WorldWideScience

Sample records for anti-icing

  1. Robust Anti-Icing Performance of a Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gong, Qihua; Zhan, Shihui; Jiang, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2016-09-01

    A material with superhydrophobic and anti-ice/de-icing properties, which has a micro-/nanostructured surface, is produced by a straightforward method. This material comprises a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructure with ZnO nanohairs and shows excellent water and ice repellency even at low temperatures (-20 °C) and relatively high humidity (90%) for over three months. These results are expected to be helpful for designing smart, non-wetting materials that can be adapted to low-temperature environments for the development of anti-icing systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Superhydrophilic Polyelectrolyte Brush Layers with Imparted Anti-Icing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Järn, Mikael; Shimizu, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    . In general, superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brushes exhibit better anti-icing property at -10 °C compared to partially hydrophobic brushes such as poly(methyl methacrylate) and surfactant exchanged polyelectrolyte brushes. The data are interpreted using the concept of a quasi liquid layer (QLL...

  3. Aircraft anti-ice system: Evaluation of system performance with a new time dependent mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilio, Claudio; Patricelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The anti-ice systems are critical for airplane safety, but are also strongly affecting the fuel consumption of the aircraft. A complete model of this system allows the designers to investigate all possible combination of external parameters and improve the design of current anti-ice systems. The dynamic model of an anti-ice system is presented and the results of the model are validated thanks to a series of experimental tests. The model has been used to analyze the behavior of an anti-ice system at extreme high bleed air temperature which are typical of new generation aircraft engines. An innovative architecture for anti-ice system is studied and the benefits on aircraft fuel consumption for a standard day mission are shown. -- Highlights: • A detailed mathematical model of an anti-ice valves has been created. • Experimental results confirm the goodness of the developed model. • Instability of the valves has been studied. • A new architecture for the anti-ice systems is proposed and the impacts on the aircraft fuel consumption are analyzed

  4. Biocidal properties of anti-icing additives for aircraft fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neihof, R A; Bailey, C A

    1978-04-01

    The biocidal and biostatic activities of seven glycol monoalkyl ether compounds were evaluated as part of an effort to find an improved anti-icing additive for jet aircraft fuel. Typical fuel contaminants, Cladosporium resinae, Gliomastix sp., Candida sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture containing sulfate-reducing bacteria were used as assay organisms. Studies were carried out over 3 to 4 months in two-phase systems containing jet fuel and aqueous media. Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monomethyl ether, triethylene glycol monoethyl ether, and 2-methoxyethanol were generally biocidal in aqueous concentrations of 10 to 17% for all organisms except Gliomastix, which required 25% or more. 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol were biocidal at progressively lower concentrations down to 1 to 2% for 2-butoxyethanol. The enhanced antimicrobial activity of these three compounds was attributed to cytoplasmic membrane damage because of the correlation between surface tension measurements and lytic activity with P. aeruginosa cells. The mechanism of action of the less active compounds appeared to be due to osmotic (dehydrating) effects. When all requirements are taken into account, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether appears to be the most promising replacement for the currently used additive, 2-methoxyethanol.

  5. Bio-based renewable additives for anti-icing applications (phase one).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-04

    The performance and impacts of several bio-based anti-icers along with a traditional chloride-based anti-icer (salt brine) were evaluated. : A statistical design of experiments (uniform design) was employed for developing anti-icing liquids consistin...

  6. Anti-icing/frosting and self-cleaning performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Libang; Yan, Zhongna; Shi, Xueting; Sultonzoda, Firdavs

    2018-02-01

    Ice formation and frost deposition on cryogenic equipment and systems can result in serious problems and huge economic loss. Hence, it is quite necessary to develop new materials to prevent icing and frosting on cold surfaces in engineering fields. Here, a superhydrophobic aluminum alloy with enhanced anti-frosting, anti-icing, and self-cleaning performance has been developed by a facile one-step method. The anti-frosting/icing performance of superhydrophobic aluminum alloys is confirmed by frosting/icing time delay, consolidating and freezing temperature reduction, and lower amount of frost/ice adhesion. Meanwhile, the excellent self-cleaning performance is authenticated by the fact that simulated pollution particles can be cleaned out by rolling water droplets completely. Finally, based on the classical nucleation theory, anti-icing and anti-frosting mechanisms of the superhydrophobic aluminum alloys are deduced. Results show that grounded on "air cushion" and "heat insulation" effect, a larger nucleation barrier and a lower crystal growth rate can be observed, which, hence, inhibit ice formation and frost deposition. It can be concluded that preparing superhydrophobic surfaces would be an effective strategy for improving anti-icing, anti-frosting, and self-cleaning performance of aluminum alloys.

  7. Fabrication of Self-Cleaning and Anti-Icing Durable Surface on Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhiping; Liao, Ruijin; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Xuetong; Zhuang, Aoyun; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Ice accumulation on insulators affected the safety of power system and may inflict serious consequences such as insulator flashover accidents and power failure. This article reported a simple method to prepare anti-icing polydimethylsiloxane superhydrophobic surface on glass by utilizing nano-particle filling method. The effect of concentration of silica nanoparticles on superhydrophobicity of the samples was investigated. The wettability, surface morphology and anti-icing property of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface were characterized by corresponding methods. Results show that the as-prepared surface with addition amount of 7 g silica nanoparticles exhibited self-cleaning property and excellent superhydrophobicity with a contact angle of 165.7 ± 2.4° and a sliding angle of 3.8°. It was found that the ice formation was delayed for 29 min at −5 °C. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface showed superhydrophobicity in the pH range of 1–13 and exhibited excellent drop impact stability. The as-prepared superhydrophobic surface may be suitable for applications in cold regions owing to its flexibility, durability and anti-icing property.

  8. Anti-icing properties of superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen; Ou, Junfei; Li, Changquan; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2016-01-01

    We present the excellent anti-icing performance for a superhydrophobic coating surface based on ZnO/polydimethylsiloxane (ZnO/PDMS) composite. The superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS coating surface was prepared by a facile solution mixing, drop coating, room-temperature curing and surface abrading procedure. The superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS composite coating possesses a water contact angle of 159.5° and a water sliding angle of 8.3° at room temperature (5 °C). The anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic coating were investigated by continuously dropping cold-water droplets (about 0 °C) onto the pre-cooled surface using a home-made apparatus. The sample was placed at different tilting angle (0° and 10°) and pre-cooled to various temperatures (-5, -10 and -15 °C) prior to measure. The pure Al surface was also studied for comparison. It was found that icing accretion on the surface could be reduced apparently because the water droplets merged together and slid away from the superhydrophobic surface at all of the measuring temperatures when the surface is horizontally placed. In addition, water droplet slid away completely from the superhydrophobic surface at -5 and -10 °C when the surface is tilted at 10°, which demonstrates its excellent anti-icing properties at these temperatures. When the temperature decreased to -15 °C, though ice accretion on the tilted superhydrophobic coating surface could not be avoided absolutely, the amount of ice formed on the surface is very small, which indicated that the coating surface with superhydrophobicity could significantly reduce ice accumulation on the surface at very low temperature (-15 °C). Importantly, the sample is also stable against repeated icing/deicing cycles. More meaningfully, once the superhydrophobic surface is damaged, it can be repaired easily and rapidly.

  9. Research progress of anti-icing/deicing technologies for polar ships and offshore platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polar regions present adverse circumstances of high humidity and strong air-sea exchange. As such, the surfaces of ships and platforms (oil exploiting and drilling platforms serving in polar regions can easily be frozen by ice accretion, which not only affects the operation of the equipment but also threatens safety. This paper summarizes the status of the anti-icing/deicing technologies of both China and abroad for polar ships and offshore platforms, and introduces the various effects of ice accretion on polar ships and offshore platforms, and the resulting safety impacts. It then reviews existing anti-icing/deicing technologies and methods of both China and abroad, including such active deicing methods as electric heating, infrared heating and ultrasonic guided wave deicing, as well as such passive deicing methods as super hydrophobic coating, sacrificial coating, aqueous lubricating layer coating and low cross-link density (with interfacial slippage coating, summarizes their applicability to polar ships and offshore platforms, and finally discusses their advantages/disadvantages.

  10. Scaling of Lift Degradation Due to Anti-Icing Fluids Based Upon the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Riley, James T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the FAA has worked with Transport Canada, National Research Council Canada (NRC) and APS Aviation, Inc. to develop allowance times for aircraft operations in ice-pellet precipitation. These allowance times are critical to ensure safety and efficient operation of commercial and cargo flights. Wind-tunnel testing with uncontaminated anti-icing fluids and fluids contaminated with simulated ice pellets had been carried out at the NRC Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel (PIWT) to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects. The percent lift loss on the thin, high-performance wing model tested in the PIWT was determined at 8 angle of attack and used as one of the evaluation criteria in determining the allowance times. Because it was unclear as to how performance degradations measured on this model were relevant to an actual airplane configuration, some means of interpreting the wing model lift loss was deemed necessary. This paper describes how the lift loss was related to the loss in maximum lift of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane through the Aerodynamic Acceptance Test (AAT) performed for fluids qualification. A loss in maximum lift coefficient of 5.24 percent on the B737-200ADV airplane (which was adopted as the threshold in the AAT) corresponds to a lift loss of 7.3 percent on the PIWT model at 8 angle of attack. There is significant scatter in the data used to develop the correlation related to varying effects of the anti-icing fluids that were tested and other factors. A statistical analysis indicated the upper limit of lift loss on the PIWT model was 9.2 percent. Therefore, for cases resulting in PIWT model lift loss from 7.3 to 9.2 percent, extra scrutiny of the visual observations is required in evaluating fluid performance with contamination.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of long-term anti-icing performance and moisture susceptibility of chloride-based asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to investigate the long-term anti-icing performance and moisture susceptibility of chloride-based asphalt mixture. Two experiments (the natural and accelerated dissolving-out methods were conducted on the Marshall samples and their salt releasing amount were determined based on the density measurement of the aqueous solution with a hydrometer. In addition, the impact of anti-icing agents (MFL on the mixture water stability was also investigated. Results show that a similar tendency in both methods was observed and the salt dissolution history was generally divided into three phases. Most notably, compared with the natural dissolving-out experiment the accelerated test was more effective and time-saving. Moreover, asphalt concrete with MFL performed poorer water damage resistance than the conventional asphalt concrete and the residual stability of the former declined more dramatically than the later. Finally, based on the 60 °C dissolving-out experiment, a model to predict the effective working time of the anti-icing asphalt pavement was proposed subsequently. Keywords: Asphalt mixture, Chloride, Long-term anti-icing performance, Moisture susceptibility

  12. Screening of plant resources with anti-ice nucleation activity for frost damage prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shingo; Fukuda, Satoshi; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Arakawa, Keita

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that some polyphenols have anti-ice nucleation activity (anti-INA) against ice-nucleating bacteria that contribute to frost damage. In the present study, leaf disk freezing assay, a test of in vitro application to plant leaves, was performed for the screening of anti-INA, which inhibits the ice nucleation activity of an ice-nucleating bacterium Erwinia ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. The application of polyphenols with anti-INA, kaempferol 7-O-β-glucoside and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, to the leaf disk freezing assay by cooling at -4--6 °C for 3 h, revealed that both the compounds showed anti-INAs against E. ananas in water droplets on the leaf surfaces. Further, this assay also revealed that the extracts of five plant leaves showed high anti-INA against E. ananas in water droplets on leaf surfaces, indicating that they are the candidate resources to protect crops from frost damage.

  13. Hydrophobic durability characteristics of butterfly wing surface after freezing cycles towards the design of nature inspired anti-icing surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingkun Chen

    Full Text Available The hydrophobicity and anti-icing performance of the surfaces of some artificial hydrophobic coatings degraded after several icing and de-icing cycles. In this paper, the frost formation on the surfaces of butterfly wings from ten different species was observed, and the contact angles were measured after 0 to 6 frosting/defrosting cycles. The results show that no obvious changes in contact angle for the butterfly wing specimens were not obvious during the frosting/defrosting process. Further, the conclusion was inferred that the topography of the butterfly wing surface forms a special space structure which has a larger space inside that can accommodate more frozen droplets; this behavior prevents destruction of the structure. The findings of this study may provide a basis and new concepts for the design of novel industrially important surfaces to inhibit frost/ice growth, such as durable anti-icing coatings, which may decrease or prevent the socio-economic loss.

  14. Hydrophobic durability characteristics of butterfly wing surface after freezing cycles towards the design of nature inspired anti-icing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingkun; Cong, Qian; Qi, Yingchun; Jin, Jingfu; Choy, Kwang-Leong

    2018-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and anti-icing performance of the surfaces of some artificial hydrophobic coatings degraded after several icing and de-icing cycles. In this paper, the frost formation on the surfaces of butterfly wings from ten different species was observed, and the contact angles were measured after 0 to 6 frosting/defrosting cycles. The results show that no obvious changes in contact angle for the butterfly wing specimens were not obvious during the frosting/defrosting process. Further, the conclusion was inferred that the topography of the butterfly wing surface forms a special space structure which has a larger space inside that can accommodate more frozen droplets; this behavior prevents destruction of the structure. The findings of this study may provide a basis and new concepts for the design of novel industrially important surfaces to inhibit frost/ice growth, such as durable anti-icing coatings, which may decrease or prevent the socio-economic loss.

  15. Prediction of ice accretion and anti-icing heating power on wind turbine blades using standard commercial software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, Fernando; Reggio, Marcelo; Ilinca, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    An approach to numerically simulate ice accretion on 2D sections of a wind turbine blade is presented. The method uses standard commercial ANSYS-Fluent and Matlab tools. The Euler-Euler formulation is used to calculate the water impingement on the airfoil, and a UDF (Used Defined Function) has been devised to turn the airfoil's solid wall into a permeable boundary. Mayer's thermodynamic model is implemented in Matlab for computing ice thickness and for updating the airfoil contour. A journal file is executed to systematize the procedure: meshing, droplet trajectory calculation, thermodynamic model application for computing ice accretion, and the updating of airfoil contours. The proposed ice prediction strategy has been validated using iced airfoil contours obtained experimentally in the AMIL refrigerated wind tunnel (Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory). Finally, a numerical prediction method has been generated for anti-icing assessment, and its results compared with data obtained in this laboratory. - Highlights: • A methodology for ice accretion prediction using commercial software is proposed. • Euler model gives better prediction of airfoil water collection with detached flow. • A source term is used to change from a solid wall to a permeable wall in Fluent. • Energy needed for ice-accretion mitigation system is predicted.

  16. SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW TASKS IN AERODYNAMICS IN THE PROCESS OF CERTIFICATION OF AIRPLANCE OF TRASPORT CATEGORY – ANTI-ICE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2014-01-01

    There are considered new tasks in aerodynamics in the process of certification of airplanes of transport category. The procedure for optimal location of ice detector at the transonic airplane and means of compliance with certification requirements for automatic engagement of anti-ice protection.

  17. SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW TASKS IN AERODYNAMICS IN THE PROCESS OF CERTIFICATION OF AIRPLANCE OF TRASPORT CATEGORY – ANTI-ICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are considered new tasks in aerodynamics in the process of certification of airplanes of transport category. The procedure for optimal location of ice detector at the transonic airplane and means of compliance with certification requirements for automatic engagement of anti-ice protection.

  18. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kunquan, E-mail: likunquan1987@gmail.com; Zeng, Xingrong, E-mail: psxrzeng@gmail.com; Li, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqli1979@gmail.com; Lai, Xuejun, E-mail: msxjlai@scut.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic iron surfaces were prepared by etching and replacement method. • The fabrication process was simple, time-saving and inexpensive. • Galvanic replacement method was more favorable to create roughness on iron surface. • The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties. - Abstract: Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO{sub 3} concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for

  19. A study on the fabrication of superhydrophobic iron surfaces by chemical etching and galvanic replacement methods and their anti-icing properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Zeng, Xingrong; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical structures on iron surfaces were constructed by means of chemical etching by hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution or the galvanic replacement by silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were successfully prepared by subsequent hydrophobic modification with stearic acid. The superhydrophobic iron surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and water contact angle (WCA). The effects of reactive concentration and time on the microstructure and the wetting behavior were investigated. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic iron surfaces were also studied. The FTIR study showed that the stearic acid was chemically bonded onto the iron surface. With the HCl concentration increase from 4 mol/L to 8 mol/L, the iron surface became rougher with a WCA ranging from 127° to 152°. The AgNO3 concentration had little effect on the wetting behavior, but a high AgNO3 concentration caused Ag particle aggregates to transform from flower-like formations into dendritic crystals, owing to the preferential growth direction of the Ag particles. Compared with the etching method, the galvanic replacement method on the iron surface more favorably created roughness required for achieving superhydrophobicity. The superhydrophobic iron surface showed excellent anti-icing properties in comparison with the untreated iron. The icing time of water droplets on the superhydrophobic surface was delayed to 500 s, which was longer than that of 295 s for untreated iron. Meanwhile, the superhydrophobic iron surface maintained superhydrophobicity after 10 icing and de-icing cycles in cold conditions.

  20. Fast and low-cost method to fabricate large-area superhydrophobic surface on steel substrate with anticorrosion and anti-icing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com; Sun, Qinghe; Zhu, Wei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-07-15

    A facile and quick fabrication method was proposed to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces on iron substrate by chemical immersion and subsequent stearic acid modification. The association between wettability and surface morphology was studied through altering the copper ion concentration and immersion time. Surface tension instrument, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical workstation were used to characterize the wettability, physical morphology, chemical composition, and corrosion resistance ability of the prepared film. Results showed that both the rough micro/nanostructures and low surface energy material play critical roles in surface wettability. The superhydrophobic film achieved a better anticorrosion property compared to barrier iron by analysis of open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization curves, and Nyquist plots. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface showed excellent performance of acid and alkali resistance, anti-icing, and self-cleaning through a series of environmental tests. This study provides a valid method for quick-preparation of the stable superhydrophobic surfaces, which has a promising application in steel buildings and facilities.

  1. Experimental study of anti-icing coatings' use on wind turbine blades; Etudes experimentale de l'utilisation de revetements a caractere glaciophobe sur les pales d'eolienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adomou, M.; Fortin, G.; Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Anti-Icing Materials International Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    Ice accumulation on wind turbine blades can result in energy production losses, mechanical overloads, and ice shedding. The de-icing systems which are currently used are energy intensive. This poster reported on a study that investigated the use of ice-phobic coatings as a means of protecting wind turbines during cold weather. The study examined the behaviour of various coatings on wind turbine blades under icing conditions and investigated the feasibility of reducing the surface temperature of heated blades with the addition of ice-phobic or hydrophobic coatings. The performance of the thermal systems combined with the coatings was also investigated. The coatings included a polyurethane plastic film; a silicone-epoxy composite; a fluorinated resin; and a fluoroethane compound. The coatings were applied to a NACA airfoil placed in an icing wind tunnel. Various ice accumulation regimes, wind speeds, and temperatures were studied. The coatings proved to be effective against run-back effects during anti-icing operations, and may increase production. tabs., figs.

  2. Review of Anti-Icing/Ice Release Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-29

    walkways, and superstructure which the US Navy has shown 1 for a Green Arctic Patrol Vessel can be supplied by waste heat recovery from engine...adhesion strength than the ice does, thus facilitating shear. It has been found that such treatments depend on the chemical nature and condition of...application. • Ablative or Depletion Coatings: where the coating fails cohesively as ice is sheared away, or where low surface energy or oily additives

  3. Picosecond laser machined designed patterns with anti-ice effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Cerro, D.A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Micromachining using ultra short laser pulses (USLP) has evolved over the past years as a versatile tool for introducing functional features in surfaces at a micrometric and even at a sub wavelength scale. Being able to control the surface topography at this level provides a method to change the

  4. Erosion resistant anti-ice surfaces generated by ultra short laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Cerro, D.A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in't Veld, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Wetting properties of a wide range of materials can be modified by accurate laser micromachining with ultra short laser pulses. Controlling the surface topography in a micro and sub-micrometer scale allows the generation of water-repellent surfaces, which remain dry and prevent ice accumulation

  5. Effetively trapping air or lqiud water for anti-icing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2014-03-01

    Icing on solid surfaces leads to operational difficulties and high maintenance efforts for power networks, aircrafts, ships, ground transportation vehicles and house-hold refrigerators, to name but a few. In extreme cases, icing on surfaces causes disastrous events such as crash of aircrafts and collapse of power networks, which result in severe economic impact and large loss of life. This talk is focused on the fundamentals of the ice formation and adhesion of ice with solid substrates aiming for fighting against icing on solid surfaces. When the supercooling is low, it would be possible to remove supercooled liquid water from the solid surfaces before freezing occurs. To achieve this, we design and constructed surfaces that can trap the air at the subfreezing temperature thus condensed water microdroplets could be spontaneously removed after the coalescence. When the supercooling is high, icing on surfaces occurs spontaniously. In this case, we constructed coatings on which aqueous lubricating layer could be trapped, thus the ice adhesion on the coating is so low that the ice formed atop could be removed by a wind action or its own gravity.

  6. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  7. Environmentally Benign Aircraft Anti-icing and Deicing Fluids Based on Cost Effective, Bio-based Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    xanthan gum, welan gum, or carraggenan gum.(13) Examples of particulate thickeners include lightly cross-linked polyacrylic acid. Both types of ...based formulation.(14) The currently used Type IV AAFs are believed to primarily use polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer, stabilized by potassium ...Prescribed by ANSI-Std Z39-18 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information

  8. Performance Enhancement of Deicing Systems with the Use of an Anti-ice Nano-coating, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program addresses NASA's need for a new generation of icing mitigation technology for manned and unmanned vehicles, particularly related to icing on...

  9. Anti-icing and de-icing superhydrophobic concrete to improve the safety on critical elements on roadway pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Icy roads lead to treacherous driving conditions in regions of the U.S. resulting in over 450 fatalities per year. Deicing chemicals, such as rock salt help to reduce ice formation on roadways to an extent, however also result in detrimental effects ...

  10. Performance Enhancement of Deicing Systems with the Use of an Anti-Ice Nano-Coating, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed program addresses NASA's need for a new generation of icing mitigation technology for manned and unmanned vehicles. The state of the art active de-icing...

  11. The Development of an Advanced Anti-Icing/Deicing Capability for U.S. Army Helicopters. Volume II. Ice Protection System Application to the UH-1H helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Project Lfgineer for this effort was ]Richard I. Adin of tL* eta ~ ’ -’ ’. -. - " - -ý - - , I - OWLAMWRS The 01 Mp io Otis vap am wae to No conmved an...area. One is the ultrasonic type and the second is the infrared occlusion type. Both sensors include aspirators using engine compressor bleed air to...half pound per minute of enginie bleed air to operate the aspirator . The principal benefit of the aspiration is during hover, as there is sufficient

  12. Measures to reduce the impact of anti-icing agents on the environment and on the work of wastewater treatment facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the excess of chemical agents in the snow on the environment and on the working waste water treatment facilities. The article presents some suggestions for improvement of regulatory requirements concerning design engineering of snow melting facilities in the water disposal system. This suggestion was substantiated to assess snow as waste disposed from road surface, and to register snow mass delivered to snow melting facilities in equivalent units. It is assumed that snow melting stations are facilities designed for waste treatment, and this is why the project documentation for construction of these facilities has to undergo a state expertise for Environmental Impact Assessment. Completed studies provide estimates of the receipted snow, its pollution, etc. But at the same time these studies serve as the basis for approving the necessity of developing a unified system for monitoring the city's snow-melting plants to ensure the reliability.

  13. 78 FR 63135 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... relay installation and associated wiring of the engine cowl anti-ice system and performing a functional... General Electric Model CF6- 80C2 engines. The NPRM proposed to require modifying a relay installation and associated wiring of the engine cowl anti-ice system and performing a functional test of the thrust reverser...

  14. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  15. Potential use of reverse osmosis in managing saltwater waste collected at road-salt storage facilites [sic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of its anti-icing program comprises a large part of the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT) maintenance effort. Earlier research confirmed that VDOT captures a large volume of salt-laden stormwater runoff at its 300+ sal...

  16. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  17. HybridSil Icephobic Nanocomposites for Next Generation Aircraft In-Flight Icing Measurement and Mitigation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this SBIR program is to adapt NanoSonic's HybridSil® nanocomposites and combine high erosion resistance, low ice adhesion, and passive anti-icing...

  18. Technical evaluation report, AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmann, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics was to provide an update of the stae-of-the-art with respect to the prediction, simulation, and measurement of the effects of icing, anti-icing fluids, and various precipitation on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles. Sessions were devoted to introductory and survey papers and icing certification issues, to analytical and experimental simulation of ice frost contamination and its effects of aerodynamics, and to the effects of heavy rain and deicing/anti-icing fluids.

  19. Silane decorated metallic nanorods for hydrophobic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Sharma, Rajesh; Liu Bo; Trigwell, Steve; Ryerson, Charles; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    A novel technique to modify a metallic surface for anti-icing applications is presented. An oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique has been used to fabricate metallic nanorods of Aluminum and Tungsten on a glass substrate. A conformal coating of a silane has been applied using a molecular vapor deposition technique. The resulting surface has shown a static contact angle of 134 deg. with the water droplet. SEM, AFM and XPS have been used to study the surface modification. This is a highly promising approach for anti-icing applications due to its scalability at a very low cost.

  20. 76 FR 18024 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... changes may result in a two-minute inhibition of the wing anti-ice message, if posted; (b) Revision of the... opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We considered the comments received. Support for the NPRM... supports the NPRM, but also encouraged the FAA to implement it as soon as possible to enable full...

  1. Nanoparticle and gelation stabilized functional composites of an ionic salt in a hydrophobic polymer matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Kanyas

    Full Text Available Polymer composites consisted of small hydrophilic pockets homogeneously dispersed in a hydrophobic polymer matrix are important in many applications where controlled release of the functional agent from the hydrophilic phase is needed. As an example, a release of biomolecules or drugs from therapeutic formulations or release of salt in anti-icing application can be mentioned. Here, we report a method for preparation of such a composite material consisted of small KCOOH salt pockets distributed in the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer matrix and demonstrate its effectiveness in anti-icing coatings. The mixtures of the aqueous KCOOH and SBS-cyclohexane solutions were firstly stabilized by adding silica nanoparticles to the emulsions and, even more, by gelation of the aqueous phase by agarose. The emulsions were observed in optical microscope to check its stability in time and characterized by rheological measurements. The dry composite materials were obtained via casting the emulsions onto the glass substrates and evaporations of the organic solvent. Composite polymer films were characterized by water contact angle (WCA measurements. The release of KCOOH salt into water and the freezing delay experiments of water droplets on dry composite films demonstrated their anti-icing properties. It has been concluded that hydrophobic and thermoplastic SBS polymer allows incorporation of the hydrophilic pockets/phases through our technique that opens the possibility for controlled delivering of anti-icing agents from the composite.

  2. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anisimov, A.; Muller, B.; Sinke, J.; Groves, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities

  3. 78 FR 50320 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Electric Company (GE) model GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines with booster anti-ice (BAI) air duct, part number...-2B67 turbofan engine be removed from the Applicability section of this AD. The commenters noted that...

  4. Test and Evaluation Report of the IMED Volumetric Infusion Pump Model 960A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    tested Ambient tempera- ture was out of test lim- its. Windshield anti-ice X Pitot heat X Vent blower X Windshield wiper X Heater X APU X Generator #1 X...Patterson John A. Dellinger, Air Force Base, OH 45433 Southwest Research Institute P. 0. Box 28510 Henry L. Taylor San Antonio, TX 78284 Director

  5. Agent-based scheduling for aircraft deicing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, X.; Ter Mors, A.W.; Roos, N.; Witteveen, C.

    2006-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of the deicing and anti-icing activities is an important and challenging part of airport departure planning. Deicing planning has to be done in a highly dynamic environment involving several autonomous and self-interested parties. Traditional centralized scheduling

  6. Performance of thin bonded epoxy overlays on asphalt and concrete bridge deck surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This study is the evaluation of two thin bonded epoxy overlays: SafeLane (marketed by Cargill), and Flexogrid : (developed by PolyCarb). SafeLane is advertised as an anti-skid/anti-icing overlay that stores deicing chemicals for : release during wint...

  7. Aerodynamic Characterization of a Thin, High-Performance Airfoil for Use in Ground Fluids Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Lee, Sam; Clark, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The FAA has worked with Transport Canada and others to develop allowance times for aircraft operating in ice-pellet precipitation. Wind-tunnel testing has been carried out to better understand the flowoff characteristics and resulting aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids contaminated with ice pellets using a thin, high-performance wing section at the National Research Council of Canada Propulsion and Icing Wind Tunnel. The objective of this paper is to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of this wing section in order to better understand the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination. Aerodynamic performance data, boundary-layer surveys and flow visualization were conducted at a Reynolds number of approximately 6.0×10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.12. The clean, baseline model exhibited leading-edge stall characteristics including a leading-edge laminar separation bubble and minimal or no separation on the trailing edge of the main element or flap. These results were consistent with expected 2-D aerodynamics and showed no anomalies that could adversely affect the evaluation of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on the wing. Tests conducted with roughness and leading-edge flow disturbances helped to explain the aerodynamic impact of the anti-icing fluids and contamination. The stalling characteristics of the wing section with fluid and contamination appear to be driven at least partially by the effects of a secondary wave of fluid that forms near the leading edge as the wing is rotated in the simulated takeoff profile. These results have provided a much more complete understanding of the adverse aerodynamic effects of anti-icing fluids and ice-pellet contamination on this wing section. This is important since these results are used, in part, to develop the ice-pellet allowance times that are applicable to many different airplanes.

  8. Assessment of the Performance of Several Roadway Mixes under Rain, Snow, and Winter Maintenance Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Flintsch, Gerardo W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relative functional performance, including skid resistance and splash and spray, of five hot-mix-asphalt (HMA) surfaces and a tinned portland cement concrete highway surface during controlled wet and wintry weather events. The study compared the way that these surfaces respond to various deicing and anti-icing snow removal and ice control techniques under artificial wintry conditions. In addition, the splash and spray characteristics of the surfaces...

  9. Protection against wing icing for Airbus A300 and A310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfer, G.

    1981-01-01

    To improve economy of operation, it is now planned to modify the anti-icing system used on the A300 Airbus wing. Thus, for the A310 Airbus, the deicing system will be applied to only half the wing length. Other essential modifications are a substantial simplification of the warm-air system and discontinuation of the use of a double wall in slats.

  10. Defense AT and L, Volume 42, Number 4, July-August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    saved the ship from potentially sinking alongside the pier. Be Bold Crises can be viewed either as disruptive and dangerous prob- lems to be solved...secured a failed anti-icing valve that had been allowing very high temperature air from the engine to flood the intake shaft . The senior chief earned...senses their deep -rooted beliefs and passions. Their thoughts, ideas, or plans become more believable. When servant leaders demonstrate this

  11. Alliance Ground Surveillance and the Future of Natos Smart Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    is advertised as an “all-weather” aircraft, the lack of an anti-ice system restricts operations in icing conditions. Hot weather operations present...Commitment is one thing; capabilities are another. In NATO’s case, contributions to the Alliance can come in many forms, but goodwill and...these two motivations clash, goodwill among Allies can be lost; yet this dynamic is nothing new. As Michael Rühle has suggested, many Allies today

  12. 78 FR 21578 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Company (GE) model GEnx-2B67 and GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines with booster anti-ice (BAI) air duct, part... GE model GEnx-2B67 and GEnx- 2B67B turbofan engines with BAI air duct, P/N 2469M32G01, and support...

  13. A significant reduction of ice adhesion on nanostructured surfaces that consist of an array of single-walled carbon nanotubes: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Luyao; Huang, Zhaoyuan; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Chen, Shaoqiang; Luo, Kai; Hu, Haibao

    2018-04-01

    It is well recognized that excessive ice accumulation at low-temperature conditions can cause significant damage to civil infrastructure. The passive anti-icing surfaces provide a promising solution to suppress ice nucleation and enhance ice removal. However, despite extensive efforts, it remains a challenge to design anti-icing surfaces with low ice adhesion. Using all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that surfaces with single-walled carbon nanotube array (CNTA) significantly reduce ice adhesion due to the extremely low solid areal fraction. It was found that the CNTA surface exhibits up to a 45% decrease in the ice adhesion strength in comparison with the atomically smooth graphene surface. The details of the ice detachment from the CNTA surface were examined for different water-carbon interaction energies and temperatures of the ice cube. Remarkably, the results of MD simulations demonstrate that the ice detaching strength depends linearly on the ratio of the ice-surface interaction energy and the ice temperature. These results open the possibility for designing novel robust surfaces with low ice adhesion for passive anti-icing applications.

  14. An experimental study of icing control using DBD plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinsheng; Tian, Yongqiang; Meng, Xuanshi; Han, Xuzhao; Zhang, Duo; Hu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    Ice accretion on aircraft or wind turbine has been widely recognized as a big safety threat in the past decades. This study aims to develop a new approach for icing control using an AC-DBD plasma actuator. The experiments of icing control (i.e., anti-/de-icing) on a cylinder model were conducted in an icing wind tunnel with controlled wind speed (i.e., 15 m/s) and temperature (i.e., -10°C). A digital camera was used to record the dynamic processes of plasma anti-icing and de-icing whilst an infrared imaging system was utilized to map the surface temperature variations during the anti-/de-icing processes. It was found that the AC-DBD plasma actuator is very effective in both anti-icing and de-icing operations. While no ice formation was observed when the plasma actuator served as an anti-icing device, a complete removal of the ice layer with a thickness of 5 mm was achieved by activating the plasma actuator for ˜150 s. Such information demonstrated the feasibility of plasma anti-/de-icing, which could potentially provide more effective and safer icing mitigation strategies.

  15. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  16. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  17. Melting Frozen Droplets Using Photo-Thermal Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Susmita; de Ruiter, Jolet; Varanasi, Kripa

    2017-11-01

    Ice buildup is an operational and safety hazard in wind turbines, power lines, and airplanes. While traditional de-icing methods are energy-intensive or environmentally unfriendly, passive anti-icing approach using superhydrophobic surfaces fails under humid conditions, which necessitates development of passive deicing methods. Here, we investigate a passive technique for deicing using a multi-layer surface design that can efficiently absorb and convert the incident solar radiation to heat. The corresponding increase in substrate temperature allows for easy removal of frozen droplets from the surface. We demonstrate the deicing performance of the designed surface both at very low temperatures, and under frost and snow coverage.

  18. A Robust Multifunctional Sandwich Panel Design with Trabecular Structures by the Use of Additive Manufacturing Technology for a New De-Icing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovanni Ferro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-ice systems assure a vital on-board function in most aircraft: ice prevention or de-icing is mandatory for all aerodynamic surfaces to preserve their performance, and for all the movable surfaces to allow the proper control of the plane. In this work, a novel multi-functional panel concept which integrates anti-icing directly inside the primary structure is presented. In fact, constructing the core of the sandwich with trabecular non-stochastic cells allows the presence of a heat exchanger directly inside the structure with a savings in weight and an improvement in thermal efficiency. This solution can be realized easily in a single-piece component using Additive Manufacturing (AM technology without the need for joints, gluing, or welding. The objective of this study is to preliminarily investigate the mechanical properties of the core constructed with Selective Laser Melting (SLM; through the Design of Experiment (DOE, different design parameters were varied to understand how they affect the compression behaviour.

  19. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  20. Consortium for Offshore Aviation Research : description of current projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The five projects which are currently underway or being evaluated through the Consortium for Offshore Aviation Research (COAR) were described. The projects are: (1) the use of narrow-beam, high intensity searchlights as approach aids for helicopter landings on helidecks in low visibility conditions, (2) establishment of a precipitation and fog characterization facility forecasting, (3) use of ice-phobic materials for airframe anti-icing, (4) use of differential global positioning satellite systems for offshore operations, and (5) the development of a virtual reality head-up-display for the approach to the Hibernia helideck (or any other helideck) to facilitate low visibility landings. Seed funding for these projects has been provided by the European Space Agency. Additional support is being provided by Hibernia, Petro-Canada, Husky Oil and Chevron Oil Canada. Initiatives to increase the number of partners are underway. 1 fig

  1. Ballistic Jumping Drops on Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Electrostatic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Lei; Yu, Cunlong; Dai, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Dong, Zhichao; Jiang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The ballistic ejection of liquid drops by electrostatic manipulating has both fundamental and practical implications, from raindrops in thunderclouds to self-cleaning, anti-icing, condensation, and heat transfer enhancements. In this paper, the ballistic jumping behavior of liquid drops from a superhydrophobic surface is investigated. Powered by the repulsion of the same kind of charges, water drops can jump from the surface. The electrostatic acting time for the jumping of a microliter supercooled drop only takes several milliseconds, even shorter than the time for icing. In addition, one can control the ballistic jumping direction precisely by the relative position above the electrostatic field. The approach offers a facile method that can be used to manipulate the ballistic drop jumping via an electrostatic field, opening the possibility of energy efficient drop detaching techniques in various applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Galao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at −15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., −15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention and deicing (curing, which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  3. Slippery self-lubricating polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Cui, Jiaxi; Dunn, Stuart; Hatton, Benjamin; Howell, Caitlin; Kim, Philseok; Wong, Tak Sing; Yao, Xi

    2018-05-08

    The present disclosure describes a strategy to create self-healing, slippery self-lubricating polymers. Lubricating liquids with affinities to polymers can be utilized to get absorbed within the polymer and form a lubricant layer (of the lubricating liquid) on the polymer. The lubricant layer can repel a wide range of materials, including simple and complex fluids (water, hydrocarbons, crude oil and bodily fluids), restore liquid-repellency after physical damage, and resist ice, microorganisms and insects adhesion. Some exemplary applications where self-lubricating polymers will be useful include energy-efficient, friction-reduction fluid handling and transportation, medical devices, anti-icing, optical sensing, and as self-cleaning, and anti-fouling materials operating in extreme environments.

  4. Effect of Graphene Coating on the Heat Transfer Performance of a Composite Anti-/Deicing Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of a graphene coating for anti-/deicing is rarely studied. This paper presents an improved anti-/deicing efficiency method for composite material anti-/deicing by using the heat-transfer characteristic of a graphene coating. An anti-/deicing experiment was conducted using the centrifugal force generated by a helicopter rotor. Results showed that the graphene coating can accelerate the internal heat transfer of the composite material, thereby improving the anti-icing and deicing efficiency of the helicopter rotor. The spraying process parameters, such as coating thickness and spraying pressure, were also studied. Results showed that reducing coating thickness and increasing spraying pressure are beneficial in preparing a graphene coating with high thermal conductivity. This study provides an experimental reference for the application of a graphene coating in anti-/deicing.

  5. The 'Guetsch' Alpine wind power test site; Alpine Test Site Guetsch. Handbuch und Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, R.

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of icing-up on the operation of wind turbines in mountainous areas. Within the Swiss research project 'Alpine Test Site Guetsch', extensive icing studies were carried out at the Guetsch site near Andermatt, Switzerland. This document deals with the following subjects: Information about ice formation on structures, in particular with respect to wind turbines, standards and international research activities, wind measurements under icing-up conditions, estimation of the frequency of icing-up conditions, effects of icing-up on wind turbines, ice detection, measures available for de-icing and anti-icing as well as ice throw. A list of factors to be taken into account by the planners and operators of wind turbines in alpine environments is presented.

  6. Icing Forecasting of High Voltage Transmission Line Using Weighted Least Square Support Vector Machine with Fireworks Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiannan Ma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecasting of icing thickness has great significance for ensuring the security and stability of the power grid. In order to improve the forecasting accuracy, this paper proposes an icing forecasting system based on the fireworks algorithm and weighted least square support vector machine (W-LSSVM. The method of the fireworks algorithm is employed to select the proper input features with the purpose of eliminating redundant influence. In addition, the aim of the W-LSSVM model is to train and test the historical data-set with the selected features. The capability of this proposed icing forecasting model and framework is tested through simulation experiments using real-world icing data from the monitoring center of the key laboratory of anti-ice disaster, Hunan, South China. The results show that the proposed W-LSSVM-FA method has a higher prediction accuracy and it may be a promising alternative for icing thickness forecasting.

  7. Ice Control with Brine Spread with Nozzles on Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolet, Lars; Fonnesbech, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    on the major roads (150 km) in the municipality of North Funen from the winter 2007/8. The result has been a dramatically reduction in the number of traffic accidents on slippery roads during the winter season. From 7 and 5 accidents in the previous 2 winters to 1 accident in the winter 2007/8. Neighbouring...... municipalities had an increasing number of traffic accidents on slippery roads in the same period.......During the years 1996-2006, the former county of Funen, Denmark, gradually replaced pre-wetted salt with brine spread with nozzles as anti-icing agent in all her ice control activities. The replacement related to 1000 kilometres of highways. Jeopardizing neither road safety nor traffic flow...

  8. Controllable superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces with tunable adhesion fabricated by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Cong; Dong, Xinran; Yin, Kai; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Zheng; Chu, Dongkai; Duan, Ji'an

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a facile and detailed strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces with controllable adhesion by femtosecond laser ablation is presented. The influences of key femtosecond laser processing parameters including the scanning speed, laser power and interval on the wetting properties of the laser-ablated surfaces are investigated. It is demonstrated that the adhesion between water and superhydrophobic surface can be effectively tuned from extremely low adhesion to high adhesion by adjusting laser processing parameters. At the same time, the mechanism is discussed for the changes of the wetting behaviors of the laser-ablated surfaces. These superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion have many potential applications, such as self-cleaning surface, oil-water separation, anti-icing surface and liquid transportation.

  9. Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Robust Superhydrophobic Coating on Metallic Engineering Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuliang; Wang, Zhenlong; Wang, Yukui; Bai, Xuelin; Fu, Yong Qing; Guo, Bin; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Jia; Hu, PingAn

    2018-01-17

    Creating a robust superhydrophobic surface on the conventional engineering materials at mass production is of great importance for a self-cleaning, anti-icing, nonwetting surface and low flow resistance in industrial applications. Herein, we report a roll-to-roll strategy to create durable and robust superhydrophobic surfaces with designed micro-/nanoscale hierarchical structures on many conventional engineering materials by combining electrical discharge machining and coating of carbon nanoparticles, followed by oil penetration and drying. The treated surface shows good superhydrophobic properties with a static water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and slide angle of 3 ± 1°. The treated surface also exhibits good resilience and maintains the performance after being tested in various harsh conditions, including water flushing for several days, sand abrasion, scratching with sandpapers, and corrosive solution. Significantly, the superhydrophobic surfaces also show a high efficiency of self-cleaning properties even after oil contamination during applications.

  10. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galao, Oscar; Bañón, Luis; Baeza, Francisco Javier; Carmona, Jesús; Garcés, Pedro

    2016-04-12

    This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at -15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e. , -15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention) and deicing (curing), which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  11. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an ‘antifreeze’ solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40–50% — and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15–30% lower footprint than using ‘bio’ de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: ► Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. ► Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40–50%. ► Recycling ‘fossil’ de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling ‘bio’ de-icer.

  12. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail: shixianglu@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail: wenguoxu60@bit.edu.cn; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  13. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang; Xu, Wenguo; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and reversibly switched

  14. Water quality of stormwater generated from an airport in a cold climate, function of an infiltration pond, and sampling strategy with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Ehlert, Ludwig; Wahlskog, Cecilia; Lundberg, Angela; Maurice, Christian

    2017-12-05

    Monitoring pollutants in stormwater discharge in cold climates is challenging. An environmental survey was performed by sampling the stormwater from Luleå Airport, Northern Sweden, during the period 2010-2013, when urea was used as a main component of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The stormwater collected from the runway was led through an oil trap to an infiltration pond to store excess water during precipitation periods and enhance infiltration and water treatment. Due to insufficient capacity, an emergency spillway was established and equipped with a flow meter and an automatic sampler. This study proposes a program for effective monitoring of pollutant discharge with a minimum number of sampling occasions when use of automatic samplers is not possible. The results showed that 90% of nitrogen discharge occurs during late autumn before the water pipes freeze and during snow melting, regardless of the precipitation during the remaining months when the pollutant discharge was negligible. The concentrations of other constituents in the discharge were generally low compared to guideline values. The best data quality was obtained using flow controlled sampling. Intensive time-controlled sampling during late autumn (few weeks) and snow melting (2 weeks) would be sufficient for necessary information. The flow meters installed at the rectangular notch appeared to be difficult to calibrate and gave contradictory results. Overall, the spillway was dry, as water infiltrated into the pond, and stagnant water close to the edge might be registered as flow. Water level monitoring revealed that the infiltration capacity gradually decreased with time.

  15. Inhibition of ice nucleation by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter W; Lu, Weizhe; Xu, Haojun; Kim, Philseok; Kreder, Michael J; Alvarenga, Jack; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-01-14

    Ice repellent coatings have been studied and keenly sought after for many years, where any advances in the durability of such coatings will result in huge energy savings across many fields. Progress in creating anti-ice and anti-frost surfaces has been particularly rapid since the discovery and development of slippery, liquid infused porous surfaces (SLIPS). Here we use SLIPS-coated differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans to investigate the effects of the surface modification on the nucleation of supercooled water. This investigation is inherently different from previous studies which looked at the adhesion of ice to SLIPS surfaces, or the formation of ice under high humidity conditions. Given the stochastic nature of nucleation of ice from supercooled water, multiple runs on the same sample are needed to determine if a given surface coating has a real and statistically significant effect on the nucleation temperature. We have cycled supercooling to freezing and then thawing of deionized water in hydrophilic (untreated aluminum), hydrophobic, superhydrophobic, and SLIPS-treated DSC pans multiple times to determine the effects of surface treatment on the nucleation and subsequent growth of ice. We find that SLIPS coatings lower the nucleation temperature of supercooled water in contact with statistical significance and show no deterioration or change in the coating performance even after 150 freeze-thaw cycles.

  16. Impact of surface nanostructure on ice nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Xiong; Chen, Min; Fu, Ming

    2014-09-28

    Nucleation of water on solid surface can be promoted noticeably when the lattice parameter of a surface matches well with the ice structure. However, the characteristic length of the surface lattice reported is generally less than 0.5 nm and is hardly tunable. In this paper, we show that a surface with nanoscale roughness can also remarkably promote ice nucleation if the characteristic length of the surface structure matches well with the ice crystal. A series of surfaces composed of periodic grooves with same depth but different widths are constructed in molecular dynamics simulations. Water cylinders are placed on the constructed surfaces and frozen at constant undercooling. The nucleation rates of the water cylinders are calculated in the simulation using the mean first-passage time method and then used to measure the nucleation promotion ability of the surfaces. Results suggest that the nucleation behavior of the supercooled water is significantly sensitive to the width of the groove. When the width of the groove matches well with the specific lengths of the ice crystal structure, the nucleation can be promoted remarkably. If the width does not match with the ice crystal, this kind of promotion disappears and the nucleation rate is even smaller than that on the smooth surface. Simulations also indicate that even when water molecules are adsorbed onto the surface structure in high-humidity environment, the solid surface can provide promising anti-icing ability as long as the characteristic length of the surface structure is carefully designed to avoid geometric match.

  17. Perfluoropolyether-Impregnated Mesoporous Alumina Composites Overcome the Dewetting-Tribological Properties Trade-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2018-03-28

    Conventional omniphobic surfaces suffer from wear-sensitivity due to soft apolar coatings or substrates and protruding surface features that are eroded even for mild abrasion treatments, leading to the loss of dewetting properties after wear. Evidently, there was a trade-off between dewetting and tribological properties. Here, we show the establishment of self-healing slippery properties post severe abrasion by utilizing perfluoropolyether-impregnated mesoporous Al 2 O 3 (MPA) composites. The hard polar alumina matrix provides the optimal tribological properties, and the liquid lubricant in the porous network contributes to both tribological and self-healing dewetting properties. These composites sustained normal pressures up to 350 MPa during reciprocating sliding contacts. The severely abraded surfaces are capable of self-replenishing in ambient environment, driven by capillarity and surface diffusion processes, and regained their slippery properties toward water and hexadecane after 15 h of self-healing. Eventually, a dewetting-tribology diagram has been introduced to show different regimes, namely-optimal slippery properties, optimal tribological properties, and a mixed regime). We found out that the microstructural expression [Formula: see text] is a robust guiding tool to predict the regime of interest. This dewetting-tribological diagram may be marked as an inception to designing abrasion-resistant slippery liquid impregnated composites for overcoming the dewetting tribological properties trade-off. Such surfaces may potentially find applications in paint industries and as anti-icing surfaces.

  18. Test of prototype liquid-water-content meter for aircraft use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Hermann E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the effort undertaken to meet the objectives of National Science Foundation Grant ATM-9207345 titled 'Test of Prototype Liquid-Water-Content Meter for Aircraft Use.' Three activities were proposed for testing the new aircraft instrument, PVM-100A: (1) Calibrate the PVM-100A in a facility where the liquid-water-content (LWC) channel, and the integrated surface area channel (PSA) could be compared to standard means for LWC and PSA measurements. Scaling constant for the channels were to be determined in this facility. The fog/wind tunnel at ECN, Petten, The Netherlands was judged the most suitable facility for this effort. (2) Expose the PVM-100A to high wind speeds similar to those expected on research aircraft, and test the anti-icing heaters on the PVM-100A under typical icing conditions expected in atmospheric clouds. The high-speed icing tunnel at NRC, Ottawa, Canada was to be utilized. (3) Operate the PVM-100A on an aircraft during cloud penetrations to determine its stability and practicality for such measurements. The C-131A aircraft of the University of Washington was the aircraft of opportunity for these-tests, which were to be conducted during the 4-week Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June of 1992.

  19. Experimental study of curvature effects on jet impingement heat transfer on concave surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of the local and average heat transfer characteristics of a single round jet impinging on the concave surfaces was conducted in this work to gain in-depth knowledge of the curvature effects. The experiments were conducted by employing a piccolo tube with one single jet hole over a wide range of parameters: jet Reynolds number from 27000 to 130000, relative nozzle to surface distance from 3.3 to 30, and relative surface curvature from 0.005 to 0.030. Experimental results indicate that the surface curvature has opposite effects on heat transfer characteristics. On one hand, an increase of relative nozzle to surface distance (increasing jet diameter in fact enhances the average heat transfer around the surface for the same curved surface. On the other hand, the average Nusselt number decreases as relative nozzle to surface distance increases for a fixed jet diameter. Finally, experimental data-based correlations of the average Nusselt number over the curved surface were obtained with consideration of surface curvature effect. This work contributes to a better understanding of the curvature effects on heat transfer of a round jet impingement on concave surfaces, which is of high importance to the design of the aircraft anti-icing system.

  20. Delayed frost formation on hybrid nanostructured surfaces with patterned high wetting contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Youmin; Zhou, Peng; Yao, Shuhuai

    2014-11-01

    Engineering icephobic surfaces that can retard the frost formation and accumulation are important to vehicles, wind turbines, power lines, and HVAC systems. For condensation frosting, superhydrophobic surfaces promote self-removal of condensed droplets before freezing and consequently delay the frost growth. However, a small thermal fluctuation may lead to a Cassie-to-Wenzel transition, and thus dramatically enhance the frost formation and adhesion. In this work, we investigated the heterogeneous ice nucleation on hybrid nanostructured surfaces with patterned high wetting contrast. By judiciously introducing hydrophilic micro-patches into superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, we demonstrated that such a novel hybrid structure can efficiently defer the ice nucleation as compared to a superhydrophobic surface with nanostructures only. We observed efficient droplet jumping and higher coverage of droplets with diameter smaller than 10 μm, both of which suppress frost formation. The hybrid surface avoids the formation of liquid-bridges for Cassie-to-Wenzel transition, therefore eliminating the `bottom-up' droplet freezing from the cold substrate. These findings provide new insights to improve anti-frosting and anti-icing by using heterogeneous wettability in multiscale structures.

  1. Are superhydrophobic surfaces best for icephobicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Stefan; Dorrestijn, Marko; Raps, Dominik; Das, Arindam; Megaridis, Constantine M; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2011-03-15

    Ice formation can have catastrophic consequences for human activity on the ground and in the air. Here we investigate water freezing delays on untreated and coated surfaces ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and use these delays to evaluate icephobicity. Supercooled water microdroplets are inkjet-deposited and coalesce until spontaneous freezing of the accumulated mass occurs. Surfaces with nanometer-scale roughness and higher wettability display unexpectedly long freezing delays, at least 1 order of magnitude longer than typical superhydrophobic surfaces with larger hierarchical roughness and low wettability. Directly related to the main focus on heterogeneous nucleation and freezing delay of supercooled water droplets, the observed ensuing crystallization process consisted of two distinct phases: one very rapid recalescent partial solidification phase and a subsequent slower phase. Observations of the droplet collision process employed for the continuous liquid mass accumulation up to the point of ice formation reveal a previously unseen atmospheric-pressure, subfreezing-temperature regime for liquid-on-liquid bounce. On the basis of the entropy reduction of water near a solid surface, we formulate a modification to the classical heterogeneous nucleation theory, which predicts the observed freezing delay trends. Our results bring to question recent emphasis on super water-repellent surface formulations for ice formation retardation and suggest that anti-icing design must optimize the competing influences of both wettability and roughness.

  2. Mobile Interfaces: Liquids as a Perfect Structural Material for Multifunctional, Antifouling Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinthal, A; Aizenberg, J

    2014-01-14

    Life creates some of its most robust, extreme surface materials not from solids but from liquids: a purely liquid interface, stabilized by underlying nanotexture, makes carnivorous plant leaves ultraslippery, the eye optically perfect and dirt-resistant, our knees lubricated and pressure-tolerant, and insect feet reversibly adhesive and shape-adaptive. Novel liquid surfaces based on this idea have recently been shown to display unprecedented omniphobic, self-healing, anti-ice, antifouling, optical, and adaptive properties. In this Perspective, we present a framework and a path forward for developing and designing such liquid surfaces into sophisticated, versatile multifunctional materials. Drawing on concepts from solid materials design and fluid dynamics, we outline how the continuous dynamics, responsiveness, and multiscale patternability of a liquid surface layer can be harnessed to create a wide range of unique, active interfacial functions able to operate in harsh, changing environments not achievable with static solids. We discuss how, in partnership with the underlying substrate, the liquid surface can be programmed to adaptively and reversibly reconfigure from a defect-free, molecularly smooth, transparent interface through a range of finely tuned liquid topographies in response to environmental stimuli. With nearly unlimited design possibilities and unmatched interfacial properties, liquid materials as long-term stable interfaces yet in their fully liquid state may potentially transform surface design everywhere from medicine to architecture to energy infrastructure.

  3. Research on Heat Exchange Process in Aircraft Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichindaev, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Using of heat-exchanger-condenser in the air conditioning system of the airplane Tu-204 (Boeing, Airbus, Superjet 100, MS-21, etc.) for cooling the compressed air by the cold air with negative temperature exiting the turbine results in a number of operational problems. Mainly it’s frosting of the heat exchange surface, which is the cause of live-section channels frosting, resistance increasing and airflow in the system decreasing. The purpose of this work is to analyse the known freeze-up-fighting methods for heat-exchanger-condenser, description of the features of anti-icing protection and offering solutions to this problem. For the problem of optimizing the design of heat exchangers in this work used generalized criterion that describes the ratio of thermal resistances of cold and hot sections, which include: the ratio of the initial values of heat transfer agents flow state; heat exchange surface finning coefficients; factors which describes the ratio of operating parameters and finning area. By controlling the ratio of the thermal resistances can be obtained the desired temperature of the heat exchange surface, which would prevent freezing. The work presents the results of a numerical study of the effect of different combinations of regime and geometrical factors changes on reduction of the heat-exchanger-condenser freezing surface area, including using of variable ratio of thermal resistances.

  4. The interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields with atmospheric water droplets and applications to aircraft ice prevention. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, R. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of computerized simulation of the physics of advanced microwave anti-icing systems, which preheat impinging supercooled water droplets prior to impact, was investigated. Theoretical and experimental work performed to create a physically realistic simulation is described. The behavior of the absorption cross section for melting ice particles was measured by a resonant cavity technique and found to agree with theoretical predictions. Values of the dielectric parameters of supercooled water were measured by a similar technique at lambda = 2.82 cm down to -17 C. The hydrodynamic behavior of accelerated water droplets was studied photograhically in a wind tunnel. Droplets were found to initially deform as oblate spheroids and to eventually become unstable and break up in Bessel function modes for large values of acceleration or droplet size. This confirms the theory as to the maximum stable droplet size in the atmosphere. A computer code which predicts droplet trajectories in an arbitrary flow field was written and confirmed experimentally. The results were consolidated into a simulation to study the heating by electromagnetic fields of droplets impinging onto an object such as an airfoil. It was determined that there is sufficient time to heat droplets prior to impact for typical parameter values. Design curves for such a system are presented.

  5. Nanoscale-Agglomerate-Mediated Heterogeneous Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyeongyun; Wu, Alex; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Saigusa, Kosuke; Liu, Aihua; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-12-13

    Water vapor condensation on hydrophobic surfaces has received much attention due to its ability to rapidly shed water droplets and enhance heat transfer, anti-icing, water harvesting, energy harvesting, and self-cleaning performance. However, the mechanism of heterogeneous nucleation on hydrophobic surfaces remains poorly understood and is attributed to defects in the hydrophobic coating exposing the high surface energy substrate. Here, we observe the formation of high surface energy nanoscale agglomerates on hydrophobic coatings after condensation/evaporation cycles in ambient conditions. To investigate the deposition dynamics, we studied the nanoscale agglomerates as a function of condensation/evaporation cycles via optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), microgoniometric contact angle measurements, nucleation statistics, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The FESEM and EDS results indicated that the nanoscale agglomerates stem from absorption of sulfuric acid based aerosol particles inside the droplet and adsorption of volatile organic compounds such as methanethiol (CH 3 SH), dimethyl disulfide (CH 3 SSCH), and dimethyl trisulfide (CH 3 SSSCH 3 ) on the liquid-vapor interface during water vapor condensation, which act as preferential sites for heterogeneous nucleation after evaporation. The insights gained from this study elucidate fundamental aspects governing the behavior of both short- and long-term heterogeneous nucleation on hydrophobic surfaces, suggest previously unexplored microfabrication and air purification techniques, and present insights into the challenges facing the development of durable dropwise condensing surfaces.

  6. Robust, heat-resistant and multifunctional superhydrophobic coating of carbon microflowers with molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Zhao, Meiyun; Guo, Zhiguang

    2017-11-15

    Superhydrophobic materials have triggered large interest due to their widespread applications, such as self-cleaning, corrosion resistance, anti-icing, and oil/water separation. However, suffering from weak mechanical strength, plenty of superhydrophobic materials are limited in practical application. Herein, we prepared hierarchical carbon microflowers (CMF) dispersed with molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ) nanoparticles (MoO 3 /CMF) via a two-step preparation method. Taking advantage of high-adhesion epoxy resin and the modification with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PDES), the modified MoO 3 /CMF (PDES-MoO 3 /CMF) coating on various substrates shows great waterproof ability, excellent chemical stability, good mechanical durability, and self-cleaning property. More significantly, the prepared PDES-MoO 3 /CMF powder with high thermal stability (250°C) can be used for oil/water separation due to its special flower-like structure and superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity. All of these advantages endow the superhydrophobic powders with huge potential in the practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Substrate Dependence of the Freezing Dynamics of Supercooled Water Films: A High-Speed Optical Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, E; Rodriguez, L; Verdaguer, A

    2018-01-18

    The freezing of supercooled water films on different substrates was investigated using a high-speed camera coupled to an optical microscope, obtaining details of the freezing process not described in the literature before. We observed the two well known freezing stages (fast dendritic growth and slow freezing of the water liquid left after the dendritic growth), but we separated the process into different phenomena that were studied separately: two-dimensional dendrite growth on the substrate interface, vertical dendrite growth, formation and evolution of ice domains, trapping of air bubbles and freezing of the water film surface. We found all of these processes to be dependent on both the supercooling temperature and the substrate used. Ice dendrite (or ice front) growth during the first stage was found to be dependent on thermal properties of the substrate but could not be unequivocally related to them. Finally, for low supercooling, a direct relationship was observed between the morphology of the dendrites formed in the first stage, which depends on the substrate, and the roughness and the shape of the surface of the ice, when freezing of the film was completed. This opens the possibility of using surfaces and coatings to control ice morphology beyond anti-icing properties.

  8. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  9. Numerical study of droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuan; Wu, Yanchen; Woerner, Martin; Frohnapfel, Bettina

    2017-11-01

    Droplet impact and rebound on superhydrophobic surface is an important process in many applications; among them are developing self-cleaning or anti-icing materials and limiting liquid film formation of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) in exhaust gas pipe. In the latter field, rebound of DEF droplet from wall is desired as an effective mean for avoiding or reducing unwanted solid deposition. Our goal is to numerically study influence of surface wettability on DEF droplet impact and rebound behavior. A phase-field method is chosen, which was implemented in OpenFOAM by us and validated for wetting-related interfacial flow problems. In the present contribution we first numerically reproduce relevant experimental studies in literature, to validate the code for droplet impact and rebound problem. There we study droplet-surface contact time, maximum/instantaneous spreading factor and droplet shape evolution. Our numerical results show good agreement with experimental data. Next we investigate for DEF droplets the effects of diameter, impact velocity and surface wettability on rebound behavior and jumping height. Based on Weber number and equilibrium contact angle, two regimes are identified. We show that surface wettability is a deciding factor for achieving rebound event. This work is supported by Foundation ``Friedrich-und-Elisabeth Boysen Stiftung fuer Forschung und Innovation'' (BOY-127-TP1).

  10. Bioinspired, roughness-induced, water and oil super-philic and super-phobic coatings prepared by adaptable layer-by-layer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Coatings with specific surface wetting properties are of interest for anti-fouling, anti-fogging, anti-icing, self-cleaning, anti-smudge, and oil-water separation applications. Many previous bioinspired surfaces are of limited use due to a lack of mechanical durability. Here, a layer-by-layer technique is utilized to create coatings with four combinations of water and oil repellency and affinity. An adapted layer-by-layer approach is tailored to yield specific surface properties, resulting in a durable, functional coating. This technique provides necessary flexibility to improve substrate adhesion combined with desirable surface chemistry. Polyelectrolyte binder, SiO2 nanoparticles, and silane or fluorosurfactant layers are deposited, combining surface roughness and necessary chemistry to result in four different coatings: superhydrophilic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophilic, superhydrophobic/superoleophobic, and superhydrophilic/superoleophobic. The superoleophobic coatings display hexadecane contact angles >150° with tilt angles superhydrophobic coatings display water contact angles >160° with tilt angles hydrophobic properties, whilst others mix and match oil and water repellency and affinity. Coating durability was examined through the use of micro/macrowear experiments. These coatings display transparency acceptable for some applications. Fabrication via this novel combination of techniques results in durable, functional coatings displaying improved performance compared to existing work where either durability or functionality is compromised. PMID:26353971

  11. Superhydrophobic nanocoatings: from materials to fabrications and to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yifan; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-04-14

    Superhydrophobic nanocoatings, a combination of nanotechnology and superhydrophobic surfaces, have received extraordinary attention recently, focusing both on novel preparation strategies and on investigations of their unique properties. In the past few decades, inspired by the lotus leaf, the discovery of nano- and micro-hierarchical structures has brought about great change in the superhydrophobic nanocoatings field. In this paper we review the contributions to this field reported in recent literature, mainly including materials, fabrication and applications. In order to facilitate comparison, materials are divided into 3 categories as follows: inorganic materials, organic materials, and inorganic-organic materials. Each kind of materials has itself merits and demerits, as well as fabrication techniques. The process of each technique is illustrated simply through a few classical examples. There is, to some extent, an association between various fabrication techniques, but many are different. So, it is important to choose appropriate preparation strategies, according to conditions and purposes. The peculiar properties of superhydrophobic nanocoatings, such as self-cleaning, anti-bacteria, anti-icing, corrosion resistance and so on, are the most dramatic. Not only do we introduce application examples, but also try to briefly discuss the principle behind the phenomenon. Finally, some challenges and potential promising breakthroughs in this field are also succinctly highlighted.

  12. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  13. User's Manual for LEWICE Version 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William

    2008-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 3.2 of this software, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from release 2.0 due to the addition of advanced thermal analysis capabilities for de-icing and anti-icing applications using electrothermal heaters or bleed air applications, the addition of automated Navier-Stokes analysis, an empirical model for supercooled large droplets (SLD) and a pneumatic boot option. An extensive effort was also undertaken to compare the results against the database of electrothermal results which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) as was performed for the validation effort for version 2.0. This report will primarily describe the features of the software related to the use of the program. Appendix A has been included to list some of the inner workings of the software or the physical models used. This information is also available in the form of several unpublished documents internal to NASA. This report is intended as a replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this software.

  14. User Manual for the NASA Glenn Ice Accretion Code LEWICE. Version 2.2.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A research project is underway at NASA Glenn to produce a computer code which can accurately predict ice growth under a wide range of meteorological conditions for any aircraft surface. This report will present a description of the code inputs and outputs from version 2.2.2 of this code, which is called LEWICE. This version differs from release 2.0 due to the addition of advanced thermal analysis capabilities for de-icing and anti-icing applications using electrothermal heaters or bleed air applications. An extensive effort was also undertaken to compare the results against the database of electrothermal results which have been generated in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) as was performed for the validation effort for version 2.0. This report will primarily describe the features of the software related to the use of the program. Appendix A of this report has been included to list some of the inner workings of the software or the physical models used. This information is also available in the form of several unpublished documents internal to NASA. This report is intended as a replacement for all previous user manuals of LEWICE. In addition to describing the changes and improvements made for this version, information from previous manuals may be duplicated so that the user will not need to consult previous manuals to use this code.

  15. Nanomechanical and nanotribological properties of plasma nanotextured superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic polymeric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarmoutsou, A; Charitidis, C A; Gnanappa, A K; Tserepi, A; Gogolides, E

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen plasma-induced surface modification of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), under plasma conditions favouring (maximizing) roughness formation, has been shown to create textured surfaces of roughness size and morphology dependent on the plasma-treatment time and subsequent morphology stabilization procedure. Superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic surfaces can thus be obtained, with potential applications in antireflective self-cleaning surfaces, microfluidics, wetting–dewetting control, anti-icing etc, necessitating determination of their mechanical properties. In this study, nanoindentation is used to determine the reduced modulus and hardness of the surface, while nanoscratch tests are performed to measure the coefficient of friction. The data are combined to assess the wear behaviour of such surfaces as a first guide for their practical applications. Short-time plasma treatment slightly changes mechanical, tribological and wear properties compared to untreated PMMA. However, a significant decrease in the reduced modulus and hardness and an increase in the coefficient of friction are observed after long plasma-treatment times. The C 4 F 8 plasma deposited thin hydrophobic layer on the polymeric surfaces (untreated and treated) reveals good adhesion, while its mechanical properties are greatly influenced by the substrate; it is also found that it effectively protects the polymeric surfaces, reducing plastic deformation. (paper)

  16. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  17. Low temperature self-cleaning properties of superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fajun; Shen, Taohua; Li, Changquan; Li, Wen; Yan, Guilong

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor surfaces are usually dirty surfaces. Ice accretion on outdoor surfaces could lead to serious accidents. In the present work, the superhydrophobic surface based on 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) modified Ag/PDMS composite was prepared to investigate the anti-icing property and self-cleaning property at temperatures below freezing point. The superhydrophobic surface was deliberately polluted with activated carbon before testing. It was observed that water droplet picked up dusts on the cold superhydrophobic surface and took it away without freezing at a measuring temperature of -10 °C. While on a smooth PFDT surface and a rough surface base on Ag/PDMS composite without PFDT modification, water droplets accumulated and then froze quickly at the same temperature. However, at even lower temperature of -12 °C, the superhydrophobic surface could not prevent the surface water from icing. In addition, it was observed that the frost layer condensed from the moisture pay an important role in determining the low temperature self-cleaning properties of a superhydrophobic surface.

  18. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using atmospheric pressure cold plasma technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakellis, Panagiotis; Gogolides, Evangelos

    2018-04-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces are often used to reduce wetting of surfaces by water. In particular, superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desired for several applications due to their exceptional properties such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-friction and others. Such surfaces can be prepared via numerous methods including plasma technology, a dry technique with low environmental impact. Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has recently attracted significant attention as lower-cost alternative to low-pressure plasmas, and as a candidate for continuous rather than batch processing. Although there are many reviews on water-repellent surfaces, and a few reviews on APP technology, there are hardly any review works on APP processing for hydrophobic and superhydrohobic surface fabrication, a topic of high importance in nanotechnology and interface science. Herein, we critically review the advances on hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surface fabrication using APP technology, trying also to give some perspectives in the field. After a short introduction to superhydrophobicity of nanostructured surfaces and to APPs we focus this review on three different aspects: (1) The atmospheric plasma reactor technology used for fabrication of (super)hydrophobic surfaces. (2) The APP process for hydrophobic surface preparation. The hydrophobic surface preparation processes are categorized methodologically as: a) activation, b) grafting, c) polymerization, d) roughening and hydrophobization. Each category includes subcategories related to different precursors used. (3) One of the most important sections of this review concerns superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated using APP. These are methodologically characterized as follows: a) single step processes where micro-nano textured topography and low surface energy coating are created at the same time, or b) multiple step processes, where these steps occur sequentially in or out of the plasma. We end the review with some perspectives in the field. We

  19. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, R.; Hu, Y. M.; Wang, L.; Li, Zh. H.; Shen, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, J. Zh.

    2017-04-01

    Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO4 and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, oil transportation, energy harvesting, microfluidics, and so forth. The approach reported in this paper may easily realize the industrial production of superamphiphobic Al surfaces owing to the advantage of facile, low cost and environmentally-friendly.

  20. Aero-thermal optimization of in-flight electro-thermal ice protection systems in transient de-icing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourbagian, Mahdi; Habashi, Wagdi G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We introduce an efficient methodology for the optimization of a de-icing system. • We can replace the expensive CHT simulation by ROM without loosing much accuracy. • We propose different criteria affecting the energy usage and aerodynamic performance. • These criteria can significantly improve the performance of the de-icing system. - Abstract: Even if electro-thermal ice protection systems (IPS) consume less energy when operating in de-icing mode than in anti-icing mode, they still need to be optimized for energy usage. The optimization, however, should also take into account the effect of the de-icing system on the aerodynamic performance. The present work offers an optimization framework in which both thermal and aerodynamic viewpoints are taken into account in formulating various objective and constraint functions by considering the energy consumption, the thickness, the volume, the shape and the location of the accreted ice on the surface as the key parameters affecting the energy usage and the aerodynamic performance. The design variables include the power density and the activation time of the electric heating blankets. A derivative-free technique, called the mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) method, is used to carry out the optimization process, which would normally need a large number of unsteady conjugate heat transfer (CHT) calculations for the IPS simulation. To avoid such prohibitive computations, reduced-order modeling (ROM) is used to construct simplified low-dimensional CHT models. The approach is illustrated through several test cases, in which different combinations of objective and constraint functions, design variables and cycling sequence patterns are examined. In these test cases, the energy consumption is significantly reduced compared to the experiments by improving the spatial and temporal distribution of the thermal energy usage. The results show the benefits of the approach in bringing energy, safety and

  1. Fabricating Superhydrophobic and Superoleophobic Surfaces with Multiscale Roughness Using Airbrush and Electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Milaji, Karam N.

    Examples of superhydrophobic surfaces found in nature such as self-cleaning property of lotus leaf and walking on water ability of water strider have led to an extensive investigation in this area over the past few decades. When a water droplet rests on a textured surface, it may either form a liquid-solid-vapor composite interface by which the liquid droplet partially sits on air pockets or it may wet the surface in which the water replaces the trapped air depending on the surface roughness and the surface chemistry. Super water repellent surfaces have numerous applications in our daily life such as drag reduction, anti-icing, anti-fogging, energy conservation, noise reduction, and self-cleaning. In fact, the same concept could be applied in designing and producing surfaces that repel organic contaminations (e.g. low surface tension liquids). However, superoleophobic surfaces are more challenging to fabricate than superhydrophobic surfaces since the combination of multiscale roughness with re-entrant or overhang structure and surface chemistry must be provided. In this study, simple, cost-effective and potentially scalable techniques, i.e., airbrush and electrospray, were employed for the sake of making superhydrophobic and superoleophobic coatings with random and patterned multiscale surface roughness. Different types of silicon dioxide were utilized in this work to in order to study and to characterize the effect of surface morphology and surface roughness on surface wettability. The experimental findings indicated that super liquid repellent surfaces with high apparent contact angles and extremely low sliding angles were successfully fabricated by combining re-entrant structure, multiscale surface roughness, and low surface energy obtained from chemically treating the fabricated surfaces. In addition to that, the experimental observations regarding producing textured surfaces in mask-assisted electrospray were further validated by simulating the actual working

  2. Preparation and characterization of silica/fluorinated acrylate copolymers hybrid films and the investigation of their icephobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanfen; Hu Mingjie; Yi Shengping; Liu Xinghai; Li Houbin; Huang Chi; Luo Yunbai; Li Yan

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive hydrophobic and icephobic coatings and films were obtained by a simple method. These coatings were prepared by mixing silica sol and fluorinated acrylate copolymers. There was a phase separation process in the film-forming which can provide the excellent performance. Small amount (about 2 wt.%) of fluorinated (methyl) acrylate was used in all of these coatings. The coatings were eco-friendly by using ethanol as the solvent system. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, water contact angle, thermal gravimetric analysis and tests of adhesion and hardness had been performed to characterize the morphological feature, chemical composition, hydrophobicity and icephobicity of the surface, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the coatings. The results showed that the films had good hydrophobicity, high thermal stability and excellent mechanical properties of adhesion strength and pencil hardness. Furthermore, by testing their properties of delaying water droplet from icing, it was found that ice formation was delayed for 90 min compared with the glass surface at − 5.6 °C. The hybrid coatings may be suitable for large-scale and practical application owing to its flexibility and simplicity. - Highlights: ► Coatings were prepared by mixing fluorinated acrylate copolymer and silica. ► Mechanical properties and anti-icing performance of the coatings were examined. ► Water contact angle increased with raising SiO 2 (sol)/monomers weight ratio. ► Ice formation was delayed for 90 min at − 5.6 °C.

  3. Spinoff 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages; Dietary Formulas Fortify Antioxidant Supplements; Rovers Pave the Way for Hospital Robots; Dry Electrodes Facilitate Remote Health Monitoring; Telescope Innovations Improve Speed, Accuracy of Eye Surgery; Superconductors Enable Lower Cost MRI Systems; Anti-Icing Formulas Prevent Train Delays; Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance; Pressure-Sensitive Paints Advance Rotorcraft Design Testing; Speech Recognition Interfaces Improve Flight Safety; Polymers Advance Heat Management Materials for Vehicles; Wireless Sensors Pinpoint Rotorcraft Troubles; Ultrasonic Detectors Safely Identify Dangerous, Costly Leaks; Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring; Emergency Systems Save Tens of Thousands of Lives; Oxygen Assessments Ensure Safer Medical Devices; Collaborative Platforms Aid Emergency Decision Making; Space-Inspired Trailers Encourage Exploration on Earth; Ultra-Thin Coatings Beautify Art; Spacesuit Materials Add Comfort to Undergarments; Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans; Satellite Maps Deliver More Realistic Gaming; Elemental Scanning Devices Authenticate Works of Art; Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change; Sensors Enable Plants to Text Message Farmers; Efficient Cells Cut the Cost of Solar Power; Shuttle Topography Data Inform Solar Power Analysis; Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces; Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems; Innovative Coatings Potentially Lower Facility Maintenance Costs; Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options; Web Solutions Inspire Cloud Computing Software; Behavior Prediction Tools Strengthen Nanoelectronics; Power Converters Secure Electronics in Harsh Environments; Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure; Archiving Innovations Preserve Essential Historical Records; Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry; Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

  4. Pre-feasibility analysis of wind energy for Inuvialuit region in Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, B.; Weis, T.; Pinard, J.P.

    2003-03-01

    A study examining opportunities and barriers for wind energy development in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories was presented. A review of previous studies examining the feasibility of wind energy in this region was also provided, as well as technical and socio-economic analyses on the displacement of diesel fuels by wind energy. Details of site visits and public meetings to discuss energy concerns were included. Four key locations for installing wind monitoring stations were determined. Interconnection issues and opportunities for wind energy into the local power grids were discussed. Geographic features of the various communities, as well as energy consumption details and wind climates were described. It was noted that there are special considerations for wind turbines in the North, and issues concerning icing and anti-icing technologies were examined. It was suggested that medium-scale wind turbines were the most appropriate size for the Inuvialuit region, due to low costs and ease of installation and redundancy. RETScreen software was used to develop an economic overview of the opportunities for wind energy systems in the 4 communities. Historical wind speed data collected at airports by Environment Canada was used in this analysis. Low and high penetration systems were evaluated. Results of the analysis indicated that wind generated electricity does not appear to be economically viable when compared solely to the displaced cost of diesel fuel. However, environmental factors make it a viable technology. It was concluded that there is potential for wind energy developments in the region, provided that sites are carefully selected. Cost estimates for the proposed wind-monitoring program were also included. 13 tabs., 15 figs

  5. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  6. High-Speed Imaging of a Water Droplet Impacting a Super Cold Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Narimane

    2016-08-01

    Frost formation is of a major research interest as it can affect many industrial processes. Frost appears as a thin deposit of ice crystals when the temperature of the surface is below the freezing point of the liquid. The objective of this research is to study icing with hope to propose new anti-icing and deicing methods. In the beginning of the research, cracking of the ice layer was observed when a deionized water droplet impacts a ?50 oC cooled sphere surface that is in contact with dry ice. To further investigate the cracks occurrence, multiple experiments were conducted. It was observed that the sphere surface temperature and droplet temperature (ranges from 10-80 oC) have no effect on the crack formation. On the other hand, it was observed that formation of a thin layer of frost on the sphere before the drop impact leads the lateral cracking of the ice. Thus, attempts to reproduce the cracks on clean super cold sphere surfaces were made using scratched and sandblasted spheres as well as superhydrophobized and polymer particle coated spheres. Furthermore, innovative methods were tried to initiate the cracks by placing epoxy glue bumps and ice-islands coatings on the surface of the spheres. All of these attempts to reproduce the crack formation without the presence of frost, failed. Nonetheless, the adding of isolated frost on the sphere surfaces always leads to the crack formation. Generally, frost forms on the small spheres faster than it does on the bigger ones. Additionally, the cold water droplet produces thicker water and ice layer compared to a hot water droplet; and the smaller the sphere the larger its water and ice layer thicknesses.

  7. Report on wind energy for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maissan, J.F. [Leading Edge Projects Inc., Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Wind energy projects can be economically viable in the north under a range of conditions when oil prices are in the range of $60 U.S. per barrel. Some of the requirements for economic viability include locations with economies of scale, availability of local equipment, availability of local technical human resources, access to reasonable transportation, and a committed community and project proponent. This paper presented the results of a study on wind energy in small northern communities. The objective of the paper was to provide an assessment of the feasibility of wind power to community leaders in diesel-dependant remote communities. The paper provided a review of wind power technologies including wind turbines; wind turbine towers; wind-diesel integration; wind penetration levels; anti-icing technology; suppliers of wind-diesel integration systems; and wind turbine manufacturers promoting wind-diesel systems. The paper also provided a review of the historical capital costs for the installation of wind projects; recommendations from project developers; project site selection criteria; as well as a simplified economic analyses for small communities. The paper also discussed the successful Kotzebue Alaska wind-diesel project as a model to follow. It described how to start a wind energy program with reference to the roles of the federal government, territorial governments and their power utilities. It was demonstrated that wind energy can be a cost effective option to reduce diesel generation requirements in the appropriate circumstances. It was concluded that deployment of wind energy in the north still needs to proceed on a carefully planned path beginning with leader projects and branching out from there. In addition, there is a need for good quality wind resource assessment at potential wind project locations in many communities in the north. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Dual-Functional Superhydrophobic Textiles with Asymmetric Roll-Down/Pinned States for Water Droplet Transportation and Oil-Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Zhang, Lin; Liao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhonghua; He, Jie; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-01-31

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with tunable adhesion from lotus-leaf to rose-petal states have generated much attention for their potential applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, oil-water separation, microdroplet transportation, and microfluidic devices. Herein we report a facile magnetic-field-manipulation strategy to fabricate dual-functional superhydrophobic textiles with asymmetric roll-down/pinned states on the two surfaces of the textile simultaneously. Upon exposure to a static magnetic field, fluoroalkylsilane-modified iron oxide (F-Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) moved along the magnetic field to construct discrepant hierarchical structures and roughnesses on the two sides of the textile. The positive surface (closer to the magnet, or P-surface) showed a water contact angle up to 165°, and the opposite surface (or O-surface) had a water contact angle of 152.5°. The P-surface where water droplets easily slid off with a sliding angle of 7.5° appeared in the "roll-down" state as Cassie mode, while the O-surface was in the "pinned" state as Wenzel mode, where water droplets firmly adhered even at vertical (90°) and inverted (180°) angles. The surface morphology and wetting mode were adjustable by varying the ratios of F-Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and PDMS. By taking advantage of the asymmetric adhesion behaviors, the as-fabricated superhydrophobic textile was successfully applied in no-loss microdroplet transportation and oil-water separation. Our method is simple and cost-effective. The fabricated textile has the characteristics of superhydrophobicity, magnetic responsiveness, excellent chemical stability, adjustable surface morphology, and controllable adhesion. Our findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate functional superhydrophobic materials with asymmetric surface properties for various potential applications.

  9. Biomimetic polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces and nanostructures: from fabrication to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gang; Guo, ZhiGuang; Liu, Weimin

    2017-03-09

    Numerous research studies have contributed to the development of mature superhydrophobic systems. The fabrication and applications of polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces have been discussed and these have attracted tremendous attention over the past few years due to their excellent properties. In general, roughness and chemical composition, the two most crucial factors with respect to surface wetting, provide the basic criteria for yielding polymeric superhydrophobic materials. Furthermore, with their unique properties and flexible configurations, polymers have been one of the most efficient materials for fabricating superhydrophobic materials. This review aims to summarize the most recent progress in polymeric superhydrophobic surfaces. Significantly, the fundamental theories for designing these materials will be presented, and the original methods will be introduced, followed by a summary of multifunctional superhydrophobic polymers and their applications. The principles of these methods can be divided into two categories: the first involves adding nanoparticles to a low surface energy polymer, and the other involves combining a low surface energy material with a textured surface, followed by chemical modification. Notably, surface-initiated radical polymerization is a versatile method for a variety of vinyl monomers, resulting in controlled molecular weights and low polydispersities. The surfaces produced by these methods not only possess superhydrophobicity but also have many applications, such as self-cleaning, self-healing, anti-icing, anti-bioadhesion, oil-water separation, and even superamphiphobic surfaces. Interestingly, the combination of responsive materials and roughness enhances the responsiveness, which allows the achievement of intelligent transformation between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. Nevertheless, surfaces with poor physical and chemical properties are generally unable to withstand the severe conditions of the outside world

  10. Robust Fluorine-Free Superhydrophobic Amino-Silicone Oil/SiO2 Modification of Electrospun Polyacrylonitrile Membranes for Waterproof-Breathable Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junlu; Xu, Yue; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-05-03

    Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes have attracted considerable interest owing to their multifunctional applications in self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion, outdoor tents, and protective clothing. Despite the researches pertaning to the construction of superhydrophobic functional membranes by nanoparticle finishing have increased drastically, the disconnected particle component is easy to fall off from the membranes under deformation and wear conditions, which has restricted their wide use in practice. Here, robust superhydrophobic microporous membranes were prepared via a facile and environmentally friendly strategy by dip-coating amino-silicone oil (ASO) onto the electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes, followed by SiO 2 nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs) blade coating. Compared with hydrophilic PAN membranes, the modified membranes exhibited superhydrophobic surface with an advancing water contact angle up to 156°, after introducing ASO as low surface energy substance and SiO 2 NPs as filler to reduce the pore size and construct the multihierarchical rough structure. Varying the concentrations of ASO and SiO 2 NPs systematically, the PAN electrospun membranes modified with 1 wt % ASO and 0.1 wt % SiO 2 NPs were endowed with good water-resistance (74.3 kPa), relative low thermal conductivity (0.0028 W m -1 K -1 ), modest vapor permeability (11.4 kg m -2 d -1 ), and air permeability (20.5 mm s -1 ). Besides, the inorganic-organic hybrid coating of ASO/SiO 2 NPs could maintain its superhydrophobicity even after 40 abrasion cycles. The resulting membranes were found to resist variations on the pH scale from 0 to 12, and retained their water repellent properties when exposed to harsh acidic and alkali conditions. This facile fabrication of durable fluorine-free superhydrophobic membranes simultaneous with good waterproof-breathable performance provides the advantages for potential applications in self-cleaning materials and versatile protective

  11. Robust Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Film with Lotus Leaf Mimetic Multiscale Hierarchical Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengwei; Zhao, Tianyi; Bian, Ruixin; Wang, Guangyan; Liu, Huan

    2017-12-26

    Superhydrophobic carbon nanotube (CNT) films have demonstrated many fascinating performances in versatile applications, especially for those involving solid/liquid interfacial processes, because of their ability to affect the material/energy transfer at interfaces. Thus, developing superhydrophobic CNTs has attracted extensive research interests in the past decades, and it could be achieved either by surface coating of low-free energy materials or by constructing micro/nanohierarchical structures via various complicated processes. So far, developing a simple approach to fabricate stable superhydrophobic CNTs remains a challenge because the capillary force induced coalescence frequently happens when interacting with liquid. Herein, drawing inspirations from the lotus leaf, we proposed a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition approach with programmable controlled gas flow to directly fabricate a CNT film with rather stable superhydrophobicity, which can effectively prevent even small water droplets from permeating into the film. The robust superhydrophobicity was attributable to typical lotus-leaf-like micro/nanoscale hierarchical surface structures of the CNT film, where many microscale clusters composed of entangled nanotubes randomly protrude out of the under-layer aligned nanotubes. Consequently, dual-scale air pockets were trapped within each microscale CNT cluster and between, which could largely reduce the liquid/solid interface, leading to a Cassie state. Moreover, the superhydrophobicity of the CNT film showed excellent durability after long time exposure to air and even to corrosive liquids with a wide range of pH values. We envision that the approach developed is advantageous for versatile physicochemical interfacial processes, such as drag reduction, electrochemical catalysis, anti-icing, and biosensors.

  12. Super-hydrophobic self-cleaning bead-like SiO2@PTFE nanofiber membranes for waterproof-breathable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yueyao; Ju, Jingge; Deng, Nanping; Zhou, Xinghai; Yan, Jing; Kang, Weimin; Cheng, Bowen

    2018-06-01

    Superhydrophobic waterproof-breathable membranes, which possess a huge superiority in multi-functional applications including self-cleaning, anti-icing, anticorrosion and protective clothing, have aroused considerable attention owing to their excellent performance. Herein, the robust superhydrophobic microporous fibrous membranes were efficiently prepared via a facile and environmental-friendly electro-blown spinning (EBS) technique followed by calcination. Compared with hydrophobic pure PTFE fibrous membranes, the bead-like SiO2@PTFE nanofiber membranes (BLNFMs) exhibited superhydrophobic surface with the advancing water angle (θadv) and the water contact angle (WCA) up to 161° and 155°, respectively. The SiO2 nanoparticles were introduced as fillers which can alter the pore structure and form the multilevel rough surface. The BLNFMs could maintain superhydrophobic surface even after abrasion for 30 times or exposing to a strong corrosive solution with PH from 0 to 12 for 24 h. Besides, the BLNFMs were endowed with the modest vapor permeability (9.7 kg·m-2·d-1) and air permeability (7.2 mm·s-1) when the concentration of SiO2 nanoparticles reached to 7.3 wt%. In addition, a potential relationship among θadv, maximum pore size (dmax) and breathability (effective breathing area) was proposed in order to design the waterproof-breathable membranes with excellent properties. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic membranes with durable self-cleaning property provided the advantages of potential applications in the fields of membrane distillation, versatile protective clothing, etc.

  13. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Hu, Y.M., E-mail: yongmaohu@163.com [College of Engineering, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China); Wang, L.; Li, Zh.H.; Shen, T. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhu, Y., E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xiang, J.Zh., E-mail: jzhxiang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an approach of chemical etching and low surface energy material modification. • The process of chemical etching and hot water bathing were optimized to obtain desirable hierarchical micro/nanoscale structures. • The surface morphology, chemistry and wetting properties of the as-prepared aluminum surfaces were characterized and discussed. • The mechanical robustness and chemical stability of the as-prepared superamphiphobic Al surfaces were tested and evaluated. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO{sub 4} and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti

  14. Suppression of Frost Nucleation Achieved Using the Nanoengineered Integral Humidity Sink Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoda; Rykaczewski, Konrad

    2017-01-24

    coatings can be designed to combine optimal antifrosting functionality with a superhydrophobic water repelling exterior to provide coatings that can robustly prevent frost, rime, and glaze accumulation. By minimizing the required amount of antifreeze, this anti-icing method can have minimal operational cost and environmental impact.

  15. Bioinspired Materials for Controlling Ice Nucleation, Growth, and Recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiyuan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Jianjun

    2018-05-15

    Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization. In addition, AFP mimics can have applications in cryopreservation of cells, tissues, and organs, food storage, and anti-icing materials. Therefore, continuous efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of AFPs and design AFP inspired materials. In this Account, we first review our recent research progress in understanding the mechanism of AFPs in controlling ice formation. A Janus effect of AFPs on ice nucleation was discovered, which was achieved via selectively tethering the ice-binding face (IBF) or the non-ice-binding face (NIBF) of AFPs to solid surfaces and investigating specifically the effect of the other face on ice nucleation. Through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis, we observed ordered hexagonal ice-like water structure atop the IBF and disordered water structure atop the NIBF. Therefore, we conclude that the interfacial water plays a critical role in controlling ice formation. Next, we discuss the design and fabrication of AFP mimics with capabilities in tuning ice nucleation and controlling ice shape and growth, as well as inhibiting ice recrystallization. For example, we tuned ice nucleation via modifying solid surfaces with supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) and polyelectrolyte brushes (PBs) with different counterions. We found graphene oxide (GO) and oxidized quasi

  16. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, R.; Hu, Y.M.; Wang, L.; Li, Zh.H.; Shen, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, J.Zh.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an approach of chemical etching and low surface energy material modification. • The process of chemical etching and hot water bathing were optimized to obtain desirable hierarchical micro/nanoscale structures. • The surface morphology, chemistry and wetting properties of the as-prepared aluminum surfaces were characterized and discussed. • The mechanical robustness and chemical stability of the as-prepared superamphiphobic Al surfaces were tested and evaluated. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO 4 and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, oil

  17. Geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Ginsbach, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is studying the fate and transport of waste solutes in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho. This effort requires an understanding of the natural and anthropogenic geochemistry of groundwater at the INL and of the important physical and chemical processes controlling the geochemistry. In this study, the USGS applied geochemical modeling to investigate the geochemistry of groundwater in the Beaver and Camas Creek drainage basins, which provide groundwater recharge to the ESRP aquifer underlying the northeastern part of the INL. Data used in this study include petrology and mineralogy from 2 sediment and 3 rock samples, and water-quality analyses from 4 surface-water and 18 groundwater samples. The mineralogy of the sediment and rock samples was analyzed with X-ray diffraction, and the mineralogy and petrology of the rock samples were examined in thin sections. The water samples were analyzed for field parameters, major ions, silica, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, tritium, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Groundwater geochemistry was influenced by reactions with rocks of the geologic terranes—carbonate rocks, rhyolite, basalt, evaporite deposits, and sediment comprised of all of these rocks. Agricultural practices near and south of Dubois and application of road anti-icing liquids on U.S. Interstate Highway 15 were likely sources of nitrate, chloride, calcium, and magnesium to groundwater. Groundwater geochemistry was successfully modeled in the alluvial aquifer in Camas Meadows and the ESRP fractured basalt aquifer using the geochemical modeling code PHREEQC. The primary geochemical processes appear to be precipitation or dissolution of calcite and dissolution of silicate minerals. Dissolution of evaporite minerals, associated with Pleistocene Lake

  18. Validation Ice Crystal Icing Engine Test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) is an existing altitude simulation jet engine test facility located at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH. It was modified in 2012 with the integration of an ice crystal cloud generation system. This paper documents the inaugural ice crystal cloud test in PSL--the first ever full scale, high altitude ice crystal cloud turbofan engine test to be conducted in a ground based facility. The test article was a Lycoming ALF502-R5 high bypass turbofan engine, serial number LF01. The objectives of the test were to validate the PSL ice crystal cloud calibration and engine testing methodologies by demonstrating the capability to calibrate and duplicate known flight test events that occurred on the same LF01 engine and to generate engine data to support fundamental and computational research to investigate and better understand the physics of ice crystal icing in a turbofan engine environment while duplicating known revenue service events and conducting test points while varying facility and engine parameters. During PSL calibration testing it was discovered than heated probes installed through tunnel sidewalls experienced ice buildup aft of their location due to ice crystals impinging upon them, melting and running back. Filtered city water was used in the cloud generation nozzle system to provide ice crystal nucleation sites. This resulted in mineralization forming on flow path hardware that led to a chronic degradation of performance during the month long test. Lacking internal flow path cameras, the response of thermocouples along the flow path was interpreted as ice building up. Using this interpretation, a strong correlation between total water content (TWC) and a weaker correlation between median volumetric diameter (MVD) of the ice crystal cloud and the rate of ice buildup along the instrumented flow path was identified. For this test article the engine anti-ice system was required to be turned on before ice crystal

  19. Contribution a l'etude et a la conception d'une machine synchrone a flux transverse destinee au degivrage d'aeronefs en cours de vol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussetoua, Mohammed

    During winter, the climate in the northern region is known for its icing and freezing conditions. However, emergency services often use helicopters to reach isolated locations. The difficult situations, generally experiences in the North particularly in Quebec, may prevent rescuers to intervene. The main reason preventing such operations is the lack of a de-icing system in the small helicopter blades. The overall objective of the project is research, development, design and manufacture of a system composed of an on-board rotating low speed generator and heating elements. It consumes a part of the power supplied by the turbine through the axis of the main rotor of the small aircraft and converts it to electrical power to be used by the heating elements. This innovation will allow to fly safely everywhere throughout the year protect the lives of the users even in the worst weather conditions. Firstly, the research focuses on the identification of problems related to the use of protection systems against the hoarfrost on main rotor blades of different aircrafts during flight. In this phase, we specifically focused on the difficulties encountered by the aircraft companies using the existing and operational systems for protection against hoarfrost. Main rotor blades are difficult to protect on helicopters. Several systems were considered by the helicopter manufacturers, such as electrothermal systems, pneumatic systems or using anti-icing fluids. In the current state of technological knowledge, all helicopters that have been certified to fly in icing conditions use electrothermal systems for protection against hoarfrost on their main rotor Small helicopters addressed by this work, are forbidden to fly in icing conditions due to lack of energy source to operate these systems. The electrothermal system has been considered for this thesis work to protect the main rotor blades of small aircraft in-flight. The second part of this thesis is based on the source of power

  20. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  1. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Snake River alluvial aquifer at Jackson Hole Airport, Jackson, Wyoming, water years 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    -benzotriazole, and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole. Triazoles are anthropogenic compounds often used as an additive in deicing and anti-icing fluids as a corrosion inhibitor, and can be detected at lower laboratory reporting levels than glycols, which previously had not been detected. Two of the three triazoles measured, 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected at low concentrations in groundwater at 7 of the 10 wells sampled. The detection of triazole compounds in groundwater downgradient from airport operations makes it unlikely there is a natural cause for the high rates of reduction present in many airport monitor wells. It is more likely that aircraft deicers, anti-icers, or pavement deicers have seeped into the groundwater system and caused the reducing conditions.