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Sample records for anti emetic effect

  1. Anti-emetic effect of granisetron in patients undergoing cranial and craniospinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke; Nosaka, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30-59% of patients undergoing cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy experience nausea and/or vomiting. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of granisetron for controlling emesis in patients treated with cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy. Between December 2011 and January 2013, 34 patients (19 males, 15 females; age range, 3-80 years) received cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy at our department. All but one male patient, who developed meningitis during the irradiation period were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients who experienced irradiation-induced vomiting (grade 1) or nausea (grade 2) were treated with granisetron as a rescue anti-emetic. Episodes were graded as no vomiting, no nausea, no anti-emetic; no vomiting, nausea, no anti-emetic; no vomiting, nausea with anti-emetic; and vomiting. Of the 9 patients who underwent whole-brain or whole neural-axis irradiation, 5 (55.6%) experienced grade 2 nausea or vomiting. Two of 6 patients (33.3%) treated with whole ventricle irradiation experienced grade 2 nausea or vomiting. Three of 18 patients (16.7%) who underwent local-field irradiation experienced grade 2 nausea or vomiting. Patients who underwent wide-field irradiation experienced nausea, vomiting, and anorexia (p<0.05). Complete response (no vomiting, no additional rescue anti-emetic, and no nausea) was observed in 5 of 9 patients treated with granisetron. Four of 9 patients (44.4%) treated with granisetron experienced constipation (grade 1 or 2); its administration had no major adverse effects in our study population. Rescue therapy with granisetron is safe and effective to treat nausea and vomiting in patients subjected to cranial or craniospinal irradiation. (author)

  2. Interaction between non-psychotropic cannabinoids in marihuana: effect of cannabigerol (CBG) on the anti-nausea or anti-emetic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Erin M; Goodwin, Jennifer M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Breuer, Aviva; Pertwee, Roger G; Mechoulam, Raphael; Parker, Linda A

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between two non-psychotropic cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG), which have been reported to act as a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT(1A)) agonist and antagonist, respectively, was evaluated. To evaluate the potential of CBG to reverse the anti-nausea, anti-emetic effects of CBD. In experiment 1, rats were pre-treated with CBG (0.0, 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, ip), 15 min prior to being treated with CBD (experiment 1a: VEH or 5 mg/kg, ip) or 8-OH-DPAT (experiment 1b: VEH or 0.01 mg/kg, ip). Thirty minutes later, all rats received a pairing of 0.1% saccharin solution and LiCl (20 ml/kg of 0.15 M, ip). Seventy-two hours later, the rats received a drug-free taste reactivity test with saccharin to evaluate the effects of the treatments on the establishment of conditioned gaping reactions (a model of nausea). As well, conditioned saccharin avoidance was measured. In experiment 2, Suncus murinus were injected with CBG (5 mg/kg, ip) or VEH 15 min prior to CBD (5 mg/kg) or VEH and 30 min later were injected with LiCl (60 ml/kg of 0.15 M, i.p.), and the number of vomiting episodes were measured. CBD (5 mg/kg) suppressed conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in shrews, which were reversed by pre-treatment with all doses of CBG. CBG also prevented the anti-nausea effects of 8-OH-DPAT. Interactions between moderate doses of CBG and CBD may oppose one another at the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the regulation of nausea and vomiting.

  3. The anti emetic effect of oral administration of ondansetron or granisetron in macacus cynomolgus exposed to mixed neutron-gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Roman, V.; Martin, S.; Janodet, D.; Fatome, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most often observed symptoms in the course of the early radiation syndrome. Their prevention has long been difficult because of the low effectiveness and side-effects of most antiemetics. There is a clear evidence that 5HT 3 receptor antagonists such as ondansetron and granisetron are highly effective to prevent radiation-induced emesis without any side-effect. We studied the prophylactic effectiveness of their oral administration to macacus cynomolgus, for mixed neutron-gamma whole-body exposure, tat high dose rates. Doses of 4 mg of ondansetron or 1 mg of granisetron were administered before, or after, or both before and after irradiation. The treatment was effective when administered both before and after radiation exposure. It was significant but incomplete if administered once. Post-irradiation administration is interesting, particularly in case of accident. Both antiemetic drugs were well tolerated. Their effectiveness and tolerance are apparently comparable. The 5HT 3 receptor antagonists represent a much improved treatment for radiation-induced nausea and vomiting by completely inhibiting emesis, if administered before and after irradiation. Unwanted sedation and extra-pyramidal side-effects, usually associated with the clinical use of D 2 receptor antagonists, were not observed. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anu Kochanujan; Sharma, Kamlesh K; Gupta, Yogendra K; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2011-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are major adverse effects of chemotherapy. Ginger has been used in postoperative and pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Data on its utility in reducing CINV in children and young adults are lacking. Sixty chemotherapy cycles of cisplatin/doxorubicin in bone sarcoma patients were randomized to ginger root powder capsules or placebo capsules as an additional antiemetic to ondensetron and dexamethasone in a double-blind design. Acute CINV was defined as nausea and vomiting occurring within 24 hr of start of chemotherapy (days 1-4) and delayed CINV as that occurring after 24 hr of completion of chemotherapy (days 5-10). CINV was evaluated as per Edmonton's Symptom Assessment Scale and National Cancer Institute criteria respectively. Acute moderate to severe nausea was observed in 28/30 (93.3%) cycles in control group as compared to 15/27 (55.6%) cycles in experimental group (P = 0.003). Acute moderate to severe vomiting was significantly more in the control group compared to the experimental group [23/30 (76.7%) vs. 9/27 (33.33%) respectively (P= 0.002)]. Delayed moderate to severe nausea was observed in 22/30 (73.3%) cycles in the control group as compared to 7/27 (25.9%) in the experimental group (P < 0.001). Delayed moderate to severe vomiting was significantly more in the control group compared to the experimental group [14/30 (46.67%) vs. 4/27 (14.81%) (P = 0.022)]. Ginger root powder was effective in reducing severity of acute and delayed CINV as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone in patients receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00940368). Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Dexamethasone enhances the anti-emetic effect of metoclopramide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety patients, ASA I or II, aged 21-64years were randomly selected to either the dexamethasone-metoclopramide group, metoclopramide group or dexamethasone group using computer-generated random numbers . Spinal anaesthesia was induced in the sitting position under strict aseptic technique with hyperbaric ...

  6. Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development. (NIPRD), Idu, Abuja, Nigeria. 2Department ... fractionated on column chromatography using solvents of increasing polarities to yield three fractions designated F1 to F3. The effect of the extract ...

  7. Investigating the effect of emetic compounds on chemotaxis in Dictyostelium identifies a non-sentient model for bitter and hot tastant research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Robery

    Full Text Available Novel chemical entities (NCEs may be investigated for emetic liability in a range of unpleasant experiments involving retching, vomiting or conditioned taste aversion/food avoidance in sentient animals. We have used a range of compounds with known emetic /aversive properties to examine the possibility of using the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, for research into identifying and understanding emetic liability, and hence reduce adverse animal experimentation in this area. Twenty eight emetic or taste aversive compounds were employed to investigate the acute (10 min effect of compounds on Dictyostelium cell behaviour (shape, speed and direction of movement in a shallow chemotaxic gradient (Dunn chamber. Compound concentrations were chosen based on those previously reported to be emetic or aversive in in vivo studies and results were recorded and quantified by automated image analysis. Dictyostelium cell motility was rapidly and strongly inhibited by four structurally distinct tastants (three bitter tasting compounds--denatonium benzoate, quinine hydrochloride, phenylthiourea, and the pungent constituent of chilli peppers--capsaicin. In addition, stomach irritants (copper chloride and copper sulphate, and a phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor also rapidly blocked movement. A concentration-dependant relationship was established for five of these compounds, showing potency of inhibition as capsaicin (IC(50 = 11.9 ± 4.0 µM > quinine hydrochloride (IC(50 = 44.3 ± 6.8 µM > denatonium benzoate (IC(50 = 129 ± 4 µM > phenylthiourea (IC(50 = 366 ± 5 µM > copper sulphate (IC(50 = 1433 ± 3 µM. In contrast, 21 compounds within the cytotoxic and receptor agonist/antagonist classes did not affect cell behaviour. Further analysis of bitter and pungent compounds showed that the effect on cell behaviour was reversible and not cytotoxic, suggesting an uncharacterised molecular mechanism of action for these compounds. These results therefore demonstrate

  8. The involvement of TRPV1 in emesis and anti-emesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, John A; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Matsuki, Norio; Wan, Christina; Andrews, Paul Lr

    2015-01-01

    Diverse transmitter systems (e.g. acetylcholine, dopamine, endocannabinoids, endorphins, glutamate, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, substance P) have been implicated in the pathways by which nausea and vomiting are induced and are targets for anti-emetic drugs (e.g. 5-hydroxytryptamine3 and tachykinin NK1 antagonists). The involvement of TRPV1 in emesis was discovered in the early 1990s and may have been overlooked previously as TRPV1 pharmacology was studied in rodents (mice, rats) lacking an emetic reflex. Acute subcutaneous administration of resiniferatoxin in the ferret, dog and Suncus murinus revealed that it had "broad-spectrum" anti-emetic effects against stimuli acting via both central (vestibular system, area postrema) and peripheral (abdominal vagal afferents) inputs. One of several hypotheses discussed here is that the anti-emetic effect is due to acute depletion of substance P (or another peptide) at a critical site (e.g. nucleus tractus solitarius) in the central emetic pathway. Studies in Suncus murinus revealed a potential for a long lasting (one month) effect against the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Subsequent studies using telemetry in the conscious ferret compared the anti-emetic, hypothermic and hypertensive effects of resiniferatoxin (pungent) and olvanil (non-pungent) and showed that the anti-emetic effect was present (but reduced) with olvanil which although inducing hypothermia it did not have the marked hypertensive effects of resiniferatoxin. The review concludes by discussing general insights into emetic pathways and their pharmacology revealed by these relatively overlooked studies with TRPV1 activators (pungent an non-pungent; high and low lipophilicity) and antagonists and the potential clinical utility of agents targeted at the TRPV1 system.

  9. Physiological bases and treatment to the radiation-induced emetic reflex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulen Napoles, Barbara M.; Torres Babie, Priscilla; Ropero Toirac, Ramon de J.

    2002-01-01

    In the course of the specific oncologic treatment, there are frequent complications such as nausea and vomiting. The radiation-induced emetic reflex depends on various factors: primary site of radiation, administered dose, fractioning, irradiated volume, the sensory and psychic characteristics of the patient as well as the chemotherapy association. It is known that the afferent path to the so-called center of vomiting is determined by chemical mediators, protuberance receptors of the intracranial pressure and the unleashing chemoreceptor zone. In radiation-induced emesis, the exact mechanism is yet to be determined but it is known that radiation stimulates the production of chemical mediators and serotonin released by enterochromaffin cells that act upon the center of vomiting and vagal nucleus. Most of patients who are exposed to irradiation of their upper and middle hemibody as well as all the patients exposed to whole-body irradiation present with nausea and vomiting. The therapeutical anti-emetic recommendations are based on the neurochemical control of vomiting and the emetogenic effect of radiotherapy. 5HT3 receptor-antagonists are evaluated as effective agents in the control of radiation-induced emesis

  10. The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast improves memory in rodents at non-emetic doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmierlo, Tim; Creemers, Pim; Akkerman, Sven; van Duinen, Marlies; Sambeth, Anke; De Vry, Jochen; Uz, Tolga; Blokland, Arjan; Prickaerts, Jos

    2016-04-15

    Enhancement of central availability of the second messenger cAMP is a promising approach to improve cognitive function. Pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), a group of cAMP hydrolyzing enzymes in the brain, has been shown to improve cognitive performances in rodents and monkeys. However, inhibition of PDE4 is generally associated with severe emetic side-effects. Roflumilast, an FDA-approved PDE4 inhibitor for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is yielding only mild emetic side effects. In the present study we investigate the potential of roflumilast as a cognition enhancer and to determine the potential coinciding emetic response in comparison to rolipram, a classic PDE4 inhibitor with pronounced emetic effects. Cognition enhancement was evaluated in mice and it was found that both roflumilast and rolipram enhanced memory in an object location task (0.03mg/kg), whereas only roflumilast was effective in a spatial Y-maze (0.1mg/kg). Emetic potential was measured using competition of PDE4 inhibition for α2-adrenergic receptor antagonism in which recovery from xylazine/ketamine-mediated anesthesia is used as a surrogate marker. While rolipram displayed emetic properties at a dose 10 times the memory-enhancing dose, roflumilast only showed increased emetic-like properties at a dose 100 times the memory-enhancing dose. Moreover, combining sub-efficacious doses of the approved cognition-enhancer donepezil and roflumilast, which did not improve memory when given alone, fully restored object recognition memory deficit in rats induced by the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine. These findings suggest that roflumilast offers a more favorable window for treatment of cognitive deficits compared to rolipram. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Prescription of Prophylactic Antiemetic Drugs for Patients Receiving Chemotherapy With Minimal and Low Emetic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Ayako; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Higashi, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    in the low emetic risk group underwent more frequent administration of chemotherapy that included prescription of both drugs (53.1% of the chemotherapy; 95% CI, 51.6%-54.7%) compared with inpatients (33.7% of the chemotherapy; 95% CI, 31.7%-35.9%). Consequently, approximately ¥170 million (US $1.6 million) was unnecessarily spent on prophylactic antiemetic drugs for these patients. A substantial number of patients receiving chemotherapy with minimal and low emetic risk were prescribed potentially unnecessary prophylactic antiemetic drugs. The judicious use of these drugs could spare the burden of extra costs and the potential risk for adverse effects for patients.

  12. Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J

    1981-05-01

    Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods.

  13. Inhibition of emetic and superantigenic activities of staphylococcal enterotoxin A by synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Edward K; Hu, Dong-Liang; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio

    2012-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen producing different types of toxins. Enterotoxin A (SEA) is the most common type among clinical and food-related strains. The aim of the present study was to estimate functional regions of SEA that are responsible for emetic and superantigenic activities using synthetic peptides. A series of 13 synthetic peptides corresponding to specific regions of SEA were synthesized, and the effect of these peptides on superantigenic activity of SEA including interferon γ (IFN-γ) production in mouse spleen cells, SEA-induced lethal shock in mice, spleen cell proliferation in house musk shrew, and emetic activity in shrews were assessed. Pre-treatment of spleen cells with synthetic peptides corresponding to the regions 21-40, 35-50, 81-100, or 161-180 of SEA significantly inhibited SEA-induced IFN-γ production and cell proliferation. These peptides also inhibited SEA-induced lethal shock. Interestingly, peptides corresponding to regions 21-40, 35-50 and 81-100 significantly inhibited SEA-induced emesis in house musk shrews, but region 161-180 did not. These findings indicated that regions 21-50 and 81-100 of SEA are important for both superantigenic and emetic activities of SEA molecule while region 161-180 is involved in superantigenic activity but not emetic activity of SEA. These regions could be important targets for therapeutic intervention against SEA exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementation of institutional antiemetic guidelines for low emetic risk chemotherapy with docetaxel: a clinical and cost evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshinobu; Ikesue, Hiroaki; Esaki, Taito; Fukazawa, Mami; Abe, Motoaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tomizawa, Tatsuru; Oishi, Ryozo

    2012-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect of implementation of institutional guidelines for low emetic risk chemotherapy with docetaxel and estimate the cost saving for all low emetic risk chemotherapies. We examined the clinical effect of preparing and implementing institutional antiemetic guidelines for the breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant docetaxel therapy. Although the antiemetic medication for such patients used to be ondansetron 4 mg plus dexamethasone 8 mg (OND + DEX), it was changed to dexamethasone (DEX) 12 mg alone after implementation of the institutional guidelines. The effectiveness and adverse effects of DEX alone (56 patients, 205 courses) were compared with those of OND + DEX (41 patients, 151 courses). The cost saving was calculated from the antiemetic costs in both groups. The annual cost saving was estimated from the number of all low emetic risk chemotherapies in a year. The incidences of nausea (19.5% versus 16.1%), vomiting (2.4% versus 0%), constipation (34.1% versus 30.4%), and insomnia (17.1% versus 17.9%) were not significantly different between the OND + DEX group and DEX alone group. In all low emetic risk chemotherapies, US $78,883 of potential cost saving was estimated in the first year after changing the antiemetic treatment. The present results suggest that DEX alone is equally effective for preventing nausea and vomiting and less expensive compared with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist plus DEX in low emetic risk chemotherapy with docetaxel.

  15. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  16. E-meter with PLC-based automated meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, M. [Texas Instruments, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    Data can be transferred from electronic meters (e-meters) to a concentrator or other device in a variety of ways. However, new ways of communication are needed for automated meter reading (AMR) in order to avoid visits by utility officials to properties where meters are installed. In addition to remote meter reading, e-meters can have functions implemented to lower costs for electricity providers or to provide new features for end customers. This would only be possible if the meter could also receive data via a 2-way communication link. This article presented powerline communication (PLC), a completely different technique for AMR in which the power lines are used as the communication media. The major technologies used in PLC in Europe were discussed along with the challenges of overcoming quality problems. The ability to integrate all required functionality for a complex e-meter with PLC modem into small central processing units (CPUs) was also discussed. Texas Instruments offers a digital signal processor (DSP) that ensures reliable PLC. The way in which these microcomputers process electrical signals was also outlined in this article, with particular reference to how the information is made accessible for the CPUs and for metering devices. 3 figs.

  17. Food poisoning associated with emetic-type of Bacillus cereus in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Jeong, Hong-Rae; Park, Yong-Bae; Kim, Jae-Moung; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause diarrheal and emetic types of food poisoning but little study has been done on emetic type of food poisoning in Korea. The objective of this study was to report on the emetic type of food poisoning associated with B. cereus in Korea. The toxin gene profile, toxin production, and antibiotic resistance of B. cereus isolates were investigated in this study. B. cereus was detected in three out of four samples, while the other food poisoning bacteria were not detected. All isolates (KUGH 10, 11, and 12) presented nhe A, B, and C diarrheal toxin genes (755, 743, and 683 bp), detected using NHA, NHB, and NHC primers, and ces emetic toxin gene (1271 bp), detected using CES primer, and produced nonhemolytic enterotoxin and emetic toxin (cereulide), detected using immunochemical assay and high performance liquid chromotography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) analysis. All emetic-associated isolates were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Most important finding in this study was that the risk of emetic-type B. cereus food poisoning has existed in Korea. This suggested that the food poisoning caused by B. cereus producing emetic and diarrheal toxins should be constantly evaluated to prevent misdiagnosis between emetic and diarrheal types of food poisoning.

  18. Creating Centralized Reporting for Microsoft Host Protection Technologies:The Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Microsoft also publishes documentation on the Windows Event Collector capability, including source and collec- tor initiated subscriptions.2 3.2 EMET...www.microsoft.com/emet 4 See https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/ download /details.aspx?id=50802 for more information about the En- hanced Mitigation Experience

  19. Consensus recommendations for the prevention of vomiting and nausea following high-emetic-risk chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kris, Mark G; Tonato, Maurizio; Bria, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    In this update of our 2005 document, we used an evidence-based approach whenever possible to formulate recommendations, emphasizing the results of controlled trials concerning the best use of antiemetic agents for the prevention of emesis and nausea following anticancer chemotherapies of high...... emetic risk. A three-drug combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and aprepitant beginning before chemotherapy and continuing for up to 4 days remains the standard of care. We address issues of dose, schedule, and route of administration of five...... superior in emesis prevention, while adverse effects were comparable. Furthermore, for all classes of antiemetic agents, a single dose is as effective as multiple doses or a continuous infusion. The oral route is as efficacious as the intravenous route of administration....

  20. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  1. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaars, M.H.; Rodrigues, S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial

  2. Synthetic drugs with anti-ageing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vijay K; Dureja, Janhvi; Chadha, Renu

    2009-09-01

    Although ageing is a natural wear and tear phenomenon, it can at least be postponed or prevented by certain approaches. Some chemicals that are present in the diet or in dietary supplements have been documented to have anti-ageing effects. Recently, a number of synthetic drugs used for other therapeutic indications have been shown to have anti-ageing potential.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    . In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition. CONCLUSION: Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic......BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact...... and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance...

  4. Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacological Experimental Study Of The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Total Saikosaponins. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chai Hu has the hepato-protective, choleretic, anti-tussive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. In this study, the ...

  5. Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G; Yuan, X Z; Li, H; Shen, Y F; Zi, J

    2010-01-01

    The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges (∼10 -15 m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.

  6. Sporulation environment of emetic toxin-producing Bacillus cereus strains determines spore size, heat resistance and germination capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Abee, T.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Heat resistance, germination and outgrowth capacity of Bacillus cereus spores in processed foods are major factors in causing the emetic type of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, we aim to identify the impact of different sporulation conditions on spore properties of emetic

  7. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Definition: The Konjac plant comes from the genus Amorphophallus. Japanese food uses Konjac cake. Konjac contains almost no calories and a great amount of dietary fiber. Here, we reviewed possible anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, using the search Pubmed ®. Konjac ingestion is likely beneficially associated with obesity, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism. However, evidence is lacking on the relationship between konjac ingestion and development of atherosclerotic diseases. To more fully understand the anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, future studies, preferably with larger numbers of subjects, will be performed.

  8. Anti-anaphylactic effect of Euphorbia hirta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssouf, M S; Kaiser, P; Tahir, M; Singh, G D; Singh, S; Sharma, V K; Satti, N K; Haque, S E; Johri, R K

    2007-12-01

    The Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract (EH A001) was found to possess a prominent anti-anaphylactic activity. A preventive effect of EH-A001 given by oral route at dose from 100 to 1000 mg/kg was observed against compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis. At the same range of dose, EH-A001 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat and active paw anaphylaxis in mice. A suppressive effect of EH-A001 was observed on the release of TNF-alpha and IL-6 from anti-DNP-HSA activated rat peritoneal mast cells.

  9. Anti-platelet aggregation of mixtures of betulinic oleanolic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Anti-platelet aggregation of mixtures of betulinic oleanolic ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline ... antiseptic, aphrodisiac, anti-emetic, anti- inflammatory and carminative properties [5,6].

  10. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    OpenAIRE

    Bhesh Raj Sharma; Chul Min Park; Jong Choi; Dong Young Rhyu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular...

  11. Anti inflammatory effects of statin in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Nasef Abdelsalam Rezk; Ahmad Elewa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Statins are now becoming recognized as powerful antiinflammatory agents that exert beneficial effects beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction [1]. COPD patients receiving statins obtain a benefit from these therapeutic agents. Clearly, the best medical evidence for the association of statins with improved outcomes for COPD patients [2]. We aimed in this study to assess anti inflammatory effects of statin in COPD patients. Patients and methods: We studied 28...

  12. Identification and genomic comparison of temperate bacteriophages derived from emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peiling; Tian, Shen; Yuan, Zhiming; Hu, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus isolates can cause serious emetic (vomiting) syndrome and even acute lethality. As mobile genetic elements, the exploration of prophages derived from emetic B. cereus isolates will help in our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of these pathogens. In this study, five temperate phages derived from cereulide-producing B. cereus strains were induced, with four of them undergoing genomic sequencing. Sequencing revealed that they all belong to the Siphoviridae family, but presented in different forms in their hosts. PfNC7401 and PfIS075 have typical icosahedral heads, probably existing alone as phagemids in the host with self-replicating capability in the lysogenic state. PfEFR-4, PfEFR-5, and PfATCC7953 have elongated heads, with the genomes of the former two identified as linear dsDNA, which could be integrated into the host genome during the lysogenic state. Genomic comparison of the four phages with others also derived from emetic B. cereus isolates showed similar genome structures and core genes, thus displaying host spectrum specificity. In addition, phylogenic analysis based on the complete genome and conserved tail fiber proteins of 36 Bacillus species-derived phages confirmed that the phages derived from emetic B. cereus strains were highly similar. Furthermore, one endolysin LysPfEFR-4 was cloned and showed lytic activity against all tested emetic B. cereus strains and cross-lytic activity against some other pathogenic bacteria, implying a potential to control bacterial contamination in the food supply.

  13. Identification and genomic comparison of temperate bacteriophages derived from emetic Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiling Geng

    Full Text Available Cereulide-producing Bacillus cereus isolates can cause serious emetic (vomiting syndrome and even acute lethality. As mobile genetic elements, the exploration of prophages derived from emetic B. cereus isolates will help in our understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of these pathogens. In this study, five temperate phages derived from cereulide-producing B. cereus strains were induced, with four of them undergoing genomic sequencing. Sequencing revealed that they all belong to the Siphoviridae family, but presented in different forms in their hosts. PfNC7401 and PfIS075 have typical icosahedral heads, probably existing alone as phagemids in the host with self-replicating capability in the lysogenic state. PfEFR-4, PfEFR-5, and PfATCC7953 have elongated heads, with the genomes of the former two identified as linear dsDNA, which could be integrated into the host genome during the lysogenic state. Genomic comparison of the four phages with others also derived from emetic B. cereus isolates showed similar genome structures and core genes, thus displaying host spectrum specificity. In addition, phylogenic analysis based on the complete genome and conserved tail fiber proteins of 36 Bacillus species-derived phages confirmed that the phages derived from emetic B. cereus strains were highly similar. Furthermore, one endolysin LysPfEFR-4 was cloned and showed lytic activity against all tested emetic B. cereus strains and cross-lytic activity against some other pathogenic bacteria, implying a potential to control bacterial contamination in the food supply.

  14. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac

    OpenAIRE

    Hidekatsu Yanai; Hiroki Adachi; Hisayuki Katsuyama; Hidetaka Hamasaki; Akahito Sako

    2015-01-01

    Definition: The Konjac plant comes from the genus Amorphophallus. Japanese food uses Konjac cake. Konjac contains almost no calories and a great amount of dietary fiber. Here, we reviewed possible anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, using the search Pubmed ®. Konjac ingestion is likely beneficially associated with obesity, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism. However, evidence is lacking on the relationship between konjac ingestion and development of atherosclerotic diseases. To ...

  15. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  17. Erdosteine: antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a multifactorial drug currently used in COPD for its rheologic activity on bronchial secretions and its positive effects on bacterial adhesiveness. Erdosteine produces an active metabolite (Met 1) which was shown to produce antioxidant effects during the respiratory burst of human PMNs, due to the presence of an SH group. The substantial antitussive effects of erdosteine were first documented in clinical trials even though mucolytic agents are regarded as not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Actually, a mucolytic drug could exert antitussive effects if it also affects mucus consistency and enhances ciliary function. In the last decade, data from several studies on animal models pointed to the possible antitussive and anti-inflammatory properties of erdosteine and an indirect anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was suggested. Recently, data from some controlled versus placebo studies documented the antioxidant properties of erdosteine in humans and in current smokers with COPD. The mechanism of action was described as related to erdosteine's ability to inhibit some inflammatory mediators and some pro-inflammatory cytokines that are specifically involved in oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also presumed to impair beta-adrenoceptor function and contribute to airway obstruction, specific controlled studies recently investigated the effect of antioxidant intervention on short-term airway response to salbutamol in nonreversible COPD, according to a double-blind design versus placebo and NAC. Only erdosteine consistently restored a significant short-term reversibility in COPD subjects, previously unresponsive to beta(2) adrenergics. This peculiar activity of erdosteine (to our knowledge never previously assessed) proved related to the ROS scavenging activity (which actually proved equal to that of N), and its significant inhibiting effect on

  18. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, A H; Alkofahi, A

    1998-03-01

    The anti-nociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of 11 traditionally used Jordanian plants was studied by using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate test in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of these plants was determined by xylene-induced ear oedema in mice and cotton pellet granuloma test in rats. Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Apium graveolens, Eucalyptus camaldulentis, and Ruta graveolens possess an anti-nociceptive effect against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation. M. piperita, Jasminum officinale, Commiphora molmol, and Beta vulgaris possess an anti-inflammatory effect against acute (xylene-induced ear oedema) and chronic (cotton-pellet granuloma) inflammation. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were dose dependent. These data affirm the traditional use of some of these plants for painful and inflammatory conditions.

  19. Saksa lastele saksa keelt õpetamas / Virve Mäemets, Jana Saksing, Liina Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäemets, Virve, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Koostöölepingust Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli ja Schleswig-Holsteini Liidumaa Elmshorni praktikakeskuse vahel, mis seisneb õpetajakoolituse praktikantide vahetamises, praktikakohtadeks Schleswig-Holsteini Liidumaa koolid Saksamaal ja Tallinna Saksa Gümnaasium Eestis. Saksamaal läbitud koolipraktikast teevad kokkuvõtte TPÜ saksa keele õppetooli metoodik Virve Mäemets, TPÜ saksa filoloogia 4. kursuse tudengid Jana Saksing ja Liina Ojari

  20. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-oedematous effects of Lafoensia pacari extract and ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, Alexandre P; Fontanari, Caroline; Melo, Mirian C C; Ambrosio, Sérgio R; de Souza, Glória E P; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; da Costa, Fernando B; Albuquerque, Deijanira A; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    Lafoensia pacari St. Hil. (Lythraceae) is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect that the ethanolic extract of L. pacari has in Toxocara canis infection (a model of systemic eosinophilia). In this study, we tested the anti-inflammatory activity of the same L. pacari extract in mice injected intraperitoneally with beta-glucan present in fraction 1 (F1) of the Histoplasma capsulatum cell wall (a model of acute eosinophilic inflammation). We also determined the anti-oedematous, analgesic and anti-pyretic effects of L. pacari extract in carrageenan-induced paw oedema, acetic acid writhing and LPS-induced fever, respectively. L. pacari extract significantly inhibited leucocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity induced by beta-glucan. In addition, the L. pacari extract presented significant analgesic, anti-oedematous and anti-pyretic effects. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the L. pacari extract in the F1 model led us to identify ellagic acid. As did the extract, ellagic acid presented anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and analgesic effects. However, ellagic acid had no anti-pyretic effect, suggesting that other compounds present in the plant stem are responsible for this effect. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate potential therapeutic effects of L. pacari extract and ellagic acid, providing new prospects for the development of drugs to treat pain, oedema and inflammation.

  1. The prozone effect exerted by the complement-binding anti-Lea on anti-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanmukh R; Parekh, Kamlesh H

    2017-01-01

    Prozone phenomenon is seen with very high-titer antibodies in an immune serum. The prozone effect on anti-D by a low-titer anti-Le a was investigated associated with neonatal jaundice. Standard methods were used in investigations. The child was born at full-term developed mild jaundice. With weak direct antiglobulin test+, her indirect serum bilirubin was progressed to 27.5 mg/dL in 48 h. Anti-D and anti-Le a were detected in the mother. Both these antibodies were detected in the child's serum though the eluate from red blood cells (RBCs) contained only anti-D. Mother's anti-D was masked by anti-Le a if the RBCs possessed both the antigens together. Anti-D was revealed only with D-positive RBCs lacking Le a or if the serum was modified by mixing with Le a+ saliva or was heated at 56°C or fortified with citrate solution. An anti-D showed prozone effect exerted by the complement-fixing anti-Le a in the test.

  2. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results: OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (pdiseases. PMID:28884086

  3. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract ofOpuntia humifusastem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa ( O. humifusa ) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (pdiseases.

  4. Anti-thrombotic and anti-tumor effect of water extract of caulis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-thrombosis and anti-tumor effect of the water extract of the caulis of Sargentodoxa cuneata (Oliv.) Rehd. et Wils. (WCSW) in rat and mouse models. Methods: WCSW extract was prepared and the main constituents were determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The acute ...

  5. Anti-emetic activity of Grewia lasiodiscus root extract and fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of Grewia lasiodiscus (K Schum) root is used in African traditional medicine to treat fever, pains and emesis. A 70% aqueous methanolic extract of G. lasiodiscus root (Extract) was obtained and fractionated on column chromatography using solvents of increasing polarities to yield three fractions designated F1 to ...

  6. Explicit and implicit effects of anti-marijuana and anti-tobacco TV advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzewska, Maria; Ginsburg, Harvey J

    2007-01-01

    Effects of anti-tobacco and anti-marijuana TV advertisements on explicit (i.e., semantic differential ratings) and implicit (i.e. Implicit Association Test, IAT) attitudes toward tobacco and marijuana were compared. Two hundred twenty nine, 18- to 19-year-old U.S. college students were randomly assigned to anti-tobacco or anti-marijuana PSA viewing conditions. Participants completed a short survey on attitudes to tobacco and marijuana. Afterwards they watched 15 PSAs embedded in a 15-min science program. At the end, all participants completed IAT for marijuana, IAT for tobacco and the assessment of explicit attitudes. Results of ANCOVA revealed a significant interaction between type of TV PSAs watched and implicit attitudes, F(1,223)=7.12, padvertisements watched (i.e., anti-tobacco or anti-marijuana). However, analogical analysis on explicit measures showed that attitudes to marijuana became less negative among students that watched anti-marijuana ads than the group with anti-tobacco ads, F(1,222)=5.79, p<0.02. The discussion focused on the practical and theoretical implications of the observed dissociation between implicit and explicit attitudes to marijuana after the exposure to anti-marijuana PSAs.

  7. Accelerated Blood Clearance (ABC Phenomenon Favors the Accumulation of Tartar Emetic in Pegylated Liposomes in BALB/c Mice Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara C. M. Lopes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tartar emetic (TE was the first drug used to treat leishmaniasis. However, its use was discontinued due to high toxicity. Association of TE with liposomes is a strategy to reduce its side effects. Pegylated liposomes (Lpeg present lower rates of uptake by macrophages and prolonged circulation compared to their nonpegylated counterparts. However, repeated administration of Lpeg can cause an Accelerated Blood Clearance (ABC phenomenon, whereby recognition of liposomes by antibodies results in faster phagocytosis. This work evaluated the effect of TE administration on histopathological aspects and the effect of the ABC phenomenon on targeting and toxicity in mice. Our results show that treatment with free or liposomal TE had no effect on the erythrocyte count, on liver and spleen weight, and on hepatic, splenic, and cardiac histology in mice. Severe lesions were observed on the kidneys of animals treated with a single dose of free TE. Treatment with TE in Lpeg after induction of ABC phenomenon caused a significant increase in Sb level in the liver without toxicity. Furthermore, mice treated with TE in liposomes showed normal renal histopathology. These results suggest site-specific targeting of Sb to the liver after induction of ABC phenomenon with no toxicity to other organs.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum (Amaryllidaceae) leaf ethanolic extract. Analgesic effect was investigated in acetic acid induced writhing model and formalin induced licking model in swiss albino mice. Anti-inflammatory effect was conducted in carrageenan-induced ...

  9. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaars, Marcel H; Rodrigues, Susana; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-04-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of valinomycin produced by Streptomyces spp. and cereulide was performed at a pH range of pH 5.5 to pH 9.5, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Both compounds display pH-dependent activity against selected Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. Notably, B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 and the emetic B. cereus strains F4810/72 and A529 showed reduced sensitivity to both compounds, with the latter two strains displaying full resistance to cereulide. Both compounds showed no activity against the selected Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was highest at alkaline pH values, where the membrane potential (ΔΨ) is the main component of the proton motive force (PMF). Furthermore, inhibition of growth was observed in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Determination of the ΔΨ, using the membrane potential probe DiOC(2)(3) (in the presence of 50 mM KCl) in combination with flow cytometry, demonstrated for the first time the ability of cereulide to dissipate the ΔΨ in sensitive Gram-positive bacteria. The putative role of cereulide production in the ecology of emetic B. cereus is discussed.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Activities of Valinomycin and Cereulide, the Bacillus cereus Emetic Toxin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaars, Marcel H.; Rodrigues, Susana; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of valinomycin produced by Streptomyces spp. and cereulide was performed at a pH range of pH 5.5 to pH 9.5, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Both compounds display pH-dependent activity against selected Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. Notably, B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 and the emetic B. cereus strains F4810/72 and A529 showed reduced sensitivity to both compounds, with the latter two strains displaying full resistance to cereulide. Both compounds showed no activity against the selected Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was highest at alkaline pH values, where the membrane potential (ΔΨ) is the main component of the proton motive force (PMF). Furthermore, inhibition of growth was observed in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Determination of the ΔΨ, using the membrane potential probe DiOC2(3) (in the presence of 50 mM KCl) in combination with flow cytometry, demonstrated for the first time the ability of cereulide to dissipate the ΔΨ in sensitive Gram-positive bacteria. The putative role of cereulide production in the ecology of emetic B. cereus is discussed. PMID:21357430

  11. The effects of areca catechu L extract on anti-inflammation and anti-melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K K; Choi, J D

    1999-08-01

    Ethanolic extract (CC-516) from Areca catechu L was prepared and its various biological activities were evaluated, CC-516 showed potent anti-oxidative, free radical scavenging, and anti-hyaluronidase activity. Anti-oxidative effect of CC-516 (IC _ 50: 45.4 mug/ml) was lower than butylated hydroxytoluene (IC _ 50: 5mug ml), but similar to tocopherol and higher than ascorbic acid. Especially, CC-516 exhibited relatively high free radical scavenging activity (IC _ 50: 10.2 mug/ml) compared to control. CC-516 inhibited effectively hyaluronidase activity (IC _ 50: 416 mug/ml), showed inhibition in vivo on delayed hypersensitivity as well as croton-oil induced ear edema in mice when it was topically applied. These results strongly suggest that CC-516 may reduce immunoregulatory/inflammatory skin trouble. Also, from the results, we have elucidated that CC-516 showed anti-allergic and anti-cytotoxicity activity. The whitening effect of CC-516 shown by the inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity with IC _ 50 of 0.48 mg/ml and of melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells. This study indicates that CC-516 is effective on anti-inflammatory/anti-melanogenesis, and can be used as a new agent for cosmetics.

  12. Comparative analysis of antimicrobial activities of valinomycin and cereulide, the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Tempelaars, M.H.; Rodrigues, S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cereulide and valinomycin are highly similar cyclic dodecadepsipeptides with potassium ionophoric properties. Cereulide, produced by members of the Bacillus cereus group, is known mostly as emetic toxin, and no ecological function has been assigned. A comparative analysis of the antimicrobial activity of valinomycin produced by Streptomyces spp. and cereulide was performed at a pH range of pH 5.5 to pH 9.5, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Both compounds display pH-dependent activity a...

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of yucca schidigera: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piacente S

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yucca schidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. According to folk medicine, yucca extracts have anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant contains several physiologically active phytochemicals. It is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and is used commercially as a saponin source. Saponins have diverse biological effects, including anti-protozoal activity. It has been postulated that saponins may have anti-arthritic properties by suppressing intestinal protozoa which may have a role in joint inflammation. Yucca is also a rich source of polyphenolics, including resveratrol and a number of other stilbenes (yuccaols A, B, C, D and E. These phenolics have anti-inflammatory activity. They are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkB stimulates synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, which causes formation of the inflammatory agent nitric oxide. Yucca phenolics are also anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers, which may aid in suppressing reactive oxygen species that stimulate inflammatory responses. Based on these findings, further studies on the anti-arthritic effects of Yucca schidigera are warranted.

  14. Anti-fibrotic effects of Ginsan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji-young; Lee, Jung-woo; Son, Hyeog-jin; Kim, Hyung-doo; Han, Young-soo; Yun, Yeon-sook; Song, Jie-young [Korea institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is the consequence of a variety of diseases with no satisfying treatment option. Therapy induced fibrosis also limits the efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in numerous cancers. It has been proposed that fibrogenesis is not a unique pathologic process but rather, is due to an excess of the same biologic events involved in normal tissue repair. Persistent and exaggerated wound healing ultimately leads to an excess of fibroblast replication and matrix deposition. Several studies revealed that TGF-{beta}1, collagen 1, fibronectin, various chemokine and some anti-oxidant are overexpressed in radiation induced pulmonary fibrosis. A number of studies were performed that polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginsan, has been demonstrated to be a potent promising biological response modifier (BRM), including proliferation of lymphocytes, generation of lymphokine activated killer cells, and production of several cytokines. On the basis of several results of the ability of ginsan on modulation of redox system and cytokine balance, we examined whether ginsan directly regulates fibroblast proliferation, differentiation factors, and also investigated the mechanism of the antifibrotic effects of ginsan.

  15. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in vivo in mice injected with Hela cells. The parameters measured were tumor volume and weight. In vitro anti-tumor effects of PDC were assessed by measuring expressions of caspase-3, caspase-9 and P53 proteins in Hela cells via ELISA assay. Thymus ...

  16. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides from rhizome of Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-tumor effects of polysaccharides from Curculigo orchioides (PDC) on cervical cancer and the possible mechanisms involved. Methods: A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize extraction conditions for PDC. The anti-tumor effect of PDC on cervical cancer was investigated in ...

  17. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-04-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (pstar extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (pstar methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies.

  18. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Definitive scope of a facility for E-Metal product segregation at the UO{sub 3} Plant Project CG-767

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, L.D.

    1957-11-04

    E-Metal production is scheduled to start through the UO{sub 3} Plant in July of 1958. E-Metal is defined in HW-46138 as uranium metal enriched with U-235 to a level selected to be always-safe for non-metallic uranium forms, i.e. for compounds encountered during solvent extraction or calcination. Currently E-metal as selected contains 0.94% U-235 prior to irradiation. Planning of a segregation facility requires that the mixing of E-Metal with normal uranium be minimized, thereby preventing costly downgrading. Segregation of E-Metal through existing facilities would require extensive cleanout and flushing. Production scheduling with present demonstrated capacity would make this method impossible. The Redox Plant will produce E-Metal on an intermittent basis. It is expected that normal operating production of E-Metal through the Redox Plant will be quantities of 100 to 200 tons. Production through the UO{sub 3} Plant will follow on this same intermittent basis. During the first two quarters of FY `59 the UO{sub 3} Plant production of E-Metal is forecast at not greater than 100 tons per quarter. Following this initial period the E-Metal production is forecast to run 135 to 200 tons per quarter for the next three to four years. It is the purpose of this document to establish a scope and design criteria for a facility providing segregation of E-metal in the UO{sub 3} Plant until the continuous calciners have demonstrated sufficient capacity to process all production. The two new tanks required for this project may be obtained from excess vessels available on-site. In order to complete this facility by July, 1958, it will be required that existing on-site equipment and materials be adapted for all possible applications.

  20. Experimental comparison of EMC effect in the anti νn and anti νp interactions in neon nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asratyan, A.E.; Efremenko, V.I.; Fedotov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    In the framework of the method used to separate the antiν and antiνp interactions in the neon nucleus, a strong distinction of the quantity Rsub(Ne)(x)=(dσsup(antiνn)/dx)/(dσsup(antiνp)/dx) measured in this anti νNe experiment from the analogous quantity Rsub(D)(x) obtained earlier in a deuterium experimentis found. This difference can be attributed to the difference between the magnitudes of the EMC effect in the anti νn and anti νp scattering

  1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... reduce significantly the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with Diclofenac. (positive control). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract prepared from Myrtus nivellei. Keywords: Anti-inflammatoy activity; Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab; ...

  2. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  3. Anti-anxiety effect of methanol extract of Pericarpium zanthoxyli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine if the methanol extract of Pericarpium zanthoxyli exerts anti-anxiety effects and also to explore any probable anti-anxiety mechanism in vivo. Methods: The staircase test, elevated plus maze test, rota-rod treadmill test and convulsions induced by strychnine and picrotoxin on mice were tested to identify ...

  4. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  5. The effects of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a complication of excessive anticoagulation.2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin. The NSAIDs produce their effects through a blockade of the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by COX. Corticosteroids reduce the availability of arachidonic acid, contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity ...

  6. (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging ...

  7. Characterization and exposure assessment of emetic bacillus cereus and cereulide production in food products on the Dutch market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G.; Dissel, Serge; Reij, Martine W.; Zwietering, Marcel H.; In't Veld, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide, which can be produced by Bacillus cereus, can be the cause of food poisoning upon ingestion by the consumer. The toxin causes vomiting and is mainly produced in farinaceous food products. This article includes the prevalence of B. cereus and of cereulide in food

  8. Anti-amyloidogenic effect of thiacremonone through anti-inflamation in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gui Hua; Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Han, Sang Bae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Moon, Dong Cheul; Kim, Youngsoo; Lee, Myung Koo; Oh, Ki-Wan; Jeong, Heon Sang; Leem, Jae Yoon; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Jung Hwa; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated for amyloidogenesis. Sulfur compounds extracted from garlic have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, we have investigated that thiacremonone, a sulfur compound isolated from garlic has anti-inflammatory effects. To investigate thiacremonone's potential effect on anti-neuroinflammation and anti-amyloidogenesis, 4 week old ICR mice were given different doses of thiacremonone (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) in drinking water for 1 month and received intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (250 μg/kg/day) at last 7 days of treatment. Our data show thiacremonone decreased LPS-induced memory impairment, glial activation, pro-inflammatory mediators' expression, and amyloidogenesis. In an in vitro study, we obtained similar results, with thiacremonone (1, 2, and 5 μg/ml) effectively decreased LPS (1 μg/ml)-induced glial activation and inflammatory mediators generation which are implicated in amyloidogenesis. Our data also demonstrated that thiacremonone inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis in cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. NF-κB, a critical transcriptional factor regulating not only inflammation but also amyloid-β generation, was inhibited by thiacremonone via blocking of phosphorylation of IκBα in mice brain as well as cultured astrocytes and microglial BV-2 cells. These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory compound, thiacremonone, inhibited neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis through inhibition of NF-κB activity, and thus could be applied for intervention of inflammation-related neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Necroulcerative hemorrhagic gastritis in a cat secondary to the administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obr, Teresa D; Fry, Joanna K; Lee, Justine A; Hottinger, Heidi A

    2017-09-01

    To describe a case of necroulcerative gastritis in a cat secondary to administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide as an emetic agent. A 10-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair was evaluated for hematemesis less than 24 hours following ingestion of a piece of foam. The pet owner had administered 2 doses of 0.5-1.0 tablespoons (7.5-15 mL) of 3% hydrogen peroxide in an attempt to induce emesis at home; emesis was achieved and produced the foam foreign body. Due to the presence of protracted vomiting and hematemesis, the patient was then presented to an emergency facility for further diagnostics and treatment. Initial blood work was normal on presentation, and advanced imaging of the abdomen was performed. An exploratory laparotomy revealed no foreign material in the gastrointestinal tract; however, severe ulceration of approximately 60% of the gastric mucosa was observed around the cardia and extended from the fundus down through the body of the stomach to the lesser curvature. Due to the severity of ulceration and presumed poor prognosis, the patient was euthanized intraoperatively. Histopathology of the stomach wall was consistent with severe confluent necroulcerative and hemorrhagic pleocellular gastritis, presumed to be secondary to administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide, which was used as the primary emetic agent in this case. The oral administration of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution in cats can result in necroulcerative gastritis as a possible sequel. While hydrogen peroxide is considered a safe emetic agent in dogs, its use in cats is not recommended. As a result, the use of emetic agents in cats should be limited to veterinary administration, using alternative, safer emetic agents such as alpha-adrenergic agonists. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  10. Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the standardized oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the standardized oil of Indian Callistemon lanceolatus leaves in experimental animals. M Sudhakar, CV Rao, AL Rao, A Ramesh, N Srinivas, DB Raju, B Krishna Murthy ...

  11. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF CHAMOMILE ESSENTIAL OIL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, D.; Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Bukovska, A.; Bujňáková, D.; Grešáková, L.; Koppel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites with positive pharmacological properties, e.g. anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulative, but they can have toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to analyze anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Mice received chamomile essential oil in three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm) in the standard roden...

  12. Terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and the Copycat Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    that an increase in anti-terrorism makes it more likely that cells will plan small rather than large attacks. Furthermore, we see that an increase in anti-terrorism can make a terrorist attack more likely. Analyzing the problem of optimal anti-terrorism we see that the introduction of a copycat effect rationalizes......In this paper we formulate and analyze a simple dynamic model of the interaction between terrorists and authorities. Our primary aim is to analyze how the introduction of a so called copycat effect influences behavior and outcomes. We first show that our simple model of terrorist cells implies...... an increase in the level of anti-terrorism after a large attack. Using this result we show how the copycat effect changes the dynamic pattern of terrorism attacks and what the long run consequences are...

  13. Anti-Nociceptive And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHT anti-inflammatory effect was elucidated to be significantly (p<0.05) mediated via histaminergic, serotonergic, bradykinin and prostaglandin inhibition. PHT was also shown to be more protective than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in the castor oil- induced diarrhea model, which suggests the involvement of other mechanisms.

  14. Cytotoxic, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial effects of different extracts obtained from Artemisia rupestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokerbek, Shamshabanu; Sakipova, Zuriyadda; Chalupová, Marta; Nejezchlebová, Marcela; Hošek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Artemisia rupestris is a part of traditional Kazakh folk medicine. Extracts obtained from this plant are used to treat various diseases, including cancer. This study evaluates the anti-microbial, cytotoxic, and anti-cancer effects of different extracts of the plant. Different extraction techniques were used and the resultant activities were compared. Extracts of A. rupestris were prepared from the flowers plus the leaves and from the stems. The antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus was quantified. Cell lines L1210 and THP-1 were used to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of these extracts in vitro. The anti-cancer effect was tested using L1210-induced tumorgenesis in mouse model. The aqueous extract of stems was the most active against C. albicans, whereas the methanolic extract of flowers plus leaves especially inhibited the growth of S. aureus. The aqueous extracts were found to be non-cytotoxic for both cell lines, whereas the lipophilic extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The extract obtained from flowers plus leaves was more cytotoxic than that from stems. The tested extracts showed no anti-cancer potential. The results obtained testify to the relatively safe consumption of aqueous extracts of A. rupestris, but lipophilic extracts showed toxic effects and their consumption should be considered more carefully.Key words: L1210 cell line THP-1 cell line microwave-assisted extraction ultrasonic-assisted extraction Candida albicans Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. Anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber Officinale on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects of Zingiber officinale on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus using alloxan and insulin resistance. Aqueous extracts of raw ginger was administered orally at a chosen dose of 500mg/ml for a period of 4 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic ...

  16. Neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract mediating inputs from emetic vagal afferents and the area postrema to the pattern generator for the emetic act in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, T; Fukuda, H

    1992-08-01

    Roles of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract corresponding to the area subpostrema (mNST) for the retching reflex were investigated in decerebrate, paralyzed dogs. Retching was defined as rhythmic coactivation of the phrenic and abdominal muscle nerves. Retching which had been induced by stimulation of the left and right abdominal vagus nerves was impaired by cooling the left and right mNSTs, respectively. This result indicates that the mNST neurons mediate activities of emetic vagal afferents. All 40 non-respiratory neurons in the mNST, which had excitatory response to pulse train stimulation of the vagus nerve, were also activated by continuous stimulation of the vagus nerve to provoke retching. During provoked retching, however, these neurons did not exhibit any activities modulated in association with retching. The average latency of responses of these neurons to the pulse train stimulation (306.5 ms) was significantly shorter than that of the inspiratory neurons in the lateral NST and the adjacent reticular formation. Discharge frequencies of these neurons in the mNST gradually increased after administration of apomorphine (6/10) and glutamate (14/14) to the 4th ventricle. Antidromic responses to stimulation of the Bötzinger complex were observed in some (20/289) of the mNST neurons. These findings suggest that neurons in the mNST mediate the information from both the abdominal vagal afferents and the area postrema and drive the pattern generator for retching and vomiting, which is assumed to be located in the Bötzinger complex.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of anti-microbial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo

    2016-09-01

    Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) were originally thought to exert protecting actions against bacterial infection by disintegrating bacterial membranes. Upon identification of internal bacterial targets, the view changed and moved toward inhibition of prokaryote-specific biochemical processes. However, the level of none of these activities can explain the robust efficacy of some of these peptides in animal models of systemic and cutaneous infections. A rapidly growing panel of reports suggests that AMPs, now called host-defense peptides (HDPs), act through activating the immune system of the host. This includes recruitment and activation of macrophages and mast cells, inducing chemokine production and altering NF-κB signaling processes. As a result, both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are elevated together with activation of innate and adaptive immunity mechanisms, wound healing, and apoptosis. HDPs sterilize the systemic circulation and local injury sites significantly more efficiently than pure single-endpoint in vitro microbiological or biochemical data would suggest and actively aid recovering from tissue damage after or even without bacterial infections. However, the multiple and, often opposing, immunomodulatory functions of HDPs require exceptional care in therapeutic considerations.

  18. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of some plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Moein, N. M.; Abdel-Moniem, E. A.; Mohamed, D. A.; Hanfy, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of sweet basil flowers, leaves of eucalyptus and the aerial parts of celery and sage on acute inflammation along with the effect of a methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The effect of the methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on certain biochemical parameters in adjuvant arthritis and its safety in liver and kidney functions were evaluated. The fatty a...

  19. Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Tricyclic Anti-Depressants Following Intrathecal Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Lois J.; Wilcox, George L.

    1984-01-01

    The anti-nociceptive effects of three tricyclic anti-depressants (desipramine, protriptyline, fluoxetine) were evaluated in mice following intrathecal administration. Nociceptive behavior was produced by intrathecal administration of Substance P and measured for 60 seconds following subcutaneous and intrathecal administration of vehicle and increasing doses of the drugs being tested. Systemically administered protriptyline produced dose related antinociception in this paradigm. A similar effect was seen following systemic desipramine; while fluoxetine was inactive systemically. Both protriptyline and desipramine given intrathecally were antinociceptive while fluoxetine had a biphasic effect, being analgesic only at low doses. These results indicate that tricyclic antidepressants may produce analgesia at the spinal level in rodents. This action may be related to the therapeutic success of tricyclic antidepressants in chronic pain syndromes. PMID:6335632

  20. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Aging and Anti-Tumor Effects of Lithocholic Bile Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arlia-Ciommo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are cholesterol-derived bioactive lipids that play essential roles in the maintenance of a heathy lifespan. These amphipathic molecules with detergent-like properties display numerous beneficial effects on various longevity- and healthspan-promoting processes in evolutionarily distant organisms. Recent studies revealed that lithocholic bile acid not only causes a considerable lifespan extension in yeast, but also exhibits a substantial cytotoxic effect in cultured cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the robust anti-aging and anti-tumor effects of lithocholic acid have emerged. This review summarizes the current knowledge of these mechanisms, outlines the most important unanswered questions and suggests directions for future research.

  1. Anti-cancer effects of xanthones from pericarps of mangosteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Iinuma, Munekazu; Nozawa, Yoshinori

    2008-03-01

    Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a tree found in South East Asia, and its pericarps have been used as traditional medicine. Phytochemical studies have shown that they contain a variety of secondary metabolites, such as oxygenated and prenylated xanthones. Recent studies revealed that these xanthones exhibited a variety of biological activities containing anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-cancer effects. We previously investigated the anti-proliferative effects of four prenylated xanthones from the pericarps; alpha-mangostin, beta-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, and methoxy-beta-mangostin in various human cancer cells. These xanthones are different in the number of hydroxyl and methoxy groups. Except for methoxy-beta-mangostin, the other three xanthones strongly inhibited cell growth at low concentrations from 5 to 20 microM in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Our recent study focused on the mechanism of alpha-mangostin-induced growth inhibition in DLD-1 cells. It was shown that the anti-proliferative effects of the xanthones were associated with cell-cycle arrest by affecting the expression of cyclins, cdc2, and p27; G1 arrest by alpha-mangostin and beta-Mangostin, and S arrest by gamma-mangostin. alpha-Mangostin found to induce apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic pathway following the down-regulation of signaling cascades involving MAP kinases and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. Synergistic effects by the combined treatment of alpha-mangostin and anti-cancer drug 5-FU was to be noted. alpha-Mangostin was found to have a cancer preventive effect in rat carcinogenesis bioassay and the extract from pericarps, which contains mainly alpha-mangostin and gamma-mangostin, exhibited an enhancement of NK cell activity in a mouse model. These findings could provide a relevant basis for the development of xanthones as an agent for cancer prevention and the combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs.

  2. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat...

  3. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta essential oil in activated macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tagetes minuta (T. minuta) essential oil. Methods In the present study T. minuta essential oil was obtained from leaves of T. minuta via hydro-distillation and then was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The anti-oxidant capacity of T. minuta essential oil was examined by measuring reactive oxygen, reactive nitrogen species and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. minuta essential oil was determined through measuring NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and TNF-α mRNA expression in lipopolysacharide-stimulated murine macrophages using real-time PCR. Results Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the main components in the T. minuta essential oil were dihydrotagetone (33.86%), E-ocimene (19.92%), tagetone (16.15%), cis-β-ocimene (7.94%), Z-ocimene (5.27%), limonene (3.1%) and epoxyocimene (2.03%). The T. minuta essential oil had the ability to scavenge all reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species radicals with IC50 12-15 µg/mL, which indicated a potent radical scavenging activity. In addition, T. minuta essential oil significantly reduced NADH oxidase, inducible nitric oxide synthaseand TNF-α mRNA expression in the cells at concentrations of 50 µg/mL, indicating a capacity of this product to potentially modulate/diminish immune responses. Conclusions T. minuta essential oil has radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities and could potentially be used as a safe effective source of natural anti-oxidants in therapy against oxidative damage and stress associated with some inflammatory conditions. PMID:25182441

  4. Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To study the hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Sanqixiantao dressing. Methods: ... Sanqixiantao extract significantly shortened blood clotting time in vitro (p < 0.01), and showed antibacterial activities against ..... application effect of different silver dressings in treatment of patients ...

  5. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from Taraxacum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio and extraction time on the yield of PTM were investigated using a Box-Behnken design (BBD). The in vitro anti-tumor effect of PTM on MCF-7 cells was investigated by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the mechanism of PTM-induced ...

  6. Energy evaluation of protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Tomasz; Dobry, Marian Witalis

    2017-09-01

    This article describes an energy method of assessing protection effectiveness of anti-vibration gloves on the human dynamic structure. The study uses dynamic models of the human and the glove specified in Standard No. ISO 10068:2012. The physical models of human-tool systems were developed by combining human physical models with a power tool model. The combined human-tool models were then transformed into mathematical models from which energy models were finally derived. Comparative energy analysis was conducted in the domain of rms powers. The energy models of the human-tool systems were solved using numerical simulation implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation procedure demonstrated the effectiveness of the anti-vibration glove as a method of protecting human operators of hand-held power tools against vibration. The desirable effect is achieved by lowering the flow of energy in the human-tool system when the anti-vibration glove is employed.

  7. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ATX is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX.

  8. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitimuta, Surached; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2017-03-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE) ( Camellia sinensis L.). The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl₄-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE's principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl₄-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl₄ intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  9. Camellia sinensis L. Extract and Its Potential Beneficial Effects in Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Hepatotoxic, and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surached Thitimuta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the potential benefits of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase activities of a methanolic extract of fresh tea leaves (FTE (Camellia sinensis L.. The antioxidant capacity was investigated using three different methods at different temperatures. The anti-inflammatory activity was studied in vitro by the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase assay. The anti-hepatotoxic effect was investigated in CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. The anti-tyrosinase activities of the FTE and its principal phenolic compounds were investigated in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA oxidation by a mushroom tyrosinase. A molecular docking study was conducted to determine how the FTE’s principal catechins interact with the tyrosinase. The FTE exhibited the best shelf life at low temperatures and demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxic, and anti-tyrosinase effects compared to positive references. Treatment of rats with the FTE at 2000 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days reversed CCl4-induced oxidative damage in hepatic tissues by lowering the levels of alanine aminotransferase by 69% and malondialdehyde by 90%. Our findings suggest that the FTE has the capacity to scavenge free radicals and can protect against oxidative stress induced by CCl4 intoxication. The docking results were consistent with our in vitro data, indicating the anti-tyrosinase potency of the principal catechins.

  10. Anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening effects of jucá (Libidibia ferrea Mart.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Tatiana do Nascimento; Barros, Aline Oliveira; Nogueira, Jéssica Rodrigues; Fruet, Andréa Costa; Rodrigues, Isis Costa; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marilia de Arruda Cardoso; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Barros, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes; de Vasconcellos, Marne Carvalho; Silva, Felipe Moura Araújo da; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2016-11-01

    Skin aging is a natural process of the human body that may be accelerated due to extrinsic causes. Libidibia ferrea, popularly known as jucá, is a small tree, which possesses an abundant phenolic composition with potential antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities. Thus, this work aimed to investigate the anti-wrinkle and anti-whitening potentials of jucá trunk bark (LFB) and pod (LFP) extracts. A comprehensive analysis of LFB and LFP phenolic composition was accomplished by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Effects on skin degradation were assessed by inhibitory enzymatic activity against elastase, hyaluronidase and collagenase through colorimetric assays. Cellular viability in B16F10 and primary fibroblasts were determined by Trypan Blue exclusion assay. Anti-melanogenic effects on B16F10 cells were evaluated using cellular tyrosinase, melanin content, western blot, and RT-qPCR analyses. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) was determined by gelatin zymography and western blot methodologies. LC-MS/MS analyses of LFB and LFP extracts allowed the characterization of 18 compounds, among them, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and secoridoids. Additionally the pod and trunk bark compositions were compared. Hyaluronidase inhibitory activity for both extracts, LFB (IC 50  = 8.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and LFP (IC 50  = 16 ± 0.5 µg/mL), was stronger than standard rutin (IC 50  = 27.6 ± 0.06). Pro-MMP-2 was significantly inhibited by both extracts. LFB and LFP decreased the melanin content in B16F10 due to tyrosinase inhibitory activity. L. ferrea extracts has high potential as a cosmetic ingredient due to its anti-wrinkle and depigmentant effects.

  11. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of Arjunarishta in high-fat fed animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant A. Shengule

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arjunarishta (AA, a formulation used as cardiotonic is a hydroalcoholic formulation of Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. Wight and Arn. (TA belonging to family Combretaceae. Objective: To evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Arjunarishta on high-fat diet fed animals. Materials and methods: High-fat diet fed (HFD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated with phytochemically standardized Arjunarishta (1.8 ml/kg, and hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (TAHA (250 mg/kg and rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg, for 3 months. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, blood biochemistry, liver triglyceride and systolic blood pressure were performed in all the groups. Effect of these drugs on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α were studied in liver tissue using Quantitative Real-time PCR. Results: HFD increased fasting blood glucose, liver triglyceride, systolic blood pressure and gene expression of TNF-α, IRS-1 and PGC-1α. Treatment of AA and TAHA significantly reduced fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These treatments significantly decreased gene expression of TNF-α (2.4, 2.2 and 2.6 fold change; increased IRS-1 (2.8, 2.9 and 2.8 fold change and PGC-1α (2.9, 3.7 and 3.3 fold change as compared to untreated HFD. Conclusion: Anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic effect of Arjunarishta may be mediated by decreased TNF-α and increased PGC-1α and IRS-1. Keywords: Rosuvastatin, Type 2 diabetes, Insulin sensitizer genes, Arjunarishta

  12. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect. PMID:24753740

  13. Antioxidants Impair Anti-Tumoral Effects of Vorinostat, but Not Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Vorinostat and Caspase-8 Downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition. PMID:24651472

  14. Antioxidants impair anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat, but not anti-neoplastic effects of Vorinostat and caspase-8 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Sorolla, Annabel; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat, applied as a single therapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation exhibits high anti-tumoral activity on endometrial carcinoma cell lines. In the present study, we have assessed the signalling processes underlying anti-tumoral effects of Vorinostat. Increasing evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species are responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell killing. We have found that Vorinostat induces formation of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage. To investigate the role of oxidative stress as anti-neoplastic mechanism, we have evaluated the effects of different antioxidants (Bha, Nac and Tiron) on endometrial carcinoma cell line Ishikawa treated with Vorinostat. We show that Bha, Nac and Tiron markedly inhibited the cytotoxic effects of Vorinostat, increasing cell viability in vitro. We found that all three antioxidants did not inhibited accumulation of acetyl Histone H4, so that antioxidants did not inhibit Vorinostat activity. Finally, we have evaluated the effects of antioxidants on anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat as monotherapy or in combination with caspase-8 downregulation in vivo. Interestingly, antioxidants blocked the reduction of tumour growth caused by Vorinostat, but they were unable to inhibit anti-tumoral activity of Vorinostat plus caspase-8 inhibition.

  15. Simulation of effect of anti-radar stealth principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Borao; Xing, Shuchen; Li, Chunyi

    1988-02-01

    The paper presents simulation methods and results of the anti-radar stealth principle, proving that anti-radar stealth aircraft can drastically reduce the combat efficiency of an air defense radar system. In particular, when anti-radar stealth aircraft are coordinated with jamming as a self-defense soft weapon, the discovery probability, response time and hit rate of the air defense radar system are much lower, with extensive reduction in jamming power and maximum exposure distance of self-defense and long-range support. The paper describes an assumed combat situation and construction of a calculation model for the aircraft survival rate, as well as simulation results and analysis. Four figures show an enemy bomber attacking an airfield, as well as the effects of the radar effective reflecting surface on discovery probability, guidance radius, aircraft survival and exposure distance (for long-range support and jamming).

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of electronic signal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Robert H; Sorgnard, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation often plays a key role in the perpetuation of pain. Chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis, immune system dysfunction, micro-circulatory disease, painful neuritis, and even heart disease) have increased as baby boomers age. Medicine's current anti-inflammatory choices are NSAIDs and steroids; the value in promoting cure and side effect risks of these medications are unclear and controversial, especially considering individual patient variations. Electricity has continuously been a powerful tool in medicine for thousands of years. All medical professionals are, to some degree, aware of electrotherapy; those who directly use electricity for treatment know of its anti-inflammatory effects. Electronic signal treatment (EST), as an extension of presently available technology, may reasonably have even more anti-inflammatory effects. EST is a digitally produced alternating current sinusoidal electronic signal with associated harmonics to produce theoretically reasonable and/or scientifically documented physiological effects when applied to the human body. These signals are produced by advanced electronics not possible even 10 to 15 years ago. The potential long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects of some electrical currents are based on basic physical and biochemical facts listed in the text below, namely that of stimulating and signaling effective and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in nerve and muscle cells. The safety of electrotherapeutic treatments in general and EST in particular has been established through extensive clinical use. The principles of physics have been largely de-emphasized in modern medicine in favor of chemistry. These electrical treatments, a familiar application of physics, thus represent powerful and appropriate elements of physicians' pain care armamentaria in the clinic and possibly for prescription for use at home to improve overall patient care and maintenance of quality of life via low-risk and potentially

  17. Anti-Hyperprolactinemic Effect of Formula Malt Decoction, a Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic activity of Formula Malt Decoction (FMD), a. Chinese herbal mixture. Methods: The effect of FMD on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (PGN), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were investigated in hyperprolactinemic.

  18. Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Sanqixiantao dressing. Methods: Sanqixiantao dressing was prepared by mixting with sanqixiiantao extract (8 %) with membrane-forming matrix (5:4:9:2 volume ratio of polyvinyl alcohol: Na CMC: gelatin: glycerol). Rats with local surface ...

  19. Anti-arthritic effect of total anthraquinone from Polygonum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the anti-arthritic effect of total anthraquinone from Polygonum cuspidatum (TAPC) on type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats, and to investigate the underlying mechanism(s). Methods: CIA rats were prepared and treated orally with TAPC at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, for 24 days.

  20. Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Caralluma edulis (Asclepiadaceae) and Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae) whole plants against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice. ... Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TGs) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were assayed using Merck diagnostic kits. For histopathological analysis ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Magnolia sieboldii Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Magnolia sieboldii extract (MSE) on the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines by macrophage. Methods: The whole plant of M. sieboldii was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was investigated on lipopolysaccharide ...

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ibuprofen in rat pups. Methods: The expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by western blotting; the inhibition of these proteins by plant compounds was evaluated.

  3. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Magnolia sieboldii Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Magnolia sieboldii extract (MSE) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophage. Methods: The whole plant of M. sieboldii was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was investigated on lipopolysaccharide ...

  4. Effect of processing methods on the nutritional values and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed at determining the effect of processing on the nutritional and anti -nutritional values of “food tree” [Adenanthera pavonina L. (Fabaceae)] seeds, a highly nutritional and underutilized legume. The seeds were separated into three groups namely, boiled, roasted and raw. Quantitative analysis was carried ...

  5. Effect of anti-smoking advertisements on Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, E; Gokler, M E; Metintas, S; Kalyoncu, C

    2016-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the perception of 10 anti-smoking advertisements in 1434 Turkish adolescents. We used the Effectiveness of the Anti-smoking Advertisements Scale, which included 6 items for each advertisement; each item was assessed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the impact of the advertisements. All the advertisements were more effective for adolescents who had never smoked compared to ex-smokers and current smokers. We also noted that, regardless of age, smoking status decreased the effectiveness of all the advertisements. Previous studies have shown that smokers have a negative attitude towards anti-smoking messages. In the present study, the most effective advertisements among adolescents were those with "Sponge and tar", "Smoking harms in every breath" and "Children want to grow". In conclusion, although anti-smoking campaigns are targeted towards adults, they also have a strong influence on adolescents. The main target population for advertisements should be individuals aged < 15 years who have not yet started smoking.

  6. Anti-proliferative effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro anti-proliferative effect and mechanism of action of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract on human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line. Methods: M. oleifera leaves were extracted with methanol. It was fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Several fractions were identified ...

  7. Effects of food processing techniques on the nutrient and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this work was to determine the effects of roasting, boiling, combination of roasting and boiling and soaking on the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of Afzelia Africana. Two kilograms of Afzelia Africana seeds were purchased from the local market, cleaned and divided into four equal portions for the four ...

  8. Anti-osteoporosis effect of Cistanche deserticola Ma extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-osteoporosis effect of Cistanche deserticola Ma extract in ovariectomized rats. ... Bone mineral density (BMD) of L4 vertebrae and right femur of rats was estimated, The length of each femur was measured, and biochemical analysis of serum and urine specimens were performed. Results: CDME dose-dependently ...

  9. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from Taraxacum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Anti-tumor effect of polysaccharides isolated from. Taraxacum mongolicum Hand-Mazz on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hu Niu1,2, JunWei Fan3, ... leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide [1]. Currently, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in China,.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum -cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), a kind of traditional therapy of moxibustion, has been used in China since 340 B.C. However, its mechanism remains unclear. So, this study was attempted to reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of ZBCS-moxi on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats.

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haou-Tzong; Hsieh, Jung-Feng; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot fungus widely used as a tonic for the promotion of longevity and health. Extracts of G. lucidum have been recognized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes. Among the many biologically active constituents of G. lucidum, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. G. lucidum polysaccharides have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity by increasing plasma insulin levels and decreasing plasma sugar levels in mice. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a promising therapeutic target in diabetes, and G. lucidum proteoglycan can inhibit this enzyme in vitro. Moreover, G. lucidum triterpenoids were shown to have inhibitory activity on aldose reductase and α-glucosidase that can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. In addition, a protein Ling Zhi-8 extracted from G. lucidum significantly decreased lymphocyte infiltration and increased the antibody detection of insulin in diabetic mice. This review summarizes most of the research about the hypoglycemic action effects of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and tritrerpenoids from G. lucidum as a guide for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  13. Anti-diabetic effects including diabetic nephropathy of anti-osteoporotic trace minerals on diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehira, Fusako; Ishimine, Nau; Miyagi, Ikuko; Eguchi, Yukinori; Shimada, Katsumasa; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Oshiro, Yoshihide

    2011-04-01

    In our previous study to evaluate the effects of soluble silicon (Si) on bone metabolism, Si and coral sand (CS) as a natural Si-containing material suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which regulates both glucose and bone metabolism and increases adipogenesis at the expense of osteogenesis, leading to bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of bone-seeking elements, Si and stable strontium (Sr), and CS as a natural material containing these elements using obese diabetic KKAy mice. Weanling male mice were fed diets containing 1% Ca supplemented with CaCO(3) as the control and CS, and diets supplemented with 50 ppm Si or 750 ppm Sr to control diet for 56 d. The mRNA expressions related to energy expenditure in the pancreas and kidney were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. At the end of feeding, plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased significantly in three test groups, while pancreatic PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA expression levels increased significantly toward the normal level, improving the glucose sensitivity of β-cells and inducing a significant decrease in insulin expression. The renal PPARγ, PPARα, and adiponectin expression levels, histologic indices of diabetic glomerulopathy, and plasma indices of renal function were also improved significantly in the test groups. Taken together, anti-osteoporotic trace minerals, Si and Sr, and CS containing them showed novel anti-diabetic effects of lowering blood glucose level, improving the tolerance to insulin, leptin, and adiponectin, and reducing the risk of glomerulopathy through modulation of related gene expression in the pancreas and kidney. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Jang, Seon-A; Joo, Haemi; Park, Sulkyoung; Kang, Se-Chan; Lee, Chul-Hoon; Kim, Sun-Young

    2011-02-08

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE) had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL) suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  15. Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of butanol extract from Arctium Lappa L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Se-Chan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, allergic inflammatory skin disease that is accompanied by markedly increased levels of inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, mast cells, and T cells. Arctium lappa L. is a traditional medicine in Asia. This study examined whether a butanol extract of A. lappa (ALBE had previously unreported anti-allergic or anti-inflammatory effects. Methods This study examined the effect of ALBE on the release of β-hexosaminidase in antigen-stimulated-RBL-2H3 cells. We also evaluated the ConA-induced expression of IL-4, IL-5, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and nuclear factor (NF-κB using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in mouse splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Results We observed significant inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells and suppressed mRNA expression and protein secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 induced by ConA-treated primary murine splenocytes after ALBE treatment. Additionally, ALBE (100 μg/mL suppressed not only the transcriptional activation of NF-κB, but also the phosphorylation of MAPKs in ConA-treated primary splenocytes. Conclusions These results suggest that ALBE inhibits the expression of IL-4 and IL-5 by downregulating MAPKs and NF-κB activation in ConA-treated splenocytes and supports the hypothesis that ALBE may have beneficial effects in the treatment of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis.

  16. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-cholinesterase, and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Culinary Mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Kien; Im, Kyung Hoan; Choi, Jaehyuk; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-12-01

    Culinary mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius has been popular in Asian countries. In this study, the anti-oxidant, cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities of methanol extract (ME) of fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius were evaluted. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazy free radical scavenging activity of ME at 2.0 mg/mL was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene, the standard reference. The ME exhibited significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. ME showed slightly lower but moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase than galantamine, a standard AChE inhibitor. It also exhibited protective effect against cytotoxicity to PC-12 cells induced by glutamate (10~100 µg/mL), inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and carrageenan-induced paw edema in a rat model. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the ME of P. pulmonarius contained at least 10 phenolic compounds and some of them were identified by the comparison with known standard phenolics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that fruiting bodies of P. pulmonarius possess antioxidant, anti-cholinesterase, and inflammation inhibitory activities.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte U

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...... side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol...

  18. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract of Indian Polygala arvensis in Experimental Animals. ... time in the hot plate method by 69.55% (p < 0.01) and 107.13% (p < 0.001) respectively as well as in analgesymeter-induced mechanical pain by 28.84% (p < 0.5) and 55.71% (p < 0.05) respectively.

  19. Original Research Article In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Acetylsalicylic acid. 100. 0.88 ± 0.09 (19.3) 0.35 ± 0.12 (64.7)*. 0.31 ± 0.08 (45.6) *. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, (n=5): significant compared to the vehicle treated group. Values in parenthesis represent percent inhibition of edema. respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of the crude methanol extract, chloroform fractions and.

  20. The effectiveness of anti-corruption policy: the Singapore experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu MANOLE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a problem that needs to be dealt with in both the public and private sectors. Singapore has adopted a comprehensive approach in tackling corruption in both sectors for a long time. The anti‐ corruption successes of Singapore have encouraged the establishment of strong, centralized anti‐corruption agencies across the globe. In this article, it is accentuated the importance of the effectiveness of anti-corruption policy in the general context of public administration in Singapore.

  1. Anti-arthritic effects of microneedling with bee venom gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdi Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Bee venom can significantly suppress the occurrence of gouty arthritis inflammation in rats and mice LPS inflammatory reaction. Choose the 750 μm microneedle with 10N force on skin about 3 minutes, bee venom can play the optimal role, and the anti-inflammatory effect is obvious. Microneedles can promote the percutaneous absorption of the active macromolecules bee venom gel.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Thyme Essential Oil in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Š. Juhas; D. Bujňáková; P. Rehák; Š. Čikoš; S. Czikková; J. Veselá; G. Iłková; J. Koppel

    2008-01-01

    Plant essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulatory ones. The aim of this work was to study the effects of thyme essential oil dietary administration in murine DTH/ CHS reaction, carrageenan paw oedema and TNBS colitis. Thyme essential oil was added to the murine diet at three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm) and fed to Balb/c mice. The extent of ear swelling in DTH/CHS reaction...

  3. Anti-stress and anti-oxidant effects of roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Santa Pau & Fernandes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenjale, R D; Shah, R K; Sathaye, S S

    2007-11-01

    The aqueous extract of C. borivilianum (250 mg/kg for 7 days) significantly reverted the elevated levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and serum corticosterone and also reduced the ulcer index, adrenal gland weight more as effectively as the standard drug (diazepam) in rats. At 125 mg/kg po, it showed a mild anti-stress activity. Under in vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) free radical scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation assay the extract considerably inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the levels of DPPH* free radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, respectively thus showing significant antioxidant property. The results suggested that it could be used for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced disorders.

  4. UV filters, ingredients with a recognized anti-inflammatory effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Couteau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%, benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%, benzophenone-3 (83%, octocrylène and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%, PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%, octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%, octyl dimethyl PABA (75%, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%. These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value.

  5. Highly symmetric D-brane-anti-D-brane effective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    The entire S-matrix elements of four, five and six point functions of D-brane-anti D-brane system are explored. To deal with symmetries of string amplitudes as well as their all order α ' corrections we first address a four point function of one closed string Ramond-Ramond (RR) and two real tachyons on the world volume of brane-anti brane system. We then focus on symmetries of string theory as well as universal tachyon expansion to achieve both string and effective field theory of an RR and three tachyons where the complete algebraic analysis for the whole S-matrix was also revealed. Lastly, we employ all the conformal field theory techniques to , working out with symmetries of theory and find out the expansion for the amplitude to be able to precisely discover all order singularity structures of D-brane-anti-D-brane effective actions of string theory. Various remarks about the so called generalized Veneziano amplitude and new string couplings are elaborated as well.

  6. Effects of anti-depressants on olfactory sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombion, Sandrine; Morand-Villeneuve, Nadège; Millot, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    Some studies have underlined a decrease in olfactory sensitivity in patients suffering from depression. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of current anti-depressant drugs on the olfactory sensitivity in mice. METHODS MICE: (N degrees =22) were tested in a Y-maze with a choice between an odorant (butanol) or distilled water before and during 3 weeks of daily intra-peritoneal injection of either citalopram or clomipramine. Their performance was compared with those of a control group (N degrees =11) injected with a saline solution. The results showed a significant decrease in olfactory sensitivity with both anti-depressants during the three weeks of treatment. The antidepressant induced alteration in serotonin and/or noradrenaline transmission in the olfactory bulb may account for the altered olfactory sensitivity observed in this study.

  7. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte U; Rungby, Jorgen; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol remains unexplored. Pathways with anti-obesity potential include sirtuin activation, blockade of transient receptor potential (TRPV1) channels, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 inhibitors, uncoupling protein activators, bile acids, crotonins, CB1 antagonists, but the cardiovascular profile remains to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs.

  8. Cereulide formation by Bacillus weihenstephanensis and mesophilic emetic Bacillus cereus at temperature abuse depends on pre-incubation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Henrichsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Emetic toxin (cereulide) formation was recently identified in a psychrotolerant species, Bacillus weihenstephanensis[Thorsen, L., Hansen, B.M., Nielsen, K.F.,Hendriksen, N.B., Phipps, R.K., Budde, B.B., 2006. Characterization ofemetic Bacillus weihenstephanensisis, a new cereulide-producing bacte......Emetic toxin (cereulide) formation was recently identified in a psychrotolerant species, Bacillus weihenstephanensis[Thorsen, L., Hansen, B.M., Nielsen, K.F.,Hendriksen, N.B., Phipps, R.K., Budde, B.B., 2006. Characterization ofemetic Bacillus weihenstephanensisis, a new cereulide......-producing bacterium. Applied and EnvironmentalMicrobiology, 72, 5118-5121.]. Although recent findings indicated B. weihenstephanensis as a cereulide producer only limited information is available regarding environmental conditions affecting cereulide production. In the present study a model agar system was used....... weihenstephanensis MC67 occurred in stationary growth phase, as previously observed for B. cereus, and biomass formation and cereulide formation showed a linear correlation. During incubation at 5 °C for 1, 2 and 3 weeks growth was inhibited and as a consequence no detectable cereulide production occurred for any...

  9. Concentrations of Arsenic and Boron in Water, Sediment and the Tissues of Fish in Emet Stream (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Semra

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the concentrations of arsenic and boron were determined in the water and the sediment, as well as in the muscle tissues of Squalius cephalus, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Barbus plebejus and Capoeta tinca from Emet Stream. The fish samples were caught in May 2011 and September 2012. The metal concentrations in the water samples were as follows: arsenic was 137.1-1002 µg L -1 , and boron was 2421-14490 µg L -1 . The metal concentrations in the sediment samples were as follows: arsenic was 14.51-3317.1 mg kg -1 , and boron was 14.22-1014.01 mg kg -1 . The mean tissue concentration of arsenic was lower than the TFC and WHO limits. Boron has been identified in fish tissues at concentrations between 0.26 and 2.96 mg kg -1 . The bioaccumulation in the muscle tissues of all fish species caught from Emet Stream did not exceed the limit values.

  10. Anti-Stress and Anti-Amnesic Effects of Coriandrum sativum Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Coriandrum sativum Linn. (Umbelliferae, C. sativum) is cultivated throughout the world for its use as spice and as a folk medicine. This study deals with the anti-stress and anti-amnestic properties of C. sativum extract in rats. Methods: Urinary levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were used to ...

  11. Anti-fibrotic effects of theophylline on lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Hoshino, Shigenori; Inoue, Koji; Kida, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Masahiko; Takimoto, Takayuki; Hirata, Haruhiko; Kijima, Takashi; Kumagai, Toru; Osaki, Tadashi; Tachibana, Isao; Kawase, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Theophylline has been used in the management of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for over 50 years. It has not only a bronchodilating effect, but also an anti-inflammatory one conducive to the inhibition of airway remodeling, including subepithelial fibrosis. To date however, whether theophylline has a direct inhibitory effect on airway fibrosis has not been established. To clarify this question, we examined whether theophylline affected the function of lung fibroblasts. Theophylline suppressed TGF-β-induced type I collagen (COL1) mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts and also inhibited fibroblast proliferation stimulated by FBS and TGF-β-induced α-SMA protein. A cAMP analog also inhibited TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts. A PKA inhibitor reduced the inhibitory effect of theophylline on TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression. These results indicate that theophylline exerts anti-fibrotic effects, at least partly, through the cAMP-PKA pathway

  12. Anti-coagulation effect of Fc fragment against anti-β2-GP1 antibodies in mouse models with APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weidong; Zhang, Yaou; Bu, Cunya; Sun, Shijing; Hu, Shaoliang; Cai, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Anti-beta (2)-glycoprotein I (anti-β2-GP1) is one of the important pathogenesis factors responsible for thrombosis formation in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a common method used to inhibit the abnormal antibody levels and decrease the mortality of APS in emergency situations. We hypothesize that the Fc fragment of IgG is the molecular structure responsible for these effects. The present study investigates the beneficial effects of both recombinant and natural human Fc fragments of heterogeneous IgG against human anti-β2-GP1 antibodies in mouse models with APS. Results showed that both recombinant and natural human Fc fragments moderately but significantly decreased the levels of serum anti-β2-GP1 antibodies and had anti-coagulation effects in human β2-GP1-immunized mice. Furthermore, both recombinant and natural human Fc fragments inhibited thrombosis formation and decreased mortality in mouse models infused intravenously with human anti-β2GP1 antibodies from patients with APS. Findings suggest that the Fc fragment might be one of the active structural units of heterogeneous IgG. Thus, recombinant human Fc fragment administration may be a useful treatment for individuals with APS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Black cumin seeds show promising anti-cancer effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is responsible for millions of death worldwide each year and it is the second most common cancer in both men and women. According to the American Cancer Society, lung cancer is responsible for about 1 in 4 cancer deaths and 14% of all new cases. More and more people require treatment, but due to the side effects and complications of modern drugs, there has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds with anti-cancer potential. Black cumin seed is one of the most promising and extensively studied plants which could provide support in considering this compound as an emerging drug.

  14. Eosinophils in bronchial mucosa of asthmatics after allergen challenge: effect of anti-IgE treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rensen, E. L. J.; Evertse, C. E.; van Schadewijk, W. A. A. M.; van Wijngaarden, S.; Ayre, G.; Mauad, T.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Sterk, P. J.; Rabe, K. F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anti-IgE, omalizumab, inhibits the allergen response in patients with asthma. This has not been directly related to changes in inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that anti-IgE exerts its effects by reducing airway inflammation. To that end, the effect of anti-IgE on

  15. Anti-eosinophilic effect of Lafoensia pacari in toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerio, A P; Sá-Nunes, A; Albuquerque, D A; Soares, E G; Faccioli, L H

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported the anti-inflammatory activity of Lafoensia pacari extract in Toxocara canis infection, a model of systemic IL-5-dependent eosinophil migration. In the present study, we describe the kinetics of the anti-inflammatory activity of L. pacari extract and compare it with dexamethasone. T. canis-infected mice were submitted to different treatment protocols and the cells present in bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity were collected at the end of each treatment period. The results showed that L. pacari extract effectively inhibited eosinophil migration only when the treatment was initiated before the peak of eosinophil migration (1st to 18th; 12th to 18th and 12th to 24th day post-infection). When eosinophil migration was established, administration of L. pacari extract had no effect on it (treatment 18th to 24th day post-infection). Dexamethasone was effective in inhibiting eosinophil migration in all periods studied. We suggest that L. pacari extract can potentially be a natural alternative treatment of eosinophilic diseases.

  16. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of some plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Moein, N. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of sweet basil flowers, leaves of eucalyptus and the aerial parts of celery and sage on acute inflammation along with the effect of a methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The effect of the methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus on certain biochemical parameters in adjuvant arthritis and its safety in liver and kidney functions were evaluated. The fatty acids, hydrocarbons and phytosterols of all plants under investigation were studied. The results revealed a marked anti-inflammatory activity of all the studied plant extracts with different degrees ranging from 47 to 62%. The methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus showed improvement in the level of plasma malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and uric acid and also showed significant improvements in body weight and total food intake. The methanol extract of celery, sage and eucalyptus showed complete safety for liver and kidney functions. α-Linolenic acid and linoleic acid were present in all the studied plants. Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were present in all the studied plants.

    El objetivo de la presente investigación ha sido estudiar la actividad anti-inflamatoria de flores de albahaca dulces, hojas de eucalipto, hojas de apio y salvia. Se ha estudiado el efecto sobre la inflamación aguda de extractos metanólicos de apio, salvia y eucalipto y sobre la artritis inducida en ratas. Se han evaluado los efectos de los extractos metanólicos de apio, salvia y eucalipto sobre los parámetros bioquímicos determinados en la artritis inducida y su seguridad en las funciones del hígado y el riñón. Se han estudiado los ácidos grasos, hidrocarburos y fitoesteroles de todas las plantas objeto de la investigación. Los resultados han revelado una actividad antiinflamatoria de los extractos de las plantas estudiadas con diferentes grados

  17. [Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory effects of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M F; Shen, Y Q

    1989-03-01

    Berberine sulfate (Ber) 40 and 80 mg/kg ig reduced the purging effects of castor oil or Cassia angustifolia leaf in mice, but did not affect the gastrointestinal transport function of Chinese ink in normal mice. Ber 60 mg/kg ig significantly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by ip 0.7% acetic acid in mice. Ber 20 and 50 mg/kg sc markedly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by histamine 100 micrograms/0.1 ml ic in rats. Ber 4 and 8 mg/kg sc produced obvious inhibition in the xylene-induced swelling of mouse ear. The anti-inflammatory effects were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that the antidiarrheal effect of Ber is relative to its restriction against exudative inflammation to a certain extent.

  18. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract development in rats with a special focus on the reproductive toxicant phthalates. Observed mixture data are compared to mathematical mixture model predictions to determine how the individual chemicals in a mixture interact (e.g., response addition – probabilities of response for each individual chemical are added; dose-addition – the doses of each individual chemical at a given mixture dose are combined together based on the relative potency of the individual chemicals). Phthalate mixtures are observed to act in a dose-additive manner based on the relative potency of the individual phthalates to suppress fetal testosterone production. Similar dose-additive effects have been reported for mixtures of phthalates with anti-androgenic pesticides of differing mechanisms. Data from these phthalate experiments in rats can be used in conjunction with human biomonitoring data to determine individual hazard ratios. Furthermore, data from the toxicological studies can inform the analysis of human biomonitoring data on the association of detected chemicals and their metabolites with measured health outcomes. Data from phthalate experiments in rats can be used in conjunction with human biomonit

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB, one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases.

  20. Anti-Ulcer Effect of Risperidone in Rats | Onwuchekwa | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risperidone is a second-generation atypical antipsychotic drug currently used for the management of psychosis in schizophrenia, delusional psychosis and psychotic depression an action ascribed to its being a dopamine antagonist possessing anti-serotonergic, anti-adrenergic and anti-histaminergic properties. However ...

  1. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  2. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the extract JMM6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juglans mandshurica Maxim is a traditional herbal medicines in China, and its anti-tumor bioactivities are of research interest. Bioassay-guided fractionation method was employed to isolate anti-tumor compounds from the stem barks of the Juglans mandshurica Maxim. The anti-tumor effect and biological activities of the ...

  3. The Effects of Anti-Vaccine Conspiracy Theories on Vaccination Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by th...

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Thyme Essential Oil in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Juhas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulatory ones. The aim of this work was to study the effects of thyme essential oil dietary administration in murine DTH/ CHS reaction, carrageenan paw oedema and TNBS colitis. Thyme essential oil was added to the murine diet at three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm and fed to Balb/c mice. The extent of ear swelling in DTH/CHS reaction and paw oedema induced by carrageenan application was measured using the Mitutoyo thickness gauge. In the model of TNBS colitis we evaluated the changes in body weight, the colon weight : body weight ratio, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, and macroscopical and histological scores. IL-1β and IL-6 messenger RNA expression in colonic samples of one experimental group were assessed using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Dietary supplementation with 5000 ppm of thyme essential oil significantly decreased paw oedema and ear swelling. This thyme essential oil concentration caused a significant inhibition of total mRNA IL-1β expression in the mouse colon, and markedly decreased the macroscopic and microscopic scores of colitis. On the other hand, the 1250 ppm of thyme essential oil in diet increased ear oedema induced by oxazolone application in mice. Our study indicates that thyme essential oil is able to affect murine experimental inflammatory models depending on the concentration used. It is concluded that the anti-inflammatory effects of thyme essential oil should be interpreted with a caution due to its contradictory, dose-related effects.

  5. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of some edible plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J

    1995-08-11

    The anti-hyperglycemic effect of 12 edible plants was studied on 27 healthy rabbits, submitted weekly to subcutaneous glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a traditional preparation of the plant. Tolbutamide, Cucurbita ficifolia, Phaseolus vulgaris, Opuntia streptacantha, Spinacea oleracea, Cucumis sativus and Cuminum cyminum decrease significantly the area under the glucose tolerance curve and the hyperglycemic peak. Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, Allium cepa and Allium sativum only decrease the hyperglycemic peak. The glycemic decreases caused by Psidium guajava, Brassica oleracea and Lactuca sativa var. romana were not significant (P > .05). The integration of a menu that includes the edible plants with hypoglycemic activity for the control and prevention of diabetes mellitus may be possible and recommendable.

  6. Metabolomic analysis of anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Herba Rhodiolae is a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Tibetan people for treating hypoxia related diseases such as anxiety. Based on the previous work, we developed and patented an anti-anxiety herbal formula Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid (FJJOL with Herba Rhodiolae as a chief ingredient. In this study, the anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of FJJOL in a high altitude forced-swimming mouse model with anxiety symptoms will be elucidated by NMR-based metabolomics. METHODS: In our experiments, the mice were divided randomly into four groups as flatland group, high altitude saline-treated group, high altitude FJJOL-treated group, and high altitude diazepam-treated group. To cause anxiety effects and hypoxic defects, a combination use of oxygen level decreasing (hypobaric cabin and oxygen consumption increasing (exhaustive swimming were applied to mice. After a three-day experimental handling, aqueous metabolites of mouse brain tissues were extracted and then subjected to NMR analysis. The therapeutic effects of FJJOL on the hypobaric hypoxia mice with anxiety symptoms were verified. RESULTS: Upon hypoxic exposure, both energy metabolism defects and disorders of functional metabolites in brain tissues of mice were observed. PCA, PLS-DA and OPLS-DA scatter plots revealed a clear group clustering for metabolic profiles in the hypoxia versus normoxia samples. After a three-day treatment with FJJOL, significant rescue effects on energy metabolism were detected, and levels of ATP, fumarate, malate and lactate in brain tissues of hypoxic mice recovered. Meanwhile, FJJOL also up-regulated the neurotransmitter GABA, and the improvement of anxiety symptoms was highly related to this effect. CONCLUSIONS: FJJOL ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia effects by regulating energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and improving the symptoms of anxiety. The anti-anxiety therapeutic effects of FJJOL were comparable to the conventional anti-anxiety drug

  7. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  8. Anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of Fructus Viticis and its effective fractions and chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Xin, H-L; Zhang, Q-Y; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

    2007-10-01

    Vitex rotundifolia L. is widely distributed along the sea coast of China. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities of substances isolated from Fructus Viticis (the fruit of Vitex rotundifolia), which may be effective in the treatment of pre-menstrual symptoms, using acetic-acid-induced writhing and metoclopramide-dihydrochloride-induced hyperprolactinemia in mice. The fractions effective in terms of anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperprolactinemia activities were obtained from Fructus Viticis by elution through macro-porous resin, and polyamide and silica gel column chromatography. The standardization of the fractions obtained from the separation procedures was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fingerprint. In this study, the flavone-enriched fraction (Fraction 6) showed a higher inhibitory rate than indomethacin (69.4% vs. 56.4%) at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt., and significantly reduced the prolactin level as compared to HPRL-treated mice (8.2 ng/ml vs. 25.5 ng/ml). Furthermore, this fraction showed anti-nociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner (10-50 mg/kg body wt., i.g.). On further purification with silica gel, Casticin was isolated from this fraction and it decreased abnormal serum levels of prolactin by approximately 50% (p screening methods, our results indicate that the presence of flavonoids such as Casticin in this plant may be responsible for the activity effects. Casticin has potent analgesic and anti-hyperprolactinaemia properties, is likely to be one of the active components of Fructus Viticis, and may have a role in treating PMS (premenstrual syndrom).

  9. anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of sterculia tragacantha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... Key words: Fractions, edema, granuloma, anti-oxidant, S. tragacantha. INTRODUCTION. Inflammation is a biologic process initiated by noxious stimuli such as chemical injury, trauma or surgery. (O'Byrne and Dalgleish, 2001). This biologic response protects the host and heals damaged tissues after an.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic stembark extract of M .africana (30-90 mg/kg) was investigated for pharmacological properties against egg white albumin - induced inflammation, Chemical as well as thermal- induced pain as well as yeast induced pyresis in rats. The extract demonstrated a dose – dependent anti- inflammatory ...

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic leaf extract of Setaria megaphylla (100-300 mg/kg) was investigated for pharmacological properties against egg white albumin - induced inflammation, Chemical as well as thermal- induced pain. The extract demonstrated a dose – dependent anti- inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These activities ...

  12. A possible anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effect of irradiated riboflavin in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Queiroz, Karla Cristiana; Zambuzzi, Willian Fernando; de Souza, Ana Carolina Santos; da Silva, Rodrigo Augusto; Machado, Daisy; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Carvalho, Hernandes F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Ferreira, Carmen Verissima

    2007-01-01

    Riboflavin is a potent photosensitizer as well as part of the vitamin B complex. Recently we demonstrated that the products generated by irradiation of riboflavin have potential as anti-leukaemic therapy. The possible action, however, of the riboflavin photoproducts in solid cancers has not been

  13. Anti-Money Laundering Requirements – Perceived Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Huang; M. S. Amirrudin; N. A. Ahamad Noruddin; R. Othman

    2013-01-01

    Anti-money laundering is commonly recognized as a set of procedures, laws or regulations designed to reduce the practice of generating income through illegal actions. In Malaysia, the government and law enforcement agencies have stepped up their capacities and efforts to curb money laundering since 2001. One of these measures was the enactment of the Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA) in 2001. The implementation costs on anti-money laundering requirements (AMLR) can be burd...

  14. Anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical effect of adjuvant Danshen injection treatment on viral myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bao Liang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical effect of adjuvant Danshen injection treatment on viral myocarditis. Methods: A total of 90 children with viral myocarditis treated in our hospital from January 2014 to January 2016 were included in the research and randomly divided into observation group (n=45 and control group (n=45 according to the different treatment. Control group received clinical routine therapy for viral myocarditis, observation group received adjuvant Danshen injection treatment, and then levels of IL23/IL-17 inflammatory axis as well as cytokines, oxidation and anti-oxidation indexes, myocardial enzyme and illness-related proteins were compared between two groups. Results: Serum IL-17, IL-23, IL-1毬, IL-6 and TNF-毩 values of observation group were lower than those of control group (P<0.05; serum MDA, AOPP and NO values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05; serum cTnT, CK-MB, MCP-1 and H-FABP values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Adjuvant Danshen injection treatment for children with viral myocarditis can exert positive anti-inflammation and anti-oxygen free radical function, and it plays a positive role in myocardial protection.

  15. Toxocara canis: Het effect van behandeling met anti-interleukine-5 en anti-interleukine-4 op immunologische en ontstekingsparameters in de longen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs J; Pitstra B; Rouws C; Rees E van; Savelkoul HFJ; LPM; VUA/celbiologie en immunologie; EUR/MF

    1995-01-01

    De toenames van eosinofiele granulocyten en IgE concentraties in Toxocara canis geinfecteerde BALB/c muizen werden geblokkeerd door behandeling met ratte-hybridoma cellen die respectievelijk anti-interleukine-5 (anti-IL-5) en anti-IL-4 produceerden. Doel was het effect te bestuderen van deze

  16. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Croton celtidifolius bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G M; Felippi, R; DalBó, S; Siqueira-Junior, J M; Arruda, D C; Delle Monache, F; Timbola, A K; Pizzolatti, M G; Ckless, K; Ribeiro-do-valle, R M

    2003-03-01

    Croton celtidifolius Baill commonly known as "sangue-de-adave" is a tree found in the Atlantic Forest of south of Brazil, mainly in Santa Catarina. The bark and leaf infusions of this medicinal plant have been popularly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of crude extract (CE), aqueous fraction (AqF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), butanolic fraction (BuF) and catechin, gallocatechin and sub-fractions, 19SF, 35SF and 63SF that contained a mixture of proanthocyanidins and were derived from the EAF fraction. The CE, AqF, EAF, BuF, catechin and sub-fractions 35SF and 63SF reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan. The CE, fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed antioxidant properties in vitro, all were able to scavenge superoxide anions at a concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). The EAF, catechin and gallocatechin were most effective in the deoxyribose assay, IC50 0.69 (0.44-1.06), 0.20 (0.11-0.39), 0.55 (0.28-1.08) microg x ml(-1) respectively. The CE and other fractions and sub-fractions inhibited deoxyribose degradation up to 1 microg x ml(-1). In the hydrophobic system only AqF did not show lipid peroxidation inhibition. The CE, other fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds inhibited lipidid peroxidation only at a concentration of 100 microg x ml(-1). In summary, this study demonstrates that Croton celtidifolius bark has significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  18. Polyphenols from Blossoms of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. Show Significant Anti-Complement and Anti-Inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Huang, Chun-Ling; Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Chao-Yang

    2017-10-18

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. (CAVA) was traditionally used as a digestant or expectorant in China. Crude polyphenols (CAVAP-W) extracted from blossoms of CAVA were mainly composed of eriocitrin/neoeriocitrin, eriocitrin/neoeriocitrin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, naringin, rutin, veronicastroside, neohesperidin, and hesperetin by LC-MS analysis. CAVAP-W showed significant anticomplement and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to the close relationship between anticomplement and anti-inflammatory activity, the anti-inflammatory effect was further investigated and the results showed that CAVAP-W significantly suppressed production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharides-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CAVAP-W inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and NF-κB activation through suppressing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) P65, degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα, phosphorylation of IκKα/ß, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and P38, and activation of COX-2, thereby exerting the anti-inflammatory effects.

  19. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  20. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  1. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana are commonly used for the treatment of pain, fever and ulcer by traditional medical practitioners without any scientific data to evaluate ... Different sets of rats were used for the anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies although animal grouping for extract administration were as in ...

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cyphostemma vogelii (Hook

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Key words: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, mice, Cyphostemma vogelii, nociception. ... steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the drugs of ..... 44-55. Hughes H, Lang M (1983). Control of pain in dogs and cats In: Kitchell. R, Erickson H (eds.) Animal pain. Baltimore Waverly press. pp. 207-.

  3. Anti- Helicobacter pylori Effects Of The Methanol Extracts Of Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bulb is of considerable importance in African cooking and in salads . Various species have been reported to have anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolaemic, fibrinolytic, anti-ulcer and diuretic potentials. Crude methanol extracts of Allium ascalonicum bulb was screened against three strains of Helicobacter pylori (UCH 97001, ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects of red algae Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Meng-Hooi; Appleton, David; Zandi, Keivan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-03-14

    Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii. Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug. MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p extract of Gracillaria changii possesses anti

  5. Anti-Neuroinflammatory effects of the extract of Achillea fragrantissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindner Miriam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neuroinflammatory process plays a central role in the initiation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, and involves the activation of brain microglial cells. During the neuroinflammatory process, microglial cells release proinflammatory mediators such as cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, Reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO. In the present study, extracts from 66 different desert plants were tested for their effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS - induced production of NO by primary microglial cells. The extract of Achillea fragrantissima (Af, which is a desert plant that has been used for many years in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, was the most efficient extract, and was further studied for additional anti-neuroinflammatory effects in these cells. Methods In the present study, the ethanolic extract prepared from Af was tested for its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated primary cultures of brain microglial cells. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα secreted by the cells were determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. NO levels secreted by the activate cells were measured using Griess reagent, ROS levels were measured by 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA, MMP-9 activity was measured using gel zymography, and the protein levels of the proinflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were measured by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was assessed using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity in the media conditioned by the cells or by the crystal violet cell staining. Results We have found that out of the 66 desert plants tested, the extract of Af was the most efficient extract and inhibited ~70% of the NO produced by the LPS

  6. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  7. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of soybean agglutinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean agglutinin (SBA lectin, a protein present in raw soybean meals, can bind to and be extensively endocytosed by intestinal epithelial cells, being nutritionally toxic for most animals. In the present study we show that SBA (5-200 µg/cavity injected into different cavities of rats induced a typical inflammatory response characterized by dose-dependent exudation and neutrophil migration 4 h after injection. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with glucocorticoid (0.5 mg/kg or by co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine (100 x [M] lectin, but not of other sugars (100 x [M] lectin, suggesting an inflammatory response related to the lectin activity. Neutrophil accumulation was not dependent on a direct effect of SBA on the macrophage population since the effect was not altered when the number of peritoneal cells was increased or decreased in vivo. On the other hand, SBA showed chemotactic activity for human neutrophils in vitro. A slight increase in mononuclear cells was observed 48 h after ip injection of SBA. Phenotypic analysis of these cells showed an increase in the CD4+/CD8- lymphocyte population that returned to control levels after 15 days, suggesting the development of an immune response. SBA-stimulated macrophages presented an increase in the expression of CD11/CD18 surface molecules and showed some characteristics of activated cells. After intravenous administration, SBA increased the number of circulating neutrophils and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the neutrophil migration induced by ip injection of carrageenan into peritoneal cavities. The co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine or mannose, but not glucose or fucose, inhibited these effects. The data indicate that soybean lectin is able to induce a local inflammatory reaction but has an anti-inflammatory effect when present in circulating blood

  8. Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in preventing cyclosporine A-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Sukru; Ozkan, Gulsum; Yucesan, Fulya Balaban; Ersöz, Şafak; Orem, Asim; Alkanat, Mehmet; Yuluğ, Esin; Kaynar, Kubra; Al, Sait

    2012-05-01

    Although the pathogenesis of cyclosporine (CsA) nephropathy is not completely understood, it is attributed to oxidative damage and apoptosis. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a molecule with anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Our aim was to demonstrate the effects of GSPE in preventing CsA nephropathy. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control, GSPE, CsA and CsA+GSPE groups were given 1 mL olive oil, 100 mg/kg GSPE, 25 mg/kg CsA and 100 mg/kg GSPE+25 mg/kg CsA, respectively. On day 21, blood samples were taken for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and CsA levels, and renal tissue was used for total oxidant system (TOS), total anti-oxidant system (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) measurements. In addition to renal histopathology, apoptosis staining was performed on renal tissue. The BUN, creatinine, TOS, OSI, MDA, histopathological score, and apoptotic index exhibited increases in the CsA group. In the CsA+GSPE group, however, BUN, creatinine, OSI, MDA, renal histopathological score and apoptotic index (AI) decreased and TAS levels increased. In addition, there was no difference between the CsA and CsA+GSPE groups with regard to CsA levels. We demonstrated that GSPE prevents CsA nephropathy and that this effect is achieved by anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. We also achieved a significant recovery in kidney functions without affecting CsA plasma levels. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  9. Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases.

  10. Anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effect of a traditional herbal medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Kyoung Mee; Hong, Nam Doo; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2016-02-03

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription, contains six main ingredients; Rehmannia glutinosa var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey. KOK has been widely taken as a traditional oriental medicine for improving blood circulation or age-related symptoms, such as dementia and stroke. However, the effect of KOK on platelet activity has not been clarified. To evaluate the effect of KOK on platelet function, we evaluated its effect on functional markers of platelet activation such as aggregation and shape change. As a mechanism study for the effect of KOK, we examined its effect on granule secretion, intracellular Ca(2+) increase, and PLCγ and Akt activation. To investigate the effect of orally administered KOK (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg), we examined its ex vivo effect on platelet aggregation in rat, and its in vivo anti-thrombotic effect in mice thromboembolism model. Furthermore, the effect of KOK on bleeding time was examined to estimate its potential side effect. KOK (0.3, 1, 3, 10 mg/ml) inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shape change in rat platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. The mechanism for the anti-platelet effect of KOK seems to involve the inhibition of ATP release, intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, and the phosphorylation of PLCγ and Akt. In rat ex vivo study, KOK (2 g/kg, p.o. for 1 day, and 0.5, 1, 2 g/kg, p.o. for 7 days) also had significant inhibitory effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In addition, KOK showed a significant protective effect against thrombosis attack in mice. The prolongation of bleeding time by KOK was much less than that by ASA, suggesting a beneficial potential of KOK than ASA in view of side effect. These findings suggest that KOK elicits remarkable anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic effects with less side effect of bleeding, and therefore, it may have a therapeutic potential for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases

  11. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  12. Effects of Androgen Ablation on Anti-Tumor Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kast, Martin

    2004-01-01

    .... This AA induced autoimmune-like response exerts limited anti-tumor activity in a murine prostate cancer model, but could be synergistic with CTLA-4 blockade that promotes the development of autoreactive T cell...

  13. Anti cancer effects of curcumin: cycle of life and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Tanya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increasing knowledge on the cell cycle deregulations in cancers has promoted the introduction of phytochemicals, which can either modulate signaling pathways leading to cell cycle regulation or directly alter cell cycle regulatory molecules, in cancer therapy. Most human malignancies are driven by chromosomal translocations or other genetic alterations that directly affect the function of critical cell cycle proteins such as cyclins as well as tumor suppressors, e.g., p53. In this respect, cell cycle regulation and its modulation by curcumin are gaining widespread attention in recent years. Extensive research has addressed the chemotherapeutic potential of curcumin (diferuloylmethane, a relatively non-toxic plant derived polyphenol. The mechanisms implicated are diverse and appear to involve a combination of cell signaling pathways at multiple levels. In the present review we discuss how alterations in the cell cycle control contribute to the malignant transformation and provide an overview of how curcumin targets cell cycle regulatory molecules to assert anti-proliferative and/or apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The purpose of the current article is to present an appraisal of the current level of knowledge regarding the potential of curcumin as an agent for the chemoprevention of cancer via an understanding of its mechanism of action at the level of cell cycle regulation. Taken together, this review seeks to summarize the unique properties of curcumin that may be exploited for successful clinical cancer prevention.

  14. Anti-ischemic effect of curcumin in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pradeep K; Khanna, Vinay K; Ali, Mohd M; Khan, Mohd Y; Srimal, Rikhab C

    2008-06-01

    Turmeric has been in use since ancient times as a condiment and due to its medicinal properties. Curcumin, the yellow colouring principle in turmeric, is polyphenolic and major active constituent. Besides anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic and anticarcinogenic activities, curcumin also possesses strong antioxidant property. In view of the novel combination of properties, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin was studied in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Rats were subjected to 2 h of focal ischemia followed by 72 h of reperfusion. They were pre-treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg, po) for 5 days prior to MCAO and for another 3 days after MCAO. The parameters studied were behavioural, biochemical and histological. Treatment with curcumin could significantly improve neurobehavioral performance compared to untreated ischemic rats as judged by its effect on rota-rod performance and grid walking. A significant inhibition in lipid peroxidation and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex was observed following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats as compared to MCAO group. Intracellular calcium levels were decreased following treatment with curcumin in MCAO rats. Histologically, a reduction in the infarct area from 33% to 24% was observed in MCAO rats treated with curcumin. The study demonstrates the protective efficacy of curcumin in rat MCAO model.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    OpenAIRE

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC ...

  17. Protective Effect of Bicyclol on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to investigate the effect of bicyclol, a synthetic anti-hepatitis drug with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, on anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB drug-induced liver injury and related mechanisms in rats. Bicyclol was given to rats by gavage 2 h before the oral administration of an anti-TB drug once a day for 30 days. Liver injury was evaluated by biochemical and histopathological examinations. Lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial function, and the activity of antioxidants were measured by spectrophotometric methods. Cytokines expression and CYP2E1 activity were determined by ELISA assay and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS analysis. The expressions of hepatic CYP2E1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF were assessed by Western blotting. As a result, bicyclol significantly protected against anti-TB drug-induced liver injury by reducing the elevated serum aminotransferases levels and accumulation of hepatic lipids. Meanwhile, the histopathological changes were also attenuated in rats. The protective effect of bicyclol on anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity was mainly due to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress, suppress the inflammatory cytokines and CYP2E1 expression, up-regulate the expression of HGF, and improve mitochondrial function. Furthermore, administration of bicyclol had no significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of the anti-TB drug in rats.

  18. The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti--inflammatory agent, against renal injury: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragheb Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymoquinone (TQ, 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, is one of the most active ingredients of Nigella Sativa seeds. TQ has a variety of beneficial properties including anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies have provided original observations on the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the development of renal diseases such as glomerulo-nephritis and drug-induced nephrotoxicity. The renoprotective effects of TQ have been demons-trated in animal models. Also, TQ has been used successfully in treating allergic diseases in humans. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of reactive oxygen species in renal pathophysiology and the intriguing possibility for a role of TQ in the prevention of and/or protection from renal injury in humans.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-depressant Effects of Resveratrol: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Chenet, Aline Lukasievicz; Duarte, Adriane Ribeiro; Scaini, Giselli; Quevedo, João

    2017-07-10

    Major depression is a public health problem, affecting 121 million people worldwide. Patients suffering from depression present high rates of morbidity, causing profound economic and social impacts. Furthermore, patients with depression present cognitive impairments, which could influence on treatment adherence and long-term outcomes. The pathophysiology of major depression is not completely understood yet but involves reduced levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, bioenergetics, and redox disturbances, as well as inflammation and neuronal loss. Treatment with anti-depressants provides a complete remission of symptoms in approximately 50% of patients with major depression. However, these drugs may cause side effects, as sedation and weight gain. In this context, there is increasing interest in studies focusing on the anti-depressant effects of natural compounds found in the diet. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoalexin (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; C 14 H 12 O 3 ; MW 228.247 g/mol) and has been found in peanuts, berries, grapes, and wine and induces anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects in several mammalian cell types. Resveratrol also elicits anti-depressant effects, as observed in experimental models using animals. Therefore, resveratrol may be viewed as a potential anti-depressant agent, as well as may serve as a model of molecule to be modified aiming to ameliorate depressive symptoms in humans. In the present review, we describe and discuss the anti-depressant effects of resveratrol focusing on the mechanism of action of this phytoalexin in different experimental models.

  20. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects of red algae Gracilaria changii (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gracilaria changii (Xia et Abbott) Abbott, Zhang et Xia, a red algae commonly found in the coastal areas of Malaysia is traditionally used for foods and for the treatment of various ailments including inflammation and gastric ailments. The aim of the study was to investigate anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a mass spectrometry standardized methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii. Methods Methanolic extract of Gracilaria changii (MeOHGCM6 extract) was prepared and standardized using mass spectrometry (MS). Anti-inflammatory activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by treating U937 cells during its differentiation with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Tumour necrosis factors-α (TNF-α) response level and TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression were monitored and compared to that treated by 10 nM betamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug. Gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic activities of MeOHGCM6 extract were examined by feeding rats with MeOHGCM6 extract ranging from 2.5 to 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) following induction of gastric lesions. Production of mucus and gastric juice, pH of the gastric juice and non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) levels were determined and compared to that fed by 20 mg/kg b.w. omeprazole (OMP), a known anti-ulcer drug. Results MS/MS analysis of the MeOHGCM6 extracts revealed the presence of methyl 10-hydroxyphaeophorbide a and 10-hydroxypheophytin a, known chlorophyll proteins and several unidentified molecules. Treatment with 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract during differentiation of U937 cells significantly inhibited TNF-α response level and TNF-α and IL-6 gene expression. The inhibitory effect was comparable to that of betamethasone. No cytotoxic effects were recorded for cells treated with the 10 μg/ml MeOHGCM6 extract. Rats fed with MeOHGCM6 extract at 500 mg/kg b.w. showed reduced absolute ethanol-induced gastric lesion sizes by > 99% (p < 0.05). This protective

  1. Absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG): An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin; Sui, Zhong-Quan; Corke, Harold

    2018-04-13

    Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world, especially in Asian countries. Consumption of green tea has been demonstrated to possess many health benefits, which mainly attributed to the main bioactive compound epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a flavone-3-ol polyphenol, in green tea. EGCG is mainly absorbed in the intestine, and gut microbiota play a critical role in its metabolism prior to absorption. EGCG exhibits versatile bioactivities, with its anti-cancer effect most attracting due to the cancer preventive effect of green tea consumption, and a great number of studies intensively investigated its anti-cancer effect. In this review, we therefore, first stated the absorption and metabolism process of EGCG, and then summarized its anti-cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, including its manifold anti-cancer actions and mechanisms, especially its anti-cancer stem cell effect, and next highlighted its various molecular targets involved in cancer inhibition. Finally, the anti-cancer effect of EGCG analogs and nanoparticles, as well as the potential cancer promoting effect of EGCG were also discussed. Understanding of the absorption, metabolism, anti-cancer effect and molecular targets of EGCG can be of importance to better utilize it as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent.

  2. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of guava leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava Linn. (guava) is used not only as food but also as folk medicine in subtropical areas around the world because of its pharmacologic activities. In particular, the leaf extract of guava has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract has been reported in some animal models. However, little is known regarding the therapeutic activity of the extract in human clinical trials as well as its underlying therapeutic mechanisms and safety. In Japan, Guava Leaf Tea (Bansoureicha®, Yakult Honsha, Tokyo, Japan) containing the aqueous leaf extract from guava has been approved as one of the Foods for Specified Health Uses and is now commercially available. This review describes the active component of the aqueous guava leaf extract and its inhibition of alpha-glucosidase enzymes in vitro, safety of the extract and Guava Leaf Tea, reduction of postprandial blood glucose elevation, and improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, hypertriglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in murine models and several clinical trials. It is suggested that the chronic suppression of postprandial blood glucose elevation is important in preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus, and that Guava Leaf Tea is considered useful as an alimentotherapy for chronic treatment. PMID:20181067

  3. Opinions of Seventh to Twelfth Graders regarding the Effectiveness of Pro- and Anti-Smoking Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Samuel W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Surveyed the opinions of (N=3,100) 7th- to 12th-grade students regarding the perceived effectiveness of both pro-smoking and anti-smoking messages. Results indicated that most teenagers were exposed to anti-smoking information and materials in schools. Statistically significant differences existed between smokers and nonsmokers in their…

  4. In vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner without exerting cytotoxicity. Conclusion: These results of this study indicate that TFA have potential immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Key words: Total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA), Immunomodulation, Anti-inflammation, In vivo, ...

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Allium Ascalonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol and aqueous extract of Allium ascalonicom were investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Thermal and chemical models of pain assessment were used while albumin was used to induce inflammation. The extracts were administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The methanol extract ...

  6. Antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 2-acetamido-5-sulfonamidobenzoic acid (AMSABA, 4) were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. HASBA, AASBA and AMASBA showed higher analgesic activity than aspirin (ASA) at 100 mg/kg dose, while AMSABA showed the least analgesic property.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab (myrtaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of an endemic species of the central sahara: Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab. The methanolic extract of this plant was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, five ...

  8. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    function of diabetes rats. ... At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, ...

  9. Phytochemical, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening ...

  10. Anti-depressant-like effect of curculigoside isolated from Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-depressant-like activity of curculigoside from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn and its underlying mechanism(s). Methods: Antidepressant-like activity was determined in mice through forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT). Mechanism of action was ...

  11. Anti-Hyperlipidaemic and Heart Rate Lowering Effects of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-hyperlipidaemic and heart rate lowering potential of aqueous leaf extract of Viscum album (mistletoe) in hypercholesterolaemic rats was investigated in this study. The lethality studies showed that the aqueous extract of the plant had an LD50 value of 452.20mg/kg by intraperitoneal route. There were significant ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginsenosides (G) are biologically active saponin compounds found inPanax ginseng. Although these compounds are reported to possess numerous biological activities, recent issues have arisen regarding their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory roles in inflammatory cells. This is because 1) inflammation, ...

  13. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Solvent Extracts of Tagetes erectus Linn (Asteraceae). NV Shinde*, KG Kanase, ... Soxhlet extractor and refluxed continuously for 6 h. The solvent ... of the plant extract. Most of the so-called peripheral analgesics possess anti-inflammatory properties and, in some cases, also antipyretic activity besides analgesia. For many ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic extract of Polygala arvensis (family Polygalaceae) was screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. The extract was administered for three consecutive days. Following an oral dose of 25 - 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited graded dose response equivalent to 16.24% ...

  15. Persuasive Strategies for Effective Anti-Drug Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Nancy Grant; Lane, Derek R.; Donohew, Lewis; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Norling, Gretchen R.; An, Jeong-Hyun; Cheah, Wai Hsien; McClure, Leola; Buckingham, Tim; Garofalo, Elizabeth; Bevins, Carla C.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an experimental study designed to investigate the influence of message design strategies on cognitive processing and changes in attitudes, behavioral intentions, and behavior in relation to marijuana use. Explains that in the experiment, college students viewed four anti-marijuana public service announcements. Notes that results provide…

  16. Anti-cancer effect of polysaccharides isolated from higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-tumor activity of mushroom fruit bodies and mycelial extracts evaluated using different cancer cell lines. These polysaccharide extracts showed potent antitumor activity against sarcoma 180, mammary adenocarcinoma 755, leukemia L-1210 and a host of other tumors. The antitumor activity was mainly due to indirect ...

  17. Effect of antioxidant and anti-aggregating properties of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, we developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and evaluated antioxidant and anti aggregating properties of micro propagated leaf and callus extract of Ruta graveolens. The maximum number of callus induction was achieved from leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 0.5 ...

  18. Effects of chitosan addition on growth performance, diarrhoea, anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present experiment was designed to determine the efficacy of a commercial source of chitosan (CS) to enhance performance, anti-oxidative function, and immune response in weaned pigs. A total of 60 crossbreed piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire), with average live bodyweight of 8.85 ± 1.52 kg, were weaned at ...

  19. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Traditionally, the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. are used in India for the alleviation of pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material in an animal model. Methods: The chloroform, methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

  20. How Effective is Anti-Phishing Training for Children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Carvajal Gallardo, Inés; Hartel, P.H.; Junger, M.

    2017-01-01

    User training is a commonly used method for preventing victimization from phishing attacks. In this study, we focus on training children, since they are active online but often overlooked in interventions. We present an experiment in which children at Dutch primary schools received an anti-phishing

  1. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was further fractionated in sequence to n-hexane (BSH), chloroform (BSC) and methanol (BSM) soluble fractions. Acute toxicity was evaluated by oral administration of plant and hind paw induced-edema method in rats was used for the anti-inflammatory evaluation. Results: The BSE was found safe up to the dose level of ...

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect Of Some Common Nigerian Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extracts of four common Nigerian vegetables; A.graveoleus, C.argentia, T. triangulare and T.occidentalis were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan. Carrageenan-induced oedema in the sub-plantar hind paw of vegetable extracts treated rats was significantly inhibited. This finding ...

  3. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the ...

  4. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  5. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18336664 Title Mechanism

  6. Anti-Hypertensive Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that acacia polyphenol (AP exerts strong anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-atopic dermatitis effects. In the present study, we investigated the anti-hypertensive effects of AP. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with hypertension and control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were used. WKY and SHR were fed AP-containing food or AP-free food (control group ad libitum for 4 weeks, and their blood pressures were measured. After AP administration, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lower in the SHR group than in the control group. There were no differences in the systolic or diastolic blood pressure of WKY between the AP group and the control group. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE activity, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase expression, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in SHR kidneys were not altered by AP administration. Blood SOD activity in SHR was significantly higher in the AP group than in the control group. AP exerts anti-hypertensive effects on hypertension but has almost no effect on normal blood pressure. The anti-hypertensive effects of AP may be related to the anti-oxidative effects of increased blood SOD activity.

  7. Pedestrians in wintertime-effects of using anti-slip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggård, Glenn; Johansson, Charlotta

    2010-07-01

    Pedestrians slipping and falling is a major safety problem around the world, not least in countries with long winters such as Sweden. About 25000-30000 people need medical care every year for treatment of fall injuries in Sweden. Use of appropriate shoes and anti-slip devices are examples of individual measures that have been suggested to prevent slipping and falling. An intervention study was performed during the period February to April 2008. The study, which focused on healthy adults in northern Sweden, examined the effect of using anti-slip devices on daily walking journeys and prevention of slip and falls. The respondents were divided into three groups: an Intervention Group, a Control Group, with similar distribution of gender and age, and a Comparison Group. Four questionnaires were distributed: (1) background, (2) daily diary of distance walked and occurrence of incidents or accidents reported weekly, (3) detailed incident or fall report and (4) experiences of using anti-slip devices for those who used these devices during the trial period. Half of the respondents stated that they had previous experience of using anti-slip devices. In this study, 52% of the respondents used anti-slip devices. Anti-slip devices improve the walking capability during wintertime. Among those using appropriate anti-slip devices, the average daily walking distance was found to be statistically significantly longer compared to people not using anti-slip devices. This study indicates that an increase in daily walking distance can be made without increasing the risk of slips/falls when using anti-slip devices. The study also indicates that by using appropriate anti-slip devices and having information about when and where to use them, based on their design, people avoid having slips and falls. The respondents experienced in using anti-slip devices in this study will continue to use them and will also recommend others to use anti-slip devises. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Modulating effects of plasma containing anti-malarial antibodies on in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomsangpetch Rachanee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of anti-malarial drugs is determined by the level of parasite susceptibility, anti-malarial drug bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, and host factors including immunity. Host immunity improves the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, but the mechanism and magnitude of this effect has not been characterized. This study characterized the effects of 'immune' plasma to Plasmodium falciparumon the in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. Methods Titres of antibodies against blood stage antigens (mainly the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen [RESA] were measured in plasma samples obtained from Thai patients with acute falciparum malaria. 'Immune' plasma was selected and its effects on in vitro parasite growth and multiplication of the Thai P. falciparum laboratory strain TM267 were assessed by light microscopy. The in vitro susceptibility to quinine and artesunate was then determined in the presence and absence of 'immune' plasma using the 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method. Drug susceptibility was expressed as the concentrations causing 50% and 90% inhibition (IC50 and IC90, of 3H-hypoxanthine uptake. Results Incubation with 'immune' plasma reduced parasite maturation and decreased parasite multiplication in a dose dependent manner. 3H-hypoxanthine incorporation after incubation with 'immune' plasma was decreased significantly compared to controls (median [range]; 181.5 [0 to 3,269] cpm versus 1,222.5 [388 to 5,932] cpm (p= 0.001. As a result 'immune' plasma reduced apparent susceptibility to quinine substantially; median (range IC50 6.4 (0.5 to 23.8 ng/ml versus 221.5 (174.4 to 250.4 ng/ml (p = 0.02, and also had a borderline effect on artesunate susceptibility; IC50 0.2 (0.02 to 0.3 ng/ml versus 0.8 (0.2 to 2.3 ng/ml (p = 0.08. Effects were greatest at low concentrations, changing the shape of the concentration-effect relationship. IC90 values were not

  9. Evaluation of hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove

    OpenAIRE

    樹野, 淳也; 前田, 節雄; 横田, 和樹; 平, 雄一郎

    2015-01-01

    Many kinds of the anti-vibration glove have been developed for reducing hand-arm vibration during the operation with vibration tools. International standard ISO 10819 evaluates the physical effect of gloves' vibration transmissibility but not evaluates the physiological effect of human hands. Thus, in this paper, we proposed the evaluation using the temporary threshold shift of vibrotactile perception threshold to evaluate the hand-arm vibration reducing effect of anti-vibration glove. We per...

  10. Comparing the effects of fluticasone, anti-IgE and anti-TNF treatments in a chronic asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkars, M Y; Keskin, O; Tokur, M; Ulasli, M; Gogebakan, B; Ciralik, H; Kucukosmanoglu, E; Demirel, C; Oztuzcu, S; Kahraman, H

    2017-11-27

    Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of anti-IgE and anti-TNF alpha as asthma treatments. A mouse model of chronic asthma was developed. The fluticasone group was exposed to fluticasone and the anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups were administered anti-IgE or anti-TNF. IL-4, and IgE levels were measured, and histological analysis, pathological analysis and miRNA-126, miRNA-133a analyses were applied. The cell concentration in the BAL fluid decreased in all the treatment groups. The rate of perivascular and peribronchial cell infiltration decreased in the lung in the high-dose anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups. Smooth muscle thickness decreased in the lung tissue in the low-dose anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups. Bronchial wall thickness decreased in the lung tissue in the fluticasone+anti-IgE group. The IL-4 level in BAL fluid decreased in the high-dose anti-IgE, fluticasone+anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups. IgE levels increased in the BAL fluid in the high-dose anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups. The lymphocyte level increased in the BAL fluid in the high-dose anti-IgE group. The macrophage level decreased in the BAL fluid in the anti-TNF group. The relative expression of miRNA-126 increased in all groups. The relative expression of miRNA-133a decreased in the placebo and fluticasone groups. The relative expression of miRNA-133a increased in the low-dose anti-IgE, high-dose anti-IgE, fluticasone+anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups. The results showed that anti-IgE is successful as a treatment. Fluticasone+anti-IgE and anti-TNF were seen to be superior to other therapeutic modalities when used for prophylaxis. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of simvastatin on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation properties of HDL in apoE-/-mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di TIAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  To investigate the effect of simvastatin on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL in apoE-/-mice fed with high-fat diet. Methods  Eighteen 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice as blank control group were fed with normal diet, and thirty 8-week old male apoE-/-mice were fed with high-fat diet. Four weeks later, 6 mice in each group were sacrificed. The remaining 24 apoE-/-mice were randomly divided into two groups (12 each: atherosclerosis group (AS group and simvastatin group, while the remaining 12 C57BL/6J mice served as control group. The mice in both control and AS group were fed with the original diet, and the mice in simvastatin group were fed with the same high-fat diet plus simvastatin 5mg/ (kg.d. At the end of the 8th and 16th week, 6 mice were sacrificed in each group. Serum lipid levels, paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity (arylesterase activity, serum myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, high-density lipoprotein inflammation index (HII and serum hs-CRP levels were determined. The atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aorta was manifested by oil red O staining. Results  At the end of the 8th week, no difference was found in the levels of serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C between simvastatin and AS group. At the end of 16th week, the levels of serum LDL-C decreased significantly (P<0.01 and HDL-C increased significantly (P<0.05 in simvastatin group compared with AS group. At the end of the 8th and 16th week, a significant enhancement of the serum PON1 activity but marked decrease in MPO activity, HII, and serum hs-CRP levels were found in simvastatin group compared with that in AS group. The percentage of plaque area (surface area of plaque/ surface area of whole intima in the aorta was significantly smaller in simvastatin group than that in AS group (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusions In addition to lowering LDL-C and elevating HDL

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of Rhodiola crenulata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of Rhodiola crenulata on injured spinal cord tissue recovery due to the presence of neuroprotective constituents such as salidroside, tyrosol, rosavins, and crenulatanoside. Methods: Effect of R. crenulata extract (RCE) at doses of 10, 20 and 50 mg kg-1 was investigated for spinal cord ...

  13. Anti-thrombotic and anti-tumor effect of water extract of caulis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated, whereas Bcl-2 was significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated in the tumor tissues. ... effect, and therefore, has the potentials to be developed into effective drugs for clinical treatment of cancer and thrombosis diseases. .... changes in light transmission were recorded for 5 min. MTT assay.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    studied using albumen-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced paw lick in rats as the anti-inflammatory test models; acetic acid-induced ..... meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain. 4: 161-174. Fields H.L. (1987). Analgesic Drugs. In: Day W, ed. Pain. MacGraw- Hill, USA. p. 272. García M.D. ...

  15. Effects of Anti-G Measures on Gas Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    animals were vagotomized to eliminate the initial apnea seen in dogs exposed to +Gz stress (Barr et al., 1959). Minute ventilation increased with the...syringe until the solenoid system was activated. This prevented the injectate from being drawn into the animal prematurely by the hydrostatic pressure...anti-G suit concepts . Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 46:119-124, 1975. 8. Burton, R.R., S.D. Leverett, Jr. and E.D. Michaelson. Man at high sustained +Gz

  16. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jolley

    Full Text Available The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors.

  17. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors.

  18. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effect of Neoagarooligosaccharides on High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Joo; Lee, Je-Hyeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Yang, Hea Jung; Park, Jae-Seon; Hong, Soon-Kwang

    2017-01-01

    Neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs), mainly comprising neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, were prepared by hydrolyzing agar with β-agarase DagA from Streptomyces coelicolor, and the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of NAOs on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice were investigated after NAOs-supplementation for 64 days. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD-0.5 group that was fed with HFD + NAOs (0.5%, w/w) showed remarkable reduction of 36% for body weight gain and 37% for food efficiency ratios without abnormal clinical signs. Furthermore, fat accumulation in the liver and development of macrovesicular steatosis induced by HFD in the HFD-0.5 group were recovered nearly to the levels found in the normal diet (ND) group. NAOs intake could also effectively reduce the size (area) of adipocytes and tissue weight gain in the perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues. The increased concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid in serum of the HFD group were also markedly ameliorated to the levels found in serum of the ND group after NAOs-intake in a dose dependent manner. In addition, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance induced by HFD were distinctly improved, and adiponectin concentration in the blood was notably increased. All these results strongly suggest that intake of NAOs can effectively suppress obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndromes, such as hyperlipidemia, steatosis, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, by inducing production of adiponectin in the HFD-induced obese mice. PMID:28333098

  19. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root in fructose fed male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Samadi Noshahr, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Nakhaie, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder which affects the diabetes mellitus pathophysiology and alters the cell excitability. This study has been designed to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of chronic administration of Withania somnifera root (WSR) in fructose drinking water rats. An experiment was carried out on 48 Wistar-Albino male rats, weighting 200±30 g, which were divided into six groups (n=8): control group (C), control morphine (CM), W. somnifera group (WS) which received WSR (62.5 mg/g diet), W. somnifera naloxone group (WSN) which received WSR and naloxone, fructose (F) group which received fructose drinking water and FWS group which received fructose-enriched drinking water and WSR during the trial period. A biphasic pain response was induced after intraplantar injection of formalin (50 μL, 1%). Pain behavior was measured using Dubuisson methods. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software V. 18, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at p<0.05. The results showed that the insulin resistance index, blood sugar, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α, and acute and chronic pain score in the F group were significantly increased in comparison with the control group, but these parameters in the FWS group were significantly decreased compared with the F group (p<0.001). Our findings indicated that chronic oral administration of WSR has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in fructose drinking water rats and causes improved insulin resistance index.

  20. Anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycerol and xylitol in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szél, E; Polyánka, H; Szabó, K; Hartmann, P; Degovics, D; Balázs, B; Németh, I B; Korponyai, C; Csányi, E; Kaszaki, J; Dikstein, S; Nagy, K; Kemény, L; Erős, G

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol is known to possess anti-irritant and hydrating properties and previous studies suggested that xylitol may also have similar effects. Our aim was to study whether different concentrations of these polyols restore skin barrier function and soothe inflammation in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced acute irritation. The experiments were performed on male SKH-1 hairless mice. The skin of the dorsal region was exposed to SLS (5%) for 3 h alone or together with 5% or 10% of glycerol respectively. Further two groups received xylitol solutions (8.26% and 16.52% respectively) using the same osmolarities, which were equivalent to those of the glycerol treatments. The control group was treated with purified water. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were determined. Microcirculatory parameters of inflammation were observed by means of intravital videomicroscopy (IVM). Furthermore, accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and SLS penetration were assessed, as well. Treatment with the 10% of glycerol and both concentrations of xylitol inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of the applied polyols improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. At the mRNA level, neither glycerol nor xylitol influenced the expression of interleukin-1 alpha. However, expression of interleukin-1 beta was significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment, while expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased upon the same treatment, as well as in response to xylitol. Higher polyol treatments decreased the SLS penetration to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. Both of the analysed polyols exert considerable anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, but the effective concentration of xylitol is lower than that of

  1. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Thapsia garganica methanolic extract: Histopathological and biochemical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouimeja, Btissam; El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; Ait Laaradia, Mehdi; Ait Dra, Loubna; El Khoudri, Noureddine; Chait, Abderrahman; Boumezzough, Ali

    2018-01-30

    Thapsia garganica, is a herbal medicine traditionally used as diuretic, emetic and purgative. It is also used as anti-scorpion venom in Morocco; however, its protective effects against scorpion venom remain elusive. The present study was undertaken to evaluate anti-venom activity of T. garganica in vivo through histological and biochemical studies. Methanolic leaves extract of T. garganica was evaluated for anti-venom activity against buthus. occitanus under in vivo conditions. Histopathological and biochemical changes in envenomed and treated mice were also examined. Phytochemical screening was conducted to estimate the major constituents whereas DPPH, β -Carotene-linoleic acid and reducing power assays were performed to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of T. garganica extract. Methanolic leaves extract of T. garganica (2g/kg) increased the survival time (> 18h) of mice injected with lethal doses of B. occitanus venom, with remarkable recovery of histology damage. Furthermore T. garganica induced a significant decreased of biochemical markers of kidney, liver and heart function. Phytochemistry screening revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and steroids/terpenoids, which might explain the bioactivity of the extract. It was also shown that the extract has an exceptionally high antioxidant activity compared to well-known antioxidants used as standards. The present study provides strong evidence that support the use of T. garganica as anti-scorpion venom in traditional medicine in Morocco. However, additional studies are required to isolate and identify the metabolites responsible for the activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated. Results: The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded. Conclusions: The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  3. Theranostic carbon dots derived from garlic with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chuanxu; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Hansen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent garlic carbon dots with superior photostability are synthesized via microwave assisted heating. The garlic dots are biocompatible, have low toxicity and can be used as benign theranostic nanoparticles for bioimaging with efficient anti-oxidative effects towards macrophages....

  4. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  5. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIBATA, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 yr of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves. PMID:28978817

  6. Linear and nonlinear quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects in a nonlinear optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Peřina, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects are studied in a symmetric nonlinear optical coupler, which is composed of two nonlinear (χ(2 )) waveguides that are interacting with each other via the evanescent waves. Both waveguides operate under second harmonic generation. However, to study quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects one of them is considered as the system and the other one is considered as the probe. Considering all the fields involved as weak, a completely quantum mechanical description is provided, and the analytic solutions of Heisenberg's equations of motion for all the field modes are obtained using a perturbative technique. Photon number statistics of the second harmonic mode of the system is shown to depend on the presence of the probe, and this dependence is considered as quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects. Further, it is established that as a special case of the momentum operator for χ(2 )-χ(2 ) symmetric coupler we can obtain momentum operator of χ(2 )-χ(1 ) asymmetric coupler with linear (χ(1 )) waveguide as the probe, and, in such a particular case, the expressions obtained for Zeno and anti-Zeno effects with nonlinear probe (which we referred to as nonlinear quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects) may be reduced to the corresponding expressions with linear probe (which we referred to as the linear quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects). Linear and nonlinear quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects are rigorously investigated, and it is established that, in the stimulated case, we may switch between quantum Zeno and anti-Zeno effects just by controlling the phase of the second harmonic mode of the system or probe.

  7. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina on rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Wing; Takayama, Fusako; Mine, Manaka; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kodo, Yasumasa; Mankura, Mitsumasa; Egashira, Toru; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Mori, Akitane

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear, but accumulating data suggest oxidative stress and the relationship between inflammation and immunity plays a crucial role. The aim of this study is to investigate the spirulina, which is a blue-green algae rich in proteins and other nutritional elements, and its component-phycocyanin effect on a rat model of NASH. NASH model rats were established by feeding male Wistar rats with choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF) and intermittent hypoxemia by sodium nitrite challenge after 5 weeks of CDHF. After experimental period of 10 weeks, blood and liver were collected to determine oxidative stress injuries and efficacies of spirulina or phycocyanin on NASH model rats. In the NASH model rats, increase in plasma liver enzymes and liver fibrosis, increases in productions of reactive oxygen species from liver mitochondria and from leukocytes, the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B, and the change in the lymphocyte surface antigen ratio (CD4+/CD8+) were observed. The spirulina and phycocyanin administration significantly abated these changes. The spirulina or phycocyanin administration to model rats of NASH might lessen the inflammatory response through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, breaking the crosstalk between oxidative stress and inflammation, and effectively inhibit NASH progression. PMID:23170052

  8. Anti-hepatotoxic and anti-oxidant effects of extracts from Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extract was also supported by the histopathological observations. Moreover, the ethanol extract was studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using the methods of ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The findings indicate that the ethanol extract of P. nigrum L. root is an ...

  9. Anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extract of B. buonopozense leaf also produced a potent antipyretic effect and significant inhibition of egg albumin-induced antiinflammatory activity in rats. The result suggests that B. buonopozense contains biologically active substances with potential values for the treatment of fever, painful and inflammatory conditions.

  10. Anti-oxidative and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of ethyl acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lee SG and Kang H. Neuroprotective Effect of. Sargassum thunbergii (Mertensex Roth) Kuntze in. Activated Murine Microglial Cells. Trop J Pharm Res. 2015; 14: 235-240. 12. Finkel T, Holbrook NJ. Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 2000; 408: 239-247. 13. Boje KM, Arora PK. Microglia-produced ...

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic effect of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the ethanol extract of coconut on egg albumin- induced inflammation in rat hind paw, hypotonicity induced haemolysis of human red blood cells and indomethacin – induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats, was studied. Fifty adult rats of either sex of weight 120-200g were divided into ten experimental groups of five ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  14. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects of antibiotics towards Platelet Activating Factor and thrombin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Sepsis is characterized as a systemic inflammatory response that results from the inability of the immune system to limit bacterial spread during an ongoing infection. In this condition the significant mediator of inflammation Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) and the coagulant factor thrombin are implicated. In animal models, treatment with PAF-antagonists or co-administration of antibiotics with recombinant-PAF-Acetylhydrolase (rPAF-AH) have exhibited promising results. In order to examine the putative anti-inflammatory and/or antithrombotic interactions between antibiotic treatment used in sepsis with PAF and/or thrombin, we studied the in vitro effects of these compounds towards PAF or/and thrombin related activities and towards PAF basic metabolic enzymes. Methods We assessed the inhibitory effect of these drugs against PAF or thrombin induced aggregation on washed rabbit platelets (WRPs) or rabbit Platelet Reach Plasma (rPRP) by evaluating their IC50 values. We also studied their effect on Cholinephosphotransferase of PAF (PAF-CPT)/Lyso-PAF-Acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF-AT) of rabbit leukocytes (RLs), as well as on rabbit plasma-PAF-AH, the key enzymes of both de novo/remodelling PAF biosynthesis and PAF degradation, respectively. Results Several antibiotics inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation of both WRPs and rPRP in a concentration-depended manner, with clarithromycin, azithromycin and amikacin exhibiting the higher inhibitory effect, while when combined they synergistically inhibited PAF. Higher concentrations of all antibiotics tested were needed in order to inhibit PAF induced aggregation of rPRP, but also to inhibit thrombin induced aggregation of WRPs. Concentrations of these drugs similar to their IC50 values against PAF activity in WRPs, inhibited also in vitro PAF-CPT and Lyso-PAF-AT activities of rabbit leukocytes, while only clarithromycin and azithromycin increased rabbit plasma-PAF-AH activity. Conclusions These newly found

  15. [Clinical effect of anti-D immunoglobulin in treatment of childhood immune thrombocytopenia: a Meta analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Huang, Shao-Ling; Li, Ting-Ting

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the clinical effect and safety of anti-D immunoglobulin (anti-D) in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed acute immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) through a Meta analysis. PubMed, EMBASE, Cohrane Library, Ovid, CNKI, and Wanfang Data were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to April 2017. Review Manager 5.3 was used for the Meta analysis. Seven RCTs were included. The Meta analysis showed that after 72 hours and 7 days of treatment, the intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) group had a significantly higher percentage of children who achieved platelet count >20×10 9 /L than the anti-D group (Panti-D (50 μg/kg) group and the IVIG group (P>0.05), and there were also no significant differences in platelet count after 24 hours and 7 days of treatment between the 50 μg/kg and 75 μg/kg anti-D groups (P>0.05). The anti-D group had a significantly greater reduction in the hemoglobin level than the IVIG group after treatment, but did not need transfusion. No children in the anti-D group or the IVIG group experienced serious adverse reactions. Intravenous injection of anti-D may have a similar effect as IVIG in improving platelet count in children with acute ITP, but it may be slightly inferior to IVIG in the rate of platelet increase after treatment. The anti-D dose of 50 μg/kg may have a similar effect as 75 μg/kg. The recommended dose of anti-D for treatment of ITP is safe.

  16. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids, recent developments and mechanistic insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Agnes E.; Chapman, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of glucocorticoids in the 1940s and the recognition of their anti-inflammatory effects, they have been amongst the most widely used and effective treatments to control inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, their clinical efficacy is compromised by the metabolic effects of long-term treatment, which include osteoporosis, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, a great deal of effort has been invested in identifying compounds that separate the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects from the adverse metabolic effects of glucocorticoids, with limited effect. It is clear that for these efforts to be effective, a greater understanding is required of the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids exert their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. Recent research is shedding new light on some of these mechanisms and has produced some surprising new findings. Some of these recent developments are reviewed here. PMID:20398732

  17. TO STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN RAT PAW EDEMA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The process of inflammation is one of the most fundamental responses of the vascularised living tissue to local injury.1 Inflammation is a universal host defense process involving a complex network of cell-cell, cell-mediator & tissue interactions.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES To study of anti-inflammatory effect of calcium channel blockers in rat paw edema model. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect with different doses of calcium channel blockers nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen in experimentally induced acute model of inflammation in male Wister rat. Inter drug comparison of anti-inflammatory efficacy of nifedipine, verapamil with standard drug ibuprofen in rats. Divide the animals into 3 groups each comprising at least six rats. Control group inject saline, standard group inject ibuprofen 20 mg/kg. test group inject (nifedipine & verapamil subcutaneously. After 30 min inject 0.1ml 1% (w/v Carrageenin in the plantar region of the left paw of all rats. The left hind paw was measured plethysmograph, immediately (zero hour and 4 hours after the sub plantar injection of Carrageenin. The difference between zero hour volume and the paw volume recorded at the end of 4 hrs. Indicated the actual volume. RESULT The statistical test ANOVA is applied to inter drug comparison. It is found that drug. Nifedipine 1mg/kg (86% has more efficacy significantly as compared to standard drug Ibuprofen 20mg/kg (55%, and drug Verapamil 1mg/kg (71% for its anti-inflammatory action. (F value is 94.27 >tab F 5.82 so this method is statistically highly significant. CONCLUSION Thus it was found that nifedipine has better anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to ibuprofen, verapamil in various experimental anti-inflammatory models. The various experimental anti-inflammatory models were rat paw edema method. The calcium channel blockers included were nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen. Nifedipine has anti

  18. Effects of anti-histaminic and anti-cholinergic substances on human thermoregulation during cold provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribukait, A; Nobel, G; Mekjavic, I B; Eiken, O

    2010-01-15

    The roles of histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the regulation of body temperature have been studied almost exclusively in animals. Recently, we have found that motion sickness, i.e. a condition where hippocampal cholinergic mismatch signals induce a release of histamine in the vomiting centre, accelerates the decline in body temperature in men during exposure to cold. In the present study we measured the thermoregulatory effects of two substances commonly used against motion sickness, i.e. the histamine (H1) receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine receptor blocker scopolamine (SCOP). In three trials, control (CN), DMH and SCOP, 10 male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90 min. The trials were separated by a minimum of three days and their order was alternated between subjects. In all trials the subject received, in a double blind fashion, a transdermal patch (SCOP or placebo) 12-14 h before immersion and a tablet (DMH or placebo) 1h before immersion. Mean skin temperature, rectal temperature (T(rec)), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and 3rd finger of the right hand (T(ff)), and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) were recorded. The fall in T(rec) was smaller in the DMH than in the CN and SCOP conditions. The recordings of T(ff) and VO(2) suggest that SCOP attenuates peripheral vasoconstriction while DMH increases shivering thermogenesis. Notably, thermal discomfort was reduced in the SCOP condition. Findings are thoroughly discussed in the context of animal studies on the neuropharmacology and neurophysiology of thermoregulation and motion sickness.

  19. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  20. The effect of endotoxin and anti-endotoxin serum on synovial fluid parameters in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Gottschalk

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a commercially available equine hyperimmune anti-endotoxin serum on synovial fluid parameters were evaluated in an induced synovitis model in normal horses. Four groups of 3 horses each received lipopolysaccharide (LPS plus hyperimmune antiendotoxin (anti-LPS, LPS, anti-LPS, and Ringers lactate (control respectively injected into the left intercarpal joint. Synovial fluid parameters were measured at 4, 8, 24 and 72 h. It was found that anti-LPS had no attenuating effect on the LPS and that it induced a synovitis almost equivalent to that induced by LPS alone. The introduction of sterile Ringers lactate solution into the carpal joint together with repeated aseptic arthrocentesis induces a mild inflammatory response.

  1. Anti-Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Macrolide Antibiotic Roxithromycin in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    that other antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, cefaclor, penicillin, and cephalosporin , had no such effects even at high concentration (data not...amino sugars attached. Macrolides: broad spectrum antibiotics. Macrolides Have Anti-Inflammatory Activities Roxithromycin: a representative macrolide

  2. [Molecular mechanism regulating effect of anti-cancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saya, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    Faithful genome duplication is achieved by accurate coordination between DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Abnormalities occurring in this process are checked by biochemical signal transduction pathways, called checkpoints, which ensure the orderly progression of events in the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent transition into subsequent phases until all processes in the previous phase are completed. Defects in cell cycle checkpoints result in gene mutations, chromosome damage, and aneuploidy, all of which contribute to tumorigenesis. However, it has recently been uncovered that the impairment of checkpoint function is the major reason why DNA damaging anti-cancer agents can selectively kill cancer cells. Given that G1 and G2 checkpoint functions are generally impaired in cancer cells, cells with DNA damage are unable to maintain G2 arrest and eventually die as they enter mitosis. This process is known as mitotic catastrophe.

  3. [Pharmacological study on hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation effects of the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Zhi; Yuan, Xian-Ling; Tan, Yuan-Feng; Ning, Xiao-Qing

    2013-10-01

    To study the effects of hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation of the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus and offer pharmacological and experimental basis for its safe and effective use in clinic. The effects of hemostasist were observed with tail breaking method, capillary tube method and slide method; Hot board and body distortion induced by acetic acid methods were applied in mice analgesia experiment, the mice model of acute auricle swelling induced by dmi ethylbenzene and capillary permeability induced by acetic acid were applied to observe the anti inflammatory effects. The alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus could significantly reduce the bleeding time and the clotting time, delay the plant reaction time and reduce the writhing times of the mice, and it also had effect on inhibiting swelling of mice ear and the permeability of the capillary. These results suggest that the alcohol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus has the effects of hemostasis, analgesic and anti inflammation.

  4. The Evaluation and Utilization of Marine-derived Bioactive Compounds with Anti-obesity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiu; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic throughout the world. There is thus increasing interest in searching for natural bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effect. A number of marine compounds have been regarded as potential sources of bioactive compounds and are associated with an anti-obesity effect. Marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect and their current applications, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are summarized in this review. in order to make contributions to the development of marine-derived functional food against obesity. In this review, an overview of marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect, including marine polysaccharides, marine lipid, marine peptides, marine carotenoids is intensively made with an emphasis on their efficacy and mechanism of action. Meanwhile, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are discussed. We summarize these methods into three categories: in vitro assay (including adsorption experiments and enzyme inhibitory assay), cell line study, animal experiments and clinical experiments. In addition, a brief introduction of the current applications of marine bioactive compounds with anti-obesity activity is discussed. Marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. In the past decades, numerous novel compounds with anti-obesity activity have been obtained from marine organisms, and many of them have been applied to industrial production such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Further studies are needed to explore the above-mentioned facts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECTS OF TURMERIC IN ALLOXAN INDUCE D DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevangi; Manjunath; Deepak D; Prakash G; Prashant; Chetan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the common constituents of our daily food. The present study wa s undertaken to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Rhizomes of curcuma longa in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with of Pioglitazone, which is the standard anti-diabetic agent. METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in albino rats in the dose of 120mg/kg i.p. and ...

  6. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  7. [Comparative Study on Effects of Anti-contusion Injury, Analgesia and Anti-inflammation of Root and Stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-xuan; Qin, Ze-hui; Zeng, Dan; Han, Zheng-zhou; Zhan, Ruo-ting; Tan, Ying; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-11-01

    To provide the scientific evidence for expansion of medicinal parts of Zanthoxylum nitidum by comparing the effects of anti-contusion injury, analgesia and anti-inflammation of its root and stem. The pharmacological effects between root and stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum were compared by observing the anti-injury effect in rats with injury struck by hammer. The analgesic effect in mice was evaluated by writhing test and hot plate test, and the anti-inflammatory effect on paw edema induced by carrageenan and granuloma induced by cotton pellet were investigated in rats. Both root and stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum relieved the exterior and histological symptoms of rats' injury legs struck by hammer, decreased the numbers of mice's writhing, enhanced pain threshold of mice on heat plate, inhibited the edema of rats induced by carrageenan, and suppressed the granuloma of rats induced by cotton pellet. Stem of Zanthoxylum nitidum has similar effects of anti-contusion injury, analgesia and anti-inflammation with root of Zanthoxylum nitidum.

  8. LED enhances anti-inflammatory effect ofluteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengnuo; Habib, Ahsan; Liu, Jun; Tan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a complex pathological process usually results from abnormal microglial activation, thus, intervention in a microglial stimulation pathway could be a promising approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Luteolin is an important bioflavonoid possesses anti-inflammatory properties, which is widely studied over these years. Light emitting diode (LED) therapy is reported to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of LED therapy on activated microglial cells, even less is known whether there is a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect exist in LED and luteolin therapy. In this study, we aimed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin and LED combination therapy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. We showed that luteolin inhibited LPS-induced cytotoxicity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production through modulation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in BV2 cells. In addition, LED therapy enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin. These results suggest that a synergistic effect between luteolin and LED could be a new effective therapy in relieving neuroinflammation.

  9. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  10. Evaluation of anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-qiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice. Mice were given orally either corn oil or quercetin (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight suspended in corn oil) by gavage once a day for 28 day. All mice were sacrificed after rotarod test and the major biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum and liver. The results indicated that quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects by prolonging retention times, decreasing levels of blood lactate and serum urea nitrogen, and increasing levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and serum glucagon. Furthermore, quercetin could improve the immune function of fatigue mice by decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α levels, and elevated interleukin-10 levels. Quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects may be related to its immunomodulating effects.

  11. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genia eLücking

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like mega-plasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS, gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional Level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-tumoral Effects of the Flavonoid Apigenin in Malignant Mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Masuelli; Monica Benvenuto; Rosanna Mattera; Enrica Di Stefano; Erika Zago; Gloria Taffera; Ilaria Tresoldi; Maria Gabriella Giganti; Giovanni Vanni Frajese; Ginevra Berardi; Andrea Modesti; Andrea Modesti; Roberto Bei; Roberto Bei

    2017-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a tumor arising from mesothelium. MM patients’ survival is poor. The polyphenol 4′,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone Apigenin (API) is a “multifunctional drug”. Several studies have demonstrated API anti-tumoral effects. However, little is known on the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumoral effects of API in MM. Thus, we analyzed the in vitro effects of API on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, pro-survival signaling pathways, apoptosis, and autophagy of human and mouse...

  13. The effect of anti-depressant Amitriptyline on the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukan J

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the effect of amitriptyline, a tricyclic anti-depressant drug on several immune parameters of the Balb/c mice in order to evaluate its immunomodulatory effects. Results showed that amitriptyline will potentiates all of the immunocytes functions except for the production of PGE2 by LPS stimulated monocytes. We have also showed that amitriptyline can normalize the immunosuppressive effect of dexamethasone on mice (experimental stress. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms of action of the tricyclic anti-depressant drugs might be through the modulation of the immune system which has been suppressed by stress or distress

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed

    2014-03-01

    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  15. Anti-microbial and spasmolytic effects of Holerrhena floribunda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also observed that the methanolic extract of H. floribunda leaves did not have effect on the ileum when used alone but decreased acetylcholine, histamine and KCL contractile effects on the guinea pig ileum. CONCLUSION: The results showed that H. floribunda is not effective in the treatment of infectious diseases as ...

  16. The effect of wealth-based anti-expectation behaviors on public cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Chen, Tong; You, Xinshang; Wang, Yongjie

    2018-03-01

    Wealth difference is a common sense in our society. It is unreasonable to assume people have the same capability to donate money to the common pool in public goods game (PGG). Individuals have behavioral expectation towards their neighbors. In this paper, we introduce wealth-based anti-expectation mechanism to explore cooperation. Through numerical simulation results, we are glad to find that the anti-expectation mechanism could stimulate cooperation when the positive effects are equal to or larger than the negative effects from anti-expectation behaviors. Based on this mechanism, we propose propagation mechanism which aims to propagate the positive effects from the poor to inspire more people to choose cooperative strategies. When individuals are tolerant towards defectors, The fraction of cooperators increases with the increment of propagation distance. Enlarging the distance is not wise when individuals are harsh towards defectors. Additionally, we find that the more tolerant towards defectors we are, the higher the cooperation rate is in general. Therefore in PGG, we could consider one's anti-expectation towards others' behaviors and improve cooperation by propagating the poor's anti-expectation effects.

  17. Cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are involved in Neuropeptide FF anti-Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2015-11-30

    The participation of a signaling platform to the anti-Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) effect of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors was investigated in both acutely dissociated neurons and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The NPFF anti-N/OFQ, not anti-μ opioid effect, on the Ca 2+ transient triggered by depolarization was reversed by methyl-β-cyclodextrin which depletes cholesterol from cell membranes. While the inactive α-cyclodextrin had no effect. By using [ 35 S]GTPγS binding assay, a significant 20% decrease of the activity of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors induced by the NPFF analogue 1DMe was observed in detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) but not in total membranes of SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, siRNA knock-down of GRK2 indicated that GRK2, but not PKC, acted as the mediator in the NPFF anti-N/OFQ process. These data indicate that cholesterol-rich lipid rafts play an important role in the anti-N/OFQ effect of NPFF receptors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa canina L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Francesca; Greco, Emanuela; Carretta, Donatella; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Govoni, Paolo; Speroni, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Rosa canina L. is a medicinal plant largely used in traditional folk medicine. Several compounds from rose hip extracts were reported to display in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The in vivo effects of Rosa canina extracts are still poorly investigated. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and the gastroprotective effects of a hydroalcoholic crude extract of Rosa canina fruits were tested in rat. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was tested on the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema assay. The gastroprotective effect was investigated on the ethanol-induced gastric damage model. The in vitro antioxidant activity of this extract was also quantified using the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity method, and the Total Phenolic Content. Data show that the Rosa canina extract inhibits the development of carrageenin-induced edema; the anti-inflammatory power is similar to that of indomethacin. The antiedema effect was more significant using a higher dose of the extract. The total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina pre-treated stomachs with respect to unpre-treated ones, although the antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically significant. The antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically detectable, even if the total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina stomachs from pre-treated rats with respect to unpre-treated ones. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract owns a good antioxidant activity that may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed in vivo. Altogether, the present data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory property of Rosa canina suggesting its potential role as adjuvant therapeutic tool for the management of inflammatory-related diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) ...

  20. Tryptophan end-tagging for promoted lipopolysaccharide interactions and anti-inflammatory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shalini; Datta, Aritreyee; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is the investigation of possibilities for boosting peptide anti-inflammatory effects by tryptophan end-tagging, including identification of underlying mechanisms for this. In doing so, effects of tryptophan end-tagging of KYE21 (KYEITTIHNLFRKLTHRLFRR), a peptide...

  1. Anti-nociceptive effects of taurine and caffeine in sciatic nerve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of co-administration of taurine and caffeine on thermally induced pain in sciatic nerve ligated rats as well as the roles of autonomic receptors. Rats were rendered neuropathic by unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of combined systemic (i.p.) administration of ...

  2. An experimental study on the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-Ehrlich ascites carcinoma effect of purified toad venom extract and its mechanism. Mouse model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was established with cisplatin as the control to observe the inhibitory effect of purified toad venom extract on malignant peritoneal effusion in mice.

  3. Studies on Anti-Hepatoma Effect of Gan-Ai-Xiao Decoction | Yuan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the anti-hepatoma effect of Gan-Ai-Xiao Decoction (GAXD), a folk remedy. Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify the major chemical components of GAXD ethanol extract (EE). The cytotoxic effect of GAXD EE against HepG2 cells was measured by methyl ...

  4. Study On The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Chaihu Guizhi Decoction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study On The Anti-Depressant Effect Of Chaihu Guizhi Decoction And Its Mechinisims Of Actions. Y Liu, C Cao, H Ding. Abstract. Background: Chaihu Guizhi has the effects of treating exogenous wind-cold; alternating episodes of chills and fever; noisy nose and retching; strong headache; chest and rib-side pain, and ...

  5. [Preliminary study on the anti-tubercular effect of Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Li, H; Qu, X; Zhao, D; Shi, Y; Guo, L; Yuan, Z

    1995-02-01

    In clinical trials, the extract of Ottelia alismoides cured two cases of bilateral tuberculosis of cervical lymph gland within 3 months. The result of drug sensitive test showed that water extract of this herb could kill or inhibit human tubercular bacteria effectively, which suggests that Ottelia alismoides is a promising medicinal herb with anti-tubercular effect.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of GLP-1-Based Therapies beyond Glucose Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone mainly secreted from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GLP-1 has beneficial effects for glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, delaying gastric emptying, decreasing plasma glucagon, reducing food intake, and stimulating glucose disposal. Therefore, GLP-1-based therapies such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which is a GLP-1 inactivating enzyme, have been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to glucose-lowering effects, emerging data suggests that GLP-1-based therapies also show anti-inflammatory effects in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetic nephropathy, asthma, and psoriasis. This review outlines the anti-inflammatory actions of GLP-1-based therapies on diseases associated with chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27110066

  7. The effect of anti-lymphocyte serum on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, S.; Lessof, M. H.; Kennedy, L. A.

    1968-01-01

    An anti-thymocyte serum completely suppressed the clinical and histological manifestations of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the guinea-pig. Long-term suppression of EAE was obtained with a relatively short course of treatment (8 days) although tolerance did not develop and the disease recurred in an attenuated form. Early treatment (0–8 days) was as effective as that given later, at a time (10–18 days) when the inflammatory lesion normally develops in the brain and cord. This suggests that the major effect is immunosuppressive rather than anti-inflammatory. A definite protective effect was also demonstrated within 24 hr of giving the serum to paralysed animals, implying a `peripheral' action upon sensitized lymphocytes or some additional anti-inflammatory component. The brain lesions seen in some long term survivors showed more advanced demyelination than is commonly seen in EAE, probably due to the chronicity of the lesion. PMID:5718501

  8. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  9. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the stem bark of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Lidiane; Vilela, Fabiana C; Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Dias, Danielle F; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-10-11

    Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. is popularly known as "murici pequeno" and is native to the Brazilian Cerrado. This species has been used as an antimicrobial, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-diarrheal and anti-inflammatory. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding Byrsonima intermedia is limited; there are no reports related to its possible anti inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. This study employed in vivo inflammatory and nociceptive models to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Byrsonima intermedia. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Byrsonima intermedia aqueous extract (BiAE) in rats. Mechanical nociceptive paw, formalin and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), phytochemistry screening and determination of total phenolics and flavonoids were used to determine the chemical profile of the BiAE. BiAE at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, by inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and, in the model of chronic inflammation, by using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats. The extracts at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. Administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by BiAE (100 mg/kg). BiAE markedly exhibits anti-inflammatory action in rats and antinociceptive activity in mice. Thus, it may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory hyperalgesic disorders, which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro antioxidant and anti-adipogenic effects of slendesta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the SLD effectively showed DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 161.98 ± 64.65 μg/ml) and SOD-like effects (IC50 = 284.54 ± 54.47 μg/ml), and the cellular ROS was significantly inhibited in the SLD-treated cells compared to control cells. Conclusion: The results suggest that SLD effectively inhibit the ...

  12. Boswellic acids and glucosamine show synergistic effect in preclinical anti-inflammatory study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjeet; Khajuria, Anamika; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Khajuria, Ravi Kant; Singh, Jaswant; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2007-07-01

    The present study revealed the synergistic effect of boswellic acid mixture (BA) and glucosamine for anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities in rats. Two studies were conducted, that is, acute anti-inflammatory by carrageenan edema and chronic anti-arthritic by Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis. Five groups of animals were included in each of the study: the vehicle control, positive control (ibuprofen 100mg/kg), boswellic acids (250 mg/kg), glucosamine (250 mg/kg) and a combination of boswellic acids (125 mg/kg) and glucosamine (125 mg/kg). BA when administered at 250 mg/kg in rats, carrageenan-induced paw edema and Mycobacterium-induced developing arthritis were significantly inhibited. In comparison to boswellic acids, glucosamine when administered at 250 mg/kg showed a mild effect in carrageenan-induced edema and moderate inhibition of paw swelling against developing arthritis. Although the combination of boswellic acids and glucosamine did not affect the acute inflammation to a greater extent yet a significant anti-arthritic activity was observed in rats. In conclusion, a synergistic effect was observed in chronic inflammatory conditions when two chemical entities were administered in combination in preclinical study.

  13. Clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy on anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 positive chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Silvia; Muratori, Luigi; Quarneti, Chiara; Muratori, Paolo; Menichella, Rita; Pappas, Georgios; Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco

    2009-06-01

    Anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (anti-LKM1), a serological marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, is also detected in a small proportion of patients with hepatitis C. This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who are anti-LKM1 positive. Sixty consecutive anti-LKM1 positive and 120 age and sex-matched anti-LKM1 negative chronic hepatitis C patients were assessed at diagnosis and during follow-up. Of these, 26 anti-LKM1 positive and 72 anti-LKM1 negative received antiviral therapy. Anti-LKM1 was detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot. Number of HCV-infected hepatocytes and intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry. At diagnosis anti-LKM1 positive patients had higher IgG levels and more intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes (p 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). Viral genotypes distribution and response to therapy were identical. Hepatic flares during antiviral treatment only occurred in a minority of patients in concomitance with anti-LKM1 positivity. Immune system activation is more pronounced in anti-LKM1 positive patients with hepatitis C, possibly representing the expression of autoimmune mechanisms of liver damage. Antiviral treatment is as beneficial in these patients as in anti-LKM1 negative patients, and the rare necroinflammatory flares are effectively controlled by corticosteroids, allowing subsequent resumption of antiviral therapy.

  14. Antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of Coptidis rhizome extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coptidis rhizoma has been used as antibiotics in traditional Chinese medicine practice for many years. Here, we examined the effect of rhizoma Coptidis extract on the growth of C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The antifungal effects of Coptidis rhizoma extract was examined by time-kill assay, transmission ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory Effects of (-)-Epicatechin in Lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effects of (-)-epicatechin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in Raw 264.7 murine macrophages and the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: The effects of epicatechin on LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in Raw. 264.7 cells were evaluated by ...

  16. An analytical review on probable anti-parkinsonian effect of modafinil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farhoudi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Restoring dopamine levels in Parkinson's disese (PD has been considered as the main symptomatic therapy. In this strategy, long-term administration of L-DOPA results in motor impairments. This necessitates novel approaches in that PD is tackled with lower deleterious side effects. . Modafinil is a wake promoting agent clinically used for treatment of excessive day time sleeping. This medication increases dopamine levels and decreases oxidative stress and can thus exert anti-parkinsonian effect. Therefore, this review will give an account of the probable anti-parkinsonian mechanisms of modafinil.

  17. Anti-Stigma HIV-Related Social Advertising: No Evidence for Side Effects on Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Hauck, Patricia; Mayr, Johanna; Negwer, Flavia

    2017-10-17

    Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not. Anti-stigma messages did not elicit an increase in the willingness to have sex without condoms.

  18. Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant like effects of murraya koenigii in experimental models of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snigdha Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presence of free radical scavenging activity in Murraya koenigii, commonly known as Curry leaves, has been shown in previous studies. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of various neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety and depression. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Murraya koenigii in animal models of depression and anxiety. Materials and Methods: The effect of incremental doses of Murraya koenigii aqueous leaf extract was evaluated on spontaneous motor activity (SMA, open arm incursions in elevated plus maze, and despair behaviour in forced swim (FST and tail suspension (TST tests as compared to control groups in Swiss albino mice. Results: Murraya koenigii 300 mg/kg, p.o. (MK300 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. (MK400 reduced the SMA count from 754 ± 64.9 to 540 ± 29 and 295 ± 34 respectively, which was statistically significant. MK300 and MK400 reduced significantly the open arm count from 29 ± 8.6 to 16 ± 7 and 10 ± 3.9, respectively. On FST, MK400 reduced the duration of immobility from 145.5 ± 29 to 91 ± 17.3, which was statistically significant. On TST, MK produced a dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility; however, it was statistically significant only with MK400. Conclusion: Murraya koenigii aqueous leaf extract reduced the despair behavior in experimental animal models, suggesting an anti-depressant like activity. Murraya koenigii extract also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner suggesting a sedative and/or anxiolytic effect though there wasn't any anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze test.

  19. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modulatory effects of dezocine-propofol, and fentanyl-propofol combinations in colonoscopy. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients who received painless colonoscopy in Eastern Medical District of Linyi People's Hospital, Linyi City, ...

  20. Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable

  1. The anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on mouse glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hidemitsu; Hori, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Mogami, Heitaro; Hayakawa, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    Anti-tumor activities of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and x-irradiation on methylcholanthrene induced glioma in C 57 BL mice were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiments using cultured glioma cells (MGB cells), the synchronization of cell cycle was done by excess addition of thymidine, and the anti-tumor cell effect were investigated by mean of determinations of DNA synthesis, mitotic index and the number of the living cells following the treatments. As the results, it appeared obvious that ACNU was most effective on MGB cells in S phase and x-irradiation in M phase. As to the combined therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation, the anti-tumor effect was most remarkable when the cells were treated by x-irradiation in the G 2 , M phase, which were hervested by addition of ACNU 44 hours before irradiation. However simultaneous treatment of ACNU and x-irradiation on the cells in G 1 phase was not so remarkable. In vivo experiments the anti-tumor effect of ACNU and x-irradiation on subcutaneously or intracranially transplanted glioma in mice was investigated. Either ACNU 10 mg/kg or local x-irradiation 1240 rads showed inhibitory effect on the tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of the tumor bearing mice. The combination therapy was more effective than ACNU or x-irradiation alone, particularly combination therapy of ACNU and repeated small doses irradiation of x-ray was remarkably effective. Evidence obtained indicated that the combination therapy of ACNU and x-irradiation have synergistic anti-tumor effect on experimental mouse glioma. (author)

  2. Anti-nitric oxide production, anti-proliferation and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract from Tithonia diversifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsit Hiransai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the immunomodulation caused by the aqueous leaf extract of T. diversifolia, resulting from the inhibition of phytohemagglutinin-M-induced PBMCs proliferation and LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages. Although the anti-oxidative activity was presented in the chemical-based anti-oxidant assay, the extract cannot protect cell death from stress conditions.

  3. Anti-hyperlipidemic and biochemical effect of extract of Tulbaghia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats by feeding with 2% cholesterol rich diet (high cholesterol diet, HCD) for four weeks. .... Table 1. Effect of extracts of T. violacea rhizomes on serum lipid profile and glucose in diet induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Plasma parameter. (mg/dl). Normal. HCD only.

  4. Anti-anxiety effect of methanol extract of Pericarpium zanthoxyli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screening of anxiolytic agents. Psychopharmacology. 1984; 84: 48–53. 14. Pellow S, Chopin PH, File SE, Briley M. Validation of open:closed entries in an elevated plus maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1985;. 14: 149–167. 15. Bigler ED. Comparison of effects of bicuculline, strychnine, and.

  5. Effects of anti-tick vaccines, recombinant serine protease inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary trial of a cocktail of recombinant RAS-1-2 and RIM 36 antigens was conducted in Uganda to assess the effects of ant-tick vaccines against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick feeding on Zebu cattle under both experimental and natural conditions. Under experimental conditions, over a period of 28 days, the ...

  6. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults’ self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral “costs” at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix.

  7. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NAZIM

    widespread perception that green medicine is safe and dependable than the costly synthetic drugs most of which have adverse effects (Jigna and Sumitra, 2006). This belief and perception led to explore a lot of new. *Corresponding author. E-mail: .... ml/kg was used to create pain sensation. The number of writhing.

  8. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics ...

  9. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Selective Antibacterial Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euadenia eminens Hook f. (Capparaceae) has traditional uses in the management of conjunctivitis, iritis, ophthalmia, tuberculosis, otalgia and rectal prolapse. The fruit pulp is also eaten as an aphrodisiac. In this paper, we report on the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial effects of its roots. A 70 % ethanol extract ...

  10. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized Controlled Trials. Plos One 2015; 10(8): e0136091. 10. Kato K, Sekiguchi M, Kikuchi S, Konno S. The effect of a. 5-HT2A receptor antagonist on pain-related behavior, endogenous 5-hydroxytryptamine production, and the expression 5-HT2A receptors in dorsal root ganglia in a rat lumbar disc herniation model.

  11. Anti-osteoporotic effect of Gengnian Jianshen decoction in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of action of Gengnian Jianshen Decoction (GJD) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. ... Serum levels of estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) ...

  12. Anti-osteoporotic effect of Gengnian Jianshen decoction in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum levels of estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone. (LH), as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor ... Conclusion: These findings indicate that GJD prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats without hyperplastic effects on the uterus. Thus, GJD has potential for use in ...

  13. Anti-Oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly decreased oxidative damage thereby making a positive impact on yeast development. Key words: Pomegranate juice, SDS-PAGE, fatty acid, vitamin.

  14. Anti-viral effect of herbal medicine Korean traditional Cynanchum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pestiviruses in general, and Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in particular, present several potential targets for directed antiviral therapy. Material and Methods: The antiviral effect of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag (Dog strangling vine: DS) extract on the bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus was tested. First ...

  15. Cardiovascular effects and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, they carry the risk of serious cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients who have a high, pre-existing cardiovascular risk profile. It is imperative that physicians are aware of these risk factors and choose agents that have the best benefit-to-risk profile, while taking into consideration the patient's individual ...

  16. Effective Communication: Perception of Two Anti-Smoking Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; McEwen, James

    1997-01-01

    Two antismoking advertisements produced in Scotland, one using a fear appeal, the other a positive image, were compared using an interview questionnaire. Subjects' (N=394) preferences and advertising effectiveness were studied. Findings are discussed in terms of psychosocial theories, and a "Preference Model" is proposed. (Author/EMK)

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molegro APS (2011) MVD 6.01 Molegro Virtual Docker,. DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. 15. ACD/I-Lab, Version 2.0, Advanced Chemistry. Development, Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada. 16. Rao YK, Fang SH, Tzeng YM. Inhibitory effects of the flavonoids isolated from Waltheria indica on the production of NO, TNF-alpha and IL-12 ...

  18. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice. J. Biosci. 40 269–279] DOI 10.1007/s12038-015-9518-4. 1. Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent ...

  19. Anti-osteoporotic effect of Gengnian Jianshen decoction in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17. Wronski TJ, Dann LM, Scott KS. Endocrine and pharmacological suppressors of bone turnover protect against osteopenia in ovariectomized rats. Endoc 2009;. 125: 810-816. 18. Turner RT, Vandersteenhoven JJ, Bell NH. The effects of ovariectomy and 17 beta-estradiol on cortical bone histomorphometry in growing rats ...

  20. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cyphostemma vogelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , while 400 mg/kg produced more inhibitory effects. At 2, 3 and 5 h post carrageenan injection, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract significantly inhibited paw edema. The extract dose dependently suppressed kaolin-carrageenan-induced edema from 3 ...

  1. Long term hypolipidaemic and anti-atherogenic effects of Carica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the long term (24 weeks) effects of daily oral administration of C. papaya aqueous leaf extract (at 200 mg/kg body weight) on the serum lipid profile and other atherogenic indices of normal rabbits. Total cholesterol, total triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, atherogenic and ...

  2. Anti-hypertensive effects of probenecid via inhibition of the α-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Baek; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Probenecid has long been used in the treatment of gout. Its anti-gout mechanisms consist of uric acid reuptake inhibition and the consequent facilitation of uric acid excretion. In the present study, we investigated whether probenecid could exert an anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The noninvasive indirect tail cuff method was employed to measure blood pressure and heart rate. The administration of probenecid (50 mg/kg, ip) induced a significant systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease, from 167 mmHg to 141 mmHg, within 120 min. In contrast, probenecid had little effect on normotensive control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). The anti-hypertensive effects of probenecid are almost as potent as those of atenolol. In a further exploration of the anti-hypertensive mechanisms of probenecid, its effects on phenylephrine-induced blood vessel contraction were tested. Our results suggest that probenecid significantly inhibited the contractions of rat aorta. This effect was also observed with endothelium-removed rat aorta, suggesting that probenecid can directly interact with the α-adrenergic receptor. Moreover, probenecid inhibited the α-adrenergic-receptor-mediated activation of ERK I/II in MC3TC-E1 cells. Therefore, our results indicate that probenecid might alleviate high blood pressure in SHR via inhibition of the α-adrenergic receptor and ERK I/II.

  3. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of zeolite deposits associated with borates in the Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka Neogene lacustrine basins, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, M. N.; Yalçin, H.; Temel, A.; Clauer, N.

    1996-09-01

    The Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka lacustrine basins of western Turkey may be considered as Tibet-type graben structures that were developed during the Miocene within the Izmir-Ankara suture zone complex. The volcanic-sedimentary successions of these basins are made up of mudstone, carbonate (limestone and dolomite) and detrital rocks, and also of crystal or vitric tuffs about 135 to 200 m thick. The Degirmenli (Bigadiç), Emirler (Bigadiç) Köpenez (Emet) and Karaören (Kirka) tuffs constituting the zeolite deposits are situated beneath four borate deposits (colemanite, ulexite, borax). The most abundant diagenetic silicate minerals are K- and Ca-clinoptilolites in the zeolite deposits, and Li-rich trioctahedral smectites (stevensite, saponite and hectorite) and K-feldspar in the borate deposits. In the Degirmenli, Emirler, Köpenez and Karaören deposits, the following diagenetic facies were developed from rhyolitic glasses rich in K and poor in Na: (glass+smectite), (K-clinoptilolite+opal-CT), (Ca-clinoptilolite+K-feldspar±analcime± quartz) and (K-feldspar+analcime+quartz). K-feldspar which is also rarely associated with phillipsite (Karaören) and heulandite (Degirmenli and Karaören), succeeds clinoptilolite and precedes analcime in these diagenetic facies where dioctahedral smectites, opal-CT and quartz are the latest minerals. No diagenetic transformations exist between clinoptilolite, K-feldspar and analcime that were formed directly from glass. The lateral facies distributions resulted from the differences in salinity and pH of pore water trapped during deposition of the tuffs, but vertical distributions in vitric tuffs seem to have been controlled by the glass/liquid ratio of the reacting system and the permeability or diffusion rate of alkali elements. The Bigadiç, Emet and Kirka zeolite deposits which were formed in saline basins rich in Ca and Mg ions, show similar chemical changes, i.e. loss of alkalis and gain in alkaline-earth elements that have taken

  4. Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Anti-Inflammatory Effects and Constituent Analysis of Modified Xiaochaihutang for the Treatment of Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers are prevalent throughout the world and are considered to be a global health problem. Modified Xiaochaihutang (MXCHT prescription is broadly used in traditional medicine hospital for the treatment of gastritis. In order to assess the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori effect of MXCHT, agar diffusion method in vitro and fluid dilution method for the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC were established. The anti-inflammatory effects were then evaluated using mouse ear edema model and rat paw edema model. The ethanol-induced gastric ulcer method was employed to verify the gastroprotective effect of active extracts in MXCHT. HPLC-TOF-MS/MS was used for analyzing the possible active constituents after oral administration of effective extracts in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models. MXCHT and 4 different extracts of the bacterial inhibition diameter and MIC were dramatically decreased compared with control group, showing anti-Helicobacter pylori effects. High dose groups of MXCHT, water extract, EtOAc extract, and n-BuOH extract displayed significant anti-inflammatory effects in xylene-induced mouse ear edema model and carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model test. MXCHT and all active extracts exhibited gastroprotective activity and prevented gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats. 4 prototype components and 4 metabolites were identified after oral administration of EtOAc extract. In addition, 6 prototype components and 6 metabolites were identified in n-BuOH extract. MXCHT, EtOAc extract, and n-BuOH extract demonstrate gastroprotective effects through anti-Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory activities. Thus, this prescription may be a suitable natural source for the prevention and treatment of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers.

  5. Psidium guajava L. anti-neoplastic effects: induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, P; Doto, A; Miceli, M; Mita, L; Benedetti, R; Nebbioso, A; Veglione, M; Rigano, D; Cioffi, M; Sica, V; Molinari, A M; Altucci, L

    2012-02-01

    Curative properties of medicinal plants such as Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) have often been indicated by epidemiological studies on populations in which these fruits are consumed daily. However, complete characterization of the active principles responsible for this ability has never been performed. Here, we have characterized P. guajava's anti-cancer potential and identified the parts of the fruit involved in its anti-neoplastic action. We studied morphology of our cells, cell cycle characteristics and apoptosis and performed immunostaining, differentiation and western blot analyses. We report that the P. guajava extract exerted anti-cancer control on both haematological and solid neoplasias. P. guajava extract's anti-tumour properties were found to be tightly bound to induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Use of ex vivo myeloid leukaemia blasts corroborated that P. guajava was able to induce cell death but did not exhibit anti-cancer effects on all malignant cells investigated, indicating selective activity against certain types of tumour. Analyses of P. guajava pulp, peel and seeds identified the pulp as being the most relevant component for causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas peel was responsible for causing cell differentiation. P. guajava itself and its pulp-derived extract were found to induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase activation and p16, p21, Fas ligand (FASL TNF super-family, member 6), Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and tumour necrosis factor receptor super-family, member 10b (DR5), overexpression. Our findings showed that P. guajava L. extract was able to exert anti-cancer activity on cultures in vitro and ex vivo, supporting the hypothesis of its anti malignant pro-apoptotic modulation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of mazindol in yellow KK mice: its activating effect on brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Yoshimoto, K; Sakane, N; Kondo, M

    1996-01-01

    1. The anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of mazindol were evaluated in obese diabetic yellow KK mice and C57Bl control mice. 2. The study compound was fed through a gastric tube at a rate of 1 or 2 mg/kg per day (0.01 mol/L HCl as control) for 2 weeks. The following parameters were compared in treated and control animals: bodyweight, food intake, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight and its thermogenesis, noradrenaline (NA) turnover, blood glucose and serum insulin levels and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). 3. Furthermore, bodyweight loss of mice pair-fed the same amount of food as the mazindol-treated mice for 2 weeks was measured. 4. Mazindol significantly decreased food intake and significantly increased guanosine-5'-diphosphate-binding in BAT mitochondria and NA turnover in BAT in both yellow KK and C57Bl groups. The amounts of WAT in subcutaneous, mesenteric and retroperitoneal regions and bodyweights were significantly decreased in both groups. Bodyweight loss in mice pair fed with the mazindol-treated groups was approximately 70% compared with that in the mazindol-treated groups. Furthermore, mazindol decreased the levels of blood glucose and serum insulin during the glucose overloading test in yellow KK mice, but it did not influence the GLUT4 protein concentration in WAT and muscle. 5. These observations suggest that mazindol possesses both an anti-obesity action, due to the inhibition of appetite as well as the activation of BAT thermogenesis via increased NA turnover in BAT, and an anti-diabetic action. Consequently, mazindol may be useful for the treatment of obesity as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in obese persons.

  7. Effects of the anti-microbial contaminant triclocarban and co ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triclocarban (TCC) is a widely used antimicrobial agent that is routinely detected in surface waters. The present study was designed to examine TCC’s efficacy and mode of action as a reproductive toxicant in fish. Reproductively mature Pimephales promelas were continuously exposed to either 1 or 5 ìg TCC/L, 0.5 ìg 17â-trenbolone (TRB)/L or a mixture (MIX) of 5 ìg TCC and 0.5 ìg TRB/L for 22 d and a variety of reproductive and endocrine-related endpoints were examined. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fathead minnows exposed to TRB, MIX or 5 ìg TCC/L. Exposure to 1 ìg TCC/L had no effect on reproduction. In general both TRB and MIX treatments caused similar physiological effects, evoking significant reductions in female plasma vitellogenin, estradiol, and testosterone, and significant increases in male plasma estradiol. However, effects of the MIX treatment on the ovarian transcriptome had little resemblance to those elicited by either TRB or TCC (5 ìg/L) only. Overall, TCC was reproductively toxic to fish at concentrations at or near those that have been measured in surface water. There was little evidence that TCC elicits reproductive toxicity through a specific mode of endocrine or reproductive action, nor that it could augment the androgenic effects of TRB. Nonetheless, transcriptomic results pointed toward modulation of certain signaling pathways known to cross-talk with steroid hormone signaling. Triclocarban (TCC) is a chlorinate

  8. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Standardized Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    isothermal temperatures o f 1 60 " C and 1 00 " C. [6-71. It revealed the presence of 17 ... received radiant heat from the w ire, h eated b y passing current of 6 mA. The time .... Values a re mean f SEM for s ix mice P : a < 0.01 and b< 0.001 compared t o respective b efore a dministrative group. Table 4: Effect of Callisternon ...

  9. Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Anupama E; Belakavadi, Madesh; Venkatesh, Deepak A; Marmé, Dieter; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2002-10-04

    Modulation of pathological angiogenesis by curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the active principle of turmeric, seems to be an important possibility meriting mechanistic investigations. In this report, we have studied the effect of curcumin on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Further, regulation of tumor angiogenesis by modulation of angiogenic ligands and their receptor gene expression in tumor and endothelial cells, respectively, by curcumin was investigated. Curcumin, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, effectively decreased the formation of ascites fluid by 66% in EAT bearing mice in vivo. Reduction in the number of EAT cells and human umbelical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro by curcumin, without being cytotoxic to these cells, is attributed to induction of apoptosis by curcumin, as is evident by an increase in cells with fractional DNA content seen in our results on FACS analysis. However, curcumin had no effect on the growth of NIH3T3 cells. Curcumin proved to be a potent angioinhibitory compound, as demonstrated by inhibition of angiogenesis in two in vivo angiogenesis assay systems, viz. peritoneal angiogenesis and chorioallantoic membrane assay. The angioinhibitory effect of curcumin in vivo was corroborated by the results on down-regulation of the expression of proangiogenic genes, in EAT, NIH3T3, and endothelial cells by curcumin. Our results on Northern blot analysis clearly indicated a time-dependent (0-24h) inhibition by curcumin of VEGF, angiopoietin 1 and 2 gene expression in EAT cells, VEGF and angiopoietin 1 gene expression in NIH3T3 cells, and KDR gene expression in HUVECs. Further, decreased VEGF levels in conditioned media from cells treated with various doses of curcumin (1 microM-1mM) for various time periods (0-24h) confirm its angioinhibitory action at the level of gene expression. Because of its non-toxic nature, curcumin could be further developed to treat chronic diseases that

  10. Anti-arthritic effects of microneedling with bee venom gel

    OpenAIRE

    Mengdi Zhao; Jie Bai; Yang Lu; Shouying Du; Kexin Shang; Pengyue Li; Liu Yang; Boyu Dong; Ning Tan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To combine with transdermal drug delivery using microneedle to simulate the bee venom therapy to evaluate the permeation of bee venom gel. Methods: In this study, the sodium urate and LPS were used on rats and mice to construct the model. Bee venom gel–microneedle combination effect on the model is to determine the role of microneedle gel permeation by observing inflammation factors. Results: Compared with the model group, the bee venom gel–microneedle combination group can r...

  11. The anti-ulcerogenic effects of Curatella americana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins; Kushima, Hélio; Moraes, Thiago Mello; Lolis, Solange de Fatima; Feitosa, Shirley Barbosa; Magri, Luciana Pietro; Soares, Fernanda Rocha; Cola, Maira Miranda; Andrade, Fábio Donizete Pezzutto; Vilegas, Wagner; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2009-01-30

    Curatella americana L. (Dilleneaceae) is a medicinal plant very frequently cited as acting against gastrointestinal disorders in ethnopharmacological inventories of the Cerrado region of Brazil. The ethanolic extract (CEB) and infusion (BI) of Curatella americana bark were investigated for their ability to prevent and heal ulceration of the gastric mucosa. The preventive and healing actions of Curatella americana were evaluated in experimental in vivo models in rodents that simulated this disease in human gastric mucosa. CEB significantly decreased the severity of gastric damage formation induced by the combination of several gastroprotective models (HCl/ethanol, indomethacin/bethanecol, absolute ethanol, stress and pylorus ligature). But, unlike CEB, the BI did not exert gastroprotective effect. The gastroprotective action of CEB involved antisecretory action, augmentation of gastric mucus (48%) and participation of endogenous sulfhydryl compounds that increase efficacy of barrier mucosa against injurious agents. CEB also presents effective healing action in chronic gastric disease (1.90+/-0.55 vs. 6.86+/-0.46 mm2)in the control) and its action mechanisms consisted of increasing the PGE2 (40%) and somatostatin levels (269%) while decreasing the gastrin level in rat plasma (79%). The gastroprotective effect and healing action of Curatella americana involved modulation of PGE2, somatostatin and gastrin levels, probably due to the presence of oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins in the bark.

  12. Effects of anti-obesity messages on women's body image and eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentow-Bewsh, Rachel; Keating, Leah; Mills, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity stigmatization contributes to negative mental health outcomes, particularly among overweight individuals. This study examined the effects of exposure to media-portrayed anti-obesity messages on women's state self-esteem, body esteem, and food intake. It was hypothesized that exposure to anti-obesity messages would result in decreased state self-esteem and body esteem and in increased food intake, and that these effects would be more pronounced in individuals with either higher BMI or stronger perceived pressure to be thin. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions in which they either: read a fictitious media article containing either anti-obesity messages or non-obesity-related health messages, or completed a neutral control task (word search). State self-esteem and body esteem were measured before and after the manipulation. Participants also completed a candy taste rating task and ad lib consumption was surreptitiously measured. There was no main effect of condition on either psychological outcome variable or on grams consumed. Higher perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin was associated with a decrease in body esteem after reading the anti-obesity article only. Having a higher BMI was associated with greater candy intake in the word search condition. This trend was also apparent in the sun exposure condition, but not in the anti-obesity condition. Exposure to anti-obesity messages appears to decrease weight-related body esteem in women who already feel strong pressure to be thin, and may lead heavier women to suppress their food intake. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Wu, Deng-Chang; Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-02-12

    Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, is abundant in celery, parsley, chamomile, passionflower, and other vegetables and fruits. Celery is recognized as a medicinal vegetable in Oriental countries to traditionally treat inflammation, swelling, blood pressure, serum lipid, and toothache. In this study, we investigated apigenin treatment effects on Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression in Mongolian gerbils. Five to eight-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori for four weeks without (atrophic gastritis group) or with N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (gastric cancer group) in drinking water, and were then rested for two weeks. During the 7th-32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 7th-52th (gastric cancer group) weeks, they were given various doses (0-60 mg/kgbw/day) of apigenin. At the end of the 32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 52th (atrophic gastritis group) week, all Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed using the CO2 asphyxia method. The histological changes of Helicobacter pylori colonization, neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils were examined using immunohistochemistry stain and Sydney System scoring. Apigenin treatments (30-60 mg/kgbw/day) effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin treatment (60 mg/kgbw/day) significantly decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori-induced histological changes of neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin has the remarkable ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression as well as possessing potent anti-gastric cancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  14. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative anti-surface warfare platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Walter Mark.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) is performed for three alternative anti-surface warfare (ASUW) platforms that will conduct operations in multi-service regional scenarios. Estimated program costs, historical cost variances, and measures of operational effectiveness are determined for each COEA alternative, and service life extension effects are examined. The data is merged in a mixed-integer optimization model, MPA...

  15. A study of the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of FF (FFE) were assessed by measuring NO and PGE2 production by and intracellular ROS and protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Results: FFE inhibited COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  16. The Effect of Honey and Vitamin C on the Response of Dogs to Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of local honey and Vitamin C on rabies antibody titre levels and packed cell volume (PCV) in dogs vaccinated with Anti-rabies vaccine obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom, Nigeria, were assessed. The dogs were bled on day 0 prior to vaccination, and after ...

  17. Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Fatigue Effect of Aqueous Extract of Anisomeles indica (L) Kuntze in Mice. Chung-Shih Chen, Mei-Lin Wang, Rosa Huang Liu, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsong-Ming Lu, Wei-Yu Tsai, Chien-Fu Huang, Chi-Chiang Yang, Yew-Min Tzeng ...

  18. Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody impairs the therapeutic effect of ceftriaxone in murine pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijneveld, Anita W.; Florquin, Sandrine; Hartung, Thomas; Speelman, Peter; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Treatments aimed at inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in patients with sepsis have been unsuccessful. Up to 50% of such patients suffer from pneumonia. To determine the effect that treatment with anti-TNF has on pneumococcal pneumonia, mice were intranasally inoculated with Streptococcus

  19. Effectiveness of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effectiveness of various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with vertebral fractures. Methods: A total of 78 patients (17 males and 61 females) with a mean age of 69.5 years were included. The major inclusion criterion was an osteoporotic vertebral fracture between T7 and L3.

  20. In vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taraxasterol against animal models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional Chinese medicine Taraxacum officinale has been widely used to treat various inflammatory diseases. Taraxasterol is one of the main active components isolated from Taraxacum officinale. Recently, we have demonstrated that taraxasterol has the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects. This study aims to ...

  1. p38 Mapk signal pathway involved in anti-inflammatory effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, CSS and SLBZS might work as a significant anti-inflammatory effect on hepatocyte of NASH by inhibiting the activation of TLR4, p-p38 MAPK and p38 MAPK involved in p38 MAPK signal pathway. Conclusion: To some extent, CSS and SLBZS may be a potential alternative and complementary medicine to ...

  2. Ankle sprain: the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Injury of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint occurs in about one in 10,000 people per day, accounting for a quarter of all sports injuries. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  3. In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Allergic Effects of Arctium lappa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Elisabeth C. A. M.; Wijering, Selva C.; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E.; Garssen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of drugs that can be used for the treatment of allergic disease is important in human health. Arctium lappa Linne (Compositae) (AL) has been used as a traditional medicine in Brazil and throughout Asia and is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the inhibitory

  4. Autophagy suppression potentiates the anti-glioblastoma effect of asparaginase in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qicheng; Ye, Li; Fan, Jiajun; Zhang, Xuyao; Wang, Huan; Liao, Siyang; Song, Ping; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Yubin; Luan, Jingyun; Wang, Yichen; Chen, Wei; Zai, Wenjing; Yang, Ping; Cao, Zhonglian; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-01-01

    Asparaginase has been reported to be effective in the treatment of various leukemia and several malignant solid cancers. However, the anti-tumor effect of asparaginase is always restricted due to complicated mechanisms. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms of how glioblastoma resisted asparaginase treatment and reported a novel approach to enhance the anti-glioblastoma effect of asparaginase. We found that asparaginase could induce growth inhibition and caspase-dependent apoptosis in U87MG/U251MG glioblastoma cells. Meanwhile, autophagy was activated as indicated by autophagosomes formation and upregulated expression of LC3-II. Importantly, abolishing autophagy using chloroquine (CQ) and LY294002 enhanced the cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by asparaginase in U87MG/U251MG cells. Further study proved that Akt/mTOR and Erk signaling pathways participated in autophagy induction, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) served as an intracellular regulator for both cytotoxicity and autophagy in asparaginase-treated U87MG/U251MG cells. Moreover, combination treatment with autophagy inhibitor CQ significantly enhanced anti-glioblastoma efficacy of asparaginase in U87MG cell xenograft model. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy potentiated the anti-tumor effect of asparagine depletion on glioblastoma, indicating that targeting autophagy and asparagine could be a potential approach for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:29207624

  5. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINEDU

    The ingestion of crude oil either orally or through polluted marine species represents a pathway for the delivery of potential toxicants to the human system. The study, therefore, analysed the effects of bonny light crude oil on the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-.

  6. Anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn extract in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperprolactinemic effect of Ficus pumila Linn. extract (FPLE) in rats. Methods: Hyperprolactinemic rats were generated by subcutaneous injection of metoclopramide dihydrochloride (50 mg/kg). A high dose (800 mg/kg), moderate dose (400 mg/kg), or low dose (200 mg/kg) of FPLE was ...

  7. Anti-Caries Effects of Dental Adhesives Containing Quaternary Ammonium Methacrylates with Different Chain Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dental adhesives containing quaternary ammonium methacrylates (QAMs with different alkyl chain lengths (CL on ecological caries prevention in vitro. Five QAMs were synthesized with a CL = 3, 6, 9, 12, and 16 and incorporated into adhesives. Micro-tensile bond strength and surface charge density were used to measure the physical properties of the adhesives. The proportion change in three-species biofilms consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus gordonii was tested using the TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Lactic acid assay, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, exopolysaccharide staining, live/dead staining, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transverse microradiography (TMR were performed to study the anti-biofilm and anti-demineralization effects of the dental adhesives. The results showed that incorporating QAMs with different alkyl chain lengths into the adhesives had no obvious effect on the dentin bond strength. The adhesives containing QAMs with a longer alkyl chain developed healthier biofilms. The surface charge density, anti-biofilm, and anti-demineralization effects of the adhesives increased with a CL of the QAMs from 3 to 12, but decreased slightly with a CL from 12 to 16. In conclusion, adhesives containing QAMs with a tailored chain length are promising for preventing secondary caries in an “ecological way”.

  8. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  9. Improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen by solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Chen, Jun; Song, Lei; Chen, Xiguang

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen by a solid dispersion (SD) method. Initial screening was developed based on drug solubility in carriers in the liquid state to select a suitable water-soluble carrier system for the preparation of SDs. The dissolution of ibuprofen in urea was higher than in PEG4000 or mannitol. Thus, urea was selected as the carrier for the preparation of SDs. SDs were characterized in terms of dissolution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Solid dispersion-based (SDBT) and conventional (CT) tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. The anti-inflammatory effect of SDBT was evaluated using the mouse ear edema test with xylene. In vitro release results indicated that the ibuprofen dissolution rate was improved by the SD. SD characterization results suggested that ibuprofen partly precipitates in crystalline and amorphous forms after SD preparation and that ibuprofen and urea do not interact. SDBT displayed more significant anti-inflammatory effects than CT. The dissolution rate and anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen were significantly enhanced by the ibuprofen-urea SD.

  10. Anti-Thrombotic Effect of Carthamus tinctorius Linn Extracts in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius Linne). Neurochem. Res. 2009; 34: 795–. 805. 8. Zhang SQ, Jiang LD. Effect of safflower injection on cardiac energy charge and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2 in rats' heart.Chin. J. Integr. Tradit. West. Med. 2004;.

  11. Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geno protective and anti-apoptotic effect of green tea against perinatal lipopolysaccharide-exposure induced liver toxicity in rat newborns. Ahmed A. Allam, Sami A. Gabr, Jamaan Ajarem, Ahmad H. Alghadir, Revathi Sekar, Billy K.C. Chow ...

  12. Ginsenoside Rg1 exerts synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with low doses of glucocorticoids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanqin; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Leiming; Du, Yuan; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-12-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are usually used to treat inflammatory diseases. However, they cause severe and irreversible side effects, which limit the use of these compounds. Ginsenoside Rg1 had been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. The present study was designed to investigate whether Rg1 exhibits synergistic anti-inflammatory effects when combined with glucocorticoids. After stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), murine macrophagic RAW264.7 cells were treated with Rg1, corticosterone (Cort) or Rg1 and Cort. Then nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression were measured. The results showed that Rg1 or Cort could reduce the production of NO and TNF-α, and Rg1 dose-dependently up-regulated GR expression, while Cort dose-dependently down-regulated GR expression. The combination of low concentrations of Rg1 with Cort, which alone could not markedly inhibit the release of inflammatory factors, inhibited the secretion of NO and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, and up-regulated the expression of GR. The findings suggested Rg1 can synergize with glucocorticoid to enhance its anti-inflammatory effect. © 2013.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Careya arborea stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Careya arborea (MECA). The effects of MECA on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin) induced paw oedema and cotton ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  15. What Are the Perceptions of Administrators and Clinicians on an Effective Anti-Bully Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringas, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the effective elements of a successful anti-bullying program through clinician and administrator perceptions. Previous studies have examined resources and interventions as curricular strategies, with some studies reflecting interventions as comprehensive programs; however, most studies do not provide…

  16. Study on anti-ehrlich ascites tumor effect of Pinellia Ternata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that Pinellia ternata polysaccharide extract had some in vivo anti-tumour effects, which were probably associated with the enhancement of the body's ability to scavenge excess free radicals by improving the body's enzyme activity. Key words: Pinellia ternata polysaccharide, ascites tumour, SOD, MDA, ...

  17. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  18. In Vivo Anti-Plasmodial Activity and the Effect of Ethanolic Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of R.vomitoria showed marked anti-malaria effects in dose seeming fashion from the percentage parasitaemia computed after carrying out suppressive and curative test. The hematological parameters showed that R. vomitoria had a significant increase in HCT, RBC, HGB, and platelet values when compared to ...

  19. Anti-viral effects of medicinal plants in the management of dengue: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-viral effects of medicinal plants in the management of dengue: a systematic review. Éric Heleno Freira Ferreira Frederico, André Luiz Bandeira Dionísio Cardoso, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio Guimarães, Carla da Fontoura Dionello, Danielle Soares Morel, Laisa ...

  20. Anti-diarrhoeal effects of three Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pawpaw root (Carica papaya), Guava leaf (Psidium guajava) and Bush Mango leaf (Irvingia gabonensis) are commonly used locally to treat diarrhoea. The present study evaluated the anti-diarrhoeal effects of these plant extracts on E. coli - induced diarrhoea in albino rats. Fresh tender roots and leaves of these plants were ...

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of ethanol leaf extract of Combretum micranthum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanol leaf extract of Combretum micranthum on blood glucose levels and oxidative stress biomarkers such as malondaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase on alloxan induced Diab tes in Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced ...

  2. Study on anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from radix paeoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the paper was to study the anti-tumor effect of total glycosides from Radix paeoniae rubra in S180 tumor-bearing mice, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. Mice were made into S180 solid tumor model, grouped and administered with the extracts; tumor inhibition rate was measured by ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri on carrageenan-induced air pouch mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Park, Kyung-Mok; Lee, Soon-Young; Seo, Ji-Hye; Yoon, In-Soo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Bang, Mi-Ae; Cho, Seung-Sik; Park, Dae-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a commonly observed immune reaction, and rheumatoid arthritis is a particularly severe inflammatory disease. In this study, we used an air pouch mouse model to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Allium hookeri, which has both been used as a culinary material and a traditional medicine in south-eastern Asia for many years. Allium hookeri suppressed typical symptoms of inflammation, such as condensation of the air pouch membrane, and inhibited the expression of several inducible proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α. In order to determine the molecules modulating the inflammatory effect of carrageenan treatment, the components in Allium hookeri were analyzed by GC-MS, and linoleic acid, which have anti-inflammatory effect, was detected. From the results, we concluded that the anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri might be attributed to linoleic acid, which could be promising candidates for anti-inflammatory drugs that have no adverse effects.

  4. Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Anti-tumor and Chemoresistance-lowering Effects of Pectolinarigenin from Cirsium japonicum Fisch ex DC in Breast Cancer. Mingqian Lu, Xinhua Xu, Hongda Lu, Zhongxin Lu, Bingqing Xu, Chao Tan, Kezhi Shi, Rong Guo, Qingzhi Kong ...

  5. Anti-Proteinuric Effect of Sulodexide in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Kitae; Chin, Ho Jun; Chae, Dong Wan; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Suhnggwon; Ju, Kyung Don; Kim, Hwajung; Ahn, Curie; Oh, Kook-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a multi-center randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of 6-month therapy with sulodexide on urinary protein excretion in patients with idiopathic Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. Materials and Methods A total of seventy-seven patients participated in the study. They were randomly allocated to one of three groups: sulodexide 75 mg or 150 mg daily or the placebo for 6 months. The primary end point was the achievement, at 6 months, of at least 50% reductio...

  6. [Effects of anti-diabetic therapy on cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2013-12-01

    It is debatable whether metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes is followed by a commensurate reduction in cardiovascular risk. Large clinical outcome trials have shown that lowering glucose is a poor predictor of cardiovascular outcome; rather a too tight metabolic control exposes patients, particularly those at risk for hypoglycemia, and with renal failure, to severe adverse events. This article reviews the specific effects of the most commonly used glucose-lowering agents on the cardiovascular system, and specifies which drug is best suited for a given clinical condition related to cardiovascular disease.

  7. Effect of anti-virus software on infectious nodes in computer network: A mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bimal Kumar; Pandey, Samir Kumar

    2012-07-01

    An e-epidemic model of malicious codes in the computer network through vertical transmission is formulated. We have observed that if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, the infected proportion of computer nodes disappear and malicious codes die out and also the malicious codes-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable which leads to its eradication. Effect of anti-virus software on the removal of the malicious codes from the computer network is critically analyzed. Analysis and simulation results show some managerial insights that are helpful for the practice of anti-virus in information sharing networks.

  8. A novel macrolide solithromycin exerts superior anti-inflammatory effect via NF-κB inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Wada, Hiroo; Rossios, Christos; Takagi, Dai; Higaki, Manabu; Mikura, Shin'ichiro; Goto, Hajime; Barnes, Peter J; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNFα/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNFα release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-κB by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.

  9. Anti-parasite effects of cytokines in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, K N; Naotunne, T D; Karunaweera, N D; Del Giudice, G; Grau, G E; Carter, R

    1990-08-01

    Cytokines induced during natural malaria infections, e.g., at crisis of a blood infection of Plasmodium cynomolgi, and during clinical paroxysms in human Plasmodium vivax infections, mediate killing of intra-erythrocytic blood stage malaria parasites. These cytokines, TNF and IFN-gamma, require additional, yet unidentified complementary factors that are present in "crisis" and "paroxysm" serum to kill intra-erythrocytic blood stage parasites. In contrast, cytokines, (mainly IFN-gamma) are able to effect killing of intra-hepatic stages of the parasite by themselves independent of serum complementary factors, suggesting that the mechanisms of killing may be different with respect to the two parasite stages. Cytokines also appear to be critical intermediates in mechanisms of clinical disease in malaria. Serum cytokine (TNF) levels and killing effects on blood stage malaria parasites were lower in patients who were exposed to endemic P. vivax malaria who had partial clinical immunity, than in non-immune patients. Evidence suggest that individuals acquire natural immunity to the disease by avoiding the induction of high levels of cytokines and complementary factors.

  10. Anti-Renal Fibrotic Effect of Exercise Training in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ching Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on renal fibrosis in hypertensive rats. Masson’s trichrome staining and Western blotting were performed on the excised renal cortex from sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, which were randomly divided into either a sedentary hypertensive group (SHR or exercise hypertensive group (SHR-EX, running on an exercise treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 sessions/week, for 12 weeks, and from eight male Wistar-Kyoto rats which served as a sedentary normotensive group (WKY. The systolic blood pressure (SBP and renal fibrosis in hypertensive rats improved after exercise training. The inflammatory-related protein levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, as well as the fibrotic-related protein levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, phospho-Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 were decreased in the SHR-EX group when compared with the SHR group. Exercise training suppressed the hypertension-induced renal cortical inflammatory and fibrotic pathways in hypertensive rat models. These findings might indicate a new therapeutic effect for exercise training to prevent renal fibrosis in hypertensive nephropathy.

  11. Surface characterization and effectiveness evaluation of anti-graffiti coatings on highly porous stone materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri, Mariateresa; Masieri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two commercial sacrificial anti-graffiti systems, provided as water emulsion, were applied on a highly porous stone. The behavior of the anti-graffiti treatments was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR), colorimetric tests, and water static contact angle measurements. The presence of a protective coating enhanced the removal of paint sprayed on the stone. However, penetration of the staining agent below the surface, due to the high porosity of the substrate, caused difficulties in eliminating the paint. In fact, repeated cleaning procedures, involving hot water, mechanical action, and chemical removers, did not allow a complete removal of the paint. The examined systems behaved against graffiti in different ways. No affinity between the wax-based product and the paint was observed; nevertheless, this behavior did not result in good anti-graffiti performances. On the contrary, the penetration of the paint into the fluorine-based coating yielded a good anti-graffiti effectiveness, since the stain was easily eliminated from the surfaces. The anti-graffiti coatings survived in limited areas after the cleaning processes, although the studied compounds are suggested as sacrificial products. Such behavior may affect the maintenance activities, when the surface is no longer protected and the coating need to be renewed, since compatibility problems, as well as harmful accumulation, could occur because of further treatments on these surfaces.

  12. Anti-platelet effects of chalcones fromAngelica keiskeiKoidzumi (Ashitaba)in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, N; Ohnishi, K; Taniguchi, M; Nakayama, A; Usuba, Y; Fujita, M; Fujii, A; Ishibashi, K; Baba, K; Atsumi, G

    2016-11-02

    Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (Ashitaba) is a traditional folk medicine that is also regarded in Japan as a health food with potential antithrombotic properties. The ability of the major chalcones, xanthoangelol (XA) and 4-hydroxyderricin (4-HD) extracted from Ashitaba roots to inhibit platelet aggregation activity in vitro was recently determined. However, the anti-platelet activities of Ashitaba chalcones in vivo have remained unclear. The present study examines the anti-platelet effects of Ashitaba exudate and its constituent chalcones using mouse tail-bleeding models that reflect platelet aggregation in vivo. Ashitaba exudate and the major chalcone subtype XA, suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shortening of mouse tail bleeding. However, trace amounts of other Ashitaba chalcone subtypes including xanthoangelols B (XB), D (XD), E (XE) and F (XF) did not affect tail bleeding. These results suggest that the major chalcone subtype in Ashitaba, XA, has anti-platelet-activities in vivo.

  13. Constituents from Apium graveolens and their anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Han; Bao, Tian-Hui; Deng, Yue; Li, Hua; Chen, Li-Xia

    2017-11-01

    A phthalide glycoside, (3R, 4R)-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-senkyunolide (1), and a megastigmane glycoside, (6S, 7R)-3-oxo-megastigma-4, 8-dien-7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), along with two known aglycones (3-4), were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of fresh whole grass of Apium graveolens L. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. All of these compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 showed potent inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, with IC 50 values of 24.0 ± 2.1 μM and 28.6 ± 2.4 μM, respectively.

  14. Effects of anti-osteoporosis medications on fracture healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Schwarz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A number of fractures are complicated by impaired healing. This is prevalent in certain risk groups such as elderly, osteoporotics, postmenopausal women, and in people with malnutrition. At present, no pharmacologic treatments are available. Thus, there is an unmet need for medications that can...... stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis and, intriguingly, a number of animal studies prove the ability of PTH to induce fracture healing. PTH may therefore be a potential novel treatment option in humans with impaired...... healing. However, more randomized clinical trials documenting the clinical efficacy of PTH as a promoter of fracture healing in the clinical setting are warranted. Also, strontium ranelate seems to have beneficial effects on fracture healing under conditions with impaired healing. However, no clinical...

  15. The effect of anti-plaque agents on gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Silvia; Keenan, Analia

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesAn electronic search was conducted on PubMed Central. References of retrieved papers and previously published systematic reviews were hand searched.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least six months follow-up evaluating the use of test products used in mouthrinses, toothpastes or gels as adjuncts to mechanical oral hygiene (including toothbrushing) were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo trained and calibrated reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, with any disagreement being resolved by discussion. Two reviewers under the supervision of a third reviewer extracted data. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the CONSORT statement. Outcomes were summarised as means and standard deviation (SD) or standard error (SE), the results were pooled and analysed using weighted mean differences (WMD), and heterogeneity among the studies was calculated.ResultsEighty-seven articles with 133 comparisons were included in the review. A majority of the studies (75) were considered to be at high risk of bias, eight at unclear risk and four at low risk. Fifteen different categories of active agent were used in toothpastes and ten in mouthwashes. The additional effects of the tested products were statistically significant for the Loe & Silness gingival index (46 studies), WMD -0.217, the modified gingival index (23 studies) - 0.415, gingivitis severity index (26 studies) - 14.939% or bleeding index (23 studies) - 7.626% with significant heterogeneity. For plaque, additional effects were found for Turesky (66 studies) WMD - 0.0475, Silness & Loe (26 studies) - 0.109 and for plaque severity (12 studies) - 23.4% indices, with significant heterogeneity.ConclusionsWithin the limitations of the present study, formulations with specific agents for chemical plaque control provide statistically significant improvements in terms of gingival, bleeding and plaque indices.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roy; Bedi, Asheesh; Manjoo, Ajay; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Mease, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of disability in the adult population. Common nonoperative treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), intra-articular corticosteroids, and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is found intrinsically within the knee joint providing viscoelastic properties to the synovial fluid. HA therapy provides anti-inflammatory relief through a number of different pathways, including the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Methods We conducted a systematic review to summarize the published literature on the anti-inflammatory properties of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis. Included articles were categorized based on the primary anti-inflammatory responses described within them, by the immediate cell surface receptor protein assessed within the article, or based on the primary theme of the article. Key findings aimed to describe the macromolecules and inflammatory-mediated responses associated with the cell transmembrane receptors. Results Forty-eight articles were included in this systematic review that focused on the general anti-inflammatory effects of HA in knee OA, mediated through receptor-binding relationships with cluster determinant 44 (CD44), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and 4 (TLR-4), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and layilin (LAYN) cell surface receptors. Higher molecular weight HA (HMWHA) promotes anti-inflammatory responses, whereas short HA oligosaccharides produce inflammatory reactions. Conclusions Intra-articular HA is a viable therapeutic option in treating knee OA and suppressing inflammatory responses. HMWHA is effective in suppressing the key macromolecules that elicit the inflammatory response by short HA oligosaccharides.

  17. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors confer anti-invasive and antimetastatic effects on lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Katrin; Ramer, Robert; Dithmer, Sophie; Ivanov, Igor; Merkord, Jutta; Hinz, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation has been suggested as tool for activation of endogenous tumor defense. One of these strategies lies in blockade of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which catalyzes the degradation of endocannabinoids (anandamide [AEA], 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and endocannabinoid-like substances (N-oleoylethanolamine [OEA], N-palmitoylethanolamine [PEA]). This study addressed the impact of two FAAH inhibitors (arachidonoyl serotonin [AA-5HT], URB597) on A549 lung cancer cell metastasis and invasion. LC-MS analyses revealed increased levels of FAAH substrates (AEA, 2-AG, OEA, PEA) in cells incubated with either FAAH inhibitor. In athymic nude mice FAAH inhibitors were shown to elicit a dose-dependent antimetastatic action yielding a 67% and 62% inhibition of metastatic lung nodules following repeated administration of 15 mg/kg AA-5HT and 5 mg/kg URB597, respectively. In vitro, a concentration-dependent anti-invasive action of either FAAH inhibitor was demonstrated, accompanied with upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Using siRNA approaches, a causal link between the TIMP-1-upregulating and anti-invasive action of FAAH inhibitors was confirmed. Moreover, knockdown of FAAH by siRNA was shown to confer decreased cancer cell invasiveness and increased TIMP-1 expression. Inhibitor experiments point toward a role of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in conferring anti-invasive effects of FAAH inhibitors and FAAH siRNA. Finally, antimetastatic and anti-invasive effects were confirmed for all FAAH substrates with AEA and OEA causing a TIMP-1-dependent anti-invasive action. Collectively, the present study provides first-time proof for an antimetastatic action of FAAH inhibitors. As mechanism of its anti-invasive properties an upregulation of TIMP-1 was identified. PMID:26930716

  18. The role of the shared epitope in arthralgia with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and its effect on anti-CCP levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. H.; Ursum, J.; de Vries, N. [=Niek; Bartelds, G. M.; Wolbink, G. J.; Nurmohamed, M. T.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I. E.; van de Stadt, R. J.; Crusius, J. B. A.; Tak, P. P.; Dijkmans, B. A. C.; van Schaardenburg, D.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients presenting with both arthralgia and antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) have an increased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To further characterise this patient group and shed more light on its relationship with clinically manifest early arthritis

  19. The effects of anti-speeding advertisements on the simulated driving behaviour of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Bernice R C; Irwin, Julia D; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2017-03-01

    Recent examinations of road safety communications, including anti-speeding advertisements, have considered the differential effects of positive and negative emotional appeals on driver behaviour. However, empirical evaluations of anti-speeding messages have largely relied on measures of viewers' reported intentions to comply with speed limits and the self-reported driving behaviour of viewers post-exposure, which might not be indicative of the direct effects that these messages have on real-world driving behaviour. The current research constitutes a first empirical evaluation of different real-world anti-speeding advertisements, as measured by their effects on young drivers' speeding behaviour, using a driving simulator. Licensed drivers (N=116) aged 17-25 years completed driving measures prior to, immediately following, and 7-10days after viewing one of four social marketing advertisements. Results indicated that young drivers' average driving speeds were modestly reduced immediately after they viewed an anti-speeding advertisement that depicted social consequences for speeding and employed a positive emotional appeal when compared to an emotion-matched control advertisement; however, this effect was not found for the anti-speeding advertisement depicting a crash. Interestingly, the results based on reported intentions to reduce speeding predicted the opposite pattern of results. However, there was no evidence that the immediate changes to speeding were maintained 7-10days later, and prompts during Phase 2 did not appear to have an effect. The implications of these findings for road safety advertisements targeting young drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Quintero-Fabián, Saray; López-Roa, Rocío Ivette; Flores-Gutiérrez, Enrique Octavio; Reyes-Grajeda, Juan Pablo; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects. PMID:25961060

  1. Immunomodulation and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Garlic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of garlic to health have been proclaimed for centuries; however, only recently have Allium sativum and its derivatives been proposed as promising candidates for maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. The complex biochemistry of garlic makes it possible for variations in processing to yield different preparations with differences in final composition and compound proportion. In this review, we assess the most recent experimental results, which indicate that garlic appears to enhance the functioning of the immune system by stimulating certain cell types, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells, and eosinophils, by mechanisms including modulation of cytokine secretion, immunoglobulin production, phagocytosis, and macrophage activation. Finally, because immune dysfunction plays an important role in the development and progress of several diseases, we critically examined immunoregulation by garlic extracts and compounds isolated, which can contribute to the treatment and prevention of pathologies such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, gastric ulcer, and even cancer. We concluded that A. sativum modulates cytokine secretion and that such modulation may provide a mechanism of action for many of their therapeutic effects.

  2. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Isumi, Kyoko; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of VDR, we generated transgenic mice that show lung-specific VDR overexpression under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter (TG mice). The TG mice were used to study the expression patterns of proinflammatory cytokines using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The TG mice had lower levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-related cytokines than wild-type (WT) mice did. No significant differences in the expression of Th2 cytokines were observed between TG and WT mice. This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD.

  3. Anti-inflammatory Effects of apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone from the Brown Alga, Sargassum Muticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The marine environment is a unique source of bioactive natural products, of which Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt is an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. S. muticum is a traditional Korean food stuff and has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the active ingredients from S. muticum have not been characterized.Methods:Bioguided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of S. muticum, collected from Jeju island, led to the isolation of a norisoprenoid. Its structure was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of action of this compound were examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through ELISA assays and Western blot analysis.Results:Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone, belonging to the norisoprenoid family were identified. Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone effectively suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production. This compound also exerted their anti-inflammatory actions by down-regulating of NF-κB activation via suppression of IκB-α in macrophages.Conclusions:This is the first report describing effective anti-inflammatory activity for apo-9’-fucoxanthinone′-fucoxanthnone isolated from S. muticum. Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone may be a good candidate for delaying the progression of human inflammatory diseases and warrants further studies.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for a number of diseases including lung cancer and respiratory infections. Paradoxically, it also contains nicotine, an anti-inflammatory alkaloid. There is increasing evidence that smokers have a lower incidence of some inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis, and the protective effect involves the activation of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that requires the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on immune cells. Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Nicotine significantly improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in genetically obese and diet-induced obese mice, which is associated with suppressed adipose tissue inflammation. Inflammation that results in disruption of the epithelial barrier is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease, and nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis. This article summarizes current evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Selective agonists for the α7nAChR could represent a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of inflammation in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine could be mediated via the expression of several nAChRs on a particular target cell.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W G; Zhang, X Y; Wu, Y J; Tian, X

    2001-12-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins (PA) from grape seeds. Croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats were prepared. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured by NADPH-diaphoras stain assay, nitric oxide (NO) content by Griess diazotization assay, N-acetyl-beta- D-glucosaminidase (beta-NAG) activity by spectrophotography, malondialdehyde (MDA) content by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) fluorescence technique, and IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 content by radioimmunoassay (RIA). PA 10-40 mg/kg ip inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear swelling in mice in a dose-dependent manner. PA 10 mg/kg reduced MDA content in inflamed paws, inhibited beta-NAG and NOS activity, and lowered the content of NO, IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and PGE2 in exudate from edema paws of rats induced by carrageenan. The inhibitory effect of PA on all above indices was more evident than that of dexamethasone 2 mg/kg. PA has anti-inflammatory effect on experimental inflammation in rats and mice. Its mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action are relevant to oxygen free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the formation of inflammatory cytokines.

  6. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  7. The anti-HIV-1 effect of scutellarin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaohong; Wang Qian; Chen Jijun; Zhang Xuemei; Tam, S.-C.; Zheng Yongtang

    2005-01-01

    Scutellarin was purified from the plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. The activity against 3 strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was determined in vitro in this study. These were laboratory-derived virus (HIV-1 IIIB ), drug-resistant virus (HIV-1 74V ), and low-passage clinical isolated virus (HIV-1 KM018 ). From syncytia inhibition study, the EC 50 of scutellarin against HIV-1 IIIB direct infection in C8166 cells was 26 μM with a therapeutic index of 36. When the mode of infection changed from acute infection to cell-to-cell infection, this compound became even more potent and the EC 50 reduced to 15 μM. This suggested that cell fusion might be affected by this compound. By comparing the inhibitory effects on p24 antigen, scutellarin was also found to be active against HIV-1 74V (EC 50 253 μM) and HIV-1 KM018 (EC 50 136 μM) infection with significant difference in potency. The mechanism of its action was also explored in this study. At a concentration of 433 μM, scutellarin inhibited 48% of the cell free recombinant HIV-1 RT activity. It also caused 82% inhibition of HIV-1 particle attachment and 45% inhibition of fusion at the concentrations of 54 μM. In summary, scutellarin was found to inhibit several strains of HIV-1 replication with different potencies. It appeared to inhibit HIV-1 RT activity, HIV-1 particle attachment and cell fusion. These are essential activities for viral transmission and replication

  8. Anti-gravity treadmills are effective in reducing knee forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Bugbee, William D; Goldberg, Timothy; Colwell, Clifford W; D'Lima, Darryl D

    2013-05-01

    Lower body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmills permit significant unweighting of patients and have the potential to enhance recovery following lower limb surgery. We determined the efficacy of an LBPP treadmill in reducing knee forces in vivo. Subjects, implanted with custom electronic tibial prostheses to measure forces in the knee, were tested on a treadmill housed within a LBPP chamber. Tibiofemoral forces were monitored at treadmill speeds from 1.5 mph (0.67 m/s) to 4.5 mph (2.01 m/s), treadmill incline from -10° to +10°, and four treadmill chamber pressure settings adjusted to decrease net treadmill reaction force from 100% to 25% of the subject's body weight (BW). The peak axial tibiofemoral force ranged from 5.1 times BW at a treadmill speed of 4.5 mph (2.01 m/s) and a pressure setting of 100% BW to 0.8 times BW at 1.5 mph (0.67 m/s) and a pressure setting of 25% BW. Peak knee forces were significantly correlated with walking speed and treadmill reaction force (R(2)  = 0.77, p = 0.04). The LBPP treadmill might be an effective tool in the rehabilitation of patients following lower-extremity surgery. The strong correlation between tibiofemoral force and walking speed and treadmill reaction forces allows for more precisely achieving the target knee forces desired during early rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  9. Anti-fibrogenic effects of the anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin in murine colitis-associated fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ho, Samantha; Tran, Deanna Hoang-Yen; Cheng, Michelle; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Kukota, Yuzu; Ichikawa, Ryan; Su, Bowei; Tran, Diana Hoang-Ngoc; Hing, Tressia C; Chang, Irene; Shih, David Q; Issacson, Richard E; Gallo, Richard L; Fiocchi, Claudio; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Koon, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidin (LL-37 in human and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial peptides with anti-inflammatory effects. LL-37 also suppresses collagen synthesis, an important fibrotic response, in dermal fibroblasts. Here we determined whether exogenous cathelicidin administration modulates intestinal fibrosis in two animal models of intestinal inflammation and in human colonic fibroblasts. C57BL/6J mice (n=6 per group) were administered intracolonically with a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) enema to induce chronic (6-7 weeks) colitis with fibrosis. mCRAMP peptide (5 mg/kg every 3 day, week 5-7) or cathelicidin gene ( Camp )-expressing lentivirus (10 7 infectious units week 4) were administered intracolonically or intravenously, respectively. 129Sv/J mice were infected with Salmonella typhimurium orally to induce cecal inflammation with fibrosis. Camp expressing lentivirus (10 7 infectious units day 11) was administered intravenously. TNBS-induced chronic colitis was associated with increased colonic collagen (col1a2) mRNA expression. Intracolonic cathelicidin (mCRAMP peptide) administration or intravenous delivery of lentivirus-overexpressing cathelicidin gene significantly reduced colonic col1a2 mRNA expression in TNBS-exposed mice, compared to vehicle administration. Salmonella infection also caused increased cecal inflammation associated with collagen (col1a2) mRNA expression that was prevented by intravenous delivery of Camp -expressing lentivirus. Exposure of human primary intestinal fibroblasts and human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 induced collagen protein and mRNA expression, that was reduced by LL-37 (3-5 µM) through a MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. Cathelicidin can reverse intestinal fibrosis by directly inhibiting collagen synthesis in colonic fibroblasts.

  10. Non-respiratory neurons in the Bötzinger complex exhibiting appropriate firing patterns to generate the emetic act in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, H; Koga, T

    1992-08-01

    This work was performed to prove the hypothesis that the pattern generator for the emetic act exists in the Bötzinger complex (BOT) and is driven by vagal afferents via the subpostrema portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract (mNST). Non-respiratory neurons (78) intermingling with BOT respiratory neurons in decerebrate dogs responded to pulse train stimulation of vagal afferents with a mean latency of 387 ms. During retching induced by vagal stimulation, one-half of the non-respiratory neurons exhibited high frequency burst firings synchronous with each retch (SH-firing, SH-neurons) and one-third of these neurons showed similar firings synchronous with the periods between retches (BH-firing, BH-neurons). Two-thirds of the SH-neurons and one-half of the BH-neurons fired with gradually augmenting frequencies (augmenting firing) during the period prior to retching, which may correspond to the period of prodromal signs of vomiting. Three SH-neurons were observed at fictive expulsion: all 3 exhibited burst firings concomitant with expulsion. During cooling block of transmission in the mNST, stimulation of the vagus nerve ipsilateral to the cooling failed to induce not only retching but also augmenting firing and SH-firing in all 11 BOT SH-neurons observed. In contrast, contralateral vagal stimulation induced retching and neuronal firings which had been observed before the cooling. These results support the hypothesis mentioned above. Respiratory firings were changed during retching in all BOT respiratory neurons observed. Respiratory firings were depressed during retching in the majority (15/25) of inspiratory (I) neurons and in a few expiratory (E) neurons (6/45). SH-firing was exhibited by 3 I- and 13 E-neurons. A few (2) I- and half (23) E-neurons showed BH-firing. These results indicate that all BOT respiratory neurons participate in central patterning of the emetic act.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of zinc finger protein A20 overexpression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J-Y; Bae, W-J; Yi, J-K; Kim, G-T; Kim, E-C

    2016-08-01

    Although overexpression of the nuclear factor κB inhibitory and ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, its function in periodontal disease remains unknown. The aims of the present study were to evaluate A20 expression in patients with periodontitis and to study the effects of A20 overexpression, using a recombinant adenovirus encoding A20 (Ad-A20), on the inflammatory response and on osteoclastic differentiation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and nicotine-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The concentration of prostaglandin E2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages using conditioned medium from LPS- and nicotine-treated hPDLCs. A20 was upregulated in the gingival tissues and neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and in LPS- and nicotine-exposed hPDLCs. Pretreatment with A20 overexpression by Ad-A20 markedly attenuated LPS- and nicotine-induced production of prostaglandin E2 , as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, A20 overexpression inhibited the number and size of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, and downregulated osteoclast-specific gene expression. LPS- and nicotine-induced p38 phosphorylation and nuclear factor κB activation were blocked by Ad-A20. Ad-A20 inhibited the effects of nicotine and LPS on the activation of pan-protein kinase C, Akt, GSK-3β and protein kinase Cα. This study is the first to demonstrate that A20 overexpression has anti-inflammatory effects and blocks osteoclastic differentiation in a nicotine- and LPS-stimulated hPDLC model. Thus, A20 overexpression may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory bone loss diseases, such as periodontal disease. © 2015 John Wiley

  12. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, M; Chai, H J; Mustafa, A M; Gilani, A H; Mustafa, M R

    2007-02-12

    Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in both humans and experimental animals. To explore the mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of the HS, we examined the effects of a crude methanolic extract of the calyces of HS (HSE) on vascular reactivity in isolated aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats. HSE relaxed, concentration-dependently, KCl (high K(+), 80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM)-pre-contracted aortic rings, with a greater potency against the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist. The relaxant effect of HSE was partly dependent on the presence of a functional endothelium as the action was significantly reduced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pretreatment with atropine (1 microM), L-NAME (10 microM) or methylene blue (10 microM), but not indomethacin (10 microM), significantly blocked the relaxant effects of HSE. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were significantly enhanced in aortic rings pretreated with HSE when compared to those observed in control aortic rings. The present results demonstrated that HSE has a vasodilator effect in the isolated aortic rings of hypertensive rats. These effects are probably mediated through the endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway and inhibition of calcium (Ca(2+))-influx into vascular smooth muscle cells. The present data further supports previous in vivo findings and the traditional use of HS as an anti-hypertensive agent.

  14. Amentoflavone protects hippocampal neurons: anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone is a natural biflavone compound with many biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. We presumed that amentoflavone exerts a neuroprotective effect in epilepsy models. Prior to model establishment, mice were intragastrically administered 25 mg/kg amentoflavone for 3 consecutive days. Amentoflavone effectively prevented pilocarpine-induced epilepsy in a mouse kindling model, suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation and expression, inhibited excessive discharge of hippocampal neurons resulting in a reduction in epileptic seizures, shortened attack time, and diminished loss and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Results suggested that amentoflavone protected hippocampal neurons in epilepsy mice via anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiapoptosis, and then effectively prevented the occurrence of seizures.

  15. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Thiazolidinediones in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Flynt, Lesley; Ghosh, Sanjukta; Mellema, Matt; Banerjee, Audreesh; Williams, Erin; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells have been reported to contribute to the inflammation of asthma. Because the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) exert anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the effects of troglitazone and rosiglitazone on the release of inflammatory moieties from cultured human ASM cells. Troglitazone dose-dependently reduced the IL-1β–induced release of IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor, the TNF-α–induced release of eotaxin and regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), and the IL-4–induced release of eotaxin. Rosiglitazone also inhibited the TNF-α–stimulated release of RANTES. Although TZDs are known to activate peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), these anti-inflammatory effects were not affected by a specific PPARγ inhibitor (GW 9662) or by the knockdown of PPARγ using short hairpin RNA. Troglitazone and rosiglitazone each caused the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as detected by Western blotting using a phospho-AMPK antibody. The anti-inflammatory effects of TZDs were largely mimicked by the AMPK activators, 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribose (AICAR) and metformin. However, the AMPK inhibitors, Ara A and Compound C, were not effective in preventing the anti-inflammatory effects of troglitazone or rosiglitzone, suggesting that the effects of these TZDs are likely not mediated through the activation of AMPK. These data indicate that TZDs inhibit the release of a variety of inflammatory mediators from human ASM cells, suggesting that they may be useful in the treatment of asthma, and the data also indicate that the effects of TZDs are not mediated by PPARγ or AMPK. PMID:20870897

  16. Topical glucocorticoid has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Møiniche, S; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of topical glucocorticoids in human thermal injury. The right and left legs of 12 healthy volunteers were allocated randomly to be treated with either 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream or placebo in a double-blind trial. Thermal...... injury caused a decrease in HPDT, HPT and MPDT, an increase in EI and development of mechanical, secondary hyperalgesia. Clobetasol propionate had no effect on any of the nociceptive or inflammatory variables studied....

  17. Total ionizing dose effects and hardening techniques of anti-fuse FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Ju Chao

    2002-01-01

    Total ionizing dose hardening of commercial FPGAs for space applications is presented briefly. Total ionizing dose effects of Actel anti-fuse FPGAs are analysed in detail, including effects of fabrication technologies, bias condition and charge pump. The results show that degradation of the internal charge pump is a key factor in severe degradation of the systems. It is vitally important that radiation testing should include special measurements of start-up transients. Lastly, available hardening techniques are discussed

  18. The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin derivatives on human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiphatwatcharaded, Chawapon; Puthongking, Ploenthip; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Sakolchai, Sumon; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs).Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protectivity against H 2 O 2 induced cellular damage was performed via MTT assay in HGF cells. According to the standard anti-oxidant assays, the antioxidant power of AMLT and BMLT were slightly less than MLT in FRAP and superoxide scavenging assays. In the NO scavenging and TBARs assays, BMLT and AMLT were more potent than MLT, whereas DPPH assays demonstrated that MLT was more potent than others. BMLT and AMLT had more potent anti-oxidant and protective activities against H 2 O 2 in HGF cells as compared with MLT. MLT derivatives demonstrated different anti-oxidant activities as compared with MLT, depending upon assays. These findings imply that N-indole substitution of MLT may help to improve hydrogen atom transfer to free radicals but electron transfer property is slightly decreased. Anti-oxidant and protective effects of melatonin derivatives (AMLT and BMLT) on human gingival fibroblasts imply the potential use of these molecules as alternative therapeutics for chronic inflammatory oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antiparasitic evaluation of betulinic acid derivatives reveals effective and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Cássio Santana; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with several biological properties already described, including antiparasitic activity. Here, the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of betulinic acid and its semi-synthetic amide derivatives (BA1-BA8) was investigated. The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and selectivity were enhanced in semi-synthetic derivatives, specially on derivatives BA5, BA6 and BA8. To understand the mechanism of action underlying betulinic acid anti-T. cruzi activity, we investigated ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies showed that trypomastigotes incubated with BA5 had membrane blebling, flagella retraction, atypical cytoplasmic vacuoles and Golgi cisternae dilatation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that parasite death is mainly caused by necrosis. Treatment with derivatives BA5, BA6 or BA8 reduced the invasion process, as well as intracellular parasite development in host cells, with a potency and selectivity similar to that observed in benznidazole-treated cells. More importantly, the combination of BA5 and benznidazole revealed synergistic effects on trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BA5 compound is an effective and selective anti-T. cruzi agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Euphorbia hirta in an adjuvant-induced arthritic murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research into inflammatory diseases to date, no drugs with favourable safety profiles are available for treatment. Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a tree that is locally used as a traditional medicine in Africa and Australia to treat numerous diseases such as hypertension, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential anti-arthritic effects of E. hirta in mouse models of adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). We treated BALB/c mice with (p.o.) E. hirta (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) daily (13 days) beginning at the onset of AIA. We examined the effect of E. hirta on key mediators of arthritic-inflammation, including pro-inflammatory (IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-5) cytokines, T-cell activation markers (CD25/CD69), and co-stimulatory molecules (CD80/CD86). We also examined the inflammatory mediators (PGE2 and LTB4) response. E. hirta-treated mice showed a substantial reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, down regulated cell activation markers and co-stimulatory molecules, and up regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines. E. hirta decreased the levels of inflammatory-mediators in AIA animals. Supplementation with an E. hirta extract may be a promising treatment for arthritic and inflammatory diseases.

  1. Features of anti-inflammatory effects of modulated extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Mikhailik, Elena N; Chemeris, Nikolay K

    2009-09-01

    Using a model of acute zymosan-induced paw edema in NMRI mice, we test the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) can be essentially modified by application of pulse modulation with certain frequencies. It has been revealed that a single exposure of animals to continuous EHF EMR for 20 min reduced the exudative edema of inflamed paw on average by 19% at intensities of 0.1-0.7 mW/cm(2) and frequencies from the range of 42.2-42.6 GHz. At fixed effective carrier frequency of 42.2 GHz, the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR did not depend on modulation frequencies, that is, application of different modulation frequencies from the range of 0.03-100 Hz did not lead to considerable changes in the effect level. On the contrary, at "ineffective" carrier frequencies of 43.0 and 61.22 GHz, the use of modulation frequencies of 0.07-0.1 and 20-30 Hz has allowed us to restore the effect up to a maximal level. The results obtained show the critical dependence of anti-inflammatory action of low-intensity EHF EMR on carrier and modulation frequencies. Within the framework of this study, the possibility of changing the level of expected biological effect of modulated EMR by a special selection of combination of carrier and modulation frequencies is confirmed.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Esume, Celestine

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies in standard laboratories have indicated that a typical mango stem bark aqueous extract (Magnifera indica Linn) possess anti-malaria and anti-fever properties. Recent information also exists in the literature, suggesting its potency as a very effective anti-inflammatory plant extract. This study will therefore contribute immensely to the systemic search for a useful, less toxic and natural bioactive medicinal compound. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (MI) in a carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model of acute inflammation. Rats (n=5) were treated orally with MI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or distilled water (3 mL). Thirty minutes later, acute inflammation was induced with a sub-plantar injection of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenin solution into the right hind paw of the rats. The paw oedema sizes were measured with the aid of a Vernier calliper over a period of 3 hours. The aqueous extract of MI (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the acute inflammation induced by the carrageenin in rats when compared with controls. The percentage inhibition of oedema formation produced by MI (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to that elicited by acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that MI contains active compounds with an anti-inflammatory activity. However, more detailed studies using additional models are necessary to further characterise the effects of MI in inflammatory disorders.

  3. Anti-adipogenic and antiviral effects of l-carnitine on hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Yoko; Suda, Goki; Tsunematsu, Seiji; Ito, Jun; Sato, Fumiyuki; Terashita, Katsumi; Nakai, Masato; Sho, Takuya; Maehara, Osamu; Shimazaki, Tomoe; Kimura, Megumi; Morikawa, Kenichi; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Ogawa, Koji; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Chuma, Makoto; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been reported to hijack fatty acid metabolism in infected hepatocytes, taking advantage of lipid droplets for virus assembly. In this study, we analyzed the anti-HCV activity of l-carnitine, a substance involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria. JFH-1 or HCV replicon-transfected Huh7.5.1 cells were treated with or without l-carnitine to examine its anti-HCV effects. The effects of l-carnitine on HCV entry, HCV-induced adipogenesis and lipid droplet formation, and HCV-induced oxidative stress were examined. Treatment of JFH-1-infected cells with l-carnitine inhibited HCV propagation in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, l-carnitine had no anti-HCV activity in the HCV replicon system, which is lacking viral assembly. In addition, l-carnitine did not affect HCV entry. However, l-carnitine treatment decreased intracellular lipid droplets, which are crucial for HCV assembly in JFH-1-infected cells. The expression level of CPT-1 was decreased in JFH-1-infected cells, and l-carnitine treatment restored this expression. HCV-infected cells exhibited increased production of reactive oxygen species and glutathione oxidation. l-carnitine decreased oxidative stress induced by JFH-1-infection, as shown by glutathione/glutathione disulfide assays and MitoSOX staining. l-carnitine exhibited anti-HCV activity, possibly by inhibiting HCV assembly and through its anti-adipogenic activity in HCV-infected cells. Moreover, l-carnitine has antioxidant properties in HCV-infected hepatocytes. Overall, these results indicated that l-carnitine may be an effective adjunctive agent in antiviral therapies to treat chronic hepatitis C. J. Med. Virol. 89:857-866, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects ofPolygonum orientaleL. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Kai-Jun; Zeng, Rui; Dong, Yan; Hu, Qi-Qi; Hu, Huang-Wan-Yin; Maffucci, Katherine G; Dou, Qi-Ling; Yang, Qing-Bo; Qin, Xu-Hua; Qu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Polygonum orientale L. (family: Polygonaceae), named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of P. orientale have been studied. Methods: Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of P. orientale were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of P. orientale (POEa and POEe). Chemical compositions of them were analyzed by UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of POEa and POEe were evaluated using xylene induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, Freunds' complete adjuvant induced arthritis, and formaldehyde induced pain in rat. Their mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were also studied via assays of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in serum. Results: UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS analysis showed that POEa and POEe mainly contained flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, luteolin, and quercetin. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of POEa and POEe were evident in xylene induced ear edema. The paw edema in Freund's complete adjuvant and carrageenan were significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited by POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg). POEe (7.5 g/kg) was significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited Freunds' complete adjuvant induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Similarly, POEe significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited the pain sensation in acetic acid induced writhing test. POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg) significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited formaldehyde induced pain in both phases. POEa (7.5 g/kg) markedly ( P < 0.05) prolonged the latency period of hot plate test after 30 and 60 min. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 were

  5. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Polygonum orientale L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Gou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose:Polygonum orientale L. (family: Polygonaceae, named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of P. orientale have been studied.Methods: Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of P. orientale were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of P. orientale (POEa and POEe. Chemical compositions of them were analyzed by UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of POEa and POEe were evaluated using xylene induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, Freunds’ complete adjuvant induced arthritis, and formaldehyde induced pain in rat. Their mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were also studied via assays of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in serum.Results: UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS analysis showed that POEa and POEe mainly contained flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, luteolin, and quercetin. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of POEa and POEe were evident in xylene induced ear edema. The paw edema in Freund’s complete adjuvant and carrageenan were significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited by POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg. POEe (7.5 g/kg was significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited Freunds’ complete adjuvant induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Similarly, POEe significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited the pain sensation in acetic acid induced writhing test. POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited formaldehyde induced pain in both phases. POEa (7.5 g/kg markedly (P < 0.05 prolonged the latency period of hot plate test after 30 and 60 min. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2

  6. Potential pathway of anti-inflammatory effect by New Zealand honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomblin V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Tomblin,1 Lynnette R Ferguson,1 Dug Yeo Han,1 Pamela Murray,1 Ralf Schlothauer2 1Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Comvita New Zealand Ltd, Paengaroa, New Zealand Abstract: The role of honey in wound healing continues to attract worldwide attention. This study examines the anti-inflammatory effect of four honeys on wound healing, to gauge its efficacy as a treatment option. Isolated phenolics and crude extracts from manuka (Leptospermum scoparium, kanuka (Kunzea ericoides, clover (Trifolium spp., and a manuka/kanuka blend of honeys were examined. Anti-inflammatory assays were conducted in HEK-Blue™-2, HEK-Blue™-4, and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2-Wild Type (NOD2-WT cell lines, to assess the extent to which honey treatment impacts on the inflammatory response and whether the effect was pathway-specific. Kanuka honey, and to a lesser extent manuka honey, produced a powerful anti-inflammatory effect related to their phenolic content. The effect was observed in HEK-Blue™-2 cells using the synthetic tripalmitoylated lipopeptide Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4 ligand, suggesting that honey acts specifically through the toll-like receptor (TLR1/TLR2 signaling pathway. The manuka/kanuka blend and clover honeys had no significant anti-inflammatory effect in any cell line. The research found that kanuka and manuka honeys have an important role in modulating the inflammatory response associated with wound healing, through a pathway-specific effect. The phenolic content of honey correlates with its effectiveness, although the specific compounds involved remain to be determined. Keywords: Leptospermum scoparium, manuka, Kunzea ericoides, kanuka, Trifolium, clover, inflammatory response, phenolics, wound healing

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond on primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, A E; Witherel, C E; Gogotsi, Y; Spiller, K L

    2017-09-26

    Chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by excessive pro-inflammatory or "M1" activation of macrophages, the primary cells of the innate immune system. Current treatments include delivery of glucocorticoids (e.g. dexamethasone - Dex), which reduce pro-inflammatory M1 behaviour in macrophages. However, these treatments have many off-target effects on cells other than macrophages, resulting in broad immunosuppression. To limit such side effects, drug-incorporated nano- and microparticles may be used to selectively target macrophages via phagocytosis, because of their roles as highly effective phagocytes in the body. In this study, surface-modified nanodiamond (ND) was explored as a platform for the delivery of dexamethasone to macrophages because of ND's rich surface chemistry, which contributes to ND's high potential as a versatile drug delivery platform. After finding that octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond (ND-ODA) enhanced adsorption of Dex compared to carboxylated ND, the effects of Dex, ND-ODA, and Dex-adsorbed ND-ODA on primary human macrophage gene expression were characterized. Surprisingly, even in the absence of Dex, ND-ODA had strong anti-inflammatory effects, as determined by multiplex gene expression via NanoString and by protein secretion analysis via ELISA. ND-ODA also inhibited expression of M2a markers yet increased the expression of M2c markers and phagocytic receptors. Interestingly, the adsorption of Dex to ND-ODA further increased some anti-inflammatory effects, but abrogated the effect on phagocytic receptors, compared to its individual components. Overall, the ability of ND-ODA to promote anti-inflammatory and pro-phagocytic behaviour in macrophages, even in the absence of loaded drugs, suggests its potential for use as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic to directly target macrophages through phagocytosis.

  8. Synthesis and anti-angiogenic effect of conjugates between serum albumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, B; Struve, C; Friis, T

    2010-01-01

    of investigating the anti-angiogenic efficiency of NSAID-HSA conjugates in vitro, three NSAIDs, aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen were conjugated to HSA using different concentrations of their N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. Conjugation ratios from 10 to 50 were achieved and the conjugates retained a growth inhibitory...

  9. The anti-bacterial effect of an electrochemical anti-fouling method intended for the protection of miniaturised oceanographic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jonathan S; Morris, Andrew K; Arundell, Martin; Pascal, Robin; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2017-10-01

    An electrochemical anti-fouling method, based upon the generation of chlorine from seawater, was applied to a proprietary design of Lab on a Chip conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen sensor. The method was evaluated using PCR after a six-week field trial in which it significantly reduced the burden of bacterial biofouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and anti-angiogenic effect of conjugates between serum albumin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Birgitte; Struve, Casper; Friis, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis. Covalent linkage of naproxen to human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to target it efficiently to the liver and this may potentially be exploited for liver-selective inhibition of angiogenesis. With the aim...

  11. Anti-fibrotic and anti-tumorigenic effects of rhein, a natural anthraquinone derivative, in mammalian stellate and carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siu Wai; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Anthraquinone compounds have been recognized to possess antiinflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-tumour properties and thus applied in human and veterinary therapeutics as active substances of medicinal products. Amongst the anthraquinones isolated from Rheum palmatum, also known as da-huang, rhein was detected as one of the highest metabolite contents in the bloodstream of mammals. The biological activities of rhein therefore deserve detailed investigation. In this study, we aimed to delineate the mechanism of inhibitory actions of rhein on fibrotic and tumorigenic processes by means of various biochemical assays, such as immunofluorescent staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting analyses in rat pancreatic stellate cells (LTC-14), human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells (PANC-1) and human colon carcinoma cells (SW480 and SW620). Our results demonstrated that the application of rhein notably suppressed the mRNA and protein levels of various fibrotic and tumorigenic mediators including alpha-smooth muscle actin, type I collagen, fibronectin, N-cadherin and matrix metalloproteinases in the testing mammalian cells. The mechanism of the suppressive actions of rhein was associated with the modulation of the sonic hedgehog and serine-threonine kinase signalling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that rhein may serve as a therapeutic or an adjuvant agent in anti-fibrotic and anti-tumorigenic approaches. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Localization of CD26/DPPIV in nucleus and its nuclear translocation enhanced by anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody with anti-tumor effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Michiie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD26 is a type II, cell surface glycoprotein known as dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP IV. Previous studies have revealed CD26 expression in T cell leukemia/lymphoma and malignant mesothelioma, and an inhibitory effect of anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb against the growth of CD26+ cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The function of CD26 in tumor development is unknown and the machinery with which the CD26 mAb induces its anti-tumor effect remains uncharacterized. Results The localization of CD26 in the nucleus of T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells and mesothelioma cells was shown by biochemical and immuno-electron microscopic analysis. The DPPIV enzyme activity was revealed in the nuclear fraction of T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells. These expressions of intra-nuclear CD26 were augmented by treatment with the CD26 mAb, 1F7, with anti-tumor effect against the CD26+ T cell leukemia/lymphoma cells. In contrast, the CD26 mAb, 5F8, without anti-tumor effect, did not augment CD26 expressions in the nucleus. Biotin-labeled, cell surface CD26 translocated into the nucleus constantly, and this translocation was enhanced with 1F7 treatment but not with 5F8. Conclusion These results indicate that the intra-nuclear CD26 which moves from plasma membrane may play certain roles in cell growth of human cancer cells.

  13. Anti-listerial effects of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce: opportunities and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Scollard, Johann

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed The potential anti-listerial benefits of essential oils and herbs in fresh-cut produce systems were investigated. Interactions with modified atmospheres and product types were examined in detail, including effects on quality. A strong anti-listerial response from rosemary herb was discovered during maceration and the chemical basis of this determined for future exploitation. The anti-listerial properties of essential oils (thyme, oregano and rosemary), under a ...

  14. Two Cases on Anti-inflammatory Effect of Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Jae-Kyun

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture. Methods : Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture was administered one time on everyday and A-shi points were selected. Except Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture administration, other therapies (conventional body acupuncture, physical therapy and so on were not performed at all. We evaluated the patient through Visual Analogue Scale(VAS and Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging(DITI. Results : After 2 or 3 times of treatment, the patient showed that clinical symptoms and VAS were lessened and there was a change of temperature in DITI. Conclusions : According to the results, Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture may have anti-inflammatory effects. But further studies are required to prove the exact effect.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Hydrex anti-scalant on calcium scale deposition from seawater under multiple-effect distillers' conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the inhibitory effect of a commercial anti-scalant (Veolia Hydrex® 9209 on the calcium minerals of carbonate, sulfate and hydrocalumite (Ca/Al clay deposition from seawater has been investigated. Different concentration factors and anti-scalant doses were studied by analyzing the water hardness and turbidity. The inhibitory effect of the investigated anti-scalant was efficient even at lower concentrations. The percentage inhibition decreases with increasing the temperature and increases with increasing the dose/amount of the anti-scalant. The carbonate scale inhibition was >99% and 98–99% at 50 and 70 °C, respectively. The percentage inhibition of sulfate from hemihydrate was ranged from 80% to 87% for 2 and 8 ppm anti-scalant at 50 °C. The inhibition of Ca/Al hydrocalumite deposition increases from 70% to 90% upon increasing the dose from 3 to 5 ppm, respectively. A recommended useful dose of antiscalant for seawater is 5 ppm.

  16. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  17. Increasing antitumor effects of chemoradiotherapy by drug efflux inhibition with encapsulated anti-RLIP-76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Satoshi; Ehara, Shigeru; Ishii, Keizo

    2011-01-01

    Microencapsulated anti-RLIP76 was tested in vivo using C3He/J mice to determine the increasing of antitumor effects by chemotherapeutic agent efflux inhibition during chemoradiotherapy. Microcapsules were produced by spraying a mixture of 3.0% hyaluronic acid, 2.0% alginate, 3.0% H 2 O 2 , and 0.3 mmol carboplatin onto a mixture of 0.3 mol FeCl 2 and 0.15 mol CaCl 2 . Microcapsules were subcutaneously injected into MM46 tumors previously inoculated into the left hind legs of C3He/J mice. Subsequent radiotherapy consisted of tumor irradiation with 10 Gy or 20 Gy 60 Co. The antitumor effects of microcapsules were tested by measuring tumor size and monitoring tumor growth. Three types of adverse effects were considered: fuzzy hair, loss of body weight, and mortality. Carboplatin levels were monitored using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and a micro-PIXE camera. Anti-RLIP76 inhibited the efflux of carboplatin from tumor tissue, which led to an increase in the concentration of carboplatin. Higher carboplatin concentration significantly increased the combined antitumor effect of radiation and chemotherapy. A significant decrease in adverse effects was also observed with microencapsulated anti-RLIP76. (author)

  18. Anti-Cancer Effect of IN-2001 in T47D Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Ki Eun; Min, Kyung Nan; Kim, Dae-Kee; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes involved in the remodelling of chromatin, and have a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are emerging as an exciting new class of potential anti-cancer agents. In recent years, a number of structurally diverse HDAC inhibitors have been identified and these HDAC inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation and/or apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed at investigating the anti-tumor activity of various HDAC inhibitors, IN-2001, using T47D human breast cancer cells. Moreover, the possible mechanism by which HDAC inhibitors exhibit anti-tumor activity was also explored. In estrogen receptor positive T47D cells, IN-2001, HDAC inhibitor showed anti-proliferative effects in dose-and time-dependent manner. In T47D human breast cancer cells showed anti-tumor activity of IN-2001 and the growth inhibitory effects of IN-2001 were related to the cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Flow cytometry studies revealed that IN-2001 showed accumulation of cells at G2/M phase. At the same time, IN-2001 treatment time-dependently increased sub-G1 population, representing apoptotic cells. IN-2001-mediated cell cycle arrest was associated with induction of cdk inhibitor expression. In T47D cells, IN-2001 as well as other HDAC inhibitors treatment significantly increased p21(WAF1) and p27(KIP1) expression. In addition, thymidylate synthase, an essential enzyme for DNA replication and repair, was down-regulated by IN-2001 and other HDAC inhibitors in the T47D human breast cancer cells. In summary, IN-2001 with a higher potency than other HDAC inhibitors induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and eventual apoptosis in human breast cancer possibly through modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, such as cdk inhibitors, cyclins, and thymidylate synthase.

  19. Anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone in muscle derived-fibroblasts from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Simona; Bragato, Cinzia; Zucchella, Andrea; Maggi, Lorenzo; Mantegazza, Renato; Morandi, Lucia; Mora, Marina

    2016-01-15

    Tissue fibrosis, characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, is the end point of diseases affecting the kidney, bladder, liver, lung, gut, skin, heart and muscle. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), connective fibrotic tissue progressively substitutes muscle fibers. So far no specific pharmacological treatment is available for muscle fibrosis. Among promising anti-fibrotic molecules, pirfenidone has shown anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity in animal and cell models, and has already been employed in clinical trials. Therefore we tested pirfenidone anti-fibrotic properties in an in vitro model of muscle fibrosis. We evaluated effect of pirfenidone on fibroblasts isolated from DMD muscle biopsies. These cells have been previously characterized as having a pro-fibrotic phenotype. We tested cell proliferation and migration, secretion of soluble collagens, intracellular levels of collagen type I and fibronectin, and diameter of 3D fibrotic nodules. We found that pirfenidone significantly reduced proliferation and cell migration of control and DMD muscle-derived fibroblasts, decreased extracellular secretion of soluble collagens by control and DMD fibroblasts, as well as levels of collagen type I and fibronectin, and, in DMD fibroblasts only, reduced synthesis and deposition of intracellular collagen. Furthermore, pirfenidone was able to reduce the diameter of fibrotic-nodules in our 3D model of in vitro fibrosis. These pre-clinical results indicate that pirfenidone has potential anti-fibrotic effects also in skeletal muscle fibrosis, urging further studies in in vivo animal models of muscular dystrophy in order to translate the drug into the treatment of muscle fibrosis in DMD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anti-RAGE Antibody Administration in a Rat Model of Crush Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hisatake; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shimazaki, Junya; Nakagawa, Junichiro; Imamura, Yukio; Yamakawa, Kazuma; Yamada, Tomoki; Ikeda, Mitsunori; Hiraike, Hiroko; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2017-09-25

    Crush injury patients often have systemic inflammatory response syndrome that leads to multiple organ failure. Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) functions as a pattern recognition receptor that regulates inflammation. We evaluated the effects of anti-RAGE antibody in a crush injury model. Pressure was applied to both hindlimbs of rats for 6 h by 3.0-kg blocks and then released. Animals were randomly divided into the sham (RAGE-Sh) group, crush (RAGE-Ctrl) group or anti-RAGE antibody-treated crush (RAGE-Tx) group. Samples were collected at 3, 6 and 24 h after releasing pressure. In the RAGE-Ctrl group, fluorescent immunostaining in the lung showed upregulated RAGE expression at 3 h. The serum soluble RAGE (sRAGE) level, which reflects the amount of RAGE expression in systemic tissue, increased at 6 h. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6; systemic inflammation marker) increased immediately at 3 h. Histological analysis revealed lung injury at 6 and 24 h. Administration of anti-RAGE antibody before releasing compression inhibited upregulated RAGE expression in the lung alveoli, suppressed RAGE-associated mediators sRAGE and IL6, attenuated the lung damage and improved the 7-day survival rate. Collectively, our results indicated that the use of anti-RAGE antibody before releasing compression is associated with a favourable prognosis following crush injury.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect with high intensity focused ultrasound-mediated pulsatile delivery of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2012-02-01

    A pulsatile ultrasound controlled drug release platform with diclofenac-loaded alginate microcapsules (fabricated with a home-made electrostatic device, 75% embedded rate) was established to evaluate anti-inflammation efficiency. Better anti-inflammation efficiency was found using the ultrasound system and the drug delivery can be adjusted based on the programmed ultrasound cycle. The results of the in vitro study show that an approx. 30% higher drug release rate was obtained by using continuous ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 180 min), and an approx. 16% higher drug release rate was obtained by using pulsatile ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) compared to without ultrasound activation. For the in vivo study, the anti-inflammatory test with carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema shows that diclofenac-loaded microcapsules followed by ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) contributed to an 81% inhibition rate, which was significantly higher than diclofenac only (approx. 60% higher). In addition, because of their heat conducting properties, gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the diclofenac-loaded microcapsules resulted in better drug release efficiency, but tended to depress the anti-inflammation effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-fertility effect of various plants at Dayak Tribe to Swiss Webster Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blumea balsamifera D.C, Croton tiglium L, Metroxylon sagu Rottb,and Fagraea racemosa Jackwere used as traditional anti-fertilty of Dayak people in Central Kalimantan. These study are to find out the potential plant as anti-fertility on Swiss Webster (SW mice. Extracts of Blumea balsamifera D.C, Croton tiglium L, Metroxylon sagu Rottb andFagraea racemosa Jack were administered by gavage at the dose level of 0.26 mg/kg body weight (bw to female of SW mice for 8 days to examined of estrous cycle.To determine of anti-fertility were administered by gavage of 0.26 mg/kg bw of plant extract to female SW mice and mated with normal male of SW mice. Estrous cycle were analyses every day for 9 days and reproduction display were examined at 15 days after fertilization. The result showed, that estrous cycle are inhibited on estrus and metestrus phase for all of extract traditional plant. Reproduction display showed decrease in the number of live fetuses, number of corpus luteum and body weight of the dam mice treated. The decrease in the corpus luteum further and fetuses attributes antifertilty effect of extract to inhibited foliculogenesis. Out of four extracts tested, Blumea balsamifera D.C extract seems to be more potent in anti-fertility activities compared with other extract of traditional plant.

  3. Effects of hepatitis B vaccine boosters on anti-HBs-negative children after primary immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shunshun; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Qian; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Xu, Kaijin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shigui; Xie, Tiansheng; Yang, Linna; Li, Jing; Yao, Jun

    2017-04-03

    This study was aimed at evaluating the changes of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer after booster vaccinations in 5-15-year-old children with negative antibodies (vaccination during infancy. The participants were divided into 3 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs level: Group I, vaccination (0-1-6 month, 20 µg), and changes in the levels of antibodies were examined at 4 time-points (one month after the first and the third dose, one year and 5 years after the third dose). The seroprotective rate (defined as anti-HBs ≥10.0 mIU/mL) among 225 subjects at the 4 time-points were 93.8%, 100%, 83.6% and 73.4%, respectively (χ 2 = 90.29, p anti-HBs geometric mean titer (GMT) in Group III were always higher than those in the other 2 groups (all p effect of a 3 -dose booster revaccination is good, and the booster-induced immune response was correlated with the pre-booster titer level, and ≥1.0 mIU/mL ensuring a robust positive response, whereas titers below this value may indicate the need for a course of booster vaccination.

  4. Antioxidant and intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of plant-derived coumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witaicenis, Aline; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; da Silveira Chagas, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Domingues; Luchini, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues-Orsi, Patrícia; Cestari, Silvia Helena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2014-02-15

    Coumarins, also known as benzopyrones, are plant-derived products with several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on the wide distribution of coumarin derivatives in plant-based foods and beverages in the human diet, our objective was to evaluate both the antioxidant and intestinal anti-inflammatory activities of six coumarin derivatives of plant origin (scopoletin, scoparone, fraxetin, 4-methyl-umbeliferone, esculin and daphnetin) to verify if potential intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was related to antioxidant properties. Intestinal inflammation was induced by intracolonic instillation of TNBS in rats. The animals were treated with coumarins by oral route. The animals were killed 48 h after colitis induction. The colonic segments were obtained after laparotomy and macroscopic and biochemical parameters (determination of glutathione level and myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities) were evaluated. The antioxidant properties of these coumarins were examined by lipid peroxidation and DPPH assays. Treatment with esculin, scoparone and daphnetin produced the best protective effects. All coumarin derivatives showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay, while daphnetin and fraxetin also showed antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Coumarins, except 4-methyl-umbeliferone, also showed antioxidant activity through the counteraction of glutathione levels or through the inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of coumarin derivatives were related to their antioxidant properties, suggesting that consumption of coumarins and/or foods rich in coumarin derivatives, particularly daphnetin, esculin and scoparone, could prevent intestinal inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemical and histopathological study of the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shamsi, Fatemeh; Najafi, Somayeh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2014-06-01

    Anthocyanins are phytochemicals with a multitude of pharmacological actions including anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L., CM) fruits - that are rich in anthocyanins and known to have medicinal properties- in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Twenty-eight adult male rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven animals each: non-diabetic control, diabetic control, glibenclamide-treated (0.6 mg/kg/day; 4 weeks) and CM fruit-treated (2 g/day; 4 weeks) group. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg). Fasting serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low- (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured at the end of study period. Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of serum glucose, LDL-C, TG, AST, ALP and ALT and decreased levels of HDL-C compared to the non-diabetic group (pdiabetic control group (pfruits effectively prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hepatic inflammation in alloxan-induced diabetes.

  6. The anti-tumor effect and bioactive phytochemicals of Hedyotis diffusa willd on ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Qi, Bing; Jiang, Guoqiang; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Pei; Ma, Yuan; Li, Weiling

    2016-11-04

    Hedyotis diffusa willd (HDW) is a widely used medicinal herb in China. It processed various medicinal properties including antioxidative, anti-inflamatory and anti-cancer effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-tumor effects of HDW on ovarian cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms as well as identify the bioactive compounds. Effects of HDW on the viability of ovarian cancer A2780 cells were detected by MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected by cell morphologic observation through DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis. The migration of ovarian cancer cells which exposed to HDW were detected by wound healing and transwell assays. The protein levels of caspase 3/9, Bcl-2 and MMP-2/9 in human ovarian cancer cells treated with HDW were assessed by western blotting analysis. The potential bioactive compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. HDW significantly inhibited the growth of A2780 ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis by HDW was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase 3/9. Wound healing and transwell chamber assays indicated HDW suppressed the migration of ovarian cancer cells. HDW dramatically decreased MMP-2/9 expression. A HPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of HDW indicated the presence of 13 flavonoids compounds and one anthraquinone compound, which may contribute to the anticancer activity of the HDW. HDW effectively restricted the growth of ovarian cancer cells and induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, HDW suppressed the migration of ovarian cancer cells through down-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. These results showed that HDW hold potential therapeutic effect for ovarian cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-hypertensive drugs have different effects on ventricular hypertrophy regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Ferreira Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a direct relationship between the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and a decreased risk of mortality. This investigation aimed to describe the effects of anti-hypertensive drugs on cardiac hypertrophy through a meta-analysis of the literature. METHODS: The Medline (via PubMed, Lilacs and Scielo databases were searched using the subject keywords cardiac hypertrophy, antihypertensive and mortality. We aimed to analyze the effect of anti-hypertensive drugs on ventricle hypertrophy. RESULTS: The main drugs we described were enalapril, verapamil, nifedipine, indapamina, losartan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and atenolol. These drugs are usually used in follow up programs, however, the studies we investigated used different protocols. Enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and verapamil (Ca++ channel blocker caused hypertrophy to regress in LVH rats. The effects of enalapril and nifedipine (Ca++ channel blocker were similar. Indapamina (diuretic had a stronger effect than enalapril, and losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1 receptor antagonist produced better results than atenolol (selective β1 receptor antagonist with respect to LVH regression. CONCLUSION: The anti-hypertensive drugs induced various degrees of hypertrophic regression.

  8. Anti-diabetic effects of brown algae derived phlorotannins, marine polyphenols through diverse mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hong; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Marine algae are popular and abundant food ingredients mainly in Asian countries, and also well known for their health beneficial effects due to the presence of biologically active components. The marine algae have been studied for biologically active components and phlorotannins, marine polyphenols are among them. Among marine algae, brown algae have extensively studied for their potential anti-diabetic activities. Majority of the investigations on phlorotannins derived from brown algae have exhibited their various anti-diabetic mechanisms such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effect, glucose uptake effect in skeletal muscle, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP 1B) enzyme inhibition, improvement of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic db/db mice, and protective effect against diabetes complication. In this review, we have made an attempt to discuss the various anti-diabetic mechanisms associated with phlorotannins from brown algae that are confined to in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Artemisia sieberi fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Darabian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Drugs with analgesic properties such as opioids and NSAIDs have not been effective in all cases, because of their low potency and side effects. As a result, looking for other alternatives is necessary. Plants are important sources of new phytochemicals that possess significant therapeutic effects. Regarding the traditional use of Artemisia sieberi fruit as a natural painkiller and anti-inflammatory agent and the high content of essential oil in the fruits, we were prompted to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of A. sieberi fruits oil. Methods: Artemisia sieberi fruits essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation method. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the oil were studied by formalin and carrageenan tests, respectively at the doses of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg for the experimental animals. Control group received sweet almond oil as the vehicle and standard groups received morphine (2 mg/kg and indomethacin (5 mg/kg for the formalin and carrageenan tests respectively. Results: All doses of A. sieberi fruits essential oil induced antinociceptive activity during the second phase of the formalin test but the maximum effect was observed at the dose of 0.8 mg/kg. In carrageenan test all the experimental doses of theoil significantly reduced the inflammation (p

  10. Effects of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on experimental radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, N.J.; Holloway, N.O.; Narine, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    Corticosteroids have previously been found to be protective against the mortality of radiation pneumonitis in mice, even when given well after lethal lung irradiation. The authors explored the possibility that this effect was due to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions by giving various nonsteroidal inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism to groups of mice that had received 19 Gy to the thorax (bilaterally). Treatments of four cyclooxygenase inhibitors, one lipoxygenase inhibitor, and one leukotriene receptor antagonist, given by various routes in various doses, were commenced 10 weeks after irradiation or sham irradiation and continued throughout the period when death from radiation pneumonitis occurs, 11-26 weeks after irradiation. Each of the treatments had the appropriate effect on arachidonate metabolism in the lungs as assessed by LTB4 and PGE2 levels in lung lavage fluid. The principal end point was mortality. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor diethylcarbamazine and the LTD4/LTE4 receptor antagonist LY 171883 markedly reduced mortality in dose-response fashion. The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors were divergent; piroxicam and ibuprofen were marginally protective, indomethacin in all doses accelerated mortality, and aspirin reduced mortality in a dose-response fashion. These results suggest that the protective effect of corticosteroids in radiation pneumonitis can be tentatively attributed to their anti-inflammatory actions, and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, particularly those that affect lipoxygenase products, may offer equal or better protection than corticosteroids against mortality due to radiation pneumonitis

  11. Effects of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents on experimental radiation pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, N.J.; Holloway, N.O.; Narine, K.R. (Medical Radiology Service, Hines VA Hospital, Maywood, IL (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Corticosteroids have previously been found to be protective against the mortality of radiation pneumonitis in mice, even when given well after lethal lung irradiation. The authors explored the possibility that this effect was due to their well-known anti-inflammatory actions by giving various nonsteroidal inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism to groups of mice that had received 19 Gy to the thorax (bilaterally). Treatments of four cyclooxygenase inhibitors, one lipoxygenase inhibitor, and one leukotriene receptor antagonist, given by various routes in various doses, were commenced 10 weeks after irradiation or sham irradiation and continued throughout the period when death from radiation pneumonitis occurs, 11-26 weeks after irradiation. Each of the treatments had the appropriate effect on arachidonate metabolism in the lungs as assessed by LTB4 and PGE2 levels in lung lavage fluid. The principal end point was mortality. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor diethylcarbamazine and the LTD4/LTE4 receptor antagonist LY 171883 markedly reduced mortality in dose-response fashion. The effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors were divergent; piroxicam and ibuprofen were marginally protective, indomethacin in all doses accelerated mortality, and aspirin reduced mortality in a dose-response fashion. These results suggest that the protective effect of corticosteroids in radiation pneumonitis can be tentatively attributed to their anti-inflammatory actions, and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, particularly those that affect lipoxygenase products, may offer equal or better protection than corticosteroids against mortality due to radiation pneumonitis.

  12. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. One hormone, two actions: anti- and pro-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Cidlowski, John A

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. Since their discovery in the 1940s, glucocorticoids have been widely prescribed to treat inflammatory disorders and hematological cancers. In the traditional view, glucocorticoids are regarded as anti-inflammatory molecules; however, emerging evidence suggests that glucocorticoid actions are more complex than previously anticipated. The anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids is attributed to the repression of pro-inflammatory genes through signal transduction by their steroid receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The mechanisms modulating the pro-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are not well understood. In this review, we discuss recent findings that provide insights into the mechanism by which GR signaling can play a dual role in the regulation of the immune response. We hypothesize that these apparently opposite processes are working together to prepare the immune system to respond to a stressor (pro-inflammatory effects) and subsequently restore homeostasis (anti-inflammatory effects). Finally, we propose that determining the mechanisms which underlie the tissue-specific effects of glucocorticoids will provide an excellent tool to develop more efficient and selective glucocorticoid therapies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. One Hormone Two Actions: Anti- and Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Topete, Diana; Cidlowski, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are essential steroid hormones secreted from the adrenal gland in response to stress. Since their discovery in the 1940’s, glucocorticoids have been widely prescribed to treat inflammatory disorders and hematological cancers. In the traditional view, glucocorticoids are regarded as anti-inflammatory molecules; however, emerging evidence suggests that glucocorticoid actions are more complex than previously anticipated. The anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids is attributed to the repression of pro-inflammatory genes through signal transduction by their steroid receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The mechanisms modulating the pro-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are not well understood. In this review, we discuss recent findings that provide insights into the mechanism by which GR signaling can play a dual role in the regulation of the immune response. We hypothesize that these apparently opposite processes are working together to prepare the immune system to respond to a stressor (pro-inflammatory effects) and subsequently restore homeostasis (anti-inflammatory effects). Finally, we propose that determining the mechanisms which underlie the tissue-specific effects of glucocorticoids will provide an excellent tool to develop more efficient and selective glucocorticoid therapies. PMID:25227506

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Melittin on Porphyromonas Gingivalis LPS-Stimulated Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woon-Hae; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Gwon, Mi-Gyeong; Gu, Hyemin; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Min-Kyung; Han, Sang-Mi; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2018-02-05

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that contributes to the destruction of the gingiva. Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ) can cause periodontitis via its pathogenic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Melittin, a major component of bee venom, is known to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. However, the role of melittin in the inflammatory response has not been elucidated in periodontitis-like human keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin on a P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-treated HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The cytotoxicity of melittin was measured using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, and a Cell Counting Kit-8. The effect of melittin on PgLPS-induced inflammation was determined with Western blot, real-time quantitative PCT, and immunofluorescence. PgLPS increased the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Moreover, PgLPS induced activation of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and protein kinase B/Akt. Melittin also inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by suppressing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, ERK, and Akt. Melittin attenuates the PgLPS-induced inflammatory response and could therefore be applied in the treatment of periodontitis for anti-inflammatory effects.

  16. Neuropeptide FF receptors exhibit direct and anti-opioid effects on mice dorsal raphe nucleus neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong; Zajac, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-05

    By using acutely dissociated dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRN) from young mice, direct and anti-opioid effects of Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors were measured. The NPFF analog 1 DMe (10 µM) had no effect on resting Ca2+ channels but reduced the magnitude of Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization in 83.3% neurons tested, of which the inhibition rate is 45.4±2.9%. Pertussis toxin treatment reduced to 18.9% the number of responding neurons and attenuated by 47% the response of 1 DMe. In contrast, cholera toxin treatment had no significant effect. Eighteen minute perfusion with 1 DMe at a very low 10 nM concentration, that did not directly inhibit Ca2+ transients triggered by depolarization in every neuron, attenuated by 78% the inhibitory effect of Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) on Ca2+ transients, but not that of by serotonin. These results demonstrated for the first time that NPFF receptors on mice DRN inhibit Ca2+ transients induced by depolarization via Gi/o protein and also exhibit a specific anti-opioid activity on nociceptin receptors, and that their specific anti-opioid activity is not a direct consequence of their activity on Ca2+ transients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= ± 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = ± 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed.

  18. Anti-influenza effect of Cordyceps militaris through immunomodulation in a DBA/2 mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwan Hee; Park, Heejin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Kanghyo; Lee, Taeho; Lee, Ilseob; Park, Man-seong; Jung, Yong Woo; Shin, Yu Su; Kang, Hyojeung; Cho, Hyosun

    2014-08-01

    The immune-modulatory as well as anti-influenza effects of Cordyceps extract were investigated using a DBA/2 mouse model. Three different concentrations of Cordyceps extract, red ginseng extract, or drinking water were orally administered to mice for seven days, and then the mice were intranasally infected with 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus. Body weight changes and survival rate were measured daily post-infection. Plasma IL-12, TNF-α, and the frequency of natural killer (NK) cells were measured on day 4 post-infection. The DBA/2 strain was highly susceptible to H1N1 virus infection. We also found that Cordyceps extract had an anti-influenza effect that was associated with stable body weight and reduced mortality. The anti-viral effect of Cordyceps extract on influenza infection was mediated presumably by increased IL-12 expression and greater number of NK cells. However, high TNF-α expression after infection of H1N1 virus in mice not receiving treatment with Cordyceps extract suggested a two-sided effect of the extract on host immune regulation.

  19. Apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of all-trans retinoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, Monica; Ortega, Juan Alberto; Alana, Lide; Vinas, Octavi; Mampel, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    We examined the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in HeLa cells. Our results demonstrated that HeLa cells were more sensitive to the anti-proliferative effects of atRA than to its apoptotic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that caspase inhibition attenuates cell death but does not alter the atRA-dependent reduction in cell proliferation, which suggests that atRA-induced apoptosis is independent of the arrest in cell proliferation. To check whether ANT proteins mediated these atRA effects, we transiently transfected cells with expression vectors encoding for individual ANT (adenine nucleotide translocase 1-3). Our results revealed that ANT1 and ANT3 over-expressing HeLa cells increased their atRA sensitivity. Thus, our results not only demonstrate the different functional activities of ANT isoforms, but also contribute to a better understanding of the properties of atRA as an anti-tumoral agent used in cancer therapy

  20. Vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation effects of aqueous Ocimum basilicum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Souliman; Harnafi, Hicham; Gadi, Dounia; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Aziz, Mohammed; Martin-Nizard, Françoise; Bosca, Lisardo

    2009-08-17

    In this work the endothelium-dependant vasorelaxant and anti-platelet aggregation activities of an aqueous extract from Ocimum basilicum were studied. The vasorelaxant effect was undertaken in thoracic aorta from three experimental groups of rats: one of them (NCG) fed with standard diet, the second (HCG) with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) and the third (BTG) with hypercholesterolemic diet together with an intragastric administration of Ocimum basilicum extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight for a period of 10 weeks. The in vitro anti-platelet aggregation of Ocimum basilicum extract was studied using thrombin (0.5 U/ml) and ADP (5 microM) as agonists. The results show that the HCD statistically decreases vascular relaxation in HCG compared to NCG (pOcimum basilicum extract exerts a significant vasorelaxant effect at 10(-5) M (pOcimum basilicum as medicinal plant could be beneficial for cardiovascular system.

  1. Anti-spasmodic effects of Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf. extracts on isolated rat duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Wahida; Chouchane, Nabil

    2009-12-10

    The present study deals with the anti-spasmodic activity of the aqueous and the methanolic extracts of the leaves and the root barks of Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf. on male rats. This activity was assessed on contractions of isolated rat duodenum, induced by acetylcholine, KCl, and BaCl(2) and compared with the effect of atropine and papaverine. Both extracts of leaves and root barks caused significant relaxation of spontaneous contractions and produced a concentration-dependent inhibition (PZizyphus lotus extracts contain anti-spasmodic constituents mediating their effect through cholinergic receptors and blockade Ca(2+) influx. This could explain the traditional use of Zizyphus lotus in the treatment of the intestinal diseases.

  2. The Effect of Opioids, Alcohol, and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Fracture Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher J; Graf, Kenneth W; Mashru, Rakesh P

    2017-10-01

    The estimated rate of fracture nonunion is between 5% and 10%, adding significant cost to the health care system. The cause of fracture nonunion is multifactorial, including the severity of the injury, patient factors resulting in aberrancies in the biology of fracture, and the side effects of pain control modalities. Minimizing surgeon-controlled factors causing nonunion is important to reduce the cost of health care and improve patient outcomes. Opioids, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated as risk factors for fracture nonunion. Current literature was reviewed to examine the effects of opioids, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on fracture union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Janet L; Frye, Jennifer B; Oyarzo, Janice N; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-01-27

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO.

  4. Pleiotropic Anti-atherosclerotic Effects of PCSK9 InhibitorsFrom Molecular Biology to Clinical Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Angelos D; Liu, Martin; Toth, Peter P; Zhao, Shijia; Agrawal, Devendra K; Libby, Peter; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S

    2018-03-10

    Clinical trials with PCSK9 inhibitors have shown a robust decrease in plasma LDL levels and a significant reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular atherosclerotic events. However, the role of PCSK9 in atherosclerosis is not well investigated and it remains unclear whether PCSK9 inhibition has direct, LDL-independent, anti-atherosclerotic effects. This review outlines the molecular pathways and targets of PCSK9 in atherosclerosis and summarizes the experimental and clinical data supporting the anti-atherosclerotic (pleiotropic) actions of PCSK9 inhibitors. PCSK9 is expressed by various cell types that are involved in atherosclerosis (e.g., endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, and macrophage) and is detected inside human atherosclerotic plaque. Preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of PCSK9 can attenuate atherogenesis and plaque inflammation. Besides increasing plasma LDL, PCSK9 appears to promote the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Inhibition of PCSK9 may confer atheroprotection that extends beyond its lipid-lowering effects.

  5. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lawrence; Birtwhistle, Richard; Kotecha, Jyoti; Hannah, Susan; Cuthbertson, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is a popular fruit used for the treatment of diabetes and related conditions amongst the indigenous populations of Asia, South America, India and East Africa. Abundant pre-clinical studies have documented the anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia through various postulated mechanisms. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and flawed by poor study design and low statistical power. The present article reviews the clinical data regarding the anti-diabetic potentials of M. charantia and calls for better-designed clinical trials to further elucidate its possible therapeutic effects.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of hyaluronan in arthritis therapy: Not just for viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Masuko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayo Masuko1, Minako Murata2, Kazuo Yudoh2, Tomohiro Kato1, Hiroshi Nakamura31Department of Biochemistry; 2Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Department of Joint Disease and Rheumatism, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA has been widely used for viscosupplementation of diseased or aged articular joints. However, recent investigations have revealed the active anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effect of HA, suggesting its potential role in attenuation of joint damage. In particular, interactions between HA and other inflammatory mediators are attracting interest. This review summarizes several aspects of recent investigations of the anti-inflammatory effects of HA in arthritis.Keywords: hyaluronan, inflammation, chondroprotection

  8. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in

  9. Enhancement of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Functions by Encapsulation of Policosanol Exerts Anti-Senescence and Tissue Regeneration Effects Via Improvement of Anti-Glycation, Anti-Apoptosis, and Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So-Mang; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Eun-Young; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of policosanol (PCO), a refined mixture of sugar cane wax alcohols, can elevate serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), although the molecular mechanism is still unknown. To investigate the mechanism of action responsible for the anti-senescence effects of PCO on lipoprotein metabolism and HDL functionality, we synthesized reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing PCO. Encapsulation of PCO by rHDL (PCO-rHDL) enhanced anti-oxidant activity against cupric ion-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. PCO-rHDL (final concentration, 9 μM PCO) showed more potent anti-oxidant activity than vitamin C treatment (final concentration, 100 μM). PCO-rHDL inhibited fructose-mediated glycation, which is a major pathological mechanism of diabetic complications, in a dose-dependent manner. PCO also showed cytoprotective effects in monocytes and macrophages with less triggering of apoptotic processes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PCO-rHDL strongly inhibited uptake of acetylated LDL into macrophages, which is an initial atherosclerotic process. Surprisingly, PCO-rHDL inhibited human serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity by up to 47% (final concentration, 10 μM PCO). Subcutaneous injection of PCO-rHDL dose-dependently enhanced tissue regeneration activity by 2.4-fold and 3.6-fold compared to that of the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control. In conclusion, PCO in HDL showed potent anti-oxidant, anti-glycation, and CETP inhibitory activities along with tissue regenerative activity, especially upon incorporation into HDL. These results suggest that PCO can enhance functionality of HDL in serum to exert anti-senescence and longevity effects.

  10. Practical Recommendations on the Improvement of the Effectiveness of Anti-Corruption Policy in Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Zamaletdinov, Radif R.; Yudina, Nadezhda P.; Lavrentyeva, Elvira I.; Savva, Lubov I.; Pugacheva, Natalya B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the expansion of the scale of corruption in higher education. The purpose of the article is to develop practical recommendations for improving of anti-corruption policy’s effectiveness at universities. The study involved 450 teachers, 1200 students from 140 Russian universities. The main results of the study are to identify the causes of bribery and popular tools of counteraction of corruption in universities, organizational and practical measure...

  11. Anti-oxidant effect of gold nanoparticles restrains hyperglycemic conditions in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom SooHyun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is imperative for its morbidity towards diabetic complications, where abnormal metabolic milieu as a result of hyperglycemia, leads to the onset of several complications. A biological antioxidant capable of inhibiting oxidative stress mediated diabetic progressions; during hyperglycemia is still the need of the era. The current study was performed to study the effect of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs to control the hyperglycemic conditions in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Results The profound control of AuNPs over the anti oxidant enzymes such as GSH, SOD, Catalase and GPx in diabetic mice to normal, by inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ROS generation during hyperglycemia evidence their anti-oxidant effect during hyperglycemia. The AuNPs exhibited an insistent control over the blood glucose level, lipids and serum biochemical profiles in diabetic mice near to the control mice provokes their effective role in controlling and increasing the organ functions for better utilization of blood glucose. Histopathological and hematological studies revealed the non-toxic and protective effect of the gold nanoparticles over the vital organs when administered at dosage of 2.5 mg/kilogram.body.weight/day. ICP-MS analysis revealed the biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in the vital organs showing accumulation of AuNPs in the spleen comparatively greater than other organs. Conclusion The results obtained disclose the effectual role of AuNPs as an anti-oxidative agent, by inhibiting the formation of ROS, scavenging free radicals; thus increasing the anti-oxidant defense enzymes and creating a sustained control over hyperglycemic conditions which consequently evoke the potential of AuNPs as an economic therapeutic remedy in diabetic treatments and its complications.

  12. Anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin, curcumin ethylenediamine derivative and curcumin ethylenediamine manganese complex

    OpenAIRE

    SUNTORNSUK, Leena; Koizumi, Keiichi; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, ElianeShizuka; KAMMASUD, Naparat; VAJARAGUPTA, Opa; Saiki, Ikuo

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin, curcumin ethylenediamine derivative (curcumin ED) and curcumin ethylenediamine manganese complex (curcumin EDMn) through the inhibition of the formation of tube-like structures by human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Curcumin, curcumin ED, curcumin EDMn did not show cytotoxicity to HUVEC at concentrations equal and lower than 10 μM. At the concentration of 10 μM,curcumin, curcumin ED and curcumin EDMn inhibited the tube fo...

  13. Cardioprotective and anti-hypertensive effects of Prosopis glandulosa in rat models of pre-diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Huisamen, B; George, C; Genade, S; Dietrich, D

    2013-01-01

    Aim Obesity and type 2 diabetes present with two debilitating complications, namely, hypertension and heart disease. The dried and ground pods of Prosopis glandulosa (commonly known as the Honey mesquite tree) which is part of the Fabaceae (or legume) family are currently marketed in South Africa as a food supplement with blood glucose-stabilising and anti-hypertensive properties. We previously determined its hypoglycaemic effects, and in the current study we determined the efficacy of P glan...

  14. Anti-platelet effects of olive oil extract: in vitro functional and proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Zhang, Xuguang; Rodriguez Gutierrez, Guillermo; Wood, Sharon; Rucklidge, Garry J; Reid, Martin D; Duncan, Gary J; Cantlay, Louise L; Duthie, Garry G; O'Kennedy, Niamh

    2011-10-01

    Platelets play a key role in haemostasis and wound healing, contributing to formation of vascular plugs. They are also involved in formation of atherosclerosic plaques. Some traditional diets, like the Mediterranean diet, are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Components in these diets may have anti-platelet functions contributing to their health benefits. We studied the effects of alperujo extract, an olive oil production waste product containing the majority of polyphenols found in olive fruits, through measurement of effects on platelet aggregation and activation in isolated human platelets, and through identification of changes in the platelet proteome. Alperujo extract (40 mg/L) significantly decreased in vitro ADP- (p = 0.002) and TRAP- (p = 0.02) induced platelet activation as measured by the flow cytometry using the antibody for p-selectin (CD62p), but it did not affect the conformation of the fibrinogen receptor as measured by flow cytometry using the antibodies for anti-fibrinogen, CD42a and CD42b. Alperujo extract (100 mg/L) inhibited both collagen- and TRAP-induced platelet aggregation by 5% (p < 0.05), and a combination of hydroxytyrosol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol were, at least partly, responsible for this effect. Proteomic analysis identified nine proteins that were differentially regulated by the alperujo extract upon ADP-induced platelet aggregation. These proteins represent important mechanisms that may underlie the anti-platelet effects of this extract: regulation of platelet structure and aggregation, coagulation and apoptosis, and signalling by integrin αIIb/β3. Alperujo extract may protect against platelet activation, platelet adhesion and possibly have anti-inflammatory properties.

  15. Anti-jugular vein thrombotic effect of Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] in male SD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and serious medical condition, which is estimably responsible for more than 300,000 hospital admissions annually in the USA. Pulmonary embolism (PE is a major complication of VTE, which contributes to 12% death of hospitalized patients. Heparin is the most common anti-coagulant, but severe allergic reactions, bleeding, and thrombocytopenia limit its use. Thus, seeking a botanical, nontoxic antithrombotic alternative is an interesting area. Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] is a medicinal plant used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have a broad range of therapeutic and preventive effects. The bioactivities of NJ have been continuously discovered with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune modifying activities. Our novel hypothesis is whether NJ has an anti-venous thrombotic effect in rodents. To examine our hypothesis, this study was designed to examine the anti-thrombotic effect of NJ on the jugular vein thrombosis model induced by ferric chloride in SD rats.Material and Methods: NJ and placebo used in this study were donated by Morinda Holding Inc. NJ was formulated with grape juice and blue berry juice. Placebo was prepared by using the same procedure of NJ preparation, but without NJ in it. Thirty-six male SD rats were divided into six groups. Anti-venous thrombotic activities of 5% NJ, 10% NJ, heparin, and 10% NJ plus heparin were examined and compared with the positive and blank controls. Thrombosis was induced by application of a filter paper soaked in 50% ferric chloride on the right jugular vein. AFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 9:297-3092-cm fragment of the occluded vein (thrombus was removed and weighed after 1-hour maturation. Blood samples were collected for platelet count, aPTT, and PT tests.Results: The weight of a 2-cm fragment of normal jugular vein was 9.9 ± 2.1 mg, while the weight of the occluded vein in

  16. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic effects of E-caryophyllene, myrcene and limonene in a cell model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Ana Teresa; Ribeiro, Madalena; Sousa, Cátia; Judas, Fernando; Salgueiro, Lígia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Mendes, Alexandrina Ferreira

    2015-03-05

    Osteoarthritis is a progressive joint disease and a major cause of disability for which no curative therapies are yet available. To identify compounds with potential anti-osteoarthritic properties, in this study, we screened one sesquiterpene, E-caryophyllene, and two monoterpenes, myrcene and limonene, hydrocarbon compounds for anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic activities in human chondrocytes. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, myrcene and limonene inhibited IL-1β-induced nitric oxide production (IC50=37.3μg/ml and 85.3µg/ml, respectively), but E-caryophyllene was inactive. Myrcene, and limonene to a lesser extent, also decreased IL-1β-induced NF-κB, JNK and p38 activation and the expression of inflammatory (iNOS) and catabolic (MMP-1 and MMP-13) genes, while increasing the expression of anti-catabolic genes (TIMP-1 and -3 by myrcene and TIMP-1 by limonene). Limonene increased ERK1/2 activation by 30%, while myrcene decreased it by 26%, relative to IL-1β-treated cells. None of the compounds tested was able to increase the expression of cartilage matrix-specific genes (collagen II and aggrecan), but both compounds prevented the increased expression of the non-cartilage specific, collagen I, induced by IL-1β. These data show that myrcene has significant anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects in human chondrocytes and, thus, its ability to halt or, at least, slow down cartilage destruction and osteoarthritis progression warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-glucan effects of propolis ethanol extract on Lactobacillus acidophillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Widjiastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In deep dentinal caries cases, bacteria mostly found are Lactobacillus acidophilus classified as gram positive bacteria and as facultative aerobes producing glucosyltransferase (GTF enzyme. GTF enzyme can alter sucrose into glucans. Glucan is sticky and insoluble in water. As a result, GTF enzyme can facilitate plaque formation and microorganism colonization on tooth surface. In addition, Lactobacillus acidophilus also can form acid leading to demineralization of organic and inorganic materials, resulting in dental caries. Multidrug-resistant phenomena, on the other hand, have led to the use of natural resources, one of which is propolis as an antimicrobial material and as a new anti-infective therapeutic strategy. Propolis is a resinous substances collected by worker bees (Apismellifera from barks and leaves of plants. Propolis has a complex chemical composition and biological properties, such as antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor. Purpose: This research aimed to reveal anti-glucan effects of propolis ethanol extract generated from honey bee, Apis mellifera spp on Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. Method: Before antiglucan test was conducted, glucan-formation test was performed on Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria using SDSpage. Meanwhile, anti-glucan adhesion test on Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was carried by culturing the bacteria at 37ºC temperature in a jar with 10% CO2. Test tubes were placed at an angle of 30º for 18 hours to review the attachment of bacteria at the glass surfaces. After the incubation, the culture of bacteria was vibrated using a mixer vortex for a few minutes, and then cultured in solid MRS A media. Bacteria grown were measured by using colony counter. Result: The ethanol extract of propolis with a concentration of 1.56% was the lowest concentration inhibiting the attachment of glucan to Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of

  18. Effect of prolonged heating on the asphalt-aggregate bond strength of HMA containing liquid anti-strip additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of prolonged heating on the bond strength between : aggregate and asphalt that contained anti-strip additives (LOF 6500 and Morelife 2200). On account of the : substantial decrease of anti-st...

  19. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently....... These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties....

  20. Anti-tumor effects of everolimus and metformin are complementary and glucose-dependent in breast cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariaans, Gerke; Jalving, Mathilde; de Vries, Emma Geertruida Elisabeth; de Jong, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Clinical efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is limited in breast cancer and regularly leads to side-effects including hyperglycemia. The AMPK inhibitor and anti-diabetic drug metformin may counteract everolimus-induced hyperglycemia, as well as enhancing anti-cancer efficacy. We

  1. HPLC analysis, anti-oxidant activity of Genista ferox and its anti-proliferative effect in HeLa cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Bencherchar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of the cancer using plants have attracted increasing interest. The present study was aimed to determine the phenolic compounds of Genista ferox using HPLC-TOF/MS and the anti-oxidant acti-vity associated with anti-cancer activity against human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa cell line. Total anti-oxidant capacities of different extracts of G. ferox were assessed by DPPH assay, and their total phenolic and flavonoids contents measured by Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride assays. The amounts of total phenolic (105.2 ± 0.6 – 308.5 ± 5.7 mg/g of extract measured as gallic acid equivalent and flavonoids (8.1 ± 0.1 – 124.0 ± 0.7 mg/g of extract measured as quercetin equivalent varied from chloroform to n-butanol extract of the two parts of the plant (leaf and stem. The ethyl acetate extract of G. ferox exhibited the most powerful effect on the DPPH scavenging activity with 94% from the leaf and 93% from the stem, while the chloroform extract from the leaf exhibited the most effective anti-proliferative activity against HeLa cell lines.

  2. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  3. Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Babygirija, Reji; Dobner, Anthony; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-05-01

    Disorders of colonic motility may contribute to symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and stress is widely believed to play a major role in developing IBS. Stress increases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) of the hypothalamus, resulting in acceleration of colonic transit in rodents. In contrast, hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has an anti-stress effect via inhibiting CRF expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture have been shown to have anti-stress effects, the mechanism of the beneficial effects remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression resulting in reduced CRF expression and restoration of colonic dysmotility in response to chronic stress. Male SD rats received different types of stressors for seven consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). TENS was applied to the bilateral hind limbs every other day before stress loading. Another group of rats did not receive TENS treatment. TENS significantly attenuated accelerated colonic transit induced by chronic heterotypic stress, which was antagonized by a central injection of an OXT antagonist. Immunohistochemical study showed that TENS increased OXT expression and decreased CRF expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression which acts as an anti-stressor agent and mediates restored colonic dysmotility following chronic stress. TENS may be useful to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress.

  4. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L. is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide. Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting serum insulin (FINS, insulin sensitivity index (ISI, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA, and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Anti-tumor effects of gene therapy with GALV membrane fusion glycoprotein in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Yang, Jian-ru; Fu, Xin-ping; Jiang, Yue-quan

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of gene therapy of lung adenocarcinoma using specifically controlled type I herpes simplex virus recombinant vector expressing Gibbon ape leukemia virus membrane fusion glycoprotein gene (GALV.fus). Recombinant HSV-I plasmid carrying target transgene was constructed, and recombinant viral vector was generated in Vero cells using Lipofectamine transfection. Viral vector was introduced into lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells or human fetal fibroblast HFL-I GNHu 5 cells, or inoculated into human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts in nude mice. The anti-tumor and cytotoxic effects of GALV-FMG, the transgene, were examined in these cell and animal models. Expression of GALV-FMG in xenographs achieved 100 % tumorigenicity. Recombinant HSV-I viral vector also exhibited significant tumor cell killing effect in vitro. Relative survival rates of tumor cells treated with GALV-FMG or control vectors were, respectively, 20 and 70 %. GALV.fus has a potent anti-tumor effect against lung cancer both in vitro and in vivo. This anti-tumor potential provides foundation for further studies with this vector.

  6. Effects of Antrodia camphorata and Panax ginseng supplementation on anti-fatigue properties in mice.

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    Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lee, Mon-Chien; Huang, Chi-Chang; Hsieh, City C

    2018-02-20

    Antrodia camphorata and Panax ginseng are well-known medicinal plants in Taiwan folk and traditional Chinese medicine, which have been reported for multifunctional bioactivities. However, there is limited evidence that a fixed combination formula of these two plant extracts is effective for the exercise improvement or anti-fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of the mix formulation of these two herbal medicines (AG formulation) on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n=10 per group) were orally administered AG formulation for 4 weeks at 0.984, 2.952 and 5.904 g/kg/day, which were designated the Vehicle, AG-1X, AG-3X and AG-6X groups, respectively. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK) after a swimming exercise. The exhaustive swimming time of the 1X, 3X or 6X AG group was significantly longer than that of the Vehicle group, and the forelimb grip strength of the 1X, 3X or 6X AG group was also significantly higher than that of the Vehicle group. AG supplementation also produced decreases in serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK activity after the swimming test, as well as increases in glucose. Therefore, the AG complex could be a potential formulation with an anti-fatigue pharmacological effect.

  7. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

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    Yoojoo Lim

    Full Text Available Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear.Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80 treated with regorafenib in a prospective study.141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%-20.7%. Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson's r = 0.37, p = 0.002. Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1% developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50 and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13.Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies.

  8. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jung Min; Paeng, Jin Chul; Won, Jae-Kyung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You

    2015-01-01

    Background Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear. Methods Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU) in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80) treated with regorafenib in a prospective study. Results 141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%–20.7%). Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson’s r = 0.37, p = 0.002). Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1%) developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD) according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50) and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13). Conclusion Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies. PMID:26671465

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of 4′-demethylnobiletin, a major metabolite of nobiletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Zheng, Jinkai; Guo, Shanshan; Tang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Shuangde; Xiao, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid has been associated with various beneficial biological activities. 4′-Demethylnobiletin (4DN) is a major metabolite of nobiletin and its tissue level was found to be much higher than that of nobiletin after oral administration of nobiletin in mice. Anti-inflammatory effects of 4DN were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed 4DN not only dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production, but also significantly reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely PGE2, IL-1β and IL-6. 4DN potently suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 at both protein and mRNA levels. 4DN also inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 4DN activated transcription factor Nrf2 and its dependent genes including HO-1 and NQO1 whose expression may contribute to anti-inflammatory effects. The results demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of 4DN and provided a scientific basis for using nobiletin as a nutraceutical to inhibit inflammation–driven diseases. PMID:26770275

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of 4'-demethylnobiletin, a major metabolite of nobiletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Song, Mingyue; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Zheng, Jinkai; Guo, Shanshan; Tang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Shuangde; Xiao, Hang

    2015-12-01

    Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid has been associated with various beneficial biological activities. 4'-Demethylnobiletin (4DN) is a major metabolite of nobiletin and its tissue level was found to be much higher than that of nobiletin after oral administration of nobiletin in mice. Anti-inflammatory effects of 4DN were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed 4DN not only dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide production, but also significantly reduced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, namely PGE 2 , IL-1β and IL-6. 4DN potently suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 at both protein and mRNA levels. 4DN also inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that 4DN activated transcription factor Nrf2 and its dependent genes including HO-1 and NQO1 whose expression may contribute to anti-inflammatory effects. The results demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of 4DN and provided a scientific basis for using nobiletin as a nutraceutical to inhibit inflammation-driven diseases.

  11. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26770918

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tho X; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-21

    We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE), an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα) promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  13. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Zang, Xueli; Ma, Jinshu; Xu, Guangyu

    2016-07-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide). Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

  14. Anti-fatigue effects of polysaccharides extracted from Portulaca oleracea L. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhongxin; Shan, Ying

    2014-08-01

    Portulaca oleracea L. has been used as a food and medicinal plant for thousands of years in China. Polysaccharides extracted from P. oleracea L. (POP) are its main bioactive compound and have multiple pharmacological activities. However, anti-fatigue effects of POP have not yet been tested. This study was designed to investigate the anti-fatigue effects of POP in mice using the rotarod and forced swimming tests. The mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely normal control group, low-dose POP supplementation group, medium-dose POP supplementation group and high-dose POP supplementation group. The normal control group received distilled water and the supplementation groups received different doses of POP (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, respectively). The POP or distilled water was administered orally and daily for 30 day. After 30 days, the rotarod and forced swimming tests were performed and then several biochemical parameters related to fatigue were determined. The data showed that POP prolonged the riding times and exhaustive swimming times of mice, decreasing blood lactic acid and serum urea nitrogen levels, as well as increasing the liver and muscle glycogen contents. These results indicated that POP had the anti-fatigue effects.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of Dioscorea alata L. anthocyanins in a TNBS-induced colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Hu, Shihui; Zhang, Haiwen; Guan, Qingfeng; Yang, Yuhui; Wang, Xuemei

    2017-02-22

    The purple yam, Dioscorea alata L., is an important source of starch, vitamins and polyphenols. Five different pigments from the purple tubers of this plant were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the anthocyanin fraction (DACN) was collected. The anti-inflammatory effects of DACNs were investigated at different concentrations and compared with the standard colitis treatment, 5-aminosalicylic acid, in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mouse model. Macro- and microscopic parameters including body weight change, disease activity index (DAI) and intestinal histology were used for the determination of the anti-inflammatory effects of DACNs. The gene expression levels of tight junction-related proteins in the intestine, myeloperoxidase activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in colonic tissues and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in serum were also measured to elucidate the mechanism of DACN action. Eighty micrograms of DACNs per kilogram of body weight produced potent anti-inflammatory effects in the mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as shown by the DAI (2.78 ± 0.38 vs. 0.44 ± 0.51). Therefore, DACNs may be applied as a potential food supplement in IBD therapy.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects and underlying mechanisms of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du extract: Implication for atopic dermatitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunlong; Xian, Yanfang; Lai, Zhengquan; Loo, Steven; Chan, Wood Yee; Lin, Zhi-Xiu

    2016-06-05

    Huang-Lian-Jie-Du Decoction (HLJDD), a well-known Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Tang dynasty, is composed of Coptidis rhizoma (Huang-Lian), Scutellariae radix (Huang-Qin), Phellodendri Chinensis cortex (Huang-Bai) and Gardenia fructus (Zhi-Zi). It has clinical efficacy of purging fire for removing toxin and is commonly used for the treatment of disease including Alzheimer's disease, stroke and gastrointestinal disorders. HLJDD is also frequently applied for the treatment of various skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and various types of eczema. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic actions of Huang-Lian-Jie-Du ethanolic extract (HLJDE) and to elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms of action using relevant in vitro experimental models. The anti-inflammatory effects of HLJDE were investigated through evaluating the change of nitric oxide (NO) and the production of several cytokines and chemokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cell line. Expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, inhibitor-κBα (IκBα) degradation were further investigated to elucidate its anti-inflammatory molecular mechanisms. Meanwhile, the anti-allergic activities of HLJDE was also evaluated using antigen-induced RBL-2H3 cell line. β-hexosaminidase and histamine release and selected cytokines and chemokines were measured to evaluate the anti-allergic activities of HLJDE. In addition, intracellular Ca(2+)level, MAPKs and Lyn phosphorylation were further investigated to reveal its anti-allergic molecular mechanisms. HLJDE could significantly suppress the secretion of NO, IL-1β, IL-4, MCP-1 and GM-CSF in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, HLJDE also markedly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs, and inhibited the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and IκBα degradation. Furthermore, HLJDE exerted marked anti-allergic activity through inhibiting the

  17. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; T Masters, Eliot; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2010-01-01

    Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds.

  18. In Vitro Anti-Cariogenic Plaque Effects of Essential Oils Extracted from Culinary Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwattanarattanabut, Kornsit; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2017-09-01

    Cariogenic bacteria including mutans streptococci and lactobacilli are partly but significantly involved in dental caries development. An effective prevention strategy against dental caries is to decrease the accumulation of this microbiota either in planktonic or in biofilm form. To examine the antimicrobial and anti-plaque effects of some culinary herbs (spices), so the herbs are plausibly used as alternative and effective herbal plaque control supplements to promote good oral health. Essential oils extracted from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) , cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) , sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) , kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) , black pepper (Piper nigrum) , peppermint (Mentha piperita) , and spearmint (Mentha spicata) were primarily examined for their antimicrobial activities against the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans KPSK2 and Lactobacillus casei) using the agar disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods, respectively. These essential oils were then analysed for anti-plaque effects (retardation of S. mutans biofilm formation and reduction of the in vitro established biofilm). This experimental study was performed at the Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University during June 2015 till August 2016. All selected essential oils showed different degrees of antimicrobial activity against the planktonic form of both cariogenic bacteria. Cinnamon bark essential oil expressed the strongest inhibitory effect against S. mutans {MIC of 0.08% (v/v)} and L. casei {MIC of 0.16% (v/v)}, whereas the weakest effect was found in kaffir lime essential oil {MIC values of 2.5% and 5.0% (v/v) for S. mutans and L. casei , respectively}. Up to 80% of S. mutans biofilm was retarded to form on the substratum primed with these spice essential oils, especially cinnamon oil. The preventive effect of these oils was in dose- and exposure time-dependent manners. For reductive effect against the 24-hour pre-established S

  19. Study of the anti-fatigue effects of amino acids and vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ning XIAO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the anti-fatigue effects of amino acids and vitamins on rats after exhaustive exercise. In addition, the current research might provide a theoretical foundation for the future development of new anti-fatigue nutritional supplements. Methods  Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups after adaptive swimming. Each group consisted of 12 rats, namely amino acids and vitamins capsule group (capsule group, control with bland water group (control group, and amino acid and fructose beverage group (granules group. Exhaustion was produced by non-load swimming. After 14 days of feeding with different beverages, the exhaustion time of swimming was recorded, and then all rats were killed to measure concentrations of muscle and hepatic glycogen, and contents of serum β-endorphin (β-EP, lactic acid (LA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine kinase (CK. Results  The swimming time and the levels of the muscle and hepatic glycogen in the capsule and granules groups were longer or higher than those in the control group (PPP>0.05. Conclusion  Compound amino acids and vitamins can delay the occurrence of exhaustion after swimming in rats, increase hepatic and muscle glycogen contents, and decrease the generation of various metabolites during fatigue exercises, and hence giving anti-fatigue effects.

  20. Anti-prediabetic effect of rose hip (Rosa canina) extract in spontaneously diabetic Torii rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si Jing; Aikawa, Chiwa; Yoshida, Risa; Kawaguchi, Tomoaki; Matsui, Toshiro

    2017-09-01

    Prediabetes, a high-risk state for developing diabetes showing impaired glucose tolerance but a normal fasting blood glucose level, has an increasing prevalence worldwide. However, no study investigating the prevention of impaired glucose tolerance at the prediabetic stage by anti-diabetic functional foods has been reported. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-prediabetic effect of rose hip in a prediabetic rat model. Spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were supplemented with hot-water extract of rose hip at a dose of 100 mg kg -1 body weight day -1 for 12 weeks. The results obtained showed that the supplementation of rose hip extract improved impaired glucose tolerance, promoted insulin secretion, preserved pancreatic beta-cell function and suppressed plasma advanced glycation end-products formation of methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone (MG-H1) residue and N ϵ -carboxymethyl-lysine residues (e.g. MG-H1, control: 465.5 ± 43.8 versus rose hip: 59.1 ± 13.0 pmol mg protein -1 , P rose hip could exert an anti-prediabetic effect in a rat model. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Arctigenin in combination with quercetin synergistically enhances the anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells

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    Wang, Piwen; Phan, Tien; Gordon, David; Chung, Seyung; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a combination of two promising chemopreventive agents arctigenin and quercetin increases the anti-carcinogenic potency at lower concentrations than necessary when used individually in prostate cancer. Methods and results Androgen-dependent LAPC-4 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with low doses of arctigenin and quercetin alone or in combination for 48h. The anti-proliferative activity of arctigenin was 10-20 fold stronger than quercetin in both cell lines. Their combination synergistically enhanced the anti-proliferative effect, with a stronger effect in androgen receptor (AR) wild-type LAPC-4 cells than in AR mutated LNCaP cells. Arctigenin demonstrated a strong ability to inhibit AR protein expression in LAPC-4 cells. The combination treatment significantly inhibited both AR and PI3K/Akt pathways compared to control. A protein array analysis revealed that the mixture targets multiple pathways particularly in LAPC-4 cells including Stat3 pathway. The mixture significantly inhibited the expression of several oncogenic microRNAs including miR-21, miR-19b, and miR-148a compared to control. The mixture also enhanced the inhibition of cell migration in both cell lines compared to individual compounds tested. Conclusion The combination of arctigenin and quercetin, that target similar pathways, at low physiological doses, provides a novel regimen with enhanced chemoprevention in prostate cancer. PMID:25380086

  2. Anti-Apoptotic Effects of Dapsone After Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Camilo; Orozco-Suarez, Sandra; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Nava-Ruiz, Concepción; Santander, Iván; Barón-Flores, Veronica; Caram-Salas, Nadia; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli

    2015-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition producing irreversible damage to the neurological function. Among the leading mechanisms associated to cell death after SCI, excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis are considered potential targets to prevent tissue damage. We recently reported that dapsone an anti-inflammatory drug, decreases the activity of myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, improve neurological function and increase the amount of spared tissue after SCI in rats. In this study, we characterized the anti-apoptotic effect of dapsone administered at 12.5 mg/kg/24 h dose, starting at 3 and 5 h after SCI. We monitored the activity of caspases-8, 9, and 3 and quantitated Annexin V and TUNEL positive cells in the core of the lesion. Results showed increased activities of caspase-8, 9 and 3 at 72 h by SCI to reach increments of 69, 143 and 293 %, respectively, as compared to sham group. Meanwhile, dapsone, administered at 3 and 5 after SCI, reduced caspase-8 activity by 36 and 44 % respectively, whereas the activity of caspase-9 was diminished by 37 %. Likewise, the activity of caspase-3 showed a decrease of 38 %. Finally, both Annexin V and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly reduced by DDS as compared to untreated SCI animals. Results showed that dapsone exerted anti-apoptotic effect after SCI.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Wild Herbs Mainly Cultivated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boo-Yong Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g. Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80% and ROS production (~50% during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents.

  4. Investigations of the Effects of Altered Vestibular System Function on Hindlimb Anti-Gravity Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Mary Sue

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different gravitational environments, both the microgravity of spaceflight and the hypergravity of centrifugation, result in altered vestibulo-spinal function which can be reversed by reacclimation to earth gravity (2). Control of orientation, posture, and locomotion are functions of the vestibular system which are altered by changes in gravitational environment. Not only is the vestibular system involved with coordination and proprioception, but the gravity sensing portion of the vestibular system also plays a major role in maintaining muscle tone through projections to spinal cord motoneurons that control anti-gravity muscles. I have been involved with investigations of several aspects of the link between vestibular inputs and muscle morphology and function during my work with Dr. Nancy Daunton this summer and the previous summer. We have prepared a manuscript for submission (4) to Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine based on work that I performed last summer in Dr. Daunton's lab. Techniques developed for that project will be utilized in subsequent experiments begun in the summer of 1998. I have been involved with the development of a pilot project to test the effects of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) on anti-gravity muscles and in another project testing the effects of the ototoxic drug streptomycin on the otolith-spinal reflex and anti-gravity muscle morphology.

  5. Genome-wide transcriptional effects of the anti-cancer agent camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Veloso

    Full Text Available The anti-cancer drug camptothecin inhibits replication and transcription by trapping DNA topoisomerase I (Top1 covalently to DNA in a "cleavable complex". To examine the effects of camptothecin on RNA synthesis genome-wide we used Bru-Seq and show that camptothecin treatment primarily affected transcription elongation. We also observed that camptothecin increased RNA reads past transcription termination sites as well as at enhancer elements. Following removal of camptothecin, transcription spread as a wave from the 5'-end of genes with no recovery of transcription apparent from RNA polymerases stalled in the body of genes. As a result, camptothecin preferentially inhibited the expression of large genes such as proto-oncogenes, and anti-apoptotic genes while smaller ribosomal protein genes, pro-apoptotic genes and p53 target genes showed relative higher expression. Cockayne syndrome group B fibroblasts (CS-B, which are defective in transcription-coupled repair (TCR, showed an RNA synthesis recovery profile similar to normal fibroblasts suggesting that TCR is not involved in the repair of or RNA synthesis recovery from transcription-blocking Top1 lesions. These findings of the effects of camptothecin on transcription have important implications for its anti-cancer activities and may aid in the design of improved combinatorial treatments involving Top1 poisons.

  6. Synthesis, acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl salicylate, a salicylic acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Renata Marcia Costa; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Rodrigues Mascarenhas, Sandra; Rodrigues, Luis Cezar; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Bornyl salicylate (BS) is a salicylic derivative, obtained by sterification of salicylic acid and monoterpene (-)-borneol, and its topical use in inflammatory diseases was described in the early 20th century. It is also known that borneol presents neuroprotective, genoprotective and analgesic properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate BS in experimental models of acute inflammation. The toxicity of BS was analyzed by measuring water and food intake, weight, mortality and weight of main organs. To assess its anti-inflammatory effect, BS-treated mice were challenged with carrageenan, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), bradikynin (BK) or histamine (HIS)-induced paw edema, zymosan-induced peritonitis and vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed in peritoneal macrophage cultures. There was no sign of acute toxicity of BS in male and female mice. Furthermore, treatment with BS was significantly (p acetic acid were also reduced in BS-treated animals. In vitro, BS (10 µg/mL) reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These data suggest that BS has an anti-inflammatory effect, which is related, at least in part, with decrease of mediators as PGE2, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, further studies should be done to explore its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of natural and semi-synthetic phthalides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Ángel, Mayela; Nieto, Antonio; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo

    2015-04-05

    This study evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effects of natural phthalides, isolated from Ligusticum porteri, and of semi-synthetic phthalides. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in two mouse models; one with ear edema, induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and the other with paw edema, induced with carrageenan. The effect on the RAW 264.7 stimulated with lipopolysaccharide cells was evaluated and after application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, the activity of myeloperoxidase was assessed to serve as an index of leukocytes infiltration together with the histological evaluations. We also assessed the inhibition of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 in vitro. Our results demonstrated that administration of semi-synthetic phthalides significantly inhibited the ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and reduced the paw edema caused by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory activity of phthalides could, in part, be explained by the reduction in myeloperoxidase activity and the infiltration of leukocytes. The semi-synthetic phthalides also inhibited the production of oxide nitric in RAW cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do ketone bodies mediate the anti-seizure effects of the ketogenic diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Timothy A; Simeone, Kristina A; Stafstrom, Carl E; Rho, Jong M

    2018-05-01

    Although the mechanisms underlying the anti-seizure effects of the high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) remain unclear, a long-standing question has been whether ketone bodies (i.e., β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone), either alone or in combination, contribute mechanistically. The traditional belief has been that while ketone bodies reflect enhanced fatty acid oxidation and a general shift toward intermediary metabolism, they are not likely to be the key mediators of the KD's clinical effects, as blood levels of β-hydroxybutyrate do not correlate consistently with improved seizure control. Against this unresolved backdrop, new data support ketone bodies as having anti-seizure actions. Specifically, β-hydroxybutyrate has been shown to interact with multiple novel molecular targets such as histone deacetylases, hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors on immune cells, and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Clearly, as a diet-based therapy is expected to render a broad array of biochemical, molecular, and cellular changes, no single mechanism can explain how the KD works. Specific metabolic substrates or enzymes are only a few of many important factors influenced by the KD that can collectively influence brain hyperexcitability and hypersynchrony. This review summarizes recent novel experimental findings supporting the anti-seizure and neuroprotective properties of ketone bodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The anti diabetic and anti obesity effect of Memecylon umbellatum extract in high fat diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, V; Shree, Nitya; Venkataranganna, M V; Bhonde, Ramesh R; Majumdar, Mala

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, obesity and diabetes have become the epidemic mainly due to fast food and lifestyle changes. Several herbs have been claimed to control diabetes and obesity. However, there are a few which control both. Our aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-obesity activity of methanolic extract of Memecylon umbellatum (MU) in alleviation of insulin resistance (IR). Diet induced obese (DIO) mice model was developed by feeding the mice on high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks resulting in hyperglycemia, obesity and IR. 250mg/kg body weight of extract was administered orally daily for 8 weeks. Fasting glucose and body weight were monitored throughout the experiment. At the end of the study, serum parameters, histological examinations and gene expression pattern were analyzed. There was a significant reduction in fasting glucose levels, body weight and triglycerides. Improvement in the glucose tolerance and amelioration of insulin resistance was observed as revealed by reduction in serum IL6, serum oxidised LDL, histological sections of liver and subcutaneous adipose. Gene expression studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract by down regulating IL6, PAI1 and ApoB gene expression as compared to the untreated HFD control. Our results demonstrate for the first time that oral administration of methanolic extract of MU in DIO mice leads to reduction in hyperglycemia, body weight, triglycerides and ameliorates insulin resistance. Further, mechanism of action of the extract needs to be investigated by purifying the extract and analyzing the active ingredient playing the major role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti fouling effect of two saturated copper coatings applied on carbon steel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiamet, P. S.; Gomez de Saravia, S. G.

    2008-01-01

    Biofouling is the colonization of man-made substrata by sessile organisms. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of two anti fouling saturated copper coating. Bioassays were carried out at a harbor in Argentine (38 degree centigrade 02' S-57 degree centigrade 32'W). during six months, one series of pipes and panels were removed monthly to estimate the recruitment of macro and micro fouling species and immediately replaced by clean ones. Another series was removed from the beginning of exposure to monitor the development of the established community (accumulative pipes and panels along six months). Data obtained from control (without a saturated copper coating) and saturated-copper coated pipes and panels were compared in order to estimate performance of the coating. One of two saturated copper coating demonstrated a good effect anti fouling. (Author) 25 refs

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics. PMID:26600756

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics.

  13. Topical ketorolac has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in human thermal injury. Twelve healthy unmedicated volunteers had identical burn injuries produced on the medial side of both calves with a 49 degrees C 15 x 25 mm thermode....... Ketorolac gel or placebo were randomly applied on the right or left calf 1.5 h before burn injury, immediately after burn injury and 6 and 12 h later in a double-blind trial where every subject served as his own control. Heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT), head pain tolerance (HPT), mechanical pain...... detection thresholds (MPDT) and the intensity of burn-induced erythema (erythema index, EI) were assessed in the area of the thermal injury, and areas of hyperalgesia to pin prick were determined outside the injury before and 3, 6 and 24 h after the burn injury. Burn injury led to a decrease in HPDT, HPT...

  14. Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Sander, Birgit; Brøndsted, Adam Elias

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The late post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 10-30s ) to blue light is reduced in glaucoma, suggesting that pupillometry can be used in clinical glaucoma evaluation. Since animal studies have indicated that common anti-glaucomatous agents affect the iris muscle, we investigated...... the short-term effect of the anti-glaucoma drugs on the pupillary light reflex and in particular on the PIPR10-30s. METHODS: In this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial, pupillometry was performed before and after topical administration of latanoprost, dorzolamide, and timolol in 20 healthy subjects...... reduced by all three drugs after 3.5 h (p glaucoma medications did not interfere with the blue light elicited PIPR. Dorzolamide reduced pupil size, while timolol reduced both pupil size and maximal contraction to red...

  15. [The effect of pH on anti-corrosion nature of amalgams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Wang, G; Li, W

    1997-09-01

    Corrosion behavior of alloys are affected not only by themselves but also by environment, such as a change of pH. In this study, the corrosion behavior of four dental amalgams (L, C, DA, GK) in Fusayama saliva with different pH 6.65 and 4.00 are evaluated by electrochemical techniques. It seems that changes in pH may exert different effects on the four amalgams. In the acid environment DA exhibits best anti-corrosion nature and followed by GK, C, and L, which conforms to clinical observations. This may be resulted either from amalgams themselves or from conditions of corrosion products of amalgams' surface. Thus, consideration must be given to the changing oral environment when screening anti-corrosion alloys.

  16. Anti-gastritis and wound healing effects of Momordicae Semen extract and its active component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kiwon; Chin, Young-Won; Chung, Yoon Hee; Park, Yang Hae; Yoo, Hunseung; Min, Dong Sun; Lee, Bongyong; Kim, Jinwoong

    2013-02-01

    Momordicae Semen, Momordica cochinchinensis Springer (Cucurbitaceae), has long been known to effectively relieve boils, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. In this study, we investigated whether Momordicae Semen extract (MSE) has anti-gastritis effects in various rodent models and also explored possible mechanisms for the gastroprotective effects of MSE. MSE provided remarkable protective effects, comparable to those of rebamipide, in ethanol- and diclofenac-induced acute gastritis. In addition, it has demonstrated protective effect in a Helicobacter pylori-insulted chronic gastritis model. MSE also showed wound healing effect on cutaneous injury of mice and stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin receptors, which may be related to its anti-gastritis effects. In a single oral dose toxicity study, the approximate lethal dose of MSE was determined at >2000 mg/kg/day. The NOAEL was set to be 2000 mg/kg/day from the repeated oral dose toxicity study. Moreover, momordica saponin I, a major ingredient of MSE, treatment decreased gastric mucosa damage indices in the ethanol- and diclofenac-induced acute gastritis models. The results suggest that MSE could be a promising gastroprotective herbal medicine and momordica saponin I might be used as an active marker compound for MSE.

  17. Lutein exerts anti-inflammatory effects in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Rosanna W S; Leanderson, Per; Lundberg, Anna K; Jonasson, Lena

    2017-07-01

    Many coronary artery disease (CAD) patients exhibit chronic low-grade inflammation. Carotenoids are anti-oxidants with potential anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we first assessed relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and individual carotenoids in plasma from CAD patients. Based on the results, we proceeded to assess anti-inflammatory effects of one carotenoid, lutein, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CAD patients. Lutein + zeaxanthin (isomers with lutein being dominant), β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotene and IL-6 were measured in plasma from 134 patients with stable angina (SA) and 59 patients with acute coronary syndrome. In 42 patients, plasma measurements were also performed 3 months after coronary intervention. PBMCs from SA patients were pre-treated with lutein (1, 5 and 25 μM) for 24 h followed by 24 h incubation ± lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell pellets were collected for IL-6, IL-1β and TNF mRNA and intracellular lutein. Cytokine secretion was measured in cell media. Only lutein + zeaxanthin were inversely correlated with IL-6 in SA patients at baseline (r = -0.366, p lutein was taken up by PBMCs from SA patients in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with lutein dose-dependently lowered LPS-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-1β (p lutein and IL-6 in CAD patients. Anti-inflammatory effects of lutein in PBMCs from CAD patients were consolidated in ex vivo experiments. Taken together, these results show that lutein has the potential to play a role in resolution of chronic inflammation in CAD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulfated galactans from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri exerts anti-migration effect on cholangiocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lao, Thannicha; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Janvilisri, Tavan; Tohtong, Rutaiwan; Bates, David O; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2017-12-01

    Seaweeds have a long history of use in Asian countries as functional foods, medicinal herbs, and the treatment of cancer. Polysaccharides from various seaweeds have shown anti-tumor activity. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), often with metastatic disease, is highly prevalent in Thailand as a consequence of liver fluke infection. Recently, we extracted sulfated galactans (SG) from Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri), a south east Asian seaweed, and found it exhibited anti-proliferation effect on CCA cells. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-migration activity of SG on CCA cells and its underlined mechanism. CCA cells were treated with SG alone or drugs targeting to epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) or pretreated with SG prior to incubation with EGF. Anti-migration activity was determined using a scratch wound-healing assay and zymography. Immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were used to investigate EGFR signaling mediators. Under basal condition, SG reduced the migration rate of CCA, which was correlated with a decrease in the active-form of matrix metalloproteinases-9. SG decreased expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but increased expression of E-cadherin to promote cells stasis. Moreover, phosphorylation of EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), known to stimulate growth of cancer cells, was blocked in a comparable way to EGFR inhibitors Cetuximab and Erlotinib. Pretreatment cells with SG attenuated EGF induced phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK and FAK. This study reveals that SG from G. fisheri retards migration of CCA cells, and its mechanism of inhibition is mediated, to some extent, by inhibitory effects on MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathway. Our findings suggest that there may be a therapeutic potential of SG in CCA treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Update of Cardiovascular Effects of Older and Newer Anti-diabetic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelopi; Liberopoulos, Evangelos; Liatis, Stavros; Kokkinos, Alexandros; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-05-29

    It is known that cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Over the last years one of the most discussed topics is the CV safety of anti-diabetic medications. Regarding CV safety of older anti-diabetic agents the data are less clear and conclusions about their CV safety is based mostly on randomized controlled trials designed to assess their glucose lowering efficacy. In this review we summarize current knowledge about the CV safety of older and newer anti-diabetic medications. According to the published literature metformin is the first line agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and seems to have cardio-protective effects. The choice of the second line agent when metformin monotherapy fails to achieve HbA1c targets is less clear. In the light of the findings of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial and the recently published LEADER trial, empagliflozin and liraglutide seem reasonable options as second line agents for patients with CV disease. Sulfonylureas on the other hand, with the exception of gliclazide, should be avoided in those patients, although CV safety trials are still lacking. In individuals without CV disease any of the other classes of anti-diabetic medication can be selected on a patient-centered approach. Saxagliptin, alogliptin, sitagliptin and lixisenatide have been evaluated in CV safety trials and have neutral effects on CV outcomes, while pioglitazone may have some CV benefits. Saxagliptine and alogliptine, however, should be avoided in patients with heart failure, while pioglitazone is contraindicated in this population. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. A sesquiterpenelactone from Inula britannica induces anti-tumor effects dependent on Bcl-2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Bai, Nai-Sheng; Chi-Tang-Ho; Rosen, Robert T; White, Eileen; Perez, Denise; Dipaola, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    The over-expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in cancer is associated with resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. The phosphorylation of Bcl-2 is one mechanism by which anti-microtubule agents, such as paclitaxel or docetaxel, may inactivate Bcl-2. Although initially active in clinical studies, current anti-microtubule agents are only temporarily effective and the discovery of new agents is warranted. We isolated and identified two known sesquiterpenelactones, O, O-diacetylbritannilactone (OODABL) and O-acetylbritaanilactone (OABL) from the flowers of the medicinal plant Inula britannica and studied their mechanism of anti-tumor effects. To determine the biological significance of Bcl-2 phosphorylation, we used a baby rat kidney (BRK-p53) cell line that was transformed with EIA and a temperature-sensitive mutant p53. The BRK-p53 cell line was transfected with either a vector with wild type Bcl-2 or a vector in which Bcl-2 had mutations in the paclitaxel phosphorylation sites (pcDNA3.1 V5/His Bcl-2 S70, 87A). OODABL and OABL induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 in breast, ovary and prostate cancer cell lines and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Using the BRK cells with mutant Bcl-2 (BRK-Bcl-2-mt) and control (BRK-Bcl-2-wt), we found that OODABL induced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at sites similar to paclitaxel. Phosphorylation of Bcl-2 was important for OODABL-induced cytotoxicity, since the abrogation of phosphorylation in BRK-Bcl-2-mt cells decreased OODABL-induced cytotoxicity. We concluded that OODABL is cytotoxic in multiple tumor cell lines, and the cytotoxicity is dependent, at least in part, on the phosphorylation of Bcl-2.

  1. Effect of pretreatments and processing conditions on anti-nutritional factors in climbing bean flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Mugabo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for many Rwandans to utilize climbing bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris. L mainly because of longer cooking time (2 hours and the high consumption of basic fuel. Climbing beans also contain anti-nutritional factors such tannins, phytates, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins that limit nutrient absorption. One way to solve this problem is to utilize the flour of climbing beans made from different treatments and processing methods. In this study, climbing beans were pre-treated by soaking them in water for 24 hours, soaking in 2% sodium bicarbonate solution and steam blanching for 10 minutes. After that, pre-treated climbing beans were processed into flours by processing methods such as roasting, cooking and germination where anti-nutritional factors were reduced. The pretreatments did not significantly (p>0.05 affect phytates in climbing bean flours but processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced it. Pretreatments and processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 reduced tannin content. The pretreatments followed by different processing conditions significantly (p<0.05 decreased trypsin inhibitors content. The great significant decrease in phytohemagglutinins content was observed in pretreatment followed by different processing methods. All pretreatments and processing conditions effectively decreased anti-nutritional factors at low level. However, pretreatments or untreated followed by germination and roasting were found to be the most and the least effective respectively.  Making flour from germinated climbing bean seeds is a good option for sustainable food processing as it reduces anti-nutritional factors. It is an inexpensive method in terms of time, energy and fuel for Rwandan households, restaurants and industries where climbing bean seeds are integral part of daily meal.

  2. Anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar on high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ky, Huynh; Boo, Sook Yee; Chua, Joelle Yi Heng; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-07-27

    Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

  3. Anti-allergic effect of apple polyphenol on patients with atopic dermatitis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatsugu Kojima

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiallergic effect of apple condensed tannins (ACT in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD as a pilot study. An ACT supplement given to the patients at oral doses of 10 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks reduced the inflammation, lichenification, cracking, itching, sleep disturbance and peripheral blood eosinophil counts. Itching and sleep disturbance scores after ACT supplement even for 2 weeks were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The results suggest that ACT has an anti-allergic effect and that its use improved the symptoms of AD.

  4. Fruit peel polyphenols demonstrate substantial anti-tumour effects in the model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kello, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Mahmood, Silvia; Murin, Radovan; Viera, Tischlerová; Mojžiš, Ján; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kassayová, Monika; Bojková, Bianka; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed. High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P 0.05) in comparison with the control rats, whereas lower dose of F7 was less effective. Histopathological analysis of tumours showed significant decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas after high-dose F7 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat carcinoma cells in vivo found a significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant decrease in Bcl-2, Ki67, and VEGFR-2 expression in the high-dose group. Both doses demonstrated significant positive effects on plasma lipid metabolism in rats. F7 significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in vitro in MTT assay by dose- and time-dependent manner compared to control. F7 prevented cell cycle progression by significant enrichment in G1 cell populations. Incubation with F7 showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V-/PI-positive MCF-7 cells and DNA fragmentation. Our results reveal a substantial tumour-suppressive effect of F7 in the breast cancer model. We propose that the effects of phytochemicals present in this fruit extract are responsible for observed potent anti-cancer activities.

  5. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects of the herbicide tebuthiuron in male Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Milena Devechi; Pereira, Thiago Scremin Boscolo; Batlouni, Sergio Ricardo; Boscolo, Camila Nomura Pereira; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves

    2018-01-01

    Tebuthiuron is a phenylurea herbicide widely used in agriculture that can reach the aquatic environments, possibly posing negative effects to the aquatic biota. Phenylurea herbicides, such as diuron, are known to cause estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects in fish, but no such effects were yet reported for tebuthiuron exposure. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate if tebuthiuron, at environmentally relevant concentrations (100 and 200ng/L) and after 25days of exposure have estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic effects on male of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), through the evaluation of plasmatic testosterone (T) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels, brain aromatase (CYP19) levels (western-blot), and by evaluating the histology of the testicles. When compared to the control group, plasmatic T levels decreased about 76% in the animals exposed to 200ng/L of tebuthiuron, while E 2 levels increased about 94%, which could be related to a significant increase (77%) in CYP19A1 levels, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens into estrogens. Histological analyses of the testicles also demonstrated that tebuthiuron at both tested concentrations caused a decrease in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and in the diameter of the lumen. Therefore, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was reduced by 36% % in the animals exposed 200ng/L to tebuthiuron. Indeed, the relative frequency of spermatocytes and spermatids increased respectively 73% (200ng/L) and 61% (100ng/L) in the tebuthiuron exposed animals, possibly due to the impairment of sperm release into the lumen, that was decreased 93% (200ng/L) in the treated animals compared to the control. These results confirm that tebuthiuron causes estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects in Nile tilapias at environmentally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Fungal Metabolites in Mouse Intestine as Revealed by In vitro Models

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    Dominik Schreiber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders that can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract or the colonic mucosal layer. Current therapies aiming to suppress the exaggerated immune response in IBD largely rely on compounds with non-satisfying effects or side-effects. Therefore, new therapeutical options are needed. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin in both an in vitro intestinal inflammation model, as well as in isolated myenteric plexus and enterocyte cells. Administration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine mix through the mesenteric artery of intestinal segments caused an up-regulation of inflammatory marker genes. Treatment of the murine intestinal segments with galiellalactone or dehydrocurvularin by application through the mesenteric artery significantly prevented the expression of pro-inflammatory marker genes on the mRNA and the protein level. Comparable to the results in the perfused intestine model, treatment of primary enteric nervous system (ENS cells from the murine intestine with the fungal compounds reduced expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and inflammatory enzymes such as COX-2 and iNOS on mRNA and protein levels. Similar anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites were observed in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1 after stimulation with IFN-γ (10 ng/ml, TNF-α (10 ng/ml, and IL-1β (5 ng/ml. Our results show that the mesenterially perfused intestine model provides a reliable tool for the screening of new therapeutics with limited amounts of test compounds. Furthermore, we could characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of two novel active compounds, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin which are interesting candidates for studies with chronic animal models of IBD.

  7. Anti-cancer effect of Scutellaria baicalensis in combination with cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell.

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    Choi, Bo Yoon; Joo, Jong Cheon; Lee, Yeon Kyu; Jang, Ik-Soon; Park, Soo Jung; Park, Yoon Jung

    2017-05-25

    Ovarian cancer is one of the major causes of death among females in worldwide. Cisplatin is a primary anti-cancer drug against ovarian cancer, but the recurrent tumors after treatment frequently show acquired chemoresistance. Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (SbE) has been reported to have functional compounds including baicalin, which has anti-cancer effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of SbE in ovarian cancer and its underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated that the effects of SbE and/or cisplatin on cell death in the cisplatin sensitive ovarian cancer cell line A2780 (CSC) and the counterpart cell line that has cisplatin resistance (CRC). Molecular mechanisms of the effects, focusing on apoptosis and autophagy, were examined. Treatment of cisplatin or SbE reduced cell viability significantly in CSC and too much lesser extent in CRC. Cisplatin-induced cell death in CSC was mediated by p53-induced apoptosis acompanied by expresson of damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM). In CRC, decreased DRAM expression (p cisplatin resistance. Treatment of SbE also induced cell death in CSC by p53-dependent apoptosis, not in CRC. Autophagy was not induced by neither cisplatin nor SbE. Intriguingly, the combinational treatment of SbE and cisplatin significantly decreased cell viability in CRC. The cell death was mediated by autophagy with increased expression of Atg5 and Atg12 (p cisplatin was effective in CRC, leading to cell death via Beclin1-independent autophagy, suggesting that SbE treatment in combination with cisplatin has a potential as a chemotherapeutic agent in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer.

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

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    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti

  9. Searching in mother nature for anti-cancer activity: anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect elicited by green barley on leukemia/lymphoma cells.

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    Elisa Robles-Escajeda

    Full Text Available Green barley extract (GB was investigated for possible anti-cancer activity by examining its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties on human leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. Our results indicate that GB exhibits selective anti-proliferative activity on a panel of leukemia/lymphoma cells in comparison to non-cancerous cells. Specifically, GB disrupted the cell-cycle progression within BJAB cells, as manifested by G2/M phase arrest and DNA fragmentation, and induced apoptosis, as evidenced by phosphatidylserine (PS translocation to the outer cytoplasmic membrane in two B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cell lines. The pro-apoptotic effect of GB was found to be independent of mitochondrial depolarization, thus implicating extrinsic cell death pathways to exert its cytotoxicity. Indeed, GB elicited an increase of TNF-α production, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation, and PARP-1 cleavage within pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia Nalm-6 cells. Moreover, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation and PARP-1 cleavage were strongly inhibited/blocked by the addition of the specific caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK and Ac-DEVD-CHO. Furthermore, intracellular signaling analyses determined that GB treatment enhanced constitutive activation of Lck and Src tyrosine kinases in Nalm-6 cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that GB induced preferential anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic signals within B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells, as determined by the following biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis: PS externalization, enhanced release of TNF-α, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation, PARP-1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation Our observations reveal that GB has potential as an anti-leukemia/lymphoma agent alone or in combination with standard cancer therapies and thus warrants further evaluation in vivo to support these findings.

  10. Preventive effect of anti-VacA egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) on Helicobacter pylori-infected mice.

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    Hong, Kyung Sook; Ki, Mi-Ran; Ullah, H M Arif; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Yong Deuk; Chung, Myung-Jin; Elfadl, Ahmed K; Park, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2018-01-08

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of gastric disorders and gastric cancer in the human stomach. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) is among the multi-effect protein toxins released by H. pylori that enables its persistence in the human stomach. To evaluate the effect of anti-VacA egg yolk immunoglobulin (anti-VacA IgY) on H. pylori infection, a highly specific anti-VacA IgY was produced from egg yolks of hens immunized with a mixture of two purified recombinant VacAs. Female C57BL/6 mice were supplemented anti-VacA IgY daily with drinking water for 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after H. pylori ATCC 43504 inoculation. Anti-VacA IgY recognized both native and denatured structures of VacA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting analyses, respectively. Oral administration of anti-VacA IgYs significantly (p anti-H. pylori antibodies compared to those in the H. pylori-infected, untreated group. The reduction in the immune response was accompanied by a significant (p anti-VacA IgY treated group compared to other groups. Concomitantly, H. pylori-induced histological changes and H. pylori antigen-positivity in gastric tissues were decreased significantly (p anti-VacA IgY treated group similar to the control group. Oral administration of anti-VacA IgY is correlated with a protective effect against H. pylori colonization and induced histological changes in gastric tissues. Our experimental study has proved that it is expected to be a new drug candidate of Hp infection by further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effect and Mechanism of the Green Fruit Extract of Solanum integrifolium Poir.

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    Lisu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The green fruit of Solanum integrifolium Poir. has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic remedy in Taiwanese aboriginal medicine. The goal of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of the green fruit extract of S. integrifolium. A bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure was developed to identify the active partition fraction. The methanol fraction (ME, with the highest phenolic content, exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect against LPS-mediated nitric oxide (NO release and cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. ME also significantly downregulated the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL3/MIP1α. Moreover, ME significantly upregulated HO-1 expression and stimulated the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. Pretreatment of cells with the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated ME’s inhibitory activity against LPS-induced NO production. Taken together, this is the first study to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of green fruit extract of S. integrifolium and its activity may be mediated by the upregulation of HO-1 expression and activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

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    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  13. Anti-inflammatory properties of culinary herbs and spices that ameliorate the effects of metabolic syndrome.

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    Jungbauer, Alois; Medjakovic, Svjetlana

    2012-03-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are increasing global health problems. In addition to the malnutrition of a sedentary lifestyle, high calorie intake leads to obesity with many negative health consequences. Macrophages infiltrate adipose tissue and induce chronic inflammation by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2 and iNOS, among other mediators of inflammation. Free fatty acids mediate adipose tissue signalling through toll-like receptor 4 and the expression of these pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB or JNK. PPAR γ activators can inhibit the activation of NF-κB, down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we provide an overview of how different culinary herbs and spices exert anti-inflammatory activities and the extent to which they activate PPAR α and PPAR γ, inhibit the activation of NF-κB, and enhance expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Spices can play essential roles as anti-inflammatory agents in our diet, acting as pan PPAR activators and improving insulin sensitivity, counteracting dyslipidaemia and weight gain. The effects of chronic inflammation caused by obesity are counteracted and, consequently, the progression of diseases associated with chronic inflammation slowed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The anti-inflammatory effects of Caragana tangutica ethyl acetate extract.

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    Niu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yongmei; Li, Weifeng; Hu, Hua; Yao, Huan; Li, Huani; Mu, Qingli

    2014-02-27

    Caragana tangutica KOM has been used to treat arthritis, wounds, fever and other disease conditions in traditional Chinese medicine (TMC). To support the application of the plant in traditional Chinese medicine by investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Caragana tangutica. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by animal models including xylene-induced ear edema in mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The anti-inflammatory mechanism was evaluated by detecting prostaglandin E2 and immunohistochemistry expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) using an EIA assay kit and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed that the xylene-induced ear edema in mice was significantly reduced by the ethyl acetate extract at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was monitored to be reduced by the ethyl acetate extract 3h after carrageenan injection. The ethyl acetate extract was also found to reduce the inflammation pain of acetic acid-induced writhing model in a dose-dependent manner and cause reduction of the ALI in mice through the inhibition of the release of PGE2 and the LPS-induced COX-2 expression in the lung. Our study demonstrates that the ethyl acetate extract of the plant can help to reduce inflammations by inhibiting the expression of COX-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin and tenoxicam in combination with cimetidine.

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    Maciel, Hermelinda P F; Cardoso, Luiz G V; Ferreira, Luciano R; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2004-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, a number of facts involving the occurrence of gastrointestinal lesions have limited the chronic use of NSAIDs. In order to diminish the occurrence of gastrointestinal damage caused by NSAIDs, the combination of NSAIDs with the H2 receptor blocker, cimetidine, has been evaluated. The anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin and tenoxicam in association with or without cimetidine were determined at pre-clinical levels. It was observed that the group of animals treated with indomethacin and cimetidine, or tenoxicam and cimetidine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated a significant reduction (P < 0.05, ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test) of type-III gastric ulcers. Furthermore, indomethacin or tenoxicam (10 mg/kg, p.o.) in association with cimetidine increased the anti-inflammatory activity. The group, which received indomethacin and cimetidine presented the best performance in decreasing the inflammatory process (P < 0.05, ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test).

  16. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of a crude extract of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae).

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    Lopes-Martins, R A B; Pegoraro, D H; Woisky, R; Penna, S C; Sertié, J A A

    2002-04-01

    Petiveria alliacea L (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial bush plant that grows widely in Brazil. The roots and leaves of P. alliacea have been used in folk medicine for their antispasmodic, sedative, diuretic and antihelminthic actions. We recently described the anti-inflammatory properties of P. alliacea administered topically and orally in different animal models. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of a crude lyophilized extract of P. alliacea roots administered to rats with pleurisy. The oral administration of P. alliacea root extract did not significantly reduce the total number of leukocytes at the doses tested. By contrast, the highest dose of extract tested (43.9 mg/kg body wt.) significantly reduced the number of migrating neutrophils, mononuclear cells and eosinophils; the dose of 31.4 mg/kg body wt. also reduced mononuclear cell migration. The P. alliacea root extract also showed a significant analgesic effect in the experimental model used. The results of this study provide a basis for the use of P. alliacea extracts in popular folk medicine, but further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions.

  17. Toxicological analysis and anti-inflammatory effects of essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves.

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    Hoff Brait, Débora Regina; Mattos Vaz, Márcia Soares; da Silva Arrigo, Jucicléia; Borges de Carvalho, Luciana Noia; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Vani, Juliana Miron; da Silva Mota, Jonas; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Negrão, Fábio Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite; Arena, Arielle Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves (OPV) and evaluated the toxicological potential of this oil through acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. The acute toxicity of OPV was evaluated following oral administration to female rats at a single dose of 2 g/kg b.w. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential, male mice were divided into five groups: I: negative control; II: positive control; III: 500 mg/kg of OPV; IV: 1000 mg/kg of OPV; V: 2000 mg/kg of OPV. The anti-inflammatory activity of OPV was evaluated in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw edema models in rats. No signs of acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of this oil is greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the comet assay, OPV did not increase the frequency or rate of DNA damage in groups treated with any of the doses assessed compared to that in the negative control group. In the micronucleus test, the animals treated did not exhibit any cytotoxic or genotoxic changes in peripheral blood erythrocytes. OPV (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced edema formation and inhibited leukocyte migration analyzed in the carrageenan-induced edema and pleurisy models. These results show that OPV has anti-inflammatory potential without causing acute toxicity or genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunostimulatory effects of Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae bark

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    Roseane Leandra da Rosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae is a plant widely used for treatment of various inflammatory and infectious conditions; however few reports discuss its biological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects as well as the macrophage activity in mice treated with the hydroalcoholic crude extract of L. divaricata(CLD. Thin layer chromatography revealed presence of epicathequin, stigmasterol, lupeol and α,β-amyrin in the extract. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, animals were subjected to paw edema induced by carrageenan test, writhing, formalin and capsaicin tests. Immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by adhesion and phagocytic capacity, lysosomal volume, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production by peritoneal macrophages, after daily treatment with CLD for 15 days. CLD promoted reduction in paw edema (36.8% and 50.2%; p<0.05 at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, inhibited writhing behavior at the higher dose (64.4%, p<0.05, reduced formalin reactivity (81.2% and 91.6% at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, p<0.05, and reduced capsaicin reactivity by 63.9% (300 mg/kg. CLD (200 mg• kg-1• day-1 increased phagocytosis capacity of macrophages (~3 fold, p<0.05, neutral red uptake (~50%, p<0.001, and ROS production (~90%, p<0.001. These data suggest that CLD possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and immunostimulatory properties.

  19. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ficus Iteophylla Leaves in Rodents

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    Abdulmalik, IA; Sule, MI; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, MI; Abdulkadir, MF; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg−1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100mgkg−1, 200mgkg−1,...

  20. The Vasodilatory Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Herb Medications: A Comparison Study of Four Botanical Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong Ping; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Ke, Yan; Bian, Ka

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases, in which, the endothelium dysfunction has been a key element. The current study was designed to explore the vasodilatory effect of anti-inflammatory herbs which have been traditionally used in different clinical applications. The total saponins from Actinidia arguta radix (SAA), total flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma (FGR), total coumarins from Peucedani radix (CPR), and total flavonoids from Spatholobi caulis (FSC) were extracted. The isometric measurement of vasoactivity was used to observe the effects of herbal elements on the isolated aortic rings with or without endothelium. To understand endothelium-independent vasodilation, the effects of herb elements on agonists-induced vasocontractility and on the contraction of endothelium-free aortic rings exposed to a Ca 2+ -free medium were examined. Furthermore, the role of nitric oxide signaling in endothelium-dependent vasodilation was also evaluated. In summary, FGR and FSC exhibit potent anti-inflammatory effects compared to CPR and SAA. FGR exerts the strongest vasodilatory effect, while CPR shows the least. The relaxation induced by SAA and FSC required intact endothelia. The mechanism of this vasodilation might involve eNOS. CPR-mediated vasorelaxation appears to involve interference with intracellular calcium homeostasis, blocking Ca 2+ influx or releasing intracellular Ca 2+ .