monomeric endostatin (p 0.05), although both of them show a high inhibition effect in contrast to control. The results from HUVEC proliferation assay also showed similar effects at dosages of 0.6 and 1.6 μg/ml, multimer exerted a higher activity on inhibition of HUVEC proliferation comparing with monomer (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that endostatin multimer has a comparable or higher bioactivity and multimerization will not affect its bioactivity, implying that endostatin activity is insensitive to structure conformation contributed by disulfide bonds

  18. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Kubiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods.

  19. Activity of clinically relevant antimalarial drugs on Plasmodium falciparum mature gametocytes in an ATP bioluminescence "transmission blocking" assay.

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    Joël Lelièvre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current anti-malarial drugs have been selected on the basis of their activity against the symptom-causing asexual blood stage of the parasite. Which of these drugs also target gametocytes, in the sexual stage responsible for disease transmission, remains unknown. Blocking transmission is one of the main strategies in the eradication agenda and requires the identification of new molecules that are active against gametocytes. However, to date, the main limitation for measuring the effect of molecules against mature gametocytes on a large scale is the lack of a standardized and reliable method. Here we provide an efficient method to produce and purify mature gametocytes in vitro. Based on this new procedure, we developed a robust, affordable, and sensitive ATP bioluminescence-based assay. We then assessed the activity of 17 gold-standard anti-malarial drugs on Plasmodium late stage gametocytes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Difficulties in producing large amounts of gametocytes have limited progress in the development of malaria transmission blocking assays. We improved the method established by Ifediba and Vanderberg to obtain viable, mature gametocytes en masse, whatever the strain used. We designed an assay to determine the activity of antimalarial drugs based on the intracellular ATP content of purified stage IV-V gametocytes after 48 h of drug exposure in 96/384-well microplates. Measurements of drug activity on asexual stages and cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells were also obtained to estimate the specificity of the active drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The work described here represents another significant step towards determination of the activity of new molecules on mature gametocytes of any strain with an automated assay suitable for medium/high-throughput screening. Considering that the biology of the forms involved in the sexual and asexual stages is very different, a screen of our 2 million-compound library may allow us to discover novel anti

  20. [Analytic study of dot blotting for the detection of anti-Jo-1, anti-M2, anti-ribosomes and anti-LKM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, S; Sghiri, R; Ballot, E; Johanet, C

    2004-01-01

    The Cyto-Dot 4 HM043 kit commercialised by BMD, has replaced the Cyto-Dot HM010 kit that allowed three auto-antibodies detection (anti-Jo-1, anti-M2 and anti-ribosomal protein). Detection of anti-LKM1 auto-antibody was added. These four auto-antibodies have in common only the intracytoplasmic localisation of their respective antigen. The aim of our study was to evaluate this new kit using 104 sera and to compare our results with reference techniques (indirect immunofluorescence IF for anti-M2, anti-ribosomal protein and anti-LKM1, double immunodiffusion ID for anti-Jo-1 and anti-LKM1, western blotting WB for anti-M2) and with Cyto-Dot HM010. The one hundred and four sera were divided into five groups: Group I (n = 12) with anti-Jo-1 detected by ID; Group II (n = 28) with 26 anti-M2 positive by IF and WB, 2 anti-M2 positive only by WB; Group III (n = 10) with anti-ribosomal protein detected by IF 5 of which precipitated by ID; Group IV (n = 32) with anti-LKM1 by IF and ID divided into 18 AIH2 and 14 HCV; Group V (n = 22) consisting of 14 healthy individuals and 8 patients with hypergammaglobulinemia. Results of this study are similar to those of Cyto-Dot HM010 for the three auto-antibodies already in use. Cyto-Dot 4 is a very good anti-LKM1 confirmation method as it is ID. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for insulin-like growth factor-I using six-histidine tag fused proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Shi Ruina; Zhong Xuefei; Wang Dan; Zhao Meiping; Li Yuanzong

    2007-01-01

    The fusion proteins of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and six-histidine tag (IGF-I-6H, 6H-IGF-I-6H) were cloned, expressed, purified and renatured, with their immunoreaction properties and biological activities intact. The binding kinetics between these fusion proteins and anti-IGF-I antibody or anti-6H antibody were studied using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) modes, which proved feasible in the measurement of human serum samples, were used to detect IGF-I with the help of the six-histidine tagged proteins. Furthermore, combining the production technique of the six-histidine tagged fusion protein with the competitive sandwich ELISA mode, using an enzyme labeled anti-6H antibody as a tracer, can be a universal immunochemical method to quantitate other polypeptides or proteins

  2. Evaluation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurements of soluble HLA-G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M; Dahl, M; Buus, S; Djurisic, S; Ohlsson, J; Hviid, T V F

    2014-08-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecule, HLA-G, has gained increased attention because of its assumed important role in immune regulation. The HLA-G protein exists in several soluble isoforms. Most important are the actively secreted HLA-G5 full-length isoform generated by alternative splicing retaining intron 4 with a premature stop codon, and the cleavage of full-length membrane-bound HLA-G1 from the cell surface, so-called soluble HLA-G1 (sHLA-G1). A specific and sensitive immunoassay for measurements of soluble HLA-G is mandatory for conceivable routine testing and research projects. We report a novel method, a competitive immunoassay, for measuring HLA-G5/sHLA-G1 in biological fluids. The sHLA-G immunoassay is based upon a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) principle. It includes a recombinant sHLA-G1 protein in complex with β2-microglobulin and a peptide as a standard, biotinylated recombinant sHLA-G1 as an indicator, and the MEM-G/9 anti-HLA-G monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the capture antibody. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were evaluated. Testing with different recombinant HLA class I proteins and different anti-HLA class I mAbs showed that the sHLA-G immunoassay was highly specific. Optimal combinations of competitor sHLA-G1 and capture mAb concentrations were determined. Two versions of the assay were tested. One with a relatively wide dynamic range from 3.1 to 100.0 ng/ml, and another more sensitive version ranging from 1.6 to 12.5 ng/ml. An intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 15.5% at 88 ng/ml and an inter-assay CV of 23.1% at 39 ng/ml were determined. An assay based on the competitive sHLA-G ELISA may be important for measurements of sHLA-G proteins in several conditions: assisted reproduction, organ transplantation, cancer, and certain pregnancy complications, both in research studies and possibly in the future also for clinical routine use. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  3. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and phytochemical screening of Alternanthera tenella Colla (Amaranthaceae aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Agostino Biella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla extracts are used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases as well as inflammation and fever. In this work, the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and potential toxic effects of cold (CAE and hot (HAE aqueous extracts of A. tenella were investigated in vivo. In addition, we analyzed the phytochemical properties of both extracts. BALB/c mice were immunized in vivo with sheep red blood cells and concomitantly inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. with each extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg. Specific antibody-producing cells were enumerated using plaque-forming cell assays (PFC and anti-SRBC IgG and IgM serum levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body and lymphoid organ weights were determined after treatments in order to evaluate toxic effects. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was employed to investigate anti-inflammatory activity in mice inoculated i.p. with CAE or HAE (200 or 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening was performed using spectrometric and chromatographic approaches and revealed that CAE possessed higher tannin and flavonoid levels than HAE. PFC numbers were increased after treatment with CAE (100 mg/kg four days after immunization, as were the serum antibody titers after four and seven days, suggesting immunostimulatory activity through modulation of B lymphocyte functions. Body and organ weights did not show major changes, suggesting that extracts administered to mice did not induce significant toxicity. Both extracts had significant anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema assay. These results suggested that aqueous extracts from A. tenella contained several chemical compounds that possess positive and/or negative modulator effects on the immune system, which appeared to correlate with tannin and flavonoid levels in those extracts. In summary, these studies provide important insight into the biological activities of A. tenella.

  4. Transfer plate radioassay using adsorbed anti-insulin antibody to detect insulin secreted by islet cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scearce, R.M.; Oie, H.K.; Gazdar, A.F.; Chick, W.L.; Eisenbarth, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of insulin synthesized by islet cell clones is described. This assay employs anti-insulin antibody adsorbed onto fenestrated polyvinyl chloride 96-well plates ('transfer plates'). The calibrated aperture in the bottom of each transfer plate well permits fluid to enter the wells when transfer plates are lowered into microculture wells containing insulin. With this assay it is possible to rapidly screen hundreds of islet cell cultures for insulin production. The authors have used this assay to facilitate cloning of the RIN rat insulinoma cell line. The assay readily detects insulin synthesis by RIN cells and [ 125 I]insulin is not displaced by culture medium from cells which do not produce insulin. The transfer plate format should be applicable to semiautomate other radioimmunoassays. (Auth.)

  5. Nanobeads-based assays. The case of gluten detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venditti, Iole; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Bellucci, Stefano; Crescenzo, Roberta; Iozzino, Luisa; Staiano, Maria; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Varriale, Antonio; Rossi, Mose; D'Auria, Sabato

    2008-01-01

    In order to verify if the use of nanobeads of poly[phenylacetylene-(co-acrylic acid)] (PPA/AA) in the ELISA test would affect the immune-activity of the antibodies (Ab) and/or the activity of the enzymes used to label the Ab anti-rabbit IGg, in this work we immobilized the horse liver peroxidase labelled Ab anti-rabbit IGg onto PPA/AA nanobeads. The gluten test was chosen as the model to demonstrate the usefulness of these nanobeads in immunoassays. The synthesis of PPA/AA nanobeads was performed by a modified emulsion polymerization. Self-assembly of nanospheres with mean diameter equal to 200 nm was achieved by casting aqueous suspensions. The materials were characterized by traditional spectroscopic techniques, while the size and dispersion of the particles were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. The obtained results show that the immobilization process of the Abs onto PPA/AA did not affect either the immune-response of the Abs or the functional activity of the peroxidase suggesting the usefulness of PPA/AA for the design of advanced nanobeads-based assays for the simultaneous screening of several analytes in complex media.

  6. Evaluation of dry blood spot technique for quantification of an Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody drug in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Qing; Zhang, Yilu; Li, Connie; Li, Louis; Zhang, Kelley; Li, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the dried blood spot (DBS) technique in ELISA quantification of larger biomolecular drugs, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody drug was used as an example. A method for the quantification of the anti-CD20 drug in human DBS was developed and validated. The drug standard and quality control samples prepared in fresh human blood were spotted on DBS cards and then extracted. A luminescent ELISA was used for quantification of the drug from DBS samples. The assay range of the anti-CD20 drug standards in DBS was 100-2500ng/mL. The intra-assay precision (%CV) ranged from 0.4% to 10.1%, and the accuracy (%Recovery) ranged from 77.9% to 113.9%. The inter assay precision (%CV) ranged from 5.9% to 17.4%, and the accuracy ranged from 81.5% to 110.5%. The DBS samples diluted 500 and 50-fold yielded recovery of 88.7% and 90.7%, respectively. The preparation of DBS in higher and lower hematocrit (53% and 35%) conditions did not affect the recovery of the drug. Furthermore, the storage stability of the anti-CD20 drug on DBS cards was tested at various conditions. It was found that the anti-CD20 drug was stable for one week in DBS stored at room temperature. However, it was determined that the stability was compro]mised in DBS stored at high humidity, high temperature (55°C), and exposed to direct daylight for a week, as well as for samples stored at room temperature and high humidity conditions for a month. Stability did not change significantly in samples that underwent 3 freeze/thaw cycles. Our results demonstrated a successful use of DBS technique in ELISA quantification of an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody drug in human blood. The stability data provides information regarding sample storage and shipping for future clinical studies. It is, therefore, concluded that the DBS technique is applicable in the quantification of other large biomolecule drugs or biomarkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA+): A long fluorescence lifetime fluorophore for large biomolecule binding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Thyrhaug, Erling; Szabelski, Mariusz; Luchowski, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Laursen, Bo W.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many optical bioassays available, sensing by fluorescence anisotropy have great advantages as it provides a sensitive, instrumentally simple, ratiometric method of detection. However, it is hampered by a severe limitation as the emission lifetime of the label needs to be comparable to the correlation lifetime (tumbling time) of the biomolecule which is labelled. For proteins of moderate size this is in the order of 20–200 ns, which due to practical issues currently limits the choice of labels to the dansyl-type dyes and certain aromatics dyes. These have the significant drawback of UV/blue absorption and emission as well as an often significant solvent sensitivity. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorescent label for high molecular weight biomolecules assay based on the azadioxatriangulenium motif. The NHS ester of the long fluorescence lifetime, red emitting fluorophore: azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA-NHS) was conjugated to anti-rabbit Immunoglobulin G (antiIgG). The long fluorescence lifetime was exploited to determine the correlation time of the high molecular weight antibody and its complex with rabbit Immuniglobulin G (IgG) with steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and time-resolved methods: solution phase immuno-assay was performed following either steady-state or time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. By performing a variable temperature experiment it was determined that the binding of the ligand resulted in an increase in correlation time by more than 75 %, and a change in the steady-state anisotropy increase of 18%. The results show that the triangulenium class of dyes can be used in anisotropy assay for detecting binding events involving biomolecules of far larger size than what is possible with the other red emitting organic dyes. PMID:24058730

  8. Comparison of cell-based assays for the identification and evaluation of competitive CXCR4 inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneleen Van Hout

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is activated by its unique chemokine ligand CXCL12 and regulates many physiological and developmental processes such as hematopoietic cell trafficking. CXCR4 is also one of the main co-receptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV entry. Dysfunction of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis contributes to several human pathologies, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, inhibition of CXCR4 activation is recognized as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this regard, numerous agents modifying CXCR4 activity have been evaluated in in vitro experimental studies and pre-clinical models. Here, we evaluated a CXCL12 competition binding assay for its potential as a valuable initial screen for functional and competitive CXCR4 inhibitors. In total, 11 structurally diverse compounds were included in a side-by-side comparison of in vitro CXCR4 cell-based assays, such as CXCL12 competition binding, CXCL12-induced calcium signaling, CXCR4 internalization, CXCL12-guided cell migration and CXCR4-specific HIV-1 replication experiments. Our data indicated that agents that inhibit CXCL12 binding, i.e. the anti-CXCR4 peptide analogs T22, T140 and TC14012 and the small molecule antagonists AMD3100, AMD3465, AMD11070 and IT1t showed inhibitory activity with consistent relative potencies in all further applied CXCR4-related assays. Accordingly, agents exerting no or very weak receptor binding (i.e., CTCE-9908, WZ811, Me6TREN and gambogic acid showed no or very poor anti-CXCR4 inhibitory activity. Thus, CXCL12 competition binding studies were proven to be highly valuable as an initial screening assay and indicative for the pharmacological and functional profile of competitive CXCR4 antagonists, which will help the design of new potent CXCR4 inhibitors.

  9. Anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S D; Hviid, L

    1993-01-01

    Plasma levels of antibodies against phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin (CL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients from malaria endemic area of Sudan and The Gambia. Some Sudanese adults produced IgM antibodies against all three types...... of phospholipids (PL) during an acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. The anti-PL antibody titre returned to preinfection levels in most of the donors 30 days after the disease episode. IgG titres against PI, PC and CL were low. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM antibody titres against PI and PC were...... significantly higher in those with severe malaria than in those with mild malaria. These results show that a proportion of malaria patients produce anti-PL antibodies during infection and that titres of these antibodies are associated with the severity of disease....

  10. Effect of anti-inflamentation extracts from Korean traditional medicinal herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Mix Plant Extracts according to different extraction solvents were assessed for its cell viability and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The single plant extract was extracted with 70% ethanol(EtOH and the mix plants(C.kousa, R.multiflora, T.nucifera, M.basjoo and S.glabra were extracted with EtOH 30%, 70%; Butylene Glycol(BG 30%, 70%; Propylene Glycol(PG 30%, 70%; Distilled Water(D.W. Cell viability was measured using the Micro culture tetrazolium (MTT assay method and Human fibroblast cells, CCD 1102 KERTr were used. The plant extracts with the maximum concentration that none toxic to the cells were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using lipoxygenase inhibition assay method. A dose response curve was plotted to determine the IC50 values. Results showed that, at the 5 kinds of single plant extracts by 70% EtOH extraction solvent, it showed the IC50 was 280ug/ml of S1, 370ug/ml of S2, 380ug/ml of S3, 170ug/ml of S4 and 190ug/ml of S5. At the mix plant extracts by 7 kinds of extraction solvents (70%, 30% EtOH; 70%, 30% BG; 70%, 30% PG; D.W, it showed the IC50 was 140ug/ml of M E70, 140ug/ml of M E30, 120ug/ml of M BG70, 110ug/ml of M BG30, 120ug/ml of M PG70, 136ug/ml of M PG30 and 120ug/ml of M D.W. From the results, it is concluded that when these five plants mixed before extraction, it will extract more active ingredients with anti-inflammatory effects. Further study we will analyzing plants effective single compound using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiling and progressing the experiments in vivo.

  11. Reporter gene assay for the quantification of the activity and neutralizing antibody response to TNFα antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemand, Christophe; Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Steenholdt, Casper

    2011-01-01

    A cell-based assay has been developed for the quantification of the activity of TNFα antagonists based on human erythroleukemic K562 cells transfected with a NFκB regulated firefly luciferase reporter-gene construct. Both drug activity and anti-drug neutralizing antibodies can be quantified...... with a high degree of precision within 2h, and without interference from cytokines and other factors known to activate NFκB. The assay cells also contain the Renilla luciferase reporter gene under the control of a constitutive promoter that allows TNFα-induced firefly luciferase activity to be normalized...... relative to Renilla luciferase expression. Thus, results are independent of cell number or differences in cell viability, resulting in intra and inter assay coefficients of variation of 10% or less. Normalization of results relative to the expression of an internal standard also provides a means...

  12. Endothelial cell-based methods for the detection of cyanobacterial anti-inflammatory and wound-healing promoting metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Christoph; Kopecky, Jiri; Pflueger, Maren; Hundsberger, Harald; Entler, Barbara; Kleber, Christoph; Atzler, Josef; Hrouzek, Pavel; Stys, Dalibor; Lukesova, Alena; Schuett, Wolfgang; Lucas, Rudolf

    2007-12-01

    Acute lung injury is accompanied by an increased endothelial chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression, which may result in an extensive neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, a destruction of the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium may result in permeability edema. As such, the search for novel anti-inflammatory substances, able to downregulate these parameters as well as the tissue damage holds therapeutic promise. We therefore describe here the use of human endothelial cell-based in vitro assays for the detection of anti-inflammatory and wound-healing metabolites from cyanobacteria.

  13. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyu Phyu Khine Zar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fresh loquat leaves contain several kinds of flavonoids and have been reported to have preventive effects against some human diseases such as diabetes, coughs and ulcers,. Recently, fresh loquat leaves in Japan were processed to a beverage, called loquat tea, after the fresh leaves are roasted at 350C for 30 minutes. However, the scientific evidence supporting the functions of these processed leaves is still minimal. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roasted loquat tea extract (LTE in vitro and in culture cells. Methods: Bioactive fractions of LTE were separated by column chromatograph. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ROS assay. Pro-inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined by Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. Chemical quantification and characterization were analyzed by HPLC, FR-IR, and NMR. Phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Results: The results showed that loquat tea extract (LTE possessed stronger DPPH scavenging activity than fresh. Cellular data revealed that LTE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and further suppressed the production of COX-2 and PGE2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Chemical quantification and characterization data indicated that LTE contained new bioactive phenolic components that were produced from the roasting processes of fresh loquat leaves. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(11:447-461 Page 448 of 461 Conclusions: Loquat tea made from roasted loquat leaves contained new bioactive phenolic compounds that contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

  14. Different activities of Schinus areira L.: anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davicino, R; Mattar, A; Casali, Y; Anesini, C; Micalizzi, B

    2010-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory drugs possess many serious side effects at doses commonly prescribed. It is really important to discover novel regulators of inflammation from natural sources with minimal adverse effects. Schinus areira L. is a plant native from South America and is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory herb. For this study, the activity of aqueous extracts on inflammation and the effect on superoxide anion production in mice macrophages were assayed. Aqueous extracts were prepared by soaking herbs in cold water (cold extract), boiling water (infusion), and simmering water (decoction). Cold extract possess an anti-inflammatory activity. Decoction and infusion showed pro-inflammatory activity. Cold extract increased the production of superoxide anion. It has been proposed to use diverse methods to obtain extracts of S. areira L. with different effects. Cold extract, decoction, and infusion could be utilized as extracts or as pharmacological preparations for topical application.

  15. Synthetic peptides for efficient discrimination of anti-enterovirus antibodies at the serotype level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routsias, John G; Mavrouli, Maria D; Antonaki, Georgia; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2014-08-01

    Enteroviruses are important human pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases from minor common colds to fatal myocarditis. However, certain disease syndromes are caused by one or few serotypes. Serotype identification is difficult due to the laborious neutralization tests that lack of sensitivity, while in commercial ELISAs homotypic antibodies' activities are largely masked by the recognition of genera-specific epitopes by heterotypic antibodies. In the present study homotypic assays were developed with the ability to discriminate different enterovirus serotypes. Seventy-three children sera, positive for IgM antibodies against enterovirus genus and 49 healthy children were examined for the presence of antibodies against 14 synthetic peptides derived from a non-conserved region of the VP1 protein of coxsackieviruses B2, B3, B4, B5, A9, A16, A24, echoviruses 6, 7, 9, 11, 30, enterovirus 71 and parechovirus 1. 50% of the anti-enterovirus IgM positive sera (>150 BU) reacted with the peptides with the majority of them to preferentially recognize one of them, supporting the homotypic nature of our assay. Inhibition studies yielded homologous inhibition rates 67-95% suggesting that specific peptide recognition actually occurred. The diagnostic value of our assay was tested in blood samples drawn over a 1.5-year period from a 5-year old patient. The anti-enterovirus reactivity was clearly attributed to echovirus serotype 11. The IgM/IgG antibody ratio was reversed 4 months later and subsequently IgM antibodies dropped below the cutoff point. In this paper we demonstrate that our assay can be used to discriminate between antibodies targeting different enterovirus serotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  17. Measurement of anti-Ascaris IgE antibody levels in tropical allergic patients, using modified ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, N R; Pérez, M; López, R I; Turner, K J

    1987-01-01

    The two most common situations in which the determination of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is of interest are allergic disease and helminthic infection. This is of particular importance in the tropical environment, as helminthiasis possibly influences the expression of allergic reactivity. Because of the low absolute serum levels of IgE, solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is conventionally used for its measurement. The radioactive and toxic volatile reagents required restricted application of such assays in the tropical situation. We evaluated a nitrocellulose-based, avidin biotin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgE, in which monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies were employed. Excellent correlations were obtained between ELISA and RIA for both total and allergen-specific IgE measurement. The ELISA was then applied to determine the levels of anti-Ascaris antibodies in selected allergic patients, in whom no cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity reactions were demonstrated against common environmental allergens such as house dust, but who had positive skin reactions to Ascaris extract. When compared with non-allergic subjects who had equivalent cutaneous reactivity, no significant differences were found in total IgE levels, house-dust specific IgE levels or non-reaginic anti-Ascaris antibody levels. However, higher levels of IgE antibody against the parasite were detected in the allergic subjects. This observation raises the question of the possible role of Ascaris infection in the stimulation of allergic reactions in such patients. We describe an immunoenzymatic assay for total and specific IgE antibody that is better adapted to the tropical situation than the commonly used radioimmunoassays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Intra-laboratory validation of a human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay for testing angiogenesis modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jertta-Riina Sarkanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis e.g. pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using 6 reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation, batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests.

  19. Structure/activity of Pt{sup II}/N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea complexes: Anti-tumor and anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plutín, Ana M.; Alvarez, Anislay; Mocelo, Raúl; Ramos, Raúl; Sánchez, Osmar C. [Laboratorio de Síntesis Orgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Castellano, Euardo E. [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Monize M. da; Villarreal, Wilmer; Colina-Vegas, Legna; Batista, Alzir A. [Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Pavan, Fernando R., E-mail: anap@fq.uh.cu, E-mail: daab@ufscar.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas

    2018-05-01

    The syntheses, characterization, cytotoxicity against tumor cells and anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity assays of Pt{sup II}/PPh{sub 3}/N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthioureas complexes with general formulae [Pt(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(L)]PF{sub 6}, PPh{sub 3} = triphenylphosphine; L = N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea, are here reported. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ({sup 1} H, {sup 13}C{1 H} and {sup 31}P{"1 H}) spectroscopy. The {sup 31}P{"1 H} NMR data are consistent with the presence of two PPh{sup 3} ligands cis to each other position, and one N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea coordinated to the metal through O and S, in a chelate form. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography, forming distorted square-planar structures. The complexes were tested in human cell lines carcinomas and also screened with respect to their anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity (H37RvATCC 27294). It was found that complexes with N,N-disubstituted-N'-acylthiourea containing open and small chains as R2 groups show higher cytotoxic and higher anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity than those containing rings in this position. (author)

  20. Neutralization Assay for Zika and Dengue Viruses by Use of Real-Time-PCR-Based Endpoint Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Heather L; Tran, Thomas; Druce, Julian; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Catton, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The global spread and infective complications of Zika virus (ZKV) and dengue virus (DENV) have made them flaviviruses of public health concern. Serological diagnosis can be challenging due to antibody cross-reactivity, particularly in secondary flavivirus infections or when there is a history of flavivirus vaccination. The virus neutralization assay is considered to be the most specific assay for measurement of anti-flavivirus antibodies. This study describes an assay where the neutralization endpoint is measured by real-time PCR, providing results within 72 h. It demonstrated 100% sensitivity (24/24 ZKV and 15/15 DENV) and 100% specificity (11/11 specimens) when testing well-characterized sera. In addition, the assay was able to determine the correct DENV serotype in 91.7% of cases. The high sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR neutralization assay makes it suitable to use as a confirmatory test for sera that are reactive in commercial IgM/IgG enzyme immunoassays. Results are objective and the PCR-based measurement of the neutralization endpoint lends itself to automation so that throughput may be increased in times of high demand. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. In vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activities of Panduratin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew-Li Lai

    Full Text Available Targeting angiogenesis has emerged as an attractive and promising strategy in anti-cancer therapeutic development. The present study investigates the anti-angiogenic potential of Panduratin A (PA, a natural chalcone isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda by using both in vitro and in vivo assays.PA exerted selective cytotoxicity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with IC(50 value of 6.91 ± 0.85 µM when compared to human normal fibroblast and normal liver epithelial cells. Assessment of the growth kinetics by cell impedance-based Real-Time Cell Analyzer showed that PA induced both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on HUVECs, depending on the concentration used. Results also showed that PA suppressed VEGF-induced survival and proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration, invasion, and morphogenesis or tube formation demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by PA. PA also suppressed matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 secretion and attenuated its activation to intermediate and active MMP-2. In addition, PA suppressed F-actin stress fiber formation to prevent migration of the endothelial cells. More importantly, anti-angiogenic potential of PA was also evidenced in two in vivo models. PA inhibited neo-vessels formation in murine Matrigel plugs, and angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos.Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive anti-angiogenic properties of PA, both in vitro and in vivo. This report thus reveals another biological activity of PA in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, suggestive of PA's potential for development as an anti-angiogenic agent for cancer therapy.

  2. In vitro assay for the anti-Brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-07-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50-400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study.

  3. In vitro assay for the anti-brucella activity of medicinal plants against tetracycline-resistant Brucella melitensis *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Darabpour, Esmaeil; Gholipour, Mahnaz; Seyyed Nejad, Seyyed Mansour

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonosis caused by four species of brucella, has a high morbidity. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of brucellosis in both human and small ruminants. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, medicinal plants are valuable resources for new agents against antibiotic-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of native plants for brucellosis treatment. For this purpose, the anti-brucella activities of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, Plantago ovata, Cordia myxa, and Crocus sativus were assessed. The activity against a resistant Br. melitensis strain was determined by disc diffusion method at various concentrations from 50–400 mg/ml. Antibiotic discs were also used as a control. Among the evaluated herbs, six plant (Salvia sclarea, Oliveria decumbens, Ferulago angulata, Vitex pseudo-negundo, Teucrium polium, and Crocus sativus) showed anti-brucella activity. Oliveria decumbens was chosen as the most effective plant for further studies. A tested isolate exhibited resistance to tetracycline, nafcillin, oxacillin, methicillin, and colistin. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for Oliveria decumbens against resistant Br. melitensis were the same (5 mg/ml), and for gentamicin they were both 2 mg/ml. Time-kill kinetics for a methanolic extract of Oliveria decumbens was 7 h whereas for an ethanolic extract it was 28 h. Also, Oliveria decumbens extracts showed a synergistic effect in combination with doxycycline and tetracycline. In general, the similar values of MIC and MBC for Oliveria decumbens suggest that these extracts could act as bactericidal agents against Br. melitensis. In addition to Oliveria decumbens, Crocus sativus and Salvia sclarea also had good anti-brucella activity and these should be considered for further study. PMID:20593515

  4. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale (Roscoe ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ethanolic extract from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 0.0024 to > 20 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Anti-biofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as the test organisms. Ethanolic extract showed the best result on Proteus mirabilis biofilm where biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC50 was 19 mg/ml.

  5. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of statins in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Snophia; Narayana, Satya; Jayakumar, P; Sudhakar, Uma; Pramod, V

    2013-01-01

    Statins are the group of lipid-lowering drugs commonly used to control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effect by blocking the intermediate metabolites of the mevalonate pathway. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin medication in chronic periodontitis patients. Thirty patients of age group between 40 and 60 years were selected from the outpatient pool of Department of Periodontics, Thaimoogambigai Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. Thirty patients selected were grouped into two groups, Group-I consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and on statin medication and Group-II consists of patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters were recorded and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-1β using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean GCF IL-1β levels in generalized chronic periodontitis patients who are on statin medication (Group-I) were lower than the generalized chronic periodontitis patients without statin medication (Group-II). Reduction of GCF IL-1β levels in statin users indicate that statins have anti-inflammatory effect on periodontal disease.

  6. Antifungal and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Acetone Lichen Extracts against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Millot

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal coloniser of the human gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen, especially thanks to its capacity to form biofilms. This lifestyle is frequently involved in infections and increases the yeast resistance to antimicrobials and immune defenses. In this context, 38 lichen acetone extracts have been prepared and evaluated for their activity against C. albicans planktonic and sessile cells. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts (MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method. Anti-biofilm activity was evaluated using tetrazolium salt (XTT assay as the ability to inhibit the maturation phase (anti-maturation or to eradicate a preformed 24 h old biofilm (anti-biofilm. While none of the extracts were active against planktonic cells, biofilm maturation was limited by 11 of the tested extracts. Seven extracts displayed both anti-maturation and anti-biofilm activities (half maximal inhibitory concentrations IC50_mat and IC50_biof ≤ 100 µg/mL; Evernia prunastri and Ramalina fastigiata were the most promising lichens (IC50_mat < 4 µg/mL and IC50_biof < 10 µg/mL. Chemical profiles of the active extracts performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC have been analyzed. Depsides, which were present in large amounts in the most active extracts, could be involved in anti-biofilm activities. This work confirmed that lichens represent a reservoir of compounds with anti-biofilm potential.

  7. In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer of extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawattananutai, Patsorn; Itharat, Arunporn; Ruangnoo, Srisopa

    2014-08-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are a vegetable, which is used as a healthy sour soup for protection against chronic diseases in Thai traditional medicine. To investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa leave extracts from diferent extraction methods. Fresh and dry Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were extracted by various methods such as maceration with 95% and 50% ethanol, squeeze, and boiling with water or decoction. All extracts were testedfor antioxidant activity by using DPPH radical scavenging assay, anti-inflammatory activity by determination on inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production on RAW264. 7 cell. Cytotoxic activity also tested against human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Total phenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 34.51±2.62 μg/ml and had the highest phenolic content (57.00±3.73 mg GAE/g). HSDE95 also showed potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cell line with an IC50 of 8.58±0.68 μg/ml whereas HSDE95 and all of extracts ofHibiscus sabdariffa leaves had no anti-inflammatory activity. The obtained results revealed that HSDE95 extract showedpotent cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells but low antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This extract should be further isolated as active compounds against prostate cancer.

  8. [High-throughput genotyping multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for assisting diagnosis in a case of anti-Di(a)-induced severe hemolytic disease of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanli; Mo, Chunyan; Wei, Ling; Zhou, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Runqing; Zhao, Yang; Luo, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Guangping

    2012-02-01

    To report a rare case of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) with kernicterus caused by anti-Di(a) diagnosed using high-throughput genotyping multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Conventional serological methods were used to detect the antibodies related with HDN. The genotypes of more than 40 red blood cell antigens for the newborn and her parents were obtained using the high-throughput MLPA assay. The antibody titers were tested using a standard serological method. The unknown antibody against the low-frequency antigens was predicted based on the primary serological tests. The genotyping results for more than 40 red blood cell antigens of the newborn and her parents showed incompatible antigens of MNS and Diego blood group system, indicating the existence of anti-N or anti-Di(a). Further serological tests confirmed anti-Di(a) existence in the plasma of the newborn and her mother. The titer of anti-Di(a) in the mother's plasma was 1:32. Severe HDN including kernicterus can result from anti-Di(a). High-throughput genotyping MLPA assay can help type some rare antigens in complicated cases. The reagent red cell panels including Di(a)-positive cells are necessary in routine antibody screening test in Chinese population.

  9. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Doukkali, Zouhra; Bouidida, El Houcine; Touati, Driss; Nejjari, Rachid; El Guessabi, Lahcen; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2017-07-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO) from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%), camphor (22.40%) and α-pinene (7.16%), with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD 50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC 50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  10. Chemical composition, acute toxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Moroccan Tetraclinis articulata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydro-distilled essential oil (EO from the leaves of the western Mediterranean and Moroccan endemic plant Tetraclinis articulata was analyzed by GC/MS and examined for its acute toxicity on mice, in order to establish the safe doses. Furthermore, the anti-Inflammatory activity was evaluated based on carrageenan and trauma induced rats paw edema and the antioxidant potential has been investigated using different methods including DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The major identified compounds in GC/MS analysis were bornyl acetate (26.81%, camphor (22.40% and α-pinene (7.16%, with 25 other minor constituents. No mortalities in acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of T. articulata essential oil is highest than 5 g/kg. In the anti-inflammatory test based on chemical and mechanical induced trauma, the EO demonstrated an effective reduce swelling by 64.71 ± 9.38% and 69.09 ± 6.02% respectively obtained 6 h after administration at the dose of 200 mg/kg when compared to the control groups. Moreover in the antioxidant testing battery, T. articulata essential oil showed a promising scavenging effect measured by DPPH, TEAC and ferric-reducing power assays with IC50 values of 12.05 ± 0.24 mg/mL, 8.90 ± 0.17 mg/mL and 0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively. These results suggest that, the EO from the leaves of T. articulata constitutes a valuable source of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant metabolites. These findings argue for the possible integration of this oil in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  11. Anti-G with concomitant anti-C and anti-D: A case report in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Rabeya; Mustafa, Ahmad Nasirudin; Ho, Siew-Ling; Tang, Yee-Loong; Leong, Chooi-Fun

    2017-01-01

    The G antigen of Rh blood group system is present in almost all D-positive or C-positive red cells but absent from red cells lacking D and C antigens. The differentiation of anti-D and anti-C from anti-G is not necessary for routine transfusion; however, during pregnancy, it is important because anti-G can masquerade as anti-D and anti-C with initial antibody testing. The false presence of anti-D will exclude the patient from receiving anti-D immunoglobulin (RhIG) when t