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Sample records for anti emetic effect

  1. Nausea and the quest for the perfect anti-emetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Paul L R; Sanger, Gareth J

    2014-01-05

    The discovery of anti-emetic agents is reviewed to illustrate the large database (>129,000 papers in PubMed) available for potential data mining and to provide a background to the shift in interest to nausea from vomiting. Research on nausea extends to identification of biomarkers for diagnosis/clinical trials and to understanding why nausea is such a common dose-limiting toxicity of diverse therapeutic agents. The lessons learned for translation from animals to humans, from the discovery of the anti-vomiting effects of 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists, is discussed in terms of the similarities between the emetic pathways and their pharmacology, and also in terms of the limitations of rodent models of "nausea" (pica, conditioned taste aversion, conditioned gaping and disgust). The review focuses on the established view that anti-emetics are more efficacious against vomiting than nausea. In particular we examine studies of 5-HT3, NK1 and D2 receptor antagonists, gabapentin and various receptor agonists. The potential for targeting anti-nausea agents is then considered, by targeting mechanisms which correct delayed gastric emptying (prokinetics), the rise in plasma vasopressin (AVP) and/or act at central targets revealed by the growing knowledge of cortical regions activated/inhibited in subjects reporting nausea. Modulation of the projections from the brainstem to the cortical areas responsible for the genesis of the sensation of nausea provides the most likely approach to a target at which an anti-nausea drug could be targeted with the expectation that it would affect nausea from multiple causes.

  2. The Anti-Emetic Properties of 1-Sulpiride in a Ground-Based Model of Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph D.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    L-sulpiride, at a dose of 4 mg/kg, essentially abolished motion- induced emesis in a group of 6 squirrel monkeys undergoing horizontal rotation at 25 rpm, a terrestrial model of space motion sickness (SMS). Extrapyramidal side effects were not observed. In the absence of the drug, the usual emetic response returned. In comparison while typical neuroleptics were also strongly anti-emetic, they produced a considerable degree of rigidity and akinesia.

  3. EVALUATION OF CISPLATIN-INDUCED PICA BEHAVIOUR IN RATS BY MEASURING FAECAL CARMINE-DYE EXCRETION: AN IMPROVED EXPERIMENTAL MODEL TO SCREEN SAMPLES WITH ANTI-EMETIC PROPERTIES

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    Rajesh S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to evaluate the Cisplatin-induced pica behaviour in rats by measuring faecal carmine dye excretion and to evaluate the anti-emetic effect of drugs on Cisplatin-induced pica behaviour in rats. Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each. Rats from group I and II received DM water (10ml/kg p.o. Rats from group III and IV received Himalaya Anti-emetic Tablets (HAT 250 mg/kg p.o. and ondansetron 4mg/kg p.o, respectively. After one hour of the assigned treatment, all the animals except in group I were injected with Cisplatin 3mg/kg i.p. Rats in group I were injected with saline (1ml/kg i.p.. All the animals were fed with normal as well as kaolin pellets (impregnated with carmine dye. The faeces of each rat was collected after 72 hrs of drug administration and analysed for the carmine content.Cisplatin injection (3mg/kg caused a significant increase in kaolin consumption, which was indicated by increased carmine dye excretion in faeces compared to control. Pre-treatment with HAT and ondansetron significantly suppressed kaolin consumption induced by Cisplatin. The present findings showed that the exact kaolin consumption can be quantified by measuring the faecal excretion of carmine, which was added in kaolin pellets and this can be a sensitive model to study the anti-emetic potential of drugs, overcoming the inherent disadvantages of measuring direct kaolin intake. Pre-treatment with ondansetron and HAT significantly decreased kaolin consumption in rats-induced by Cisplatin injection, which was further shown by decrease in faecal excretion of carmine, indicating anti-emetic potential of tested drugs.

  4. Value of mink vomit model in study of anti-emetic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhang; Lei Wang; Zhi-Hong Yang; Zhan-Tao Liu; Wang Yue

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a new, reliable vomit model of minks.METHODS: Adult male minks were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=6): cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg)intraperitoneal injection (ip) group, copper sulfate (40mg/kg) intragastric injection (ig) group, apomorphine (1.6 mg/kg) subcutaneous injection (sc) group, and 18Gy whole-body X-irradiation group, ondansetron injection group (2 mg/kg ip) 30 min later followed by cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg) ip, normal saline (NS) ip injection control group, metoclopramide injection group (4 mg/kg ip) 30min later followed by apomorphine (1.6 mg/kg) sc, NS ig control group. The frequency of retching and vomiting was calculated. After behavioral experiment, distribution of 5-HT in the ileum was detected by immunohistologic method.RESULTS: Cisplatin, apomorphine, copper sulfate and X-irradiation administered to minks evoked a profound emetic response in the animals. However, retching and vomiting were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with ondansetron and metoclopramide in cisplatin and copper sulfate groups (P=0.018). Immunohistologic result showed that 5-HT released from enterochromaffin cells (EC cells) was involved in vomiting mechanism.CONCLUSION: Mink vomit model has a great value in studying the vomiting mechanism and screening new antiemetic drugs.

  5. Formulation development and evaluation of medicated chewing gum of anti-emetic drug

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    Mansi Paradkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicated chewing gum (MCG of Domperidone Maleate (DM was developed by direct compression method with the goal to achieve quick onset of action and to improve patient compliance. Objective: Formulation development of MCG of DM and optimization of the formulation by screening of different excipients. Material and methods: MCG containing DM was prepared by screening different concentrations of sweeteners, flavouring agents, softening agents, lubricants and anti-adherents by changing one variable at a time. Performance evaluation was carried out by evaluating size, shape, thickness, taste, scanning electron microscopy, texture analysis, in vivo drug release study, ex vivo buccal permeation study and by studying statistical analysis for quality. Results and discussion: The statistical analysis showed significant improvement in organoleptic properties such as chewable mass, product taste, product consistency, product softness, total flavour lasting time and pharmaceutical properties like micromeritic properties after incorporation of appropriate excipients in an optimum amount in final optimized MCG formulation. In vivo drug release study showed 97% DM release whereas ex vivo buccal permeation study through goat buccal mucosa exhibited 11.27% DM permeation within 15 min indicating its potential for increasing bioavailability by decreasing time of onset. The optimized formulation showed good surface properties and the peak load required for drug release was found to be acceptable for crumbling action. Conclusion: The developed formulation of medicated chewing gum can be a better alternative to mouth dissolving and conventional tablet formulation. It may be proved as a promising approach to improve the bioavailability as well as to improve patient compliance.

  6. The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast improves memory in rodents at non-emetic doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Creemers, Pim; Akkerman, Sven; van Duinen, Marlies; Sambeth, Anke; De Vry, Jochen; Uz, Tolga; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-04-15

    Enhancement of central availability of the second messenger cAMP is a promising approach to improve cognitive function. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), a group of cAMP hydrolyzing enzymes in the brain, has been shown to improve cognitive performances in rodents and monkeys. However, inhibition of PDE4 is generally associated with severe emetic side-effects. Roflumilast, an FDA-approved PDE4 inhibitor for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is yielding only mild emetic side effects. In the present study we investigate the potential of roflumilast as a cognition enhancer and to determine the potential coinciding emetic response in comparison to rolipram, a classic PDE4 inhibitor with pronounced emetic effects. Cognition enhancement was evaluated in mice and it was found that both roflumilast and rolipram enhanced memory in an object location task (0.03mg/kg), whereas only roflumilast was effective in a spatial Y-maze (0.1mg/kg). Emetic potential was measured using competition of PDE4 inhibition for α2-adrenergic receptor antagonism in which recovery from xylazine/ketamine-mediated anesthesia is used as a surrogate marker. While rolipram displayed emetic properties at a dose 10 times the memory-enhancing dose, roflumilast only showed increased emetic-like properties at a dose 100 times the memory-enhancing dose. Moreover, combining sub-efficacious doses of the approved cognition-enhancer donepezil and roflumilast, which did not improve memory when given alone, fully restored object recognition memory deficit in rats induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. These findings suggest that roflumilast offers a more favorable window for treatment of cognitive deficits compared to rolipram.

  7. Food–bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain. PMID:26236290

  8. Food-bacteria interplay: pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Frenzel, Elrike; Gohar, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces non-ribosomal peptide synthetase). The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the B. anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion, and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic B. cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  9. Food – bacteria interplay: Pathometabolism of emetic Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhling-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive endospore forming bacterium known for its wide spectrum of phenotypic traits, enabling it to occupy diverse ecological niches. Although the population structure of B. cereus is highly dynamic and rather panmictic, production of the emetic B. cereus toxin cereulide is restricted to strains with specific genotypic traits, associated with distinct environmental habitats. Cereulide is an ionophoric dodecadepsipeptide that is produced non-ribosomally by an enzyme complex with an unusual modular structure, named cereulide synthetase (Ces NRPS. The ces gene locus is encoded on a mega virulence plasmid related to the Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1. Cereulide, a highly thermo- and pH- resistant molecule, is preformed in food, evokes vomiting a few hours after ingestion and was shown to be the direct cause of gastroenteritis symptoms; occasionally it is implicated in severe clinical manifestations including acute liver failures. Control of toxin gene expression in emetic Bacillus cereus involves central transcriptional regulators, such as CodY and AbrB, thereby inextricably linking toxin gene expression to life cycle phases and specific conditions, such as the nutrient supply encountered in food matrices. While in recent years considerable progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterization of cereulide toxin synthesis, far less is known about the embedment of toxin synthesis in the life cycle of B. cereus. Information about signals acting on toxin production in the food environment is literally lacking. We summarize the data available on the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide toxin synthesis, discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors acting on toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus and stress how unraveling these processes can lead to the development of novel effective strategies to prevent toxin synthesis in the food production and processing chain.

  10. Evaluation of the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Cereulide from an Emetic Bacillus cereus Strain of Milk Origin

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    Yifang Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic foodborne agent causing food poisoning and many infectious diseases. The heat-stable emetic toxin cereulide is one of the most prevalent toxins produced by pathogenic B. cereus, resulting in symptoms such as emesis and liver failure. In the present work, the toxicity and toxicokinetics of cereulide from an emetic B. cereus isolate (CAU45 of raw milk were evaluated. The production of cereulide was tested by a cytotoxicity test and enzyme immunoassay, and confirmed by the presence of the ces (cereulide synthetase gene and the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method. All results showed that the amount and toxicity of cereulide produced by CAU45 was 7 to 15.3 folds higher than the reference emetic B. cereus DSMZ 4312. Cereulide in plasma was collected at different time points after a single intravenous injection to evaluate its toxicokinetics in rabbits. The maximum concentration of cereulide was achieved in 2.6 ± 3.4 h after administration, with the elimination half-life of 10.8 ± 9.1 h, which expands our understanding of the toxic effects of cereulide. Together, it suggests that urgent sanitary practices are needed to eliminate emetic toxins and emetic B. cereus in raw milk.

  11. Evaluation of the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Cereulide from an Emetic Bacillus cereus Strain of Milk Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoye; Xia, Xi; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-06-06

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic foodborne agent causing food poisoning and many infectious diseases. The heat-stable emetic toxin cereulide is one of the most prevalent toxins produced by pathogenic B. cereus, resulting in symptoms such as emesis and liver failure. In the present work, the toxicity and toxicokinetics of cereulide from an emetic B. cereus isolate (CAU45) of raw milk were evaluated. The production of cereulide was tested by a cytotoxicity test and enzyme immunoassay, and confirmed by the presence of the ces (cereulide synthetase) gene and the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. All results showed that the amount and toxicity of cereulide produced by CAU45 was 7 to 15.3 folds higher than the reference emetic B. cereus DSMZ 4312. Cereulide in plasma was collected at different time points after a single intravenous injection to evaluate its toxicokinetics in rabbits. The maximum concentration of cereulide was achieved in 2.6 ± 3.4 h after administration, with the elimination half-life of 10.8 ± 9.1 h, which expands our understanding of the toxic effects of cereulide. Together, it suggests that urgent sanitary practices are needed to eliminate emetic toxins and emetic B. cereus in raw milk.

  12. Cat assay for the emetic action of digitalis and related glycosides (digitoxin, digoxin, lanatoside C, ouabain and calactin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J A; Summers, R J

    1971-05-01

    1. A titration assay with two end points is described for comparison of the emetic and lethal potencies of digitalis-like drugs.2. A drug was infused at constant rate to a conscious, unrestrained cat, through an indwelling venous cannula. At the moment of vomiting the cat was rapidly anaesthetized and infusion continued at the same rate until the moment of cardiac arrest.3. With very slow and very fast infusions, the emetic and lethal doses tended to rise. In the range between these extremes (which varied from drug to drug) they were independent of time.4. The observations could be accounted for by analogue computation, assuming that the drugs entered an initial pool and were distributed at finite rates to receptors in the CNS (vomiting centre) and heart.5. Half times of metabolic loss derived from this computation for digitoxin, digoxin and ouabain (17, 9.9 and 1.8 h, respectively) were in the same ratio as the threefold longer half times reported for these drugs in man.6. When measured with infusion rates in the time independent range, the ratio of lethal to emetic doses did not vary between the drugs studied. All caused vomiting at 40% of the lethal dose.7. From a review of the literature, the emetic and cardiotoxic actions of digitalis-like drugs appear inseparable and probably share a common biochemical mechanism.8. It is concluded that foreseeable improvements in digitalis-like drugs are small and would depend on the elimination of any local emetic effect on gut receptors which they may have.

  13. Investigation of EM Emissions by the Electrodynamic Tether, Inclusive of an Observational Program (EMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    Our TSS-1/R investigation, which we shall refer to as EMET in this report, was an integral part of the effort by the TSS-1/R Investigators' Working Group (IWG) to come to an understanding of the complex interaction between the tethered satellite system and the ionosphere. All of the space-borne experiments were designed to collect data relevant to the local interaction. Only the ground- based experiments, EMET and its Italian counterpart Observations on the Earth's Surface of Electromagnetic Emissions (OESEE), held out any hope of characterizing the long range effects of the interaction. This was to be done by detecting electromagnetic waves generated by the system in the ionosphere, assuming the signal reached the Earth's surface with sufficient amplitude. As the type of plasma waves excited to carry charge away from the charge-exchange regions of the system at each end of the tether is one of the theoretical points about which there is greatest disagreement, a definitive identification of tether-generated waves could mark significant progress in the so-called current closure problem of electrodynamic tethers. Dr. Mario Grossi of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) initiated the investigation, and his experience in the field of ULF-ELF waves and their detection was invaluable throughout its course. Rice University had the responsibility of setting up the EMET ULF-VLF ground stations under a subcontract from SAO. Principal Investigator (PI) for the Rice effort was Prof. William E. Gordon, who was primary observer at the Arecibo Observatory during TSS-LR. Dr. Steve Noble handled major day-to-day operations, training, and planning for the ground-based measurements. Dr. James McCoy of NASA JSC, a member of the Mona/Arecibo team, was pilot for the numerous flights ferrying personnel and equipment between Puerto Rico and Mona Island. Final responsibility for the measurements rested with SAO, and the activities of field personnel and SAO investigators were

  14. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

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    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  15. Effect of dexamethasone on emesis after morphine administration in animal model

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    Mehdi Marjani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background & Objective: Morphine is commonly used to relieve moderate to severe pain, but some side effects include vomiting. The Objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-emetic properties of dexamethasone in animal models receiving morphine.   Materials & Methods: In a clinical study fourteen cross breed dogs that were 2 and 4 years old were assigned to two equals groups. The Treatment group received dexamethasone (1 mg/kg intra muscularly, 60 minutes prior to morphine administration. The Control group received 2 cc of saline intra muscularly (IM, 60 minutes prior to morphine administration. After 60 minutes all dogs received morphine (1 mg/kg intra muscularly. After morphine was administrated all dogs were observed for 1 hour to allow assessment of frequency of emesis and time until the onset of the first emetic episode and then they were compared accordingly.   Results: The Mean ± SD for the first emetic episode in the treatment group was 266 ± 49. The same number was  197.6 ± 31.84 in the control group. There was no statistically significant deference for the time of the first emetic episode between treatment and control group (P = 0.23. There was no statistically significant deference for the number of emetic episodes between the treatment and control group (P = 0.16. There was no statistically significant deference for the weight of the dogs between the treatment and control groups (P = 0.95.    Conclusion: in the current study, the administration of dexamethasone 1 hour before administrating morphine was not able to significantly affect the frequency of emetic episodes or the time period before the occurrence of the first emetic episode. 

  16. Emetic and Electric Shock Alcohol Aversion Therapy: Six- and Twelve-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Dale S.; Baker, Timothy B.

    1981-01-01

    Follow-up data are presented for 6- and 12-months on male alcoholics (N=20) who received either a multifaceted inpatient alcoholism treatment program alone (controls) or emetic or shock aversion therapy in addition to that program. Both emetic and control subjects compiled more days of abstinence than shock subjects. (Author)

  17. Comparison of enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between emetic and enterotoxic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Kim, Jai-Moung; Kim, So-Yeong; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Park, Yong-Bae; Choi, Na-Jung; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-07-01

    Bacillus cereus was divided into emetic toxin (cereulide)- and enterotoxin-producing strains, but emetic toxin-producing B. cereus is difficult to detect immunochemically. Screening methods for emetic toxin-producing B. cereus are needed. The objectives of this study were to identify and detect emetic toxin-producing B. cereus among 160 B. cereus strains, and to compare enterotoxin production and phenotypic characteristics between the emetic toxin-producing and enterotoxin-producing strains. Forty emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains were determined with high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Among the emetic toxin-producing strains (n = 40), 31 (77.5%) and 3 (7.5%) strains produced nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and hemolysin BL (HBL) enterotoxins, respectively. In addition, 107 (89.2%) and 100 (83.3%) strains produced NHE and HBL enterotoxins among the enterotoxin-producing strains (n = 120). The number of strains positive for starch hydrolysis, salicin fermentation, and hemolysis among the emetic toxin-producing strains were 3 (7.5%), 3 (7.5%), and 26 (65.0%), respectively, and among enterotoxin-producing strains, these numbers were 101 (84.2%), 100 (83.3%), and 111 (92.5%), respectively. In particular, the three emetic toxin-producing B. cereus strains (JNHE 6, JNHE 36, and KNIH 28) produced the HBL and NHE enterotoxins and were capable of starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation. The absence of HBL enterotoxin and certain phenotypic properties, such as starch hydrolysis and salicin fermentation, indicates that these properties were not critical characteristics of the emetic toxin-producing B. cereus tested in this study.

  18. Consensus recommendations for the prevention of vomiting and nausea following high-emetic-risk chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kris, Mark G; Tonato, Maurizio; Bria, Emilio;

    2011-01-01

    superior in emesis prevention, while adverse effects were comparable. Furthermore, for all classes of antiemetic agents, a single dose is as effective as multiple doses or a continuous infusion. The oral route is as efficacious as the intravenous route of administration.......In this update of our 2005 document, we used an evidence-based approach whenever possible to formulate recommendations, emphasizing the results of controlled trials concerning the best use of antiemetic agents for the prevention of emesis and nausea following anticancer chemotherapies of high...... emetic risk. A three-drug combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and aprepitant beginning before chemotherapy and continuing for up to 4 days remains the standard of care. We address issues of dose, schedule, and route of administration of five...

  19. Sensitivity of Hep G2 cells to Bacillus cereus emetic toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Yoichi; Kanno, Shinji; Mizutani, Noriko; Agata, Norio; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2012-11-01

    We herein examined the sensitivity of Hep G2 human hepatoma cells to Bacillus cereus emetic toxin. Hep G2 cells were treated with the emetic toxin, and the cell shape was observed. The same experiments were performed for comparison purposes, using HEp-2 cells, which are currently used by most laboratories for a bioassay of the emetic toxin. Hep G2 cells showed clearer vacuolation in the cytosol within 2 hr and required a shorter incubation period than HEp-2 cells (10 hr). The number of vacuoles in the Hep G2 cells was greater, and the size of the vacuoles was larger than those observed in HEp-2 cells. The minimal concentration of the emetic toxin required to induce the vacuolation of Hep G2 cells was 0.04 ng/ml. The concentration for the HEp-2 cells was 1 ng/ml. These findings indicate that Hep G2 cells show higher sensitivity to the emetic toxin. Hep G2 cells may be superior to the currently used HEp-2 cells for the bioassay of the emetic toxin.

  20. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, G; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Suja, S R; Sini, S; Shyama, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-05-01

    Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro. Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 microg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 microg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity.

  1. An emetic Bacillus cereus outbreak in a kindergarten: detection and quantification of critical levels of cereulide toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbrassinne, Laurence; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Dierick, Katelijne; Denayer, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    A Bacillus cereus-related emetic outbreak was reported in a Belgian kindergarten. High levels of emetic B. cereus (>1.5E+07 colony-forming units/g) were detected in the food leftovers, and the presence of an emetic strain was confirmed in feces. Emetic toxin levels ranging up to 4.2 μg/g were also quantified in the leftovers by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)) analysis. Those levels, although moderate in comparison with earlier published intoxications, provoked profuse-vomiting episodes in 20 toddlers aged between 10 and 18 months. Few studies have focused on the levels of emetic toxin implicated in food intoxications. This publication emphasizes the importance of defining toxic doses of emetic toxin among high-risk population groups.

  2. Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Li, H.; Shen, Y. F.; Yuan, X. Z.; Zi, J.

    2010-01-01

    The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges (~10-15 m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.

  3. Environment driven cereulide production by emetic strains of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaie-Constantin, Camelia; Shaheen, Ranad; Andrup, Lars; Smidt, Lasse; Rita, Hannu; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2008-09-30

    The impacts of growth media and temperature on production of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus, were measured for seven well characterised strains selected for diversity of biochemical and genetic properties and sources of origin. All strains carried cereulide synthase gene, ces, on a megaplasmid of ca. 200 kb and all grew up to 48-50 degrees C, but produced cereulide only up to 39 degrees C. On tryptic soy agar five strains, originating from foods, food poisonings and environment, produced highest amounts of cereulide at 23 to 28 degrees C, whereas two strains, from human faeces, produced cereulide similarly from 23 to 39 degrees C, with no clear temperature trend. These two strains differed from the others also by producing more cereulide on tryptic soy agar if supplemented with 5 vol.% of blood, whereas the other five strains produced similarly, independent on the presence of blood. On oatmeal agar only one strain produced major amounts of cereulide. On skim milk agar, raw milk agar, and MacConkey agar most strains grew well but produced only low amounts of cereulide. Three media components, the ratio [K+]:[Na+], contents of glycine and [Na+], appeared of significance for predicting cereulide production. Increase of [K+]:[Na+] (focal variable) predicted (P cereus in a complex manner. The relevance of the findings to production of cereulide in the gut and to the safety of amino acids as additives in foods containing live toxinogenic organisms is discussed.

  4. Chemodiversity of cereulide, the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Lücking, Genia; Pürstinger, Gabriel; Pohl, Elena E; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Food-borne intoxications are increasingly caused by the dodecadepsipeptide cereulide, the emetic toxin produced by Bacillus cereus. As such intoxications pose a health risk to humans, a more detailed understanding on the chemodiversity of this toxin is mandatory for the reliable risk assessment of B. cereus toxins in foods. Mass spectrometric screening now shows a series of at least 18 cereulide variants, among which the previously unknown isocereulides A-G were determined for the first time by means of UPLC-TOF MS and ion-trap MS(n) sequencing, (13)C-labeling experiments, and post-hydrolytic dipeptide and enantioselective amino acid analysis. The data demonstrate a high microheterogeneity in cereulide and show evidence for a relaxed proof reading function of the non-ribosomal cereulide peptide synthetase complex giving rise to an enhanced cereulide chemodiversity. Most intriguingly, the isocereulides were found to differ widely in their cell toxicity correlating with their ionophoric properties (e.g., purified isocereulide A showed about 8-fold higher cytotoxicity than purified cereulide in the HEp-2 assay and induced an immediate breakdown of bilayer membranes). These findings provide a substantial contribution to the knowledge-based risk assessment of B. cereus toxins in foods, representing a still unsolved challenge in the field of food intoxications.

  5. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Definition: The Konjac plant comes from the genus Amorphophallus. Japanese food uses Konjac cake. Konjac contains almost no calories and a great amount of dietary fiber. Here, we reviewed possible anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, using the search Pubmed ®. Konjac ingestion is likely beneficially associated with obesity, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism. However, evidence is lacking on the relationship between konjac ingestion and development of atherosclerotic diseases. To more fully understand the anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, future studies, preferably with larger numbers of subjects, will be performed.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of (+)-pinitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Pandey, B L; Tripathi, M; Pandey, V B

    2001-02-01

    In the carrageenin-induced paw oedema in rats, (+)-pinitol (2.5-10 mg/kg, i.p.), isolated from Abies pindrow leaves, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect, the highest dose being comparable to phenylbutazone (100 mg/kg, i.p.).

  7. Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G; Yuan, X Z [School of Physics and Electric Information, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Li, H [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Shen, Y F [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Zi, J [National Laboratory of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: gz_wang131@yahoo.cn

    2010-01-15

    The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges ({approx}10{sup -15} m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.

  8. Toxin Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Molecular Characterization of Emetic Toxin-Producing Bacillus cereus Group Isolates from Human Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Kyung; Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Ok, Gyeongsik; Lee, Nari

    2015-11-01

    Emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus group species are an important problem, because the staple food for Korean is grains such as rice. In this study, we determined the prevalence (24 of 129 isolates) of emetic B. cereus in 36,745 stool samples from sporadic food-poisoning cases in Korea between 2007 and 2008. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and biofilm-forming ability of the emetic B. cereus isolates were investigated. Repetitive element sequence polymorphism polymerase chain reaction fingerprints (rep-PCR) were also used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Emetic B. cereus was present in 0.07% of the sporadic food-poisoning cases. The 24 emetic isolates identified all carried the nheABC and entFM genes and produced NHE enterotoxin. However, they did not have hemolysin BL toxin or related genes. A relationship between biofilm formation and toxin production was not observed in this study. The rep-PCR fingerprints of the B. cereus isolates were not influenced by the presence of toxin genes, or biofilm-forming ability. The rep-PCR assay discriminated emetic B. cereus isolates from nonemetic isolates, even if this assay did not perfectly discriminate these isolates. Further study on emetic isolates possessing a high degree of diversity may be necessary to evaluate the performance of the subtyping assay to discriminate emetic and nonemetic B. cereus isolates and could provide a more accurate indication of the risk from B. cereus strains.

  9. Sporulation environment of emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus strains determines spore size, heat resistance and germination capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Heat resistance, germination and outgrowth capacity of Bacillus cereus spores in processed foods are major factors in causing the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, we aim to identify the impact of different sporulation conditions on spore properties of emetic toxin-producin

  10. Acute oxycodone induces the pro-emetic pica response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Vinita R; Schrott, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid analgesic, is frequently prescribed for the management of pain. Side effects of nausea and emesis affect patient compliance and limit its therapeutic use. The present study established that an antinociceptive dose of oxycodone (15 mg/kg; oral) induces the pica response. We found sex differences in the temporal course of pica, with females having a longer duration. Opioid receptors mediated the pica response, as 1.0 mg/kg naloxone transiently attenuated and 2.0 mg/kg naloxone blocked pica. A κ-selective antagonist failed to block the response, suggesting mediation by μ opioid receptor. For further validation, we used the well established kaolin intake model to assess pica with the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin as a positive control. Oxycodone and cisplatin significantly increased kaolin intake 4- to 7-fold, and the wet weight of stomach was elevated 2- to 3-fold. To examine the underlying neural circuitry, we investigated c-fos activation in the area postrema and nucleus of solitary tract (NTS). Oxycodone treatment significantly increased the number of c-fos-positive neurons in the area postrema and NTS compared with water controls. As expected, cisplatin also increased the number of c-fos-positive cells in these regions. In the area postrema, the oxycodone effect was greater than cisplatin, especially at 2 h. These results indicate that an antinociceptive dose of oxycodone is associated with the expression of pica, a pro-emetic response.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  12. Erdosteine: antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a multifactorial drug currently used in COPD for its rheologic activity on bronchial secretions and its positive effects on bacterial adhesiveness. Erdosteine produces an active metabolite (Met 1) which was shown to produce antioxidant effects during the respiratory burst of human PMNs, due to the presence of an SH group. The substantial antitussive effects of erdosteine were first documented in clinical trials even though mucolytic agents are regarded as not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Actually, a mucolytic drug could exert antitussive effects if it also affects mucus consistency and enhances ciliary function. In the last decade, data from several studies on animal models pointed to the possible antitussive and anti-inflammatory properties of erdosteine and an indirect anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was suggested. Recently, data from some controlled versus placebo studies documented the antioxidant properties of erdosteine in humans and in current smokers with COPD. The mechanism of action was described as related to erdosteine's ability to inhibit some inflammatory mediators and some pro-inflammatory cytokines that are specifically involved in oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also presumed to impair beta-adrenoceptor function and contribute to airway obstruction, specific controlled studies recently investigated the effect of antioxidant intervention on short-term airway response to salbutamol in nonreversible COPD, according to a double-blind design versus placebo and NAC. Only erdosteine consistently restored a significant short-term reversibility in COPD subjects, previously unresponsive to beta(2) adrenergics. This peculiar activity of erdosteine (to our knowledge never previously assessed) proved related to the ROS scavenging activity (which actually proved equal to that of N), and its significant inhibiting effect on

  13. Emetic toxin-producing strains of Bacillus cereus show distinct characteristics within the Bacillus cereus group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlin, Frédéric; Fricker, Martina; Pielaat, Annemarie; Heisterkamp, Simon; Shaheen, Ranad; Salonen, Mirja Salkinoja; Svensson, Birgitta; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    One hundred representative strains of Bacillus cereus were selected from a total collection of 372 B. cereus strains using two typing methods (RAPD and FT-IR) to investigate if emetic toxin-producing hazardous B. cereus strains possess characteristic growth and heat resistance profiles. The strains

  14. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaars, M.H.; Rodrigues, S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activi

  15. Anti-leishmanial effect of itraconazole niosome on in vitro susceptibility of Leishmania tropica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaeli, Payam; Sharifi, Iraj; Talebian, Elham; Heravi, Gioia; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Mostafavi, Mahshid

    2014-07-01

    The novel niosomal system aimed to deliver the active drug entity to the target site. The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate the effect of itraconazole niosome on the in vitro susceptibility of Leishmania tropica as compared to itraconazole alone or tartar emetic. The overall growth rate of promastigotes treated with various concentrations of itraconazole niosome was significantly lower than that of itraconazole alone (IC₅₀=0.24 μg/ml vs. IC₅₀=0.43 μg/ml, P<0.01). In contrast, the mean multiplication rate of amastigotes inside the macrophages and also the mean number of amastigotes in each macrophage treated with itraconazole niosome (34.9 and 3.0) were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those treated with itraconazole alone (62.0 and 3.8) or tartar emetic (63.9 and 4.2), respectively. These findings indicated that niosomes could be developed as a novel drug delivery for itraconazole in the in vitro model. Further studies are required to evaluate the effect of itraconazole niosome on volunteer human subjects.

  16. Inhibition of cereulide toxin synthesis by emetic Bacillus cereus via long-chain polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Elrike; Letzel, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-02-01

    Severe intoxications caused by the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide can hardly be prevented due to the ubiquitous distribution and heat resistance of spores and the extreme thermal and chemical stability of cereulide. It would therefore be desirable to inhibit cereulide synthesis during food manufacturing processes or in prepared foods, which are stored under time-temperature abuse conditions. Toward this end, the impacts of three long-chain polyphosphate (polyP) formulations on growth and cereulide production were examined. The inhibition was dependent on the concentration and the type of the polyP blend, indicating that polyPs and not the orthophosphates were effective. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) monitoring at sublethal concentrations revealed that polyPs reduced the transcription of ces nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes by 3- to 4-fold along with a significantly reduced toxin production level. At lower concentrations, toxin synthesis was decreased, although the growth rate was not affected. These data indicate a differential effect on toxin synthesis independent of growth inhibition. The inhibition of toxin synthesis in food was also observed. Despite the growth of B. cereus, toxin synthesis was reduced by 70 to 100% in two model food systems (reconstituted infant food and oat milk), which were analyzed with HEp-2 cell culture assays and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). Accordingly, ces promoter activity was strongly downregulated, as visualized by using a lux-based reporter strain. These data illustrate the potential of polyphosphate formulations to reduce the risk of cereulide synthesis in food and may contribute to targeted hurdle concepts.

  17. Anti-implantation effect of droloxifene in rats and its relationship with anti-estrogenic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong HUANG; Yu SHEN; Ying FENG; Lin CAO; Ying LENG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anti-implantation effect of droloxifene and study the possible relationship between the anti-estrogenic activity of droloxifene and its antiimplantation effect. Methods: Pregnant rats were treated orally with droloxifene at 10:00 AM on d 2 at doses of 1.25-20 mg/kg to observe anti-implantation effects,and then doses of 14 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg were given at different time on d 2 to d 5to determine the optimal administration time for anti-implantation effects. Pregnant rats were treated with a combination of droloxifene (2.5 mg/kg, ig) and E2 (0.5-8.0 μg/kg, sc) on the optimal administration time to observe the antagonistic effect of external estrogen on the anti-implantation effect of droloxmene. Serum estrogen and progesterone levels were measured by carrying out radioimmunoas says on d 1 to d 6 in droloxifene-treated and control rats to determine the surge time for nidatory estrogen and the effect of droloxifene on ovary function. Results:Droloxifene has anti-implantation effects in rats. The optimal oral administration time was at 22:00 PM on d 4, which was after the surge time for nidatory estrogen (on d 4 at 10:00 AM). This suggests that the anti-implantation effect of droloxifene is not attributable to antagonism of the surge in secretion of nidatory estrogen.External estrogen did not antagonize the anti-implantation effect of droloxifene.Droloxifene had no effect on the serum levels of estrogen and progesterone on d 5 or d 6 when administered on d 4 at 22:00 PM. Conclusion: Droloxifene has an anti-implantation effect in rats, and the effect appears to be not completely due to its anti-estrogenic activity.

  18. The Effects of Houttuyniae Herba extract on the Activity of Anti-bacteria, Anti-inflammation and Anti-oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Oh-do Jeon; Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-01-01

    Objective : This experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of Houttuyniae Herba extract on anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Methods : The cytotoxicity of Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract about viability of Raw 264.7 cell were tested using a colormetric tetrazolium assay(MTT assay). We investigated the inhibitory effects of Houttuyniae Herba water extract and ethanol extract on Propionibactrium acnes using paper disk diffusion method. To in...

  19. Striking the Right Balance : Effectiveness of Anti-Doping Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hon, O.M.

    2016-01-01

    Doping, and anti-doping, is in the news on a continuous basis. At the core of these stories and discussions is the question how effective anti-doping policies are to curb the use of doping in sports. Anti-doping policies are based on ethical values, a juridical framework, laboratory analyses, educat

  20. Saksa lastele saksa keelt õpetamas / Virve Mäemets, Jana Saksing, Liina Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäemets, Virve, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Koostöölepingust Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli ja Schleswig-Holsteini Liidumaa Elmshorni praktikakeskuse vahel, mis seisneb õpetajakoolituse praktikantide vahetamises, praktikakohtadeks Schleswig-Holsteini Liidumaa koolid Saksamaal ja Tallinna Saksa Gümnaasium Eestis. Saksamaal läbitud koolipraktikast teevad kokkuvõtte TPÜ saksa keele õppetooli metoodik Virve Mäemets, TPÜ saksa filoloogia 4. kursuse tudengid Jana Saksing ja Liina Ojari

  1. Anti-Tumor Effect and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Boschniakia rossica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-tumor effect and anti-inflammatory activity of Boschniakia rossica (BR). Methods: The expression of tumor marker, GST-P, p53 and p21ras proteins in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis were examined by immunohistochemical technique ABC method. Anti-tumor effect of BR was investigated by inhibitory test on Sarcoma180. Anti-inflammatory activity of BR was tested by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling method. Results: BR-H2O extract (the H2O extract fractionated from BR-Methanol extract with CH2Cl2 and H2O) 500 mg/kg has inhibitory effect on the formation of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci in rat liver with the expression of mutant p53 and p21ras proteins lower than those of non-treated hepatic preneoplastic lesions. BR extract showed inhibitory effect on Sarcoma180 and anti-inflammatory effect in mice by xylene-induced mouse ear swelling tests. Conclusion: BR- H2O extract exerted inhibitory effect on DEN-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci in promotion stage of rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis and might suppress the growth of solid Sarcoma180 in mice. Both CH2Cl2 and H2O extract from BR exerted anti-inflammatory effect in mice.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of yucca schidigera: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piacente S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yucca schidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. According to folk medicine, yucca extracts have anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant contains several physiologically active phytochemicals. It is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and is used commercially as a saponin source. Saponins have diverse biological effects, including anti-protozoal activity. It has been postulated that saponins may have anti-arthritic properties by suppressing intestinal protozoa which may have a role in joint inflammation. Yucca is also a rich source of polyphenolics, including resveratrol and a number of other stilbenes (yuccaols A, B, C, D and E. These phenolics have anti-inflammatory activity. They are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkB stimulates synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which causes formation of the inflammatory agent nitric oxide. Yucca phenolics are also anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers, which may aid in suppressing reactive oxygen species that stimulate inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, further studies on the anti-arthritic effects of Yucca schidigera are warranted.

  3. Anti-fibrotic effects of Ginsan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji-young; Lee, Jung-woo; Son, Hyeog-jin; Kim, Hyung-doo; Han, Young-soo; Yun, Yeon-sook; Song, Jie-young [Korea institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is the consequence of a variety of diseases with no satisfying treatment option. Therapy induced fibrosis also limits the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in numerous cancers. It has been proposed that fibrogenesis is not a unique pathologic process but rather, is due to an excess of the same biologic events involved in normal tissue repair. Persistent and exaggerated wound healing ultimately leads to an excess of fibroblast replication and matrix deposition. Several studies revealed that TGF-{beta}1, collagen 1, fibronectin, various chemokine and some anti-oxidant are overexpressed in radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis. A number of studies were performed that polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginsan, has been demonstrated to be a potent promising biological response modifier (BRM), including proliferation of lymphocytes, generation of lymphokine activated killer cells, and production of several cytokines. On the basis of several results of the ability of ginsan on modulation of redox system and cytokine balance, we examined whether ginsan directly regulates fibroblast proliferation, differentiation factors, and also investigated the mechanism of the antifibrotic effects of ginsan.

  4. Antidepressant and anti-stress effects of curcumin inmice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingXU; Bao-shanKU; Hai-yanYAO; Yong-heZHANG; Xue-junLI

    2004-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow colouring agent contained in the rhizome of Curcuma Longa (turmeric), has a wide array of pharmacological and biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and anticarcinogenic effects. In this study, curcumin was examined for the antidepressant and anti-stress effects in forced swimming,

  5. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  6. Tobacco socialization and anti-tobacco ad effectiveness among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalbous, Slim; Bouslama, Heifa

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent smoking onset among children, it is essential to know the process of smoking socialization and its various dimensions before being able to design any effective anti-tobacco advertisements. This research aims to conceptualize this process and to test the effectiveness of certain styles of anti-tobacco advertising addressed to children. The results show that both attitudinal and behavioral smoking socialization influence anti-tobacco advertisements effectiveness and that the least offensive and humoristic are most effective in Tunisia.

  7. Estudo comparativo de antieméticos e suas associações, na prevenção de náuseas e vômitos pós-operatórios, em pacientes submetidas a procedimentos cirúrgicos ginecológicos Estudio comparativo de antieméticos y sus asociaciones, en la prevención de náusea y vómito postoperatorios, en pacientes sometidas a procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos Comparative study of anti-emetics and their association, in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing gynecologic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Brandão Schnaider

    2008-12-01

    . MÉTODO: Setenta pacientes, ASA I y II, fueron sometidas a procedimientos quirúrgicos ginecológicos, bajo bloqueo epidural asociado a la anestesia general. En el Grupo Metoclopramida (GM, se administró 20 mg; en el Grupo Dexametasona (GDe, se inyectó 8 mg; en el Grupo Droperidol (GDr se administró 1,25 mg; en el Grupo Ondansetron (GO se inyectó 8mg; en el Grupo Dexametasona-Ondansetron (GDeO se administró respectivamente 8 mg y 4mg; en el Grupo Droperidol-Ondansetron (GDrO se inyectó 1,25 mg y 4 mg; en el Grupo Dexametasona-Droperidol-Ondansetron (GDeDrO se administró 8mg, 0,625 mg y 4mg. La presencia de náuseas y vómitos fue observada en los momentos de 6, 12, 24 y 36 horas después del término de la operación. RESULTADOS: La incidencia total de episodios de náuseas fue de 4 en el GDeDrO, 6 en el GO, 6 en el GDrO, 11 en el GDe, 11 en el GDeO, 18 en el GM y 22 en el GDr. Al aplicar el test del Chi-cuadrado o el test de Fisher, se comprobó la diferencia estadística significativa entre el GDr y los grupos GDe, GDO, GDrO, GDeO, GDeDrO; entre el GM y los grupos GO, GDrO y GDeDrO; entre el GDeO y el grupo GDeDrO. La incidencia total de episodios de vómitos fue de 3 en el GO, 3 en el GDeDrO, 6 en el GDrO, 7 en el GDe, 7 en el GDeO, 10 en el GDr y 13 en el G. Se comprobó así mismo, la diferencia estadística significativa entre el GDr y los grupos GO y GDeDrO; entre el GM y los grupos GO y GDeDrO. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación dexametasona-droperidol-ondansetron y el ondansetron fueron más eficaces en la profilaxis de náuseas y vómitos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting has been the subject of several studies. The objective of the present study was to compare anti-emetics, and their association, in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Seventy patients, ASA I and II, underwent epidural block associated with general anesthesia for gynecologic surgeries. Patients in the Metochlopramide Group

  8. Study of anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Satya Venkatesh

    2016-08-01

    Results: At a dose of 40 mg Simvastatin showed anti-inflammatory effect which is statically highly significant. Conclusions: However, the above preclinical experiments only give us an idea about the anti-inflammatory activity, but large scale clinical trials are necessary for final assessment. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1520-1523

  9. Anti-anginal and anti-ischemic effects of late sodium current inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Neil J; Stone, Peter H

    2013-02-01

    The effective treatment of coronary artery disease targets two distinct goals, controlling symptomatic angina and decreasing the adverse events associated with ischemia. Traditional anti-anginal and anti-ischemic drugs function by altering the determinants of myocardial oxygen supply or demand, usually by altering loading conditions, changing the heart rate, or impacting contractility. Blockade of the late inward sodium current, late I(Na), offers another target for the treatment of ischemia. Blockade of late I(Na) reduces the sodium and calcium overload that follows ischemia. This improves myocardial relaxation and reduces left ventricular diastolic stiffness, in turn enhancing myocardial contractility and perfusion. Ranolazine, a late I(Na) inhibitor, has been shown to provide both anti-anginal and anti-ischemic benefits without significant alterations in the heart rate and blood pressure in patients with stable coronary artery disease. When evaluated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, ranolazine has been shown to decrease recurrent ischemia, but not significantly reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction. This review will address the rationale that inhibition of the late sodium current is beneficial in reducing cardiac dysfunction during ischemia, and discuss the clinical studies supporting the use of ranolazine for its anti-anginal and anti-ischemic effects.

  10. Review of the Séralini <em>et al. (2012 publication on a 2-year rodent feeding study with glyphosate formulations and GM maize NK603 as published online on 19 September 2012 in Food and Chemical Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    On 19 September 2012, Séralini <em>et al. published online in the scientific journal Food and Chemical Toxicology a publication describing a 2-year feeding study in rats investigating the health effects of genetically modified (GM maize NK603 with and without Roundup WeatherMAX® and Roundup® GT Plus alone (both are glyphosate-containing plant protection products.  EFSA was requested by the European Commission to review this publication and to identify whether clarifications are needed from the authors. EFSA notes that the Séralini <em>et al. (2012 study has unclear objectives and is inadequately reported in the publication, with many key details of the design, conduct and analysis being omitted. Without such details it is impossible to give weight to the results. Conclusions cannot be drawn on the difference in tumour incidence between the treatment groups on the basis of the design, the analysis and the results as reported in the Séralini <em>et al. (2012 publication. In particular, Séralini <em>et al. (2012 draw conclusions on the incidence of tumours based on 10 rats per treatment per sex which is an insufficient number of animals to distinguish between specific treatment effects and chance occurrences of tumours in rats.  Considering that the study as reported in the Séralini <em>et al. (2012 publication is of inadequate design, analysis and reporting, EFSA finds that it is of insufficient scientific quality for safety assessment. Therefore EFSA, concludes that the Séralini <em>et al. study as reported in the 2012 publication does not impact the ongoing re-evaluation of glyphosate, and does not see a need to reopen the existing safety evaluation of maize NK603 and its related stacks. EFSA will give the authors of the Séralini <em>et al. (2012 publication the opportunity to provide further information on their study to EFSA.

  11. Sterols from Mytilidae show anti-aging and neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujuan; Lin, Yanfei; Cao, Xueli; Xiang, Lan; Qi, Jianhua

    2014-11-25

    For screening anti-aging samples from marine natural products, K6001 yeast strain was employed as a bioassay system. The active mussel extract was separated to give an active sterol fraction (SF). SF was further purified, and four sterol compounds were obtained. Their structures were determined to be cholesterol (CHOL), brassicasterol, crinosterol, and 24-methylenecholesterol. All compounds showed similar anti-aging activity. To understand the action mechanism involved, anti-oxidative experiments, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays, and malondialdehyde (MDA) tests were performed on the most abundant compound, CHOL. Results indicated that treatment with CHOL increases the survival rate of yeast under oxidative stress and decreases ROS and MDA levels. In addition, mutations of uth1, skn7, sod1, and sod2, which feature a K6001 background, were employed and the lifespans of the mutations were not affected by CHOL. These results demonstrate that CHOL exerts anti-aging effects via anti-oxidative stress. Based on the connection between neuroprotection and anti-aging, neuroprotective experiments were performed in PC12 cells. Paraquat was used to induce oxidative stress and the results showed that the CHOL and SF protect the PC12 cells from the injury induced by paraquat. In addition, these substance exhibited nerve growth factor (NGF) mimic activities again confirmed their neuroprotective function.

  12. The anti-melanogenic effect of pycnogenol by its anti-oxidative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jung; Kang, Ki Sung; Yokozawa, Takako

    2008-07-01

    Pycnogenol is a natural plant extract from pine bark that contains compounds that have anti-oxidative, free-radical scavenging properties. In this work, utilizing cultured B16 melanoma cells (B16 cells), pycnogenol was investigated for its ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis. We also examined the anti-oxidative power of pycnogenol by measuring its suppressive effect against peroxynitrite (ONOO-), superoxide (.O2), nitric oxide (NO.), and hydroxyl radical (.OH)-scavenging activities using an electron spin resonance spectrometer. Results show that pycnogenol had a strong anti-tyrosinase activity and suppressed melanin biosynthesis. Further, our results showed that through its anti-oxidative properties, pycnogenol suppressed .O2) NO., ONOO-, and .OH in in vitro assays, and reactive species, ONOO-, .O2, and NO., while up-regulating the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in B16 cells. Based on the findings, we propose that pycnogenol exerts anti-melanogenic activity via its anti-oxidative actions.

  13. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli.

  14. Anti-Angiogenesis and Anti-Tumor Effect of Shark Cartilage Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋; 王漪涛; 谢莉萍; 张荣庆

    2001-01-01

    The effect of shark cartilage extract (SCE), purified in this laboratory, on angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), on the activity of collagenase IV and on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (ECV-304) proliferation and apoptosis was investigated in vitro. The results showed that SCE caused a decline in CAM blood vessels and significantly prevented collagenase-induced collagenolysis. Moreover, SCE produced a dose-dependent decline in ECV-304 proliferation and altered its normal cell cycle. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects of shark cartilage may be due to inhibition of endothelial cells as well as collagenolysis.

  15. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    In this paper we formulate and analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to analyze how the introduction of a so called copycat effect influences behavior and outcomes. We first show that our simple model of terrorist cells implies...... that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes...

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of anti-microbial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo

    2016-09-01

    Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) were originally thought to exert protecting actions against bacterial infection by disintegrating bacterial membranes. Upon identification of internal bacterial targets, the view changed and moved toward inhibition of prokaryote-specific biochemical processes. However, the level of none of these activities can explain the robust efficacy of some of these peptides in animal models of systemic and cutaneous infections. A rapidly growing panel of reports suggests that AMPs, now called host-defense peptides (HDPs), act through activating the immune system of the host. This includes recruitment and activation of macrophages and mast cells, inducing chemokine production and altering NF-κB signaling processes. As a result, both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are elevated together with activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, wound healing, and apoptosis. HDPs sterilize the systemic circulation and local injury sites significantly more efficiently than pure single-endpoint in vitro microbiological or biochemical data would suggest and actively aid recovering from tissue damage after or even without bacterial infections. However, the multiple and, often opposing, immunomodulatory functions of HDPs require exceptional care in therapeutic considerations.

  17. Preparation and Anti-oxidative Effects of Corn Peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Corn peptides(CP) were prepared from zein via proteolysis by means of a type of alkaline protease, Alcalase, at 50 ℃ and pH 8.0. The anti-oxidative activity of the hydrolysate was examined. It was found that the anti-oxidative activity reached the maximum at the fourth hour of the hydrolysis and then decreased. The effect of the enzyme dosage on the solubility of corn protein, the dependence of hydrolysis time on the degree of the hydrolysis(DH) and molecular weight distribution were examined respectively. 30% DH was controlled on the basis of anti-oxidative activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated on a Sephadex G-15 column. The anti-oxidative activities were examined for all the fractions. The main fraction for anti-oxidative activity was collected and characterized by the methods of amino acid analysis, the measurement of average chain length and etc.. The main MW distribution of the main fraction was 300-600 Daltons. The anti-oxidative properties of the small peptides in vitro were studied. It was found that they could inhibit the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and the oxidation of hemoglobin. The hemolysis degree of erythrocyte caused by hydroxyl free radicals was decreased greatly, indicating a protective effect of the anti-oxidative peptides on the cell membrane damage of erythrocyte.

  18. Anti-inflammatory Effects and M echmdsms of Usnic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhijun; ZHENG Guohua; TAO Junyan; RUAN Jinlan

    2011-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of Usnic acid (UA) were explored on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cell line.The effects of UA on pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-a),interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-I beta (IL-lβ),pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO),inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)were studied by sandwich ELISA,real-time PCR and western blot analyses.Similarly,the effect of UA on anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin- 10 (IL- 10) and anti-inflammatory mediator heme oxygenase- l (HO- 1)were also studied following the same methods.Furthermore,nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) was assayed by immunocytochemistry.The results showed that UA has anti-inflammatory effect by down-regulatinng iNOS,COX-2,IL-lβ,IL-6 and TNF-a,COX-2 gene expression through the suppression of NF-kB activation and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and anti-inflammatory mediator HO-1 production.

  19. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ginger in Health and Physical Activity: Review of Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi; Reza Ghiasvand; Gholamreza Askari; Mitra Hariri; Leila Darvishi; Mohammad Reza Mofid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. The health-promoting perspective of ginger is attributed to its rich phytochemistry. This study aimed to review the current evidence on ginger effects as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. Methods: We searched MEDLINE for related publications using “ginger” and “anti-oxidative” and “ginger” and “anti-inflammatory” as keywords. This search had considered Papers that had been published between 2000 and 201...

  20. The emetophobia questionnaire (EmetQ-13): psychometric validation of a measure of specific phobia of vomiting (emetophobia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Mark J; Veale, David; Ellison, Nell; Reddell, Tamara

    2013-10-01

    This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of a self-report assessment of the severity of symptoms of emetophobia. Using a sample of 95 individuals with emetophobia, and a matched sample of 90 control participants, a 13-items inventory was developed that showed a clear three-factor structure. The EmetQ-13 had good internal consistency (α=.82 in the clinical sample, and α=.85 in the control sample), and one-week test-retest reliability (rxx=.76). The EmetQ-13 showed significant correlations with another measure of emetophobia symptoms, the Specific Phobia of Vomiting Inventory, and related constructs such as disgust sensitivity. The measure showed excellent ability to classify emetophobic and non-emetophobic individuals, with correct assignment in 96.2% of cases. The EmetQ-13 also correlated significantly with a behavioural approach test using a vomit-like stimulus. The initial evaluation of the EmetQ-13 suggests that it is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of emetophobia.

  1. Characterization and exposure assessment of emetic bacillus cereus and cereulide production in food products on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G.; Dissel, Serge; Reij, Martine W.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; In't Veld, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food produc

  2. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of some plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of sweet basil flowers, leaves of eucalyptus and the aerial parts of celery and sage on acute inflammation along with the effect of a methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The effect of the methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on certain biochemical parameters in adjuvant arthritis and its safety in liver and kidney functions were evaluated. The fatty a...

  3. IGFBP-4 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumorigenic Effects Are Associated with Anti-Cathepsin B Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Moreno

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4/IBP-4 has potent IGF-independent anti-angiogenic and antitumorigenic effects. In this study, we demonstrated that these activities are located in the IGFBP-4 C-terminal protein fragment (CIBP-4, a region containing a thyroglobulin type 1 (Tg1 domain. Proteins bearing Tg1 domains have been shown to inhibit cathepsins, lysosomal enzymes involved in basement membrane degradation and implicated in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In our studies, CIBP-4 was shown to internalize and co-localize with lysosomal-like structures in both endothelial cells (ECs and glioblastoma U87MG cells. CIBP-4 also inhibited both growth factor-induced EC tubulogenesis in Matrigel and the concomitant increases in intracellular cathepsin B (CatB activity. In vitro assays confirmed CIBP-4 capacity to block recombinant CatB activity. Biodistribution analysis of intravenously injected CIBP-4-Cy5.5 in a glioblastoma tumor xenograft model indicated targeted accumulation of CIBP-4 in tumors. Most importantly, CIBP-4 reduced tumor growth in this animal model by 60%. Pleiotropic anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities of CIBP-4 most likely underlie its observed therapeutic potential against glioblastoma.

  4. REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2

    OpenAIRE

    Helvaci, Cahit

    2015-01-01

    The Emet borate deposit is situated in the middle of the known borate deposits of western Anatolia. Emet is the world biggest colemanite-probertite deposit which is located in the upper section of the volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Emet basin. Emet borate deposit is unique and has unusual mineral associations. The principal minerals in the Emet borate deposit are colemanite with minor probertite, ulexite and hydroboracite. In addition, rare species such as meyerhofferite, veatchite-A, tu...

  5. Mechanisms underlying the anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic bile acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Svistkova, Veronika; Mohtashami, Sadaf; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-09-18

    Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  6. Synergistic anti-cancer effect of phenformin and oxamate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Keith Miskimins

    Full Text Available Phenformin (phenethylbiguanide; an anti-diabetic agent plus oxamate [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH inhibitor] was tested as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic combination. In in vitro studies, phenformin was more potent than metformin, another biguanide, recently recognized to have anti-cancer effects, in promoting cancer cell death in the range of 25 times to 15 million times in various cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer effect of phenformin was related to complex I inhibition in the mitochondria and subsequent overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Addition of oxamate inhibited LDH activity and lactate production by cells, which is a major side effect of biguanides, and induced more rapid cancer cell death by decreasing ATP production and accelerating ROS production. Phenformin plus oxamate was more effective than phenformin combined with LDH knockdown. In a syngeneic mouse model, phenformin with oxamate increased tumor apoptosis, reduced tumor size and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared to control. We conclude that phenformin is more cytotoxic towards cancer cells than metformin. Furthermore, phenformin and oxamate have synergistic anti-cancer effects through simultaneous inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and LDH in the cytosol, respectively.

  7. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parastoo Karimian; Gholamreza Kavoosi; Zahra Amirghofran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods:In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-αmRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results:Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 μg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-αmRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 μg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions:T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions.

  8. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2016-10-06

    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  9. Review of Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Tinospora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerawut KLANGJAREONCHAI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora crispa (Borapet or Wan kab hoi yai is a climbing plant belonging to family Menispermaceae. In traditional medicine, an extract from the stems of T. crispa has been used for anti-hyperglycemic activity. The mechanisms of the anti-hyperglycemic actions of T. crispa are due to the stimulation of insulin secretion, enhancement of glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and reduction of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Borapetoside A and C are active ingredients for lower plasma glucose. In human studies, T. crispa extract possesses a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect in metabolic syndrome but this effect is abolished in type 2 diabetes mellitus. More clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the beneficial effect of T. crispa in human models.

  10. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ATX is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX.

  11. Evaluating the Anti-nociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ketotifen and Fexofenadine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Anoush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As H1 and H3 receptors’ roles has been defined in peripheral pains in some papers and because histamine is known for its role in inflammatory responses; this study investigated the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ketotifen and fexofenadine as relatively safe long acting anti histamines in both chronic chemical pain and acute inflammation in rats. Methods: In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 225-250 grams were used. In order to evaluate the chemical chronic pain, sub-plantar injection of formalin applied and the pain scores were recorded every 15 seconds during 60 minutes. Carrageenan injection to the right hind paw was used for induction of acute inflammation and the paw edema was measured every 60 minutes for 4 hours. Results: Based on the results, both ketotifen and fexofenadine were able to significantly diminish chemical acute and chronic pain as well as inflammation in comparison with the control group and the effects were acceptable according to the standard treatment. Both effects for fexofenadine started later than those of ketotifen. Conclusion: According to the outcomes of the study, ketotifen and fexofenadine demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory characteristics in both models of chemical pain and acute inflammation in laboratory animals.

  12. Comparative anti-inflammatory effects of anti-arthritic herbal medicines and ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joshua J; Samad, Mohammed A; Kim, Kye S; Bae, Soochan

    2014-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen, are widely used over-the-counter drugs to treat arthritis, but they are often associated with side effects. Herbal medicines have been used to treat various diseases such as arthritis, but the scientific profiles are not well understood. In this study, we examined, in comparison with ibuprofen, the inhibitory effects on various inflammatory markers of the most commonly used herbal medicines to treat arthritis, boswellia (Boswellia sapindales), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), guggul (Commiphora wightii), and neem (Azadirachta indica). To elicit inflammatory response, we exposed mouse myoblast C2C12 cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), which are cytokines activated during an inflammatory response, were determined. The optimal non-toxic concentration was determined by exposing different concentrations of drugs (from 0.01 to 10 mg/mL). Cell death measurement revealed that the drug concentrations lower than 0.05 mg/mL were non-toxic concentrations for each drug, and these doses were used for the main experiments. We found that neem and licorice showed robust anti-inflammatory responses compared with ibuprofen. However, boswellia and guggul did not demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory responses. We concluded that neem and licorice are more effective than ibuprofen in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation in C2C12 cells.

  13. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surached Thitimuta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE (Camellia sinensis L.. The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE’s principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl4-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl4 intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  14. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  15. Effects of C-glycosylation on anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Eon Ji; Kim, Young Myeong; Jung, Hyun Ah

    2014-02-01

    Apigenin has gained particular interests in recent years as a beneficial and health promoting agent because of its low intrinsic toxicity. Vitexin and isovitexin, naturally occurring C-glycosylated derivatives of apigenin, have been known to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimer's disease (anti-AD), and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin and its two C-glycosylated derivatives, vitexin and isovitexin by in vitro assays including rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), β-site amyloid precursor (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among them, isovitexin was found as the most potent inhibitor against RLAR, HRAR, AGE, AChE, and BChE while vitexin showed the most potent PTP1B inhibitory activity. Despite the relatively weak anti-diabetic and anti-AD potentials, apigenin showed powerful antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression while vitexin and isovitexin were inactive. Therefore, it could be speculated that C-glycosylation of apigenin at different positions might be closely linked to relative intensity of anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potentials.

  16. Sub-emetic toxicity of Bacillus cereus toxin cereulide on cultured human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Grootaert, Charlotte; Butorac, Ana; Cucu, Tatiana; De Meulenaer, Bruno; van Camp, John; Bracke, Marc; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Cindrić, Mario

    2014-08-04

    Cereulide (CER) intoxication occurs at relatively high doses of 8 µg/kg body weight. Recent research demonstrated a wide prevalence of low concentrations of CER in rice and pasta dishes. However, the impact of exposure to low doses of CER has not been studied before. In this research, we investigated the effect of low concentrations of CER on the behavior of intestinal cells using the Caco-2 cell line. The MTT (mitochondrial 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and the SRB (sulforhodamine B) reactions were used to measure the mitochondrial activity and cellular protein content, respectively. Both assays showed that differentiated Caco-2 cells were sensitive to low concentrations of CER (in a MTT reaction of 1 ng/mL after three days of treatment; in an SRB reaction of 0.125 ng/mL after three days of treatment). Cell counts revealed that cells were released from the differentiated monolayer at 0.5 ng/mL of CER. Additionally, 0.5 and 2 ng/mL of CER increased the lactate presence in the cell culture medium. Proteomic data showed that CER at a concentration of 1 ng/mL led to a significant decrease in energy managing and H2O2 detoxification proteins and to an increase in cell death markers. This is amongst the first reports to describe the influence of sub-emetic concentrations of CER on a differentiated intestinal monolayer model showing that low doses may induce an altered enterocyte metabolism and membrane integrity.

  17. Sub-Emetic Toxicity of Bacillus cereus Toxin Cereulide on Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Rajkovic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cereulide (CER intoxication occurs at relatively high doses of 8 µg/kg body weight. Recent research demonstrated a wide prevalence of low concentrations of CER in rice and pasta dishes. However, the impact of exposure to low doses of CER has not been studied before. In this research, we investigated the effect of low concentrations of CER on the behavior of intestinal cells using the Caco-2 cell line. The MTT (mitochondrial 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and the SRB (sulforhodamine B reactions were used to measure the mitochondrial activity and cellular protein content, respectively. Both assays showed that differentiated Caco-2 cells were sensitive to low concentrations of CER (in a MTT reaction of 1 ng/mL after three days of treatment; in an SRB reaction of 0.125 ng/mL after three days of treatment. Cell counts revealed that cells were released from the differentiated monolayer at 0.5 ng/mL of CER. Additionally, 0.5 and 2 ng/mL of CER increased the lactate presence in the cell culture medium. Proteomic data showed that CER at a concentration of 1 ng/mL led to a significant decrease in energy managing and H2O2 detoxification proteins and to an increase in cell death markers. This is amongst the first reports to describe the influence of sub-emetic concentrations of CER on a differentiated intestinal monolayer model showing that low doses may induce an altered enterocyte metabolism and membrane integrity.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of electronic signal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Robert H; Sorgnard, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation often plays a key role in the perpetuation of pain. Chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis, immune system dysfunction, micro-circulatory disease, painful neuritis, and even heart disease) have increased as baby boomers age. Medicine's current anti-inflammatory choices are NSAIDs and steroids; the value in promoting cure and side effect risks of these medications are unclear and controversial, especially considering individual patient variations. Electricity has continuously been a powerful tool in medicine for thousands of years. All medical professionals are, to some degree, aware of electrotherapy; those who directly use electricity for treatment know of its anti-inflammatory effects. Electronic signal treatment (EST), as an extension of presently available technology, may reasonably have even more anti-inflammatory effects. EST is a digitally produced alternating current sinusoidal electronic signal with associated harmonics to produce theoretically reasonable and/or scientifically documented physiological effects when applied to the human body. These signals are produced by advanced electronics not possible even 10 to 15 years ago. The potential long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects of some electrical currents are based on basic physical and biochemical facts listed in the text below, namely that of stimulating and signaling effective and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in nerve and muscle cells. The safety of electrotherapeutic treatments in general and EST in particular has been established through extensive clinical use. The principles of physics have been largely de-emphasized in modern medicine in favor of chemistry. These electrical treatments, a familiar application of physics, thus represent powerful and appropriate elements of physicians' pain care armamentaria in the clinic and possibly for prescription for use at home to improve overall patient care and maintenance of quality of life via low-risk and potentially

  19. Occurrence of a new sulphate mineral: Ca7Na3K(SO4)9 in the Emet borate deposits, western Anatolia (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Veigas, Francisco Javier; Ortí Cabo, Federico; Rosell, Laura (Rosell i Ortiz); Gündogan, Ibrahim; Helvaci, Cahit

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of a new sulphate mineral associated with lacustrine glauberite layers. This mineral is present in two boreholes recently drilled in the Emet borate district (Mio-cene; western Anatolia , Turkey). The evaporitic succession in these boreholes is mainly formed of a glauber ite-probertiteal-ternation. We suggest the name"emetite", after the town of Emet, for the new sulphate mineral, although the fine crystal ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide dithiocarbamate and dithioate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Roba; El-Sayed, Waheba; Agwa, Hussein S; Gamal-Eldeen, Amira M; Moawia, Shaden; Zahran, Magdy A H

    2015-08-05

    Thalidomide has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. It has been used to treat a variety of cancers and autoimmune diseases. This study aimed to characterize anti-inflammatory activities of novel thalidomide analogs by exploring their effects on splenocytes proliferation and macrophage functions and their antioxidant activity. MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxic effect of thalidomide analogs against splenocytes. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB-P65) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nitric oxide (NO) was estimated by colorimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was examined by ORAC assay. Our results demonstrated that thalidomide dithioate analog 2 and thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 4 produced a slight increase in splenocyte proliferation compared with thalidomide. Thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 1 is a potent inhibitor of TNF-α production, whereas thalidomide dithiocarbamate analog 5 is a potent inhibitor of both TNF-α and NO. Analog 2 has a pronounced inhibitory effect on NF-κB-P65 production level. All thalidomide analogs showed prooxidant activity against hydroxyl (OH) radical. Analog 1 and thalidomide dithioate analog 3 have prooxidant activity against peroxyl (ROO) radical in relation to thalidomide. On the other hand, analog 4 has a potent scavenging capacity against peroxyl (ROO) radical compared with thalidomide. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide analogs might have valuable anti-inflammatory activities with more pronounced effect than thalidomide itself.

  1. Effect of anti-smoking advertisements on Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, E; Gokler, M E; Metintas, S; Kalyoncu, C

    2016-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the perception of 10 anti-smoking advertisements in 1434 Turkish adolescents. We used the Effectiveness of the Anti-smoking Advertisements Scale, which included 6 items for each advertisement; each item was assessed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the impact of the advertisements. All the advertisements were more effective for adolescents who had never smoked compared to ex-smokers and current smokers. We also noted that, regardless of age, smoking status decreased the effectiveness of all the advertisements. Previous studies have shown that smokers have a negative attitude towards anti-smoking messages. In the present study, the most effective advertisements among adolescents were those with "Sponge and tar", "Smoking harms in every breath" and "Children want to grow". In conclusion, although anti-smoking campaigns are targeted towards adults, they also have a strong influence on adolescents. The main target population for advertisements should be individuals aged < 15 years who have not yet started smoking.

  2. A review of the gastroprotective effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniadka, Raghavendra; Saldanha, Elroy; Sunita, Venkatesh; Palatty, Princy L; Fayad, Raja; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-06-01

    The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger is an important kitchen spice and also possess a myriad health benefits. The rhizomes have been used since antiquity in the various traditional systems of medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases, catarrh, nervous diseases, gingivitis, toothache, asthma, stroke and diabetes. Ginger is also used as home remedy and is of immense value in treating various gastric ailments like constipation, dyspepsia, belching, bloating, gastritis, epigastric discomfort, gastric ulcerations, indigestion, nausea and vomiting and scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal uses. Ginger is also shown to be effective in preventing gastric ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs like indomethacin, aspirin], reserpine, ethanol, stress (hypothermic and swimming), acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric ulcerations in laboratory animals. Various preclinical and clinical studies have also shown ginger to possess anti-emetic effects against different emetogenic stimuli. However, conflicting reports especially in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and motion sickness prevent us from drawing any firm conclusion on its effectiveness as a broad spectrum anti-emetic. Ginger has been shown to possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant; inhibition of lipid peroxidation and that these properties might have contributed to the observed gastroprotective effects. This review summarizes the various gastroprotective effects of ginger and also emphasizes on aspects that warranty future research to establish its activity and utility as a gastroprotective agent in humans.

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haou-Tzong; Hsieh, Jung-Feng; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot fungus widely used as a tonic for the promotion of longevity and health. Extracts of G. lucidum have been recognized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes. Among the many biologically active constituents of G. lucidum, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. G. lucidum polysaccharides have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity by increasing plasma insulin levels and decreasing plasma sugar levels in mice. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a promising therapeutic target in diabetes, and G. lucidum proteoglycan can inhibit this enzyme in vitro. Moreover, G. lucidum triterpenoids were shown to have inhibitory activity on aldose reductase and α-glucosidase that can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. In addition, a protein Ling Zhi-8 extracted from G. lucidum significantly decreased lymphocyte infiltration and increased the antibody detection of insulin in diabetic mice. This review summarizes most of the research about the hypoglycemic action effects of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and tritrerpenoids from G. lucidum as a guide for future research.

  4. Anti-Cancer Effects of Xanthones from Pericarps of Mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Nozawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; α-mangostin, β-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and methoxy-β-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-β-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 μM in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of α-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by α- mangostin and β-mangostin, and S arrest by γ-mangostin. α-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of α-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. α-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly α-mangostin and γ- mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with

  5. Anti-fatigue effects of salidroside in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Cai Donglian; Li Huaixing; Tong Bende; Song Lihua; Wang Ying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-fatigue effects of salidroside in mice. Methods: Totally 120 normal male Kunming mice were randomized into 5 groups (4 salidroside intervention groups and the control group) based on body weight. The control group was given distilled water and the 4 intervention groups were given various doses of salidroside (60, 180, 360, 720 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days, respectively. The levels of lactate, serum urea nitrogen, muscle and liver glycogen, the longest swimming time and hemoglobin were determined before and after swimming test. Results: Different doses of salidroside significantly lengthened the swimming time and increased the contents of hemoglobin and muscle and liver glycogen, while reducing that of lactate in blood significantly compared with control group, especially in the 180 mg/kg salidroside group. Conclusion: Salidroside has noticeable anti-fatigue effect on mice. These effects were dose-dependent, and the strongest effect on most biomarkers was seen with an intermediate dose.

  6. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Se-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. Methods This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and nuclear factor (NF-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Results We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  7. Emetic Bacillus cereus Are More Volatile Than Thought: Recent Foodborne Outbreaks and Prevalence Studies in Bavaria (2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Messelhäusser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Bacillus cereus strains possess the genetic fittings to produce two different types of toxins, the heat-stable cereulide or different heat-labile proteins with enterotoxigenic potential. Unlike the diarrheal toxins, cereulide is (pre-formed in food and can cause foodborne intoxications shortly after ingestion of contaminated food. Based on the widely self-limiting character of cereulide intoxications and rarely performed differential diagnostic in routine laboratories, the real incidence is largely unknown. Therefore, during a 7-year period about 4.300 food samples linked to foodborne illness with a preliminary report of vomiting as well as food analysed in the context of monitoring programs were investigated to determine the prevalence of emetic B. cereus in food environments. In addition, a lux-based real-time monitoring system was employed to assess the significance of the detection of emetic strains in different food matrices and to determine the actual risk of cereulide toxin production in different types of food. This comprehensive study showed that emetic strains are much more volatile than previously thought. Our survey highlights the importance and need of novel strategies to move from the currently taxonomic-driven diagnostic to more risk orientated diagnostics to improve food and consumer safety.

  8. Emetic Bacillus cereus are more volatile than thought: recent foodborne outbreaks and prevalence studies in Bavaria (2007-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Frenzel, Elrike; Blöchinger, Claudia; Zucker, Renate; Kämpf, Peter; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Several Bacillus cereus strains possess the genetic fittings to produce two different types of toxins, the heat-stable cereulide or different heat-labile proteins with enterotoxigenic potential. Unlike the diarrheal toxins, cereulide is (pre-)formed in food and can cause foodborne intoxications shortly after ingestion of contaminated food. Based on the widely self-limiting character of cereulide intoxications and rarely performed differential diagnostic in routine laboratories, the real incidence is largely unknown. Therefore, during a 7-year period about 4.300 food samples linked to foodborne illness with a preliminary report of vomiting as well as food analysed in the context of monitoring programs were investigated to determine the prevalence of emetic B. cereus in food environments. In addition, a lux-based real-time monitoring system was employed to assess the significance of the detection of emetic strains in different food matrices and to determine the actual risk of cereulide toxin production in different types of food. This comprehensive study showed that emetic strains are much more volatile than previously thought. Our survey highlights the importance and need of novel strategies to move from the currently taxonomic-driven diagnostic to more risk orientated diagnostics to improve food and consumer safety.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Delporte, C; Givernau, M; Cassels, B K; Valenzuela, A; Speisky, H

    1994-10-01

    Boldine, an antioxidant alkaloid isolated from Peumus boldus, exhibits a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced guinea pig paw edema test with an oral ED50 of 34 mg/kg. Boldine also reduces bacterial pyrogen-induced hyperthermia in rabbits to an extent which varied between 51% and 98% at a dose of 60 mg/kg p.o. In vitro studies carried out in rat aortal rings revealed that boldine is an effective inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, promoting 53% inhibition at 75 microM. The latter in vitro effect may be mechanistically linked to the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine exerted in vivo.

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-cholinesterase, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Culinary Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Im, Kyung Hoan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Shin, Pyung Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor. It also exhibited protective effect against cytotoxicity to PC-12 cells induced by glutamate (10~100 µg/mL), inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the ME of P. pulmonarius contained at least 10 phenolic compounds and some of them were identified by the comparison with known standard phenolics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius possess antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities.

  11. Anti-Endotoxic Effects of Syringic Acid of Radix Isatidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云海; 方建国; 雷婷; 王文清; 林爱华

    2003-01-01

    Summary: The anti-endotoxic effect of syringic acid (SA) isolated from Radisx Isatidis (Banlangen,BLG) was studied. SA was extracted and isolated from BLG and diluted into 1 % solution. The con-tent of SA-pretreated endotoxin (ET) was quantitatively determined using Limulus test. The abilityof fever induction of ET pretreated with SA was measured using endotoxin-induced fever test in rab-bits. The LPS-induced death in mice pretreated with and without SA was compared. Results showedthat after pretreatment with SA, 83.16 % of ET was destroyed, the ET-induced fever in rabbits re-lieved markedly and the LPS-induced death rate in mice dropped from 68 % to 20 %. It was con-cluded that SA isolated from BLG had anti-endotoxic effects.

  12. Effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on esophageal body contraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koichi; Yoshida; Kenji; Furuta; Kyoichi; Adachi; Shunji; Ohara; Terumi; Morita; Takashi; Tanimura; Shuji; Nakata; Masaharu; Miki; Kenji; Koshino; Yoshikazu; Kinoshita

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on esophageal contraction and determine their possi-ble relationship with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.METHODS:Thirteen healthy male volunteers were enrolled. Esophageal body peristaltic contractions and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure were measured using high resolution manometry. All subjects were randomly examined on four separate occasions following administrations of nifedipine,losartan,and atenolol,as well as without any drug administ...

  13. Aerodynamic Effects Of Deicing And Anti-Icing Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents results of wind-tunnel tests of aerodynamic effects of deicing and anti-icing fluids on airplane wings. Tests conducted on three-dimensional half-model airplane and two-dimensional airfoil model at temperatures ranging from -29 to +10 degrees C. Fluids used included three commercial fluids available for use during 1987-1988 winter season, one discontinued commercial fluid, and eight newer fluids experimental at time of test.

  14. Anti inflammatory and anti angiogenic effect of black raspberry extract on human esophageal and intestinal microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medda, Rituparna; Lyros, Orestis; Schmidt, Jamie L; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Nie, Linghui; Link, Benjamin J; Otterson, Mary F; Stoner, Gary D; Shaker, Reza; Rafiee, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavonoid glycosides) in berries prevent the initiation, promotion, and progression of carcinogenesis in rat's digestive tract and esophagus, in part, via anti-inflammatory pathways. Angiogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of black raspberry extract (BRE) on two organ specific primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells, (HIMEC) and human esophageal microvascular endothelial cells (HEMEC), isolated from surgically resected human intestinal and donor discarded esophagus, respectively. HEMEC and HIMEC were stimulated with TNF-α/IL-1β with or without BRE. The anti-inflammatory effects of BRE were assessed based upon COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression, PGE2 production, NFκB p65 subunit nuclear translocation as well as endothelial cell-leukocyte adhesion. The anti-angiogenic effects of BRE were assessed on cell migration, proliferation and tube formation following VEGF stimulation as well as on activation of Akt, MAPK and JNK signaling pathways. BRE inhibited TNF-α/IL-1β-induced NFκB p65 nuclear translocation, PGE2 production, up-regulation of COX-2, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 gene and protein expression and leukocyte binding in HEMEC but not in HIMEC. BRE attenuated VEGF-induced cell migration, proliferation and tube formation in both HEMEC and HIMEC. The anti-angiogenic effect of BRE is mediated by inhibition of Akt, MAPK and JNK phosphorylations. BRE exerted differential anti-inflammatory effects between HEMEC and HIMEC following TNF-α/IL-1β activation whereas demonstrated similar anti-angiogenic effects following VEGF stimulation in both cell lines. These findings may provide more insight into the anti-tumorigenic capacities of BRE in human disease and cancer.

  15. Depsipeptide Intermediates Interrogate Proposed Biosynthesis of Cereulide, the Emetic Toxin of Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D; Rütschle, Andrea; Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-05-27

    Cereulide and isocereulides A-G are biosynthesized as emetic toxins by Bacillus cereus via a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) called Ces. Although a thiotemplate mechanisms involving cyclo-trimerization of ready-made D-O-Leu-D-Ala-L-O-Val-L-Val via a thioesterase (TE) domain is proposed for cereulide biosynthesis, the exact mechanism is far from being understood. UPLC-TOF MS analysis of B. cereus strains in combination with (13)C-labeling experiments now revealed tetra-, octa-, and dodecapeptides of a different sequence, namely (L-O-Val-L-Val-D-O-Leu-D-Ala)1-3, as intermediates of cereulide biosynthesis. Surprisingly, also di-, hexa-, and decadepsipeptides were identified which, together with the structures of the previously reported isocereulides E, F, and G, do not correlate to the currently proposed mechanism for cereulide biosynthesis and violate the canonical NRPS biosynthetic logic. UPLC-TOF MS metabolite analysis and bioinformatic gene cluster analysis highlighted dipeptides rather than single amino or hydroxy acids as the basic modules in tetradepsipeptide assembly and proposed the CesA C-terminal C* domain and the CesB C-terminal TE domain to function as a cooperative esterification and depsipeptide elongation center repeatedly recruiting the action of the C* domain to oligomerize tetradepsipeptides prior to the release of cereulide from the TE domain by macrocyclization.

  16. The effects of C-glycosylation of luteolin on its antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Sue; Islam, Md Nurul; Ali, Md Yousof; Kim, Young Myeong; Park, Hye Jin; Sohn, Hee Sook; Jung, Hyun Ah

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of C-glycosylation at different positions of luteolin, the structure-activity relationships of luteolin and a pair of isomeric C-glycosylated derivatives orientin and isoorientin, were evaluated. We investigated the effects of C-glycosylation on the antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD), anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and its two C-glycosides via in vitro assays of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), total reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl (DPPH), aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and β-site amyloid precursor cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and cellular assays of NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Of the three compounds, isoorientin showed the highest scavenging activity against DPPH, NO, and ONOO(-), while luteolin was the most potent inhibitor of ROS generation. In addition, luteolin showed the most potent anti-AD activity as determined by its inhibition of AChE, BChE, and BACE1. With respect to anti-diabetic effects, luteolin exerted the strongest inhibitory activity against PTP1B and rat lens aldose reductase. Luteolin also inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, while orientin and isoorientin were inactive at the same concentrations. The effects of C-glycosylation at different positions of luteolin may be closely linked to the intensity and modulation of antioxidant, anti-AD, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and its C-glycosylated derivatives.

  17. In vitro testing of the anti-mycoplasma effect of some anti-coccidial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Kobulej, T; Varga, Z; Juhász, S

    1987-10-01

    The anti-mycoplasma effects of the ionophores (lasalocid sodium, monensin and nigericin) were compared with that of tylosin tartrate and tiamulin in vitro. Forty-four strains representing 14 avian and 10 mammalian Mycoplasma species and serotypes and 5 Acholeplasma species were tested. The ionophores showed average minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 3.65 and 4.93 micrograms ml-1 for all strains, the MIC values for glucose-fermenting strains were between 2.26 and 3.75 micrograms ml-1, significantly lower than for arginine-hydrolysing strains (9.27-13.12 micrograms ml-1). These values were significantly higher than those obtained with tylosin tartrate (0.45 micrograms ml-1) or tiamulin (0.13 micrograms ml-1). The ionophores were more efficacious against acholeplasmas (0.06-0.25 micrograms ml-1) than against mycoplasmas.

  18. Anti-free radical, anti-oxidative ability and anti-fatigue effects of Huanshaodan An experiment of aging mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, aging is mainly thought renal deficiency caused renal failure, mainly involving decline of kidney-Yang and deficiency of kidney-essence.Huanshaodan, a Chinese traditional preparation for kidney-replenishing essence, was used to be the preparation for reinforcing renal deficiency and preventing aging for aged people.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Huanshaodan on swimming durance and the abilities of catalase(CAT) in serum and monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) in brain tissue as well as in vitro anti-oxidative ability of aging mouse.DESIGN: A controlled animal experiment.SETTING: College of Basic Medicine, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Fifty-four healthy NIH mice, aged 18 months old, of either gender, weighing (48.9 ± 5.4) g,and one SD male rat, aged 16 months old, weighing 51.7 g, were provided by Animal Experimental Center,Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Thirty NIH mice were randomly chosen for swimming test, and divided into experimental group and control group, with 15 in each; The other 24 NIH mice were used for enzyme activity assay, and also divided into experimental group and control group, with 12 in each.SD rat was used for in vitro anti-oxidative ability test. Huanshaodan water decoction was composed of Cheqianzi, Wuweizi, Huaishan, Danggui, Huangbai, Shudi, Baizhi, Niuxi, Baishen, Tusizi, Buguzhi,Roucongrong and Heshouwu 13 Chinese herbs.METHODS: This study was carried out in the Second Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in June 2006. Swimming and enzyme activity assay: Mice in the two experimental groups were intragastrically administrated with 10 μ L/g Huanshaodan water decoction.Mice in the two control groups were intragastrically administrated with the same amount of normal saline.All the mice were intragastrically administrated for 5 days, and they were free to access to medicine in the

  19. Diagnostic real-time PCR assays for the detection of emetic Bacillus cereus strains in foods and recent food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Martina; Messelhäusser, Ute; Busch, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2007-03-01

    Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus can cause an emetic type of food-borne disease that mimics the symptoms provoked by Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the recently discovered genetic background for cereulide formation, a novel 5' nuclease (TaqMan) real-time PCR assay was developed to provide a rapid and sensitive method for the specific detection of emetic B. cereus in food. The TaqMan assay includes an internal amplification control and primers and a probe designed to target a highly specific part of the cereulide synthetase genes. Additionally, a specific SYBR green I assay was developed and extended to create a duplex SYBR green I assay for the one-step identification and discrimination of the two emesis-causing food pathogens B. cereus and S. aureus. The inclusivity and exclusivity of the assay were assessed using a panel of 100 strains, including 23 emetic B. cereus and 14 S. aureus strains. Different methods for DNA isolation from artificially contaminated foods were evaluated, and established real-time assays were used to analyze two recent emetic food poisonings in southern Germany. One of the food-borne outbreaks included 17 children visiting a day care center who vomited after consuming a reheated rice dish, collapsed, and were hospitalized; the other case concerned a single food-poisoning incident occurring after consumption of cauliflower. Within 2 h, the etiological agent of these food poisonings was identified as emetic B. cereus by using the real-time PCR assay.

  20. Is Anti-Twomey effect real or an artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandithurai, G.; Dipu, S.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kulkarni, J.; Goswami, B.; Rosenfeld, D.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol indirect effects are generally referred to any aerosol induced modification of cloud microphysics, cloud life time, precipitation etc. All these effects are based on examining relative changes in cloud droplet size by aerosol. Twomey hypothesized that droplet size decreases with increase in aerosols for a fixed liquid water content (LWC), which has been supported with several studies. A wide variation is noted for the sensitivity of cloud microphysics to aerosol and some were attributed to the different observational / analysis methods and natural variation. All previous studies showed Twomey effect (droplet size decreases for increase in aerosol) and some studies showed Anti-Twomey effect (cloud droplet size increases by adding aerosol) but did not elaborate on the finding. Using MODIS data, Yuan et al (2008) observed dominant Anti-Twomey effect over southeastern US and southeastern China but did not find any dependence of aerosol and cloud droplet effective radius (DER) over Indian region. In the present study, extensive aircraft measurements were being carried out over Indian subcontinent to document the aerosol and cloud microphysical properties under Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) during pre-monsoon, active and break monsoon conditions. To investigate the effect of aerosols on DER, simultaneous measurements of aerosol-CCN concentration, DER and LWC are analyzed. The datasets are grouped into different LWC bins and the lowest bin of 0-0.25 gm-3 which is generally found around the cloud base is used. For a given aerosol type, always greater total CCN concentrations were associated with larger cloud drop number concentrations (CDNC) and smaller DER at a given cloud depth above its base. However, when a tail of large haze aerosols was added, it had the opposite effect on the cloud properties. Giant CCNs can reduce the number of cloud droplets under polluted conditions by suppressing the supersaturation reached

  1. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardatsikos, George; Pandey, Nihar R; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-03-01

    While it has long been known that zinc (Zn) is crucial for the proper growth and maintenance of normal biological functions, Zn has also been shown to exert insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects. These insulin-like properties have been demonstrated in isolated cells, tissues, and different animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Zn treatment has been found to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rodent models of diabetes. In isolated cells, it enhances glucose transport, glycogen and lipid synthesis, and inhibits gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the insulin-like effects of Zn compounds involves the activation of several key components of the insulin signaling pathways, which include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) pathways. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which Zn triggers the activation of these pathways remain to be clarified. In this review, we provide a brief history of zinc, and an overview of its insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects, as well as the potential mechanisms by which zinc exerts these effects.

  2. EFFECTS OF PIPER BETLE LEAVES (PAAN EXTRACT AS ANTI-DEPRESSANT AND ANTI-ANXIETY IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. HITESH GULHANE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was undertaken to determine the anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects of hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves commonly known as “paan”. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves in the doses of 100,200 and 400 mg were administered orally for successive 14 days to young Swiss albino mice of either sex. The antidepressant activity was evaluated by forced swim test and tail suspension test. On the other hand anti-anxiety activity was evaluated by light/dark exploration test and elevated plus maze test. Imipramine 15 mg/kg was used as standard in anti-depressant models and diazepam 2 mg/kg was used as standard in anti-anxiety models. Results: Hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves of doses 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant activity as compared with control in reducing the immobility time in forced swim test and tail suspension test. On the other hand, gradual increasing dose of extract of Piper betle leaves also showed significant activity in improving anxiety of mice as compared with control in light/dark exploration and elevated plus maze test. Conclusion: Hydroethanolic extract of Piper betle leaves showed anti-depressant activity probably acts through the mechanism of blocking the uptake of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin through their respective transporters. On the other hand, anti-anxiety activity acts probably through GABA but the role is not established.

  3. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF ARECA CATECHU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Rosy Nelson Anthikat* and A. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The present investigation provides proof for the effectiveness of Arecanut extract as an anti-inflammatory agent. Arecanut extract is a natural plant product mimic of peroxidase.Objective: To explore the Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Areca catechu L in carrageenan, dextran and formalin induced inflammation models in Swiss albino mice, by injection into the interdigital area, through the subplantar region of the paw. To explore the antioxidant effects of Arecanut extract on the in-vitro system.Method: Treatment with aqueous extract at 250 mg/kg.bwt and 500 mg/kg.body weight and untreated group was started orally 1 hour prior to the subplantar injection of carrageenan. The paw volume was measured using vernier calipers, before and one hour after carrageenan injection. Similarly in the case of dextran, initial readings were taken on the first day, prior to Formalin administration. Day one readings were taken one hour post formalin administration. This was taken during seven consecutive days challenge period. The drug aqueous arecanut extract at 200mg/kg.bwt, 500 mg/kg.bwt produced reduction in inflammation of the paw produced due to carrageenan, formalin and dextran. In-vitro antioxidant studies showed that aqueous arecanut extract could inhibit superoxide radical production, could inhibit hydroxyl radicals, and could prevent lipid peroxidation. Arecanut extract could scavenge DPPH radicals and also ABTS. In FRAP assay, the reduction of ferric to ferrous is also seen in a concentration dependant manner.Results: The present investigation provides proof for the effectiveness of treatment as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent. Compared with the control group, the arecanut treated group showed free radical scavenging ability. Compared with the control group, the treatment of mice with Arecanut extract showed reduction in paw oedema in a dose dependent manner at 200 mg/kg.bwt and 500 mg/kg.bwt.Discussion and

  4. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Ginger Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Yong-liang; XIE Qiang-min; ZHAO Jun-ming; ZHANG Lin-hui; SUN Bao-shan; BAO Meng-jing; LI Fen-fen; SHEN Jian; SHEN Hui-jun; ZHAO Yu-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a spice in cooking and as a medicinal herb in traditional herbal medicine. The present study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger oil in experimental animal models. Methods The analgesic effect of the oils was evaluated by the "acetic acid" and "hot-plate" test models of pain in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of the oil was investigated in rats, using rat paw edema induced by carrageenan, adjuvant arthritis, and vascular permeability induced by bradykinin, arachidonic acid, and histamine. Indomethacin (1 mg/kg), Aspirin (0.5 g/kg) and Dexamethasone (2.5 mg/kg) were used respectively as reference drugs for comparison. Results The ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) produced significant analgesic effect against chemically- and thermally-induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice (P < 0.05, 0.01). And the ginger oil (0.25-1.0 g/kg) also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, adjuvant arthritis, and inflammatory mediators-induced vascular permeability in rats (P < 0.05, 0.001). Conclusion These findings confirm that the ginger oil can be used to treat pain and chronic inflammation such as rheumatic arthritis.

  5. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Cameron

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC. Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.

  6. Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-atherosclerotic effects of quercetin in human in vitro and in vivo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Morrison, M.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kooistra, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Polyphenols such as quercetin may exert several beneficial effects, including those resulting from anti-inflammatory activities, but their impact on cardiovascular health is debated. We investigated the effect of quercetin on cardiovascular risk markers including human C-reactive protein

  7. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    adverse effects of anti-inflammatory interventions. DATA SOURCES: Trials published prior to December, 31, 2013, were identified searching Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized placebo......-controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD......IMPORTANCE: Several studies have reported antidepressant effects of anti-inflammatory treatment; however, the results have been conflicting and detrimental adverse effects may contraindicate the use of anti-inflammatory agents. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the antidepressant and possible...

  8. Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. In TCM, dandelion is a commonly used ingredient in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that dandelion is associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study, we evaluated anti-influenza virus activity of an aqueous extract from dandelion, which was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against influenza virus type A, human A/PR/8/34 and WSN (H1N1. Results Results obstained using antiviral assays, minigenome assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that 0.625-5 mg/ml of dandelion extracts inhibited infections in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells or Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549 of PR8 or WSN viruses, as well as inhibited polymerase activity and reduced virus nucleoprotein (NP RNA level. The plant extract did not exhibit any apparent negative effects on cell viability, metabolism or proliferation at the effective dose. This result is consistent with the added advantage of lacking any reported complications of the plant's utility in traditional medicine over several centuries. Conclusion The antiviral activity of dandelion extracts indicates that a component or components of these extracts possess anti-influenza virus properties. Mechanisms of reduction of viral growth in MDCK or A549 cells by dandelion involve inhibition on virus replication.

  9. The remote effects of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, F; Merticariu, M; Taban, C; Neculau, G; Merticariu, A; Muresanu, D; Badescu, D; Jinga, V

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of intravitreal anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) therapy with Avastin for wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)-related symptoms. Methods: An exploratory trial was conducted from August 1, 2013 to February 1, 2014, that included 14 male patients previously diagnosed with BPH, who were aged between 59 and 69 years. The trial was performed in Bucharest and involved two medical institutions: the Clinical Hospital of Eye Emergencies and the "Prof. Dr. Theodor Burghele" Hospital. This prospective study utilized both objective and subjective indicators to analyze the link between intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy for wet AMD and BPH. The evaluations consisted of uroflowmetry and International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) assessments. Results: The maximum flow rate (Qmax) improved by an average of 5.05 ml/ sec in 9 patients, whereas the remaining 5 patients showed a slight decrease in Qmax (mean 1.6 ml/ sec). The I-PSS score improved, with an overall decrease of 1.18 points at follow-up compared to the initial score (mean initial score = 2.42; mean follow-up score = 1.24). Conclusion: The analysis revealed that anti-VEGF therapy for wet AMD had a significant positive effect on all BPH-related symptoms; patients reported improved urinary streams and decreased nocturia. Abbreviations: BPH = benign prostatic hyperplasia, AMD = age-related macular degeneration, VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor, I-PSS = international prostate symptom score, Qmax = maximum flow rate, TSP-1 = thrombospondin-1, FGF-2 = fibroblast growth factor, mRNA = precursor messenger ribonucleic acid, PSA = prostate-specific antigen, DRE = digital rectal examination, AUR = acute urinary retention, COX2 = cyclooxygenase 2, QoL = quality of life.

  10. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of some plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Moein, N. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of sweet basil flowers, leaves of eucalyptus and the aerial parts of celery and sage on acute inflammation along with the effect of a methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The effect of the methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on certain biochemical parameters in adjuvant arthritis and its safety in liver and kidney functions were evaluated. The fatty acids, hydrocarbons and phytosterols of all plants under investigation were studied. The results revealed a marked anti-inflammatory activity of all the studied plant extracts with different degrees ranging from 47 to 62%. The methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus showed improvement in the level of plasma malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and uric acid and also showed significant improvements in body weight and total food intake. The methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus showed complete safety for liver and kidney functions. α-Linolenic acid and linoleic acid were present in all the studied plants. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were present in all the studied plants.

    El objetivo de la presente investigación ha sido estudiar la actividad anti-inflamatoria de flores de albahaca dulces, hojas de eucalipto, hojas de apio y salvia. Se ha estudiado el efecto sobre la inflamación aguda de extractos metanólicos de apio, salvia y eucalipto y sobre la artritis inducida en ratas. Se han evaluado los efectos de los extractos metanólicos de apio, salvia y eucalipto sobre los parámetros bioquímicos determinados en la artritis inducida y su seguridad en las funciones del hígado y el riñón. Se han estudiado los ácidos grasos, hidrocarburos y fitoesteroles de todas las plantas objeto de la investigación. Los resultados han revelado una actividad antiinflamatoria de los extractos de las plantas estudiadas con diferentes grados

  11. Comparison of Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Fresh and Aged Black Garlic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yi Yeong; Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Shin, Jung-Hye; Kang, Min Jung; Kang, Jae Ran; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2016-03-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that aged black garlic (ABG) has strong anti-oxidant activity. Little is known however regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of ABG. This study was performed to identify and compare the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ABG extract (ABGE) with those of fresh raw garlic (FRG) extract (FRGE). In addition, we investigated which components are responsible for the observed effects. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory stressor, respectively. ABGE showed high ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities and low ROS generation in RAW264.7 cells compared with FRGE. However, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase activities by FRGE was stronger than that by ABGE. FRGE reduced PGE₂, NO, IL-6, IL-1β, LTD₄, and LTE₄ production in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells more than did ABGE. The combination of FRGE and sugar (galactose, glucose, fructose, or sucrose), which is more abundant in ABGE than in FRGE, decreased the anti-inflammatory activity compared with FRGE. FRGE-induced inhibition of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory gene expression was blocked by combination with sugars. The lower anti-inflammatory activity in ABGE than FRGE could result from the presence of sugars. Our results suggest that ABGE might be helpful for the treatment of diseases mediated predominantly by ROS.

  12. Zeno and anti-Zeno effects for photon polarization dephasing

    CERN Document Server

    Kofman, A G; Opatrny, T

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a simple, experimentally feasible scheme, which elucidates the principles of controlling ("engineering") the reservoir spectrum and the spectral broadening incurred by repeated measurements. This control can yield either the inhibition (Zeno effect) or the acceleration (anti-Zeno effect) of the quasi-exponential decay of the observed state by means of frequent measurements. In the discussed scheme, a photon is bouncing back and forth between two perfect mirrors, each time passing a polarization rotator. The horizontal and vertical polarizations can be viewed as analogs of an excited and a ground state of a two level system (TLS). A polarization beam splitter and an absorber for the vertically polarized photon are inserted between the mirrors, and effect measurements of the polarization. The polarization angle acquired in the electrooptic polarization rotator can fluctuate randomly, e.g., via noisy modulation. In the absence of an absorber the polarization randomization corresponds to TLS decay into...

  13. Hepatoprotective Effects of Chinese Medicinal Herbs: A Focus on Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Puiyan; Cheung, Fan; Tan, Hor Yue; Wang, Ning; Yuen, Man Fung; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    The liver is intimately connected to inflammation, which is the innate defense system of the body for removing harmful stimuli and participates in the hepatic wound-healing response. Sustained inflammation and the corresponding regenerative wound-healing response can induce the development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Oxidative stress is associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways, while chronic inflammation is found associated with some human cancers. Inflammation and cancer may be connected by the effect of the inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. Chinese medicinal herbs display abilities in protecting the liver compared to conventional therapies, as many herbal medicines have been shown as effective anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agents. We review the relationship between oxidative stress and inflammation, the development of hepatic diseases, and the hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicinal herbs via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative mechanisms. Moreover, several Chinese medicinal herbs and composite formulae, which have been commonly used for preventing and treating hepatic diseases, including Andrographis Herba, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Coptidis Rhizoma, curcumin, xiao-cha-hu-tang and shi-quan-da-bu-tang, were selected for reviewing their hepatoprotective effects with focus on their anti-oxidative and ant-inflammatory activities. This review aims to provide new insight into how Chinese medicinal herbs work in therapeutic strategies for liver diseases.

  14. Anti-aging and anti-microbial effects of melleolide on various types of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Kobori, Hajime; Sekiya, Atsushi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we found that the sesquiterpene aryl ester melleolide expands the CLS of budding yeast. In contrast, melleolide compromised the CLS of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This indicates that melleolide might have a potential anti-aging activity against some types of cell, and that it might be useful as a selective anti-fungal drug.

  15. Fetal Kidney Cells Can Ameliorate Ischemic Acute Renal Failure in Rats through Their Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    Fetal kidney cells may contain multiple populations of kidney stem cells and thus appear to be a suitable cellular therapy for the treatment of acute renal failure (ARF) but their biological characteristics and therapeutic potential have not been adequately explored. We have culture expanded fetal kidney cells derived from rat fetal kidneys, characterized them and evaluated their therapeutic effect in an ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced rat model of ARF. The fetal kidney cells grew in culture as adherent spindle shaped/polygonal cells and expressed CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD24 and CD133 markers. Administration of PKH26 labeled fetal kidney cells in ARF rats resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and decreased tubular necrosis in the kidney tissues (pkidney cells were observed to engraft around injured tubular cells, and there was increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of tubular cells in the kidneys (pkidney tissues of ARF rats treated with fetal kidney cells had a higher gene expression of renotropic growth factors (VEGF-A, IGF-1, BMP-7 and bFGF) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL10); up regulation of anti-oxidative markers (HO-1 and NQO-1); and a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio as compared to saline treated rats (pkidney cells express mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers, and ameliorate ischemic ARF predominantly by their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arthritic Effects of a Novel Leflunomide Analogue, UTL-5b (GBL-5b).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Chen, Ben; Wooley, Paul; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, An-Rong; Zeng, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common disease characterized by chronic inflammation and irreversible destruction of articular cartilage and bone. In this report, we examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of a novel leflunomide analogue, UTL-5b (also known as GBL-5b), for potential RA treatment. Using a carrageenan-induced edema study in rats, UTL-5b exhibited a better anti-inflammatory effect as compared with leflunomide and its metabolite. The chronic efficacy of UTL-5b was examined using type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. UTL-5b exerted an anti-arthritic effect in a dose-dependant manner with mice given 30 mg/kg exhibiting amelioration of disease early in the trial, but losing statistical significance over time. In contrast, mice treated with 60 mg/kg showed reduced clinical disease parameters early in the trial and these effects were sustained over the ten week trial period. Mechanistic studies indicate that UTL-5b is an inhibitor of TNF-α production in vivo. Oral administration of UTL-5b prior to i.p. injection with lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine markedly reduced the levels of serum TNF-α and increased survival rates of animals from septic shock-induced death. Acute toxicity study using mice receiving increasing doses of UTL-5b showed that no animals were killed by UTL-5b at 2,000 mg/kg (LD(50) >2,000 mg/kg). Our studies show that UTL-5b represents a novel anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent with potential therapeutic application for RA treatment.

  17. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Leite Rozza

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg or menthol (50 mg/kg and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70 and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  18. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Meira de Faria, Felipe; Souza Brito, Alba Regina; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg) or menthol (50 mg/kg) and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...... cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular...

  20. Advancement in research of anti-cancer effects of toad venom (ChanSu) and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Liu; Li-Xing Feng; Li-Hong Hu; Xuan Liu; De-An Guo

    2015-01-01

    Toad venom, called as ChanSu in China, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) whose active components are mainly bufadienolides. ChanSu could exhibit cardiotonic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and, most importantly, anti-cancer effects. In the present review, reports about the in vitro, in vivo and clinical anti-cancer effects of ChanSu or its representative component, bufalin, were summarized. And, reported anti-cancer mechanisms of cardenolides, structure analogues of bufadienolides, were also introduced. Based on the results got from research of ChanSu/bufalin and the results from cardenolides, possible signal network related to the anti-cancer effects of ChanSu/bufalin was predicted. Furthermore, future potential use of ChanSu in anti-cancer therapy was discussed.

  1. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  2. Metabolomic analysis of anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herba Rhodiolae is a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Tibetan people for treating hypoxia related diseases such as anxiety. Based on the previous work, we developed and patented an anti-anxiety herbal formula Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid (FJJOL with Herba Rhodiolae as a chief ingredient. In this study, the anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of FJJOL in a high altitude forced-swimming mouse model with anxiety symptoms will be elucidated by NMR-based metabolomics. METHODS: In our experiments, the mice were divided randomly into four groups as flatland group, high altitude saline-treated group, high altitude FJJOL-treated group, and high altitude diazepam-treated group. To cause anxiety effects and hypoxic defects, a combination use of oxygen level decreasing (hypobaric cabin and oxygen consumption increasing (exhaustive swimming were applied to mice. After a three-day experimental handling, aqueous metabolites of mouse brain tissues were extracted and then subjected to NMR analysis. The therapeutic effects of FJJOL on the hypobaric hypoxia mice with anxiety symptoms were verified. RESULTS: Upon hypoxic exposure, both energy metabolism defects and disorders of functional metabolites in brain tissues of mice were observed. PCA, PLS-DA and OPLS-DA scatter plots revealed a clear group clustering for metabolic profiles in the hypoxia versus normoxia samples. After a three-day treatment with FJJOL, significant rescue effects on energy metabolism were detected, and levels of ATP, fumarate, malate and lactate in brain tissues of hypoxic mice recovered. Meanwhile, FJJOL also up-regulated the neurotransmitter GABA, and the improvement of anxiety symptoms was highly related to this effect. CONCLUSIONS: FJJOL ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia effects by regulating energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and improving the symptoms of anxiety. The anti-anxiety therapeutic effects of FJJOL were comparable to the conventional anti-anxiety drug

  3. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ANTI-DIABETIC THERAPY IN A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Giwa Abdulganiyu; Tayo Fola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of anti-diabetic therapy in a University Teaching Hospital in 2010. Methods: A retrospective review of selected case-notes was conducted. World Health Organization Defined Daily Dose Method of evaluating drug use and probability method for potential effectiveness of antidiabetic therapeutic options from literature analysis was employed in determining cost-effectiveness of each anti-diabetic therapeutic option identified from anti-diabetic dru...

  4. Anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical effect of adjuvant Danshen injection treatment on viral myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bao Liang; Jian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical effect of adjuvant Danshen injection treatment on viral myocarditis.Methods: A total of 90 children with viral myocarditis treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were included in the research and randomly divided into observation group (n=45) and control group (n=45) according to the different treatment. Control group received clinical routine therapy for viral myocarditis, observation group received adjuvant Danshen injection treatment, and then levels of IL23/IL-17 inflammatory axis as well as cytokines, oxidation and anti-oxidation indexes, myocardial enzyme and illness-related proteins were compared between two groups.Results:Serum IL-17, IL-23, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α values of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum MDA, AOPP and NO values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); serum cTnT, CK-MB, MCP-1 and H-FABP values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Adjuvant Danshen injection treatment for children with viral myocarditis can exert positive anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical function, and it plays a positive role in myocardial protection.

  5. Cereulide formation by Bacillus weihenstephanensis and mesophilic emetic Bacillus cereus at temperature abuse depends on pre-incubation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Henrichsen, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    at temperature abuse has not been investigated previously. Results of the present study indicate that storage at 5 and 8 °C will not lead to emetic intoxications, however the time at, and choice of chill temperature will determine the amount of cereulide produced in a temperature abuse situation. These results...... are of relevance for the safety of chilled foods of extended durability....

  6. Quantification of the emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using synthetic cereulide as a standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.; Reij, M.W.; Blaauw, R.H.; Veld, de P.; Rajkovic, A.; Ehling-Schulz, M.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus produces the emetic toxin cereulide, a cyclic dodecadepsipeptide that can act as a K+ ionophore, dissipating the transmembrane potential in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. Because pure cereulide has not been commercially available, cereulide content in food samples has been express

  7. Cathodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry of an anti-emetic agent Granisetron in pharmaceutical formulation and biological matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajeev Jain; Ramkishor Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Granisetron showed one well-defined reduction peak at Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode (HMDE) in the potential range from -1.3 to -1.5 V due to reduction of C=N bond. Solid-phase extraction technique was employed for extraction of Granisetron from spiked human plasma. Granisetron showed peak current enhancement of 4.45% at square-wave voltammetry and 5.33% at cyclic voltammetry as compared with the non stripping techniques. The proposed voltammetric method allowed quantification of Granisetron in pharmaceutical formulation over the target concentration range of 5-200 ng/mL with detection limit 13.63 ng/mL, whereas in human plasma 50-225 ng/mL with detection limit 11.75 ng/mL.

  8. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  9. Toxocara canis: Het effect van behandeling met anti-interleukine-5 en anti-interleukine-4 op immunologische en ontstekingsparameters in de longen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs J; Pitstra B; Rouws C; Rees E van; Savelkoul HFJ; LPM; VUA/celbiologie en immunologie; EUR/MF

    1995-01-01

    De toenames van eosinofiele granulocyten en IgE concentraties in Toxocara canis geinfecteerde BALB/c muizen werden geblokkeerd door behandeling met ratte-hybridoma cellen die respectievelijk anti-interleukine-5 (anti-IL-5) en anti-IL-4 produceerden. Doel was het effect te bestuderen van deze blo

  10. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  11. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Croton celtidifolius bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G M; Felippi, R; DalBó, S; Siqueira-Junior, J M; Arruda, D C; Delle Monache, F; Timbola, A K; Pizzolatti, M G; Ckless, K; Ribeiro-do-valle, R M

    2003-03-01

    Croton celtidifolius Baill commonly known as "sangue-de-adave" is a tree found in the Atlantic Forest of south of Brazil, mainly in Santa Catarina. The bark and leaf infusions of this medicinal plant have been popularly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of crude extract (CE), aqueous fraction (AqF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), butanolic fraction (BuF) and catechin, gallocatechin and sub-fractions, 19SF, 35SF and 63SF that contained a mixture of proanthocyanidins and were derived from the EAF fraction. The CE, AqF, EAF, BuF, catechin and sub-fractions 35SF and 63SF reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan. The CE, fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed antioxidant properties in vitro, all were able to scavenge superoxide anions at a concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). The EAF, catechin and gallocatechin were most effective in the deoxyribose assay, IC50 0.69 (0.44-1.06), 0.20 (0.11-0.39), 0.55 (0.28-1.08) microg x ml(-1) respectively. The CE and other fractions and sub-fractions inhibited deoxyribose degradation up to 1 microg x ml(-1). In the hydrophobic system only AqF did not show lipid peroxidation inhibition. The CE, other fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds inhibited lipidid peroxidation only at a concentration of 100 microg x ml(-1). In summary, this study demonstrates that Croton celtidifolius bark has significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  12. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of soybean agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean agglutinin (SBA lectin, a protein present in raw soybean meals, can bind to and be extensively endocytosed by intestinal epithelial cells, being nutritionally toxic for most animals. In the present study we show that SBA (5-200 µg/cavity injected into different cavities of rats induced a typical inflammatory response characterized by dose-dependent exudation and neutrophil migration 4 h after injection. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with glucocorticoid (0.5 mg/kg or by co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine (100 x [M] lectin, but not of other sugars (100 x [M] lectin, suggesting an inflammatory response related to the lectin activity. Neutrophil accumulation was not dependent on a direct effect of SBA on the macrophage population since the effect was not altered when the number of peritoneal cells was increased or decreased in vivo. On the other hand, SBA showed chemotactic activity for human neutrophils in vitro. A slight increase in mononuclear cells was observed 48 h after ip injection of SBA. Phenotypic analysis of these cells showed an increase in the CD4+/CD8- lymphocyte population that returned to control levels after 15 days, suggesting the development of an immune response. SBA-stimulated macrophages presented an increase in the expression of CD11/CD18 surface molecules and showed some characteristics of activated cells. After intravenous administration, SBA increased the number of circulating neutrophils and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the neutrophil migration induced by ip injection of carrageenan into peritoneal cavities. The co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine or mannose, but not glucose or fucose, inhibited these effects. The data indicate that soybean lectin is able to induce a local inflammatory reaction but has an anti-inflammatory effect when present in circulating blood

  13. Anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of thalidomide on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, Guadalupe; Medrano, Juan Ángel Núñez-; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Farfán, Dolores Jiménez; Sotelo, Julio; Sánchez, Aurora; Trejo-Solís, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Thalidomide has shown protective effects in different models of ischemia/reperfusion damage. To elucidate the mechanisms of such protection, this study assessed the effects of thalidomide on the oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by ischemia/reperfusion episodes in rats. Rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2hours. All animals were sacrificed after different reperfusion times. Rats were administered either DMSO or thalidomide (20mg/kg (i.p.)) at different times before or during reperfusion: 1) 1h before reperfusion; the infarct area was measured 2h after reperfusion. 2) 10min before reperfusion and 80min after reperfusion; the infarct area was measured 24h after reperfusion; and 3) 10min before reperfusion and 1h, 24h, 48h, and 68h after reperfusion; the infarct area was measured 72h after reperfusion. Thalidomide reduced the infarct area 24h and 72h after MCAO, and decreased the neurological deficit in all groups with respect to controls. Thalidomide also lowered significantly the number of TUNEL-positive cells, levels of Bax, caspase-3, lipoperoxidation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the levels of SOD1, Bcl-2 and pAkt. These results show that thalidomide has neuroprotective effects, apparently due to its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects.

  14. Anti-Fibrotic Effects of Astragaloside IV in Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Qi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anti-fibrotic effects of Astragaloside IV in systemic sclerosis. Methods: Treated or untreated systemic sclerosis (SSc and normal fibroblast isolated from corresponding pairs were utilized to detect expression of collagen and fibronectin by western blot, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence staining and histopathological examination. SSc mouse model induced by bleomycin was used to evaluate the effects of the drug in vivo. Results: Compared to normal fibroblast (NF, the expression of collagen and fibronectin in SSc (SScF dramatically increased, and this could be reduced by Astragaloside IV (AST in a dose- or time-dependent manner at both protein and mRNA levels. Administration of Astragaloside IV consistently decreased collagen formation and partially restored the structure, as well as suppressing collagen and fibronectin expression in the skin lesions of SSc-model mice. Mechanistically, Astragaloside IV-induced fibrosis reduction may be due to deregulation of Smad 3/Fli-1, the major mediators of the fibrotic response and key molecules for TGF-β signaling. Astragaloside IV also decreased the level of p-SMAD3 and completely blocked its relocation into the nuclei. Conclusion: Astragaloside IV attenuates fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β-Smads3 axis in systemic sclerosis.

  15. Chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phitak, Thanyaluck; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Settakorn, Jongkolnee; Poompimol, Wilart; Caterson, Bruce; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2012-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major disability of elderly people. Sesamin is the main compound in Sesamun indicum Linn., and it has an anti-inflammatory effect by specifically inhibiting Δ5-desaturase in polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. The chondroprotective effects of sesamin were thus studied in a porcine cartilage explant induced with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and in a papain-induced osteoarthritis rat model. With the porcine cartilage explant, IL-1β induced release of sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (s-GAG) and hydroxyproline release, and this induction was significantly inhibited by sesamin. This ability to inhibit these processes might be due to its ability to decrease expression of MMP-1, -3 and -13, which can degrade both PGs and type II collagen, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, activation of MMP-3 might also be inhibited by sesamin. Moreover, in human articular chondrocytes (HACs), some pathways of IL-1β signal transduction were inhibited by sesamin: p38 and JNK. In the papain-induced OA rat model, sesamin treatment reversed the following pathological changes in OA cartilage: reduced disorganization of chondrocytes in cartilage, increased cartilage thickness, and decreased type II collagen and PGs loss. Sesamin alone might increase formation of type II collagen and PGs in the cartilage tissue of control rats. These results demonstrate that sesamin efficiently suppressed the pathological processes in an OA model. Thus, sesamin could be a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of OA.

  16. Anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic effects of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin on implanted hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pornprom Yoysungnoen; Ponthip Wirachwong; Chatchawan Changtam; Apichart Suksamrarn; Suthiluk Patumraj

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) on tumor angiogenesis compared with curcumin (CUR) by using both in vitro and in vivo models of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2).METHODS: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used for testing the anti-proliferating activities of CUR and THC. In male BALB/c nude mice, 2 x 106 human HepG2 cells were inoculated onto a dorsal skin-fold chamber. One day after HepG2 inoculation, the experimental groups were fed oral daily with CUR or THC (300 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg). On d 7, 14 and 21, the tumor microvasculature was observed using fluorescence videomicroscopy and capillary vascularity (CV) was measured.RESULTS: Pathological angiogenic features including microvascular dilatation, tortuosity, and hyper-permeability were observed. CUR and THC could attenuate these pathologic features. In HepG2-groups, the CV were significantly increased on d 7 (52.43%), 14 (69.17%), and 21 (74.08%), as compared to controls (33.04%,P < 0.001). Treatment with CUR and THC resulted in significant decrease in the CV (P < 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively). In particular, the anti-angiogenic effects of CUR and THC were dose-dependent manner. However, the beneficial effect of THC treatment than CUR was observed, in particular, from the 21 d CV (44.96% and 52.86%, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: THC expressed its anti-angiogenesis without any cytotoxic activities to HepG2 cells even at the highest doses. It is suggested that anti-angiogenic properties of CUR and THC represent a common potential mechanism for their anti-cancer actions.

  17. Anti cancer effects of curcumin: cycle of life and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Tanya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing knowledge on the cell cycle deregulations in cancers has promoted the introduction of phytochemicals, which can either modulate signaling pathways leading to cell cycle regulation or directly alter cell cycle regulatory molecules, in cancer therapy. Most human malignancies are driven by chromosomal translocations or other genetic alterations that directly affect the function of critical cell cycle proteins such as cyclins as well as tumor suppressors, e.g., p53. In this respect, cell cycle regulation and its modulation by curcumin are gaining widespread attention in recent years. Extensive research has addressed the chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane, a relatively non-toxic plant derived polyphenol. The mechanisms implicated are diverse and appear to involve a combination of cell signaling pathways at multiple levels. In the present review we discuss how alterations in the cell cycle control contribute to the malignant transformation and provide an overview of how curcumin targets cell cycle regulatory molecules to assert anti-proliferative and/or apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The purpose of the current article is to present an appraisal of the current level of knowledge regarding the potential of curcumin as an agent for the chemoprevention of cancer via an understanding of its mechanism of action at the level of cell cycle regulation. Taken together, this review seeks to summarize the unique properties of curcumin that may be exploited for successful clinical cancer prevention.

  18. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Adverse Effects and Their Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald E.; Laar, van de Mart A.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid, asp

  19. Anti-thrombotic effects of selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manasa K; Singh, Sunil K; Roy, Arnab; Prakash, Vivek; Kumar, Anand; Dash, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Tamoxifen is a known anti-cancer drug and established estrogen receptor modulator. Few clinical studies have earlier implicated the drug in thrombotic complications attributable to lower anti-thrombin and protein S levels in plasma. However, action of tamoxifen on platelet signalling machinery has not been elucidated in detail. In the present report we show that tamoxifen is endowed with significant inhibitory property against human platelet aggregation. From a series of in vivo and in vitro studies tamoxifen was found to inhibit almost all platelet functions, prolong tail bleeding time in mouse and profoundly prevent thrombus formation at injured arterial wall in mice, as well as on collagen matrix perfused with platelet-rich plasma under arterial shear against the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). These findings strongly suggest that tamoxifen significantly downregulates platelet responses and holds potential as a promising anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic agent.

  20. Characterization and Exposure Assessment of Emetic Bacillus cereus and Cereulide Production in Food Products on the Dutch Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G; Dissel, Serge; Reij, Martine W; Zwietering, Marcel H; in't Veld, Paul H

    2016-02-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food products in The Netherlands, a characterization of B. cereus isolates obtained, cereulide production conditions, and a comparison of consumer exposure estimates with those of a previous exposure assessment. Food samples (n = 1,489) were tested for the presence of B. cereus; 5.4% of the samples contained detectable levels (>10(2) CFU/g), and 0.7% contained levels above 10(5) CFU/g. Samples (n = 3,008) also were tested for the presence of cereulide. Two samples (0.067%) contained detectable levels of cereulide at 3.2 and 5.4 μg/kg of food product. Of the 481 tested isolates, 81 produced cereulide and/or contained the ces gene. None of the starch-positive and hbl-containing isolates possessed the ces gene, whereas all strains contained the nhe genes. Culture of emetic B. cereus under nonoptimal conditions revealed a delay in onset of cereulide production compared with culture under optimal conditions, and cereulide was produced in all cases when B. cereus cells had been in the stationary phase for some time. The prevalence of cereulide-contaminated food approached the prevalence of contaminated products estimated in an exposure assessment. The main food safety focus associated with this pathogen should be to prevent germination and growth of any B. cereus present in food products and thus prevent cereulide production in foods.

  1. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Induces Cytoprotection in Rat Orthotopic Lung Transplantation via Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ruiping; KUBO, Masatoshi; Morse, Danielle; Zhou, Zhihong; Zhang, Xuchen; Dauber, James H.; Fabisiak, James; Alber, Sean M.; Watkins, Simon C.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Ning, Wen; Oury, Tim D; Patty J. Lee; McCurry, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the high incidence of acute graft rejection. There is mounting evidence that the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and/or its catalytic by-product carbon monoxide (CO) confers cytoprotection against tissue and cellular injury. This led us to hypothesize that CO may protect against lung transplant rejection via its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in Lewis rat recipient...

  3. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of anti-platelet agent-clopidogrel in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of antiplatelet agent, clopidogrel, in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: TNBS induced Crohn′s disease model and oxazolone induced ulcerative colitis model were used to evaluate the role of clopidogrel in IBD. Spargue Dawley female and Wistar male rats were used respectively. The colitis was induced by a single intra-colonic application of TNBS (0.25 ml, 120 mg/ml in 50% ethanol) and oxazolone (450 ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden, the Tiger Milk mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sook Shien; Tan, Nget Hong; Fung, Shin Yee; Sim, Si Mui; Tan, Chon Seng; Ng, Szu Ting

    2014-01-01

    Background The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine to relieve cough, asthma and chronic hepatitis. The traditional uses of the sclerotium are presumably related to its anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) cultivar TM02. Methods The anti-acute inflammatory activity of the scl...

  5. Effect of cisplatin alone or combined with monoclonal anti-programmed death ligand-1 anti-body on lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPCA-1 and T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雪

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of cisplatin alone or combined with anti-programmed death ligand 1 monoclonal antibody(anti-PD-L1 mA b)on the co-culture system of lung adenocarcinoma SPCA-1 cells and T lymphocytes,and therefore to study the immunotherapeutic effect of anti-PD-L1 mA b on lung cancer.Methods Human adenocarcinoma SPCA-1 cell line was selected by

  6. Anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese herbal medicinal alkaloid ingredients in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yiyi; Mao, Aihua; Yu, Zhengyu; He, Kongwang

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the anti-endotoxin and anti-inflammatory effects of sinomenine, fangchinoline, stachydrine, chuanxionggzine, oxymartrine, and evodiamine alkaloids commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines. In an endotoxin (LPS) control group, each mouse was challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. In high-, middle- and low-dose alkaloid groups, mice were initially challenged with 1 mg LPS/kg by IP injection and, 3 h later, dosed intramuscularly (IM) with one of the six alkaloids at one of three levels (1, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight). In the drug control group, mice were dosed IM with 10 mg/kg body weight of a given alkaloid; mice in a naïve control group were administered the same volume of normal saline. The results revealed the six alkaloids could reduce the incidence/severity of LPS- induced toxicities, e.g., body temperature elevation, weight loss, systemic inflammation, multiple organ dysfunction. Taken together, the data suggested to us that these alkaloids might effectively regulate inflammatory responses and have a potential to be used in anti-endotoxin therapies.

  7. The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti--inflammatory agent, against renal injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragheb Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ, 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, is one of the most active ingredients of Nigella Sativa seeds. TQ has a variety of beneficial properties including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies have provided original observations on the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of renal diseases such as glomerulo-nephritis and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The renoprotective effects of TQ have been demons-trated in animal models. Also, TQ has been used successfully in treating allergic diseases in humans. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of reactive oxygen species in renal pathophysiology and the intriguing possibility for a role of TQ in the prevention of and/or protection from renal injury in humans.

  8. Anti-oxidant effects of kiwi fruit in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Haruyo; Morita, Erika; Yui, Satoru; Yamazaki, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that kiwi fruit is rich in polyphenols and has immunostimulatory activity. Polyphenols are widely known for having anti-oxidant effects. We also revealed potential anti-oxidant effects of kiwi fruit in vivo by oral administration to mice. Here, we compared the anti-oxidant effects of kiwi fruit with those of other fruits in vitro. Then, we examined the inhibitory effects of kiwi fruit on oxidation in the human body. There are two varieties of kiwi fruit, green kiwi and gold kiwi. We also examined variation between these varieties. Comparison of the anti-oxidant effects in vitro demonstrated that kiwi fruit had stronger anti-oxidant effects than orange and grapefruit, which are rich in vitamin C; gold kiwi had the strongest anti-oxidant effects. Kiwi fruit inhibited oxidation of biological substances in the human body. In particular, kiwi fruit may inhibit early lipid oxidation. In this study, kiwi fruit had strong anti-oxidant effects and may prevent the development and deterioration of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  9. 信息动态%Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of granule to pelvic inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of granucle to pelvic inflammation. Methods The anti-inflammatory effects were studied by dimethylbenzene-induced swelling oar in mouse, carrageenin induced paw edema and tampon-induced proliferation in rats. The analgesic effects were studied by acetic acid-induced writhing and optothermal-induced pain in mice. Results Granule to pelvic inflammation significantly reduced swelling oar in mouse, paw edema and proliferation in rats;prolonged latency of writhing test, reduced the writhing number and improved optothermal-induced analgesia percentage. Conclusion Granule to pelvic inflammation has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

  10. Anti-spermatogenic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Mucuna Urens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hannah Edim Etta; Udoh Paul Bassey; Eneobong Effiom Eneobong; Okon Bassey Okon

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the age-long claim by the locales that the food thickener,M.urens seed,has antispermatogenic,hence,antifertility effects in man.Methods Eight-week old male Albino rats were used as the mammalian model for this study.They were assigned to four groups of 6 rats each and treatment with the ethanol extract was for a period of 14 d.The treatment regimes were 70 mg/kg,140 mg/kg,210 mg/kg and 0 mg/kg BW in groups A,B,C and D,respectively.Extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction using 80% ethanol as the extracting solvent.The stock solution was prepared by dissolving 1 g of the paste extract in 10 ml corn oil(vehicle)to make up 100 mg/ml concentration.At the end of the treatment,sperm from the distal caudal epididymis was collected and analyzed for sperm count,sperm motility and sperm morphology.Results Significant reduction was observed in sperm count and sperm motility(P<0.05).The mean sperm count for group A was 6.27±0.02×106,for group B was 6.16±0.02×106 and group C had 6.0±0.0×106 sperm cells The control(group D)had a mean sperm count of 6.50±0.09×106 which was higher than that of any treated group.Results of the sperm motility test gave the following mean rates for motile sperm cells after treatment:group A,57.6±2.1;group B,50.0±4.0;group C,45.0±4.0.The control had the highest mean motility rate of 72.3±2.1.The observed sperm abnormalities included unusual head with large acrosome,looped tailpiece,mid piece with distal droplet,pin head,pyriform head and long hook.Conclusion The anti-spermatogenic effects of the extract on the sperm in the Albino rat may lead to reduction of fertility.

  11. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of guava leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract has been reported in some animal models. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha®, Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an alimentotherapy for chronic treatment. PMID:20181067

  12. Persuasive Strategies for Effective Anti-Drug Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Lane, Derek R.; Donohew, Lewis; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Norling, Gretchen R.; An, Jeong-Hyun; Cheah, Wai Hsien; McClure, Leola; Buckingham, Tim; Garofalo, Elizabeth; Bevins, Carla C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an experimental study designed to investigate the influence of message design strategies on cognitive processing and changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, and behavior in relation to marijuana use. Explains that in the experiment, college students viewed four anti-marijuana public service announcements. Notes that results provide…

  13. Effects of Risk Factors on Anti-HBs Development in Hepatitis B Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaha, Modhusudon; Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Ahmed, Mohammad Firoz; Rahman, Sabita Rezwana

    2015-05-01

    Hepatitis B infection is still a major global health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for more than 30 years. Although development of protective antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is a common phenomenon after vaccination as well as natural infection, sometimes it does not appear even after complete vaccination. In the present study, whether the impairment of the development of anti-HBs in naturally infected and/or vaccinated populations is associated with immunomodulating risk factors (i.e., age, gender, smoking, and diabetes) and/or other risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, dental, and saloon exposure) was investigated through a cross-sectional study. Among 204 nonvaccinated patients, 132 (64.7%) tested positive for anti-HBc, indicating that they had been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) at least once in their lifetime. Exposure to HBV (anti-HBc positive) was significantly higher among low-income people, dental exposed, and saloon users. Among anti-HBc positive patients, only 44 (33.3%) developed natural immunity with anti-HBs. Impairment in anti-HBs formation was found to be significantly high among cigarette smokers. However, no significant association of anti-HBs development was observed with age, gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, dental exposure, and using saloon. Consistently, the frequency of developing protective anti-HBs (≥10 IU/L) among a vaccinated population was almost nine times less among smokers. These data suggest that anti-HBs development, either naturally or after vaccination, is significantly lower among smokers. It emphasizes the need to check the anti-HBs status in smokers after vaccination, and a booster vaccination should be administered if the anti-HBs antibody titer decreases below the protective level.

  14. Cereulide synthetase gene cluster from emetic Bacillus cereus: Structure and location on a mega virulence plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis toxin plasmid pXO1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Martin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cereulide, a depsipeptide structurally related to valinomycin, is responsible for the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease caused by Bacillus cereus. Recently, it has been shown that this toxin is produced by a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, but its exact genetic organization and biochemical synthesis is unknown. Results The complete sequence of the cereulide synthetase (ces gene cluster, which encodes the enzymatic machinery required for the biosynthesis of cereulide, was dissected. The 24 kb ces gene cluster comprises 7 CDSs and includes, besides the typical NRPS genes like a phosphopantetheinyl transferase and two CDSs encoding enzyme modules for the activation and incorporation of monomers in the growing peptide chain, a CDS encoding a putative hydrolase in the upstream region and an ABC transporter in the downstream part. The enzyme modules responsible for incorporation of the hydroxyl acids showed an unusual structure while the modules responsible for the activation of the amino acids Ala and Val showed the typical domain organization of NRPS. The ces gene locus is flanked by genetic regions with high homology to virulence plasmids of B. cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. PFGE and Southern hybridization showed that the ces genes are restricted to emetic B. cereus and indeed located on a 208 kb megaplasmid, which has high similarities to pXO1-like plasmids. Conclusion The ces gene cluster that is located on a pXO1-like virulence plasmid represents, beside the insecticidal and the anthrax toxins, a third type of B. cereus group toxins encoded on megaplasmids. The ces genes are restricted to emetic toxin producers, but pXO1-like plasmids are also present in emetic-like strains. These data might indicate the presence of an ancient plasmid in B. cereus which has acquired different virulence genes over time. Due to the unusual structure of the hydroxyl acid incorporating enzyme modules of Ces

  15. A new method for rapid and quantitative detection of the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide in food products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kawai, Takao; Kitagawa, Mikiya; Kumeda, Yuko

    2013-05-01

    The Bacillus cereus emetic toxin cereulide causes foodborne intoxication, which may occasionally result in severe disease, and even death. To differentially diagnose the emetic-type of foodborne disease caused by B. cereus and assess the safety of commercial food, we developed a rapid method to quantitate cereulide. This method was combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for the extraction of cereulide from food using a normal-phase silica gel cartridge. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 ng of cereulide ml(-1), respectively. Spiked cereulide was reproducibly recovered with over 67% efficiency from nine diverse foods implicated in cereulide food poisoning. The recovery rate, reproducibility, and intermediate precision for this single laboratory validation using boiled rice were 87.1%, 4.4%, and 7.0%, respectively. Further, we detected a wide range of cereulide concentrations in leftover food and vomitus samples from two emetic foodborne outbreaks. LC-MS/MS analysis correlated closely with those acquired using the HEp-2 cell assay, and quantitated cereulide from 10 food samples at least five times faster than the bioassay. This new method will provide clinicians with an improved tool for more rapidly and quantitatively determining the presence of cereulide in food and diagnosing food poisoning caused by cereulide.

  16. Enterotoxigenic profiling of emetic toxin- and enterotoxin-producing Bacillus cereus, Isolated from food, environmental, and clinical samples by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Fereidoun; Kim, Jung-Beom; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus cereus comprises the largest group of endospore-forming bacteria and can cause emetic and diarrheal food poisoning. A total of 496 B. cereus strains isolated from various sources (food, environmental, clinical) were assessed by a multiplex PCR for the presence of enterotoxin genes. The detection rate of nheA, entFM, hblC, and cytK enterotoxin genes among all B. cereus strains was 92.33%, 77.21%, 59.47%, and 47.58%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic profiles were determined in emetic toxin- (8 patterns) and enterotoxin-producing strains (12 patterns). The results provide important information on toxin prevalence and toxigenic profiles of B. cereus from various sources. Our findings revealed that B. cereus must be considered a serious health hazard and Bacillus thuringiensis should be considered of a greater potential concern to food safety among all B. cereus group members. Also, there is need for intensive and continuous monitoring of products embracing both emetic toxin and enterotoxin genes.

  17. The Different Clinical Effects of Anti-BLyS, Anti-APRIL and Anti-CD20 Antibodies Point at a Critical Pathogenic Role of gamma-Herpesvirus Infected B Cells in the Marmoset EAE Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heijmans, Nicole; Bauer, Jan; Laman, Jon D.; Oh, Luke; Migone, Thi; Verschoor, Ernst J.; 't Hart, Bert A.

    2013-01-01

    The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephal

  18. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18...336664 Title Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macro

  19. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors.

  20. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jolley

    Full Text Available The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors.

  1. Therapeutic effect of the anti-Fas antibody on arthritis in HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, K; Asahara, H; Okamoto, K; Aono, H; Hasunuma, T; Kobata, T; Iwakura, Y; Yonehara, S; Sumida, T; Nishioka, K

    1996-07-15

    We have recently demonstrated Fas-mediated apoptosis in the synovium, of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and suggested that it may be one factor responsible for the regression of RA. To examine whether the induction of apoptosis caused by anti-Fas mAb may play a potential role as a new therapeutic strategy for RA, we investigated the effect of anti-Fas mAb (RK-8) on synovitis in an animal model of RA, the human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) tax transgenic mice. We report here that administration of anti-Fas mAb into mice intra-articularly improved the paw swelling and arthritis within 48 h. Immunohistochemical study and in vitro culture studies showed that 35% of synovial fibroblasts, 75% of mononuclear cells, and some of polymorphonuclear leukocytes infiltrating in synovium underwent apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb. In situ nick end labeling analysis and electron microscope analysis clearly showed that many cells in synovium were induced apoptosis by anti-Fas mAb administration. However, local administration of anti-Fas mAb did not produce systemic side effects. Results demonstrated that administration of anti-Fas mAb in arthritic joints of the HTLV-1 tax transgenic mice produced improvement of arthritis. These findings suggest that local administration of anti-Fas mAb may represent a useful therapeutic strategy for proliferative synovitis such as RA.

  2. Anti-platelet effects of yuzu extract and its component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye Yon; Park, Se Won; Chung, Ill Min; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the methanolic extract of yuzu (yuzu ME) and its components hesperidin and naringin, have anti-platelet activities. Yuzu ME and hesperidin inhibited collagen-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, ADP- and thrombin-induced rat platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. Naringin also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, AA, or thrombin, but not aggregation induced by ADP. The oral administration of yuzu ME or hesperidin prolonged mouse tail vein bleeding time in a dose-dependent manner in vivo. These results suggest that yuzu ME and hesperidin have anti-platelet activity, and that intake of yuzu, which includes various flavonoids such as hesperidin, may be beneficial for individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Effect of simvastatin on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation properties of HDL in apoE-/-mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di TIAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To investigate the effect of simvastatin on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL in apoE-/-mice fed with high-fat diet. Methods  Eighteen 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice as blank control group were fed with normal diet, and thirty 8-week old male apoE-/-mice were fed with high-fat diet. Four weeks later, 6 mice in each group were sacrificed. The remaining 24 apoE-/-mice were randomly divided into two groups (12 each: atherosclerosis group (AS group and simvastatin group, while the remaining 12 C57BL/6J mice served as control group. The mice in both control and AS group were fed with the original diet, and the mice in simvastatin group were fed with the same high-fat diet plus simvastatin 5mg/ (kg.d. At the end of the 8th and 16th week, 6 mice were sacrificed in each group. Serum lipid levels, paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity (arylesterase activity, serum myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, high-density lipoprotein inflammation index (HII and serum hs-CRP levels were determined. The atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aorta was manifested by oil red O staining. Results  At the end of the 8th week, no difference was found in the levels of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C between simvastatin and AS group. At the end of 16th week, the levels of serum LDL-C decreased significantly (P<0.01 and HDL-C increased significantly (P<0.05 in simvastatin group compared with AS group. At the end of the 8th and 16th week, a significant enhancement of the serum PON1 activity but marked decrease in MPO activity, HII, and serum hs-CRP levels were found in simvastatin group compared with that in AS group. The percentage of plaque area (surface area of plaque/ surface area of whole intima in the aorta was significantly smaller in simvastatin group than that in AS group (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions In addition to lowering LDL-C and elevating HDL

  4. Anti-HLA and Anti-MICA Antibodies in Liver Transplant Recipients: Effect on Long-Term Graft Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciszek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Presence of anti-HLA antibodies has a well-known impact on kidney grafts survival; however their role in liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. We conducted a 7-year prospective study to show correlation between presence of anti-HLA and anti-MICA antibodies and liver graft survival. Methods. Blood samples from 123 liver transplant recipients were collected during patients routine visits. Time from transplantation to blood sample collection was different for each patient. Blood samples were tested for anti-HLA (separately class I and II and MICA antibodies using Luminex assays. Results. There were 32 (26% patients with positive anti-HLA and 37 (30% with positive anti-MICA antibodies. Graft loss occurred in 7 cases (23% in anti-HLA positive group compared to 20 (22% in anti-HLA negative group ( and in 8 cases (22% in anti-MICA positive group but 19 (23% in anti-MICA negative group (. No correlations were detected between presence of antibodies and acute graft rejection (AGR. Presence of any antibodies (anti-HLA or anti-MICA antibodies correlated with late graft rejection (. Conclusion. Presence of anti-HLA or anti-MICA had no impact on long-term liver graft survival; however, detection of any antibodies was correlated with episodes of late graft rejection.

  5. Chemical composition, and anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaf and wholeplant samples of diploid and tetraploid gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf and whole-plant samples of the diploid and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP)were investigated and compared for their chemical compositions, and their potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The highest levels of total flavonoids and phenolics were observed in the diplo...

  6. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  7. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages.......Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  8. Can HB vaccine yield a booster effect on individuals with positive serum anti-HBs and anti-HBc markers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Xiang Wang; Christina Y. Shi; Ying Guo; Chang-Hong Yang; Yu Song; Juan Chen; Fu-Sheng Pang; Shao-Ping Lei; Xiao-Ming Jia; Jin-Ying Wen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate if HB vaccination can yield a booster effecton the anti-HBs level of those naturally acquired HBV positivemarkers.METHODS: Sera were collected from 1399 newly enrolleduniversity students aged between 18-20 years at theentrance medical examination in 2001. Forty-four students(28 males and 16 females) with positive serum anti-HBs and anti-HBc markers served as an observation group and another 44 students (24 males and 20 females) without any HBV markers as the control. HB vaccination was given to all the students without positive serum HBs Ag according to 0,1, 6 month regimen and the peripheral venous blood was sampled from those of both observation and control groups for anti-HBs detection one month after the second and third doses. Anti-HBs levels were measured by ELISA.RESULTS: The seroconversion rate of anti-HBs in the control group was 100% after the second dose, but the geometric mean titers (GMTs) were low. The tendency of serum anti-HBs changes after the 3rd dose was completely different between the two groups. Although more than half of those with positive anti-HBs and anti-HBc showed a mild increase of anti-HBs levels after the 2nd boosting dose (mean anti-HBs level was 320:198 mIU), but the increase of serum anti-HBs titer was much smaller than that in the control group. The averages of their initial serum anti-HBs levelsand the levels after the 2nd and 3rd doses were 198, 320 and 275 mIU respectively. All the subjects from the control group had an obvious increase in their serum anti-HBs levels which was nearly 4 times the baseline level (302:78 mIU).CONCLUSION: HB vaccination can not enhance anti-HBs levels in those with positive serum anti-HBs and anti-HBc markers.

  9. Anti-cancer effects of traditional Korean wild vegetables in complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyun-Mok; Yu, Kwang-Won; Cho, Sung-Dae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kwon, Ki Han

    2016-02-01

    This research study explored the anti-cancer effects of natural materials in South Korea. Although South Korea has a long history of traditional medicine, many natural materials of South Korea have not yet been introduced to the rest of the world because of language barriers and inconsistent study conditions. In the past 3 years, 56 papers introducing 56 natural materials, which have anti-cancer effects, have been published by scientists in South Korea. Further, these studies have introduced five kinds of natural materials presented in research papers that were written in Korean and are therefore virtually unknown overseas. The anti-cancer effects were confirmed by 2-3 cancer markers in the majority of the studies, with the most common targets being breast cancer cells and gastric cancer cells. These cancers have the greatest incidence in South Korea. The natural materials studied not only exhibit anti-cancer activity but also display anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-diabetic activities. They have not yet been used for the direct treatment of disease but have potential as medicinal materials for alternative and complementary medicine for the treatment of many modern diseases. Many natural materials of South Korea are already known all over the world, and with this study, we hope to further future research to learn more about these natural medicines.

  10. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Wing; Takayama, Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4+/CD8+) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression. PMID:23170052

  11. The effects of anti-TNF treatment on cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna Liisa Kyllikki; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Novrup, Hans Gram;

    treated topically with XPro1595, saline or etanercept for 3 consequtive days. Infarct volumetric analysis and behavioral outcome are currently being analysed. Results and conclusion: Preliminary studies showed that Etanercept- and Xpro1595-treated mice displayed altered learning pattern on the Barnes maze....... After two weeks of anti-TNF therapy there was a significant decrease in the number of BrdU+ cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the XPro1595-treated group. Ongoing analysis will reveal whether Xpro1595 also decreased infarct volume after experimental stroke....

  12. Anti-platelet Aggregation and Anti-thrombotic Effects of Marine Natural Products Sargahydroquinoic Acid and Sargaquinoic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byonggon; Oh, Sangtae; Kwon, Daeho; Cui, Yuan; Ham, Jungyeob; Shin, Woonseob; Lee, Seokjoon [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    On the basis of the results of the in vitro platelet aggregation inhibition test, we discovered that of SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a strong inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation. To enable preclinical and clinical studies to be conducted, we synthesized SQA from natural SHQA in high yield. In addition, we confirmed that SHQA (1) and SQA (2) show a fast recovery time from paralysis in the mouse pulmonary thromboembolism model, indicating that they are strong, novel anti-platelet drug candidates. As bleeding is a main side effect of the APDs used clinically, we also plan to conduct a bleeding test with SHQA and SQA and will report these results in a future proper paper. Platelets circulate in blood and their activity is regulated by nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin I{sub 2} (PGI{sub 2}) released from endothelial cells in a quiescent state under physiological conditions.

  13. Effects of granisetron on vomiting, anti-depression and memory enhancement potential of rolipram%格拉司琼对咯利普兰致呕吐、抗抑郁及增强学习记忆能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国熊; 周涛; 周恒; 许重远; 徐江平

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the anti-emetic potential of granisetron(Gra) on mice vomiting induced by rolipram(Rol) and the effect of Gra on anti-depression and spatial memory enhancement of Rol.METHODS The anti-emetic potential of Gra was evaluated based on the duration of anesthesia in mice induced by the combination of xylazine/ketamine, which was determined as the time between the loss and regaining of the righting reflex.The depression models ( forced swimming test and tail suspension test ) and Morris water maze were used to assess the anti-depression and cognitive enhancement effects with the combination of Gra and Rol.RESULTS Rol 0.5 mg·kg-1 significantly reduced duration of anesthesia induced by xylazine/ketamine in KM mice from (48.6 ± 11.1)minto (30.0±8.6)min (P<0.05).Then Rol combined with Gra0.05, 0.5 and5 mg·kg-1 increased the duration of anesthesia compared with Rol as (39.5 ±15.5)min, (43.1 ± 17.7 ) min ( P < 0.05 ) and (42.1 ± 16.6 ) min ( P < 0.05 ).Forced swimming test and tail suspension test data showed Rol combined with Gra did not influence the immobility time.Meanwhile, Rol combined with Gra did not influence spatial memory performance in Morris water maze.CONCLUSION Rol combined with Gra can significantly reduce the emetic potential of Rol, without intervention in its antidepressant effects or cognitive enhancement.So the combination of Rol and Gra is a potential effective treatment for nausea and vomiting in pharmacodynamics.%目的 评价格拉司琼(Gra)对咯利普兰(Rol)潜在致恶心呕吐反应的影响,同时考察Gra对Rol抗抑郁作用及增强空间学习记忆能力的影响.方法 通过观察氯胺酮/赛拉嗪诱导的麻醉小鼠翻正反射恢复时间来间接评价Rol潜在的致恶心呕吐反应;采用强迫游泳实验、悬尾实验、Morris水迷宫考察Rol与Gra合用对小鼠抑郁样症状、空间学习记忆能力的影响.结果 Rol 0.5 mg·kg-1能显著地将氯胺酮/赛拉嗪诱导的小鼠翻正

  14. Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an ethanolic extract and xylopic acid from the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica in murine models of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis O Ameyaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including headache and neuralgia. An animal model of vincristine-induced sensory neuropathy was developed after repeated intraperitoneal injection in rats and used in the present work to study the effects of the ethanolic extract of X. aethiopica (XAE and its diterpene xylopic acid (XA in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Vincristine (0.1 mg kg -1 day -1 was administered during two cycles of five consecutive days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Static tactile anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and cold anti-allodynic effects of XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 were assessed using Von Frey filaments of bending forces of 4, 8, and 15 g, the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and cold water (4.5°C, respectively. Results: Administration of vincristine caused the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia with no significant motor deficit, spontaneous pain, and foot deformity. XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 exhibited anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Pregabalin (10-100 mg kg -1 used as control produced similar effect. Conclusion: These findings establish the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the ethanolic fruit XAE and its major diterpene XA in vincristine-induced neuropathtic pain.

  15. Pharmacological investigations of the anti-diabetic effect of Cortex Moutan and its active component paeonol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C H; Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, K M; Lau, T W; Lam, F C; Law, W T; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Ho, Y Y; Lau, C B S

    2007-11-01

    Cortex Moutan (CM, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is one of the common herbs found in anti-diabetic traditional Chinese medicine formulae. To study the potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of CM, four in vitro models (intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE, human skin fibroblasts cell line Hs68 and mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1) were used. CM showed significant in vitro anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting glucose uptake of BBMV and enhancing glucose uptake into Hs68 and 3T3-L1 cells. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, paeonol was confirmed to be one of the active constituents for inhibiting BBMV glucose uptake. With neonatal-streptozotocin diabetic rats, paeonol (200 and 400mg/kgbody wt.) was found to improve oral glucose tolerance in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-diabetic effect of paeonol.

  16. The effect of endotoxin and anti-endotoxin serum on synovial fluid parameters in the horse

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    R.D. Gottschalk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a commercially available equine hyperimmune anti-endotoxin serum on synovial fluid parameters were evaluated in an induced synovitis model in normal horses. Four groups of 3 horses each received lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus hyperimmune antiendotoxin (anti-LPS, LPS, anti-LPS, and Ringers lactate (control respectively injected into the left intercarpal joint. Synovial fluid parameters were measured at 4, 8, 24 and 72 h. It was found that anti-LPS had no attenuating effect on the LPS and that it induced a synovitis almost equivalent to that induced by LPS alone. The introduction of sterile Ringers lactate solution into the carpal joint together with repeated aseptic arthrocentesis induces a mild inflammatory response.

  17. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory vasoprotective effects of caloric restriction in aging: role of circulating factors and SIRT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Jimenez, Rosario; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Pearson, Kevin J; de Cabo, Rafael; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2009-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with vascular aging and promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Caloric restriction (CR) mitigates conditions associated with aging, but its effects on vascular dysfunction during aging remain poorly defined. To determine whether CR exerts vasoprotective effects in aging, aortas of ad libitum (AL) fed young and aged and CR-aged F344 rats were compared. Aging in AL-rats was associated with impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation, vascular oxidative stress and increased NF-kappaB activity. Lifelong CR significantly improved endothelial function, attenuated vascular ROS production, inhibited NF-kappaB activity and down-regulated inflammatory genes. To elucidate the role of circulating factors in mediation of the vasoprotective effects of CR, we determined whether sera obtained from CR animals can confer anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in cultured coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs), mimicking the effects of CR. In CAECs cultured in the presence of AL serum TNFalpha elicited oxidative stress, NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory gene expression. By contrast, treatment of CAECs with CR serum attenuated TNFalpha-induced ROS generation and prevented NF-kappaB activation and induction of inflammatory genes. siRNA knockdown of SIRT1 mitigated the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of CR serum. CR exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory vascular effects, which are likely mediated by circulating factors, in part, via a SIRT1-dependent pathway.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Tacca integrifolia in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatree Autsavakitipong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This is a preliminary investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia (TIE for the analgesic activity using writhing response in mice, tail flick test in rats and for anti-inflammatory activity using ethyl phenyl propiolate (EPP-induced ear edema, carrageenan- and arachidonic acid-induced hind paw edema, as well as cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The results showed that TIE (200 mg/kg, PO significantly inhibited pain caused by acetic acid injection (65.9% but did not exhibit effect in tail flick test in rats. These findings suggest that analgesic mechanism of TIE may act via peripherally pathway. The study of anti-inflammatory effect showed that TIE significantly inhibited ear edema induced by EPP. TIE (200 mg/kg, PO inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (55.5% and arachidonic acid (48.6% but had no effect on cotton-induced granuloma formation in rats. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of leaf of T. integrifolia possessed anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation and analgesic activity.Industrial relevant. Plants of the genus Tacca have been reported to possess many activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and, antipyretic activities. Many species have been used to treat high blood pressure, burn, gastric ulcer, and hepatitis. The scientific studies supporting the traditional uses of Tacca integrifolia for some of the alleged activities are still lacking. The screening test for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Tacca integrifolia provides scientific data to confirm the potentials of T. integrifolia as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. In addition, the outcomes may be useful to develop a new analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the future. Key words. Tacca integrifolia; Taccaceae; ethyl acetate extract; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity

  19. Anti-biotic Effect of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Plant Bacterial / Fungal Pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    津野, 和宣; 中村, 悌一

    2012-01-01

    The anti-biotic effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water on plant pathogen was determined. The spores of 4 kinds of fungal pathogen and 17 kinds of plant pathogenic bacteria were applied at different concentration.###Slightly acidic electrolyzed water showed strong growth inhibition in germination of fungi spores tested. In addition, by the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water for 30 sec., all kinds of bacteria tested were inhibited to grow on the medium.###The anti-biotic ef...

  20. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiani, A; Hosseiny, J; Semnanian, S; Javan, M; Saeedi, F; Kamalinejad, M; Saremi, S

    2000-09-01

    In this study, probable antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit components, were evaluated. For evaluation of antinociceptive effects, the chronic (formalin test) and acute (tail-flick) pain models of rats were used. For the anti-inflammatory effects, the paw inflammation model was used through subcutaneous injection of 5% formalin to the paw of male rats. Water extracts of the fruit and its components in the single dose were assessed through comparison with the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of sodium salicylate (SS) as a positive control. Administration of 300 mg/kg of SS (i.p.) had no effect on tail flick latency, while 1000 mg/kg of total (i.p. and p.o.) and endocarp (i.p.) extract, increased this latency (Pangustifolia fruit contains flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides.

  2. Active Anti-Microbial Effects of Larch and Pine Wood on Four Bacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Laireiter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Active anti-microbial effects of larch (Larix decidua Mill. and pine (Pinus sylvestris L. wood materials on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis were tested. The agar-diffusion test, a method used in routine diagnostics, was implemented to detect anti-microbial effects of wooden discs and filter paper discs containing methanol extracts of different wood parts. The results showed that the bark of larch had an inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, and the heart wood of pine showed a significant anti-microbial effect on the gram-positive bacteria tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, and Bacillus subtilis. These results were confirmed by using methanol-extracts. An anti-microbial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not found. Anti-bacterial effects of other parts of larch wood and of pine sapwood were also not found. The results of this study showed for the first time that certain parts of wood contain compounds that directly reduce microbial growth. These data are a further demonstration of the positive effects of specific wood species and could promote the usage of wood in hygienically sensitive areas.

  3. Synergistic immunosuppressive effect of anti-TNF combined with methotrexate on antibody responses to the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, L. B. S.; Van der Bijl, A. E.; Visser, L. G.; Huizinga, T. W. J.; Van Hogezand, R. A.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2008-01-01

    introduction: The efficacy of the immune response upon vaccination in patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) with or without methottexate is the subject of debate. We studied the effect of immuncisuppressive treatment, including anti-TNF and methotrexate, on the response t

  4. Effects of hepatitis B vaccine boosters on anti-HBs-negative children after primary immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shunshun; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Qian; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Xu, Kaijin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shigui; Xie, Tiansheng; Yang, Linna; Li, Jing; Yao, Jun

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the changes of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer after booster vaccinations in 5-15-year-old children with negative antibodies (anti-HBs level: Group I, anti-HBs ≥10.0 mIU/mL) among 225 subjects at the 4 time-points were 93.8%, 100%, 83.6% and 73.4%, respectively (χ(2) = 90.29, p anti-HBs geometric mean titer (GMT) in Group III were always higher than those in the other 2 groups (all p < 0.05). The immune effect of a 3 -dose booster revaccination is good, and the booster-induced immune response was correlated with the pre-booster titer level, and ≥1.0 mIU/mL ensuring a robust positive response, whereas titers below this value may indicate the need for a course of booster vaccination.

  5. Quantum-size effects and thermal response of anti-Kramer-Pesch vortex core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajiang; Hong-Yu, Wu; Peeters, F. M.; Shanenko, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1960's it has been well known that the basic superconductive quantities can exhibit oscillations as functions of the thickness (diameter) in superconducting nanofilms (nanowires) due to the size quantization of the electronic spectrum. However, very little is known about the effects of quantum confinement on the microscopic properties of vortices. Based on a numerical solution to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, we study the quantum-size oscillations of the vortex core resulting from the sequential interchange of the Kramer-Pesch and anti-Kramer-Pesch regimes with changing nanocylinder radius. The physics behind the anti-Kramer-Pesch anomaly is displayed by utilizing a semi-analytical Anderson approximate solution. We also demonstrate that the anti-Kramer-Pesch vortex core is robust against thermal smearing and results in a distinctive two-maxima structure in the local density of states, which can be used to identify the existence of the anti-Kramer-Pesch vortex.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract from Anthocephalus cadamba stem bark in animal models

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    Kodangala Subraya Chandrashekar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthocephalus cadamba (ReboxMiq. (Rubiaceae is widely distributed throughout the greater part of India, especially at low levels in wet place. Traditionally the bark is used as tonic, febrifuge and to reduce the pain and inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract obtained from  Anthocephalus cadamba  aerial parts, MEAC, were investigated in this study. Design and methods: The effects of MEAC on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin induced paw edema and cotton pallet-induced granuloma, respectively. The anti-edema effect of MEAC was compared with 10 mg/kg of indomethacin orally. Results: The results suggested that MEAC possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. The acute inflammatory model showed that all the doses of MEAC effectively suppressed the edema produced by histamine, so it may be suggested that its anti-inflammatory activity is possibly backed by its antihistaminic activity. In chronic inflammatory model the effect may be due to the cellular migration to injured sites and accumulation of collagen and mucopolysaccharide. Conclusions: On the basis of these findings, it may be inferred that  Anthocephalus cadamba  is an anti-inflammatory agent and the results are in agreement with its traditional use.

  7. The effects of anti-speeding advertisements on the simulated driving behaviour of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Bernice R C; Irwin, Julia D; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2017-03-01

    Recent examinations of road safety communications, including anti-speeding advertisements, have considered the differential effects of positive and negative emotional appeals on driver behaviour. However, empirical evaluations of anti-speeding messages have largely relied on measures of viewers' reported intentions to comply with speed limits and the self-reported driving behaviour of viewers post-exposure, which might not be indicative of the direct effects that these messages have on real-world driving behaviour. The current research constitutes a first empirical evaluation of different real-world anti-speeding advertisements, as measured by their effects on young drivers' speeding behaviour, using a driving simulator. Licensed drivers (N=116) aged 17-25 years completed driving measures prior to, immediately following, and 7-10days after viewing one of four social marketing advertisements. Results indicated that young drivers' average driving speeds were modestly reduced immediately after they viewed an anti-speeding advertisement that depicted social consequences for speeding and employed a positive emotional appeal when compared to an emotion-matched control advertisement; however, this effect was not found for the anti-speeding advertisement depicting a crash. Interestingly, the results based on reported intentions to reduce speeding predicted the opposite pattern of results. However, there was no evidence that the immediate changes to speeding were maintained 7-10days later, and prompts during Phase 2 did not appear to have an effect. The implications of these findings for road safety advertisements targeting young drivers are discussed.

  8. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xi; Wang, Yuan-Lai; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN γ -stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA's anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1 β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF- κ B and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  9. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS/IFNγ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA’s anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  10. Anti-diabetic effects of brown algae derived phlorotannins, marine polyphenols through diverse mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Marine algae are popular and abundant food ingredients mainly in Asian countries, and also well known for their health beneficial effects due to the presence of biologically active components. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins, marine polyphenols are among them. Among marine algae, brown algae have extensively studied for their potential anti-diabetic activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their various anti-diabetic mechanisms such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effect, glucose uptake effect in skeletal muscle, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) enzyme inhibition, improvement of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, and protective effect against diabetes complication. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the various anti-diabetic mechanisms associated with phlorotannins from brown algae that are confined to in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Inflammatory Regulation Effect and Action Mechanism of Anti-Inflammatory Effective Parts of Housefly (Musca domestica Larvae on Atherosclerosis

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    Fu Jiang Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protein-enriched extracts of housefly larvae were segregated by gel-filtration chromatography (GFC and then anti-inflammatory activity screening in RAW264.7 (induced by LPS was carried out. After acquire the anti-inflammatory effective parts, its anti-atherosclerotic properties in vivo were then evaluated. Results showed that the anti-inflammatory effective parts of housefly larvae were low-molecular-weight parts. After treated with the effective parts oral gavaged for 4 weeks, the atherosclerotic lesions of the mouse were significantly decreased. The inflammatory and lipid parameters were also reduced (except HDL which was increased. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the effective parts exerted potent inhibitory effect on expression of p65 in nucleus and cytoplasm. The results of immunofluorescence microscopy analysis also showed that the expressions of p65 both in cytoplasm and nucleus were significantly reduced. The hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory effective parts of housefly larvae possessed anti-atherosclerosis activity in mouse and the possible mechanism could be associated with the inhibition of expression and nuclear transfer of NF-κB p65 could be derived.

  12. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats

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    Shafina Hanim Mohd Habib

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ginger extract on the expression of NFκB and TNF-α in liver cancer-induced rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups based on diet: i control (given normal rat chow, ii olive oil, iii ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight, iv choline-deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine to induce liver cancer and v choline-deficient diet + ginger extract (100mg/kg body weight. Tissue samples obtained at eight weeks were fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin wax, followed by immunohistochemistry staining for NFκB and TNF-α. RESULTS: The expression of NFκB was detected in the choline-deficient diet group, with 88.3 ± 1.83% of samples showing positive staining, while in the choline-deficient diet supplemented with ginger group, the expression of NFκB was significantly reduced, to 32.35 ± 1.34% (p<0.05. In the choline-deficient diet group, 83.3 ± 4.52% of samples showed positive staining of TNF-α, which was significantly reduced to 7.94 ± 1.32% (p<0.05 when treated with ginger. There was a significant correlation demonstrated between NFκB and TNF-α in the choline-deficient diet group but not in the choline-deficient diet treated with ginger extract group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ginger extract significantly reduced the elevated expression of NFκB and TNF-α in rats with liver cancer. Ginger may act as an anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent by inactivating NFκB through the suppression of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α.

  13. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  14. Study of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Lappaconitine Gelata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying-zi; XIAO YONG-qing; ZHANG Chao; SUN Xiu-mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lappaconitine gelata (LA). Methods:The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate method in the mouse, and the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were used for investigation on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of LA.Results: The writhing response induced by acetic acid, the pain response induced by formaldehyde and hot plate methods was significantly inhibited by LA. In addition, the paw edema induced by egg albumen in the rat and the ear edema induced by xylene in the mouse were all significantly suppressed by LA. Conclusion:LA has the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of GLP-1-Based Therapies beyond Glucose Control

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    Young-Sun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone mainly secreted from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GLP-1 has beneficial effects for glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, delaying gastric emptying, decreasing plasma glucagon, reducing food intake, and stimulating glucose disposal. Therefore, GLP-1-based therapies such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which is a GLP-1 inactivating enzyme, have been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to glucose-lowering effects, emerging data suggests that GLP-1-based therapies also show anti-inflammatory effects in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetic nephropathy, asthma, and psoriasis. This review outlines the anti-inflammatory actions of GLP-1-based therapies on diseases associated with chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action.

  16. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  17. Indirect role of alpha2-adrenoreceptors in anti-ulcer effect mechanism of nimesulide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Halis; Halici, Zekai; Cadirci, Elif; Hacimuftuoglu, Ahmet; Keles, Sait; Gocer, Fatma

    2007-05-01

    Nimesulide, a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug, produces ulcerogenic effects in adrenalectomized rats but is gastro-protective in intact rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether adrenal gland hormones are involved in the anti-ulcer effects of nimesulide. The results revealed that 100 mg/kg nimesulide produces gastric ulceration in adrenalectomized rats, which is prevented by prednisolone and adrenaline. The anti-ulcer effects of adrenaline and prednisolone in adrenalectomized rats were in turn antagonized by yohimbine, a selective alpha(2)-receptor blocker, but not by doxazosine (alpha(1)-receptor blocker) or propranolol (beta-blocker). Adrenaline prevented the formation of indomethacin-induced ulcers in both adrenalectomized and intact rats, but prednisolone increased the indomethacin-induced ulcerous area in intact rats, whereas it decreased the size of the ulcers in adrenalectomized rats. In addition, prednisolone prevented ulcer formation in intact rats in which the adrenaline concentration had been decreased by metyrosine. These results suggest that glucocorticoids are anti-ulcerogenic in not only adrenalectomized rats but also in intact rats with diminished circulating levels of adrenaline. In the light of these data, the effect of nimesulide on plasma adrenaline concentrations was studied. In comparison to the adrenaline levels found in intact control rats, the administration of nimesulide at doses of 10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/kg decreased adrenaline concentrations by 12.8, 22.6, 30.4, and 58.2%, respectively, without affecting blood corticosterone concentrations. The anti-ulcer effect of nimesulide was observed to be dose-dependent, and the strength of this effect was directly correlated the decreasing concentration of adrenaline. The concentration of adrenaline was decreased by 60.9% in rats treated with 300 mg/kg metyrosine in which prednisolone produced anti-ulcer effects. In summary, we have shown that nimesulide produces its anti

  18. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crinum defixum Ker-Gawl is a bulbous herb which has a wide geographical distribution in India. It is commonly called Bon-naharu (meaning wild garlic in Assam. Traditionally the bulb has been reported to have nauseant, emetic, emollient, diaphoretic properties and it is also used in various inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bulbs of the plants has been investigated in the present study in order to establish its traditional claims. The ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol extracts of bulbs of Crinum defixum were screened for anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. The study revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of the plant had significant anti-inflammatory activity than the chloroform and ethanol extracts. The study supports the ethanomedicinal use of this plant for inflammatory conditions.

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Jung, Seung Min; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Wan-Uk; Cho, Chul-Soo; Park, Bum-Jin; Woo, Jong-Min; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) consists of several monoterpenes with anti-inflammatory effects. Monoterpenes are expected to have an analgesic effect through inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. The present study investigated the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of EOCO in animal models of pain. Intraperitoneal injection with EOCO (5 or 10mg/kg), aspirin (positive control, 300mg/kg), or DMSO (negative control) was performed 1h before the nociception tests: acetic acid-induced writhing response, formalin test, and hot plate test in mice, and acidic saline-induced allodynia in rats. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes in formalin-injected paws was determined by ELISA and western blotting, respectively. Treatment with EOCO significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhing and paw-licking time in late response of the formalin tests. The anti-nociceptive effect was comparable with aspirin. However, EOCO did not affect the reaction time of licking of the hind paws or jumping in hot plate test and the mechanical withdrawal thresholds in acidic saline-induced allodynia model. Formalin-injected paws of mice treated with EOCO revealed the down-regulated expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, as compared with those of control mice. These data showed the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of EOCO. The pain-relieving effect might be attributed to inhibition of peripheral pain in association with inflammatory response. EOCO could be a useful therapeutic strategy to manage pain and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Supraspinal anti-allodynic and rewarding effects of endomorphins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Chen, Ching-Ming; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2004-04-01

    Two potent endogenous opioid peptides, endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and -2 (EM-2), which are selective micro-opioid agonists, have been identified from bovine and human brain. These endomorphins were demonstrated to produce a potent anti-allodynic effect at spinal level. In the present study, we further investigated their supraspinal anti-allodynic effects and rewarding effects. In a neuropathic pain model (sciatic nerve crush in rats), EM-1 and -2 (15 microg, i.c.v.) both showed significant suppressive effects in the cold-water allodynia test, but EM-1 showed a longer duration than EM-2. Naltrexone (NTX; 15 microg) and naloxonazine (NLZ; 15 microg) were both able to completely block the anti-allodynic effects of EM-1 and -2. In the tests of conditioned place preference (CPP), only EM-2 at the dose of 30 microg showed significant positive rewarding effect, whereas both endomorphins did not induce any reward at the dose of 15 microg. Due to the low solubility and the undesired effect (barrel rotation of the body trunk), EM-1 was not tested for the dose of 30 microg in the CPP tests. It was also found that acute EM-2 (30 microg) administration increased dopamine turnover in the shell of nucleus accumbens in the microdialysis experiments. From these results, it may suggest that EM-1 and -2 could be better supraspinal anti-allodynic agents compared with the other opioid drugs, although they may also induce rewarding.

  1. Comparative Study of Anti-oxidative Effects of Tibetan Folk Medicine Erigeron multiradiatus during Plant Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-feng; LIU Yuan; LUO Pei; ZHANG Hao

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of a potential anti-oxidative plant,Erigeron multiradiatus(Asteraceae),plant materials from naturally distributed high-altitude populations at different stages of life cycle were collected.Methods Fifteen extracts obtained from the Ganzi region(Sichuan,China)were studied to assess their radical-scavenging ability on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reducing power ability.Moreover,considering that anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers can also exert protective effect on endothelial cells from oxidative injury,these extracts were also evaluated for their anti-oxidative activity against cellular injury in the cultured human endothelial cell line(ECV304)induced by hydrogen peroxide(HO).Results All the extracts had radical-scavenging and/or reducing power ability,and the most active extract was found during flowering whereas the lowest appeared during vegetative growth period.The accumulation of anti-oxidative compounds was found to be affected by the altitude of growth environment.Total flavonoid content assay was also performed to support this outcome.Furthermore,these extracts also exhibited different effects on attenuating HO-induced cytotoxicity and inhibiting lipid peroxidation and LDH leakage from endothelial cells.Conclusion E.multiradiatus may be an important natural anti-oxidant and this property may contribute to verifying the utilization of this plant in Tibet folk medicine.

  2. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ANTI-DIABETIC THERAPY IN A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giwa Abdulganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of anti-diabetic therapy in a University Teaching Hospital in 2010. Methods: A retrospective review of selected case-notes was conducted. World Health Organization Defined Daily Dose Method of evaluating drug use and probability method for potential effectiveness of antidiabetic therapeutic options from literature analysis was employed in determining cost-effectiveness of each anti-diabetic therapeutic option identified from anti-diabetic drug utilization studies. Sample Size, n=1200. Subjects’ case-notes were selected by systematic random sampling (Sampling Interval = 1. Results: Glibenclamide (N1.76/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than chlopropamide (N2.97/unit of effectiveness in the management of moderate hyperglycemia in non-obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus was more frequently prescribed (81.5%. Glibenclamide + Metformin (N7.63/unit of effectiveness which was more frequently prescribed (92.5% was not necessarily more cost-effective than Chlopropamide + Metformin (N9.76/unit of effectiveness in the management of moderate hyperglycemia in obese Type II Diabetes- Mellitus. Biphasic Isophane Insulin (N12.65/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than soluble insulin + insulin zinc (N30.37/unit of effectiveness in the management of serve hyperglycemia in non-obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus was less frequently prescribed (42.3%. Biphasic Isophane Insulin + Metformin (N15.91/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than soluble insulin + insulin zinc + metformin (N34.45/ unit of effectiveness in the management of severe hyperglycemia in obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients was less frequently prescribed (25%. Conclusions: Prescription of lees cost-effective anti-diabetic drugs was rampant in Hospitals.

  3. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  4. Dendritic cells combined with anti-GITR antibody produce antitumor effects in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Masanori; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Itonaga, Ichiro; Iwasaki, Tatsuya; Miyazaki, Masashi; Ikeda, Shinichi; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We attempted to enhance the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells by eliminating regulatory T cells. The combinatorial effects of dendritic cells and agonist anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (anti-GITR) antibodies were investigated with respect to enhancement of the systemic immune response, elimination of regulatory T cells, and inhibition of tumor growth. To determine whether the combination of dendritic cells and anti‑GITR antibodies could enhance systemic immune responses and inhibit primary tumor growth in a murine osteosarcoma (LM8) model. We established the following 4 groups of C3H mice (20 mice in total): i), control IgG-treated mice; ii), tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell‑treated mice; iii), agonist anti-GITR antibody-treated mice; and iv), agonist anti-GITR antibody- and tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell‑treated mice.The mice that received the agonist anti-GITR antibodies and tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells displayed inhibited primary growth, prolonged life time, reduced numbers of regulatory T lymphocytes in the spleen, elevated serum interferon-γ levels, increased number of CD8+ T lymphocytes. The mice that received combined therapy had reduced level of immunosuppressive cytokines in tumor tissue and serum. Combining agonist anti-GITR antibodies with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells enhanced the systemic immune response. These findings provide further support for the continued development of agonist anti-GITR antibodies as an immunotherapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma. We suggest that our proposed immunotherapy could be developed further to improve osteosarcoma treatment.

  5. Anti-proliferative effects of deflazacort on Nb2 cells as quantitated by formazan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R A; Naumann, S A; Mansouri, A; Krieg, R J; Latta, K; Sanders, K M

    1994-01-01

    Prolactin and other lactogenic hormones are mitogenic for the rat T-cell lymphoma line, Nb2. Glucocorticoids have antiproliferative effects on these cells. A limiting feature of experiments utilizing the Nb2 line is their labor-intensive nature. We therefore adapted the commonly used MTT dye proliferation assay for the Nb2 cell line. While rPRL, hPRL, oPRL, hGH, bPL, and to a lesser extent bPRL stimulated the Nb2 cells, hormones without lactogenic activity, rGH and oGH did not. Human serum and rat sera from animals bearing a PRL-secreting tumor stimulated the Nb2 cells in parallel to standards. Glucocorticoids had anti-proliferative effects on Nb2 cells in the presence of half-maximal or maximal PRL doses, as measured by the MTT proliferation assay. It has been claimed that an oxazoline steroid, deflazacort, has anti-inflammatory effects in clinical studies with fewer of the deleterious side-effects common to glucocorticoids. We therefore compared the in vitro anti-proliferative effects of deflazacort with other glucocorticoids. Deflazacort's negative effect on Nb2 cell proliferation was similar to that of cortisol and prednisolone and less than that of dexamethasone. We conclude that the MTT proliferation assay can be used to study both mitogenic and anti-proliferative substances in Nb2 cells. In addition we found that deflazacort acts similarly in vitro to other glucocorticoids.

  6. Anti-viral Effect of Caulis Tripterygii Wilfordii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-qin

    2005-01-01

    @@ There have appeared more and more antibiotics to antagonize against causative organism, but in comparison few antivirals have. Hence, many viral diseases remain refractory and fatal due to lack of effective medicine.

  7. Short Stretches of Exercise May Have Anti-Inflammatory Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked to inflammation. It's also unclear whether more exercise means a greater benefit. However, "if you're seeing this benefit every time you exercise, it'll have a cumulative effect," Hong suggested. ...

  8. Effect of anti-gamma-interferon and anti-interleukin-4 administration on the resistance of mice against infection with reticulotropic and myotropic strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petray, P B; Rottenberg, M E; Bertot, G; Corral, R S; Diaz, A; Orn, A; Grinstein, S

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of in vivo administration of anti-gamma-IFN and anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibodies on the resistance of mice against myotropic and reticulotropic strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Anti-gamma-IFN treatment augmented the susceptibility of mice when infected with the reticulotropic RA and Tulahuén strains of T. cruzi but did not alter the course of infection with the myotropic CA-I strain of the parasite. In vivo administration of anti-IL-4 enhanced the resistance of mice when infected with either Tulahuén or RA strains but did not affect the course of parasitemia when infected with CA-I. The possible biological relevance of these observations is discussed.

  9. The anti-tubercular activity of Melia azedarach L. and Lobelia chinensis Lour. and their potential as effective anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis candidate agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won Hyung Choi; In Ah Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-mycobacterial activity of Melia azedarach L. (M. azedarach) and Lobelia chinensis Lour. (L. chinensis) extracts against the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods: The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts were evaluated using different indicator methods such as resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system assay. The M. tuberculosis was incubated with various concentrations (50–800 mg/mL) of the ex-tracts for 5 days in the REMA, and for 4 weeks in MGIT 960 system assay. Results: M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts showed their anti-M. tuberculosis ac-tivity by strongly inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in a concentration-dependent manner in the REMA and the MGIT 960 system assay. Particularly, the methanol extract of M. azedarach and n-hexane extract of L. chinensis consistently exhibited their effects by effectively inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis in MGIT 960 system for 4 weeks with a single-treatment, indicating higher anti-M. tuberculosis activity than other extracts, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations were measured as 400 mg/mL and 800 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that M. azedarach and L. chinensis extracts not only have unique anti-M. tuberculosis activity, but also induce the selective anti-M. tuberculosis effects by consistently inhibiting or blocking the growth of M. tuberculosis through a new pharmacological action. Therefore, this study suggests the potential of them as effective candidate agents of next-generation for developing a new anti-tuberculosis drug, as well as the advantage for utilizing traditional medicinal plants as one of effective strategies against tuberculosis.

  10. Intravital Microscopic Methods to Evaluate Anti-inflammatory Effects and Signaling Mechanisms Evoked by Hydrogen Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, Mozow Y.; Korthuis, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous signaling molecule with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Exogenous application of H2S donors, administered either acutely during an inflammatory response or as an antecedent preconditioning intervention that invokes the activation of anti-inflammatory cell survival programs, effectively limits leukocyte rolling, adhesion and emigration, generation of reactive oxygen species, chemokine and cell adhesion molecule expression, endothelial barrier disruption,capillary perfusion deficits, and parenchymal cell dysfunction and injury. This chapter focuses on intravital microscopic methods that can be used to assess the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by H2S, as well as to explore the cellular signaling mechanisms by which this gaseous molecule limits the aforementioned inflammatory responses. Recent advances include use of intravital multiphoton microscopy and optical biosensor technology to explore signaling mechanisms in vivo. PMID:25747477

  11. Neuroprotective effect of ginger on anti-oxidant enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu; Mallikarjuna, Korivi; Kesireddy, Nishanth; Sathyavelu Reddy, Kesireddy

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger on oxidative stress markers in the mitochondrial fractions of cerebral cortex (CC), cerebellum (CB), hippocampus (HC) and hypothalamus (HT) of diabetic rats. Diabetes exacerbates neuronal injury induced by hyperglycemia mediated oxidative damage. A marked decrease in anti-oxidant marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed in the diabetic rats. Decreased activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in diabetic rats were augmented on oral administration of ginger. Moreover, ginger administration depleted the MDA level, which was earlier increased in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that ginger exhibit a neuroprotective effect by accelerating brain anti-oxidant defense mechanisms and down regulating the MDA levels to the normal levels in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be used as therapeutic agent in preventing complications in diabetic patients.

  12. Anti-cariogenic effects of polyphenols from plant stimulant beverages (cocoa, coffee, tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F; Amato, Ivana; Ingenito, Aniello; De Natale, Antonino; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-07-01

    Polyphenols occurring in cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Studies carried out on green, oolong and black tea indicate that tea polyphenols exert an anti-caries effect via an anti-microbial mode-of-action, and galloyl esters of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin show increasing antibacterial activities. The anti-cariogenic effects against alpha-haemolytic streptococci showed by polyphenols from cocoa, coffee, and tea suggest further studies to a possible application of these beverages in the prevention of pathogenesis of dental caries.

  13. ANTI-CARIOGENIC EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOL PLANT PRODUCTS-A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashar Kshitiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols occurring in Grape seeds, cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Studies carried out on green oolong tea and black tea indicate that tea polyphenols exert an anti-caries effect via an anti- microbial mode-of-action, and galloyl esters of epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin showed increasing antibacterial activities. The anti-cariogenic effects against streptococci showed by polyphenols from cocoa, coffee, and tea suggest further studies to a possible application of these beverages in the prevention of pathogenesis of dental caries.

  14. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitor displays anti-glutamate and anti-cocaine effects in an invertebrate assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Chris; Song, Kevin; Raffa, Robert B; Rawls, Scott M

    2012-06-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inhibitors are promising anti-glutamatergic and anti-addictive agents. We hypothesized that a GCPII inhibitor 2 (phosphonomethyl) pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) would display anti-stereotypical activity in planarians. Experiments revealed that 2-PMPA displayed no overt behavioral activity by itself but attenuated stereotypical counts (C-shape hyperkinesias) elicited by four compounds (2-PMPA rank order potency: glutamate>NMDA>pilocarpine>cocaine). These data suggest GCPII inhibitors display broad-spectrum efficacy against behavioral activity produced by glutamatergic and non-glutamatergic compounds in an invertebrate assay.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Anti-HER-2 Anti-CD3 Bi-specific Antibody on the Growth of Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of anti-HER-2 × anti-CD3 bi-specific antibody (BsAb) on the growth of HER-2/neu-expressing human gastric carcinoma in vitro and in vivo, an MTT assay was carried out to test the inhibitive rates of herceptin, anti-CD3 and BsAb antibodies on SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells. Immunocytochemistry methods were used to test the HER-2 level of SGC-7901. Nude mice models were employed to test the effect of HER-2 CD3 BsAb combined with effector cells( peripheral blood lymphatic cells of healthy human beings) on the growth of tumors in animals. Compared with that of the untreated control group, the tumor cell growth rates in vitro and in vivo will both be significantly inhibited when treated with effector cells combined with anti-CD3 McAb, herceptin or HER2 CD3 BsAb (p <0. 05), and the growth inhibition is the most remarkable in the group treated with HER2 CD3 BsAb combined with effector cells. The growth of tumor xenografts will also be significantly inhibited in the group treated with HER2CD3 BsAb combined with effector cells when compared with that in the group treated with anti-CD3 McAb or the group treated with herceptin combined with effector cells(p < 0. 05). We can conclude that HER-2/neu is possibly a useful target for immunotherapy of gastric carcinoma, and anti-HER2 × anti-CD3 BsAb has evident anti-tumor efficacy both, in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zuoqing; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  17. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoqing Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO. In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  18. Effects of anti-osteoporosis medications on fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Schwarz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing. This is prevalent in certain risk groups such as elderly, osteoporotics, postmenopausal women, and in people with malnutrition. At present, no pharmacologic treatments are available. Thus, there is an unmet need for medications that can...... healing. However, more randomized clinical trials documenting the clinical efficacy of PTH as a promoter of fracture healing in the clinical setting are warranted. Also, strontium ranelate seems to have beneficial effects on fracture healing under conditions with impaired healing. However, no clinical...... antiresorptive agents are available, but very few studies have addressed their effects on bone healing....

  19. Relationship between blood levels and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Carrasco, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Silverio, Juan; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam del Carmen; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between blood levels of ketoprofen and its anti-hyperalgesic effects was examined in rat using the carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia model. Female adult Wistar rats were injected with carrageenan into the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Immediately after, rats were administered with ketoprofen po and hindpaw withdrawal latency measured and micro-whole blood samples were obtained over six hours via a cannula inserted in the caudal artery. Ketoprofen levels were measured by HPLC. Ketoprofen concentration increased in a dose-dependent manner and was reflected in dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters expressed as mean ± s.e.m. following administration of 1, 3.2, and 10 mg/kg ketoprofen were: Cmax 1.27 ± 0.08, 3.44 ± 0.20 and 11.76 ± 0.81 μg/mL; AUClast 4.16 ± 0.17, 11.63 ± 0.65 and 28.15 ± 1.32 μg h/mL; and Emax observed (AUCE ): 65.41 ± 7.79, 92.06 ± 6.46 and 98.42 ± 7.53%. A direct relationship between blood concentrations and the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen followed a maximum effect model equation. The results indicate that the anti-hyperalgesic effect of ketoprofen in the carrageenan pain model can be predicted by the pharmacokinetic properties of ketoprofen.

  20. Tristetraprolin mediates the anti-proliferative effects of metformin in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiri, Indira; Chen, Yingqing; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Park, Jeongmin; Chung, Hun Taeg; Park, Jeong Woo

    2016-02-01

    Metformin, which is a drug commonly prescribed to treat type 2 diabetes, has anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. The aim is to investigate the role of tristetraprolin (TTP), an AU-rich element-binding protein, in anti-proliferative effects of metformin in cancer cells. p53 wild-type and p53 mutant breast cancer cells were treated with metformin, and expression of TTP and c-Myc was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blots, and promoter activity assay. Breast cancer cells were transfected with siRNA against TTP to inhibit TTP expression or c-Myc and, after metformin treatment, analyzed for cell proliferation by MTS assay. Metformin induces the expression of tristetraprolin (TTP) in breast cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Importantly, inhibition of TTP abrogated the anti-proliferation effect of metformin. We observed that metformin decreased c-Myc levels, and ectopic expression of c-Myc blocked the effect of metformin on TTP expression and cell proliferation. Our data indicate that metformin induces TTP expression by reducing the expression of c-Myc, suggesting a new model whereby TTP acts as a mediator of metformin's anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells.

  1. Effective Communication: Perception of Two Anti-Smoking Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; McEwen, James

    1997-01-01

    Two antismoking advertisements produced in Scotland, one using a fear appeal, the other a positive image, were compared using an interview questionnaire. Subjects' (N=394) preferences and advertising effectiveness were studied. Findings are discussed in terms of psychosocial theories, and a "Preference Model" is proposed. (Author/EMK)

  2. Effects of flavonoids on anti-carcinogenesis and immunosuppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerenberg PA; Garssen J; Beems RB; Dortant PM; Kranen HJ van; Kreyl CF van; Bueno de Mesquita HB; Gruyl FR de; Vos JG; Loveren H van; LPI; LEO; CCM; AZU/Dermatologie

    1998-01-01

    In this study flavonoid-rich diets and tea extracts were investigated. These diets were studied for their putative protective effect on UV induced skin tumors and tumors in the small intestine and colon. Moreover , the same diets were studied in UV induced immunosuppression. The results show that

  3. Anti-fertility effect of flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd.Azeemuddin Mukhram; H.Shivakumar; ViswanathaG.L.; S.Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the anti-fertility effect of methanolic (MeTD) and aqueous (AqTD) flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in rats.METHODS:The anti-fertility activity of the extracts was evaluated using two experimental animal models:1) Estrogenic activity was carried out in immature female rats using ethinyl estradiol as standard.The evaluation parameters includes changes in uterine weight and histopathology of uterus.2) Anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity was performed in female Wistar rats.The number of implants and resorbtions were compared to vehicle control.RESULTS:Phytochemical analysis of MeTD and AqTD revealed the presence of carbohydrates,amino acids,steroids,glycosides,flavonoids,alkaloids and tannins.In estrogenic activity,the MeTD and AqTD were offered significant estrogen-like activity at 500 mg·kg-1,p.o.by increasing the uterine weight compared to vehicle control group.In Anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity study,MeTD (500 mg·kg-1,p.o.) showed significant effect and it was evident by decrease in the number of implants and increase in the number of resorbtions compared to vehicle control group.CONCLUSION:The MeTD at 500 mg·kg-1,p.o.possess significant estrogenic,anti-implantation and early abortifacient activity,while the AqTD at 500 mg·kg-1,p.o.was found to possess significant estrogenic activity and the results are in consistent with the literature reports related to anti-fertility effect of flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata.

  4. Cellular and molecular aspects of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose radiation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Large, Martin

    2015-01-01

    For decades an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of low-dose X-irradiation (LD-RT) has clinically been well established in the treatment of a plethora of benign diseases and chronic degenerative disorders with empirically identified single doses < 1 Gy to be most effective. Although considerable progress has been achieved in the understanding of immune modulatory effects of ionising radiation, especially in the low-dose range, the underlying molecular mechanisms are currently not fully r...

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol in old mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabeth; Talero, Elena; Gamero-Estévez, Enrique; Motilva, Virginia; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of aging. Caloric restriction and resveratrol (RSV) have shown important effects on prevention of oxidative stress and inflammation. Here, we investigate the progression of proinflammatory markers in liver during aging and the effect of RSV on inflammation markers in the liver of old male C57BL/6J mice. Young (2 months), mature (12 months) and old (18 months) mice were fed during 6 months with RSV. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TNF-α were evaluated by ELISA in mice liver. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α and also their respective mRNA increased in the liver from old mice. However, RSV decreased these levels in the case of IL-1β and TNF-α but only in old mice showing no effect on young and mature animals. This reduction was also found at the mRNA level. Levels of mRNA of the components of NALP-3 inflammasome, ASC, CASP-1, NALP-1 and NALP-3, also showed an age-dependent increase that was reversed by RSV. Furthermore, cyclooxygenase 2 levels, a marker of proinflammatory innate immune activity, were also upregulated in aged liver and reversed again by RSV. In conclusion, our study confirms that aging is accompanied by an increase in the proinflammatory pattern in the liver and that RSV reduces this pattern in old mice liver.

  6. Anti-ulcer effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Rui-dong; YANG Qian-zi; XIAO Wei; LIU Fang-e; CHEN Jian-kang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on experimental gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The ulcers were induced by water-immersion restraint stress, acetic acid and pylorus-ligation in rats. In each model, animals were divided randomly into 4 groups and administrated with LBP of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, ranitidine 100 mg/kg (as a reference standard) and saline respectively. Mucosal lesions were scored as ulcer index. In the pylorus-ligation model, we also compared the gastric juice volume, total acidity, acid output and pepsin activity among groups. Results: Oral administration of LBP inhibited the formation of the acute gastric lesions induced by physical stress such as water-immersion restraint (P<0.05), and accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcer model induced by acetic acid (P<0.05 to P<0.01). In the pylorus-ligated rats, significant decrease was also seen in ulcer index (P<0.05 to P<0.01), total acidity (P<0.05), acid output (P<0.05 to P<0.01). LBP 300 mg/kg even showed marked reduction of the volume (P<0.05) and pepsin activity (P<0.05) in the gastric juice. These effects were in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: LBP has protective effects on treating gastric ulcer and this action may relate to the reduction of acid output and pepsin activity in the gastric juice.

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Allergic Effects of Arctium lappa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Elisabeth C. A. M.; Wijering, Selva C.; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E.; Garssen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of drugs that can be used for the treatment of allergic disease is important in human health. Arctium lappa Linne (Compositae) (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine in Brazil and throughout Asia and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the inhibitory effe

  8. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mohammadirad

    2013-11-01

    These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes.

  9. Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F.; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the

  10. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  11. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  12. In Vitro Effects of Preserved and Unpreserved Anti-Allergic Drugs on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Calvo, Patricia; Ropero, Inés; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment with topical eye drops for long-standing ocular diseases like allergy can induce detrimental side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of commercially preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic eye drops on the viability and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cells.

  13. Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruit juice: anti-inflammatory effect and activity on superoxide anion generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Maria T; Fimiani, Vincenzo; Lanuzza, Francesco; Naccari, Clara; Restuccia, Salvatore; Galati, Enza M

    2014-04-01

    Feijoa sellowiana Berg var. coolidge fruit juice was studied in vivo for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenin-induced paw edema test and in vitro for the effects on superoxide anion release from neutrophils in human whole blood. The fruit juice was analyzed by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, and quercetin, ellagic acid, catechin, rutin, eriodictyol, gallic acid, pyrocatechol, syringic acid, and eriocitrin were identified. The results showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity of F. sellowiana fruit juice, sustained also by an effective antioxidant activity observed in preliminary studies on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity edema inhibition is significant since the first hour (44.11%) and persists until the fifth hour (44.12%) of the treatment. The effect on superoxide anion release was studied in human whole blood, in the presence of activators affecting neutrophils by different mechanisms. The juice showed an inhibiting response on neutrophils basal activity in all experimental conditions. In stimulated neutrophils, the higher inhibition of superoxide anion generation was observed at concentration of 10(-4) and 10(-2) mg/mL in whole blood stimulate with phorbol-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 20% and 40%) and with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP; 15% and 48%). The significant reduction of edema and the inhibition of O2(-) production, occurring mainly through interaction with protein-kinase C pathway, confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of F. sellowiana fruit juice.

  14. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genia eLücking

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like mega-plasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional Level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY.

  15. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D.; Hofmann, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like megaplasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY. PMID:26528255

  16. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like megaplasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY.

  17. Anti-tumor effects of a human VEGFR-2-based DNA vaccine in mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, KE; Bai, Rui-Zhen; Wu, Yang; Liu, Quan; Liu,Kang; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor, VEGFR-2 (Flk-1/KDR), play a key role in tumor angiogenesis. Blocking the VEGF-VEGFR-2 pathway may inhibit tumor growth. Here, we used human VEGFR-2 as a model antigen to explore the feasibility of immunotherapy with a plasmid DNA vaccine based on a xenogeneic homologue of this receptor. Methods The protective effects and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity mediated by the DNA vaccine were investigated in mouse models. Anti-ang...

  18. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of pyrazolopyrimidopyrimidine derivatives: anti-inflammatory agents with gastroprotective effect in rats

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of new anti-inflammatory 1,7-dihydropyrazolo[3′,4′:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidine 5 from aminocyanopyrazole. All compounds were characterized by physical, chemical and spectral studies. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of the resulting products showed that compounds 5a, b, f (50–100 mg/kg, i.p) are active anti-inflammatory agents in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema assay, and their effects are comparable to that of acetylsalicylic–lysine (300 mg/kg, i.p.), used ...

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Fariba; Rajabnejhad, Saeid; Partoazar, Ali Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Syedmoradi, Leila; Rajabnejhad, Mohammad Reza; Amani, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Eugenol is the main constituent of clove oil with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, for the first time, O/W nanoemulsion of eugenol was designed for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects as a topical delivery system. Topical formulations containing 1%, 2% and 4% of eugenol as well as a nanoemulsion system containing 4% eugenol and 0.5% piroxicam were prepared. Further to physicochemical examinations, such as determination of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and physical stability, anti-inflammatory activity was examined in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The optimum formulation was found to contain 2% eugenol (oil phase), 14% Tween 20 (surfactant) and 14% isopropyl alcohol (co-surfactant) in water. Nanoemulsion with polydispersity index of 0.3 and median droplet diameter of 24.4 nm (d50) was obtained. Animal studies revealed that the nanoemulsions exhibited significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity after 1.5 h, compared with marketed piroxicam gel. Additionally, it was shown that increasing the concentration of eugenol did not show higher inhibition of inflammation. Also, the nanoemulsion having piroxicam showed less anti-inflammatory properties compared with the nanoemulsion without piroxicam.

  20. Thymol nanospheres as an effective anti-bacterial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanasatcha, Anna; Rengpipat, Sirirat; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2012-09-15

    Among thymol, carvacrol, citronellal, eugenol and terpinen-4-ol, thymol showed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol was then encapsulated into water dispersible submicron sized ethylcellulose/methylcellulose spheres, attaining the relatively high thymol loading level of 43.53% (weight of encapsulated thymol to weight of the thymol-loaded spheres). When tested against the same three bacterial strains, the encapsulated thymol gave comparable minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values to the unencapsulated compound while mostly showing lower MIC and MBC values than the conventionally used preservative, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben). The use of encapsulated thymol at 0.078, 0.156 and 0.625 mg ml(-1) (0.52, 1.04 and 4.16 mmol(-1), respectively) in cosmetic lotion formulations provided total suppression of viable E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth (all initially seeded at 10(5) cfu ml(-1)), respectively, over the three month test period, whereas unencapsulated thymol showed effective suppression for only 2-4 weeks. Effective bacterial suppression by encapsulated thymol was also observed when used in cream and aqueous gel cosmetic formulations.

  1. The effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the equine intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J F; Blikslager, A T

    2011-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in the management of pain and endotoxaemia associated with colic in the horse. While NSAIDs effectively treat the symptoms of colic, there is evidence to suggest that their administration is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects including right dorsal colitis and inhibition of mucosal barrier healing. Several studies have examined the pathophysiology of NSAID associated effects on the large and small intestine in an effort to avoid these complications and identify effective alternative medications. Differences in the response of the large and small intestines to injury and NSAID treatment have been identified. Flunixin meglumine has been shown in the small intestine to inhibit barrier function recovery and increase permeability to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A range of NSAIDs has been examined in the small intestine and experimental evidence suggests that those NSAIDs with cyclooxygenase independent anti-inflammatory effects or a COX-2 selective mode of action may offer significant advantages over traditional NSAIDs.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect of all-trans retinoic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar rats: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Gill

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: From above findings, it can be concluded that ATRA exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effect, possibly through activation of PPAR-β/δ and subsequent reduction of oxido-nitrosative stress.

  3. Anti-tumor effects of an engineered 'killer' transfer RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dong-hui [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lee, Jiyoung; Frankenberger, Casey [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Geslain, Renaud, E-mail: rgeslain@depaul.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Department of Biology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL 60614 (United States); Rosner, Marsha, E-mail: m-rosner@uchicago.edu [Ben May Department for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pan, Tao, E-mail: taopan@uchicago.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA with anti-cancer effects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA induced protein misfolding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA as anti-tumor agent. -- Abstract: A hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to continuously divide; and rapid proliferation requires increased protein translation. Elevating levels of misfolded proteins can elicit growth arrest due to ER stress and decreased global translation. Failure to correct prolonged ER stress eventually results in cell death via apoptosis. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) is an engineered human tRNA{sup Ser} with an anticodon coding for isoleucine. Here we test the possibility that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can be an effective killing agent of breast cancer cells and can effectively inhibit tumor-formation in mice. We found that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) exert strong effects on breast cancer translation activity, cell viability, and tumor formation. Translation is strongly inhibited by tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) in both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells. tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) significantly decreased the number of viable cells over time. A short time treatment with tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) was sufficient to eliminate breast tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) can inhibit breast cancer metabolism, growth and tumor formation. This RNA has strong anti-cancer effects and presents an opportunity for its development into an anti-tumor agent. Because tRNA{sup Ser}(AAU) corrupts the protein synthesis mechanism that is an integral component of the cell, it would be extremely difficult for tumor cells to evolve and develop resistance against this anti-tumor agent.

  4. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA L. DA SILVA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO, however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for a number of diseases including lung cancer and respiratory infections. Paradoxically, it also contains nicotine, an anti-inflammatory alkaloid. There is increasing evidence that smokers have a lower incidence of some inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis, and the protective effect involves the activation of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that requires the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on immune cells. Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Nicotine significantly improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in genetically obese and diet-induced obese mice, which is associated with suppressed adipose tissue inflammation. Inflammation that results in disruption of the epithelial barrier is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease, and nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis. This article summarizes current evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Selective agonists for the α7nAChR could represent a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of inflammation in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine could be mediated via the expression of several nAChRs on a particular target cell.

  6. Anti-staphylococcal effectiveness of nisaplin in refrigerated pizza doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carla de Freitas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of nisaplin, commercial product having nisin as active component, in decreasing the staphylococcal population in refrigerated pizza doughs. The refrigerated pizza dough pieces randomly chosen were dipped in the solutions with nisaplin concentrations of 1.0 x 10-3 g and 1.0 x 10-2 g nisaplin/mL named for the treatment A and B and kept under refrigeration (7 °C ± 1 °C. On times 0, 15 and 30 days post treatment the Staphylococcus spp. count was carried out. The results showed that both nisaplin treatments were able to reduce the Staphylococcus spp. count (CFU/g in the refrigerated pizza doughs. However, only treatment B showed statistically significant reducer effect (p Este estudo avaliou a efetividade de nisaplin, produto comercial tendo nisina como componente ativo, em diminuir a população estafilocócica em massas de pizza refrigeradas. Pedaços de massa de pizza refrigerada foram randomicamente escolhidos e mergulhados em soluções de nisaplin com concentração de 1.0 10-3 g e 1.0 10-2 g nisaplin/mL, nomeados, respectivamente, tratamento A e B, e mantidos sob refrigeração (7 °C ± 1°C. Nos tempos 0, 15 e 30 dias pós-tratamento foram feitas as contagens de Staphylococcus spp. Os resultados mostraram que ambos os tratamentos diminuíram a contagem (UFC/g de Staphylococcus spp. em massas de pizza refrigeradas. Entretanto, somente o tratamento B mostrou um efeito redutor estatisticamente significante (p < 0.05 sobre a contagem de Staphylococcus spp. causando uma diminuição de 1.0 e 0.98 ciclos logarítmicos, respectivamente, nos tempos 15 e 30 dias pós tratamento. Estes dados sugerem que nisina poderia apresentar-se como uma promissora alternativa para controlar o a sobrevivência de microrganismos patógenos em alimentos, particularmente, espécies de Staphylococcus em massas de pizza refrigerada.

  7. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  8. Effects of anti-foaming agents on biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Anburajan, Parthiban; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Bakonyi, Péter; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2016-08-01

    The effects of antifoaming agents on fermentative hydrogen production using galactose in batch and continuous operations were investigated. Batch hydrogen production assays with LS-303 (dimethylpolysiloxane), LG-109 (polyalkylene), LG-126 (polyoxyethylenealkylene), and LG-299 (polyether) showed that the doses and types of antifoaming agents played a significant role in hydrogen production. During batch tests, LS-303 at 100μL/L resulted in the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) and hydrogen yield (HY) of 2.5L/L-d and 1.08mol H2/mol galactoseadded, respectively. The following continuously stirred tank reactor operated at 12h HRT with LS-303 at 100μL/L showed a stable HPR and HY of 4.9L/L-d and 1.17mol H2/mol galactoseadded, respectively, which were higher than those found for the control reactor. Microbial community analysis supported the alterations in H2 generation under different operating conditions and the stimulatory impact of certain antifoaming chemicals on H2 production was demonstrated.

  9. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  10. A meta-analysis of the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health problem, and many studies have examined the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. However, these programs and those outcomes are complex, broad, and diverse. Research is needed into the optimal strategies for these comprehensive programs, which consider both the effectiveness and cost of programs. We performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package to calculate effect size (ES) and the Q statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses to examine the differences based on student grade level, program duration, and program strategy. The pooled ES calculation indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small to moderate effect on victimization. The results of the Q test indicated significant heterogeneity across studies of victimization (Q = 39.625; I (2) = 69.7%; p bullying (p bullying programs should include training in emotional control, peer counseling, and the establishment of a school policy on bullying.

  11. Amentoflavone protects hippocampal neurons: anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone is a natural biflavone compound with many biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. We presumed that amentoflavone exerts a neuroprotective effect in epilepsy models. Prior to model establishment, mice were intragastrically administered 25 mg/kg amentoflavone for 3 consecutive days. Amentoflavone effectively prevented pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in a mouse kindling model, suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation and expression, inhibited excessive discharge of hippocampal neurons resulting in a reduction in epileptic seizures, shortened attack time, and diminished loss and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Results suggested that amentoflavone protected hippocampal neurons in epilepsy mice via anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiapoptosis, and then effectively prevented the occurrence of seizures.

  12. Anti-diabetic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg leaf decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anapaula Sommer Vinagre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the effects of 3-week treatment of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using a leaf decoction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L on physiological, biochemical and histological parameters. Streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg in citrate buffer, pH 4.5 was administered IP to induce experimental diabetes one week prior to the treatment. STZ caused typical diabetic symptoms: polydypsia, polyuria, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and histopathological modifications in the pancreas, liver and kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats using the decoction decreased blood glucose levels, inhibited hepatic glycogen loss, and prevented potential histopathological alterations in the pancreas and kidneys. No differences were found between the control rats treated with the decoction and the control rats maintained on water only. In conclusion, these results suggest that C. xanthocarpa leaf decoction (20g/L might be useful for diabetes mellitus management, but further pharmacological and toxicological studies are needed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os efeitos do tratamento com o decocto das folhas de Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L, durante 3 semanas, sobre parâmetros fisiológicos, bioquímicos e histológicos de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina. O diabete melito foi induzido uma semana antes de iniciar o tratamento experimental, pela administração IP de estreptozotocina (STZ, 70 mg/kg em tampão citrato, pH 4.5. Os ratos tratados com STZ apresentaram sintomas típicos de diabete: polifagia, polidipsia, hiperglicemia, hipertrigliceridemia e alterações histopatológicas no pâncreas, fígado e rim. O tratamento dos ratos diabéticos com o decocto diminuiu os níveis de glicose sanguínea, inibiu a degradação do glicogênio hepático e preveniu possíveis alterações histopatológicas no pâncreas e no rim. Nos ratos controles tratados

  13. The synthetic melanocortin (CKPV2 exerts anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects against Candida albicans vaginitis via inducing macrophage M2 polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xia Ji

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory effects of the synthetic melanocortin peptide (Ac-Cys-Lys-Pro-Val-NH22 or (CKPV2 against Candida albicans vaginitis. Our in vitro results showed that (CKPV2 dose-dependently inhibited Candida albicans colonies formation. In a rat Candida albicans vaginitis model, (CKPV2 significantly inhibited vaginal Candida albicans survival and macrophages sub-epithelial mucosa infiltration. For mechanisms study, we observed that (CKPV2 inhibited macrophages phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Meanwhile, (CKPV2 administration inhibited macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 release, while increasing the arginase activity and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production, suggesting macrophages M1 to M2 polarization. Cyclic AMP (cAMP production was also induced by (CKPV2 administration in macrophages. These above effects on macrophages by (CKPV2 were almost reversed by melanocortin receptor-1(MC1R siRNA knockdown, indicating the requirement of MC1R in the process. Altogether, our results suggest that (CKPV2 exerted anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities against Candida albicans vaginitis probably through inducing macrophages M1 to M2 polarization and MC1R activation.

  14. Corosolic Acid Exhibits Anti-angiogenic and Anti-lymphangiogenic Effects on In Vitro Endothelial Cells and on an In Vivo CT-26 Colon Carcinoma Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ki Hyun; Park, Jong-Hwa; Lee, Dae Young; Hwang-Bo, Jeon; Baek, Nam In; Chung, In Sik

    2015-05-01

    We describe the anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of corosolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid isolated from Cornus kousa Burg. A mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 animal model was employed to determine the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic effects of corosolic acid. Corosolic acid induced apoptosis in CT-26 cells, mediated by the activation of caspase-3. In addition, it reduced the final tumor volume and the blood and lymphatic vessel densities of tumors, indicating that it suppresses in vivo angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Corosolic acid inhibited the proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, corosolic acid decreased the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated by angiopoietin-1. Pretreatment with corosolic acid decreased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and ERK1/2, suggesting that corosolic acid contains anti-angiogenic activity that can suppress FAK signaling induced by angiopoietin-1.

  15. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of leaves of Pentatropis capensis Linn. f. (Bullock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed effects were comparable with the standard drug-treated group thus demonstrating effective central analgesic and acute anti-inflammatory potentials of the P. capensis leaves aqueous extract and the observations substantiate its folklore use as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory.

  16. Anti-parasite treatment removes negative effects of environmental pollutants on reproduction in an Arctic seabird

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the detrimental effects of anthropogenic pollutants may be worse if organisms are exposed to natural stress. In this study, we examined whether negative effects of organochlorines (OCs) could be influenced by parasites. In two breeding seasons, we administered an anti-helminthic drug to groups of breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), whereas control groups were placebo treated. In all birds, blood residues of the most important OCs in the study population...

  17. Inhibiting Apoptosis of CTLL-2 Cells to Enhance Their GVL Effects via Anti-Fas Ribozyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min ZHANG; Fang LIU; Lin-Bo LIU; Yong YOU; Zhi-Chao CHEN; Ping ZOU

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the inhibition role of anti-Fas hammerhead ribozyme on fas expression and Fas-mediated apoptosis of CTL cell line CTLL-2 cells,the cDNA of an anti-Fas hammerhead ribozyme was synthesized,its expression plasmid was constructed and transfected into CTLL-2 cells by electroporation.fas expression of CTLL-2 cells was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot.CTLL-2 cell viability was measured using MTT assay when co-cultured with mouse T cell leukemia cell line EL4 cells that highly expressed Fas ligand(FasL).Meanwhile,caspase-3 proteolytic activity was detected,and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Hochest-PI double staining.Killing activity of CTLL-2 cells was detected by lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)releasing assay in vitro.Results showed that the expression of both Fas mRNA and protein in CTLL-2 cells were decreased after transfection of anti-Fas ribozyme.Compared with mocktransfected group and mutant ribozyme-transfected group,viability of CTLL-2 cells co-cultured with EL4 cells was increased significantly and cells killing activity was enhanced after transfected with anti-Fas ribozyme,while the caspase-3 activity and apoptosis rate was significantly decreased.The results demonstrated anti-Fas ribozyme could efficiently cleave Fas and inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis of CTLL-2 cells to improve their viability.Our study made a basis for enhancing CTLL-2 cells anti-leukemia effect in DLI.

  18. Design and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ketoprofen Delayed Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Pinto, Aldo; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Russo, Paola; Aquino, Rita P

    2015-10-01

    For the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases affected by circadian rhythms, the development of once-daily dosage forms is required to target early morning symptoms. In this study, Zn-alginate beads containing ketoprofen (K) were developed by a tandem technique prilling/ionotropic gelation. The effect of main critical variables on particles micromeritics, inner structure as well as on drug loading and in vitro drug release was studied. The in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using a modified protocol of carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw administering beads to rats by oral gavage at 0, 3, or 5 h before edema induction. Good drug loading and desired particle size and morphology were obtained for the optimized formulation F20. In vitro dissolution studies showed that F20 had a gastroresistant behavior and delayed release of the drug in simulated intestinal fluid. The in vitro delayed release pattern was clearly reflected in the prolonged anti-inflammatory effect in vivo of F20, compared to pure ketoprofen; F20, administered 3 h before edema induction, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing maximum paw volume in response to carrageenan injection, whereas no response was observed for ketoprofen. The designed beads appear a promising platform suitable for a delayed release of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3451-3458, 2015.

  19. Vascular dysfunction in aging: potential effects of resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory phytoestrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinskyy, Nazar; Csiszar, Anna; Veress, Gabor; Stef, Gyorgyi; Pacher, Pal; Oroszi, Gabor; Wu, Joseph; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that even in the absence of other risk factors (e.g. diabetes, hypertension, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypercholesterolemia), advanced age itself significantly increases cardiovascular morbidity by enhancing vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. Because the population in the Western world is rapidly aging, there is a substantial need for pharmacological interventions that delay the functional decline of the cardiovascular system. Resveratrol is an atoxic phytoestrogen found in more than 70 plants including grapevine and berries. Recent data suggest that nutritional intake of resveratrol and other polyphenol compounds may contribute to the "French paradox", the unexpectedly low cardiovascular morbidity in the Mediterranean population. There is increasing evidence that resveratrol exerts multifaceted anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects in various disease models. Importantly, resveratrol was reported to slow aging and increase lifespan in simple organisms and has been suggested as a potential calorie restriction mimetic. Resveratrol has also been reported to activate NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (sirtuins), which may contribute to its anti-aging effects. This review focuses on the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular dysfunction in aging, and on emerging anti-aging therapeutic strategies offered by resveratrol and other polyphenol compounds.

  20. Study of effects of anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody on systemic Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongfen Ge; Xingping Chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of anti-interleukin- 10 monoclonal antibody( anti-IL- 10MAb) on systemic candidiasis. Methods: Control group(only candidiasis injection), and disposal group( candidiasis infection accompanying with anti-IL-10MAb infection) of cyclophosphamide-induced immuno-suppressed murine systemic candidiasis model were set in this study. Colony Forming Units (CFUs) of infected kidneys and spleens were determined using plating dilution method. The histological studies for infected livers, spleens,and kidneys were applied. Levels of interferon gamma(IFN-γ) in spleen tissue homogenare were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In kidneys, the numbers of CFU of the disposal group were much lower than that of the control group; the numbers of CFU in spleens were similar to the control group. The histopathological scores of the disposal group were much better than that of the control group in kindneys with significant differences( P < 0.01 ). In spleens,the histopathological scores of disposal group were also better than that of control group,but no statistic significant differences were observed ( P > 0.05). And the spleen IFN-γ level of the disposal group was significant higher than that of the control group( P < 0.01). Conclusion: Anti-IL- 10MAb effects on systemic candidiasis was concluded.

  1. Analgesic Effects and the Mechanisms of Anti-Inflammation of Hispolon in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Yuan Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hispolon, an active ingredient in the fungi Phellinus linteus was evaluated with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Treatment of male ICR mice with hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing response. Also, our result showed that hispolon (20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the formalin-induced pain in the later phase (P<.01. In the anti-inflammatory test, hispolon (20 mg/kg decreased the paw edema at the fourth and fifth hour after λ-carrageenin (Carr administration, and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GRx in the liver tissue. We also demonstrated that hispolon significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde (MDA level in the edema paw at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg decreased the nitric oxide (NO levels on both the edema paw and serum level at the fifth hour after Carr injection. Also, hispolon (10 and 20 mg/kg diminished the serum TNF-α at the fifth hour after Carr injection. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of hispolon might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw by increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver. It probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and NO.

  2. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of D-002 (beeswax alcohols).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo, Yazmin; Molina, Vivian; Carbajal, Daisy; Fernández, Lilia; Fernández, Julio C; Arruzazabala, María L; Más, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    D-002, a mixture of six higher aliphatic alcohols purified from beeswax, displayed anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. The aim of the present study was to confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of D-002 and to explore its potential analgesic effects. Xylene-induced mouse ear oedema was used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate responses for the analgesic activity, and the open field and horizontal rotarod tests for motor performance. For anti-inflammatory tests, mice were randomised into a negative vehicle control and five xylene-treated groups: the vehicle, D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) and indomethacin 1 mg/kg (reference drug). Treatments were given for 15 days. Effects on oedema formation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were tested. For analgesia and motor performance tests, mice were randomised into a vehicle control and D-002-treated groups (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg). Two sets of experiments were done, which included acute and repeat (15 days) dosing. D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased xylene-induced ear oedema (44.7, 60.8 and 76.4%, respectively) and the increase of MPO activity induced by xylene (38.0, 47.0 and 57.0%, respectively), while indomethacin significantly inhibited xylene-induced oedema (59.9%) and MPO activity (57.5%). Single and repeat doses of D-002 (25, 50 and 200 mg/kg) decreased the acetic acid-induced writhing responses by 21.2, 28.2 and 40.1%, for the single doses; 25.2, 35.1 and 43.2%, respectively, for the repeat doses, but did not affect the hot plate, open field and rotarod behaviours. Aspirin 100 mg/kg significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions and morphine (5 mg/kg) significantly increased the latency of the hot plate response. This study confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of D-002 and demonstrated its analgesic effects on the acetic acid-induced writhing, but not on the hot plate

  3. Potential pathway of anti-inflammatory effect by New Zealand honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomblin V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Tomblin,1 Lynnette R Ferguson,1 Dug Yeo Han,1 Pamela Murray,1 Ralf Schlothauer2 1Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Comvita New Zealand Ltd, Paengaroa, New Zealand Abstract: The role of honey in wound healing continues to attract worldwide attention. This study examines the anti-inflammatory effect of four honeys on wound healing, to gauge its efficacy as a treatment option. Isolated phenolics and crude extracts from manuka (Leptospermum scoparium, kanuka (Kunzea ericoides, clover (Trifolium spp., and a manuka/kanuka blend of honeys were examined. Anti-inflammatory assays were conducted in HEK-Blue™-2, HEK-Blue™-4, and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2-Wild Type (NOD2-WT cell lines, to assess the extent to which honey treatment impacts on the inflammatory response and whether the effect was pathway-specific. Kanuka honey, and to a lesser extent manuka honey, produced a powerful anti-inflammatory effect related to their phenolic content. The effect was observed in HEK-Blue™-2 cells using the synthetic tripalmitoylated lipopeptide Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4 ligand, suggesting that honey acts specifically through the toll-like receptor (TLR1/TLR2 signaling pathway. The manuka/kanuka blend and clover honeys had no significant anti-inflammatory effect in any cell line. The research found that kanuka and manuka honeys have an important role in modulating the inflammatory response associated with wound healing, through a pathway-specific effect. The phenolic content of honey correlates with its effectiveness, although the specific compounds involved remain to be determined. Keywords: Leptospermum scoparium, manuka, Kunzea ericoides, kanuka, Trifolium, clover, inflammatory response, phenolics, wound healing

  4. Future warming and acidification effects on anti-fouling and anti-herbivory traits of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Stefanie; Guy-Haim, Tamar; Rilov, Gil; Wahl, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Human-induced ocean warming and acidification have received increasing attention over the past decade and are considered to have substantial consequences for a broad range of marine species and their interactions. Understanding how these interactions shift in response to climate change is particularly important with regard to foundation species, such as the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This macroalga represents the dominant habitat former on coastal rocky substrata of the Baltic Sea, fulfilling functions essential for the entire benthic community. Its ability to withstand extensive fouling and herbivory regulates the associated community and ecosystem dynamics. This study tested the interactive effects of future warming, acidification, and seasonality on the interactions of a marine macroalga with potential foulers and consumers. F. vesiculosus rockweeds were exposed to different combinations of conditions predicted regionally for the year 2100 (+∆5°C, +∆700 μatm CO2 ) using multifactorial long-term experiments in novel outdoor benthic mesocosms ("Benthocosms") over 9-12-week periods in four seasons. Possible shifts in the macroalgal susceptibility to fouling and consumption were tested using consecutive bioassays. Algal susceptibility to fouling and grazing varied substantially among seasons and between treatments. In all seasons, warming predominantly affected anti-fouling and anti-herbivory interactions while acidification had a subtle nonsignificant influence. Interestingly, anti-microfouling activity was highest during winter under warming, while anti-macrofouling and anti-herbivory activities were highest in the summer under warming. These contrasting findings indicate that seasonal changes in anti-fouling and anti-herbivory traits may interact with ocean warming in altering F. vesiculosus community composition in the future.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of ligustrazine ethosome patch in rats and anti-myocardial ischemia and anti-ischemic reperfusion injury effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Xingyan Liu1, Hong Liu1, Zhaowu Zeng2, Weihua Zhou3, Jianqiang Liu2, Zhiwei He11China-America Cancer Research Institute, Guangdong Medical College, 2Guangdong Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan, Guangdong, 3Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the ligustrazine ethosome patch and antimyocardial ischemia and anti-ischemic reperfusion injury effect. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: Group A (intragastric ligustrazine, Group B (transdermal ligustrazine ethosome patch, and Group C (conventional transdermal ligustrazine patch. After treatment, samples of blood and of various tissues such as heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, and muscle samples were taken at different time points. Drug concentration was measured with HPLC, and the drug concentration–time curve was plotted. Pharmacokinetic software 3p97 was applied to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters and the area under the drug concentration–time curve (AUC in various tissues. The rat model of acute myocardial ischemia was constructed with intravenous injection of pituitrin and the model of myocardial ischemia-perfusion injury was constructed by tying off the left anterior descending coronary artery of rats to observe the effect of ligustrazine ethosome patches on ischemic myocardium and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results showed that AUC was highest in the transdermal drug delivery group of ligustrazine ethosome patch. There were significant differences in whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, red blood cell aggregation index, and deformation index between ligustrazine the ethosome patch group and ischemic control group (P < 0.01. Moreover, ligustrazine ethosome patches could reduce the scope of myocardial infarction induced by long-term ischemia. Ligustrazine ethosome patches

  6. Inhibitory effect of Hydrex anti-scalant on calcium scale deposition from seawater under multiple-effect distillers' conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the inhibitory effect of a commercial anti-scalant (Veolia Hydrex® 9209 on the calcium minerals of carbonate, sulfate and hydrocalumite (Ca/Al clay deposition from seawater has been investigated. Different concentration factors and anti-scalant doses were studied by analyzing the water hardness and turbidity. The inhibitory effect of the investigated anti-scalant was efficient even at lower concentrations. The percentage inhibition decreases with increasing the temperature and increases with increasing the dose/amount of the anti-scalant. The carbonate scale inhibition was >99% and 98–99% at 50 and 70 °C, respectively. The percentage inhibition of sulfate from hemihydrate was ranged from 80% to 87% for 2 and 8 ppm anti-scalant at 50 °C. The inhibition of Ca/Al hydrocalumite deposition increases from 70% to 90% upon increasing the dose from 3 to 5 ppm, respectively. A recommended useful dose of antiscalant for seawater is 5 ppm.

  7. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg(-1) for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.

  8. Synthesis, toxicity study and anti-inflammatory effect of MHTP, a new tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco de Oliveira, Maria Talita; de Oliveira Ramalho, Theresa Raquel; Paiva Ferreira, Laércia Karla Liege; Araújo Lima, Ana Luísa; Barbosa Cordeiro, Manuela; Ferreira Costa, Hermann; Rodrigues, Luís Cézar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The alkaloid 2-methoxy-4-(7-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-1-yl)phenol (MHTP) was synthesized to prospect new compounds with therapeutic properties. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the MHTP anti-inflammatory effect by in vivo and in vitro assays. The MHTP toxicity was analyzed. We found that MHTP pre-treatment (2.5-10 mg/kg) showed antiedematogenic effect (p alkaloid also reduced (p alkaloid, MHTP has anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting PGE2 function as well as inhibiting inflammatory cell migration to the inflamed site and attenuated the acute lung injury disease by inhibiting the migration of neutrophil to the lung. However, further studies will be carried out to demonstrate the mechanisms of action of the molecule and explore its potential as a future drug to treat inflammatory processes.

  9. Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in an unstable system with two bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Kavan [Department of Physics, Center for Complex Quantum Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)], E-mail: modik@physics.utexas.edu; Shaji, Anil [Department of Physics, Center for Complex Quantum Systems, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)

    2007-08-20

    We analyze the experimental observations reported by Fischer et al. [M.C. Fischer, B. Gutierrez-Medina, M.G. Raizen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 040402] by considering a system of coupled unstable bound quantum states |A> and |B>. The state |B> is coupled to a set of continuum states |C{theta}({omega})>. We investigate the time evolution of |A> when it decays into |C{theta}({omega})> via |B>, and find that frequent measurements on |A> leads to both the quantum Zeno effect and the anti-Zeno effects depending on the frequency of measurements. We show that it is the presence of |B> which allows for the anti-Zeno effect.

  10. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Joyeux, M; Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Sayag, M; Mortier, F; Younos, C; Pelt, J M

    1991-04-01

    Dried hydro-alcoholic extract of Peumus boldus (Monimiaceae) has been evaluated for hepatoprotective, choleretic and anti-inflammatory effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or to invalidate traditional therapeutic indications. This extract exerted a significant hepatoprotection of tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes (in vitro technique) by reducing the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic leakage of LDH; this in vitro efficacy was reinforced by a significant hepatoprotection on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice (in vivo technique), the plant extract reducing the enzymatic leakage of ALAT. Boldine, the main alkaloid of P. boldus appears to be implicated in this hepatoprotective activity. Choleretic effects, often mentioned in traditional indications, have not been confirmed in rats. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats). Boldine does not appear to be involved in such properties.

  11. Effects of Online Comments on Smokers' Perception of Anti-Smoking Public Service Announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rui; Messaris, Paul; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-07-01

    On YouTube anti-smoking PSAs are widely viewed and uploaded; they also receive extensive commentary by viewers. This study examined whether such evaluative comments with or without uncivil expressions influence evaluations by subsequent viewers. Results showed PSAs with positive (i.e. anti-smoking) comments were perceived by smokers as more effective than PSAs with negative (pro smoking) comments. Smokers in the no comment condition gave the highest perceived effectiveness score to PSAs. Smokers' readiness to quit smoking moderated the effect of comments on PSA evaluation. Smokers reading negative uncivil comments reported more negative attitude toward quitting and a lower level of perceived risk of smoking than those reading negative civil comments but positive civil and positive uncivil comments didn't elicit different responses.

  12. Anti-melanogenic effects of black, green, and white tea extracts on immortalized melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Chul; Choi, So Young; Park, Eun Ye

    2015-01-01

    Tea contains polyphenols and is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Because most tyrosinase inhibitors that regulate melanogenesis are phenol/catechol derivatives, this study investigated the inhibitory effects of Camellia sinensis water extracts (CSWEs), including black tea, green tea, and white tea extracts, on melanogenesis using immortalized melanocytes. CSWEs inhibited melanin accumulation and melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects were superior to those of arbutin, a well-known depigmenting agent. The anti-melanogenic activity of black (fermented) tea was higher than that of a predominant tea catecholamine, epigallocatechin gallate. CSWEs, especially black tea extract, decreased tyrosinase protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-melanogenic effect of CSWEs is mediated by a decrease in both tyrosinase activity and protein expression, and may be augmented by fermentation. Thus, CSWEs could be useful skin-whitening agents in the cosmetic industry.

  13. Anti-wrinkle and anti-inflammatory effects of active garlic components and the inhibition of MMPs via NF-κB signaling.

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    So Ra Kim

    Full Text Available Skin aging is a multisystem degenerative process caused by several factors, such as, UV irradiation, stress, and smoke. Furthermore, wrinkle formation is a striking feature of photoaging and is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response. In the present study, we investigated whether caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil, which were isolated from garlic, modulate UVB-induced wrinkle formation and effect the expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP and NF-κB signaling. The results obtained showed that all three compounds significantly inhibited the degradation of type І procollagen and the expressions of MMPs in vivo and attenuated the histological collagen fiber disorder and oxidative stress in vivo. Furthermore, caffeic acid and S-allyl cysteine were found to decrease oxidative stress and inflammation by modulating the activities of NF-κB and AP-1, and uracil exhibited an indirect anti-oxidant effect by suppressing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expressions levels and downregulating transcriptional factors. These results suggest that the anti-wrinkle effects of caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil are due to anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Summarizing, caffeic acid, S-allyl cysteine, and uracil inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation by modulating MMP via NF-κB signaling.

  14. Localization of CD26/DPPIV in nucleus and its nuclear translocation enhanced by anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody with anti-tumor effect

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    Sakamoto Michiie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD26 is a type II, cell surface glycoprotein known as dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP IV. Previous studies have revealed CD26 expression in T cell leukemia/lymphoma and malignant mesothelioma, and an inhibitory effect of anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb against the growth of CD26+ cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The function of CD26 in tumor development is unknown and the machinery with which the CD26 mAb induces its anti-tumor effect remains uncharacterized. Results The localization of CD26 in the nucleus of T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells and mesothelioma cells was shown by biochemical and immuno-electron microscopic analysis. The DPPIV enzyme activity was revealed in the nuclear fraction of T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells. These expressions of intra-nuclear CD26 were augmented by treatment with the CD26 mAb, 1F7, with anti-tumor effect against the CD26+ T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells. In contrast, the CD26 mAb, 5F8, without anti-tumor effect, did not augment CD26 expressions in the nucleus. Biotin-labeled, cell surface CD26 translocated into the nucleus constantly, and this translocation was enhanced with 1F7 treatment but not with 5F8. Conclusion These results indicate that the intra-nuclear CD26 which moves from plasma membrane may play certain roles in cell growth of human cancer cells.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methanolic Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn Berries

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    V Ravi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn. The medicinal values of the berries of Solanum nigrum (Black night shades have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of inflammation. Dried pulverized berries of Solanum nigrum were extracted with methanol by using soxhlet apparatus. The effect of methanolic extracts of berries of Solanum nigrum were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. The methanolic extract decreased the edema induced in hind paw. The methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum (375 mg/kg b.w. has showed significant anti-inflammatory. It has been concluded that methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (375 mg/kg b.w. augments that it is having good anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the toxic effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicine are less toxic and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against inflammation.

  16. The different clinical effects of anti-BLyS, anti-APRIL and anti-CD20 antibodies point at a critical pathogenic role of γ-herpesvirus infected B cells in the marmoset EAE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Jagessar, S; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heijmans, Nicole; Bauer, Jan; Laman, Jon D; Oh, Luke; Migone, Thi; Verschoor, Ernst J; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). By contrast, treatment with mAbs against two essential cytokines in B cell activation growth and survival, i.e. BlyS/BAFF and APRIL, was only partially effective. All three mAbs induced depletion of CD20+ B cells from the circulation, albeit with different kinetics and based on distinct mechanisms of action. In the current study we analyzed whether the different clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb or the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL mAbs is due to different depletion of B cells infected with the EBV of marmosets, CalHV3. Employing a novel PCR-based assay, half of the colony of group-housed marmosets was tested positive for CalHV3 DNA in secondary lymphoid organs. The same prevalence was observed in placebo-treated monkeys. In marmosets treated with anti-CD20 mAb the load of CalHV3 DNA in lymphoid organs was substantially reduced, while this was not observed in the monkeys treated with anti-BLyS or anti-APRIL mAbs. To examine the pathogenic role of virus-transformed B cells, we infused EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell (BLC) lines presenting the immunodominant MOG34-56 peptide. We observed in the recipients of MOG34-56 pulsed BLC, but not in their fraternal siblings infused with non-pulsed BLC, activation of anti-MOG34-56 T cells and meningeal inflammation. Collectively, the data show that among CD20+ B cells, the herpesvirus-transformed subset has a particularly important pathogenic role in the marmoset EAE model.

  17. An emphasis on molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory effects and glucocorticoid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingawale, Deepa K; Mandlik, Satish K; Patel, Snehal S

    2015-03-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are universally accepted agents for the treatment of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive disorders. They are used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and various inflammatory diseases such as allergy, asthma and sepsis. They bind with GC receptor (GR) and form GC-GR complex with the receptor and exert their actions. On activation the GC-GR complex up-regulates the expression of nucleus anti-inflammatory proteins called as transactivation and down-regulates the expression of cytoplasmic pro-inflammatory proteins called as transrepression. It has been observed that transactivation mechanisms are notorious for side effects and transrepressive mechanisms are identified for beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of GC therapy. GC hampers the function of numerous inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, arachidonic acid metabolites, release of platelet-activating factor (PAF), inflammatory peptides and enzyme modulation involved in the process of inflammation. The GC resistance is a serious therapeutic problem and limits the therapeutic response of GC in chronic inflammatory patients. It has been observed that the GC resistance can be attributed to cellular microenvironment changes, as a consequence of chronic inflammation. Various other factors responsible for resistance have been identified, including alterations in both GR-dependent and GR-independent signaling pathways of cytokine action, hypoxia, oxidative stress, allergen exposure and serum-derived factors. The present review enumerates various aspects of inflammation such as use of GC for treatment of inflammation and its mechanism of action. Molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action of GC and GC resistance, alternative anti-inflammatory treatments and new strategy for reversing the GC resistance have also been discussed.

  18. Exploring the anti-tumoral effects of tick saliva and derived components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Prado; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods with an outstanding ability to remain attached to its host for considerable periods while blood-feeding and remaining unnoticed. Their success results from the ability to modulate hemostatic and host immune responses. The ability to "bypass" a host's defenses, prevent blood clotting and wound healing makes ticks utterly interesting animals for the development of new drugs. Studies worldwide on various tick species have shown that tick saliva possesses a wide array of lipidic and proteic biomolecules with useful properties. These include not only immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and anti-clotting properties, but also cytotoxic and cytolitic properties that act against various cell types, and anti-angiogenic properties, which have gained increasing prominence. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier and other sites for publications regarding tick saliva and its effects on cancer cells and angiogenesis. Our aim was to compile a list of molecules with potential for host adaptation and for the development of new cancer treatment drugs.

  19. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect of Tinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Rena-Aguila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts of Tinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense. Methods: The leaves of T. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results: The dichloromethane leaf extract of T. philippinense at 1 000 µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract of T. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract of T. philippinense is a potential antiangiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  20. Anti-fertility effect of various plants at Dayak Tribe to Swiss Webster Mice

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    Agus Haryono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blumea balsamifera D.C, Croton tiglium L, Metroxylon sagu Rottb,and Fagraea racemosa Jackwere used as traditional anti-fertilty of Dayak people in Central Kalimantan. These study are to find out the potential plant as anti-fertility on Swiss Webster (SW mice. Extracts of Blumea balsamifera D.C, Croton tiglium L, Metroxylon sagu Rottb andFagraea racemosa Jack were administered by gavage at the dose level of 0.26 mg/kg body weight (bw to female of SW mice for 8 days to examined of estrous cycle.To determine of anti-fertility were administered by gavage of 0.26 mg/kg bw of plant extract to female SW mice and mated with normal male of SW mice. Estrous cycle were analyses every day for 9 days and reproduction display were examined at 15 days after fertilization. The result showed, that estrous cycle are inhibited on estrus and metestrus phase for all of extract traditional plant. Reproduction display showed decrease in the number of live fetuses, number of corpus luteum and body weight of the dam mice treated. The decrease in the corpus luteum further and fetuses attributes antifertilty effect of extract to inhibited foliculogenesis. Out of four extracts tested, Blumea balsamifera D.C extract seems to be more potent in anti-fertility activities compared with other extract of traditional plant.

  1. Effects of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on experimental radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, N.J.; Holloway, N.O.; Narine, K.R. (Medical Radiology Service, Hines VA Hospital, Maywood, IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Corticosteroids have previously been found to be protective against the mortality of radiation pneumonitis in mice, even when given well after lethal lung irradiation. The authors explored the possibility that this effect was due to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions by giving various nonsteroidal inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism to groups of mice that had received 19 Gy to the thorax (bilaterally). Treatments of four cyclooxygenase inhibitors, one lipoxygenase inhibitor, and one leukotriene receptor antagonist, given by various routes in various doses, were commenced 10 weeks after irradiation or sham irradiation and continued throughout the period when death from radiation pneumonitis occurs, 11-26 weeks after irradiation. Each of the treatments had the appropriate effect on arachidonate metabolism in the lungs as assessed by LTB4 and PGE2 levels in lung lavage fluid. The principal end point was mortality. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor diethylcarbamazine and the LTD4/LTE4 receptor antagonist LY 171883 markedly reduced mortality in dose-response fashion. The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors were divergent; piroxicam and ibuprofen were marginally protective, indomethacin in all doses accelerated mortality, and aspirin reduced mortality in a dose-response fashion. These results suggest that the protective effect of corticosteroids in radiation pneumonitis can be tentatively attributed to their anti-inflammatory actions, and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, particularly those that affect lipoxygenase products, may offer equal or better protection than corticosteroids against mortality due to radiation pneumonitis.

  2. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-05

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients.

  3. Anti-hypertensive drugs have different effects on ventricular hypertrophy regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Ferreira Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a direct relationship between the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and a decreased risk of mortality. This investigation aimed to describe the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on cardiac hypertrophy through a meta-analysis of the literature. METHODS: The Medline (via PubMed, Lilacs and Scielo databases were searched using the subject keywords cardiac hypertrophy, antihypertensive and mortality. We aimed to analyze the effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on ventricle hypertrophy. RESULTS: The main drugs we described were enalapril, verapamil, nifedipine, indapamina, losartan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and atenolol. These drugs are usually used in follow up programs, however, the studies we investigated used different protocols. Enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and verapamil (Ca++ channel blocker caused hypertrophy to regress in LVH rats. The effects of enalapril and nifedipine (Ca++ channel blocker were similar. Indapamina (diuretic had a stronger effect than enalapril, and losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptor antagonist produced better results than atenolol (selective β1 receptor antagonist with respect to LVH regression. CONCLUSION: The anti-hypertensive drugs induced various degrees of hypertrophic regression.

  4. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

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    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in

  5. The effect of polyamines on the binding of anti-DNA antibodies from patients with SLE and normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Stearns, Nancy A; Li, Xingfu; Pisetsky, David S

    2014-07-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). To elucidate specificity further, the effect of polyamines on the binding of anti-DNA antibodies from patients with lupus was tested by ELISA to calf thymus (CT) DNA; we also assessed the binding of plasmas of patients and normal human subjects (NHS) to Micrococcus luteus (MC) DNA. As these studies showed, spermine can dose-dependently inhibit SLE anti-DNA binding to CT DNA and can promote dissociation of preformed immune complexes. With MC DNA as antigen, spermine failed to inhibit the NHS anti-DNA binding. Studies using plasmas adsorbed to a CT DNA cellulose affinity indicated that SLE plasmas are mixtures of anti-DNA that differ in inhibition by spermine and binding to conserved and non-conserved determinants. Together, these studies demonstrate that spermine can influence the binding of anti-DNA autoantibodies and may contribute to the antigenicity of DNA.

  6. An Experimental Research into the Anti-aging Effects of Radix Arctii Lappae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To delve into the anti-aging effects and mechanism of Niubanggen (牛蒡根Radix Arctii Lappae). Method: The activity of SOD and the content of MDA and lipofuscin in the tissues of the liver,brain and blood serum of the lab rats were observed 30 days after they had been fed with the Niubanggen decoction. Result: The activity of SOD in the liver tissue and blood serum of the decoction-fed lab rats was improved dramatically (P<0.05 or P<0.01), the content of MDA in the brain tissue and blood serum lowered obviously (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the content of lipofuscin dropped distinctly (P<0.01). Conclusion: The mechanism of the anti-aging effects of the Niubanggen is mainly obtained by raising the activity of SOD and reducing the contents of MDA and lipofuscin.

  7. Tachyon fields with effects of quantum matter in an Anti-de Sitter Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Elizalde, E; Elizalde, Emilio; Hurtado, John Quiroga

    2004-01-01

    We consider an Anti-de Sitter universe filled by quantum conformal matter with the contribution from the usual tachyon and a perfect fluid. The model represents the combination of a trace-anomaly annihilated and a tachyon driven Anti-de Sitter universe. The influence exerted by the quantum effects and by the tachyon on the AdS space is studied. The radius corresponding to this universe is calculated and the effect of the tachyon potential is discussed, in particular, concerning to the possibility to get an accelerated scale factor for the proposed model (implying an accelerated expansion of the AdS type of universe). Fulfillment of the cosmological energy conditions in the model is also investigated

  8. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect of chalcone and chalcone analogues in a zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yau-Hung; Wang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Lin, Zi-Yu; Wen, Chi-Chung; Chern, Ching-Yuh

    2013-02-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate novel chalcones with potent anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. Chalcone and two chalcone analogues (compound 5 and 9) were evaluated using a caudal fin-wounded transgenic zebrafish line "Tg(mpx:gfp)" to visualize the effect of neutrophil recruitment dynamically. Results showed that treatment with compound 9 not only affected wound-induced neutrophil recruitment, but also affected Mpx enzymatic activity. Moreover, protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors (Mpx, NFκB, and TNFα) were also regulated by compound 9. Taken together, our results provide in vivo evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of synthesized chalcone analogues on wound-induced inflammation.

  9. Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Janet L; Frye, Jennifer B; Oyarzo, Janice N; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-01-27

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of hyaluronan in arthritis therapy: Not just for viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Masuko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayo Masuko1, Minako Murata2, Kazuo Yudoh2, Tomohiro Kato1, Hiroshi Nakamura31Department of Biochemistry; 2Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Department of Joint Disease and Rheumatism, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA has been widely used for viscosupplementation of diseased or aged articular joints. However, recent investigations have revealed the active anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effect of HA, suggesting its potential role in attenuation of joint damage. In particular, interactions between HA and other inflammatory mediators are attracting interest. This review summarizes several aspects of recent investigations of the anti-inflammatory effects of HA in arthritis.Keywords: hyaluronan, inflammation, chondroprotection

  11. Effects of combined exposure to anti-androgens on development and sexual dimorphic behaviour in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    ?  Is sexually dimorphic behaviour in rats affected at lower dose levels of anti-androgens and thereby a more sensitive endpoint than morphological effects on the male external reproductive organs? The thesis is based on the results of in vivo studies where mated female Wistar rats were exposed to anti......,prochloraz and finasteride is synergistic with respect to malformations of external sex organs. To clarify, this thesis refers to effects which exceed expectations as synergism and those which meet expectations as additivity. Behaviour was a less sensitive endpoint than the morphological parameters (AGD, NR...... of epididymides, ventral prostate and bulbouretral glands were observed. Behavioural testing could therefore provide useful complementary information and contribute to a broader picture of the toxicity of the EDCs alone or in mixtures than studies that only take the development of reproductive organs into account....

  12. Translational Medicine Study on Extraction and Determination of Urtica Polysaccharides and Their Anti-Oxidation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-tao; LI Shan-shan; WANG Tong-fang; CHEN Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Translational medicine study on extraction and determination of urtica polysaccharides and their anti-oxidation effect. Methods: Water-soluble alcohol sedimentation technique was used to extract the urtica polysaccharides, and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to determine their content. The influence of polysaccharides on the activities of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), malondialdéhyde (MDA) and superoxyde dismutase (SOD) in mice with H22-loaded tumors was observed. Results: The purity of urtica polysaccharides was 61.39% after extraction and puriifcation. After administration of high-, moderate- and low-dose urtica polysaccharides, the activity of serum GSH, CAT and SOD was markedly higher while MDA content was prominently lower in mice with H22-loaded tumors than those in model group. Conclusion: Urtica polysaccharides can strengthen the anti-oxidation effect and inhibit the lipid peroxidation reaction in body.

  13. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of three medicinal plants in diabetic pregnancy: modulation of T cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Gbenou, Joachim; Grissa, Oussama; Hichami, Aziz; SIMONIN, Anne-Marie; Tabka, Zouhair; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Populations in Africa mostly rely on herbal concoctions for their primarily health care, but so far scientific studies supporting the use of plants in traditional medicine remain poor. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effects of Picralima nitida (seeds), Nauclea latifolia (root and stem) and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (leaves) commonly used, in diabetic pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant wistar rats, rendered diabetic by multiple ...

  14. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on glycogenolysis in isolated hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brass, E. P.; Garrity, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    E-series prostaglandins have previously been demonstrated to inhibit hormone-stimulated glycogenolysis when added to isolated hepatocytes of the rat. In the present study, the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit cyclo-oxygenase activity, on glycogenolysis was examined in the hepatocyte model. Ibuprofen (80 microM), indomethacin (50 microM) and meclofenamate (60 microM) all increased rates of glycogenolysis when added under basal conditions. In contrast, piroxicam (50...

  15. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  16. Anti-jugular vein thrombotic effect of Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] in male SD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and serious medical condition, which is estimably responsible for more than 300,000 hospital admissions annually in the USA. Pulmonary embolism (PE is a major complication of VTE, which contributes to 12% death of hospitalized patients. Heparin is the most common anti-coagulant, but severe allergic reactions, bleeding, and thrombocytopenia limit its use. Thus, seeking a botanical, nontoxic antithrombotic alternative is an interesting area. Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] is a medicinal plant used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have a broad range of therapeutic and preventive effects. The bioactivities of NJ have been continuously discovered with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune modifying activities. Our novel hypothesis is whether NJ has an anti-venous thrombotic effect in rodents. To examine our hypothesis, this study was designed to examine the anti-thrombotic effect of NJ on the jugular vein thrombosis model induced by ferric chloride in SD rats.Material and Methods: NJ and placebo used in this study were donated by Morinda Holding Inc. NJ was formulated with grape juice and blue berry juice. Placebo was prepared by using the same procedure of NJ preparation, but without NJ in it. Thirty-six male SD rats were divided into six groups. Anti-venous thrombotic activities of 5% NJ, 10% NJ, heparin, and 10% NJ plus heparin were examined and compared with the positive and blank controls. Thrombosis was induced by application of a filter paper soaked in 50% ferric chloride on the right jugular vein. AFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 9:297-3092-cm fragment of the occluded vein (thrombus was removed and weighed after 1-hour maturation. Blood samples were collected for platelet count, aPTT, and PT tests.Results: The weight of a 2-cm fragment of normal jugular vein was 9.9 ± 2.1 mg, while the weight of the occluded vein in

  17. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial effect ofTinomiscium philippinense Miers. (Menispermaceae) leaf extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheryl Rena-Aguila; Mario A Tan; Oliver B Villaflores

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the toxicity profile, anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the crude and semi-crude leaf extracts ofTinomiscium philippinense (T. philippinense). Methods:The leaves ofT. philippinense were extracted with methanol and partitioned with solvents of different polarities, namely, hexane, dichloromethane and butanol. The extracts were subjected to duck chorioallantoic membrane assay to establish its anti-angiogenic property. Microwell assay was utilized to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the different extracts of the plant. Results:The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense at 1 000µg/disc showed the highest anti-angiogenic activity with 37.46% inhibition. All the fractions exhibited a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect on the three bacterial strains withPseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram negative lactose fermenter exhibiting a higher sensitivity to dichloromethane semi-crude extract among the treatment groups. For the toxicity test, no mortality and no change in behavior were observed in the Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days after the oral administration of the plant extracts. The methanolic leaf extract ofT. philippinense is non-toxic at a maximum dose of 5 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The dichloromethane leaf extract ofT. philippinense is a potential anti-angiogenic endemic plant species. This plant extract is also a potential antibacterial candidate as determined by microwell assay. The anti-angiogenic and antibacterial activity of the plant may be attributed to the essential oil, steroid, flavonoid, sterol and triterpene content of the plant.

  18. Anti-Melanogenic Effect of Oenothera laciniata Methanol Extract in Melan-a Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Eun; Lee, Chae Myoung; Kim, Young Chul

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effects of Oenothera laciniata methanol extract (OLME) in vitro by using melan-a cells. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content of OLME was 66.3 and 19.0 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating ability, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of OLME (500 μg/mL) were 94.5%, 95.6%, and 63.6%, respectively. OLME and arbutin treatment at 50 μg/mL significantly decreased melanin content by 35.5% and 14.2%, respectively, compared to control (p antioxidant activity and anti-melanogenic effect in melan-a cells that was superior to that of arbutin, a well-known skin-whitening agent. The potential mechanism underlying the anti-melanogenic effect of OLME was inhibition of tyrosinase activity and down-regulation of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, and MITF-M mRNA expression. PMID:28133514

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tho X; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-21

    We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. Fucoxanthin: A Marine Carotenoid Exerting Anti-Cancer Effects by Affecting Multiple Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Ravi Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid exhibiting several health benefits. The anti-cancer effect of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite, fucoxanthinol, is well documented. In view of its potent anti-carcinogenic activity, the need to understand the underlying mechanisms has gained prominence. Towards achieving this goal, several researchers have carried out studies in various cell lines and in vivo and have deciphered that fucoxanthin exerts its anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influence via different molecules and pathways including the Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, NFκB, Caspases, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis. Thus, in addition to decreasing the frequency of occurrence and growth of tumours, fucoxanthin has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Some studies show that this effect is selective, i.e., fucoxanthin has the capability to target cancer cells only, leaving normal physiological cells unaffected/less affected. Hence, fucoxanthin and its metabolites show great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer.

  1. Effective chemoimmunotherapy with anti-TGFβ antibody and cyclophosphamide in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available TGFβ is reportedly responsible for accumulation of CD4(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in tumor. Thus, we treated mouse 4T1 mammary carcinoma with 1D11, a neutralizing anti-TGFβ (1,2,3 antibody. The treatment delayed tumor growth, but unexpectedly increased the proportion of Tregs in tumor. In vitro, 1D11 enhanced while TGFβ potently inhibited the proliferation of Tregs. To enhance the anti-tumor effects, 1D11 was administered with cyclophosphamide which was reported to eliminate intratumoral Tregs. This combination resulted in long term tumor-free survival of up to 80% of mice, and the tumor-free mice were more resistant to re-challenge with tumor. To examine the phenotype of tumor infiltrating immune cells, 4T1-tumor bearing mice were treated with 1D11 and a lower dose of cyclophosphamide. This treatment markedly inhibited tumor growth, and was accompanied by massive infiltration of IFNγ-producing T cells. Furthermore, this combination markedly decreased the number of splenic CD11b(+Gr1(+ cells, and increased their expression levels of MHC II and CD80. In a spontaneous 4T1 lung metastasis model with resection of primary tumor, this combination therapy markedly increased the survival of mice, indicating it was effective in reducing lethal metastasis burden. Taken together, our data show that anti-TGFβ antibody and cyclophosphamide represents an effective chemoimmunotherapeutic combination.

  2. Macrophage PPARγ inhibits Gpr132 to mediate the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wing Yin; Huynh, HoangDinh; Chen, Peiwen; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Wan, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) significantly contributes to cancer progression. Human cancer is enhanced by PPARγ loss-of-function mutations, but inhibited by PPARγ agonists such as TZD diabetes drugs including rosiglitazone. However, it remains enigmatic whether and how macrophage contributes to PPARγ tumor-suppressive functions. Here we report that macrophage PPARγ deletion in mice not only exacerbates mammary tumor development but also impairs the anti-tumor effects of rosiglitazone. Mechanistically, we identify Gpr132 as a novel direct PPARγ target in macrophage whose expression is enhanced by PPARγ loss but repressed by PPARγ activation. Functionally, macrophage Gpr132 is pro-inflammatory and pro-tumor. Genetic Gpr132 deletion not only retards inflammation and cancer growth but also abrogates the anti-tumor effects of PPARγ and rosiglitazone. Pharmacological Gpr132 inhibition significantly impedes mammary tumor malignancy. These findings uncover macrophage PPARγ and Gpr132 as critical TAM modulators, new cancer therapeutic targets, and essential mediators of TZD anti-cancer effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18501.001

  3. Is copper chelation an effective anti-angiogenic strategy for cancer treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniades, V; Sioga, A; Dietrich, E M; Meditskou, S; Ekonomou, L; Antoniades, K

    2013-12-01

    and enhances the expression of angiogenic molecules. Copper chelation may also reduce extracellular matrix degradation and cancer spread, through reduction of MMP-9 production and probably of other collagenases and may inhibit propagation of micrometastases. However, copper chelation therapy may enhance angiogenesis through reduction of thrombospondin-1, that results into an increase in VEGF-VEGFR2 complexes and a high level of active MMP-9. These hypotheses help in understanding of the anti-angiogenic action of copper chelation therapies and of the complex network of interactions between copper and other molecules involved in angiogenesis. It may also stimulate further research regarding differences in copper metabolism, the effects of anti-copper regimens on organs, the development of resistance, and their possible angiogenic action through thrombospondin expression reduction.

  4. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  5. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CYTOTOXICITY EFFECTS OF SALVADORA PERSICA (MESWAK EXTRACTS ON JURKAT T-CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farimah Sardari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvadora persica (S. persica, Meswak, is an evergreen shrub to 6-7 m. It has many biological activities such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. This study evaluated in vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of S. persica extracts on human oral Jurkat (T leukemia cells. Extracts from Meswak stick and leaves were tested in different concentrations for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities on human oral Jurkat T- cells. So treated cells viability with increasing concentrations of S. persica stick extract (0.008-0.2 μg/ml and leaves extract (0.016-0.5 μg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 hours was assessed by using the mitochondrial dependent reduction of yellow MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to purple formazan. Also Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed on supernatants from treated Jurkat T-cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA and both extracts to quantify IL-6, IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Statistically significant differences were indicated by p <0.05. Incubation of Jurkat cells with sterile distilled water, negative control, didn't show any mortality through the incubation period. Against PHA, positive control, both stick and leaves extracts of S. persica like resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion (p <0.01. Although both extracts significantly inhibited survival of Jurkat cells (p < 0.01 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, stick extract exerted more cytotoxic effects on Jurkat cells than leaves extract of S. persica (p <0.03. In conclusion, although with increasing concentrations of both extracts anti-inflammatory properties were boosted, S. persica extracts had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on human oral Jurkat T-cells.

  6. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied.

  7. Study on Anti - Convulsion and Anti - Inflammatory Effect of Oxysophocarine%氧化槐果碱抗惊厥和抗炎作用实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晖; 俞佳; 吕良忠

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥、抗炎作用。方法构建异烟肼和尼可刹米致小鼠惊厥模型,观察氧化槐果碱的抗惊厥作用;采用二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀法和角叉菜胶致大鼠足跖肿胀法,观察氧化槐果碱的抗炎作用。结果氧化槐果碱(20,40,80 mg / kg)可显著延长异烟肼所致惊厥小鼠的惊厥潜伏时间( P ﹤0.05),减少惊厥小鼠例数与死亡小鼠例数,对尼可刹米所致的惊厥无对抗作用;氧化槐果碱(40,80 mg / kg)可显著抑制二甲苯所致小鼠耳肿胀( P ﹤0.05);氧化槐果碱(60 mg / kg)可显著抑制角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀( P ﹤0.01),氧化槐果碱(30 mg / kg)对致炎后2~4 h 的大鼠足跖肿胀有抑制作用。结论氧化槐果碱具有抗惊厥、抗炎作用。%Objective To observe the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory. Methods The effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - convulsion was observed by constructing the isoniazide and carrageenin induced convulsion mouse model and the effect of oxysophocarpine on anti - inflammation was observed by the xylene - induced mouse ear swelling method and the car-rageenan induced rat toe swelling method. Results Oxysophocarpine (20, 40, 80 mg / kg) could significantly prolong the isoniazide - in-duced latent period of convulsion( P ﹤ 0. 05), reduced the death cases and convulsion cases in mice. Oxysophocarpine had no effect on nikethamide - induced convulsion. Oxysophocarpine (40, 80 mg / kg) could inhibit the xylene - induced ear swelling( P ﹤ 0. 05) . Oxysophocarpine (60 mg / kg) could inhibit the carrageenan - induced mouse toe swelling( P ﹤ 0. 01). Oxysophocarpine (30 mg / kg) had the inhibiting effect on the carrageenan - induced toe swelling at 2 - 4 h after induced inflammation. Conclusion Oxysophocarpine has certain anti - convulsion and anti - inflammatory effect.

  8. Imrecoxib:a novel and selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong CHEN; Jin-ye BAI; Fang SHEN; Ai-ping BAI; Zong-ru GUO; Gui-fang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of imrecoxib, a synthetic compound of completely new structure, on cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and 2 (COX-2) and its anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of imrecoxib on cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 were studied using whole cell assay with murine peritoneal macrophages induced by calcimycin and LPS. The inhibitory effects of imrecoxib on mRNA level of COX- 1 and COX2 in human macrophage cell line U937 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)analysis. Effects of imrecoxib on acute and chronic inflammation were evaluated in rat carrageenan induced edema model and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model, respectively. RESULTS: Imrecoxib was found to inhibit COX-1and COX-2 with IC50 value of 115+28 nmol/L and 18+4 nmol/L, respectively. Imrecoxib was shown to selectively and dose-dependently inhibit COX-2 mRNA level. Imrecoxib effectively inhibited carrageenan-induced acute inflammation at the doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg.kg-1 ig and adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation at the doses of 10and 20 rmg.kg-1.d-1 ig. CONCLUSION: Imrecoxib is a novel and moderately selective COX-2 inhibitor that possesses anti-inflammatory effect by inhibition of COX-2 mRNA expression.

  9. Anti- and pro-oxidant effects of (+)-catechin on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Naihao; Chen, Puqing; Yang, Qin; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    Evidence to support the role of heme proteins as major inducers of oxidative damage is increasingly present. Flavonoids have been widely used to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action was usually dependent on their anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of (+)-catechin, a polyphenol identified in tea, cocoa, and red wine, on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage. It was found that (+)-catechin had the capacities to act as a free radical scavenger and reducing agent to remove cytotoxic ferryl hemoglobin, demonstrating apparent anti-oxidant activities. However, the presence of (+)-catechin surprisingly promoted hemoglobin-induced protein oxidation, which was probably due to the ability of this anti-oxidant to rapidly trigger the oxidative degradation of normal hemoglobin. In addition, hemoglobin-H2O2-induced protein carbonyl formation was significantly enhanced by (+)-catechin at lower concentrations, while it was efficiently inhibited when higher concentrations were used. These novel results showed that the dietary intake and therapeutic use of catechins might possess pro-oxidant activity through aggravating hemoglobin-related oxidative damage. The dual effects on hemoglobin redox reactions may provide new insights into the physiological implications of tea extract and wine (catechins) with cellular heme proteins.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil in Echinacea purpurea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deqiang; Yuan, Yi; Jiang, Ling; Tai, Yuling; Yang, Xiumei; Hu, Fang; Xie, Zhongwen

    2013-03-01

    Echinacea purpurea L. is a medicinal plant originally from North America. It has become a commonly used herbal medicine worldwide because it contains various biologically active compounds. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from E. purpurea in both mice and rats. The extract was obtained from flower of E. purpurea by steam distillation. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated in vivo by using different animal models such as xylene-induced mouse ear edema, egg-white-induced rat paw edema, and cotton-induced granuloma tissue proliferating inflammation in mice. The serial dosages were used in vivo: the low dosage, the medium dosage and the high dosage. The low, medium and high dosages of extracts produced inhibitions of 39.24%, 47.22% and 44.79% respectively in the ear edema induced by xylene when compare with the control group. Only the high dosage group showed statistically significant inhibition (48.51%) of paw edema formation induced three hours by egg white compared with the control group (Pessential oils from extracts of E. purpurea have anti-inflammatory effects.

  11. Anti-PRRSV effect and mechanism of tetrahydroaltersolanol C in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Lin; Wu, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Fan; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important arterivirus that causes substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Current control strategies against PRRSV are still inadequate and there is an urgent need for new antiviral therapies. Tetrahydroaltersolanol C (TD-C) is a new anthraquinone derivative isolated from the marine-derived fungi. In the present study, we first demonstrated its anti-PRRSV activity in vitro through assessing the inhibition of TD-C on cytopathic effect, viral ORF7 gene and N protein expressions, progeny virions production by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, relative-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Our experimental results showed that TD-C could significantly inhibit PRRSV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The 50% effective concentration, 50% cytotoxic concentration and the selectivity index were 12.11, 395.31 μM, and 32.64, respectively. Furthermore, the possible anti-PRRSV mechanism was explored by virucidal assay, virus adsorption inhibition assay, and the time-of-addition assay. The results showed that TD-C might inhibit the internalization and replication of PRRSV, but did not directly inactivate the virus or block its adsorption to cell surface. In conclusion, our findings indicated that TD-C possessed a significant anti-PRRSV activity, and provided a strong basis for further exploration of this compound as an antiviral agent against PRRSV.

  12. The Anti-helminthic Compound Mebendazole Has Multiple Antifungal Effects against Cryptococcus neoformans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Luna S.; Schneider, Rafael; Lopes, William; Azevedo, Renata; Staats, Charley C.; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Schrank, Augusto; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most lethal pathogen of the central nervous system. The gold standard treatment of cryptococcosis, a combination of amphotericin B with 5-fluorocytosine, involves broad toxicity, high costs, low efficacy, and limited worldwide availability. Although the need for new antifungals is clear, drug research and development (R&D) is costly and time-consuming. Thus, drug repurposing is an alternative to R&D and to the currently available tools for treating fungal diseases. Here we screened a collection of compounds approved for use in humans seeking for those with anti-cryptococcal activity. We found that benzimidazoles consist of a broad class of chemicals inhibiting C. neoformans growth. Mebendazole and fenbendazole were the most efficient antifungals showing in vitro fungicidal activity. Since previous studies showed that mebendazole reaches the brain in biologically active concentrations, this compound was selected for further studies. Mebendazole showed antifungal activity against phagocytized C. neoformans, affected cryptococcal biofilms profoundly and caused marked morphological alterations in C. neoformans, including reduction of capsular dimensions. Amphotericin B and mebendazole had additive anti-cryptococcal effects. Mebendazole was also active against the C. neoformans sibling species, C. gattii. To further characterize the effects of the drug a random C. gattii mutant library was screened and indicated that the antifungal activity of mebendazole requires previously unknown cryptococcal targets. Our results indicate that mebendazole is as a promising prototype for the future development of anti-cryptococcal drugs.

  13. The immunomodulation and anti-inflammatory effects of garlic organosulfur compounds in cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georgia; Kaschula, Catherine H

    2014-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used for centuries as a prophylactic and therapeutic medicinal agent. Importantly, garlic has been suggested to have both cancer-preventive potential as well as significant enhancing effects on the immune system. While these observations are supported experimentally both in vitro and in vivo, the impact of garlic in assisting the immune system in the prevention of cancer still lacks experimental confirmation. Studies addressing the immunomodulatory effects of garlic reveal conflicting data as to pro- or anti-inflammatory responses depending on the particular experimental set-ups and the garlic preparation used (i.e. garlic extract versus chemically pure garlic compounds). Here we provide an overview of the chemistry of the major garlic organosulfur compounds, summarize the current understanding and propose a link between the immunomodulating activity of garlic and the prevention of cancer. We hypothesize that garlic rather elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative responses that aid in priming the organism towards eradication of an emerging tumor.

  14. Genome-wide transcriptional effects of the anti-cancer agent camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Veloso

    Full Text Available The anti-cancer drug camptothecin inhibits replication and transcription by trapping DNA topoisomerase I (Top1 covalently to DNA in a "cleavable complex". To examine the effects of camptothecin on RNA synthesis genome-wide we used Bru-Seq and show that camptothecin treatment primarily affected transcription elongation. We also observed that camptothecin increased RNA reads past transcription termination sites as well as at enhancer elements. Following removal of camptothecin, transcription spread as a wave from the 5'-end of genes with no recovery of transcription apparent from RNA polymerases stalled in the body of genes. As a result, camptothecin preferentially inhibited the expression of large genes such as proto-oncogenes, and anti-apoptotic genes while smaller ribosomal protein genes, pro-apoptotic genes and p53 target genes showed relative higher expression. Cockayne syndrome group B fibroblasts (CS-B, which are defective in transcription-coupled repair (TCR, showed an RNA synthesis recovery profile similar to normal fibroblasts suggesting that TCR is not involved in the repair of or RNA synthesis recovery from transcription-blocking Top1 lesions. These findings of the effects of camptothecin on transcription have important implications for its anti-cancer activities and may aid in the design of improved combinatorial treatments involving Top1 poisons.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of limonene from yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) essential oil on eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Ryoji; Roger, Ngatu Nlandu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Song, Hee-Sun; Sawamura, Masayoshi; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2010-04-01

    Yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) has been used as a traditional medicine in Japan. We investigated in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of limonene from yuzu peel on human eosinophilic leukemia HL-60 clone 15 cells. To examine anti-inflammatory effects of limonene on the cells, we measured the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We found that low concentration of limonene (7.34 mmol/L) inhibited the production of ROS for eotaxin-stimulated HL-60 clone 15 cells. 14.68 mmol/L concentration of limonene diminished MCP-1 production via NF-kappa B activation comparable to the addition of the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. In addition, it inhibited cell chemotaxis in a p38 MAPK dependent manner similar to the adding of SB203580. These results suggest that limonene may have potential anti-inflammatory efficacy for the treatment of bronchial asthma by inhibiting cytokines, ROS production, and inactivating eosinophil migration.

  16. In Vivo Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Pistacia lentiscus Fruit Oil and Its Effects on Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Ben Khedir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find new topical anti-inflammatory agents, we had recourse to a medicinal plant. This work was designed to determine the topical anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia lentiscus fruit oil (PLFO, using carrageenan-induced paw edema rat model, and to evaluate its effects on oxidative stress. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of PLFO was compared to Inflocine® and estimated by measuring the diameter of paw edema, for 5 hours at a 1-hour interval. After that the rats were scarified and the inflamed paw tissue was removed for the exploration of some parameters of oxidative stress and histopathology. PLFO showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with the Inflocine. The percentages of edema inhibition were 70% and % 51.5% (p<0.01, respectively, after five hours. The treatment with PLFO and Inflocine led to significant increases (p≤0.05 in the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPX and significant decreases in the MDA level and AOPP activity in the paw tissue after Carr injection, in comparison with the Carr group. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that PLFO might accelerate the development of new drugs which could be used scientifically as a source for natural health products in the treatment of topical inflammation.

  17. In Vivo Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Pistacia lentiscus Fruit Oil and Its Effects on Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedir, Sameh; Mzid, Masarra; Bardaa, Sana; Moalla, Dorsaf; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Rebai, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In order to find new topical anti-inflammatory agents, we had recourse to a medicinal plant. This work was designed to determine the topical anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia lentiscus fruit oil (PLFO), using carrageenan-induced paw edema rat model, and to evaluate its effects on oxidative stress. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of PLFO was compared to Inflocine® and estimated by measuring the diameter of paw edema, for 5 hours at a 1-hour interval. After that the rats were scarified and the inflamed paw tissue was removed for the exploration of some parameters of oxidative stress and histopathology. PLFO showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity in comparison with the Inflocine. The percentages of edema inhibition were 70% and % 51.5% (p < 0.01), respectively, after five hours. The treatment with PLFO and Inflocine led to significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in the activities of CAT, SOD, and GPX and significant decreases in the MDA level and AOPP activity in the paw tissue after Carr injection, in comparison with the Carr group. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that PLFO might accelerate the development of new drugs which could be used scientifically as a source for natural health products in the treatment of topical inflammation.

  18. Effect of temperature gradient on heavy quark anti-quark potential using gravity dual model

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, S

    2016-01-01

    The Quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is an expanding fireball, with finite dimensions. Given the finite dimensions, the temperature would be highest at the center, and close to the critical temperature, $T_c$, at the boundary, giving rise to a temperature gradient inside the QGP. A heavy quark anti-quark pair immersed in the QGP medium would see this temperature gradient. The effect of the temperature gradient on the quark anti-quark potential is analyzed using a gravity dual model. The resulting modification to the potential due to the temperature gradient is seen to have a $L^{-2}$ correction term. This could be a possible fallout of the breaking of conformal invariance at finite temperature.

  19. Mediators, Receptors, and Signalling Pathways in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McDonald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat allergic diseases including both intermittent rhinitis and persistent rhinitis. Besides the research on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture treatment for allergic rhinitis, research has also investigated how acupuncture might modulate immune function to exert anti-inflammatory effects. A proposed model has previously hypothesized that acupuncture might downregulate proinflammatory neuropeptides, proinflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophins, modulating transient receptor potential vallinoid (TRPV1, a G-protein coupled receptor which plays a central role in allergic rhinitis. Recent research has been largely supportive of this model. New advances in research include the discovery of a novel cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activated by acupuncture. A chemokine-mediated proliferation of opioid-containing macrophages in inflamed tissues, in response to acupuncture, has also been demonstrated for the first time. Further research on the complex cross talk between receptors during inflammation is also helping to elucidate the mediators and signalling pathways activated by acupuncture.

  20. Anti-Biofouling Effect of PEG-Grafted Block Copolymer Synthesized by RAFT Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Mi; Han, Sang Suk; Kim, A Young; Choi, Beom-Jin; Paik, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Inwon; Park, Hyun; Chun, Ho Hwan; Cho, Youngjin; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Poly(glycidyl methadrylate-block-styrene) (PGMA-b-PS), a block copolymer consisting of glycidyl methacrylate and styrene, was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer living polymerization. The synthesized PGMA-b-PS was then grafted with low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) via epoxy ring opening to give PGMA-g-PEG-b-PS, which was evaluated as an anti-biofouling coating material. As a preliminary test for the anti-biofouling effect, a protein adsorption experiment was performed on the synthesized block copolymer surface. The block copolymers were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, and protein adsorption experiments were carried out using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate-labeled bovine serum albumin. The fluorescence intensity of the protein adsorbed on the block copolymer surface was compared with that of a polystyrene film as a reference. The synthesized PGMA-g-PEG-b-PS film showed much lower fluorescence intensity than that of the PS film.

  1. EVALUATING ANTI-ASTHMATIC EFFECT OF POLYHERBAL AYURVEDIC DRUG BHARANGYADI ON RESPIRATORY MECHANICS USING MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Divya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory lung diseases among children and adults. A lot of work had been done in various field (including both modern and Ayurvedic on anti-asthmatic drugs to evaluate their action on lungs. The parameters chosen for assessing the properties of drug is mainly based on clinical improvement and improvement in pulmonary function test. These all method employed so far are indirect method for assessment of action of drug on lungs as change in pulmonary function may appear without any relevant change in lungs mechanics. In present study we assess the anti-asthmatic effect of drug directly on respiratory parameter by using MATLAB lung mechanics modeling. Administration of drug is equally distributed throughout lungs and produces significant increase in lung volume which is attributed to the decrease in airways resistance and increase in lung compliance.

  2. Topical ketorolac has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    detection thresholds (MPDT) and the intensity of burn-induced erythema (erythema index, EI) were assessed in the area of the thermal injury, and areas of hyperalgesia to pin prick were determined outside the injury before and 3, 6 and 24 h after the burn injury. Burn injury led to a decrease in HPDT, HPT......This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in human thermal injury. Twelve healthy unmedicated volunteers had identical burn injuries produced on the medial side of both calves with a 49 degrees C 15 x 25 mm thermode...... and MPDT, an increase in EI and development of mechanical hyperalgesia (P 0.2)....

  3. Effect of E. coli coli on Anti-disease Activities of Scallops: Argopecten irradians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of acute E. coli challenge on the anti-disease activity of scallops Argopecten irradians is examined. The treatments of scallop from which hemolymph samples were taken for study included (1) control scallops, (2) sham-injected scallops, (3) PSW-injected scallops and (4) E. coli-injected scallops. From the beginning, the anti-disease activities of scallops are determined at 12 hr and 24 hr. The concentrations of circulating hemocytes, the total serum protein concentrations and the activities of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and superoxide dismutase in the scallops Argopecten irradians are determined. Injection with E. coli results in a significant elevation in the concentration of circulating hemocytes and in the alkaline phosphatase activity and a significant decline in the total serum protein concentration and in the superoxide dismutase activity at 24 hr postchallenge. It shows that metabolism of bay scallop is expedited to adopt the challenge.

  4. Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Sander, Birgit; Brøndsted, Adam Elias;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The late post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 10-30s ) to blue light is reduced in glaucoma, suggesting that pupillometry can be used in clinical glaucoma evaluation. Since animal studies have indicated that common anti-glaucomatous agents affect the iris muscle, we investigated...... the short-term effect of the anti-glaucoma drugs on the pupillary light reflex and in particular on the PIPR10-30s. METHODS: In this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial, pupillometry was performed before and after topical administration of latanoprost, dorzolamide, and timolol in 20 healthy subjects...... reduced by all three drugs after 3.5 h (p glaucoma medications did not interfere with the blue light elicited PIPR. Dorzolamide reduced pupil size, while timolol reduced both pupil size and maximal contraction to red...

  5. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Heparin and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Heparin, used clinically as an anticoagulant, also has anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive review regarding the efficacy and safety of heparin and its derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents. Methods. We searched the following databases up to March 2012: Pub Med, Scopus, Web of Science, Ovid, Elsevier, and Google Scholar using combination of Mesh terms. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs and trials with quasi-experimental design in clinical setting published in English were included. Quality assessments of RCTs were performed using Jadad score and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT checklist. Results. A total of 280 relevant studies were reviewed and 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among them 48 studies were RCTs. About 65% of articles had score of 3 and higher according to Jadad score. Twelve studies had a quality score > 40% according to CONSORT items. Asthma (n=7, inflammatory bowel disease (n=5, cardiopulmonary bypass (n=8, and cataract surgery (n=6 were the most studied disease condition. Forty studies use unfractionated heparin (UFH for intervention; the remaining studies use low molecular weight heparin (LMWH. Conclusion. Despite the conflicting results, heparin seems to be a safe and effective anti-inflammatory agent; although it is shown that heparin can decrease the level of inflammatory biomarkers and improves patient conditions, still more data from larger rigorously designed studies are needed to support use of heparin as an anti-inflammatory agent in clinical setting. However, because of the association between inflammation, atherogenesis, thrombogenesis, and cell proliferation, heparin and related compounds with pleiotropic effects may have greater therapeutic efficacy than compounds acting against a single target.

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Chenopodium opulifolium schrad leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Abayomi M.; Tanayen, Julius Khidzee; Magomere, Albert; Ezeonwumelu, Joseph O. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Chenopodium opulifolium is a specie of the Chenopodiaceae commonly used as vegetables in local diet and for treating different ailment in Uganda. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of C. opulifolium leaves (AECO). Materials and Methods: The dried leaf of the plant was extracted by maceration in water. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidants, and membrane stabilizing effects were determined in the extract. The extract was then investigated for acute toxicity, antinociceptive (writhing, hot plate and open field test), and anti-inflammatory (egg albumin-induced paw edema) effects in rodents. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, and saponins in AECO. Total caffeic acid derivatives and total flavonoids content were 91.7 mgCAE/g sample and 94.7 mgRE/g sample, respectively. AECO demonstrated antioxidant effects in both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and NO assays. Significant membrane stabilizing activity was observed in both the heat and hypotonic solution-induced lysis of erythrocytes. The acute toxicity test showed that AECO (5000 mg/kg) did not cause any significant change in behavior or death in rats. AECO (100-400 mg/kg) produced a significant antinociceptive effect in both the writhing and hot plate tests, but no significant reduction in the locomotory activity in mice. Furthermore, the extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced egg albumin-induced rat paw edema by 44.2%, 44.5%, and 51.2%, respectively, after 120 min. Conclusion: The results showed that C. opulifolium extract possesses significant antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and these affirm the reasons for its folkloric use. PMID:28163955

  8. Low concentration of quercetin antagonizes the cytotoxic effects of anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The role of Quercetin in ovarian cancer treatment remains controversial, and the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Quercetin in combination with Cisplatin and other anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, along with the molecular mechanism of action. METHODS: Quercetin treatment at various concentrations was examined in combination with Cisplatin, taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fu in human epithelial ovarian cancer C13* and SKOV3 cells. CCK8 assay and Annexin V assay were for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, immunofluorescence assay, DCFDA staining and realtime PCR were used for reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced injury detection and endogenous antioxidant enzymes expression. Athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with C13*cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to evaluate the ROS-induced injury and SOD1 activity of xenograft tumors. RESULTS: Contrary to the pro-apoptotic effect of high concentration (40 µM-100 µM of Quercetin, low concentrations (5 µM-30 µM of Quercetin resulted in varying degrees of attenuation of cytotoxicity of Cisplatin treatment when combined with Cisplatin. Similar anti-apoptotic effects were observed when Quercetin was combined with other anti-neoplastic agents: Taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu. Low concentrations of Quercetin were observed to suppress ROS-induced injury, reduce intracellular ROS level and increase the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suggesting a ROS-mediated mechanism of attenuating anti-neoplastic drugs. In xenogeneic model, Quercetin led to a substantial reduction of therapeutic efficacy of Cisplatin along with enhancing the endogenous antioxidant enzyme expression and reducing ROS-induced damage in xenograft tumor tissue. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these data suggest that Quercetin at low concentrations

  9. EFFECTS OF ANTI- PML/RARα OR ANTI- PML ANTISENCE ON THE GROWTH, DIFFERENTIATION AND APOPTOSIS OF NB4 CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨; 缪金明; 朱学宏; 邵念贤; 方智雯; 欧阳仁荣

    2000-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of anti- PML/RARα or anti- PML antisence on the growth,differentiation and apoptosis of NB4 cell lines. Methods Wright's stain for cell morphology, flow cytometry and DNA gel electronphoresis for cell apoptosis, methylcellulose assays for leukemic colony forming unit and trypan - blue exclusion for cell counts. Results Both the start cordon region of the PML or PML- RARα mRNA(STAS) and the fusion point region of the long type PML - RARα mRNA (FUAS) could inhibit cell growth. Cells became partially differentiated at 5d of treatment, and FUAS- treated cells showed more significant differentiation than STAS-treated cells. Morphology of typical apoptosis could be seen at 7, 9d incubation with antisence oligodeoxynucleotides (AS). In contrast, no cell growth inhibition, no morphology changes were seen in Sen or Ran treated cells compared with untreated cells. The number of acute myelocytic leukemia colony forming unit(AML - CFU) markedly decreased in STAS and FUAS treated cells. Cell DNA content analyzed by flow cytometry showed the typical profile of apoptotic cells, in which pre- G1 peak appear before G1 peak at 7,9d of treatment with STAS or FUAS. Conclusion Anti-PML/RARα or anti-PML antisence inhibit the cell growth, induce differentiation and differentiated cell apoptosis of NB4 cells.

  10. Anti-nociceptive effect induced by intrathecal injection of ATPA, an effect enhanced and prolonged by concanavalin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Chuan; Zhou, Ning; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2003-01-10

    The present study investigated the effect of intrathecal injection of (RS)-2-alpha-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tbutylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a selective agonist to kainate receptor, on nociception in rats. Intrathecal administration of 1, 4 and 10 nmol of ATPA induced dose-dependent increases in the hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to thermal and mechanical stimulation in rats. Pretreatment with intrathecal injection of 300 microg of concanavalin A (ConA) to block the desensitization of kainate receptors enhanced and prolonged the anti-nociceptive effect induced by intrathecal injection of ATPA. The results suggest that the pre-synaptic kainate receptor in the primary afferent terminals is involved in the transmission of nociceptive information in dorsal horn of the spinal cord in rats. Furthermore, blocking the desensitization of kainate receptor enhanced and prolonged the ATPA-induced anti-nociceptive effects.

  11. Effects of message framing in anti-binge drinking PSAs: the moderating role of counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Tae Hyun; Shen, Lijiang; Reid, Leonard N

    2013-01-01

    This experiment examined the interaction effects of message framing and counterfactual thinking on attitudes toward binge drinking and behavioral intentions. Data from a 2 (message framing: gain vs. loss) × 2 (counterfactual thinking priming: additive vs. subtractive) between-subjects factorial design showed that a gain-framed message resulted in lower binge drinking intentions than did a loss-framed message after subjects engaged in additive counterfactual thinking. The effects of a loss-framed message on binge drinking intentions occurred when subtractive counterfactual thinking was induced. Theoretical and practical implications for anti-binge drinking public service announcements are discussed.

  12. Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in the Friedrichs model

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniou, I; Pronko, G P; Yarevsky, E

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the short-time behavior of the survival probability in the frame of the Friedrichs model for different formfactors. We have shown that this probability is not necessary analytic at the time origin. Furthermore, the probability may not be quadratic for the short times while the quantum Zeno effect still exists in such a case. We have found that the time when the quantum Zeno effect could be observed is much smaller than usually estimated. We have also studied the anti-Zeno era and have estimated its duration.

  13. Mangiferin, an Anti-HIV-1 Agent Targeting Protease and Effective against Resistant Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Rui-Rui Wang; Yue-Dong Gao; Chun-Hui Ma; Xing-Jie Zhang; Cheng-Gang Huang; Jing-Fei Huang; Yong-Tang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    The anti-HIV-1 activity of mangiferin was evaluated. Mangiferin can inhibit HIV-1ⅢB induced syncytium formation at non-cytotoxic concentrations, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) at 16.90 μM and a therapeutic index (TI) above 140. Mangiferin also showed good activities in other laboratory-derived strains, clinically isolated strains and resistant HIV-1 strains. Mechanism studies revealed that mangiferin might inhibit the HIV-1 protease, but is still effective against HIV peptidic prot...

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin E on experimental lens-induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, L; Pararajasegaram, G; Sevanian, A; Gauderman, W; Romero, J L; Marak, G E; Rao, N A

    1992-01-01

    The anti-phlogistic effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the acute inflammation observed in experimental lens-induced uveitis in Brown Norway rats was studied. The effects of vitamin E were examined using histopathologic parameters as well as by measuring the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites. Histologic examination of the eyes revealed that the vitamin E-deficient animals had the most severe destruction of the retina, while those animals receiving the vitamin E-supplemented diet exhibited the best preservation of the retinal architecture. Levels of arachidonic acid metabolites, as determined by radioimmunoassay, were significantly higher in vitamin E deficient rats as compared with rats on a normal diet.

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti

  16. The kiwi fruit peptide kissper displays anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in in-vitro and ex-vivo human intestinal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciacci, C; Russo, I; Bucci, C; Iovino, P; Pellegrini, L; Giangrieco, I; Tamburrini, M; Ciardiello, M A

    2014-03-01

    Literature reports describe kiwi fruit as a food with significant effects on human health, including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Fresh fruit or raw kiwi fruit extracts have been used so far to investigate these effects, but the molecule(s) responsible for these health-promoting activities have not yet been identified. Kissper is a kiwi fruit peptide displaying pore-forming activity in synthetic lipid bilayers, the composition of which is similar to that found in intestinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the kissper influence on intestinal inflammation using cultured cells and ex-vivo tissues from healthy subjects and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of kissper were tested on Caco-2 cells and on the colonic mucosa from 23 patients with CD, by challenging with the lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) and monitoring the appropriate markers by Western blot and immunofluorescence. EC-LPS challenge determined an increase in the intracellular concentration of calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The peptide kissper was highly effective in preventing the increase of LPS-induced ROS levels in both the Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Moreover, it controls the calcium increase, p65-nuclear factor (NF)-kB induction and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) activation inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and CD colonic mucosa. Kissper efficiently counteracts the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in valuable model systems consisting of intestinal cells and CD colonic mucosa. This study reports the first evidence supporting a possible correlation between some beneficial effects of kiwi fruit and a specific protein molecule rather than generic nutrients.

  17. The anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiollah Hajhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Recently anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants have been demonstrated. Venlafaxine belongs to newer antidepressants with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibition property. The pain alleviating properties of venlafaxine in different pain models such as neurogenic pain, diabetic neuropathy, and fibromyalgia have been demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and also its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of venlafaxine and determine possible underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of intraperitoneal (IP and intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of venlafaxine in the rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. Results: Our results showed that both IP (50 and 100 mg/kg and ICV (50 and 100 μg/rat injection of venlafaxine inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Also IP and ICV administration of venlafaxine significantly decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α production. Finally, we tried to reverse the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine by yohimbine (5 mg/kg, IP, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. Our results showed that applied antagonist failed to change the anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that venlafaxine has potent anti-inflammatory effect which is related to the peripheral and central effects of this drug. Also we have shown that anti-inflammatory effect of venlafaxine is mediated mostly through the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α production and decreases MPO activity in the site of inflammation.

  18. Caloric restriction confers persistent anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszar, Anna; Gautam, Tripti; Sosnowska, Danuta; Tarantini, Stefano; Banki, Eszter; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Toth, Peter; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Koller, Akos; Reglodi, Dora; Giles, Cory B; Wren, Jonathan D; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2014-08-01

    In rodents, moderate caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition exerts significant cerebrovascular protective effects, improving cortical microvascular density and endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain elusive. To elucidate the persisting effects of CR on cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs), primary CMVECs were isolated from young (3 mo old) and aged (24 mo old) ad libitum-fed and aged CR F344xBN rats. We found an age-related increase in cellular and mitochondrial oxidative stress, which is prevented by CR. Expression and transcriptional activity of Nrf2 are both significantly reduced in aged CMVECs, whereas CR prevents age-related Nrf2 dysfunction. Expression of miR-144 was upregulated in aged CMVECs, and overexpression of miR-144 significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 in cells derived from both young animals and aged CR rats. Overexpression of a miR-144 antagomir in aged CMVECs significantly decreases expression of miR-144 and upregulates Nrf2. We found that CR prevents age-related impairment of angiogenic processes, including cell proliferation, adhesion to collagen, and formation of capillary-like structures and inhibits apoptosis in CMVECs. CR also exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects, preventing age-related increases in the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and age-associated pro-inflammatory shift in the endothelial secretome. Characterization of CR-induced changes in miRNA expression suggests that they likely affect several critical functions in endothelial cell homeostasis. The predicted regulatory effects of CR-related differentially expressed miRNAs in aged CMVECs are consistent with the anti-aging endothelial effects of CR observed in vivo. Collectively, we find that CR confers persisting anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory cellular effects, preserving a youthful phenotype in rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells, suggesting that through these effects CR may

  19. Involvement of allopregnanolone in the anti-PTSD-like effects of AC-5216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ming; Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Hong-Xia; Xue, Rui-; Zhang, You-Zhi; Yang, Ri-Fang; Li, Yun-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Cholesterol import into mitochondria through the translocator protein (18 KDa) (TSPO) is the starting point and an important rate-limiting step in neurosteroidogenesis. For this reason TSPO has received increased attention in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In an effort to explore the role of TSPO in mediating the anti-PTSD effect, we first assessed the effects of the TSPO ligand AC-5216 in alleviating the enhanced anxiety and fear response in a time-dependent sensitization (TDS) procedure, a rat PTSD animal model. In the present study, we showed that chronic treatment with AC-5216 caused significant suppression of the enhanced anxiety and contextual fear induced in post-TDS rats; these effects were blocked by PK11195. Furthermore, AC-5216 treatment increased the levels of allopregnanolone in the serum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus of post-TDS rats, and these effects were antagonized by PK11195. These results demonstrate that AC-5216 has a clear anti-PTSD-like effect, which might be partially mediated by binding to TSPO and the subsequent synthesis of allopregnanolone.

  20. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina;

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently...... designed the synthetic, dendrimeric peptide, Epobis, derived from the sequence of human EPO. This peptide binds the EPO receptor and promotes neuritogenesis and neuronal cell survival. Here we demonstrate that Epobis in vitro promotes neuritogenesis in primary motoneurons and has anti-inflammatory effects....... These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties....

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide in paraquat-induced pulmonary injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahrokhi, Keyvan

    2013-10-01

    Thalidomide has been used in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Paraquat (PQ) poisoning causes severe lung injury. PQ-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis are due to its ability to induce oxidative stress, inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effect of thalidomide on PQ-induced lung damage in a mouse model. Mice were injected with a single dose of PQ (20mg/kg, i.p.), and treated with thalidomide (25 and 50mg/kg/day, i.p.) for six days. Lung tissues were dissected six days after PQ injection. The results showed that thalidomide ameliorated the biochemical and histological lung alterations induced by PQ. Thalidomide decreased production of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. In addition thalidomide reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that thalidomide might be a valuable therapeutic drug in preventing the progression of PQ-induced pulmonary injury.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  3. Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Salvia triloba extract in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Harika; Bozkurt, Emir

    2016-03-01

    Plants, due to their remarkable composition, are considered as natural resources of bioactive compounds with specific biological activities. Salvia genus (Lamiaceae) has been used around the world in complementary medicine since ancient times. We investigated the cytotoxic, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of methanolic Salvia triloba extract (STE) in prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT; apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation and caspase 3/7 activity assays. Changes in the angiogenic cytokine levels were investigated by human angiogenesis antibody array. Scratch assay was used to determine the cell motility. STE induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cancer cells; however, it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Cell motility was reduced in PC-3, DU-145 and HUVEC cells by STE treatment. ANG, ENA-78, bFGF, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF-D levels were significantly decreased by -2.9, -3.7, -1.7, -1.7, -2.0 and -1.8 fold in STE-treated DU-145 cells, however, ANG, IL-8, LEP, RANTES, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and VEGF levels were significantly decreased by -5.1, -2.0, -2.4, -3.1, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5 fold in PC-3 cells. These data suggest that STE might be a promising candidate for anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic treatment of prostate cancer.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin and tenoxicam in combination with cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Hermelinda P F; Cardoso, Luiz G V; Ferreira, Luciano R; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2004-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, a number of facts involving the occurrence of gastrointestinal lesions have limited the chronic use of NSAIDs. In order to diminish the occurrence of gastrointestinal damage caused by NSAIDs, the combination of NSAIDs with the H2 receptor blocker, cimetidine, has been evaluated. The anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin and tenoxicam in association with or without cimetidine were determined at pre-clinical levels. It was observed that the group of animals treated with indomethacin and cimetidine, or tenoxicam and cimetidine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.05, ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test) of type-III gastric ulcers. Furthermore, indomethacin or tenoxicam (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in association with cimetidine increased the anti-inflammatory activity. The group, which received indomethacin and cimetidine presented the best performance in decreasing the inflammatory process (P < 0.05, ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test).

  5. Toxicological analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff Brait, Débora Regina; Mattos Vaz, Márcia Soares; da Silva Arrigo, Jucicléia; Borges de Carvalho, Luciana Noia; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Vani, Juliana Miron; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves (OPV) and evaluated the toxicological potential of this oil through acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. The acute toxicity of OPV was evaluated following oral administration to female rats at a single dose of 2 g/kg b.w. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential, male mice were divided into five groups: I: negative control; II: positive control; III: 500 mg/kg of OPV; IV: 1000 mg/kg of OPV; V: 2000 mg/kg of OPV. The anti-inflammatory activity of OPV was evaluated in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw edema models in rats. No signs of acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of this oil is greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the comet assay, OPV did not increase the frequency or rate of DNA damage in groups treated with any of the doses assessed compared to that in the negative control group. In the micronucleus test, the animals treated did not exhibit any cytotoxic or genotoxic changes in peripheral blood erythrocytes. OPV (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced edema formation and inhibited leukocyte migration analyzed in the carrageenan-induced edema and pleurisy models. These results show that OPV has anti-inflammatory potential without causing acute toxicity or genotoxicity.

  6. Ovarectomy despite Negative Imaging in Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis: Effective Even Late

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Boeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR encephalitis is an autoimmune antibody-mediated neuropsychiatric disorder. The disorder is known to be associated with ovarian teratoma and predominantly affects young women. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old woman with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, in which detailed investigations gave no specific hint for an ovarian teratoma. Despite this, and due to a continuous severe clinical syndrome, an ovarectomy was performed and histological examination revealed an occult teratoma. The ovarectomy led to a remarkable improvement even with a long term intensive care treatment for 11 months. The most important lesson to be learned from this instructive case is that even though none of the investigations was indicative for an ovarian teratoma, including an explorative laparoscopy with biopsy, there still may be an occult ovarian teratoma. This shows that tumour search and diagnosis are extremely important in patients presenting with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and a laparotomy and ovarectomy is justified. Furthermore, removal of the teratoma even 11 months after a very severe course is still therapeutically effective.

  7. Therapeutic effect of anti-feline TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody for feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Kawagoe, Kohei; Kito, Akihiko; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-02-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) replication in macrophages/monocytes induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, and that the TNF-alpha produced was involved in aggravating the pathology of FIP. We previously reported the preparation of a feline TNF-alpha (fTNF-alpha)-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (anti-fTNF-alpha mAb). This anti-fTNF-alpha mAb 2-4 was confirmed to inhibit the following fTNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether mAb 2-4 improved the FIP symptoms and survival rate of experimentally FIPV-inoculated SPF cats. Progression to FIP was prevented in 2 out of 3 cats treated with mAb 2-4, whereas all 3 cats developed FIP in the placebo control group. Plasma alpha1-glycoprotein and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were improved by the administration of mAb 2-4, and the peripheral lymphocyte count also recovered. These results strongly suggested that the anti-fTNF-alpha antibody is effective for the treatment of FIP.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarik; Khouya; Mhamed; Ramchoun; Abdelbassat; Hmidani; Souliman; Amrani; Hicham; Harnafi; Mohamed; Benlyas; Younes; Filali; Zegzouti; Chakib; Alem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts of thyme varieties from Moroccan.Methods: The aqueous extracts of tree medicinal plants [Thymus atlanticus(T. atlanticus), Thymus satureioides and Thymus zygis(T. zygis)] were screened for their antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, radical scavenging activity method, the inhibition of 2,2’-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride that induces oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts was evaluated in vivo using croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and rats, respectively. This extracts were evaluated in vitro for their anticoagulant activity at the different concentrations by partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time activated. Results: All thyme varieties were found to possess considerable antioxidant activity and potent anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced edema. Administration of aqueous extracts of two varieties(50 mg/kg)(T. zygis and T. atlanticus) reduced significantly the carrageenaninduced paw edema similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(indomethacin, 10 mg/kg). In partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time tests, T. atlanticus and T. zygis extracts showed the strongest anticoagulant activity. In contrast, Thymus satureioides did not show the anticoagulant activity in these tests. Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.

  9. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes.

  10. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericsson D. Coy-Barrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of seven known lignans and one dihydrochalcone isolated from the leaves of two Lauraceae species (Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated through the inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX and the aggregation of rabbit platelets induced by PAF, AA and ADP. (+-de-4"-O--methylmagnolin 4 was found to be a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor and PAF-antagonist (COX-2 IC50 2.27 µM; 5-LOX IC50 5.05 µM; PAF IC50 2.51 µM. However, all compounds exhibited an activity at different levels, indicating good anti-inflammatory properties to be considered in further structural optimization studies.Os efeitos anti-inflamatórios in vitro de sete conhecidos lignanos e uma dihidrocalcona isolados das folhas de duas espécies da família Lauraceae (Pleurothyrium cinereum e Ocotea macrophylla foram avaliados por meio da inibição da COX1, COX-2, 5-LOX e agregação de plaquetas de coelhos induzida por PAF, AA e ADP. A (+-4"-O-metilmagnolina-4 foi encontrada como mais potente inibidora tanto da COX-2 quanto de 5-LOX e antagonista de PAF (COX-2 IC50 2,27 µM; 5- LOX IC50 5,05 µM; PAF IC50 2,51 µM. Entretanto, todos compostos mostram uma atividade em intensidades diferentes, indicando boas propriedades anti-inflamátorias a serem consideradas para futuros estudos de modificações e otimização estruturais.

  11. Anti-Cancer Effect of Angelica Sinensis on Women’s Reproductive Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hong Zhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Danggui, the root of Angelica Sinensis, has traditionally been used for the treatment of women’s reproductive disorders in China for thousands of years. This study was to determine whether Danggui have potential anti-cancer effect on women’s cancer and its potential mechanism. Methods: Danggui was extracted by ethanol. The Cell Titer 96® Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay was used to compare the effects of Danggui on human breast (MCF-7 and 7368 and cervical (CaSki and SiHa cancer cells with its effects on normal fibroblasts (HTB-125. A revised Ames test was used to test for antimutagenicity. The standard strains of Salmonella typhimarium (TA 100 and 102 were used in the test. Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS and UV light were used as positive mutagen controls and ethanol and double distilled water (DDW as controls. The SAS statistical software was used to analyze the data. Results: Danggui was found to be much more toxic to all cancer cell lines tested than to normal fibroblasts. There was a significant negative dose-effect relationship between Danggui and cancer cell viability. Average viability of MCF-7 was 69.5%, 18.4%, 5.7%, 5.7%, and 5.0% of control for Danggui doses 0.07, 0.14, 0.21, 0.32, and 0.64 ug/ul, respectively, with a Ptrend < 0.0001. Half maximal inhibitory dose (ID50 of Danggui for cancer cell lines MCF-7, CaSki, SiHa and CRL-7368 was 0.10, 0.09, 0.10 and 0.07 ug/ul, Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(6:242-250respectively. For the normal fibroblasts, ID50 was 0.58 ug/ul. At a dose of 0.32 ug/ul, Danggui killed over 90% of the cells in each cancer cell line, but at the same dose, only 12.3 % of the normal HTB-125 cells were killed. Revertants per plate of TA 100 decreased with the introduction of increasing doses of Danggui extracts with a Ptrend < 0.0001 when UV light was used as a mutagen. There was no difference in revertants per plate between ethanol and DDW control groups. Conclusions

  12. Anti-Candida effects of estragole in combination with ketoconazole or amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seungwon; Pyun, Mi-Sun

    2004-10-01

    The anti-Candida effects of estragole combined with amphotericin B or ketoconazole, commonly used antifungal drugs for treatment of candidasis, were evaluated in this study. The fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices of both estragole combined with ketoconazole against C. albicans and C. utilis calculated from the checkerboard microtiter assay were 0.28 and 0.50 respectively, indicating significant synergism. These drug combinations exhibited additive effects against C. tropicalis, with FIC index of 0.75. Consistent for the most part with the results from the checkerboard titer tests, the time-kill curves of the tested samples also indicated significant synergism or additive effect between ketoconazole and estragole against the Candida species evaluated. In contrast, amphotericin B showed antagonism in combination with estragole in most experiments of this study. Thus, we have shown the synergistic combination effects between estragole and ketoconazole, which may be effective combinations for the treatment of Candida infections.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Combination of Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hye So

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber have been used to treat the inflammatory diseases in traditional Korean medicine and anti-inflammatory effect of each herb has been shown partially in several articles. However, the combined extract of these medicinal herbs (SL has not been reported for its anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of SL on the creation of several proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cell mouse macrophages induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS. SL inhibited significantly the increase of NO, the release of intracellular calcium, the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6, macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and MIP-2, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL, and SL inhibited significantly the increase of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF at the concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/mL, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF at the concentration of 25 μg/mL. These results implicate that SL has anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the production of various inflammatory mediators in macrophages. But SL did not inhibit significantly the increase of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES; therefore, further study is demanded for the follow-up research to find out the possibility of SL as a preventive and therapeutic medicine for various inflammatory diseases.

  14. The Effect of Break Edge Configuration on the Aerodynamics of Anti-Ice Jet Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatar V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the components of a turboprop gas turbine engine is the Front Bearing Structure (FBS which leads air into the compressor. FBS directly encounters with ambient air, as a consequence ice accretion may occur on its static vanes. There are several aerodynamic parameters which should be considered in the design of anti-icing system of FBS, such as diameter, position, exit angle of discharge holes, etc. This research focuses on the effects of break edge configuration over anti-ice jet flow. Break edge operation is a process which is applied to the hole in order to avoid sharp edges which cause high stress concentration. Numerical analyses and flow visualization test have been conducted. Four different break edge configurations were used for this investigation; without break edge, 0.35xD, 74xD, 0.87xD. Three mainstream flow conditions at the inlet of the channel are defined; 10m/s, 20 m/s and 40 m/s. Shear stresses are extracted from numerical analyses near the trailing edge of pressure surface where ice may occur under icing conditions. A specific flow visualization method was used for the experimental study. Vane surface near the trailing edge was dyed and thinner was injected into anti-ice jet flow in order to remove dye from the vane surface. Hence, film effect on the surface could be computed for each testing condition. Thickness of the dye removal area of each case was examined. The results show noticeable effects of break edge operation on jet flow, and the air film effectiveness decreases when mainstream inlet velocity decreases.

  15. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfajaro Mia Madel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7] strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α, signaling molecules (p38 and JNK, and transcription factor (NFκB in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans.

  16. The Effect of Break Edge Configuration on the Aerodynamics of Anti-Ice Jet Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, V.; Yildizay, H.; Aras, H.

    2015-05-01

    One of the components of a turboprop gas turbine engine is the Front Bearing Structure (FBS) which leads air into the compressor. FBS directly encounters with ambient air, as a consequence ice accretion may occur on its static vanes. There are several aerodynamic parameters which should be considered in the design of anti-icing system of FBS, such as diameter, position, exit angle of discharge holes, etc. This research focuses on the effects of break edge configuration over anti-ice jet flow. Break edge operation is a process which is applied to the hole in order to avoid sharp edges which cause high stress concentration. Numerical analyses and flow visualization test have been conducted. Four different break edge configurations were used for this investigation; without break edge, 0.35xD, 74xD, 0.87xD. Three mainstream flow conditions at the inlet of the channel are defined; 10m/s, 20 m/s and 40 m/s. Shear stresses are extracted from numerical analyses near the trailing edge of pressure surface where ice may occur under icing conditions. A specific flow visualization method was used for the experimental study. Vane surface near the trailing edge was dyed and thinner was injected into anti-ice jet flow in order to remove dye from the vane surface. Hence, film effect on the surface could be computed for each testing condition. Thickness of the dye removal area of each case was examined. The results show noticeable effects of break edge operation on jet flow, and the air film effectiveness decreases when mainstream inlet velocity decreases.

  17. Randomised controlled trial examining the effect of exercise in people with rheumatoid arthritis taking anti-TNFα therapy medication.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reid, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the medical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over the past decade with the introduction of biologic therapies, including anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) therapy medications. However, individuals with RA taking anti-TNFα medication continue to experience physical, psychological and functional consequences, which could potentially benefit from rehabilitation. There is evidence that therapeutic exercise should be included as an intervention for people with RA, but to date there is little evidence of the benefits of therapeutic exercise for people with RA on anti-TNFα therapy medication. A protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled three-armed study which aims to examine the effect of dynamic group exercise therapy on land or in water for people with RA taking anti-TNFα therapy medication is described.

  18. 13-Methylberberine, a berberine analogue with stronger anti-adipogenic effects on mouse 3T3-L1 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yit-Lai; Sogame, Mami; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Lipid metabolism modulation is a main focus of metabolic syndrome research, an area in which many natural and synthetic chemicals are constantly being screened for in vitro and in vivo activity. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid, has been extensively investigated for its anti-obesity effects and as a potential cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering drug. We screened 11 protoberberine and 2 benzophenanthridine alkaloids for their anti-adipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fou...

  19. Double-blind comparative study of droperidol, granisetron and granisetron plus dexamethasone as prophylactic anti-emetic therapy in patients undergoing abdominal, gynaecological, breast or otolaryngological surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janknegt, R; Pinckaers, JWM; Rohof, MHC; Ausems, MEM; Arbouw, MEL; van der Velden, RW; Brouwers, JRBJ

    1999-01-01

    In this double-blind study the clinical efficacy of a single pre-operative intravenous dose of droperidol 1.25 mg (137 patients), granisetron 1 mg (130 patients) and granisetron 1 mg plus dexamethasone 5 mg (130 patients) was investigated for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after

  20. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and cytotoxic effects of Sideritis scardica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja M; Jeremic, Ivica; Dobric, Silva; Isakovic, Aleksandra; Markovic, Ivanka; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Bojovic, Dragica; Arsic, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Sideritis scardica Griseb. (ironwort, mountain tea), an endemic plant of the Balkan Peninsula, has been used in traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal complaints, inflammation, and rheumatic disorders. This study aimed to evaluate its gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. Besides, continuously increasing interest in assessing the role of the plant active constituents preventing the risk of cancer was a reason to make a detailed examination of the investigated ethanol, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and N-butanol extracts regarding cytotoxicity. Oral administration of the investigated extracts caused a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Gastroprotective activity of the extracts was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats. The cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was assessed on PBMC, B16, and HL-60 cells and compared to the cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds identified in extracts. Apoptotic and necrotic cell death were analyzed by double staining with fluoresceinisothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated annexin V and PI. The developed HPLC method enabled qualitative fingerprint analysis of phenolic compounds in the investigated extracts. Compared to the effect of the positive control, the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacine (4 mg/kg), which produced a 50 % decrease in inflammation, diethyl ether and N-butanol extracts exhibited about the same effect in doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg (53.6 and 48.7 %; 48.4 and 49.9 %, respectively). All investigated extracts produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug ranitidine. The diethyl ether extract showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity on B16 cells and HL-60 cells, decreasing cell growth to 51.3 % and 77.5 % of control, respectively, when used at 100 µg/mL. It seems that phenolic compounds (apigenin, luteolin, and their corresponding glycosides) are

  1. Social Media Campaign Effects: Moderating Role of Social Capital in an Anti-Smoking Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Kang; Nah, Seungahn; Van Stee, Stephanie K; Record, Rachael A

    2017-01-06

    This study examined the effects of an anti-smoking campaign that employs a crowdsourcing method with a social networking service. Drawing upon social capital scholarship and the expression effect research paradigm in eHealth systems, the study also investigated the roles of social trust and community life satisfaction in the social media campaign that has a specific geographical boundary. To that end, we conducted an experiment using a two-group pretest-posttest design. We randomly assigned 201 participants to two conditions: "campaign message reception only" as a control group and "message reception and expression" as a treatment group in which participants fully engaged in the campaign process by sharing their own campaign ideas with other participants. Findings revealed that social trust and community life satisfaction interacted with the treatment condition to positively affect persuasive intentions, but in distinct ways. Social trust moderated the effect of the message reception and interaction condition on participants' willingness to encourage community members to stop smoking. In contrast, community life satisfaction moderated the effect of the treatment condition on encouraging others to comply with the community's anti-smoking policy. These results provide theoretical and practical implications related to the roles of social capital in geographically defined social media campaigns.

  2. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  3. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary's bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary's anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed.

  4. ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DENDROCNIDE SINUATA (BLUME CHEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binita Angom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous root extracts of Dendrocnide sinuata (Blume Chew (AEDS in Swiss albino mice and wistar rats. The animals were orally administered AEDS at doses 30 and 100 mgkg-1 (p.o. For analgesic study, acetic acid-induced Writhing test, Eddy’s hot plate and Tail Flick model was performed in mice. For antiinflammatory study, carrageen-induced paw edema study was performed in rats. In acetic acid induced model, effect of AEDS was comparable with the standard meloxicam 10 mgkg-1 (i.p. In the hot plate model, the maximum effect was observed at 30 min at a dose of 100 mgkg-1 (p.o which was comparable with the standard Pentazocine 10 mgkg-1 (p.o, whereas in the tail flick model no significant changes were observed. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema model, administration of AEDS showed significant (P < 0.05 dose dependent inhibition of edema formation. AEDS was effective in both narcotic and non-narcotic models of analgesia. It also showed a significant dose-dependent increase in antiedematogenic activity which revealed good peripheral anti-inflammatory properties of the extract.

  5. Improved anti-melanoma effect of a transdermal mitoxantrone ethosome gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang; Du, Lina; Li, Yu; Fu, Guiying; Jin, Yiguang

    2015-07-01

    Melanomas are malignant tumors characterized by early metastasis, rapid development, poor prognosis and high mortality. A highly effective and convenient method is necessary for long-term treatment of melanomas. Mitoxantrone (MTO) was topically applied for melanoma therapy using an MTO ethosome gel. Firstly, an ethosome was prepared from MTO, phospholipids, ethanol and water followed by addition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose to obtain an ethosome gel. The ethosome was characterized. The cytotoxicity on B16 melanoma cells was evaluated on an electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing system with a novel modified chip. In vivo anti-melanoma effect of the ethosome gel was explored. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric investigations were done. The MTO ethosomes had the size of 78nm and the zeta potential of -55mV. The ethosomes were flexible vesicles and showed much higher in vitro permeability across the rat skin than MTO aqueous solutions. The ethosomes had significant cytotoxicity and higher in vivo anti-melanoma effect than MTO solutions. The calreticulin membrane translocation of B16 cells was improved by the MTO ethosomes and the cell uptake of MTO was confirmed. The MTO ethosome gel is a promising transdermal delivery system for melanoma therapy with the advantages of non-invasion and no significant side effects.

  6. Consumption of high-dose vitamin C (1250 mg per day) enhances functional and structural properties of serum lipoprotein to improve anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, and anti-aging effects via regulation of anti-inflammatory microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Lim, So-Mang; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Woo, Moon-Jea; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Background Although the health effects of vitamin C are well known, its physiological effect on serum lipoproteins and microRNA still remain to be investigated, especially daily consumption of a high dosage. Objectives To investigate the physiological effect of vitamin C on serum lipoprotein metabolism in terms of its anti-oxidant and anti-glycation activities, and gene expression via microRNA regulation. Methods We analyzed blood parameters and lipoprotein parameters in young subjects (n = 46, 22 ± 2 years old) including smokers who consumed a high dose of vitamin C (1250 mg) daily for 8 weeks. Results Antioxidant activity of serum was enhanced with the elevation of Vit C content in plasma during 8 weeks consumption. In the LDL fraction, the apo-B48 band disappeared at 8 weeks post-consumption in all subjects. In the HDL fraction, apoA-I expression was enhanced by 20% at 8 weeks, especially in male smokers. In the lipoprotein fraction, all subjects showed significantly reduced contents of advanced glycated end products and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Triglyceride (TG) contents in each LDL and HDL fraction were significantly reduced in all groups following the Vit C consumption, suggesting that the lipoprotein was changed to be more anti-inflammatory and atherogenic properties. Phagocytosis of LDL, which was purified from each individual, into macrophages was significantly reduced at 8-weeks post-consumption of vitamin C. Anti-inflammatory and anti-senescence effects of HDL from all subjects were enhanced after the 8-weeks consumption. The expression level of microRNA 155 in HDL3 was reduced by 49% and 75% in non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Conclusion The daily consumption of a high dose of vitamin C for 8 weeks resulted in enhanced anti-senescence and anti-atherosclerotic effects via an improvement of lipoprotein parameters and microRNA expression through anti-oxidation and anti-glycation, especially in smokers.

  7. Doxycycline exerts multiple anti-allergy effects to attenuate murine allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenru; Wan, Qian; Han, Longhui; Huang, Jingwen; Chen, Xiaoqing; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Song Guo; Liang, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Allergic diseases, which affect up to 20-30% of the world population, are still therapeutic challenge for allergists. Tetracyclines, which belong to an antibiotic drug family that possesses a striking variety of non-antibiotic properties, have been successfully applied to a wide range of diseases. However, their roles in allergic conjunctivitis and anaphylaxis and their underlying anti-allergy mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we reported that treatment with doxycycline significantly reduced IgE release from mouse B cells and the degranulation and inflammatory cytokines production of mouse mast cells (MCs) activated by IgE-dependent way. Furthermore, doxycycline treatment significantly inhibited histamine-induced vascular hyperpermeability in vitro. Mechanistically, the doxycycline-mediated inhibition of B cells, MCs and histamine may occur via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In vivo, our results demonstrated that treatment with doxycycline significantly attenuated clinical symptoms of mouse models of experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) with a significant decrease in inflammatory cell frequency, IgE production, histamine release, and a decrease in TNF-α and IL-4 production. Using mouse models of MCs-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), we further confirmed anti-allergy effects of doxycycline and doxycycline-mediated inhibitory effects on MCs. Furthermore, our results showed that doxycycline significantly attenuate histamine-induced systemic anaphylaxis-like reaction (HISA) with a significantly downregulation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS/VE-cadherin pathway. The doxycycline-mediated anti-allergy effects during EAC, PSA and HISA were abrogated when an Akt activator, SC79, was administered. These findings suggest that doxycycline inhibits B cell, MC and histamine function and attenuates experimental allergic conjunctivitis and systemic anaphylaxis by possible modulating the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  8. Protective effects of anti-ricin A-chain RNA aptamer against ricin toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoan Fan; Feng Wu; Frank Martiniuk; Martha L Hale; Andrew D Ellington; Kam-Meng Tchou-Wong

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the therapeutic potential of an RNA ligand (aptamer) specific for the catalytic ricin A-chain (RTA), the protective effects of a 31-nucleo-tide RNA aptamer (31RA), which formed a high affinity complex with RTA, against ricin-induced toxicity in cell-based luciferase translation and ceil cytotoxicity assays were evaluated. METHODS: To test the therapeutic potential of anti-RTA aptamers in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AA8 cells stably transfected with a tetracycline regulato able promoter, ricin ribotoxicity was measured us-ing luciferase and ricin-induced cytotoxicity was ascertained by MTS cell proliferation assay with tet-razolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium]. RESULTS: Inhibition of protein synthesis by ricin in CHO AA8 cells resulted in diminished luciferase activity and treatment with polyclonal antibody against degly-cosylated RTA (dgA) neutralized the inhibitory effects of ricin on luciferase activity and protected against ricin-induced cytotoxicity as measured by MTS assay. The 31RA anti-RTA aptamer inhibited the translation of luciferase mRNA in cell-free reticulocyte translation as-say. 31RA aptamer also partially neutralized the inhibi-tory effects of ricin on luciferase activity and partially protected against ricin-induced cytotoxicity in CHO AA8 cells. CONCLUSION- We have shown that anti-RTA RNA aptamer can protect against ricin ribotoxicity in ceil-based luciferase and cell cytotoxicity assays. Hence, RNA aptamer that inhibits RTA enzymatic activity rep-resents a novel class of nucleic acid inhibitor that has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of ricin intoxication.

  9. Resummation and matching of b-quark mass effects in b anti bH production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvini, Marco [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Tackmann, Frank J. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-11-15

    We use a systematic effective field theory setup to derive the b anti bH production cross section. Our result combines the merits of both fixed 4-flavor and 5-flavor schemes. It contains the full 4-flavor result, including the exact dependence on the b-quark mass, and improves it with a resummation of collinear logarithms of m{sub b}/m{sub H}. In the massless limit, it corresponds to a reorganized 5-flavor result. While we focus on b anti bH production, our method applies to generic heavy-quark initiated processes at hadron colliders. Our setup resembles the variable flavor number schemes known from heavy-flavor production in deep-inelastic scattering, but also differs in some key aspects. Most importantly, the effective b-quark PDF appears as part of the perturbative expansion of the final result where it effectively counts as an O(α{sub s}) object. The transition between the fixed-order (4-flavor) and resummation (5-flavor) regimes is governed by the low matching scale at which the b-quark is integrated out. Varying this scale provides a systematic way to assess the perturbative uncertainties associated with the resummation and matching procedure and reduces by going to higher orders. We discuss the practical implementation and present numerical results for the b anti bH production cross section at NLO+NLL. We also provide a comparison to the corresponding predictions in the fixed 4-flavor and 5-flavor results and the Santander matching prescription. Compared to the latter, we find a slightly reduced uncertainty and a larger central value, with its central value lying at the lower edge of our uncertainty band.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of an extract of Coccidioides posadasii in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Carolina Matias Dinelly; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Julio Costa; Leite, Ana Karine Rocha de Melo; Leite, Ana Caroline Rocha de Melo; Girão, Virgínia Cláudia Carneiro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cunha, Fernando de Queiroz; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro

    2013-04-01

    Trying to surpass host defenses, fungal infections alter the immune response. Components from nonpathogenic fungi present therapeutic anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities. This study reveals that proteins present in a Coccidioides posadasii extract provide anti-inflammatory benefit in experimental arthritis. Zymosan was given intra-articularly to rats and mice, and groups were pretreated with C. posadasii extract either per os or intraperitoneally. Controls received the vehicle. Acute hypernociception was evaluated using articular incapacitation and von Frey methods. Cell influx and cytokine levels were assessed in joint exudates. Joint damage was evaluated by histopathology and determination of glycosaminoglycan content of the cartilage. Synovia was evaluated for cell death and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression using TUNEL and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Pretreatment with C. posadasii extract significantly inhibited acute and chronic cell influx, hypernociception, and provoked reduction of glycosaminoglycan loss while reducing chronic synovitis, cell death, and iNOS expression. Reduction/alkylation of C. posadasii extract abrogated these effects. C. posadasii administration did not alter TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and γ-interferon levels, whereas IL-10 levels were significantly reduced. Data reveal that a C. posadasii extract reduces iNOS expression that is associated with inhibition of synovial apoptosis and decrease in IL-10 levels released into zymosan-inflamed joints. Characterization of active components excluded charged carbohydrates while pointing to a protein as responsible for these effects. In summary, systemic administration of components from a pathogenic fungus provides anti-inflammatory effects, being species-independent and orally active. Besides adding to understand host response against fungi, the results may lead to therapeutic implications.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Erythropoietin in the TNBS-induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vanessa; Rocha, João; Alves, Paula; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Sepodes, Bruno; Pinto, Rui Manuel Amaro

    2017-02-01

    Erythropoietin is a potent stimulator of erythroid progenitor cells, which is able to inhibit NF-kB activation, due to its pleiotropic properties, thus promoting an anti-inflammatory effect. As inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease with reduced quality of life, and the current pharmacotherapy only induces or maintains the patient in remission, there is a crucial need of new pharmacological approaches. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of erythropoietin in the TNBS-induced colitis model in mice with a normal intestinal flora. Mice with TNBS-induced colitis were treated with a daily dose of erythropoietin at 500 IU/kg bw/day and 1000 IU/Kg bw/day IP during 4 days. As to clinical symptoms/signs, erythropoietin attenuated the decreased body-weight and reduced diarrhoea and oedema of the anus registered in the non-treated mice group in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory properties of erythropoietin in the TNBS-induced colitis were confirmed by suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and MPO, as well as a significant increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, was promoted. These treated mice also presented a reduction in haemoglobin faecal and ALP, suggesting a beneficial effect of erythropoietin in the haemorrhagic focus and destruction of the enterocyte associated with the colon injury induced by TNBS, respectively. The histopathological score was reduced after treatment with erythropoietin, decreasing the severity and extension of the colitis. Furthermore, renal and hepatic biomarkers, as well as haematocrit concentration, remained stabilized after treatment. In conclusion, erythropoietin reduces the inflammatory response associated with TNBS-induced colitis in mice.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 on a diabetic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenbin; Li, Baoying; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Fei; Cai, Qian; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Mei; Gao, Haiqing

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased considerably in recent years, highlighting the importance of developing new therapeutic strategies. Insulin-resistance and gradual dysfunction of pancreatic islets are the mainstay in the progression of T2DM. Therefore, preserving the function of the pancreas may lead to new prospective approaches. Our previous studies suggested that grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol product, exhibited protective effects on diabetic vasculopathy. However, effects of GSPB2 on a diabetic pancreas remain unknown. In this study, we provided strong evidence that GSPB2 exerted protective effects on a diabetic pancreas. GSPB2 attenuated the elevated body weights, food intake and advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels in db/db mice (p pancreas while GSPB2 treatment notably attenuated these alterations (p pancreas and GSPB2 provides protective effects at least in part through anti-inflammation.

  14. The Abscopal Effect Associated With a Systemic Anti-melanoma Immune Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamell, Emily F. [Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wolchok, Jedd D. [Melanoma and Sarcoma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Gnjatic, Sacha [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Brownell, Isaac, E-mail: Isaac.brownell@nih.gov [Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Dermatology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The clearance of nonirradiated tumors after localized radiation therapy is known as the abscopal effect. Activation of an antitumor immune response has been proposed as a mechanism for the abscopal effect. Here we report a patient with metastatic melanoma who received palliative radiation to his primary tumor with subsequent clearance of all his nonirradiated in-transit metastases. Anti-MAGEA3 antibodies were found upon serological testing, demonstrating an association between the abscopal effect and a systemic antitumor immune response. A brain recurrence was then treated with a combination of stereotactic radiosurgery and immunotherapy with ipilimumab. The patient experienced a complete remission that included resolution of nodal metastases, with a concomitant increase in MAGEA3 titers and a new response to the cancer antigen PASD1. This case supports the immune hypothesis for the abscopal effect, and illustrates the potential of combining radiotherapy and immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma.

  15. Deployment Efficiency and Barrier Effectiveness Testing of a Temporary Anti-Personnel (TAP) Barrier System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hedrick, Charles D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report documents tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of State to evaluate a temporary anti-personnel (TAP) barrier system developed by Mitigation Technologies. For this, the SNL Denial and Structural Assessment department developed a test protocol for the evaluation of the TAP barrier system on the basis of deployment efficiency and barrier effectiveness against a riotous/mob attack threat. The test protocol was then executed by SNL personnel and the results of the testing are documented.

  16. Silymarin protects liver against toxic effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzettin Fikret V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first line anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid (INH, rifampicin (RIF and pyrazinamide (PZA continues to be the effective drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis, however, the use of these drugs is associated with toxic reactions in tissues, particularly in the liver, leading to hepatitis. Silymarin, a standard plant extract with strong antioxidant activity obtained from S. marianum, is known to be an effective agent for liver protection and liver regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective actions of silymarin against hepatotoxicity caused by different combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs. Methods Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250–300 g were used to form 6 study groups, each group consisting of 10 rats. Animals were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of isoniazid (50 mg/kg and rifampicin (100 mg/kg; and intra-gastric administration of pyrazinamid (350 mg/kg and silymarin (200 mg/kg. Hepatotoxicity was induced by a combination of drugs with INH+RIF and INH+RIF+PZA. Hepatoprotective effect of silymarin was investigated by co-administration of silymarin together with the drugs. Serum biochemical tests for liver functions and histopathological examination of livers were carried out to demonstrate the protection of liver against anti-tuberculosis drugs by silymarin. Results Treatment of rats with INH+RIF or INH+RIF+PZA induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by biochemical measurements: serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and the levels of total bilirubin were elevated, and the levels of albumin and total protein were decreased in drugs-treated animals. Histopathological changes were also observed in livers of animals that received drugs. Simultaneous administration of silymarin significantly decreased the biochemical and histological changes induced by the drugs. Conclusion The active components of silymarin had

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera in Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarsi Choudhury

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In Adjuvant arthritis method for chronic inflammation, paw edema of the injected and the non-injected were measured on the 5th day and the 21st day respectively. Arthritic index was measured on the 21st day. These results were highly significant for AEAV and Indomethacin in comparison with the control. The results for the arthritic index were highly significant for both Aloe vera and Indomethacin. It is easily illustrated that the herbal plant Aloe vera at the dose of 500mg/kg demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory effect against all the experimental methods on inflammation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2488-2495

  18. Effect of Vacuum on the Laser-Induced Damage of Anti-Reflection Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Xiu-Lan; ZHAO Yuan-An; LI Da-Wei; ZHOU Ming; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu

    2009-01-01

    In the comparison of damage modifications, absorption measurement and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, the effect of vacuum on the laser-induced damage of anti-reflection coatings is analyzed. It is found that vacuum decreases the laser-induced damage threshold of the films. The low laser-induced damage threshold in vacuum environments as opposed to air environments is attributed to water absorption and the formation of the O/Si,O/Zr sub-stoichiometry in the course of laser irradiation.

  19. Experimental study of anti-tumor effects of polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng shang; Ai-Rong Qian; Tie-Hong Yang; Min Jia; Qi-Bing Mei; Chi-Hin Cho; Wen-Ming Zhao; Zhi-Nan Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo anti-tumor effects of total polysaccharide (AP-0) isolated from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels (Danggui) on mice and thein vitro inhibitory effects of AP-0 and its sub-constituents (AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3) on invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Three kinds of murine tumor models in vivo,sarcoma 180 (S180), leukemia L1210 and Ehrlich ascitic cancer (FAC) were employed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of AP-0. For each kind of tumor model, three experimental groups were respectively given AP-0 at doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg byip once a day for 10 days.Positive control groups were respectively given Cy at a dose of 30 mg/kg for S180 and leukemia L1210, and 5-FU at a dose of 20 mg/kg for EAC. On d 11, mice bearing S180were sacrificed and the masses of tumors, spleens and thymus were weighed. The average living days of mice bearing EAC and of mice bearing L1210 were observed,and the rates of life prolongation of each treatment were calculated, respectively. The inhibitory effects of APs on hepatoma invasion and metastasis in vitro were investigated by employing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HHCC) with the Matrigel invasion chamber, adhesion to extracelluler matrix and chemotatic migration tests, respectively.RESULTS: AP-0 had no obviously inhibitory effect on the growth of S180, but it could significantly decrease the thymus weights of the mice bearing S180. AP-0 could significantly reduce the production of ascitic liquids and prolong the life of mice bearing EAC. AP-0 could also increase the survival time of mice bearing L1210. AP-0 and AP-2 had significantly inhibitory effects on the invasion of HHCC into the Matrigel reconstituted basement membrane with the inhibitory rates of 56.4% and 68.3%, respectively. AP-0, AP-1, AP-2 and AP-3 could influence the adhesion of HHCC to extracellular matrix proteins (Matrigel and fibronectin) at different degrees, among them only AP-3 had significant

  20. Countermeasure effectiveness against an intelligent imaging infrared anti-ship missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Greer J.; Aouf, Nabil; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2013-02-01

    Ship self defense against heat-seeking anti-ship missiles is of great concern to modern naval forces. One way of protecting ships against these threats is to use infrared (IR) offboard countermeasures. These decoys need precise placement to maximize their effectiveness, and simulation is an invaluable tool used in determining optimum deployment strategies. To perform useful simulations, high-fidelity models of missiles are required. We describe the development of an imaging IR anti-ship missile model for use in countermeasure effectiveness simulations. The missile model's tracking algorithm is based on a target recognition system that uses a neural network to discriminate between ships and decoys. The neural network is trained on shape- and intensity-based features extracted from simulated imagery. The missile model is then used within ship-decoy-missile engagement simulations, to determine how susceptible it is to the well-known walk-off seduction countermeasure technique. Finally, ship survivability is improved by adjusting the decoy model to increase its effectiveness against the tracker.

  1. Investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on Endotoxin-induced uveitis in rabbits' eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Kavian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteriods are used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the eye such as uveitis, but these drugs have many side effects such as cataract and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and aggravation of keratitis caused by herpes simplex, fungal keratitis, etc. Therefore, the efforts to find new medicines that control ocular inflammation while lacking any steroid side effects continue. Curcumin is a yellow substance found in turmeric and in traditional medicine it is used as an antiseptic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of this substance was investigated. For this purpose, six adult rabbits of the same breed were used. To create the inflammation, 100mg of polysaccharide of Escherichia coli bacteria endotoxin was injected into the vitreous of the rabbits' both eyes. Then …0.1cc.. curcumin pure extract was injected into the vitreous of their right eye. After three days, the eyes were removed and placed in a formalin for 2 weeks to fixate them, and then using microscopic studies, the degrees of inflammation of both eyes, with and without the injection of the drug, were compared. The results show no inflammation or inflammatory cells in the eyes injected with curcumin. From the present study, it is concluded that curcumin can be considered in treatment of ocular inflammations as a complementary substance or drug.

  2. The anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Zecai; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Xuejiao; Lu, Xiaojie; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2016-01-01

    [TRIAP]-derived decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRIAP-derived decoy peptide (TR6) containing, the N-terminal portion of the third helical region of the [TIRAP] TIR domain (sequence "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK and -KPGFLRDPWCKYQML-"C"). We evaluated the effects of TR6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, the mastitis model was induced by LPS administration for 24h, and TR6 treatment was initiated 1h before or after induction of LPS. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and neutrophils were used to investigate the effects of TR6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TR6 significantly inhibited mammary gland hisopathologic changes, MPO activity, and LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In vitro, TR6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production and phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPKs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of TR6 against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. TR6 may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  3. Acetylated and propionated derivatives of swertiamarin have anti-adipogenic effects

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    Hitesh B Vaidya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether the acetylated and propionated derivatives (LMP-09-1 and -2 of swertiamarin have anti-adipogenic effects. Materials and Methods: 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were grown in Dulbecco′s Modified Eagle′s Medium (DMEM containing 10% calf serum; fully confluent cells were differentiated with insulin, dexamethasone, and 3-isobutylmethylxanthine in the presence and absence of LMP-09-1 and -2 (100 μg/mL for 10 days. Control cells received same amount of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO. On day ten, cells were analyzed for triglycerides accumulation and the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and lipolysis. In another set of experiment, effects of LMP-09-1 and 2 were studied for isoproterenol induced lipolysis using fully mature adipocytes. Results: LMP-09-1 and -2 caused a significant (P < 0.001 reduction in intracellular triglycerides accumulation. Both LMP-09-1 and -2 significantly (P < 0.001 decreased the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, and increased isoproterenol induced lipolysis in adipocytes. LMP-09-1 induced lipolysis even in the absence of isoproterenol, and also showed a significant up-regulation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL gene expression. Conclusions: These findings show that swertiamarin derivatives, LMP-09-1 and -2 have a potent anti-adipogenic effect.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of schisandrin isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill.

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    Guo, Lian Yu; Hung, Tran Manh; Bae, Ki Hwan; Shin, Eun Myoung; Zhou, Hong Yu; Hong, Yoo Na; Kang, Sam Sik; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2008-09-04

    Schisandrin is the main active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. Recent studies have demonstrated that schisandrin exhibits anti-oxidative effects in vivo. In the present study, the effect of schisandrin on plasma nitrite concentration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice was evaluated. It also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. Furthermore, schisandrin had a protective effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. In vitro, our results are the first that show that the anti-inflammatory properties of schisandrin result from the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) release, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, which in turn results from the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities in a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line.

  5. Potential effectiveness of specific anti-smoking mass media advertisements among Australian Indigenous smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Harold S; Bowden, Jacqueline A; Bayly, Megan C; Sharplin, Greg R; Durkin, Sarah J; Miller, Caroline L; Givans, Sharon E; Warne, Charles D; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-12-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (Indigenous Australians) have more than twice the smoking prevalence of non-Indigenous Australians. Anti-smoking campaigns have demonstrated success in the general population but little is known about their impact among Indigenous people. A total of 143 Indigenous and a comparison group of 156 non-Indigenous smokers from South Australia were shown 10 anti-smoking advertisements representing a range of advertisements typically aired in Australia. Participants rated advertisements on a five-point Likert scale assessing factors including message acceptance and personalized effectiveness. On average, Indigenous people rated the mainstream advertisements higher than non-Indigenous people and were more likely to report that they provided new information. Advertisements with strong graphic imagery depicting the health effects of smoking were rated highest by Indigenous smokers. Advertisements featuring real people describing the serious health consequences of smoking received mixed responses. Those featuring an ill person were rated higher by Indigenous people than those featuring the family of the person affected by a smoking-related disease. With limited Indigenous-specific messages available and given the finite resources of most public health campaigns, exposure to mainstream strong graphic and emotive first-person narratives about the health effects of smoking are likely to be highly motivating for Indigenous smokers.

  6. Mechanism of Anti-glioblastoma Effect of Temzolomide Involved in ROS-Mediated SIRT 1 Pathway

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    Yuan Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the new molecular mechanism of anti-tumor effect of temzolomide (TMZon glioblastoma cell strain. Methods: MTT methods and Hoechst 33342 staining method were applied to determine the effect of TMZ on the proliferation and apoptosis of glioblastoma cell strains U251 and SHG44, while flow cytometry was used to detect the impact of TMZ on cellular cycles. Additionally, DCFH-DA probe was adopted to test intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level while Real-time PCR and Western blot tests were applied to determine the influence of TMZ on SIRT1 expression. Results: TMZ in different concentrations added into glioblastoma cell strain for 72 h could concentration-dependently inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells, 100 μmol/L of which could also block cells in phase G2/M and improve cellular apoptosis. In addition, TMZ could evidently increase intracellular ROS level so as to activate SIRT1. Conclusion: The mechanism of anti-tumor effect of TMZ on glioblastoma may be associated with ROS-induced SIRT1 pathway, providing theoretical basis for the clinical efficacy of TMZ.

  7. Mechanism of Anti-glioblastoma Effect of Temzolomide Involved in ROS-Mediated SIRT 1 Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuan; Sun Yan; Yuan Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the new molecular mechanism of anti-tumor effect of temzolomide (TMZ) on glioblastoma cell strain. Methods:MTT methods and Hoechst 33342 staining method were applied to determine the effect of TMZ on the proliferation and apoptosis of glioblastoma cell strains U251 and SHG44, while lfow cytometry was used to detect the impact of TMZ on cellular cycles. Additionally, DCFH-DA probe was adopted to test intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level while Real-time PCR and Western blot tests were applied to determine the inlfuence of TMZ on SIRT1 expression. Results: TMZ in different concentrations added into glioblastoma cell strain for 72 h could concentration-dependently inhibit the proliferation of glioblastoma cells, 100 μmol/L of which could also block cells in phase G2/M and improve cellular apoptosis. In addition, TMZ could evidently increase intracellular ROS level so as to activate SIRT1. Conclusion: The mechanism of anti-tumor effect of TMZ on glioblastoma may be associated with ROS-induced SIRT1 pathway, providing theoretical basis for the clinical efifcacy of TMZ.

  8. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Erdosteine in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.

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    Park, Jong Sun; Park, Mi-Young; Cho, Young-Jae; Lee, Jae Ho; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Lee, Choon-Taek; Lee, Sang-Min

    2016-08-01

    Erdosteine is widely used as a mucolytic agent and also has free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine. We investigated the effect of erdosteine on the activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kB/inhibitor of NFkB (IkB), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Cultured RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with erdosteine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In Western blotting, pretreatment with erdosteine inhibited the IkBα degradation induced in RAW 264.7 cells by LPS. LPS-induced IkB kinase (IKK) activity and NF-kB transcription were inhibited by pretreatment with erdosteine. Production of IL-6 and IL-1β was also inhibited by erdosteine pretreatment. However, erdosteine did not inhibit LPS-induced phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of erdosteine in mouse macrophages is mediated through inhibition of LPS-induced NF-kB activation.

  9. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.

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    Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds.

  10. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Date, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Niacinamide is known to have effectiveness on sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing niacinamide. A randomized, placebo-controlled, split face study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese females who had wrinkles in the eye areas. The tested cosmetic containing 4% niacinamide was applied on wrinkles of one side for 8 weeks, and a control cosmetic without niacinamide on another site. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated with two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photographs based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) average roughness of skin surface (Ra value) using skin replica. This cosmetic showed marked and moderate improvement in 64% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control site (P < 0.001). Wrinkle grades in the tested area significantly reduced more than pre-application (P < 0.001) and the control (P < 0.001). Reduction in Ra value on the tested area was more than pre-application (P < 0.01) and the control site (P < 0.05) with significant differences. Only one subject stopped the study with minimal irritation. These results indicated that the tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles in the eye areas.

  11. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis

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    Ting-Yi Chien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidative Stress Effects of Oryzanol in Glaucomatous Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Rajesh K.; Jha, Abhishek B.; Ajarem, Jamaan; Butani, Shital B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. γ-Oryzanol works by anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging activity as a neuroprotective, anticancer, antiulcer, and immunosuppressive agent. The present study was conducted to investigate effect of oryzanol in acute and chronic experimental glaucoma in rabbits. Methods. Effect of oryzanol was evaluated in 5% dextrose induced acute model of ocular hypertension in rabbit eye. Chronic model of glaucoma was induced with subconjunctival injection of 5% of 0.3 ml phenol. Treatment with oryzanol was given for next two weeks after induction of glaucoma. From anterior chamber of rabbit eye aqueous humor was collected to assess various oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitric oxide, and inflammatory parameters like TNF-α and IL-6. Structural damage in eye was examined by histopathological studies. Results. In acute model of ocular hypertension oryzanol did not alter raised intraocular pressure. In chronic model of glaucoma oryzanol exhibited significant reduction in oxidative stress followed by reduction in intraocular pressure. Oryzanol treatment reduced level of TNF-α and IL-6. Histopathological studies revealed decreased structural damage of trabecular meshwork, lamina cribrosa, and retina with oryzanol treatment. Conclusions. Oryzanol showed protective effect against glaucoma by its antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory property. Treatment with oryzanol can reduce optic nerve damage. PMID:28168044

  13. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Anti-Lipogenic/Adipogenic Effects of Allyl-Isothiocyanate Metabolites.

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    Yang-Ji Kim

    Full Text Available Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC is an organosulfur phytochemical found in abundance in common cruciferous vegetables such as mustard, wasabi, and cabbage. Although AITC is metabolized primarily through the mercapturic acid pathway, its exact pharmacokinetics remains undefined and the biological function of AITC metabolites is still largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of AITC metabolites on lipid accumulation in vitro and elucidated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of AITC metabolites in rats. We found that AITC metabolites generally conjugate with glutathione (GSH or N-acetylcysteine (NAC and are distributed in most organs and tissues. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a rapid uptake and complete metabolism of AITC following oral administration to rats. Although AITC has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer, the potential bioactivity of its metabolites has not been explored. We found that GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC effectively inhibit adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and suppress expression of PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, and FAS, which are up-regulated during adipogenesis. GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC also suppressed oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that AITC is almost completely metabolized in the liver and rapidly excreted in urine through the mercapturic acid pathway following administration in rats. AITC metabolites may exert anti-obesity effects through suppression of adipogenesis or lipogenesis.

  14. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and immunostimulatory effect of extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae

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    Vilegas Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several in vitro studies have looked at the effect of medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Regardless of the popular use of Byrsonima crassa (B. crassa as antiemetic, diuretic, febrifuge, to treat diarrhea, gastritis and ulcers, there is no data on its effects against H. pylori. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori of B. crassa leaves extracts and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by broth microdilution method and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. Results The methanolic (MeOH and chloroformic (CHCl3 extracts inhibit, in vitro, the growth of H. pylori with MIC value of 1024 μg/ml. The MeOH extract induced the production H2O2 and NO, but CHCl3 extract only NO. Conclusion Based in our results, B. crassa can be considered a source of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity, but its use should be done with caution in treatment of the gastritis and peptic ulcers, since the reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by ulcerogenic agents and H. pylori infections.

  15. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Zerumbone against Mono-Iodoacetate-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ting-Yi; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Lee, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2016-02-18

    The fresh rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet Smith (Zingiberaceae) is used as a food flavoring and also serves as a folk medicine as an antipyretic and for analgesics in Taiwan. Zerumbone, a monocyclic sesquiterpene was isolated from the rhizome of Z. zerumbet and is the major active compound. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of zerumbone on arthritis were explored using in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that zerumbone inhibited inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions, and NO and prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production, but induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. When zerumbone was co-treated with an HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)), the NO inhibitory effects of zerumbone were recovered. The above results suggest that zerumbone inhibited iNOS and COX-2 through induction of the HO-1 pathway. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and COX-2 expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated primary rat chondrocytes were inhibited by zerumbone. In an in vivo assay, an acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice was significantly reduced by treatment with zerumbone. Furthermore, zerumbone reduced paw edema and the pain response in a mono-iodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat osteoarthritis model. Therefore, we suggest that zerumbone possesses anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects which indicate zerumbone could be a potential candidate for osteoarthritis treatment.

  16. Anti-cancer effects of Kochia scoparia fruit in human breast cancer cells

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    Hye-Yeon Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruit of Kochia scoparia Scharder is widely used as a medicinal ingredient for the treatment of dysuria and skin diseases in China, Japan and Korea. Especially, K. scoparia had been used for breast masses and chest and flank pain. Objective: To investigate the anti-cancer effect of K. scoparia on breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We investigated the anti-cancer effects of K. scoparia, methanol extract (MEKS in vitro. We examined the effects of MEKS on the proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and activation of apoptosis-associated proteins in MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells. Results: MTT assay results demonstrated that MEKS decreased the proliferation rates of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 36.2 μg/ml. MEKS at 25 μg/ml significantly increased the sub-G1 DNA contents of MDA-MB-231 cells to 44.7%, versus untreated cells. In addition, MEKS induced apoptosis by increasing the levels of apoptosis-associated proteins such as cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 8, cleaved caspase 9 and cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Conclusion: These results suggest that MEKS inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and that MEKS may have potential chemotherapeutic value for the treatment of human breast cancer.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of Lacto-Wolfberry in a mouse model of experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Philippe; Viral Brahmbhatt; Francis Foata; Yen Saudan; Patrick Serrant; Stephanie Blum; Jalil Benyacoub

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB),both in vitro and using a mouse model of experimental colitis.METHODS:The effects of LWB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion were assessed in a murine macrophage cell line.in vitro assessment also included characterizing the effects of LWB on the activation of NF-E2 related 2 pathway and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation,utilizing reporter cell lines.Following the in vitro assessment,the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an oral intervention with LWB was tested in vivo using a preclinical model of intestinal inflammation.Multiple outcomes including body weight,intestinal histology,colonic cytokine levels and anti-oxidative measures were investigated.RESULTS:LWB reduced the LPS-mediated induction of ROS production [+LPS vs 1% LWB + LPS,1590 ±188.5 relative luminescence units (RLU) vs 389 ± 5.9RLU,P < 0.001].LWB was more effective than wolfberry alone in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion in vitro (wolfberry vs 0.5% LWB,15% ± 7.8% vs 64% ±5%,P < 0.001).In addition,LWB increased reporter gene expression via the anti-oxidant response element activation (wolfberry vs LWB,73% ± 6.9% vs 148%± 28.3%,P < 0.001) and inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway (milk vs LWB,10% ±6.7% vs 35% ± 3.3%,P < 0.05).Furthermore,oral supplementation with LWB resulted in a reduction of macroscopic (-LWB vs +LWB,5.39 ± 0.61 vs 3.66 ±0.59,P =0.0445) and histological scores (-LWB vs +LWB,5.44 ± 0.32 vs 3.66 ± 0.59,P =0.0087) in colitic mice.These effects were associated with a significant decrease in levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β (-LWB vs +LWB,570 ± 245 μg/L vs 89 ± 38 μg/L,P =0.0106),keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth regulated protein-α (-LWB vs +LWB,184± 49 μg/L vs 75 ± 20 μg/L,P =0.0244),IL-6 (-LWB

  18. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of calcitonin on neuropathic pain interacting with its peripheral receptors

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    Ito Akitoshi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polypeptide hormone calcitonin is clinically well known for its ability to relieve neuropathic pain such as spinal canal stenosis, diabetic neuropathy and complex regional pain syndrome. Mechanisms for its analgesic effect, however, remain unclear. Here we investigated the mechanism of anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin in a neuropathic pain model in rats. Results Subcutaneous injection of elcatonin, a synthetic derivative of eel calcitonin, relieved hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the CCI provoked the upregulation of tetrodotoxin (TTX-sensitive Nav.1.3 mRNA and downregulation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA on the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which would consequently increase the excitability of peripheral nerves. These changes were reversed by elcatonin. In addition, the gene expression of the calcitonin receptor and binding site of 125I-calcitonin was increased at the constricted peripheral nerve tissue but not at the DRG. The anti-hyperalgesic effect and normalization of sodium channel mRNA by elcatonin was parallel to the change of the calcitonin receptor expression. Elcatonin, however, did not affect the sensitivity of nociception or gene expression of sodium channel, while it suppressed calcitonin receptor mRNA under normal conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-hyperalgesic action of calcitonin on CCI rats could be attributable to the normalization of the sodium channel expression, which might be exerted by an unknown signal produced at the peripheral nerve tissue but not by DRG neurons through the activation of the calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin signals were silent in the normal condition and nerve injury may be one of triggers for conversion of a silent to an active signal.

  19. Anti-osteoporosis effect of the standard extract of Pueraria Lobata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ni; XU Feng; YU Yao-hong; ZHOU Xue-ting

    2008-01-01

    Objective The standard extract of Pueraria Lobata (SEP) was extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Pueraria Lobata. and the anti-osteoporotic effect of SEP were evaluated in the paper. Methods The ovariotomied rats were used simulating osteoporosis model, and characterized from thighbone measurement, bone density, blood biochemistry assay, emiction biochemistry, bone morphology and womb pathology were also determined. Resnlts The ovariotomy causes rats' weight, serum ALP, Strap, bone calcium element, emiction calcium element, emiction hydroxide praline increased; bone calcium content, bone density and rigidity, thighbone wet weight, dry weight and ash weight remarkably reduced;and the bone anti-bend intensity, the maximum bend strength decreased, the bone girder thinner, or even be broken. This indicates that ovariotomy causes rats lost bone calcium and got osteoporosis. One month after operation, SEP was provided subsequently for 12 weeks to different samples (medicament quantity 2.5, 1.25,0.625 g·kg-1;model group; fake operational group and masculine medicament estrogen group). It was found that SEP can suppress the weight increase caused by ovariotomy, improved the thighbone metrology standard of the OVX rats (the bone calcium content 26.2 %, 20.1% and 15.7 % separately);increase the thighbone density and rigidity, the thighbone wet weight, dry weight and ash weight; increased blood calcium, blood phosphorus, decreasing ALP, Strap, increasing serum estradiol level, reducing bone calcium content;improve the emiction biochemistry characteristics: decreased emiction calcium, emiction hydroxide proline ejection amount; improved the OVX rats thighbone biomechanics characteristic:increased the anti-band intensity and maximum bend strength. Conclusions SEP exerted upon an inhibited effects on osteoporosis caused by 0variotomy.

  20. Effect of Shengdeye on anti-fatigue and the memory in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Shengdeye is a kind of medicinal wine. It is fermented with 30 kinds of medicinal herbs such as glossy ganoderma, pilose antler, panax, medlar and sorghum. This study aimed to observe the effects of Shengdeye on anti-fatigue and memory in mice.METHODS: The mice were fed with Shengdeye 5 ml*kg-1 and 2.5 ml*kg-1 2 times per day. After 7 days, the mice were examined on anoxia-resistant and swimming test for anti-fatigue and step down test for memory.RESULTS: The anoxia-resistant of shengdege group was apparently longer than that of the control group [(29.60±1.36) min vs (24.40±3.13) min, P<0.01], and the swimming time was sharply increased [(142.6±53.8) min for 2.5 ml*kg-1 and (162.9±43.5) min for 5 ml*kg-1 vs (94.9±39.1) min, P<0.05]. The error times of shengdege group was lower than that of the control [(1.5±1.4) times and (2.3±1.3) times vs (3.7±1.1) times, P<0.01]. The delitescence of two group were sharply prolonged [(136.8±50.1) s, and (128.0±41.5) s vs (50.2±42.9) s, P<0.01].CONCLUSION: The results indicated that Shengdeye had an anti-fatigne effect and increased the faculty of memory. The experiment of acute toxicity showed that the medicinal herbs in Shyengdeye were safe.

  1. Individual and combining effects of anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody and teriparatide in ovariectomized mice

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    Naoto Tokuyama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the individual and combined effects of teriparatide and anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand monoclonal antibody in ovariectomized mice. Three-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized (OVX or sham operated. Four weeks after OVX, they were assigned to 3 different groups to receive anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody (Ab alone (5 mg/kg single injection at 4 weeks after OVX, Ab group, teriparatide alone (80 μg/kg daily injection for 4 weeks from 4 weeks after OVX, PTH group, or mAb plus teriparatide (Ab + PTH group. Mice were sacrificed 8 weeks after OVX. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the femur and lumbar spine. Hind limbs were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Serum osteocalcin and CTX-I levels were measured to investigate the bone turnover. Compared with Ab group, Ab + PTH group showed a significant increase in BMD at distal femur and femoral shaft. Cortical bone volume was significantly increased in PTH and Ab + PTH groups compared with Ab group. Bone turnover in Ab + PTH group was suppressed to the same degree as in Ab group. The number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells was markedly reduced in Ab and Ab + PTH groups. These results suggest that combined treatment of teriparatide with anti-RANKL antibody has additive effects on BMD in OVX mice compared with individual treatment.

  2. The Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Aloe. Vera Aqueous Extract in Fructose-Fed Male Rats

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    Mohammad Reza Shahraki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C T Introduction: Aloe Vera extract is used as an anti-inflammatory and anti-bradikinin agent in laboratory animals. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the ant-nociceptive effect of A. Vera aqueous extract in fructose-fed male rats. Methods: Forty-five Wistar-Albino male rats were equally and randomly divided into five groups including sham operated and four test groups. Sham operated group consumed tap water and the test groups consumed fructoseenriched water. Test groups 2, 3 and 4 additionally received, 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg of A. Vera extract, respectively, whereas the other test group received distilled water daily. Tail flick reaction time, serum glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. The results were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. Results: The results showed that tail flick reaction time significantly increased in test group 3 which received 200 mg/kg A. Vera extract comparing with that of sham operated group. However, OGTT and serum glucose value were significantly increased in all fructose-fed male rats comparing with those of sham operated group. Discussion: These results indicated that A. Vera aqueous extract can affect tail flick reaction time in fructose-fed male rats. Further studies are required to show the exact mechanism of anti-nociceptive effect of A. Vera extract.

  3. Bonding and Anti-bonding Modes of Plasmon Coupling Effects in TiO2-Ag Core-shell Dimers

    OpenAIRE

    Quanshui Li; Zhili Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Bonding and anti-bonding modes of plasmon coupling effects are numerically investigated in TiO2-Ag core-shell nano dimers. First, splitting phenomena of the coupled anti-bonding modes are observed under the longitudinal polarization when the distance between the monomers decreases to a certain level. Second, one of the split resonance modes is identified to be formed by the dipole anti-bonding mode of the monomers from charge density distribution patterns. Those split modes have similar redsh...

  4. Resveratrol ameliorates renal damage, increases expression of heme oxygenase-1, and has anti-complement, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects in a murine model of membranous nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chao Wu

    Full Text Available Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN is an autoimmune-mediated glomerulonephritis and a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. There are limited available treatments for MN. We assessed the efficacy of resveratrol (RSV therapy for treatment of MN in a murine model of this disease.Murine MN was experimentally induced by daily subcutaneous administration of cationic bovine serum albumin, with phosphate-buffered saline used in control mice. MN mice were untreated or given RSV. Disease severity and pathogenesis was assessed by determination of metabolic and histopathology profiles, lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulin production, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and production of heme oxygenase-1 (HO1.MN mice given RSV had significantly reduced proteinuria and a marked amelioration of glomerular lesions. RSV also significantly attenuated immunofluorescent staining of C3, although there were no changes of serum immunoglobulin levels or immunocomplex deposition in the kidneys. RSV treatment of MN mice also reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, reduced cell apoptosis, and upregulated heme oxygenase 1 (HO1. Inhibition of HO1 with tin protoporphyrin IX partially reversed the renoprotective effects of RSV. The HO1 induced by RSV maybe via Nrf2 signaling.Our results show that RSV increased the expression of HO1 and ameliorated the effects of membranous nephropathy in a mouse model due to its anti-complement, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. RSV appears to have potential as a treatment for MN.

  5. Effect of diffuse roof cover with anti-reflection coating for roses; Effect van diffuus kasdek met Anti Reflectie coating bij Roos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Victoria, N.; Kempkes, F.

    2012-10-15

    The rose Red Naomi was cultivated in two greenhouses at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture in Bleiswijk, Netherlands (August 2010 - September 2011). One greenhouse covered with normal float glass; the other with AR coated diffuse glass (70% haze). This Anti-Reflection coating on both glass sides compensated for the loss in light transmission caused by the diffusing structure in the glass. The diffuse AR glass lead to a 5.2% higher production (>6.1% fresh weight). Sunscreens were necessary in spring and summer to avoid high light levels on the flower buds, as they cause very high bud temperatures leading to quality problems (blue petal edges and burnt leaf tips). The diffuse greenhouse cover allowed a 100 W/m{sup 2} higher screening threshold than the reference glass. This caused a 2.7% higher daily light integral, able to explain part of the extra production obtained. Part of the extra production achieved can not be explained by the measured factors as no differences were found in the amount of light intercepted by the crop or in leaf photosynthesis under both cover types. The light under the diffuse AR cover was nevertheless much smoother, so the crop seemed to suffer less (lower bud temperatures and less burned leaf tips), and this should provide an explanation for the rest of the extra production. The cover properties did not influence disease development (powdery mildew). The obtained extra production makes the tempered, diffuse glass with Anti Reflection coating on both sides economically feasible [Dutch] Tussen augustus 2010 en september 2011 is bij Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw het effect van diffuus glas, met dubbelzijdige AR coating, op de productie en energiegebruik van roos 'Red Naomi' onderzocht. Onder het diffuse glas werden 5,2% meer bloemtakken geproduceerd, deze rozen waren ook iets langer en zwaarder (6,1% meer versgewicht). Dit verschil kan deels verklaard worden doordat er onder het diffuse glas pas bij hogere stralingsniveau

  6. Anti-Cancer Effect of Lambertianic Acid by Inhibiting the AR in LNCaP Cells

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    Myoung-Sun Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lambertianic acid (LA is known to have anti-allergic and antibacterial effects. However, the anticancer activities and mechanism of action of LA have not been investigated. Therefore, the anticancer effects and mechanism of LA are investigated in this study. LA decreased not only AR protein levels, but also cellular and secretory levels of PSA. Furthermore, LA inhibited nuclear translocation of the AR induced by mibolerone. LA suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G1 arrest, downregulating CDK4/6 and cyclin D1 and activating p53 and its downstream molecules, p21 and p27. LA induced apoptosis and the expression of related proteins, including cleaved caspase-9 and -3, c-PARP and BAX, and inhibited BCl-2. The role of AR in LA-induced apoptosis was assessed by using siRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that LA exerts the anticancer effect by inhibiting AR and is a valuable therapeutic agent in prostate cancer treatment.

  7. Research on infiltration clogging effect and its application prospect in anti-seepage project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiquan; WANG Gangcheng; ZHANG Guojun

    2009-01-01

    Clogging effect, as a new concept in geological engineering, is a phenomenon of permeability decreasing under seeping in reservoir dam foundation of the alluvial and diluvial deposits with deep and thick layer, coarse particle and high permeability in mountains-gully rivers of Tibetan Plateau. A clogging infiltration instrument has been designed successfully and a series of simulation tests have been done. Based on large amounts of data, it is confirmed that the existence of the clogging effect and the law of infiltration clogging is found out. Three indexes are proposed such as "optimal size of particle", "optimal size range of particle" and "characteristic pore", which are closely related with effect of infiltration clogging. The concept and results can offer a new idea to solve problems on anti-seepage of dam foundation in mountains-gully rivers environment and to study artificial clogging, meanwhile supplement of the concept of seepage deformation.

  8. Anti-opioid effects of neuropeptide FF receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersanté, Flavie; Wang, Jin-Ya; Chen, Jin-Chung; Mollereau, Catherine; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-25

    The present study investigates the modulatory effects of neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors on the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway controlled by opioid receptors. A stable NPFF(2) receptor agonist, dNPA, was injected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the release of dopamine and serotonin within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), induced by intraperitoneal injection of morphine, was monitored using the brain microdialysis, in non-constrained rat. dNPA decreased systemic morphine-induced elevation of dopamine and serotonin metabolites within the NAc. Furthermore, co-injected with morphine into the VTA, NPFF inhibited morphine-induced stereotypy 60-120min after the injection. This neurochemical and behavioural anti-opioid effect mediated by NPFF(2) receptors at the level of VTA suggests the involvement of NPFF in the rewarding effects of opiates on the mesolimbic dopamine system.

  9. Dosing of zoledronic acid with its anti-tumor effects in breast cancer

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    Xinmin Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates have played an important role in the treatment of breast cancer, mainly in patients with bone metastasis, by reducing the risk of fracture, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia. Zoledronic acid, the most frequently used intravenous agent, has been traditionally administered on a monthly dosing schedule. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that zoledronic acid can inhibit angiogenesis, invasion, and adhesion of tumor cells. Several clinical studies of different timings and schedules of zoledronic acid therapy have demonstrated its anti-tumor effects, as well as its protective effect on bone health, in postmenopausal women during adjuvant breast cancer therapy. In general, early initiation of zoledronic acid, concomitantly with adjuvant therapy, has been found to be most beneficial. However, questions remain over the most effective schedule of treatment and relative potency of zoledronic acid. Therefore, we review the existing clinical studies to examine the influence of dosing of zoledronic acid therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer.

  10. Synthesis, cytotoxicity, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of chalcones and influence of A-ring modifications on the pharmacological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Barbic, Matej; Jürgenliemk, Guido; Heilmann, Jörg

    2010-06-01

    Besides 2',4'-dihydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxy-3'-prenylchalcone (1) and 4-acetoxy-2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3'-prenylchalkon (2), both phase II metabolites of xanthohumol in rats, also a principally new chalcone 3'-coumaroyl-2',4,4'-trihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone (3), structurally derived from helichrysetin (4) by introducing a second coumaroyl substructure at C-3' was synthesized. Furthermore new chalcones were synthesized by combination of the B-Ring fragments of helichrysetin, xanthohumol, xanthohumol C and xanthohumol H with ferulic or caffeic acid moieties in Ring A. Compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 7.3+/-0.4 microM. Anti-oxidative effects were determined in the ORAC assay and revealed very strong activity for 3 and 3-methoxyhelichrysetin (6) exhibiting 7.7+/-0.3 and 6.0+/-1.3 Trolox equivalents, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of all compounds was measured in an in vitro ICAM-1 assay with human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and compared with the activity of other structurally related chalcones. The results showed increasing anti-inflammatory activity for the new synthetic chalcones exhibiting a caffeoyl substructure with 3-hydroxyhelichrysetin (5) and 3-hydroxyxanthohumol H (14) being the most active. At 10 microM the TNFalpha induced expression of ICAM-1 was significantly reduced to 65.8 and 69.6% of control, respectively.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus sinensis L., Citrus paradisi L. and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Mallick, Neelam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2016-05-01

    Citrus bioflavonoids embrace a wide group of phenolic compounds effecting the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the processes relating free radical-mediated injury. Keeping in view of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi, present study was undertaken to explore the effects of C. sinensis (orange juice) and C. paradisi (grapefruit juice) at three different doses alone and their two combinations with the objective to examine the effects of these compounds in an experimental model of rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). Hence biochemical parameters e.g. myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutathione were assessed. Data entry and analysis was accomplished by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 and was presented as mean ± S.E.M with 95% confidence interval. Present result shows that these juices, mainly C. paradisi, may be efficacious for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. In acute colitis model, C. paradise encouraged a decrease in the extension of the lesion escorted by a decrease in the occurrence of diarrhea and reinstatement of the glutathione content. Related effects were produced by the administration of C. sinensis, which also prevented the myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase actions in acute intestinal inflammatory process. The effect of the citrus juices on the inflammatory process may be associated to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as revealed in present investigation. The favorable effects exerted were demonstrated both by histological and biochemical changes and were related with a progress in the colonic oxidative status.

  12. Anti-Bladder-Tumor Effect of Baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Its Application In Vivo

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    Jin-Yi Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some phytochemicals with the characteristics of cytotoxicity and/or antimetastasis have generated intense interest among the anticancer studies. In this study, a natural flavonoid baicalein was evaluated in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Baicalein inhibits 5637 cell proliferation. It arrests cells in G1 phase at 100 μM and in S phase below 75 μM. The protein expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 is reduced by baicalein. Baicalein-induced p-ERK plays a minor role in cyclin B1 reduction. Baicalein-inhibited p65NF-κB results in reduction of cell growth. Baicalein-induced pGSK(ser9 has a little effect in increasing cyclin B1/D1 expression instead. The translation inhibitor cycloheximide blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin B1, suggesting that the reduction is caused by protein synthesis inhibition. On the other hand, neither cycloheximide nor proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin D1, suggesting that baicalein reduces cyclin D1 through protein synthesis inhibition and proteasomal degradation activation. In addition, baicalein also inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity. In mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, baicalein slightly reduces tumor size but with some hepatic toxicity. In summary, these results demonstrate the anti-bladder-tumor properties of the natural compound baicalein which shows a slight anti-bladder-tumor effect in vivo.

  13. Effect of three different anti-mycotoxin additives on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin B1

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    AA Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of filamentous fungi on food often causes, aside from its deterioration, the mycotoxin production which determines economic losses in poultry industry, such as decreased productivity and injuries on poultry's carcass. Adsorbents based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contain esterified glucomannan, are an alternative to reduce the mycotoxins bioavailability. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo the performance of new three anti-mycotoxin additives (AMA based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The adsorption process was quantified in vitro, and the data obtained when plotted with Hill's equation indicated a cooperative process. Then, the three different AMA were tested for its ability to reduce the effects of aflatoxins in the diet of growing broiler chickens. The addition of 1 mg kg-1 aflatoxin B1 to the diets of broilers caused a negative change on the performance parameters besides increasing liver weight, fatty degeneration and liver necrosis. The addition of two different kinds of AMA (0.2% could reverse such effects. In conclusion, AMA 1 and 2 are additives with good potential for application on animal production. The AMA 3 ingredients must be re-tested alone for its adsorption capacity. These are the first data reported from Brazil anti-mycotoxin additives with preliminary isothermal analysis. Since beneficial characteristics of S. cerevisiae cell wall in animal industry are strain dependent, this study suggests two new promising alternatives to ameliorate mycotoxin problem.

  14. In Vitro Anti-irradiation Effects of a Polypeptide from Chlamys Farreri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liang; Yin Guan; Haiping Zhang; Yantao Han; Yuejun Wang; Chunbo Wang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the anti-irradiation effects of a polypeptide from Chlamys farreri(PCF) on γ-ray induced damage to mouse thymocytes.METHODS Thymocytes were randomly divided into 6 groups including an untreated control, a model group, groups treated with 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg PCF/ml and a 0.1% vitamin C group. Cell viability, morphology, nucleic acid and enzymatic changes of the cells 3 h after 3 Gy γ-ray irradiation at a dose rate of 0.6 Gy/min were determined.RESULTS γ-Ray irradiation decreased the cell viability and SOD activity and increased MDA levels and the apoptotic number of cells. PCF increased cell viability and SOD activity and decreased MDA levels and the apoptotic number of the cells in a dose-dependant manner.CONCLUSION PCF pretreatment can attenuate cytotoxicity, inhibit apoptosis, reduce the level of MDA and maintainthe activity of SOD.Therefore PCF has anti-irradiation effects on γ-ray induced damage of mouse thymocytes.

  15. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Balance in Major Depression: Effect of Sertraline Therapy

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    Ali Sengul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific associations between antidepressant treatment and alterations in the levels of cytokines remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β1, and MCP-1 in major depression and to investigate the effects of sertraline therapy. Cytokine and chemokine levels were measured at the time of admission and 8 weeks after sertraline treatment. Our results suggest that the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-α and MCP-1 were significantly higher, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and TGF-β1 were significantly lower in patients with major depression than those of healthy controls. It seems likely that the sertraline therapy might have exerted immunomodulatory effects through a decrease in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and TGF-β1. In conclusion, our results indicate that Th1-, Th2-, and Th3-type cytokines are altered in the depressed patients and some of them might have been corrected by sertraline treatment.

  16. Synthesis, estrogenic activity, and anti-osteoporosis effects in ovariectomized rats of resveratrol oligomer derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Jun; Qin, Bo-Yin; Zhong, Chen; Chu, Zhi-Bo; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Wen-Jiang; Sun, Xun

    2015-09-18

    Three series of resveratrol oligomer derivatives were synthesized, including the indenone-type, indene-type and octahydropentalene-type derivatives, among which ten derivatives were novel compounds. Compounds 2, 14f, and 4d were confirmed as ERβ agonists by yeast two-hybrid assay, and compound 2 (isopaucifloral F) was further chosen to evaluate its anti-osteoporosis activity in vivo. Compared with the sham-operated and the positive control groups, isopaucifloral F (10 μg/kg) showed a notable anti-osteoporosis effect in the ovariectomized (OVX) female rats based on a micro-CT analysis and the following measurements: bone mineral density, bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation/spacing, and the serum biochemical parameters. LD50 of isopaucifloral F was found to be greater than 5 mg/kg and its effective dose (ED) was found to be about 10 μg/kg. Therefore, isopaucifloral F may be a promising lead compound for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  17. Anti-dermatitis, anxiolytic and analgesic effects of Rhazya stricta from Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammed, Shafi; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Jan, Syed Umer; Qureshi, Zia-Ul-Rehaman

    2014-05-01

    Current study was carried out on Rhazya stricta. Plant material was collected from Jhalmagsi Dist. Balochistan, Pakistan. Methanolic extract of Rhazya stricta was tested for anti-dermatitis, analgesic, anxiolytic effects, insecticidal activity and Brine shrimp Bioassay. Crude extract showed significant anti-dermatitis activity, as the results of intensity score showed mild Excoriation or erosion, moderate Edema or populations and absence of Erythema or hemorrhage, Scratching time was decreased to 1.45 and histological observations of mice treated with crude extract showed mild changes and few inflammatory cells in several microscopic fields. The results of analgesic activity were significant and the percentage inhibition of writhes were 73.54% and 69.38% at 300mg/kg and 500mg/kg respectively. The overall response of crude extract in anxiolytic activities were depressive and crude extract showed sedative effects. In Brine shrimp (Artemsia salina) lethality bioassay crude extract showed dose depended significant activity, and showed positive lethality with LD(50) 3.3004μg/ml. Insecticidal activity was positive against Callosbruchus analis, the percent mortality was 40%.

  18. Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riina A Kekkonen; Riitta Korpela; Netta Lummela; Heli Karjalainen; Sinikka Latvala; Soile Tynkkynen; Salme Jarvenpaa; Hannu Kautiainen; Ilkka Julkunen; Heikki Vapaatalo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of three potentially anti-inflammatory probiotic bacteria from three different genera on immune variables in healthy adults in a clinical setting based on previous in vitro characterization of cytokine responses.METHODS: A total of 62 volunteers participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention study. The volunteers were randomized to receive a milk-based drink containing either Lactobadllus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bbl2 (Bbl2), or Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS (PJS) or a placebo drink for 3 wk. Venous blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline and on d 1, 7 and 21. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and at the end of intervention.RESULTS: The serum hsCRP expressed as the median AUCo-21 (minus baseline) was 0.018 mg/L in the placebo group, -0.240 mg/L in the LGG group, 0.090 mg/L in the Bbl2 group and -0.085 mg/L in the PJS group (P = 0.014). In vitro production of TNF-a from in vitro cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was significantly lower in subjects receiving LGG vs placebo. IL-2 production from PBMC in the Bbl2 group was significantly lower compared with the other groups.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, probiotic bacteria have strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults.

  19. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer's solution for anti-tumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-08

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer's solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer's lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer's lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  20. Meta-tyrosine: A powerful anti-metastatic factor with undetectable toxic-side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Machuca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant tumor resistance (CR is a phenomenon in which a tumor-bearing host is resistant to the growth of secondary tumor implants and metastasis. While former studies have indicated that T-cell dependent processes mediate CR in hosts bearing immunogenic small tumors, the most universal manifestation of CR induced by immunogenic and non-immunogenic large tumors had been associated with an antitumor serum factor that remained an enigma for many years. In a recent paper, we identified that elusive factor(s as an equi-molar mixture of meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine, two isomers of tyrosine that are not present in normal proteins and that proved to be responsible for 90% and 10%, respectively, of the total serum anti-tumor activity. In this work, we have extended our previous findings demonstrating that a periodic intravenous administration of meta-tyrosine induced a dramatic reduction of lung and hepatic metastases generated in mice bearing two different metastatic murine tumors and decreased the rate of death from 100% up to 25% in tumor-excised mice that already exhibited established metastases at the time of surgery. These anti-metastatic effects were achieved even at very low concentrations and without displaying any detectable toxic-side effects, suggesting that the use of meta-tyrosine may help to develop new and less harmful means of managing malignant diseases, especially those aimed to control the growth of metastases that is the most serious problem in cancer pathology.

  1. Effectiveness of combined laser photocoagulation therapy with intravitreal anti -VEGF in Retinal arterial macroaneurysms: case report

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    Fernanda Pacella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal arterial macroaneurysms (RAM is a pathological dilatation of retinal arterial vessel. Argon laser photocoagulation has been for a long time the gold standard of many vascular diseases of the retina such as macroaneurysm. From this work emerges how the introduction of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapies have enhanced the 'effectiveness of the combination of argon laser photocoagulation in cases of persistent retinal edema, we present the case of a retinal macroaneurysm with macular hemorrhage focus and oedema in a patient with a history of systemic arterial hypertension. Methods: A 77 year-old woman patient reported sudden decline in visual acuity in the left eye; the best corrected visual acuity (BCVAwas 1/10 in left eye. Fluorescein angiography (FAG resulted in diagnosis of Macroaneurysm at the posterior pole with macular hemorrhage focus and oedema. The patient was treated with laser treatment in the left eye; after 30 days, the visual acuity was 1/50 and at optical coherence tomography (OCT the retinal profile was significantly altered. After 30 days, a single intravitreal ranibizumab injection was performed and, after 7 days, visual acuity was 1/10. After 24 months from ranibizumab-based therapy the final visual acuity was 10/10 and OCT examination revealed a normal retinal profile. Conclusion: In this case report the association of argon laser photocoagulation with intravitreal anti-VEGF injection has been proven to be effective and safe in case of persistent retinal oedema.

  2. A novel compound isolated from Sclerochloa dura has anti-inflammatory effects

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    Bukhari Syed Majid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of PLA2 by means of pro-inflammatory cytokines results in the subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA and generates eicosanoids, which further propagate inflammation. By 6the cyclooxygenases (COX1/2 responsible for the enzymatic conversion of AA to eicosanoids, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective in relieving the pain and discomfort of inflammation. By using AA release assay as a guide for biological and anti-inflammatory activity, novel compound 1-O-(3-O-linolenoyl-6-deoxy-6-sulfo-α-D-glucopyranosyl-glycerol (1 together with five known compounds isovitexin, byzantionoside B, tricin 4’-O-(erythro-β-guaiacylglyceryl ether 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, 1-O-feruloyl glycerol and tricin 7-glucoside were isolated from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Sclerochloa dura using LC techniques (Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, preparative HPLC and semi-preparative HPLC. All isolated compounds were identified using spectroscopic NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry. Novel compound (1 was found to be an effective inhibitor of AA release with an IC50 value of 0.09 ± 0.03 mg mL-1.

  3. Rotating systems, universal features in dragging and anti-dragging effects, and bounds onto angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Karkowski, Janusz; Malec, Edward; Pirog, Michal; Xie, Naqing

    2016-01-01

    We consider stationary, axially symmetric toroids rotating around spinless black holes, assuming the general-relativistic Keplerian rotation law, in the first post-Newtonian approximation. Numerical investigation shows that the angular momentum accumulates almost exclusively within toroids. It appears that various types of dragging (anti-dragging) effects are positively correlated with the ratio $M_\\mathrm{D}/m$ ($M_\\mathrm{D}$ is the mass of a toroid and $m$ is the mass of the black hole) - moreover, their maxima are proportional to $M_\\mathrm{D}/m$. The horizontal sizes of investigated toroids range from c. 50 to c. 450 of Schwarzschild radii $R_\\mathrm{S}$ of the central black hole; their mass $M_\\mathrm{D} \\in (10^{-4}m, 40m)$ and the radial size of the system is c. 500 $R_\\mathrm{S}$. We found that the relative strength of various dragging (anti-dragging) effects does not change with the mass ratio, but it depends on the size of toroids. Several isoperimetric inequalities involving angular momentum are s...

  4. Anti-hyperplasia effects of Rosa rugosa polyphenols in rats with hyperplasia of mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Jingjing; Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping; Yang, Chuhao

    2015-03-01

    Rosa rugosa (Thunb.) is used in Chinese traditional medicine with the functions of promoting blood circulation, relieving the depressed liver and attenuating breast disorders. This study was to investigate the anti-hyperplasia effects of the polyphenols-rich fraction from R. rugosa (FRR) in rat. Rat model of hyperplasia of mammary gland (HMG) was induced by intramuscularly injected with estrogen (0.5mg/kg/d) for 25 days, and followed with progestogen (5mg/kg/d) for another 5 days. Meanwhile, FRR was orally given for 30 days. Then, the levels of estradiol and oxidative stress were assessed. The mammary expressions of AKT and JNK were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The expressions of NFκB-p65, COX-2 and VEGF were measured by immunohistochemical analysis. The whole results indicated that FRR could exert anti-hyperplasia effects in rat via modulating the mammary expression of JNK and AKT, as well as alleviating the NFκB related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Total Isoflavones from Pueraria lobata on Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

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    In-Ho Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Puerariae radix, the dried root of Pueraria lobata Ohwi, is one of earliest and most important edible crude herbs used for various medical purposes in Oriental medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Total Isoflavones from P. lobata (TIPL, which contains the unique isoflavone puerarin, in ischemia in vivo models. Oral administration of TIPL (100 mg/kg reduced the brain infarct volume and attenuated ischemia-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 up-regulation at 2 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo in rats. Moreover, TIPL reduced activation of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP and CD11b antibody (OX-42 at 7 days after MCAo in hippocampal CA1 region. These results show that TIPL can protect the brain from ischemic damage after MCAo. Regarding the immunohistochemical study, the effects of TIPL may be attributable to its anti-inflammatory properties by the inhibition of COX-2 expression, astrocyte expression, and microglia.

  6. ANTI-PROLIFERATION EFFECT OF ORIDONIN ON HL-60 CELLS AND ITS MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-jun Liu; Xin-yao Wu; Hui-ling Lu; Xiang-lin Pan; Jun Peng; Ren-wei Huang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-proliferation effect of oridonin on leukemic HL-60 cells and its mechanism.Methods HL-60 cells in vitro in culture medium were given different concentrations oforidonin. The inhibitory rate of cells were measured by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay, cell apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry (FCM),morphology of cell apoptosis was observed by hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining, and the activity of telomerase was detected using telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) PCR-ELISA before and after apoptosis occurred.Results Oridonin could decrease telomerase activity, inhibit growth of HL-60 cells, and cause apoptosis significantly.The suppression was both in time- and dose-dependent manner. Marked morphological changes of cell apoptosis including condensation of chromatin and nuclear fragmentation were observed clearly by hoechst 33258 fluorescence staining especially after cells were treated 48-60 hours by oridonin.Conclusions Oridonin has apparent anti-proliferation and apoptotic effects on HL-60 cells in vitro, decreasing telomerase activity of HL-60 cells may be one of its most important mechanisms. These results will provide strong laboratory evidence of oridonin for clinical treatment of acute leukemia.

  7. Children's Risky Play from an Evolutionary Perspective: The Anti-Phobic Effects of Thrilling Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.

  8. Anti-angiogenesis Effect on Glioma of Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Vaccine Strain with flk-1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯珂珂; 赵洪洋; 陈剑; 姚东晓; 姜小兵; 周伟

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the anti-vasculature effects and the anti-glioma effects of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing VEGFR2 (flk-1) gene, plasmid pcDNA3. 1-flk1 was constructed and electro-transfected into live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207. Mouse models of intracranial Gl261 glioblastoma were treated with an orally administered attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing flk-1 gene. The survival period was recorded and vessel density was observed by immunofluorescence. CTLs activity was measured by MTT assay.Our results showed that attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing flk-1 gene could significantly inhibit glioblastoma growth, reduce vessel density, prolong the survival period and improve the survival rate in these mice. The flk-1 specific CTLs activity was increased obviously after the vaccination. Our study showed that attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing flk-1 gene could break peripheral immune tolerance a in glioma gainst this self-antigen and kill endothelial cells by the orally administered vaccine and can be used for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes.

  9. Fractionation and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-enriched extracts from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. The present work focused on fractionation of ethanol extract of apple pomace using macroporous absorbent resin chromatography and HPLC analysis of all fractions recovered from polyphenol-enriched extract and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharides (LPS -induced mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Six fractions API-VI were achieved through fractionation eluting with aqueous alcohol. HPLC analysis indicated that APIII eluted by 40% ethanol had the highest content of total phenolics, which was 148.1 ± 3.11 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry apple pomace. Anti-inflammatory assays showed that APIII had the strongest activity against COX-2 expression at 5 ?g mL-1 and procyanidin B2 and quercetin exhibited positive correlation with their anti-inflammatory effects. Our data suggested that phenolics could be prepared from apple pomace and applied in the management of inflammatory diseases.

  10. Inhibition of mitochondria responsible for the anti-apoptotic effects of melatonin during ischemia-reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yi-xiang; ZHANG Sheng-hui; WANG Xi-ming; WU Jian-bo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a possible mechanism responsible for anti-apoptotic effects of melatonin and provide theoretical evidences for clinical therapy. Methods: Ischemia-reperfusion mediated neuronal cell injury model was constructed in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) by deprivation of glucose, serum and oxygen in media. After ischemia, melatonin was added to the test groups to reach differential concentration during reperfusion. DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential,mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity were observed after subjecting cerebellar granule neurons to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Results: The results showed that OGD induced typical cell apoptosis change, DNA ladder and apoptosis-related alterations in mitochondrial functions including depression of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (its maximal protection ratio was 73.26%) and release of cytochrome c (its maximal inhibition ratio was 42.52%) and the subsequent activation of caspase-3 (its maximal protection ratio was 59.32%) in cytoplasm. Melatonin reduced DNA damage and inhibited release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Melatonin can strongly prevent the OGD-induced loss of the mitochondria membrane potential. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the direct inhibition of mitochondrial pathway might essentially contribute to its anti-apoptotic effects in neuronal ischemia-reperfusion.

  11. Effect of anti-inflamentation extracts from Korean traditional medicinal herb

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    Zhang Xiaowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five Mix Plant Extracts according to different extraction solvents were assessed for its cell viability and anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro methods. The single plant extract was extracted with 70% ethanol(EtOH and the mix plants(C.kousa, R.multiflora, T.nucifera, M.basjoo and S.glabra were extracted with EtOH 30%, 70%; Butylene Glycol(BG 30%, 70%; Propylene Glycol(PG 30%, 70%; Distilled Water(D.W. Cell viability was measured using the Micro culture tetrazolium (MTT assay method and Human fibroblast cells, CCD 1102 KERTr were used. The plant extracts with the maximum concentration that none toxic to the cells were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using lipoxygenase inhibition assay method. A dose response curve was plotted to determine the IC50 values. Results showed that, at the 5 kinds of single plant extracts by 70% EtOH extraction solvent, it showed the IC50 was 280ug/ml of S1, 370ug/ml of S2, 380ug/ml of S3, 170ug/ml of S4 and 190ug/ml of S5. At the mix plant extracts by 7 kinds of extraction solvents (70%, 30% EtOH; 70%, 30% BG; 70%, 30% PG; D.W, it showed the IC50 was 140ug/ml of M E70, 140ug/ml of M E30, 120ug/ml of M BG70, 110ug/ml of M BG30, 120ug/ml of M PG70, 136ug/ml of M PG30 and 120ug/ml of M D.W. From the results, it is concluded that when these five plants mixed before extraction, it will extract more active ingredients with anti-inflammatory effects. Further study we will analyzing plants effective single compound using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC profiling and progressing the experiments in vivo.

  12. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of anti-platelet agent-clopidogrel in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H Patel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that clopidogrel may be effective in treatment of Crohn′s disease and ulcerative colitis. Platelet inhibition may be one of the mechanism for effectiveness of clopidogrel in the treatment of IBD.

  13. Investigating anti-parasitic effects of plant secondary metabolites: effects on swine nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Fryganas, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Organic and outdoor animal production presents challenges to animal health and productivity. In organic pig production, animals must have access to outdoor pastures which increases exposure to pathogens such as gastrointestinal nematodes. Moreover, the routine use of synthetic anti-parasitic drugs....... Electron microscopy confirmed direct structural damage in nematodes exposed to the purified molecules. Therefore, plants rich in PSM such as CT and SL show promise as natural anthelmintics against two highly prevalent swine parasites. Experiments to determine in vivo efficacy and the mechanisms...

  14. Conventional and anti-erosion fluoride toothpastes: effect on enamel erosion and erosion-abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganss, C; Lussi, A; Grunau, O; Klimek, J; Schlueter, N

    2011-01-01

    New toothpastes with anti-erosion claims are marketed, but little is known about their effectiveness. This study investigates these products in comparison with various conventional NaF toothpastes and tin-containing products with respect to their erosion protection/abrasion prevention properties. In experiment 1, samples were demineralised (10 days, 6 × 2 min/day; citric acid, pH 2.4), exposed to toothpaste slurries (2 × 2 min/day) and intermittently stored in a mineral salt solution. In experiment 2, samples were additionally brushed for 15 s during the slurry immersion time. Study products were 8 conventional NaF toothpastes (1,400-1,490 ppm F), 4 formulations with anti-erosion claims (2 F toothpastes: NaF + KNO(3) and NaF + hydroxyapatite; and 2 F-free toothpastes: zinc-carbonate-hydroxyapatite, and chitosan) and 2 Sn-containing products (toothpaste: 3,436 ppm Sn, 1,450 ppm F as SnF(2)/NaF; gel: 970 ppm F, 3,030 ppm Sn as SnF(2)). A mouth rinse (500 ppm F as AmF/NaF, 800 ppm Sn as SnCl(2)) was the positive control. Tissue loss was quantified profilometrically. In experiment 1, most NaF toothpastes and 1 F-free formulation reduced tissue loss significantly (between 19 and 42%); the Sn-containing formulations were the most effective (toothpaste and gel 55 and 78% reduction, respectively). In experiment 2, only 4 NaF toothpastes revealed significant effects compared to the F-free control (reduction between 29 and 37%); the F-free special preparations and the Sn toothpaste had no significant effect. The Sn gel (reduction 75%) revealed the best result. Conventional NaF toothpastes reduced the erosive tissue loss, but had limited efficacy regarding the prevention of brushing abrasion. The special formulations were not superior, or were even less effective.

  15. The combination of vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids has an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect on microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtys, E; Eisel, U L M; Verkuyl, J M; Broersen, L M; Dierckx, R A J O; de Vries, E F J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common phenomenon in the pathology of many brain diseases. In this paper we explore whether selected vitamins and fatty acids known to modulate inflammation exert an effect on microglia, the key cell type involved in neuroinflammation. Previously these nutrients have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory properties acting on specific inflammatory pathways. We hypothesized that combining nutrients acting on converging anti-inflammatory pathways may lead to enhanced anti-inflammatory properties as compared to the action of a single nutrient. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of combinations of nutrients based on the ability to inhibit the LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 from BV-2 cells. Results show that omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A and D can individually reduce the LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines by BV-2 cells. Moreover, we show that vitamins A, D and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic) at concentrations where they individually had little effect, significantly reduced the secretion of the inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, when they were combined. The conclusion of this study is that combining different nutrients acting on convergent anti-inflammatory pathways may result in an increased anti-inflammatory efficacy.

  16. Rheum turkestanicum rhizomes possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in experimental diabetes

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    Mousa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rheum turkestanicum (R. turkestanicum rhizomes have been used in Iranain traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities of R. turkestanicum rhizome extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats received the decoction extract of R. turkestanicum rhizomes at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg daily by gavage for 3 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were measured in all groups before diabetes induction and at the end of week 3. Oxidative stress was evaluated in the liver by measurement of malondialdehyde levels and total thiol concentration at the end of the experiment.Results: A significant increase in serum glucose and triglyceride levels was observed in diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and decreased total thiol concentration in the liver after 3 weeks. Treatment of diabetic rats with R. turkestanicum rhizome extract at the doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg over a 3-week period did not change serum glucose, hepatic malondialdehyde and total thiol levels in diabetic rats. However, treatment with R. turkestanicum extract significantly decreased serum triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner at the end of the experiment.Conclusion: R. turkestanicum rhizome extract possess anti-hypertriglyceridemic, but not hypoglycemic or hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. Therefore, R. turkestanicum rhizome should be consumed with more caution by diabetic patients.

  17. Antinociceptive, Anti-inflammatory Effects and Safety of Ziziphus mistol Fruits

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    M. A. Reynoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mistol Griseb. (Rhamnaceae, popularly known as “mistol,” is widely distributed throughout Perú, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. Its fruit is consumed in different forms in several argentinean communities and used against biliary colic, dysentery, cold stomach and diseases of the respiratory system characterized by pain and inflammation. The present study was carried out to investigate the medicinal properties and safety of Ziziphus mistol (mistol fruits ethanol and aqueous extracts and arrope. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the formalin, acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick tests in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects were determined through carrageenan induced edema test and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation, in rats. The safety was evaluated with test of acute toxicity (48 hours and sub-chronic toxicity (91 days. All extracts (1,000 mg/kg b.w. showed significant inhibition (P <0.05 in the three model of pain experimentally induced in comparison to control. In a combination test using naloxone, diminished analgesic activity of aqueous extract and arrope were observed, indicating that their antinociceptive activity is connected with the opioid receptors. At dose 1000 mg/kg bw, the aqueous extract and arrope showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than the ethanol extract, in carrageenan and cotton pellet granuloma model used. In the acute toxicity study, a single dose of 4000 and 8000 mg/kg b.w., produced no mortality and no clinical signs of disease were observed after 48 hours. In the sub-chronic toxicity study the extracts no caused significant visible signs of toxicity, nor mortality for 91 consecutive days of treatment. Extracts and arrope of Z. mistol fruits could be good source of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory agents because of its good activity and safety.

  18. Chemical composition and anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaf and whole-plant samples of diploid and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Huang, Haiqiu; Zhao, Yang; Shi, Haiming; Wang, Shaoke; Wang, Thomas T Y; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Leaf and whole-plant samples of the diploid and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) were investigated and compared for their chemical compositions, and their potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The highest levels of total flavonoids and phenolics were observed in the diploid leaf botanical (2L3) at 36.84mg rutin equiv/g and 41.15mg gallic acid equiv/g, respectively. The diploid leaf sample (2L2) had the highest amount of rutin and quercetin contents of 77.7μmol quercetin equiv/g. The tetraploid whole-plant botanical (4L3) had the highest total saponin content of 227.1mg gypenoside equiv/g. Extracts from all tested GP samples showed time- and dose-dependent antiproliferative effects in HT-29 cells, and the diploid leaf samples had the overall highest inhibitory activity. These extracts had different order of antiproliferative properties in the LNCaP cells, suggesting the potential selective inhibition of GP extracts against different types of cancer cells and the effect of the cell model in screening and evaluation of antiproliferative components. In addition, the diploid leaf extracts showed the strongest inhibitory effects on the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2 mRNA at final concentrations of 0.2 and 1mg botanical equiv/ml media. The results from this study will be used to develop new nutraceutical products from G. pentaphyllum.

  19. Anti-tumor effects of brucine immuno-nanoparticles on hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Qin JM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jian-Min Qin1, Pei-Hao Yin1, Qi Li1, Zhong-Qiu Sa1, Xia Sheng1, Lin Yang1, Tao Huang1, Min Zhang1, Ke-Pan Gao2, Qing-Hua Chen2, Jing-Wei Ma3, He-Bai Shen31Department of General Surgery, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2National Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center; Shanghai Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, 3Department of Physical Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Hepatocellular carcinoma is difficult to diagnose early, and most patients are already in the late stages of the disease when they are admitted to hospital. The total 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. Recent studies have showed that brucine has a good anti-tumor effect, but high toxicity, poor water solubility, short half-life, narrow therapeutic window, and a toxic dose that is close to the therapeutic dose, which all limit its clinical application. This study evaluated the effects of brucine immuno-nanoparticles (BIN on hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and methods: Anionic polymerization, chemical modification technology, and phacoemulsification technology were used to prepare a carboxylated polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid copolymer carrier material. Chemical coupling technology was utilized to develop anti-human AFP McAb-polyethylene glycol-polylactic acid copolymer BIN. The size, shape, zeta potential, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and release of these immune-nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The targeting, and growth, invasion, and metastasis inhibitory effects of this treatment on liver cancer SMMC-7721 cells were tested.Results: BIN were of uniform size with an average particle size of 249 ± 77 nm and zeta potential of -18.7 ± 4.19 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 76.0% ± 2.3% and the drug load was 5.6% ± 0.2%. Complete uptake and even distribution around the liver cancer cell membrane were observed.Conclusion: BIN had even size distribution, was

  20. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of 5-fluorouracil encapsulated by galactosylceramide liposormes in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Jin; Jun Li; Long-Fu Rong; Yuan-Hai Li; Lin Guo; Shu-Yun Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of 5fluorouracil (5-Fu) encapsulated by galactosylceramide liposomes (5-Fu-GCL)in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Tumor-bearing animal model and HepA cell line were respectively adopted to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of 5-Fu-GCL in vivo and in vitro. Tumor cell growth inhibition effects of 5-Fu-GCL in vitro were assessed bycell viability assay and MTT assay. In vivo experiment, the inhibitory effects on tumor growth were evaluated by tumor inhibition rate and animal survival days. High performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the concentration-time course of 5-Fu-GCL in intracellular fluidin vitro and the distribution of 5-Fu-GCL in liver tumor tissues in vivo. Apoptosis and cell cycle of tumor cells were demonstrated by flow cytometry.RESULTS: In vitro experiment, 5-Fu-GCL (6.25-100 μmol/L) and free 5-Fu significantly inhibited HepA cell growth. Furthermore, IC50 of 5-Fu-GCL (34.5 μmol/L) was lower than that of free 5-Fu (51.2 μrnol/L). In vivo experiment, 5-Fu-GCL (20, 40, 80 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the tumor growth in HepA bearing mice model. Compared with free 5-Fu, the area under curve of 5-Fu-GCL in intracellular fluid increased 2.6 times. Similarly, the distribution of 5-Fu-GCL in liver tumor tissues was significantly higher than that of free 5-Fu. After being treated with 5-Fu-GCL, the apoptotic rate and the proportion of HepA cells in the S phase increased, while the proportion in the G0/G1 and G2/M phases decreased. CONCLUSION: 5-Fu-GCL appears to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects and its drug action is better than free 5-Fu. Its mechanism is partly related to increased drug concentrations in intracellular fluid and liver tumor tissues, enhanced tumor cell apoptotic rate and arrest of cell cycle in S phase.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity potential effect of Moringa oleifera in the experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateheya Mohamed Metwally

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: It is reasonable to assume that the anti-obesity, anti-atherogenic and anti-diabetic properties of M. oleifera are mechanistically achieved via working directly on the adipokines of the visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, M. oleifera may be a good therapeutic candidate for the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Administration of a CXCL12 Analog in Endotoxemia Is Associated with Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Oxidative and Cytoprotective Effects In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semjon Seemann

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a multifunctional receptor which is activated by its natural ligand C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12. As CXCR4 is part of the lipopolysaccharide sensing complex and CXCL12 analogs are not well characterized in inflammation, we aimed to uncover the systemic effects of a CXCL12 analog in severe systemic inflammation and to evaluate its impact on endotoxin induced organ damages by using a sublethal LPS dose.The plasma stable CXCL12 analog CTCE-0214D was synthesized and administered subcutaneously shortly before LPS treatment. After 24 hours, mice were sacrificed and blood was obtained for TNF alpha, IFN gamma and blood glucose evaluation. Oxidative stress in the liver and spleen was assessed and liver biotransformation capacity was determined. Finally, CXCR4, CXCL12 and TLR4 expression patterns in liver, spleen and thymus tissue as well as the presence of different markers for apoptosis and oxidative stress were determined by means of immunohistochemistry.CTCE-0214D distinctly reduced the LPS mediated effects on TNF alpha, IFN gamma, ALAT and blood glucose levels. It attenuated oxidative stress in the liver and spleen tissue and enhanced liver biotransformation capacity unambiguously. Furthermore, in all three organs investigated, CTCE-0214D diminished the LPS induced expression of CXCR4, CXCL12, TLR4, NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3 and gp91 phox, whereas heme oxygenase 1 expression and activity was induced above average. Additionally, TUNEL staining revealed anti-apoptotic effects of CTCE-0214D.In summary, CTCE-0214D displayed anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and cytoprotective features. It attenuated reactive oxygen species, induced heme oxygenase 1 activity and mitigated apoptosis. Thus, the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis seems to be a promising target in the treatment of acute systemic inflammation, especially when accompanied by a hepatic dysfunction and an excessive production of free radicals.

  3. New diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum coreanum and their anti-arrhythmic effects on cardiac sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bei-Ni; Jin, Si-Si; Wang, Hao; Tang, Qing-Fa; Liu, Jing-Han; Li, Rui-Yang; Liang, Jing-Yu; Tang, Yi-Qun; Yang, Chun-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Two new diterpenoid alkaloids, Guan-Fu base J (GFJ, 1) and Guan-Fu base N (GFN, 2) along with nineteen known alkaloids (3-21) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum coreanum (Lèvl.) Rapaics, which is the raw material of a new approval anti-arrhythmia drug "Acehytisine Hydrochloride". The structures of isolated compounds were established by means of 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic and chemical methods. All isolates obtained in the present study were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on blocking the ventricular specific sodium current using a whole-cell patch voltage-clamp technique. Among these 21 compounds, Guan-Fu base S (GFS, 3) showed the strongest inhibitory effect with an IC50 value of 3.48 μM, and only hetisine-type C20 diterpenoid alkaloids showed promising IC50 values for further development.

  4. The Reasearch on the Anti-Fatigue Effect of Whey Protein Powder in Basketball Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronghui, Sun

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of whey protein powder on hematological indexes of players majoring in physical education in the basketball training, the authors divided the players randomly into a control group and a nutrition group. Athletes complete the 30 minutes quantitative exercise using cycle ergometer respectively before the trial and after one month trial. Then we exsanguinated immediately after exercise, extracted heparin and measured hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume and other hematological indices. The results showed that after taking whey protein powder, the HB, RBC, HCT of nutrition group was significantly higher that the control group. This suggests that in high-intensity training, taking whey protein powder can cause changes of HB, RBC and HCT in human body, meanwhile MCV essentially the same. So whey protein powder can improve exercise capacity, and has anti-fatigue effect.

  5. Tensor coupling effects on spin symmetry in anti-Lambda spectrum of hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Chunyan; Meng, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The effects of $\\bar\\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\omega$-tensor coupling on the spin symmetry of $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ spectra in $\\bar{\\Lambda}$-nucleus systems have been studied with the relativistic mean-field theory. Taking $^{12}$C+$\\bar{\\Lambda}$ as an example, it is found that the tensor coupling enlarges the spin-orbit splittings of $\\bar\\Lambda$ by an order of magnitude although its effects on the wave functions of $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ are negligible. Similar conclusions has been observed in $\\bar{\\Lambda}$-nucleus of different mass regions, including $^{16}$O+$\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $^{40}$Ca+$\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and $^{208}$Pb+$\\bar{\\Lambda}$. It indicates that the spin symmetry in anti-lambda-nucleus systems is still good irrespective of the tensor coupling.

  6. The Significance of Anti Reflux Effect of Esophago -gastric Anastomosis with Mucosal Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱社祥; 杨殿才; 蔡辉华

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the preventive effect of reflux following esophago-gastric anastomosis with mucosal valve. Methods Retrospective analysis of 554 cases of esophageal or cardiac cancer treated in recent 10 years. Of them 207 cases of anastomosis 186 cases of tubular stepler and 161 cases of 1 layer anastomosis were fashioned with this method. The clinical results of these groups were compared. Results There were 51 reflux esophagitis cases found in 548 patients(9.3%). In group A 2 patients had this complication(0.48%). None had anastomotic leakage ,but only 1 patient had anastomotic stricture. The difference of the complications among the 3 groups were significant (P<0.01). Conclusions The results of the first group were better than those of the other two groups. It had less complications, and marked anti reflux effect. The life quality was also better. The technique is simple and easy to perform.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Agrimoniin-Enriched Fractions of Potentilla erecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hoffmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla erecta (PE is a small herbaceous plant with four yellow petals belonging to the Rosaceae family. The rhizome of PE has traditionally been used as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic and antihemorrhoidal remedy. PE contains up to 20% tannins and 5% ellagitannins, mainly agrimoniin. Agrimoniin is a hydrolyzable tannin that is a potent radical scavenger. In this study we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of four PE fractions with increasing amounts of agrimoniin obtained by Sephadex column separation. First, we analyzed in HaCaT keratinocytes the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB irradiation. As COX-2 catalyzes the metabolism of arachidonic acid to prostanoids such as PGE2, we also measured the PGE2 concentration in cell culture supernatants. PE inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression in HaCaT cells and dose-dependently reduced PGE2. The PE fraction with the highest agrimoniin amount (PE4 was the most effective in this experiment, whereas fraction PE1 containing mainly sugars had no effect. PE4 also dose dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR which plays a crucial role in UVB-mediated COX-2 upregulation. A placebo-controlled UV-erythema study with increasing concentrations of PE4 demonstrated a dose dependent inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation in vivo. Similarly, PE4 significantly reduced UVB-induced PGE2 production in suction blister fluid in vivo. In summary, PE fractions with a high agrimoniin content display anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo in models of UVB-induced inflammation.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Agrimoniin-Enriched Fractions of Potentilla erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Julia; Casetti, Federica; Bullerkotte, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Vagedes, Jan; Schempp, Christoph M; Wölfle, Ute

    2016-06-18

    Potentilla erecta (PE) is a small herbaceous plant with four yellow petals belonging to the Rosaceae family. The rhizome of PE has traditionally been used as an antidiarrheal, hemostatic and antihemorrhoidal remedy. PE contains up to 20% tannins and 5% ellagitannins, mainly agrimoniin. Agrimoniin is a hydrolyzable tannin that is a potent radical scavenger. In this study we tested the anti-inflammatory effect of four PE fractions with increasing amounts of agrimoniin obtained by Sephadex column separation. First, we analyzed in HaCaT keratinocytes the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation. As COX-2 catalyzes the metabolism of arachidonic acid to prostanoids such as PGE₂, we also measured the PGE₂ concentration in cell culture supernatants. PE inhibited UVB-induced COX-2 expression in HaCaT cells and dose-dependently reduced PGE₂. The PE fraction with the highest agrimoniin amount (PE4) was the most effective in this experiment, whereas fraction PE1 containing mainly sugars had no effect. PE4 also dose dependently inhibited the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which plays a crucial role in UVB-mediated COX-2 upregulation. A placebo-controlled UV-erythema study with increasing concentrations of PE4 demonstrated a dose dependent inhibition of UVB-induced inflammation in vivo. Similarly, PE4 significantly reduced UVB-induced PGE₂ production in suction blister fluid in vivo. In summary, PE fractions with a high agrimoniin content display anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo in models of UVB-induced inflammation.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of probiotic yogurt in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorea Baroja, M; Kirjavainen, P V; Hekmat, S; Reid, G

    2007-09-01

    Our aim was to assess anti-inflammatory effects on the peripheral blood of subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who consumed probiotic yogurt for 1 month. We studied 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects with IBD, 15 of whom had Crohn's disease and five with ulcerative colitis. All the subjects consumed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 supplemented yogurt for 30 days. The presence of putative regulatory T (T(reg)) cells (CD4(+) CD25(high)) and cytokines in T cells, monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) was determined by flow cytometry from peripheral blood before and after treatment, with or without ex vivo stimulation. Serum and faecal cytokine concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The proportion of CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells increased significantly (P = 0.007) in IBD patients, mean (95% confidence interval: CI) 0.84% (95% CI 0.55-1.12) before and 1.25% (95% CI 0.97-1.54) after treatment, but non-significantly in controls. The basal proportion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha(+)/interleukin (IL)-12(+) monocytes and myeloid DC decreased in both subject groups, but of stimulated cells only in IBD patients. Also serum IL-12 concentrations and proportions of IL-2(+) and CD69(+) T cells from stimulated cells decreased in IBD patients. The increase in CD4(+) CD25(high) T cells correlated with the decrease in the percentage of TNF-alpha- or IL-12-producing monocytes and DC. The effect of the probiotic yogurt was confirmed by a follow-up study in which subjects consumed the yogurt without the probiotic organisms. Probiotic yogurt intake was associated with significant anti-inflammatory effects that paralleled the expansion of peripheral pool of putative T(reg) cells in IBD patients and with few effects in controls.

  10. Anti-androgenic effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. against letrozole induced polycystic ovary using rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamata Jadhav; Sasikumar Menon; Sunita Shailajan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-androgenic properties of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (S. racemosa) in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a letrozole induced PCOS rat model. Methods: The testosterone levels were used to evaluate the anti-androgenic effect of S. racemosa in letrozole induced PCOS rats for 21 d. The low (250 mg/kg), mid (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of S. racemosa was given to the PCOS induced rats for 15 d post letrozole induction to determine the effective dose of S. racemosa in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated PCOS. The hormones such as estrogen and progesterone were also assayed along with testosterone to determine the fluctuations in sex steroid levels in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. Results: S. racemosa treatment significantly decreased testosterone levels which were found to be elevated in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. S. racemosa significantly restored other blood biochemical parameters such as estrogen, progesterone and cholesterol levels. It also restored the histology of ovarian tissue. The ovarian weights and uterine weights were also significantly recovered after the S. racemosa treatment. Conclusions: The mid dose (500 mg/kg) and high dose (1000 mg/kg) of S. racemosa were found to be effective in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. This effect of S. racemosa was found to be comparable with clomiphene citrate. Clomiphene citrate which was being used as the major medicine in the treatment of PCOS could now be replaced with S. racemosa in the management of PCOS.

  11. Synergistic anti-proliferative effects of gambogic acid with docetaxel in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines

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    Zou Zhengyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Background Gambogic acid has a marked anti-tumor effect for gastric and colorectal cancers in vitro and in vivo. However, recent investigations on gambogic acid have focused mainly on mono-drug therapy, and its potential role in cancer therapy has not been comprehensively illustrated. This study aimed to assess the interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel on human gastrointestinal cancer cells and to investigate the mechanism of gambogic acid plus docetaxel treatment-induced apoptotic cell death. Methods MTT assay was used to determine IC50 values in BGC-823, MKN-28, LOVO and SW-116 cells after gambogic acid and docetaxel administration. Median effect analysis was applied for determination of synergism and antagonism. Synergistic interaction between gambogic acid and docetaxel was evaluated using the combination index (CI method. Furthermore, cellular apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. Additionally, mRNA expression of drug-associated genes, i.e., β-tublin III and tau, and the apoptosis-related gene survivin, were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results Gambogic acid provided a synergistic effect on the cytotoxicity induced by docetaxel in all four cell lines. The combined application of gambogic acid and docetaxel enhanced apoptosis in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Moreover, gambogic acid markedly decreased the mRNA expression of docetaxel-related genes, including β-tubulin III, tau and survivin, in BGC-823 cells. Conclusions Gambogic acid plus docetaxel produced a synergistic anti-tumor effect in gastrointestinal cancer cells, suggesting that the drug combination may offer a novel treatment option for patients with gastric and colorectal cancers.

  12. Three-dimensional effects on cracked components under anti-plane loading

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    F. Berto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The existence of three-dimensional effects at cracks has been known for many years, but understanding has been limited, and for some situations still is. Understanding improved when the existence of corner point singularities and their implications became known. Increasingly powerful computers made it possible to investigate three-dimensional effects numerically in detail. Despite increased understanding, threedimensional effects are sometimes ignored in situations where they may be important. The purpose of the present investigation is to study by means of accurate 3D finite element (FE models a coupled fracture mode generated by anti-plane loading of a straight through-the-thickness crack in linear elastic plates. An extended version of the present work has recently been published in the literature. The results obtained from the highly accurate finite element analyses have improved understanding of the behaviour of through cracked components under anti-plane loading. The influence of plate bending is increasingly important as the thickness decreases. It appears that a new field parameter, probably a singularity, is needed to describe the stresses at the free surfaces. Discussion on whether KIII tends to zero or infinity as a corner point is approached is futile because KIII is meaningless at a corner point. The intensity of the local stress and strain state through the thickness of the cracked components has been evaluated by using the strain energy density (SED averaged over a control volume embracing the crack tip. The SED has been considered as a parameter able to control fracture in some previous contributions and can easily take into account also coupled three-dimensional effects. Calculation of the SED shows that the position of the maximum SED is independent of plate thickness. Both for thin plates and for thick ones the maximum SED is close to the lateral surface, where the maximum intensity of the coupled mode II takes place.

  13. Genomic and post-genomic effects of anti-glaucoma drugs preservatives in trabecular meshwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzotti, Alberto, E-mail: izzotti@unige.it [Mutagenesis Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino – IST, Genova (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna Tindara; Longobardi, Maria Grazia [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Saccà, Sergio Claudio [Ophthalmology Unit, IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genova (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Glaucoma drug preservatives induce DNA damage in trabecular meshwork cells. • Cellular alteration is related with the occurrence of activation of apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway. • Drug preservatives unable to induce cell damage are ineffective in killing bacteria. • Anti glaucoma drugs should be formulated as single-dose usage devoid of genotoxic preservatives. - Abstract: Oxidative stress plays an important role in glaucoma. Some preservatives of anti-glaucoma drugs, commonly used in glaucoma therapy, can prevent or induce oxidative stress in the trabecular meshwork. The aim of this study is to evaluate cellular and molecular damage induced in trabecular meshwork by preservatives contained in anti-glaucoma drugs. Cell viability (MTT test), DNA fragmentation (Comet test), oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-dG), and gene expression (cDNA microarray) have been evaluated in trabecular meshwork specimens and in human trabecular meshwork cells treated with benzalkonium chloride, polyQuad, purite, and sofzia-like mixture. Moreover, antimicrobial effectiveness and safety of preservative contents in drugs was tested. In ex vivo experiments, benzalkonium chloride and polyQuad induced high level of DNA damage in trabecular meshwork specimens, while the effect of purite and sofzia were more attenuated. The level of DNA fragmentation induced by benzalkonium chloride was 2.4-fold higher in subjects older than 50 years than in younger subjects. Benzalkonium chloride, and polyQuad significantly increased oxidative DNA damage as compared to sham-treated specimens. Gene expression was altered by benzalkonium chloride, polyQuad, and purite but not by sofzia. In in vitro experiments, benzalkonium chloride and polyQuad dramatically decreased trabecular meshwork cell viability, increased DNA fragmentation, and altered gene expression. A lesser effect was also exerted by purite and sofzia. Genes targeted by these alterations included Fas and effector caspase-3

  14. Anti-estrogenic effect of semicarbazide in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Zhang, Xiaona; Guo, Linlin; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-01-01

    Semicarbazide (SMC), a member of the hydrazine family, has various toxic effects and has been detected in organisms, aquatic environments, and food. SMC exposure inhibited the transcription of hepatic vitellogenin and estrogen receptors in female zebrafish (Danio rerio), suggesting that it had anti-estrogenic properties. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these, we exposed female zebrafish to SMC and used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to examine plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) levels. Gonad histology was analyzed and the mRNA expression of genes involved in the reproductive axis, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, and leptin was quantified by real-time PCR. Zebrafish were exposed to 1, 10, 100, or 1000μg/L SMC in a semi-static system for 96hours or 28 days. Plasma E2 levels were significantly decreased and ovarian maturation was inhibited by SMC, suggesting that its anti-estrogenic effect was exerted by reducing endogenous E2 levels. This was likely due to the SMC-mediated inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A mRNA levels, because this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of T to E2 in the gonads. In addition, down-regulation of the mRNA expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, CYP17, and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was observed; this was predicted to reduce T concentrations and further contribute to the reduced E2 levels. SMC-induced changes in the expression of these steroidogenic genes correlated with decreased transcription of gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and significantly elevated leptin expression. Furthermore, SMC also altered expression of the key enzyme in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis, GABA receptors, and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thus affecting gonadotropin expression. Overall, SMC acted at multiple sites related to reproduction to reduce plasma E2 levels, consequently

  15. Anti-ocular-inflammatory Effects of Salvia hypoleuca Extract on Rat Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

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    Jasem Estakhr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia hypoleuca is used in Iranian traditional medicine as an agent for treatment of some diseases and troubles. In this study, attention was focused on the antioxidant effect of Salvia hypoleuca. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Salvia hypoleuca extract on Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis (EIU in rats. In addition, the endotoxin-induced expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 proteins was determined in a mouse macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 treated with Salvia hypoleuca extract in vitro, to clarify the anti-inflammatory properties. EIU was induced in male Wistar rats by a footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Immediately after the LPS injection, 1, 10, or 100 mg extract or 10 mg prednisolone was injected intravenously. After 24 h, the aqueous humor was collected from both eyes, and the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, Nitric Oxide (NO, prostaglandin (PG-E2, and TNF-alevels in the aqueous humor were determined. RAW 264.7 cells treated with various concentrations of extract were incubated with 10 μg/mL LPS for 24 h. Levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-a were determined. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. The number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentrations, and the levels of NO, PGE2, and TNF-ain the aqueous humor in the groups treated with Salvia hypoleuca were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the anti inflammatory effect of 100 mg Salvia hypoleuca was as strong as that of 10 mg prednisolone. The antiinflammatory action of Salvia hypoleuca was stronger than that of either quercetin or anthocyanin administered alone. Extract also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions in RAW 264.7 cells in vitro in a dosedependent manner. The results suggest that Salvia hypoleuca has a dose-dependent anti-ocular inflammatory effect that is due to the direct blocking of the

  16. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of anti-serotonergic compounds on serotonin- and capsaicin-evoked thermal hyperalgesia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, D R; Chen, P B; Hargreaves, K M

    2012-02-17

    The peripheral serotonergic system has been implicated in the modulation of an array of pain states, from migraine to fibromyalgia; however, the mechanism by which serotonin (5HT) induces pain is unclear. Peripherally released 5HT induces thermal hyperalgesia, possibly via modulation of the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channel, which is gated by various noxious stimuli, including capsaicin. We previously reported in vitro that 5HT increases calcium accumulation in the capsaicin-sensitive population of sensory neurons with a corresponding increase in proinflammatory neuropeptide release, and both are antagonized by pretreatment with 5HT(2A) and 5HT(3) antagonists, as well as the anti-migraine drug sumatriptan. In the current study, we extended these findings in vivo using the rat hind paw thermal assay to test the hypothesis that peripheral 5HT enhances TRPV1-evoked thermal hyperalgesia that can be attenuated with 5HT(2A) and 5HT(3) receptor antagonists, as well as sumatriptan. Thermal hyperalgesia and edema were established by 5HT injection (0.1-10 nmol/100 μl) into the rat hind paw, and the latency to paw withdrawal (PWL) from noxious heat was determined. Rats were then pretreated with either 5HT before capsaicin (3 nmol/10 μl), the 5HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin or the 5HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron (0.0001-0.1 nmol/100 μl) before 5HT and/or capsaicin, or the 5HT(1B/1D) receptor agonist sumatriptan (0.01-1 nmol/100 μl) before capsaicin, and PWL was determined. We report that 5HT pretreatment enhances TRPV1-evoked thermal hyperalgesia, which is attenuated with local pretreatment with ketanserin, granisetron, or sumatriptan. We also report that peripheral 5HT induced a similar magnitude of thermal hyperalgesia in male and female rats. Overall, our results provide in vivo evidence supporting an enhancing role of 5HT on TRPV1-evoked thermal hyperalgesia, which can be attenuated by peripheral serotonergic intervention.

  17. Development of differential tolerance to the sedative and anti-stress effects of benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediratta, P K; Sharma, K K; Rana, J

    2001-01-01

    Differential degree of tolerance has been reported to develop for anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant effects of benzodiazepines (BZDs). Acute treatment with BZDs reportedly reduces the formation of gastric stress ulcers and attenuates stress-induced immunosuppression. The present study investigates whether tolerance develops to these antistress effects of BZDs by using diazepam and chlordiazepoxide as representative drugs. A single dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or chlordiazepoxide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a significant reduction in locomotor activity, a measure of sedative effect and antagonized the effect of restraint stress (RS) on gastric mucosal lesions and anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antibody titre. With chronic treatment (X 7 d), there was a marked tolerance to the sedative effect of both the studied BZD drugs, while much less tolerance developed to their ulcer protective action. However, no tolerance was observed to the attenuating effect of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide on RS-induced immunosuppression. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that different mechanisms may be involved in the development of tolerance to the sedative, antiulcer and immunomodulatory effects of BZDs.

  18. The anti-cancer effect of Propranolol in K562 cell line: an in vitro study

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    S Bastani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Β-AR receptors are one of the proteins involved in cancer and stress. The therapeutic activity of β-blockers such as propranolol is attributed to the blockade of β1-adrenergic receptors (ARs. In this study, the effect of propranolol on the viability of K562 cell line was examined. Material and methods: In order to assessment of anti-tumoral effects of propranolol, different concentrations of propranolol were prepared. K562 cells were treated with different concentrations of propranolol, then the percentage of inhibitory effect of propranolol on K562 cell viability at different times (24, 48 and 72 hours was estimated by MTT assay. Gel electrophoresis of DNA and DAPI staining were used for apoptosis investigation. Statistical comparisons were performed using two-sample t-test, Nominal significance level of each univariate test was 0.05. Results: Propranolol decreased viability of K562 cell line. The inhibitory effect of propranolol is time- and concentration-dependent, thus in higher concentrations and 72 hours after treatment, the maximum inhibitory effect was observed. (P<0.05. As the results showed, Propranolol induces apoptosis in K562 cell line. Conclusions: With respect to the inhibitory effect of propranolol on cell viability and its apoptotic effect on K562 cell line, this drug may be used for cancer therapy.

  19. Characterization and anti-tumor effects of chondroitin sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Shen; Tang, Sung-Ling; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Hong, Po-Da; Yeh, Ming-Kung

    2014-11-01

    We prepared chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as a delivery carrier, and doxorubicin (Dox) was used as a model drug. The physicochemical properties and biological activities of the Dox-ChS-CS NPs including the release profile, cell cytotoxicity, cellular internalization, and in vivo anti-tumor effects were evaluated. The ChS-CS NPs and Dox-ChS-CS NPs had a mean size of 262.0 ± 15.0 and 369.4 ± 77.4 nm, and a zeta potential of 30.2 ± 0.9 and 20.6 ± 3.1 mV, respectively. In vitro release tests showed that the 50 % release time for the Dox-ChS-CS NPs was 20 h. Two hepatoma cell models, HepG2 and HuH6, were used for evaluating the cytotoxicity and cell uptake efficiency of the Dox-ChS-CS NPs. A significant difference was observed between doxorubicin solution and the Dox-ChS-CS NPs in the cellular uptake within 60 min ( p nanoparticle delivery system platform for anti-tumor therapy.

  20. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Total Alkaloid Extract from Fumaria capreolata

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    Noureddine Bribi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaria capreolata is used in traditional medicine in North Africa for its gastrointestinal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigates the effects of total alkaloids extracted from the aerial parts of Fumaria capreolata (AFC on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, TNF-α, COX-2, and MIP-2 in RAW264.7 cells. AFC significantly reduced the inflammatory response inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the viability of cells, and downregulated mRNA expression of proinflammatory key players: IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, TNF-α, and COX-2. AFC antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties were also evaluated on the acetic acid- and formalin-induced pain models in mice. AFC oral administration significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhes and reduced formalin-induced paw licking time. Therefore, AFC may be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as colitis and arthritis.

  1. Effects of Catechol O-Methyl Transferase Inhibition on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Luteolin Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sang Keun; Lee, Jin-Ah; Cho, Eun Jung; Choi, Inwook

    2017-02-01

    Although luteolin is known to have potent anti-inflammatory activities, much less information has been provided on such activities of its hepatic metabolites. Luteolin was subjected to hepatic metabolism in HepG2 cells either without or with catechol O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor. To identify hepatic metabolites of luteolin without (luteolin metabolites, LMs) or with COMT inhibitor (LMs+CI), metabolites were treated by β-glucuronidase and sulfatase, and found that they were composed of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of diosmetin in LMs or these conjugates of luteolin in LMs+CI. LMs and LMs+CI were examined for their anti-inflammatory activities on LPS stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Expression of iNOS and production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were suppressed more effectively by the treatment with LMs+CI than LMs. Our data provide a new insight on possible improvement in functional properties of luteolin on target cells by modifying their metabolic pathway in hepatocytes.

  2. Mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of Spiranthera odoratissima (Manacá

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    Daniela B. M. Barbosa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate, carrageenan-induced pleurisy, formalin-induced pain, croton oil-induced ear edema, vascular permeability tests and phospholipase A2 activity assay were used to study the analgesic and/or anti-inflammatory activity of the hydromethanolic fraction of ethanolic extract from Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil., Rutaceae, leaves (HMF and its subfraction (sub-Fr10-28. HMF and sub-Fr10-28 reduced the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy test; sub-Fr10-28 reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin-induced pain, as well as the ear edema and vascular permeability. Both HMF and sub-Fr10-28 inhibited the phospholipase A2 activity. These results suggest that the analgesic effect of this plant could be, in part, due to an anti-inflammatory action produced by the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity.

  3. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  4. Anti-thrombotic effect of rutin isolated from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Se-Eun; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ki-Man; Kim, Kyung-Je; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    Dendropanax morbifera H. Lev. is well known in Korean traditional medicine for improvement of blood circulation. In this study, rutin, a bioflavonoid having anti-thrombotic and anticoagulant activities was isolated from a traditional medicinal plant, D. morbifera H. Lev. The chemical characteristics of rutin was studied to be quercetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-d-glucopyranoside using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR). Turbidity and fibrin clotting studies revealed that rutin reduces fibrin clot in concentration dependent manner. Rutin was found to prolong activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT) and closure time (CT). Furthermore, it decreased the activity of pro-coagulant protein, thrombin. In vivo study showed that rutin exerted a significant protective effect against collagen and epinephrine (or thrombin) induced acute thromboembolism in mice. These results suggest that rutin has a potent to be an anti-thrombotic agent for cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, Jorge E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf E-mail: ralf.greiner@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g{sup -1} dry basis, 1.8 mg g{sup -1} dry basis and 13.5 {mu}mol g{sup -1} dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g{sup -1} dry basis, 0.42 mg g{sup -1} dry basis and 7.5 {mu}mol g{sup -1} dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  6. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate in a rat model of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yuan; Wan-Sheng Ji; Ke-Xiang Wu; Jian-Xin Jiao; Liang-Hua Sun; Yong-Tang Feng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate in a rat model of ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid.METHODS: Spragur-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups: Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate group,dexamethasone group, acetic acid control and normal control group. Colonic inflammation was evaluated by disease activity index, gross morphologic damage,histological injury and colonic myeloperoxidase activity.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa.RESULTS: Compared to the acetic acid control, both Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate and dexamethasone showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect (P<0.01).The expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa was significantly lower in the Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate group and dexamethasone group than in the acetic acid group.CONCLUSION: Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate could reduce inflammatory injury in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. This may occur via suppression of NF-κB, TNF-α and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa.

  8. Anti-biofilm effects of honey against wound pathogens Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtan, Juraj; Bohova, Jana; Horniackova, Miroslava; Klaudiny, Jaroslav; Majtan, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm growth and its persistence within wounds have recently been suggested as contributing factors to impaired healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of several honey samples of different botanical origin, including manuka honey against Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter cloacae wound isolates. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay. All honeys at a sub-inhibitory concentration of 10% (w/v) significantly reduced the biofilm development of both isolates. Similarly, at a concentration of 50% (w/v), each of the honeys caused significant partial detachment of Pr. mirabilis biofilm after 24 h. On the other hand, no honey was able to significantly detach Ent. cloacae biofilm. In addition, treatment of Ent. cloacae and Pr. mirabilis biofilms with all honeys resulted in a significant decrease in colony-forming units per well values in a range of 0.35-1.16 and 1.2-7.5 log units, respectively. Of the tested honeys, manuka honey possessed the most potent anti-biofilm properties. Furthermore, methylglyoxal, an antibacterial compound of manuka honey, was shown to be responsible for killing biofilm-embedded wound bacteria. These findings suggest that manuka honey could be used as a potential therapy for the treatment of wounds containing Pr. mirabilis or Ent. cloacae.

  9. Possible Potentiation by Certain Antioxidants of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Diclofenac in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah S. Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the potential beneficial impact of the addition of antioxidant supplements to diclofenac regimen in a model of carrageenan-induced paw. Rats were treated daily with antioxidants, that is, a-lipoic acid (50 mg/kg, selenium (2.5 mg/kg, vitamin C (1 g/kg, vitamin E (300 mg/kg, or zinc (25 mg/kg on seven successive days and then received a single treatment with diclofenac or saline before carrageenan was injected to induce paw inflammation. The results indicated that these combinations did not significantly affect the percentage inhibition of paw edema caused by diclofenac alone; however, some combination treatments ameliorated signs of concomitant oxidative stress (such as alterations in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, hemolysate reduced glutathione levels, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase enzyme activities imparted by diclofenac alone. In some cases, few tested antioxidants in combination with diclofenac resulted in increased plasma levels of interleukin- (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. In conclusion, the results of these studies suggested to us that the added presence of natural antioxidants could be beneficial as standard anti-inflammatory therapeutics for a patient under diclofenac treatment, albeit that these effects do not appear to significantly build upon those that could be obtained from this common anti-inflammatory agent per se.

  10. Anti-hepatoma effect of safrole from Cinnamomum longepaniculatum leaf essential oil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu; Yin, Zhongqiong; Ye, Kuichuan; Wei, Qin; Jia, Renrong; Zhou, Lijun; Du, Yonghua; Xu, Jiao; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Shu, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the anti-hepatoma effect of safrole and elucidate its molecular mechanism, the human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells were incubated with various concentrations (40, 80, 160, 320 and 640 μg/ml) of safrole and the cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated. The results showed that both the cell proliferation determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium brominde (MTT) assay and cell colony determined by soft agar assay were significantly suppressed by safrole in a dose-time-dependent manner. Characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis, including cells shrinkage, deformation and vacuolization of mitochondria, nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies were observed when treated with safrole for 24 h and 48 h. Cell cycle changes evaluated by flow cytometry analysis showed that the safrole could induce accumulation of cells arrested at G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results demonstrated that safrole is potent anti-hepatoma agent and the underlying mechanism may be attributed to suppress tumor cell growth by inducing cell apoptosis.

  11. Anti-trypanosomal effect of Peristrophe bicalyculata extract on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulazeez Mansurah Abimbola; Ibrahim Abdulrazak Baba; Edibo Zakari Yenusa; Sidali Joseph Omanibe; Idris Habeeb Oladimeji

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro and in vivo effect of whole plant extracts of Peristrophe bicalyculata on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats. Methods: The experiment was divided into two phases: In the first phase, the anti-trypanosomal activity of the hot water, cold water, methanol and butanol extracts of the whole plant were determined by incubating with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The cold water extract was partially-purified and the anti-trypanosomal activity of the fractions determined. In the second phase, Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats were treated with fraction 2c for nine days. Packed cell volume (PCV), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and direct bilirubin levels were determined at the end of the experiment. Results:Cold water extract immobilized 90%of the parasites after 60 min of incubation, and fraction 2c completely immobilized the parasites after 35 min. It significantly increased PCV in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats. Decreased TC, TAG, HDL and LDL levels of infected rats increased significantly when rats were treated with the fraction, while elevated levels of total bilirubin and ALT also decreased. The difference in urea, direct bilirubin and ALP was not significant when infected rats were compared to rats in other groups. Conclusions:The ability of the plant to ameliorate the infection-induced biochemical changes calls for detailed investigation of the potentials of the plant for antitrypanosomiasis drug delivery.

  12. Cell type-specific anti-cancer properties of valproic acid: independent effects on HDAC activity and Erk1/2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfryd, Kamil; Skladchikova, Galina; Lepekhin, Eugene E

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) has attracted attention as an anti-cancer agent. Methods: The present study investigated effects of VPA exposure on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, cell growth, cell speed, and the degree of Erk1/2 phosphorylation in 10 cell....../2 phosphorylation are also important for the anti-cancer properties of VPA....

  13. Protective effect of butyrate against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice by promoting the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and mucosal defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaming; Wang, Fangyan; Luo, Haihua; Liu, Aihua; Li, Kangxin; Li, Cui; Jiang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcers (GUs) are a common type of peptic ulcer. Alcohol overdose is one of the main causes of GU, which is difficult to prevent. Although the protective effect of butyrate on inflammation-related diseases is well understood, its effect on GUs has not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of butyrate against ethanol-induced lesions to the gastric mucosa in mice and the underlying mechanisms. BALB/c mice were orally pretreated with butyrate for 30min prior to the establishment of the GU model by challenge with absolute ethanol. Ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas butyrate pretreatment reduced the gastric mucosal injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate pretreatment also significantly ameliorated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl proteins, and decreased levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. The Western blot results consistently demonstrated that butyrate pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK and ERKs in the gastric tissues. Additionally, gastric wall mucus (GWM), a parameter reflecting mucosal defense, was clearly increased by butyrate pretreatment. Butyrate pretreatment protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced lesions by strengthening the mucosal defense and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. As a necessary substance for the body, butyrate may be applied to the prevention and treatment of GUs.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Hong-Seok; Choi, In-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jin; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. In the present study, the essential oil of Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa), which is commercially used in soap, toothpaste and cosmetics, was extracted. Essential oil extracted from C. obtusa contains several types of terpenes, which have been shown to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil in vivo and in vitro following the induction of inflammation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats. While LPS induced an inflammatory response through the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs), these levels were reduced when essential oil was pre-administered. Additionally, the mechanism of action underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of C. obtusa essential oil was investigated by measuring the mRNA expression of inflammation‑associated genes. LPS treatment significantly induced the expression of transforming growth factor α (TNFα) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rats, while C. obtusa essential oil inhibited this effect. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. obtusa essential oil exerts anti‑inflammatory effects by regulating the production of PGE2 and TNFα gene expression through the COX-2 pathway. These findings suggest that C. obtusa essential oil may constitute a novel source of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  15. The status of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody are not associated with the effect of anti-TNFα agent treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Lv

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate whether the status of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody are associated with the clinical response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: A systemic literature review was performed using the MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Clinical Trials Register databases, and Hayden's criteria of quality assessment for prognostic studies were used to evaluate all of the studies. The correlation between the RF and anti-CCP antibody status with the treatment effect of anti-TNFα agents was analyzed separately using the Mantel Haenszel method. A fixed-effects model was used when there was no significant heterogeneity; otherwise, a random-effects model was applied. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's linear regression and a funnel plot. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies involving 5561 RA patients meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The overall analysis showed that the pooled relative risk for the predictive effects of the RF and anti-CCP antibody status on patient response to anti-TNFα agents was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.91-1.05, p=0.54 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.03, p=0.11, respectively, with I(2 values of 43% (p=0.05 and 67% (p<0.01, respectively. Subgroup analyses of different anti-TNFα treatments (infliximab vs. etanercept vs. adalimumab vs. golimumab, response criteria (DAS28 vs. ACR20 vs. EULAR response, follow-up period (≥ 6 vs. <6 months, and ethnic group did not reveal a significant association for the status of RF and anti-CCP. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the RF nor anti-CCP antibody status in RA patients is associated with a clinical response to anti-TNFα treatment.

  16. Evaluation of Potential Anti-Pathogenic and Anti-Retroviral Effects of a Proprietary Bioactive Silicate Alka-Vita™/Alka-V6™/Alkahydroxy™ (AVAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Townsend

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Alka-Vita™/Alka-V6™/Alkahydroxy™ (AVAH, a modified sodium silicate dietary supplement manufactured by Cisne Enterprises Inc. (Odessa, TX was evaluated for its in vitro anti-retroviral and anti-pathogenic effects. Effects on nitric oxide (NO dependent antiviral activities were measured in neutrophils using standard assays. Assays for inhibition of HIV-II reverse transcriptase (RT, HIV-II protease (PR and glucohydrolase [glucuronidase (GH-1 and glucosidase (GH-2] important for viral replication, coat assembly and virulence respectively, were performed using standard kits. Higher NO (~ 2 fold was detected in neutrophil medium indicating an increase NO mediated antipathogeic activity. Results suggest that the product significantly decreased HIV-RT activity in a dose dependent manner (ED50= 20.4 mM. HIV-PR activity decreased (IC50=14.6 mM with increasing product concentration. The product also decreased the HIV-II virulence by inhibiting the GH-1 (IC50= 34.29 mM and GH-2 (IC50=14.6 mM activity which decreased protein glucosylation and glucuronylation. Changes in surface EPS carbohydrates assed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggested a modulatory effect on various carbohydrates and therefore the composition of EPS. Industrial relevance: Pathologies caused by retroviral agents and microorganisms are prevalent both in developed and developing countries.  Indiscriminate use of single target medical drugs has resulted in the development of resistance in these pathogens. Development of novel therapeutic  agents that can effect multiple intrinsic and extrinsic targets in host and the pathogen may prove to be more effective and are less likely to promote drug induced selection. The effectiveness of Alka-Vita™/Alka-V6™/Alkahydroxy™ (AVAH in mitigating various virulence and survival pathways in pathogens is promising. Additionally, it was also effective in inducing a NO mediated immune response.

  17. Effect of praziquantel on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C

    1984-01-01

    The antischistosomal drugs tartar emetic and niridazole exert immunosuppression both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study the influence of praziquantel (Biltricide), a potent schistosomicidal drug, on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated. Praziquantel 80 micrograms...... no suppressive effect on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro....

  18. Anti-obesity effects of xanthohumol plus guggulsterone in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayalam, Srujana; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Park, Hea Jin; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2009-08-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) and guggulsterone (GS) have each been shown to inhibit adipogenesis and induce apoptosis in adipocytes. In the present study effects of the combination of XN + GS on 3T3-L1 adipocyte apoptosis and adipogenesis were investigated. Mature adipocytes were treated with XN and GS individually and in combination. XN and GS individually decreased cell viability, but XN + GS caused an enhanced decrease in viability and potentiated induction of apoptosis. Likewise, XN + GS caused a potentiated increase in caspase-3/7 activation, whereas neither of the compounds showed any effect individually. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that XN + GS increased Bax expression and decreased Bcl-2 expression, whereas individual compounds did not show any significant effect. XN and GS both decreased lipid accumulation. Individually, XN at 1.5 microM and GS at 3.12 microM decreased lipid accumulation by 26 +/- 4.5% (P < .001) each, whereas XN1.5 + GS3.12 decreased lipid accumulation by 78.2 +/- 1.8% (P < .001). Moreover, expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins was down-regulated with XN1.5 + GS3.12, but no effect was observed with the individual compounds. Finally, XN + GS caused an enhanced stimulation of lipolysis. Thus, combination of XN and GS is more potent in exerting anti-obesity effects than additive effects of the individual compounds.