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Sample records for anthrax protective antigen

  1. Recombinant protective antigen 102 (rPA102): profile of a second-generation anthrax vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Wendy A

    2006-08-01

    Recent terrorist attacks involving the use of Bacillus anthracis spores have stimulated interest in the development of new vaccines for anthrax prevention. Studies of the pathogenesis of anthrax and of the immune responses following infection and immunization underscore the pivotal role that antibodies to the protective antigen play in protection. The most promising vaccine candidates contain purified recombinant protective antigen. Clinical trials of one of these, recombinant protective antigen (rPA)102, are underway. Initial results suggest that rPA102 is well tolerated and immunogenic. Additional trials are necessary to identify optimal formulations and immunization regimens for pre- and postexposure prophylaxis. Future licensure of these and other candidate vaccines will depend on their safety and immunogenicity profiles in humans, and their ability to confer protection in animal models of inhalational anthrax.

  2. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa; Siler, Catherine; McGettigan, James P.; Calkins, Catherine; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2006-01-01

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen was also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems

  3. Role of the Antigen Capture Pathway in the Induction of a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Anthrax Protective Antigen

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    Anita Verma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxin neutralizing antibodies represent the major mode of protective immunity against a number of toxin-mediated bacterial diseases, including anthrax; however, the cellular mechanisms that lead to optimal neutralizing antibody responses remain ill defined. Here we show that the cellular binding pathway of anthrax protective antigen (PA, the binding component of anthrax toxin, determines the toxin neutralizing antibody response to this antigen. PA, which binds cellular receptors and efficiently enters antigen-presenting cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, was found to elicit robust anti-PA IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody responses. In contrast, a receptor binding-deficient mutant of PA, which does not bind receptors and only inefficiently enters antigen-presenting cells by macropinocytosis, elicited very poor antibody responses. A chimeric protein consisting of the receptor binding-deficient PA mutant tethered to the binding subunit of cholera toxin, which efficiently enters cells using the cholera toxin receptor rather than the PA receptor, elicited an anti-PA IgG antibody response similar to that elicited by wild-type PA; however, the chimeric protein elicited a poor toxin neutralizing antibody response. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the antigen capture pathway can dictate the magnitudes of the total IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody responses to PA as well as the ratio of the two responses.

  4. Forecasting of interaction between bee propolis and protective antigenic domain in anthrax using the software and bioinformatics web servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protective antigen of anthrax toxin, after touching the cell receptors, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of toxin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of anthrax toxin protective antigen and four great combination propolis included caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, cinnamic acid and kaempferol using the softwares and bioinformatics web servers. Methods: Three-dimensional structure of protective antigen (receptor obtains from Protein Data Bank (PDB. Four of the main components from propolis were selected          as ligand and their 3D-structures were obtained from ChemSpider and ZINC     compound database. The interaction of each ligand and receptor was assessed                   by SwissDock server (http://www.swissdock.ch/ and BSP-SLIM server (http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/BSP-SLIM. Docking results appears with Fullfitness numbers (in kcal/mol. Identification of amino acids involved in ligand and receptor interaction, was performed using the Chimera software; UCSF Chimera program (http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/. Results: The results of interaction between propolis components and protective antigen by BSP-SLIM server showed that the most interaction was related with benzyl caffeate, caffeic acid, kaempferol and cinnamic acid, respectively. Results for the desired ligand Interaction with protective antigen genes using SwissDock server showed that the caffeic acid had ΔG equals -9.10 kcal/mol and FullFitness equal to -993.16 kcal/mol respectively. The analysis of interaction between ligands with amino-acids of protective antigen indicated that the interaction of Caffeic acid whit Glutamic acid 117 had energy -15.5429 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Finding strong and safe inhibitors for anthrax toxin is very useful method for inhibiting its toxicity to cell. In this study the binding ability of four flavonoids to protective antigen was studied. Glutamic acid 117 is very effective

  5. Trimethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles Encapsulated Protective Antigen Protects the Mice Against Anthrax

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    Anshu Malik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an era old deadly disease against which there are only two currently available licensed vaccines named anthrax vaccine adsorbed and precipitated (AVP. Though they can provide a protective immunity, their multiple side-effects owing to their ill-defined composition and presence of toxic proteins (LF and EF of Bacillus anthracis, the causative organism of anthrax, in the vaccine formulation makes their widespread use objectionable. Hence, an anthrax vaccine that contains well-defined and controlled components would be highly desirable. In this context, we have evaluated the potential of various vaccine formulations comprising of protective antigen (PA encapsulated trimethyl-chitosan nanoparticles (TMC-PA in conjunction with either CpG-C ODN 2395 (CpG or Poly I:C. Each formulation was administered via three different routes, viz., subcutaneous (SC, intramuscular (IM, and intraperitoneal in female BALB/c mice. Irrespective of the route of immunization, CpG or Poly I:C adjuvanted TMC-PA nanoparticles induced a significantly higher humoral response (total serum IgG and its isotypes viz., IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, compared to their CpG or Poly I:C PA counterparts. This clearly demonstrates the synergistic behavior of CpG and Poly I:C with TMC nanoparticles. The adjuvant potential of TMC nanoparticles could be observed in all the three routes as the TMC-PA nanoparticles by themselves induced IgG titers (1–1.5 × 105 significantly higher than both CpG PA and Poly I:C PA groups (2–8 × 104. The effect of formulations on T-helper (Th cell development was assessed by quantifying the Th1-dependant (TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2, Th2-dependant (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and Th17-type (IL-17A cytokines. Adjuvanation with CpG and Poly I:C, the TMC-PA nanoparticles triggered a Th1 skewed immune response, as suggested by an increase in the levels of total IgG2a along with IFN-γ cytokine production. Interestingly, the TMC-PA group showed a Th2-biased

  6. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge

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    T. Scott Devera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protective immunity against anthrax is inferred from measurement of vaccine antigen-specific neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples. In animal models, in vivo challenges with toxin and/or spores can also be performed. However, neither of these approaches considers toxin-induced damage to specific organ systems. It is therefore important to determine to what extent anthrax vaccines and existing or candidate adjuvants can provide organ-specific protection against intoxication. We therefore compared the ability of Alum, CpG DNA and the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC to enhance protective antigen-specific antibody titers, to protect mice against challenge with lethal toxin, and to block cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By measurement of serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI, and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, it was apparent that neither vaccine modality prevented hepatic intoxication, despite high Ab titers and ultimate survival of the subject. In contrast, cardiotoxicity was greatly diminished by prior immunization. This shows that a vaccine that confers survival following toxin exposure may still have an associated morbidity. We propose that organ-specific intoxication should be monitored routinely during research into new vaccine modalities.

  7. Comparison of the Structural Stability and Dynamic Properties of Recombinant Anthrax Protective Antigen and its 2-Fluorohistidine Labeled Analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Andra, Kiran K.; Thakkar, Santosh V.; Volkin, David B.; Bann, James G.; Middaugh, C. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the primary protein antigenic component of both the currently used anthrax vaccine and related recombinant vaccines under development. An analogue of recombinant PA (2-FHis rPA) has been recently shown to block the key steps of pore formation in the process of inducing cytotoxicity in cells, and thus can potentially be used as an antitoxin or a vaccine. This rPA analogue was produced by fermentation to incorporate the unnatural amino acid 2-fluorohistidine (2-FHis)....

  8. The Disulfide Bond Cys255-Cys279 in the Immunoglobulin-Like Domain of Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2 Is Required for Membrane Insertion of Anthrax Protective Antigen Pore.

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    Pedro Jacquez

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin receptors act as molecular clamps or switches that control anthrax toxin entry, pH-dependent pore formation, and translocation of enzymatic moieties across the endosomal membranes. We previously reported that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the immunoglobulin-like (Ig domain of the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2 inhibited the function of the protective antigen (PA pore. In the present study, the disulfide linkage in the Ig domain was identified as Cys255-Cys279 and Cys230-Cys315. Specific disulfide bond deletion mutants were achieved by replacing Cys residues with Ala residues. Deletion of the disulfide bond C255-C279, but not C230-C315, inhibited the PA pore-induced release of the fluorescence dyes from the liposomes, suggesting that C255-C279 is essential for PA pore function. Furthermore, we found that deletion of C255-C279 did not affect PA prepore-to-pore conversion, but inhibited PA pore membrane insertion by trapping the PA membrane-inserting loops in proteinaceous hydrophobic pockets. Fluorescence spectra of Trp59, a residue adjacent to the PA-binding motif in von Willebrand factor A (VWA domain of ANTXR2, showed that deletion of C255-C279 resulted in a significant conformational change on the receptor ectodomain. The disulfide deletion-induced conformational change on the VWA domain was further confirmed by single-particle 3D reconstruction of the negatively stained PA-receptor heptameric complexes. Together, the biochemical and structural data obtained in this study provides a mechanistic insight into the role of the receptor disulfide bond C255-C279 in anthrax toxin action. Manipulation of the redox states of the receptor, specifically targeting to C255-C279, may become a novel strategy to treat anthrax.

  9. Serology and anthrax in humans, livestock and Etosha National Park wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, P C; Doganay, M; Lindeque, P M; Aygen, B; McLaughlin, J

    1992-04-01

    Results are presented from a number of epidemiological studies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) based on the purified anthrax toxin antigens, protective antigen, lethal factor and oedema factor. Studies on sera from a group of 62 human anthrax patients in Turkey and from cattle in Britain following two unrelated outbreaks of anthrax show that EIA using protective antigen can be a useful diagnostic aid and will detect subclinical infections in appropriate circumstances. A serological survey on wildlife in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, where anthrax is endemic, showed that naturally acquired anthrax-specific antibodies are rare in herbivores but common in carnivores; in carnivores, titres appear to reflect the prevalence of anthrax in their ranges. Problems, as yet unresolved, were encountered in studies on sera from pigs following an outbreak of anthrax on a farm in Wales. Clinical details, including treatment, of the human and one of the bovine outbreaks are summarized and discussed in relation to the serological findings.

  10. A FRET-based high throughput screening assay to identify inhibitors of anthrax protective antigen binding to capillary morphogenesis gene 2 protein.

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    Michael S Rogers

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenic therapies are effective for the treatment of cancer, a variety of ocular diseases, and have potential benefits in cardiovascular disease, arthritis, and psoriasis. We have previously shown that anthrax protective antigen (PA, a non-pathogenic component of anthrax toxin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, apparently as a result of interaction with the cell surface receptors capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2 protein and tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8. Hence, molecules that bind the anthrax toxin receptors may be effective to slow or halt pathological vascular growth. Here we describe development and testing of an effective homogeneous steady-state fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET high throughput screening assay designed to identify molecules that inhibit binding of PA to CMG2. Molecules identified in the screen can serve as potential lead compounds for the development of anti-angiogenic and anti-anthrax therapies. The assay to screen for inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction is sensitive and robust, with observed Z' values as high as 0.92. Preliminary screens conducted with a library of known bioactive compounds identified tannic acid and cisplatin as inhibitors of the PA-CMG2 interaction. We have confirmed that tannic acid both binds CMG2 and has anti-endothelial properties. In contrast, cisplatin appears to inhibit PA-CMG2 interaction by binding both PA and CMG2, and observed cisplatin anti-angiogenic effects are not mediated by interaction with CMG2. This work represents the first reported high throughput screening assay targeting CMG2 to identify possible inhibitors of both angiogenesis and anthrax intoxication.

  11. Disulfide bonds in the ectodomain of anthrax toxin receptor 2 are required for the receptor-bound protective-antigen pore to function.

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    Jianjun Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell-surface receptors play essential roles in anthrax toxin action by providing the toxin with a high-affinity anchor and self-assembly site on the plasma membrane, mediating the toxin entry into cells through endocytosis, and shifting the pH threshold for prepore-to-pore conversion of anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA to a more acidic pH, thereby inhibiting premature pore formation. Each of the two known anthrax toxin receptors, ANTXR1 and ANTXR2, has an ectodomain comprised of an N-terminal von Willebrand factor A domain (VWA, which binds PA, and an uncharacterized immunoglobulin-like domain (Ig that connects VWA to the membrane-spanning domain. Potential roles of the receptor Ig domain in anthrax toxin action have not been investigated heretofore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We expressed and purified the ANTXR2 ectodomain (R2-VWA-Ig in E. coli and showed that it contains three disulfide bonds: one in R2-VWA and two in R2-Ig. Reduction of the ectodomain inhibited functioning of the pore, as measured by K(+ release from liposomes or Chinese hamster ovary cells or by PA-mediated translocation of a model substrate across the plasma membrane. However, reduction did not affect binding of the ectodomain to PA or the transition of ectodomain-bound PA prepore to the pore conformation. The inhibitory effect depended specifically on reduction of the disulfides within R2-Ig. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that disulfide integrity within R2-Ig is essential for proper functioning of receptor-bound PA pore. This finding provides a novel venue to investigate the mechanism of anthrax toxin action and suggests new strategies for inhibiting toxin action.

  12. Phase I study of safety and immunogenicity of an Escherichia coli-derived recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine to prevent anthrax in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bruce K; Cox, Josephine; Gillis, Anita; VanCott, Thomas C; Marovich, Mary; Milazzo, Mark; Antonille, Tanya Santelli; Wieczorek, Lindsay; McKee, Kelly T; Metcalfe, Karen; Mallory, Raburn M; Birx, Deborah; Polonis, Victoria R; Robb, Merlin L

    2010-11-05

    The fatal disease caused by Bacillus anthracis is preventable with a prophylactic vaccine. The currently available anthrax vaccine requires a lengthy immunization schedule, and simpler and more immunogenic options for protection against anthrax are a priority for development. In this report we describe a phase I clinical trial testing the safety and immunogenicity of an anthrax vaccine using recombinant Escherichia coli-derived, B. anthracis protective antigen (rPA). A total of 73 healthy adults ages 18-40 were enrolled and 67 received 2 injections separated by 4 weeks of either buffered saline placebo, or rPA formulated with or without 704 µg/ml Alhydrogel® adjuvant in increasing doses (5, 25, 50, 100 µg) of rPA. Participants were followed for one year and safety and immunologic data were assessed. Tenderness and warmth were the most common post-injection site reactions. No serious adverse events related to the vaccine were observed. The most robust humoral immune responses were observed in subjects receiving 50 µg of rPA formulated with Alhydrogel® with a geometric mean concentration of anti-rPA IgG antibodies of 283 µg/ml and a toxin neutralizing geometric 50% reciprocal geometric mean titer of 1061. The highest lymphoproliferative peak cellular response (median Lymphocyte Stimulation Index of 29) was observed in the group receiving 25 µg Alhydrogel®-formulated rPA. The vaccine was safe, well tolerated and stimulated a robust humoral and cellular response after two doses. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00057525.

  13. Peptide Probes Reveal a Hydrophobic Steric Ratchet in the Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen Translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer M; Krantz, Bryan A

    2015-11-06

    Anthrax toxin is a tripartite virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis during infection. Under acidic endosomal pH conditions, the toxin's protective antigen (PA) component forms a transmembrane channel in host cells. The PA channel then translocates its two enzyme components, lethal factor and edema factor, into the host cytosol under the proton motive force. Protein translocation under a proton motive force is catalyzed by a series of nonspecific polypeptide binding sites, called clamps. A 10-residue guest/host peptide model system, KKKKKXXSXX, was used to functionally probe polypeptide-clamp interactions within wild-type PA channels. The guest residues were Thr, Ala, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Trp. In steady-state translocation experiments, the channel blocked most tightly with peptides that had increasing amounts of nonpolar surface area. Cooperative peptide binding was observed in the Trp-containing peptide sequence but not the other tested sequences. Trp substitutions into a flexible, uncharged linker between the lethal factor amino-terminal domain and diphtheria toxin A chain expedited translocation. Therefore, peptide-clamp sites in translocase channels can sense large steric features (like tryptophan) in peptides, and while these steric interactions may make a peptide translocate poorly, in the context of folded domains, they can make the protein translocate more rapidly presumably via a hydrophobic steric ratchet mechanism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

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    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  15. Potent antitumor activity of a urokinase-activated engineered anthrax toxin

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    Liu, Shihui; Aaronson, Hannah; Mitola, David J.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The acquisition of cell-surface urokinase plasminogen activator activity is a hallmark of malignancy. We generated an engineered anthrax toxin that is activated by cell-surface urokinase in vivo and displays limited toxicity to normal tissue but broad and potent tumoricidal activity. Native anthrax toxin protective antigen, when administered with a chimeric anthrax toxin lethal factor, Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein, was extremely toxic to mice, causing rapid and fatal organ damage. Replacing the furin activation sequence in anthrax toxin protective antigen with an artificial peptide sequence efficiently activated by urokinase greatly attenuated toxicity to mice. In addition, the mutation conferred cell-surface urokinase-dependent toxin activation in vivo, as determined by using a panel of plasminogen, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator receptor, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-deficient mice. Surprisingly, toxin activation critically depended on both urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and plasminogen in vivo, showing that both proteins are essential cofactors for the generation of cell-surface urokinase. The engineered toxin displayed potent tumor cell cytotoxicity to a spectrum of transplanted tumors of diverse origin and could eradicate established solid tumors. This tumoricidal activity depended strictly on tumor cell-surface plasminogen activation. The data show that a simple change of protease activation specificity converts anthrax toxin from a highly lethal to a potent tumoricidal agent.

  16. Non-Replicating Adenovirus-Vectored Anthrax Vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kampen, K. R.; Zhang, J.; Jex, E.; Tang, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    As bioterrorism is emerging as a national threat, it is urgent to develop a new generation of anthrax vaccines that can be rapidly produced and mass administered in an emergency setting. We have demonstrated that protective immunity against anthrax spores could be elicited in mice by intranasal administration of a non-replicating human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in a single-dose regimen. The potency of an Ad5 vector encoding PA was remarkably enhanced by codon optimization of the PA gene to match the tRNA pool found in human cells. This nasal vaccine can be mass-administered by non-medical personnel during a bioterrorist attack. In addition, replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free Ad5-vectored anthrax vaccines can be mass produced in PER.C6 cells in serum-free wave bioreactors and purified by column chromatography to meet a surge in demand. The non-replicating nature of this new generation of anthrax vaccine ensures an excellent safety profile for vaccines and the environment.(author)

  17. Tumor Targeting and Drug Delivery by Anthrax Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Bachran, Christopher; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is a potent tripartite protein toxin from Bacillus anthracis. It is one of the two virulence factors and causes the disease anthrax. The receptor-binding component of the toxin, protective antigen, needs to be cleaved by furin-like proteases to be activated and to deliver the enzymatic moieties lethal factor and edema factor to the cytosol of cells. Alteration of the protease cleavage site allows the activation of the toxin selectively in response to the presence of tumor-associ...

  18. Progress and novel strategies in vaccine development and treatment of anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitlaru, Theodor; Altboum, Zeev; Reuveny, Shaul; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    The lethal anthrax disease is caused by spores of the gram-positive Bacillus anthracis, a member of the cereus group of bacilli. Although the disease is very rare in the Western world, development of anthrax countermeasures gains increasing attention due to the potential use of B. anthracis spores as a bio-terror weapon. Protective antigen (PA), the non-toxic subunit of the bacterial secreted exotoxin, fulfills the role of recognizing a specific receptor and mediating the entry of the toxin into the host target cells. PA elicits a protective immune response and represents the basis for all current anthrax vaccines. Anti-PA neutralizing antibodies are useful correlates for protection and for vaccine efficacy evaluation. Post exposure anti-toxemic and anti-bacteremic prophylactic treatment of anthrax requires prolonged antibiotic administration. Shorter efficient postexposure treatments may require active or passive immunization, in addition to antibiotics. Although anthrax is acknowledged as a toxinogenic disease, additional factors, other than the bacterial toxin, may be involved in the virulence of B. anthracis and may be needed for the long-lasting protection conferred by PA immunization. The search for such novel factors is the focus of several high throughput genomic and proteomic studies that are already leading to identification of novel targets for therapeutics, for vaccine candidates, as well as biomarkers for detection and diagnosis. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

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    Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA, the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation, whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis.

  20. Tumor Targeting and Drug Delivery by Anthrax Toxin

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    Christopher Bachran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin is a potent tripartite protein toxin from Bacillus anthracis. It is one of the two virulence factors and causes the disease anthrax. The receptor-binding component of the toxin, protective antigen, needs to be cleaved by furin-like proteases to be activated and to deliver the enzymatic moieties lethal factor and edema factor to the cytosol of cells. Alteration of the protease cleavage site allows the activation of the toxin selectively in response to the presence of tumor-associated proteases. This initial idea of re-targeting anthrax toxin to tumor cells was further elaborated in recent years and resulted in the design of many modifications of anthrax toxin, which resulted in successful tumor therapy in animal models. These modifications include the combination of different toxin variants that require activation by two different tumor-associated proteases for increased specificity of toxin activation. The anthrax toxin system has proved to be a versatile system for drug delivery of several enzymatic moieties into cells. This highly efficient delivery system has recently been further modified by introducing ubiquitin as a cytosolic cleavage site into lethal factor fusion proteins. This review article describes the latest developments in this field of tumor targeting and drug delivery.

  1. Tumor Targeting and Drug Delivery by Anthrax Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachran, Christopher; Leppla, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    Anthrax toxin is a potent tripartite protein toxin from Bacillus anthracis. It is one of the two virulence factors and causes the disease anthrax. The receptor-binding component of the toxin, protective antigen, needs to be cleaved by furin-like proteases to be activated and to deliver the enzymatic moieties lethal factor and edema factor to the cytosol of cells. Alteration of the protease cleavage site allows the activation of the toxin selectively in response to the presence of tumor-associated proteases. This initial idea of re-targeting anthrax toxin to tumor cells was further elaborated in recent years and resulted in the design of many modifications of anthrax toxin, which resulted in successful tumor therapy in animal models. These modifications include the combination of different toxin variants that require activation by two different tumor-associated proteases for increased specificity of toxin activation. The anthrax toxin system has proved to be a versatile system for drug delivery of several enzymatic moieties into cells. This highly efficient delivery system has recently been further modified by introducing ubiquitin as a cytosolic cleavage site into lethal factor fusion proteins. This review article describes the latest developments in this field of tumor targeting and drug delivery.

  2. A Viral Nanoparticle with Dual Function as an Anthrax Antitoxin and Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manayani, Darly J; Thomas, Diane; Dryden, Kelly A; Reddy, Vijay; Siladi, Marc E; Marlett, John M; Rainey, G. Jonah A; Pique, Michael E; Scobie, Heather M; Yeager, Mark; Young, John A. T; Manchester, Marianne; Schneemann, Anette

    2007-01-01

    The recent use of Bacillus anthracis as a bioweapon has stimulated the search for novel antitoxins and vaccines that act rapidly and with minimal adverse effects. B. anthracis produces an AB-type toxin composed of the receptor-binding moiety protective antigen (PA) and the enzymatic moieties edema factor and lethal factor. PA is a key target for both antitoxin and vaccine development. We used the icosahedral insect virus Flock House virus as a platform to display 180 copies of the high affinity, PA-binding von Willebrand A domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor. The chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) correctly displayed the receptor von Willebrand A domain on their surface and inhibited lethal toxin action in in vitro and in vivo models of anthrax intoxication. Moreover, VLPs complexed with PA elicited a potent toxin-neutralizing antibody response that protected rats from anthrax lethal toxin challenge after a single immunization without adjuvant. This recombinant VLP platform represents a novel and highly effective, dually-acting reagent for treatment and protection against anthrax. PMID:17922572

  3. Naturally acquired anthrax antibodies in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Botswana.

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    Good, Kyle M; Houser, Annmarie; Arntzen, Lorraine; Turnbull, Peter C B

    2008-07-01

    An outbreak of anthrax in the Jwana Game Reserve in Jwaneng, Botswana, was first observed when three cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) died of the disease in November 2004. In the aftermath of this event, banked serum samples collected from 23 wild-caught cheetahs were examined, by the inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), for antibodies to the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. Of the 23 cheetahs, 16 regularly accessed the reserve. Antibodies to PA were detected in one cheetah collected in May 2004, indicating the disease was occurring well before it was first noticed. This appears to be the first demonstration of naturally acquired anthrax antibodies in cheetahs. The finding of one antibody-positive animal amongst at least 16 potentially exposed individuals is consistent with existing reports that it is uncommon for cheetahs to develop natural immunity to anthrax.

  4. Delayed Toxicity Associated with Soluble Anthrax Toxin Receptor Decoy-Ig Fusion Protein Treatment

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    Cote, Christopher; Welkos, Susan; Manchester, Marianne; Young, John A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Soluble receptor decoy inhibitors, including receptor-immunogloubulin (Ig) fusion proteins, have shown promise as candidate anthrax toxin therapeutics. These agents act by binding to the receptor-interaction site on the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit, thereby blocking toxin binding to cell surface receptors. Here we have made the surprising observation that co-administration of receptor decoy-Ig fusion proteins significantly delayed, but did not protect, rats challenged with anthrax lethal toxin. The delayed toxicity was associated with the in vivo assembly of a long-lived complex comprised of anthrax lethal toxin and the receptor decoy-Ig inhibitor. Intoxication in this system presumably results from the slow dissociation of the toxin complex from the inhibitor following their prolonged circulation. We conclude that while receptor decoy-Ig proteins represent promising candidates for the early treatment of B. anthracis infection, they may not be suitable for therapeutic use at later stages when fatal levels of toxin have already accumulated in the bloodstream. PMID:22511955

  5. Anthrax Toxin Receptor 2–Dependent Lethal Toxin Killing In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scobie, Heather M; Wigelsworth, Darran J; Marlett, John M; Thomas, Diane; Rainey, G. Jonah A; Lacy, D. Borden; Manchester, Marianne; Collier, R. John; Young, John A. T

    2006-01-01

    Anthrax toxin receptors 1 and 2 (ANTXR1 and ANTXR2) have a related integrin-like inserted (I) domain which interacts with a metal cation that is coordinated by residue D683 of the protective antigen (PA) subunit of anthrax toxin. The receptor-bound metal ion and PA residue D683 are critical for ANTXR1-PA binding. Since PA can bind to ANTXR2 with reduced affinity in the absence of metal ions, we reasoned that D683 mutant forms of PA might specifically interact with ANTXR2. We show here that this is the case. The differential ability of ANTXR1 and ANTXR2 to bind D683 mutant PA proteins was mapped to nonconserved receptor residues at the binding interface with PA domain 2. Moreover, a D683K mutant form of PA that bound specifically to human and rat ANTXR2 mediated killing of rats by anthrax lethal toxin, providing strong evidence for the physiological importance of ANTXR2 in anthrax disease pathogenesis. PMID:17054395

  6. Development of Protective Immunity in New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis Spores and Treated with Antibiotics and Obiltoxaximab, a Monoclonal Antibody against Protective Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Lisa N; Carpenter, Sarah; Stark, Gregory V; Serbina, Natalya V

    2018-02-01

    The recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen (PA), is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease reemergence after treatment cessation is a concern, and there is a need to understand the development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens. Here, acquired protective immunity was examined in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits challenged with a targeted lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis spores and treated with antibiotics, obiltoxaximab, or a combination of both. Survivors of the primary challenge were rechallenged 9 months later and monitored for survival. Survival rates after primary and rechallenge for controls and animals treated with obiltoxaximab, levofloxacin, or a combination of both were 0, 65, 100, and 95%, and 0, 100, 95, and 89%, respectively. All surviving immune animals had circulating antibodies to PA and serum toxin-neutralizing titers prior to rechallenge. Following rechallenge, systemic bacteremia and toxemia were not detected in most animals, and the levels of circulating anti-PA IgG titers increased starting at 5 days postrechallenge. We conclude that treatment with obiltoxaximab, alone or combined with antibiotics, significantly improves the survival of rabbits that received a lethal inhalation B. anthracis spore challenge dose and does not interfere with the development of immunity. Survivors of primary challenge are protected against reexposure, have rare incidents of systemic bacteremia and toxemia, and have evidence of an anamnestic response. Copyright © 2018 Henning et al.

  7. Small molecule inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Thai, April; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; O'Malley, Sean; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2018-01-15

    Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity. We then show that the adenosine portion of FSBA can be replaced to provide more drug-like molecules which are up to 1000-fold more potent against EF relative to FSBA, display low cross reactivity when tested against a panel of kinases, and are nanomolar inhibitors of EF in a cell-based assay of cAMP production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tumor endothelium marker-8 based decoys exhibit superiority over capillary morphogenesis protein-2 based decoys as anthrax toxin inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Cai

    Full Text Available Anthrax toxin is the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis. The toxin consists of three protein subunits: protective antigen (PA, lethal factor, and edema factor. Inhibition of PA binding to its receptors, tumor endothelium marker-8 (TEM8 and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2 can effectively block anthrax intoxication, which is particularly valuable when the toxin has already been overproduced at the late stage of anthrax infection, thus rendering antibiotics ineffectual. Receptor-like agonists, such as the mammalian cell-expressed von Willebrand factor type A (vWA domain of CMG2 (sCMG2, have demonstrated potency against the anthrax toxin. However, the soluble vWA domain of TEM8 (sTEM8 was ruled out as an anthrax toxin inhibitor candidate due to its inferior affinity to PA. In the present study, we report that L56A, a PA-binding-affinity-elevated mutant of sTEM8, could inhibit anthrax intoxication as effectively as sCMG2 in Fisher 344 rats. Additionally, pharmacokinetics showed that L56A and sTEM8 exhibit advantages over sCMG2 with better lung-targeting and longer plasma retention time, which may contribute to their enhanced protective ability in vivo. Our results suggest that receptor decoys based on TEM8 are promising anthrax toxin inhibitors and, together with the pharmacokinetic studies in this report, may contribute to the development of novel anthrax drugs.

  9. Evaluation of clinical and serological findings for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax infection after an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulseren, Duygu; Süzük-Yıldız, Serap; Çelebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2017-09-01

    Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is one of the oldest documented infectious diseases in both livestock and humans. We aimed to evaluate clinical findings and risk factors of patients with cutaneous anthrax infection and report anti-lethal factor (LF) IgG and anti-protective antigen (PA) IgG titers in the serologic diagnosis of disease. In this study, serum samples of 18 cutaneous anthrax patients were collected and anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG titers were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Twelve (67%) males and 6 (33%) females, with a mean age of 36.06 ± 16.58 years were included in the study. Risk factors identified in the patient population studied were slaughtering (28%), flaying (56%), chopping meat (67%), burying diseased animal corpses (17%) and milking (6%) livestock. Black eschar formation (94%), pruritus (78%) and painful lymphadenopathy (61%) were first three common clinical signs and symptoms, respectively. Fourteen (78%) patients produced a positive IgG response against PA, 11 (61%) patients produced against LF. Three (17%) patients had no response to either antigen. A detailed history of contact with sick animals or animal products along with clinical findings should be taken at the first step for the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax infection. Serologic detection of anti-LF IgG and anti-PA IgG with ELISA may be useful auxillary method for establishing the diagnosis.

  10. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Garman, Lori; Dumas, Eric K.; Kurella, Sridevi; Hunt, Jonathan J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Nguyen, Melissa L.; Cox, Philip M.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class I...

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the vWA domain of human anthrax toxin receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Chenguang; Zhao, Ying; Tong, Xiaohang; Fu, Sheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yang; Li, Xumei; Lou, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    The vWA domain of human anthrax toxin receptor 1 was overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution. The Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax by secreting anthrax toxin, which consists of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor and oedema factor. Binding of PA to receptors triggers the multi-step process of anthrax toxin entry into target cells. Two distinct cellular receptors, ANTXR1 (also known as tumour endothelial marker 8; TEM8) and ANTXR2 (also known as capillary morphogenesis protein 2; CMG2), for anthrax toxin have been identified. Although the crystal structure of the extracellular von Willebrand factor A (vWA) domain of CMG2 has been reported, the difference between the vWA domains of TEM8 and CMG2 remains unclear because there are no structural data for the TEM8 vWA domain. In this report, the TEM8 vWA domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution from a single crystal, which belonged to space group P1 with unit-cell parameters a = 65.9, b = 66.1, c = 74.4 Å, α = 63.7, β = 88.2, γ = 59.9°

  12. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C.B. Turnbull

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available TURNBULLP, P.C.B. DIEKMANNM,M., KILIAN, J.W., VERSFELDW, W.,DE VOS, V., ARNTZENL, L.,WOLTER, K., BARTELS, P. & KOTZE, A. 2008.N aturally acquired antibodies to Bacillusa nthracisp rotective antigeni n vultureso f southern Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, T5:95-102 Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbenats say( ELISAf or antibodiesto the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA. As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63% wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a hole and the other groups (P 0.05. Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheress, six out of ten Whitebacked Vultures, Gyps africanus, and one out of three Lappet-faced Vultures, Aegypiust racheliotus, or in five of six males versus three of seven females, and ten of 15 adults versus one of four juveniles. The results are in line with the available data on the incidence of anthrax in northern Namibia and South Africa and the likely contact of the vultures tested with anthrax carcasses. lt is not known whether elevated titre indicates infection per se in vultures or absorption of incompletely digested epitopes of the toxin or both. The results are discussed in relation to distances travelled by vultures as determined by new tracking techniques, how serology can reveal anthrax activity in an area and the issue of the role of vultures in transmission of anthrax.

  13. Anthrax toxin: the long and winding road that leads to the kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrami, Laurence; Reig, Nuria; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2005-02-01

    The past five years have led to a tremendous increase in our molecular understanding of the mode of action of the anthrax toxin, one of the two main virulence factors produced by Bacillus anthracis. The structures of each of the three components of the toxin--lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA)--have been solved not only in their monomeric forms but, depending on the subunit, in a heptameric form, bound to their substrate, co-factor or receptor. The endocytic route followed by the toxin has also been unraveled and the enzymatic mechanisms of EF and LF elucidated.

  14. Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    capsule and toxins. Hemorrhagic edema and necrosis of mediastinal lymph nodes ensue. Alveoli show a hemorrhagic exudate and only rarely bacilli...follow cutaneous anthrax and, almost invariably, accompanies inhalational and gastrointestinal anthrax. Vascular injury may result from the proliferation

  15. Anthrax blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B. anthracis ... This test may be performed when the health care provider suspects you have anthrax infection. The bacteria that cause ...

  16. Vaccine-induced protection against anthrax in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, P C B; Tindall, B W; Coetzee, J D; Conradie, C M; Bull, R L; Lindeque, P M; Huebschle, O J B

    2004-09-03

    Institution of a policy of vaccination in endangered species with a vaccine not previously administered to it cannot be undertaken lightly. This applies even more in the case of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with their unusually monomorphic gene pool and the potential restrictions this places on their immune responses. However, the recently observed mortalities from anthrax in these animals in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, made it imperative to evaluate vaccination. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), another endangered species in the park, have been vaccinated for over three decades but the effectiveness of this has never been evaluated. Passive protection tests in A/J mice using sera from 12 cheetahs together with enzyme immunoassay indicated that cheetah are able to mount seemingly normal primary and secondary humoral immune responses to the Sterne 34F2 live spore livestock vaccine. Overall protection rates in mice injected with the sera rose and fell in concert with rises and declines in antibody titres, although fine analysis showed that the correlation between titre and protection was complex. Once a high level of protection (96% of mice 1 month after a second booster in the cheetahs) had been achieved, the duration of substantial protection appeared good (60% of the mice 5 months after the second booster). Protection conferred on mice by sera from three of four vaccinated rhino was almost complete, but, obscurely, none of the mice receiving serum from the fourth rhino were protected. Sera from three park lions with naturally acquired high antibody titres, included as controls, also conferred high levels of protection. For the purposes of wildlife management, the conclusions were that vaccination of cheetah with the standard animal anthrax vaccine causes no observable ill effect in the animals and does appear to confer protective immunity. At least one well-separated booster does appear to be desirable. Vaccination of rhino also appears to be justified

  17. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor therapy with a urokinase plasminogen activator-activated anthrax lethal toxin alone and in combination with paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Wein, Alexander N.; Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; McKenzie, Andrew T.; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    PA-U2, an engineered anthrax protective antigen that is activated by urokinase was combined with wild-type lethal factor in the treatment of Colo205 colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and B16-BL6 mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. This therapy was also tested in combination with the small molecule paclitaxel, based on prior reports suggesting synergy between ERK1/2 inhibition and chemotherapeutics. Colo205 was sensitive to PA-U2/LF while B16-BL6 was not. For the combination treatment of B16-BL6,...

  19. Functions of phenylalanine residues within the beta-barrel stem of the anthrax toxin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A key step of anthrax toxin action involves the formation of a protein-translocating pore within the endosomal membrane by the Protective Antigen (PA moiety. Formation of this transmembrane pore by PA involves interaction of the seven 2beta2-2beta3 loops of the heptameric precursor to generate a 14-strand transmembrane beta barrel.We examined the effects on pore formation, protein translocation, and cytotoxicity, of mutating two phenylalanines, F313 and F314, that lie at the tip the beta barrel, and a third one, F324, that lies part way up the barrel.Our results show that the function of these phenylalanine residues is to mediate membrane insertion and formation of stable transmembrane channels. Unlike F427, a key luminal residue in the cap of the pore, F313, F314, and F324 do not directly affect protein translocation through the pore. Our findings add to our knowledge of structure-function relationships of a key virulence factor of the anthrax bacillus.

  20. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take ...

  1. Anthrax lethal factor as an immune target in humans and transgenic mice and the impact of HLA polymorphism on CD4+ T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J; Chu, Karen K; Reynolds, Catherine J; Musson, Julie A; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J; Gallagher, Theresa B; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E Diane; Robinson, John H; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified.

  2. Anthrax Remembered

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-03

    Dr. John Jernigan and Dr. D. Peter Drotman recall the 2001 anthrax attacks and rapid publication of the landmark paper reporting the initial cases of inhalational anthrax.  Created: 8/3/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/3/2015.

  3. Tumor therapy with a urokinase plasminogen activator-activated anthrax lethal toxin alone and in combination with paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, Alexander N; Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; McKenzie, Andrew T; Leppla, Stephen H

    2013-02-01

    PA-U2, an engineered anthrax protective antigen that is activated by urokinase was combined with wildtype lethal factor in the treatment of Colo205 colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and B16-BL6 mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. This therapy was also tested in combination with the small molecule paclitaxel, based on prior reports suggesting synergy between ERK1/2 inhibition and chemotherapeutics. Colo205 was sensitive to PA-U2/LF while B16-BL6 was not. For the combination treatment of B16-BL6, paclitaxel showed a dose response in vitro, but cells remained resistant to PA-U2/LF even in the presence of paclitaxel. In vivo, each therapy slowed tumor progression, and an additive effect between the two was observed. Since LF targets tumor vasculature while paclitaxel is an antimitotic, it is possible the agents were acting against different cells in the stroma, precluding a synergistic effect. The engineered anthrax toxin PA-U2/LF warrants further development and testing, possibly in combination with an antiangiogenesis therapy such as sunitinib or sorafinib.

  4. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzik, R.; Bandurska, K.; Deka, D.; Golovkin, M.; Koprowski, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP

  5. The anthrax vaccine: is it safe? does it work?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine, Medical Follow-Up Agency

    2002-01-01

    ...), was licensed in 1970. It was initially used to protect people who might be exposed to anthrax where they worked, such as veterinarians and textile plant workers who process animal hair. When the U...

  6. Strong Antibody Responses Induced by Protein Antigens Conjugated onto the Surface of Lecithin-Based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Hau, Andrew M.; He, Yongqun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    An accumulation of research over the years has demonstrated the utility of nanoparticles as antigen carriers with adjuvant activity. Herein we defined the adjuvanticity of a novel lecithin-based nanoparticle engineered from emulsions. The nanoparticles were spheres of around 200 nm. Model protein antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. Mice immunized with the BSA-conjugated nanoparticles developed strong anti-BSA antibody responses comparable to that induced by BSA adjuvanted with incomplete Freund's adjuvant and 6.5-fold stronger than that induced by BSA adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. Immunization of mice with the PA-conjugated nanoparticles elicited a quick, strong, and durable anti-PA antibody response that afforded protection of the mice against a lethal dose of anthrax lethal toxin challenge. The potent adjuvanticity of the nanoparticles was likely due to their ability to move the antigens into local draining lymph nodes, to enhance the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and to activate APCs. This novel nanoparticle system has the potential to serve as a universal protein-based vaccine carrier capable of inducing strong immune responses. PMID:19729045

  7. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Frucht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF and lethal factor (LF enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA. LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs, but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  8. Radiologic findings of the anthrax: focus on alimentary anthrax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Won Ho; Yang, Geun Seok; Kim, Tae Hun; Kang, Duk Sik

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of alimentary anthrax. 19 patients with alimentary anthrax, which was caused by ingestion of contaminated beef, were included in this study. The diagnosis was made by demonstration of Bacillus anthracis in smear and culture of the contaminated meat. We evaluated the clinical manifestations and the findings of thoracic, abdominal radiographs, cervical, abdominal ultrasonograms and abdominal CT scans. Out of the 19 patients with the alimentary infection, 9 had oropharyngeal form, 18 had abdominal form and 8 had combination of oropharyngeal and abdominal form. The patients had general symptoms and signs such as fever, chill, myalgia. Clinical symptoms and signs were sore throat, throat injection, throat ulcer and patch in oropharyngeal form, and nausea, vomiting abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gross GI bleeding in abdominal form. Radiologic findings included enlarged cervical lymph nodes (36%) in oropharyngeal form, and paralytic ileus (26%), ascites (26%), hepatomegaly (21%), enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (26%), small bowel wall thickening (5%) in abdominal form. In two patients, late complications occurred as intestinal obstruction due to ileal stricture with perforation, and inflammatory changes of pelvic cavity due to ileovesical fistula. Radiologic findings of alimentary anthrax are difficult in differentiation from those of other inflammatory bowel disease, but those radiologic findings with clinical manifestations may be helpful in diagnosis and evaluation of disease process in patients with alimentary anthrax

  9. Multiagent vaccines vectored by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon elicits immune responses to Marburg virus and protection against anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John S; Groebner, Jennifer L; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Negley, Diane L; Schmaljohn, Alan L; Welkos, Susan L; Smith, Leonard A; Smith, Jonathan F

    2006-11-17

    The development of multiagent vaccines offers the advantage of eliciting protection against multiple diseases with minimal inoculations over a shorter time span. We report here the results of using formulations of individual Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon-vectored vaccines against a bacterial disease, anthrax; a viral disease, Marburg fever; and against a toxin-mediated disease, botulism. The individual VEE replicon particles (VRP) expressed mature 83-kDa protective antigen (MAT-PA) from Bacillus anthracis, the glycoprotein (GP) from Marburg virus (MBGV), or the H(C) fragment from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT H(C)). CBA/J mice inoculated with a mixture of VRP expressing BoNT H(C) serotype C (BoNT/C H(C)) and MAT-PA were 80% protected from a B. anthracis (Sterne strain) challenge and then 100% protected from a sequential BoNT/C challenge. Swiss mice inoculated with individual VRP or with mixtures of VRP vaccines expressing BoNT H(C) serotype A (BoNT/A H(C)), MAT-PA, and MBGV-GP produced antibody responses specific to the corresponding replicon-expressed protein. Combination of the different VRP vaccines did not diminish the antibody responses measured for Swiss mice inoculated with formulations of two or three VRP vaccines as compared to mice that received only one VRP vaccine. Swiss mice inoculated with VRP expressing BoNT/A H(C) alone or in combination with VRP expressing MAT-PA and MBGV GP, were completely protected from a BoNT/A challenge. These studies demonstrate the utility of combining individual VRP vaccines into multiagent formulations for eliciting protective immune responses to various types of diseases.

  10. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment.

  11. Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it's most commonly seen in grazing animals like sheep, pigs, cattle, horses, and goats, anthrax also can ... at first, but it rapidly turns into severe pneumonia and requires hospitalization. It usually takes fewer than ...

  12. The use of anthrax and orthopox therapeutic antibodies from human origin in biodefense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stienstra, S.

    2009-01-01

    It is impossible to protect whole nations from the effects of bioterrorism by preventive vaccination; there are too many possible agents, costs would be exorbitantly high, and the health risks associated with complex mass vaccination programs would be unacceptable. Adequate protection, however, could be provided via a combination of rapid detection and diagnosis and the treatment of those exposed with drugs which would be beneficial in all stages of disease. Monoclonal antibodies, preferably from human origin to prevent severe complications, which neutralize or block the pathological effects of biological agents, are the optimal candidates to be deployed in case of biological warfare or a bioterrorist event. The human body is one of the better and most suitably equipped places for the generation of monoclonal antibodies which are to be used effectively in humans for treatment. Such antibodies will be of optimal physiological specificity, affinity, and pharmacological properties. In addition, the chances on severe adverse effects and cross-reactivity with human tissues will be slim. Therefore the human immune response is used by the Dutch company IQ Therapeutics, a spin-off of the Groningen University, as a basis for selecting the antibodies. People, immunised against or infected with the agent in question, donate blood cells voluntarily, which are used to generate fully human monoclonal antibodies. In this way effective therapeutics against the protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF) toxin components of Bacillus anthracis are developed and currently antibodies against orthopox viruses are generated as well from donors, which have been immunized with vaccinia. Other projects are the development of therapeutic antibodies for MRSA (antibiotics resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and Enterococcus spp. Both human antibodies against the anthrax toxin components are efficacious in vitro and in pre- and post-exposure settings in mice and rabbits. The anti-LF antibody

  13. A Biologically-Based Computational Approach to Drug Repurposing for Anthrax Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane P. F. Bai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing drugs to treat the toxic effects of lethal toxin (LT and edema toxin (ET produced by B. anthracis is of global interest. We utilized a computational approach to score 474 drugs/compounds for their ability to reverse the toxic effects of anthrax toxins. For each toxin or drug/compound, we constructed an activity network by using its differentially expressed genes, molecular targets, and protein interactions. Gene expression profiles of drugs were obtained from the Connectivity Map and those of anthrax toxins in human alveolar macrophages were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Drug rankings were based on the ability of a drug/compound’s mode of action in the form of a signaling network to reverse the effects of anthrax toxins; literature reports were used to verify the top 10 and bottom 10 drugs/compounds identified. Simvastatin and bepridil with reported in vitro potency for protecting cells from LT and ET toxicities were computationally ranked fourth and eighth. The other top 10 drugs were fenofibrate, dihydroergotamine, cotinine, amantadine, mephenytoin, sotalol, ifosfamide, and mefloquine; literature mining revealed their potential protective effects from LT and ET toxicities. These drugs are worthy of investigation for their therapeutic benefits and might be used in combination with antibiotics for treating B. anthracis infection.

  14. Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site may get infected. Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical examination. The tests to diagnose anthrax depend on the type of disease that is suspected. A culture of the skin, and sometimes a biopsy , are ...

  15. [Anthrax due to deliberate infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dissel, J.T. van; Kullberg, B.J.; Berg, P.C. van den; Steenbergen, J.E. van

    2001-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonosis which is particularly prevalent in cattle, goats and sheep and is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore forming aerobic microorganism. The endospores can survive outside of the body for many decades. The natural form of anthrax has a cutaneous, pulmonary and

  16. Structure-based non-canonical amino acid design to covalently crosslink an antibody–antigen complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianqing; Tack, Drew; Hughes, Randall A.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Gray, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering antibodies to utilize non-canonical amino acids (NCAA) should greatly expand the utility of an already important biological reagent. In particular, introducing crosslinking reagents into antibody complementarity determining regions (CDRs) should provide a means to covalently crosslink residues at the antibody–antigen interface. Unfortunately, finding the optimum position for crosslinking two proteins is often a matter of iterative guessing, even when the interface is known in atomic detail. Computer-aided antibody design can potentially greatly restrict the number of variants that must be explored in order to identify successful crosslinking sites. We have therefore used Rosetta to guide the introduction of an oxidizable crosslinking NCAA, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), into the CDRs of the anti-protective antigen scFv antibody M18, and have measured crosslinking to its cognate antigen, domain 4 of the anthrax protective antigen. Computed crosslinking distance, solvent accessibility, and interface energetics were three factors considered that could impact the efficiency of l-DOPA-mediated crosslinking. In the end, 10 variants were synthesized, and crosslinking efficiencies were generally 10% or higher, with the best variant crosslinking to 52% of the available antigen. The results suggest that computational analysis can be used in a pipeline for engineering crosslinking antibodies. The rules learned from l-DOPA crosslinking of antibodies may also be generalizable to the formation of other crosslinked interfaces and complexes. PMID:23680795

  17. Obiltoxaximab Prevents Disseminated Bacillus anthracis Infection and Improves Survival during Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Animal Models of Inhalational Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Brent J.; Shadiack, Annette M.; Carpenter, Sarah; Sanford, Daniel; Henning, Lisa N.; Gonzales, Nestor; O'Connor, Edward; Casey, Leslie S.

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend adjunctive antitoxins when systemic anthrax is suspected. Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with antibiotics and for prophylaxis when alternative therapies are not available. The impact of toxin neutralization with obiltoxaximab during pre- and postexposure prophylaxis was explored, and efficacy results that supported the prophylaxis indication are presented here. New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques received obiltoxaximab as a single intramuscular or intravenous dose of 2 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at various times relative to Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge. The primary endpoint was survival, and effect of treatment timing was explored. In rabbits, obiltoxaximab administration 9 h postchallenge singly or combined with a 5-day levofloxacin regimen protected 89% to 100% of animals compared to 33% with levofloxacin monotherapy. In cynomolgus macaques, a single intramuscular dose of 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab led to 100% survival when given 1 to 3 days preexposure and 83% to 100% survival when given 18 to 24 h postexposure and prior to systemic bacteremia onset. Obiltoxaximab administration after bacteremia onset resulted in lower (25% to 50%) survival rates reflective of treatment setting. Prophylactic administration of obiltoxaximab before spore challenge or to spore-challenged animals before systemic bacterial dissemination is efficacious in promoting survival, ameliorating toxemia, and inhibiting bacterial spread to the periphery. PMID:27431219

  18. Vaccines and bioterrorism: smallpox and anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Sanford R; Mahoney, Martin C; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2003-01-01

    Because of the success of vaccination and the ring strategy in eradicating smallpox from the world, smallpox vaccine has not been recommended for the United States civilian populations for decades. Given the low but possible threat of bioterrorism, smallpox vaccination is now recommended for those teams investigating potential smallpox cases and for selected personnel of acute-care hospitals who would be needed to care for victims in the event of a terrorist attack. Treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis for anthrax are ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. Anthrax vaccine alone is not effective for post-exposure prevention of anthrax; vaccination is accompanied by 60 days of antibiotic therapy. In addition to military use, anthrax vaccine is recommended for pre-exposure use in those persons whose work involves repeated exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores.

  19. Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    future predictive modeling toolkits. 1 1. Introduction The use of Bacillus anthracis as a bio - weapon in the United States in 2001 affirmed the need...for improved sensing and detection of biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Protective Antigen (PA) protein of Bacillus anthracis is the...Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis by Deborah A. Sarkes, Joshua M. Kogot, Irene Val-Addo

  20. Identification of protective antigens for vaccination against systemic salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent medical need for improved vaccines with broad serovar coverage and high efficacy against systemic salmonellosis. Subunit vaccines offer excellent safety profiles but require identification of protective antigens, which remains a challenging task. Here, I review crucial properties of Salmonella antigens that might help to narrow down the number of potential candidates from more than 4000 proteins encoded in Salmonella genomes, to a more manageable number of 50-200 most promising antigens. I also discuss complementary approaches for antigen identification and potential limitations of current pre-clinical vaccine testing.

  1. Effective antiprotease-antibiotic treatment of experimental anthrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacAfee Rebecca

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation anthrax is characterized by a systemic spread of the challenge agent, Bacillus anthracis. It causes severe damage, including multiple hemorrhagic lesions, to host tissues and organs. It is widely believed that anthrax lethal toxin secreted by proliferating bacteria is a major cause of death, however, the pathology of intoxication in experimental animals is drastically different from that found during the infectious process. In order to close a gap between our understanding of anthrax molecular pathology and the most prominent clinical features of the infectious process we undertook bioinformatic and experimental analyses of potential proteolytic virulence factors of B. anthracis distinct from lethal toxin. Methods Secreted proteins (other than lethal and edema toxins produced by B. anthracis were tested for tissue-damaging activity and toxicity in mice. Chemical protease inhibitors and rabbit immune sera raised against B. anthracis proteases were used to treat mice challenged with B. anthracis (Sterne spores. Results B. anthracis strain delta Ames (pXO1-, pXO2- producing no lethal and edema toxins secrets a number of metalloprotease virulence factors upon cultivation under aerobic conditions, including those with hemorrhagic, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activities, belonging to M4 and M9 thermolysin and bacterial collagenase families, respectively. These factors are directly toxic to DBA/2 mice upon intratracheal administration at 0.5 mg/kg and higher doses. Chemical protease inhibitors (phosphoramidon and 1, 10-phenanthroline, as well as immune sera against M4 and M9 proteases of B. anthracis, were used to treat mice challenged with B. anthracis (Sterne spores. These substances demonstrate a substantial protective efficacy in combination with ciprofloxacin therapy initiated as late as 48 h post spore challenge, compared to the antibiotic alone. Conclusion Secreted proteolytic enzymes are important pathogenic

  2. Meningoencephalitis due to anthrax: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, Hanefi; Koc, Mustafa; Murat, Ayse [Firat University, Department of Radiology, Elazig (Turkey); Kabakus, Nimet; Incekoey Girgin, Feyza [Firat University, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Elazig (Turkey)

    2006-11-15

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores, but it also causes cutaneous, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in humans. Bacillus anthracis is an uncommon cause of meningitis and generally produces a haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis. We present the CT and MR findings of anthrax meningoencephalitis due to the cutaneous form of anthrax in a 12-year-old boy. They showed focal intracerebral haemorrhage with leptomeningeal enhancement. (orig.)

  3. Anthrax in Vintage Animal-hair Shaving Brushes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-08

    Dr. Kate Hendricks, a CDC anthrax expert, discusses anthrax in vintage shaving brushes.  Created: 8/8/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2017.

  4. Screen-printed fluorescent sensors for rapid and sensitive anthrax biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inkyu; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We fabricated flexible anthrax sensors with a simple screen-printing method. •The sensors selectively detected B. anthracis biomarker. •The sensors provide the visible alarm against anthrax attack. -- Abstract: Since the 2001 anthrax attacks, efforts have focused on the development of an anthrax detector with rapid response and high selectivity and sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescence sensor for detecting anthrax biomarker with high sensitivity and selectivity using a screen-printing method. A lanthanide–ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid complex was printed on a flexible polyethersulfone film. Screen-printing deposition of fluorescent detecting moieties produced fluorescent patterns that acted as a visual alarm against anthrax

  5. Antibodies to Anthrax Toxin in Humans and Guinea Pigs and Their Relevance to Protective Immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turnbull, P

    1988-01-01

    ... stimulation of more than just production of antibody to PA. Titers to the three components in sera of individuals with histories of clinically diagnosed anthrax as well as from human vaccinees are included in the report.

  6. Anthrax Meningitis - Report Of An Autopsied Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a rare cause of hemorrhagic meningitis in man. This report illustrates the characteristic hemorrhagic manifestations in the brain of a patient dying of anthrax meningitis secondary to overwhelming bacteremia. Gross examination of the brain revealed a thick dense subarachnoid hemorrhage with numerous petechial hemorrhages in the cortex. Histologically, meningoencephalitis with vascular necrosis, edema, perivascular cortical hemorrhages and clumps of Gram positive bacilli in the vascular lumen and invading vessel wall were the salient features. The anthrax bacillus was isolated from CSF and brain tissue and further its pathogenecity was confirmed by animal inoculation.

  7. Analysis of anthrax and plague biowarfare vaccine interactions with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skowera, Anna; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Allen, Jennifer S.; Wessely, Simon C.; Griffiths, Gareth; Kapsenberg, Martien; Peakman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The anti-biowarfare anthrax and plague vaccines require repeated dosing to achieve adequate protection. To test the hypothesis that this limited immunogenicity results from the nature of vaccine interactions with the host innate immune system, we investigated molecular and cellular interactions

  8. Mapping the Distribution of Anthrax in Mainland China, 2005-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Jun Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, a global re-emerging zoonotic disease in recent years is enzootic in mainland China. Despite its significance to the public health, spatiotemporal distributions of the disease in human and livestock and its potential driving factors remain poorly understood.Using the national surveillance data of human and livestock anthrax from 2005 to 2013, we conducted a retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of anthrax in mainland China. The potential determinants for the temporal and spatial distributions of human anthrax were also explored. We found that the majority of human anthrax cases were located in six provinces in western and northeastern China, and five clustering areas with higher incidences were identified. The disease mostly peaked in July or August, and males aged 30-49 years had higher incidence than other subgroups. Monthly incidence of human anthrax was positively correlated with monthly average temperature, relative humidity and monthly accumulative rainfall with lags of 0-2 months. A boosted regression trees (BRT model at the county level reveals that densities of cattle, sheep and human, coverage of meadow, coverage of typical grassland, elevation, coverage of topsoil with pH > 6.1, concentration of organic carbon in topsoil, and the meteorological factors have contributed substantially to the spatial distribution of the disease. The model-predicted probability of occurrence of human cases in mainland China was mapped at the county level.Anthrax in China was characterized by significant seasonality and spatial clustering. The spatial distribution of human anthrax was largely driven by livestock husbandry, human density, land cover, elevation, topsoil features and climate. Enhanced surveillance and intervention for livestock and human anthrax in the high-risk regions, particularly on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is the key to the prevention of human infections.

  9. The pattern of anthrax cases on livestock in West Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enymartindah

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on anthrax in endemic area was carried out from 1984 to 1994 in West Nusa Tenggara Province (NTB to uncover the occurrence of anthrax and the pattern of the disease in livestock. Data of anthrax incidence had been compiled for the 11 years from Animal Health Section and Type B Laboratory of the Livestock Service Office, NTB Province in Mataram. This was done to get the information about locations and times when the cases occurred, and the vaccination status of livestock in the anthrax area. The pattern of anthrax in livestock was analyzed by using time series analysis, and the long term trend was then illustrated by linier regression . During the years, anthrax cases in livestock were reported high in Sumbawa island, while the cases in Lombok island were relatively low. There were no anthrax cases reported from East Lombok District . The long term trend of anthrax occurrence in livestock from 1984 to 1994 tended to decrease (Y= 6,04 - 0,0162 X.

  10. The anthrax letters: a medical detective story

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Leonard A

    2003-01-01

    .... Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cole, Leonard A., 1933The anthrax letters : a medical detective story / Leonard A. Cole. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08881-X - ISBN 0-309-52584-5 (PDF) 1. Bioterrorism- United States. 2. Anthrax- United States. 3. Postal service- United States. 4. Victims of...

  11. Monitoring the kinetics of the pH-driven transition of the anthrax toxin prepore to the pore by biolayer interferometry and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Brock, Susan; Akkaladevi, Narahari; Tally, Jon; McGinn-Straub, Wesley; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Gogol, E P; Pentelute, B L; Collier, R John; Fisher, Mark T

    2013-09-17

    Domain 2 of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) prepore heptamer unfolds and refolds during endosome acidification to generate an extended 100 Å β barrel pore that inserts into the endosomal membrane. The PA pore facilitates the pH-dependent unfolding and translocation of bound toxin enzymic components, lethal factor (LF) and/or edema factor, from the endosome to the cytoplasm. We constructed immobilized complexes of the prepore with the PA-binding domain of LF (LFN) to monitor the real-time prepore to pore kinetic transition using surface plasmon resonance and biolayer interferometry (BLI). The kinetics of this transition increased as the solution pH was decreased from 7.5 to 5.0, mirroring acidification of the endosome. Once it had undergone the transition, the LFN-PA pore complex was removed from the BLI biosensor tip and deposited onto electron microscopy grids, where PA pore formation was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. When the soluble receptor domain (ANTRX2/CMG2) binds the immobilized PA prepore, the transition to the pore state was observed only after the pH was lowered to early (pH 5.5) or late (pH 5.0) endosomal pH conditions. Once the pore formed, the soluble receptor readily dissociated from the PA pore. Separate binding experiments with immobilized PA pores and the soluble receptor indicate that the receptor has a weakened propensity to bind to the transitioned pore. This immobilized anthrax toxin platform can be used to identify or validate potential antimicrobial lead compounds capable of regulating and/or inhibiting anthrax toxin complex formation or pore transitions.

  12. Monitoring the kinetics of the pH driven transition of the anthrax toxin prepore to the pore by biolayer interferometry and surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Subhashchandra; Brock, Susan; Akkaladevi, Narahari; Tally, Jon; Mcginn-Straub, Wesley; Zhang, Na; Gao, Phillip; Gogol, E. P.; Pentelute, B. L.; Collier, R. John; Fisher, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Domain 2 of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) prepore heptamer unfolds and refolds during endosome acidification to generate an extended 100 Å beta barrel pore that inserts into the endosomal membrane. The PA pore facilitates the pH dependent unfolding and translocation of bound toxin enzymic components, lethal factor (LF) and/or edema factor (EF), from the endosome into the cytoplasm. We constructed immobilized complexes of the prepore with the PA-binding domain of LF (LFN) to monitor the real-time prepore to pore kinetic transition using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and bio-layer interferometry (BLI). The kinetics of this transition increased as the solution pH was decreased from pH 7.5 to pH 5.0, mirroring acidification of the endosome. Once transitioned, the LFN-PA pore complex was removed from the BLI biosensor tip and deposited onto EM grids, where the PA pore formation was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. When the soluble receptor domain (ANTRX2/CMG2) binds the immobilized PA prepore, the transition to the pore state was observed only after the pH was lowered to early or late endosomal pH conditions (5.5 to 5.0 respectively). Once the pore formed, the soluble receptor readily dissociated from the PA pore. Separate binding experiments with immobilized PA pores and soluble receptor indicate that the receptor has a weakened propensity to bind to the transitioned pore. This immobilized anthrax toxin platform can be used to identify or validate potential antimicrobial lead compounds capable of regulating and/or inhibiting anthrax toxin complex formation or pore transitions. PMID:23964683

  13. Ecological suitability modeling for anthrax in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Johan Steenkamp

    Full Text Available The spores of the soil-borne bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax are highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Under ideal conditions, anthrax spores can survive for many years in the soil. Anthrax is known to be endemic in the northern part of Kruger National Park (KNP in South Africa (SA, with occasional epidemics spreading southward. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are ecologically suitable for the harboring of B. anthracis spores within the KNP. Anthrax surveillance data and selected environmental variables were used as inputs to the maximum entropy (Maxent species distribution modeling method. Anthrax positive carcasses from 1988-2011 in KNP (n = 597 and a total of 40 environmental variables were used to predict and evaluate their relative contribution to suitability for anthrax occurrence in KNP. The environmental variables that contributed the most to the occurrence of anthrax were soil type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and precipitation. Apart from the endemic Pafuri region, several other areas within KNP were classified as ecologically suitable. The outputs of this study could guide future surveillance efforts to focus on predicted suitable areas for anthrax, since the KNP currently uses passive surveillance to detect anthrax outbreaks.

  14. Factors associated with repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh: qualitative and quantitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayedul Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis is an acute, febrile disease of warm blooded animals including humans. Social norms and poverty in addition to climatic factors such as soil conditions, seasons of year, ambient temperature and rainfall influence the persistence of the B. anthracis and anthrax outbreaks. The present study was designed to reveal the factors influencing the repeated outbreak of anthrax in Bangladesh. Considering the previous outbreaks of anthrax, Sirajganj, Bogra, Kushtia, Tangail and Mymensingh districts of Bangladesh were selected for this study. To elucidate the factors, qualitative data relating to the animal management, knowledge and behavior of the people; and quantitative data relating to soil conditions, ambient temperature and rainfall were acquired, and analyzed critically. Based on the outbreak histories, a year was divided into two seasons, anthrax prone season (May-November and anthrax dry season (December-April. Anthrax spores could be isolated from 11.67% (n=14/120 of the soil samples collected from the study areas. The present study revealed that poor knowledge, lack of awareness, improper carcass disposal, inadequate vaccination, high Ca content and moisture in the soil along with high ambient temperature and rainfall during the anthrax prone season were the possible influencing factors of repeated outbreaks of anthrax in the study areas. Intensive propaganda to create public awareness of anthrax together with proper vaccination may reduce anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh.

  15. [PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT OF LIVE RECOMBINANT ANTHRAX VACCINES BASED ON OPPORTUNISTIC AND APATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, P Yu; Mikshis, N I

    2016-01-01

    Live genetic engineering anthrax vaccines on the platform of avirulent and probiotic micro-organisms are a safe and adequate alternative to preparations based on attenuated Bacillus anthracis strains. Mucosal application results in a direct contact of the vaccine preparations with mucous membranes in those organs arid tissues of the macro-organisms, that are exposed to the pathogen in the first place, resulting in a development of local and systemic immune response. Live recombinant anthrax vaccines could be used both separately as well as in a prime-boost immunization scheme. The review focuses on immunogenic and protective properties of experimental live genetic engineering prearations, created based on members of geni of Salmonella, Lactobacillus and adenoviruses.

  16. Anthrax of the eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amraoui, A.; Tabbara, K. F.; Zaghloul, K.

    1992-01-01

    Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. The disease affects primarily herbivores including sheep, cattle, horses, and other domestic animals. Humans may rarely be affected. We examined one male and two female patients with a localised itchy erythematous papule of the eyelid. A necrotising ulcer formed in each of the three cases resulting in a black lesion. Scraping in each case showed Gram positive rods and culture grew Bacillus anthracis. All three patients responded to the intravenous administration of penicillin G, and the lesion resolved leaving scars in two cases. Anthrax is a rare disease but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ulcers or pustules of the eyelids. Images PMID:1486081

  17. Use of the mice passive protection test to evaluate the humoral response in goats vaccinated with Sterne 34F2 live spore vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaswana, P H; Ndumnego, O C; Koehler, S M; Beyer, W; Crafford, J E; van Heerden, H

    2017-09-07

    The Sterne live spore vaccine (34F2) is the most widely used veterinary vaccine against anthrax in animals. Antibody responses to several antigens of Bacillus anthracis have been described with a large focus on those against protective antigen (PA). The focus of this study was to evaluate the protective humoral immune response induced by the live spore anthrax vaccine in goats. Boer goats vaccinated twice (week 0 and week 12) with the Sterne live spore vaccine and naive goats were used to monitor the anti-PA and toxin neutralizing antibodies at week 4 and week 17 (after the second vaccine dose) post vaccination. A/J mice were passively immunized with different dilutions of sera from immune and naive goats and then challenged with spores of B. anthracis strain 34F2 to determine the protective capacity of the goat sera. The goat anti-PA ELISA titres indicated significant sero-conversion at week 17 after the second doses of vaccine (p = 0.009). Mice receiving undiluted sera from goats given two doses of vaccine (twice immunized) showed the highest protection (86%) with only 20% of mice receiving 1:1000 diluted sera surviving lethal challenge. The in vitro toxin neutralization assay (TNA) titres correlated to protection of passively immunized A/J mice against lethal infection with the vaccine strain Sterne 34F2 spores using immune goat sera up to a 1:10 dilution (r s  ≥ 0.522, p = 0.046). This study suggests that the passive mouse protection model could be potentially used to evaluate the protective immune response in livestock animals vaccinated with the current live vaccine and new vaccines.

  18. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-11-07

    Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.)). Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  19. [Synthesis of protective antigens during submerged cultivation of Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, V A; Syrova, N A; Gromova, O V; Tershkina, N E; Devdariani, Z L; Dzhaparidze, M N; Meleshchenko, M V; Dobrova, G V; Beliakova, N I; Ermakov, N M; Eliseev, Iu Iu

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of dot immunoanalysis for evaluating the dynamics of the synthesis of O-antigen, cholera toxin, neuraminidase, adhesin CFA1 in the process of the reactor cultivation of V. cholerae used for the production of oral chemical cholera vaccine is shown. The established regularities of the synthesis of the protective antigens of V. cholerae in the process of scaled-up cultivation are discussed.

  20. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  1. Immunogenicity is unrelated to protective immunity when induced by soluble and particulate antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Ramos, Alma I; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    Cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in protection against intracellular microbes. Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes chronic actinomycetoma. In this work, we injected BALB/c mice with soluble P24 and particulate antigens from N. brasiliensis. A higher antibody titer and lymphocyte proliferation was induced by the particulate antigen than by the soluble antigen. However, five months after antigen injection, antibody concentration and lymphocyte proliferation were similar. An increase in CD45R and CD4 T cells was unrelated to protective immunity. Active immunization with soluble or particulate antigens induced complete protection during the primary immune response. This protective response was IgM mediated. The higher immunogenicity was not related to protective immunity since the particulate antigen induced protection similar to the soluble antigen. Using particulate antigens for vaccination guarantees a stronger immune response, local and systemic side effects, but not necessarily protection.

  2. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Woodworth, Joshua; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Cassidy, Joseph P; Mortensen, Rasmus; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world's population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI), and 5-10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660) TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection.

  3. Human and animal anthrax in Ethiopia: A retrospective record ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    26,737 animal anthrax cases (human to animal ratio 1:5) were reported from 2009 to 2013 ... respectively) This data analysis revealed that less number of human anthrax cases ..... quality to reach to strong conclusions and recommendations.

  4. 2014 Anthrax epidemic in Koubia prefecture, Guinea-Conakry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, M S; Boushab, M B; Balde, H; Camara, A; Sako, F B; Traoré, F A; Diallo, M O S; Diallo, M D; Keita, M; Sylla, A O; Tounkara, T M; Cissé, M

    2016-11-01

    Anthrax disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. Our objective was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the 2014 epidemic in Koubia prefecture. This retrospective study examined all of the anthrax cases reported in Fafaya, Koubia Prefecture. In March and April 2014, there were 39 cases of human anthrax reported, for an incidence of 1.135%. The mean age was 20.9 (± 18.3) with a sex ratio of 2.54 (28/11) in favor of men. Seventy-six percent (23/39) were single. More than one half were students (53.8%). The main clinical signs were fever in 71, 8% (n = 28 /), papules 59% (n = 23), vesicles of 59% (n = 23) Digestive and cutaneous signs represented 35.9 % and 64.1% respectively; 35% had ingested contaminated meat and 17.95% were in direct contact with a sick animal. We didn't find any correlation between the mode of infection and onset of signs. The fatality rate was 28.21%. The 2014 epidemic of anthrax disease in the Koubia prefecture was marked by a high incidence and lethality. Clinical manifestations were cutaneaous and digestive. These results may serve further interventions to fight against anthrax disease. They should mainly focus on an awareness of peasants, surveillance and vaccination of cattle. Other studies seem to be necessary.

  5. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  6. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  7. An Alternative Approach to Combination Vaccines: Intradermal Administration of Isolated Components for Control of Anthrax, Botulism, Plague and Staphylococcal Toxic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morefield, Garry L; Tammariello, Ralph F; Purcell, Bret K; Worsham, Patricia L; Chapman, Jennifer; Smith, Leonard A; Alarcon, Jason B; Mikszta, John A; Ulrich, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    ... incompatible vaccine mixtures. Intradermally administered arrays of vaccines for protection from anthrax, botulism, plague, and staphylococcal toxic shock were biocompatible in vivo, retained potent antibody responses...

  8. Uso de la vacuna contra el carbunco en los Estados Unidos de América Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States of America: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This piece presents the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the United States of America concerning the use of aluminum hydroxide adsorbed cell-free anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, or AVA and the use of chemoprophylaxis against Bacillus anthracis in the United States. The recommended vaccination schedule consists of three subcutaneous injections, at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and three booster vaccinations, at 6, 12, and 18 months. To maintain immunity, an annual booster injection is recommended. Approximately 95% of vaccinees seroconvert, with a fourfold rise in anti-PA (protective antigen IgG titers after three doses. Analysis of data from the United States' Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System has documented no pattern of serious adverse events clearly associated with the vaccine, except injection-site reactions. Vaccination is contraindicated in the case of a previous history of anthrax infection or anaphylactic reaction following a previous dose of AVA or any of the vaccine components. In addition, vaccination should be postponed in the case of moderate or severe acute illness. Pregnant women should be vaccinated against anthrax only if the potential benefits of vaccination outweigh the potential risks to the fetus. Vaccination during breast-feeding is not medically contraindicated. Routine preexposure vaccination with AVA is indicated for persons engaged in: a work involving production quantities or concentrations of B. anthracis cultures or b activities with a high potential for aerosol production. For the military and other select populations or for groups for which a calculable risk can be assessed, preexposure vaccination may be indicated. Following confirmed or suspected exposure to B. anthracis, postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, penicillin VK, or amoxicillin. If the vaccine is available, prophylaxis should continue for 4 weeks

  9. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Billeskov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB, causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world’s population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI, and 5–10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660 TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection.

  10. Effective antiprotease-antibiotic treatment of experimental anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Serguei G; Popova, Taissia G; Hopkins, Svetlana; Weinstein, Raymond S; MacAfee, Rebecca; Fryxell, Karl J; Chandhoke, Vikas; Bailey, Charles; Alibek, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhalation anthrax is characterized by a systemic spread of the challenge agent, Bacillus anthracis. It causes severe damage, including multiple hemorrhagic lesions, to host tissues and organs. It is widely believed that anthrax lethal toxin secreted by proliferating bacteria is a major cause of death, however, the pathology of intoxication in experimental animals is drastically different from that found during the infectious process. In order to close a gap between our un...

  11. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case report and review of Turkish literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metan, Gökhan; Uysal, Burcu; Coşkun, Ramazan; Perçin, Duygu; Doğanay, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    The incidence of anthrax is decreasing in Turkey, however, it is still endemic in some regions of the country. Although central nervous system involvement is rare in cases with anthrax, high mortality rates are significant. Here, we report a 46-years old woman who was anthrax meningoencephalitis. The patient was from Yozgat located in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Her history revealed that following peeling the skin of sheeps and consuming their meat a week ago, a lesion developed in her left forearm and she had been treated with penicilin G with the diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax in a local health center. The patient was admitted to the emergency room of our hospital due to increased headache and loss of conciousness and diagnosed as anthrax meningitis. Crytallized penicilin G (24 MU/day IV) and vancomycin (2 g/day IV) were initiated. The macroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample was haemorrhagic, white blood cell count was 40/mm3 (80% of neutrophil) and Gram staining of CSF yielded abundant gram-positive bacilli. The diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation of Bacillus anthracis from CSF culture. Although the isolate was susceptible to penicillin and dexamethasone was added to the treatment, the patient died. Review of the Turkish literature revealed seven cases of anthrax with central nervous system involvement between 1980-2008. One of the patients was an 11-years old boy and the others were adults aged between 19 and 64 years. The source of the infection was skin in four patients and inhalation in one patient. The most common findings in all of the patients were inhabitance in rural area, haemorrhagic CSF and loss of all patients despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. In conclusion, anthrax meningitis and meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of haemorrhagic meningitis in areas where anthrax is endemic and high rate of mortality despite appropriate therapy should always be kept in mind.

  12. Two anthrax cases with soft tissue infection, severe oedema and sepsis in Danish heroin users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Lene; Pedersen, Michael; Jensen, Andreas V

    2013-01-01

    Anthrax had become extremely rare in Europe, but in 2010 an outbreak of anthrax among heroin users in Scotland increased awareness of contaminated heroin as a source of anthrax. We present the first two Danish cases of injectional anthrax and discuss the clinical presentations, which included both...

  13. The green vaccine: A global strategy to combat infectious and autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi-Semiromi, Abdoreza; Samson, Nalapalli; Daniell, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Plant derived oral green vaccines eliminate expenses associated with fermenters, purification, cold storage/transportation and sterile delivery. Green vaccines are expressed via the plant nuclear or chloroplast genomes. Chloroplast expression has advantages of hyper-expression of therapeutic proteins (10,000 copies of trans-gene per cell), efficient oral delivery and transgene containment via maternal inheritance. To date, 23 vaccine antigens against 16 different bacterial, viral or protozoan pathogens have been expressed in chloroplasts. Mice subcutaneously immunized with the chloroplast derived anthrax protective antigen conferred 100% protection against lethal doses of the anthrax toxin. Oral immunization (ORV) of F1-V antigens without adjuvant conferred greater protection (88%) against 50-fold lethal dose of aerosolized plague (Yersinia pestis) than subcutaneous (SQV) immunization (33%). Oral immunization of malarial vaccine antigens fused to the cholera antigen (CTB-AMA1/CTB-Msp1) conferred prolonged immunity (50% life span), 100% protection against cholera toxin challenge and inhibited proliferation of the malarial parasite. Protection was correlated with antigen-specific titers of intestinal, serum IgA & IgG1 in ORV and only IgG1 in SQV mice, but no other immunoglobulin. High level expression in edible plant chloroplasts ideal for oral delivery and long-term immunity observed should facilitate development of low cost human vaccines for large populations, at times of outbreak. PMID:19430198

  14. First Autochthonous Coinfected Anthrax in an Immunocompetent Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Afshar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous anthrax has a mortality rate of 20% if no antibacterial treatment is applied. The clinical manifestations of cutaneous anthrax are obviously striking, but coinfection may produce atypical lesions and mask the clinical manifestations and proper laboratory diagnosis. Anthrax is known to be more common in the Middle East and Iran is one of the countries in which the zoonotic form of anthrax may still be encountered. We report a case of a 19-years-old male who used to apply Venetian ceruse on his skin. Venetian ceruse (also known as Spirits of Saturn is an old cosmetic product used for skin whitening traditionally made from sheep’s spinal cord. The patient referred to the Referral Laboratory, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, with atypical dermatosis, pronounced pain, and oedema of the affected tissue. It was confirmed by both conventional and molecular analysis that culture was a mixture of Bacillus anthracis and Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was initially treated with ceftriaxone (1000 mg/day for two weeks, gentamicin (1.5–2 mg/kg/day, terbinafine (200 mg/week for one month, and 1% clotrimazole cream (5 weeks two times per day which resulted in gradual improvement. No relapse could be detected after one-year follow-up. Anthrax infection might present a broader spectrum of symptoms than expected by clinicians. These unfamiliar characteristics may lead to delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment, and higher mortality rate. Clinicians need to be aware of this issue in order to have successful management over this infection.

  15. Integrated MOSFET-Embedded-Cantilever-Based Biosensor Characteristic for Detection of Anthrax Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Salwa [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lee, Ida [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Eliza, Sazia A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shekhawat, Gajendra [Northwestern University, Evanston; Dravid, Vinayak [Northwestern University, Evanston; Tulip, Fahmida S [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    In this work, MOSFET-embedded cantilevers are configured as microbial sensors for detection of anthrax simulants, Bacillus thuringiensis. Anthrax simulants attached to the chemically treated gold-coated cantilever cause changes in the MOSFET drain current due to the bending of the cantilever which indicates the detection of anthrax simulant. Electrical properties of the anthrax simulant are also responsible for the change in the drain current. The test results suggest a detection range of 10 L of stimulant test solution (a suspension population of 1.3 107 colony-forming units/mL diluted in 40% ethanol and 60% deionized water) with a linear response of 31 A/ L.

  16. Modeling the Ecological Niche of Bacillus anthracis to Map Anthrax Risk in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Matakarimov, Saitbek; Kozhokeeva, Sabira; Tagaeva, Zhyldyz; Bell, Lindsay K; Kracalik, Ian T; Zhunushov, Asankadyr

    2017-03-01

    AbstractAnthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis , is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance. Disease control for both humans and livestock relies on annual livestock vaccination ahead of outbreaks. Toward this, we used a historic database of livestock anthrax reported from 1932 to 2006 mapped at high resolution to develop an ecological niche model-based prediction of B. anthracis across Kyrgyzstan and identified spatial clusters of livestock anthrax using a cluster morphology statistic. We also defined the seasonality of outbreaks in livestock. Cattle were the most frequently reported across the time period, with the greatest number of cases in late summer months. Our niche models defined four areas as suitable to support pathogen persistence, the plateaus near Talas and Bishkek, the valleys of western Kyrgyzstan along the Fergana Valley, and the low-lying areas along the shore of Lake Isyk-Kul. These areas should be considered "at risk" for livestock anthrax and subsequent human cases. Areas defined by the niche models can be used to prioritize anthrax surveillance and inform efforts to target livestock vaccination campaigns.

  17. Chloroplast-Derived Vaccine Antigens and Biopharmaceuticals: Expression, Folding, Assembly and Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebolu, S.; Daniell, H.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, and multi-gene expression in a single transformation event. Oral delivery is facilitated by hyperexpression of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague, or canine parvovirus (4%–31% of total soluble protein, TSP) in transgenic chloroplasts (leaves) or non-green plastids (carrots, tomato) as well as the availability of antibiotic free selectable markers or the ability to excise selectable marker genes. Hyperexpression of several therapeutic proteins, including human serum albumin (11.1% TSP), somatotropin (7% TSP), interferon-alpha (19% TSP), interferon-gamma (6% TSP), and antimicrobial peptide (21.5% TSP), facilitates efficient and economic purification. Also, the presence of chaperones and enzymes in chloroplasts facilitates assembly of complex multisubunit proteins and correct folding of human blood proteins with proper disulfide bonds. Functionality of chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated by several assays, including the macrophage lysis assay, GM1-ganglioside binding assay, protection of HeLA cells or human lung carcinoma cells against encephalomyocarditis virus, systemic immune response, protection against pathogen challenge, and growth or inhibition of cell cultures. Purification of human proinsulin has been achieved using novel purification strategies (inverse temperature transition property) that do not require expensive column chromatography techniques. Thus, transgenic chloroplasts are ideal bioreactors for production of functional human and animal therapeutic proteins in an environmentally friendly manner. PMID:19401820

  18. Radiolabelled parasite antigens as tools for diagnosis and identification of protective antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhouse, R.M.E.; Cabrera, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelling specific compartments and molecules of parasites provides a valuable tool for establishing parasite antigen-host response systems with utility and/or importance in protection, diagnosis and pathology. The combined immunological, biochemical and molecular biological expertise currently available forms a sufficient basis for a relatively logical and effective programme directed towards the ultimate eradication of tropical diseases. The organization of carefully selected and clinically well characterized sera and patients, representing the range of commonly occurring parasitic infections, would be of great practical value in the pursuance of this goal. (author)

  19. DUST-BATHING BEHAVIORS OF AFRICAN HERBIVORES AND THE POTENTIAL RISK OF INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandongo, Zoe R; Mfune, John K E; Turner, Wendy C

    2018-01-01

    :  Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks. We 1) cultured soils from dust-bathing sites for the presence and concentration of B. anthracis spores, 2) monitored anthrax carcass sites, the locations with the highest B. anthracis concentrations, for evidence of dust bathing, including a site where a zebra died of anthrax on a large dust bath, and 3) characterized the ecology and seasonality of dust bathing in plains zebra ( Equus quagga), blue wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus), and African savanna elephant ( Loxodonta africana) using a combination of motion-sensing camera traps and direct observations. Only two out of 83 dust-bath soils were positive for B. anthracis, both with low spore concentrations (≤20 colony-forming units per gram). We also detected no evidence of dust baths occurring at anthrax carcass sites, perhaps due to carcass-induced changes in soil composition that may deter dust bathing. Finally, despite observing some seasonal variation in dust bathing, preliminary evidence suggests that the seasonality of dust bathing and anthrax mortalities are not correlated. Thus, although dust bathing creates a dramatic cloud of aerosolized soil around an individual, our microbiologic, ecologic, and behavioral results in concert demonstrate that dust bathing is highly unlikely to transmit inhalational anthrax infections.

  20. Military Hospitalizations among Deployed US Service Members Following Anthrax Vaccination, 1998-2001

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Timothy S; Sato, Paul A; Smith, Tyler C; Wang, Linda Z; Reed, Robert J; Kappel Ryan, Margaret A

    2006-01-01

    .... To determine if anthrax vaccination was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization, a historical cohort study utilizing pre- and post-anthrax-vaccination hospitalizations was undertaken...

  1. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-07

    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  2. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Ducken

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to

  3. Soil geochemical parameters influencing the spatial distribution of anthrax in Northwest Minnesota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Samuel; Dere, Ashlee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the pathogenic bacterium that causes anthrax, which dwells in soils as highly resilient endospores. B. anthracis spore viability in soil is dependent upon environmental conditions, but the soil properties necessary for spore survival are unclear. In this study we used a range of soil geochemical and physical parameters to predict the spatial distribution of B. anthracis in northwest Minnesota, where 64 cases of anthrax in livestock were reported from 2000 to 2013. Two modeling approaches at different spatial scales were used to identify the soil conditions most correlated to known anthrax cases using both statewide and locally collected soil data. Ecological niche models were constructed using the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) approach and included 11 soil parameters as environmental inputs and recorded anthrax cases as known presences. One ecological niche model used soil data and anthrax presences for the entire state while a second model used locally sampled soil data (n = 125) and a subset of anthrax presences, providing a test of spatial scale. In addition, simple logistic regression models using the localized soil data served as an independent measure of variable importance. Maxent model results indicate that at a statewide level, soil calcium and magnesium concentrations, soil pH, and sand content are the most important properties for predicting soil suitability for B. anthracis while at the local level, clay and sand content along with phosphorous and strontium concentrations are most important. These results also show that the spatial scale of analysis is important when considering soil parameters most important for B. anthracis spores. For example, at a broad scale, B. anthracis spores may require Ca-rich soils and an alkaline pH, but may also concentrate in microenvironments with high Sr concentrations. The study is also one of the first ecological niche models that demonstrates the major importance of soil texture for defining

  4. Orbito-Maxillofacial Cutaneous Anthrax

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and development of a black eschar were reviewed. Occupational history, falls and/or contact with animal meat was ... and oral ciprofloxacin (500mg BD for 21 days). The culture results isolated Bacillus anthracis highly ... The clinical evolution of cutaneous anthrax is typical with the initial development of minute red macules.

  5. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  6. Growth medium for the rapid isolation and identification of anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Grubbs, Teri R.; Alls, John L.

    2000-07-01

    Anthrax has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to design a culture technique to rapidly isolate and identify `live' anthrax. In liquid or solid media form, 3AT medium (3-amino-L-tyrosine, the main ingredient) accelerated germination and growth of anthrax spores in 5 to 6 hours to a point expected at 18 to 24 hours with ordinary medium. During accelerated growth, standard definitive diagnostic tests such as sensitivity to lysis by penicillin or bacteriophage can be run. During this time, the bacteria synthesized a fluorescent and thermochemiluminescent polymer. Bacteria captured by specific antibody are, therefore, already labeled. Because living bacteria are required to generate the polymer, the test converts immunoassays for anthrax into viability assays. Furthermore, the polymer formation leads to the death of the vegetative form and non-viability of the spores produced in the medium. By altering the formulation of the medium, other microbes and even animal and human cells can be grown in it and labeled (including viruses grown in the animal or human cells).

  7. Monte Carlo N-particle simulation of neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Xu, J; Liu, T; Ouyang, X

    2012-10-01

    To simulate the neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination by Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) 4C code. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge. They are 20 times more effective than electrons or γ-rays in killing anthrax spores on surfaces and inside closed containers. Neutrons emitted from a (252)Cf neutron source are in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A 2.5 MeV D-D neutron generator can create neutrons at up to 10(13) n s(-1) with current technology. All these enable an effective and low-cost method of killing anthrax spores. There is no effect on neutron energy deposition on the anthrax sample when using a reflector that is thicker than its saturation thickness. Among all three reflecting materials tested in the MCNP simulation, paraffin is the best because it has the thinnest saturation thickness and is easy to machine. The MCNP radiation dose and fluence simulation calculation also showed that the MCNP-simulated neutron fluence that is needed to kill the anthrax spores agrees with previous analytical estimations very well. The MCNP simulation indicates that a 10 min neutron irradiation from a 0.5 g (252)Cf neutron source or a 1 min neutron irradiation from a 2.5 MeV D-D neutron generator may kill all anthrax spores in a sample. This is a promising result because a 2.5 MeV D-D neutron generator output >10(13) n s(-1) should be attainable in the near future. This indicates that we could use a D-D neutron generator to sterilise anthrax contamination within several seconds.

  8. Evaluation of an Anti-rPA IgG ELISA for Measuring the Antibody Response in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, S

    2004-01-01

    A recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure the serological response of female A/J mice after inoculation with the new rPA-based anthrax vaccine...

  9. A 2011 Risk/Benefit Analysis of the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    filled with botulinum toxin, 10 with anthrax, and 2 with aflatoxin.‖18 In 1992, Ken Alibek, a senior Russian bioweapons program manager defected...William K. Honner, Rosha A. Loach , Cynthia A. Moore, and J. David Erickson. ―Birth Defects Among Infants Born to Women Who Received Anthrax Vaccine In

  10. Role of N-terminal His6-Tags in binding and efficient translocation of polypeptides into cells using anthrax protective antigen (PA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beitzinger

    Full Text Available It is of interest to define bacterial toxin biochemical properties to use them as molecular-syringe devices in order to deliver enzymatic activities into host cells. Binary toxins of the AB(7/8-type are among the most potent and specialized bacterial protein toxins. The B subunits oligomerize to form a pore that binds with high affinity host cell receptors and the enzymatic A subunit. This allows the endocytosis of the complex and subsequent injection of the A subunit into the cytosol of the host cells. Here we report that the addition of an N-terminal His(6-tag to different proteins increased their binding affinity to the protective antigen (PA PA(63-channels, irrespective if they are related (C2I or unrelated (gpJ, EDIN to the AB(7/8-family of toxins. His(6-EDIN exhibited voltage-dependent increase of the stability constant for binding by a factor of about 25 when the trans-side corresponding to the cell interior was set to -70 mV. Surprisingly, the C. botulinum toxin C2II-channel did not share this feature of PA(63. Cell-based experiments demonstrated that addition of an N-terminal His(6-tag promoted also intoxication of endothelial cells by C2I or EDIN via PA(63. Our results revealed that addition of His(6-tags to several factors increase their binding properties to PA(63 and enhance the property to intoxicate cells.

  11. Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Zimmermann, Fee; Biek, Roman; Kuehl, Hjalmar; Nowak, Kathrin; Mundry, Roger; Agbor, Anthony; Angedakin, Samuel; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Blankenburg, Anja; Brazolla, Gregory; Corogenes, Katherine; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Deschner, Tobias; Dieguez, Paula; Dierks, Karsten; Düx, Ariane; Dupke, Susann; Eshuis, Henk; Formenty, Pierre; Yuh, Yisa Ginath; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Gogarten, Jan F; Granjon, Anne-Céline; McGraw, Scott; Grunow, Roland; Hart, John; Jones, Sorrel; Junker, Jessica; Kiang, John; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leendertz, Siv Aina; Léguillon, Floraine; Leinert, Vera; Löhrich, Therese; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Meier, Amelia; Merkel, Kevin; Metzger, Sonja; Murai, Mizuki; Niedorf, Svenja; De Nys, Hélène; Sachse, Andreas; van Schijndel, Joost; Thiesen, Ulla; Ton, Els; Wu, Doris; Wieler, Lothar H; Boesch, Christophe; Klee, Silke R; Wittig, Roman M; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2017-08-02

    Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts. We predict that this pathogen will accelerate the decline and possibly result in the extirpation of local chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) populations. We present the epidemiology of a cryptic pathogen and show that its presence has important implications for conservation.

  12. Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Zimmermann, Fee; Biek, Roman; Kuehl, Hjalmar; Nowak, Kathrin; Mundry, Roger; Agbor, Anthony; Angedakin, Samuel; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Blankenburg, Anja; Brazolla, Gregory; Corogenes, Katherine; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Deschner, Tobias; Dieguez, Paula; Dierks, Karsten; Düx, Ariane; Dupke, Susann; Eshuis, Henk; Formenty, Pierre; Yuh, Yisa Ginath; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Gogarten, Jan F.; Granjon, Anne-Céline; McGraw, Scott; Grunow, Roland; Hart, John; Jones, Sorrel; Junker, Jessica; Kiang, John; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leendertz, Siv Aina; Léguillon, Floraine; Leinert, Vera; Löhrich, Therese; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Meier, Amelia; Merkel, Kevin; Metzger, Sonja; Murai, Mizuki; Niedorf, Svenja; de Nys, Hélène; Sachse, Andreas; van Schijndel, Joost; Thiesen, Ulla; Ton, Els; Wu, Doris; Wieler, Lothar H.; Boesch, Christophe; Klee, Silke R.; Wittig, Roman M.; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2017-08-01

    Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts. We predict that this pathogen will accelerate the decline and possibly result in the extirpation of local chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) populations. We present the epidemiology of a cryptic pathogen and show that its presence has important implications for conservation.

  13. Ether lipid vesicle-based antigens impart protection against experimental listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mairaj Ahmed Ansari,1 Swaleha Zubair,2 Saba Tufail,1 Ejaj Ahmad,1 Mohsin Raza Khan,1 Zainuddin Quadri,1 Mohammad Owais,11Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, 2Women's College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, IndiaBackground: Incidence of food-borne infections from Listeria monocytogenes, a parasite that has adapted intracellular residence to avoid antibody onslaught, has increased dramatically in the past few years. The apparent lack of an effective vaccine that is capable of evoking the desired cytotoxic T cell response to obliterate this intracellular pathogen has encouraged the investigation of alternate prophylactic strategies. It should also be noted that Archaebacteria (Archae lipid-based adjuvants enhance the efficacy of subunit vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant properties of archaeosomes (liposomes prepared from total polar lipids of archaebacteria, Halobacterium salinarum combined with immunogenic culture supernatant antigens of L. monocytogenes have been exploited in designing a vaccine candidate against experimental listeriosis in murine model.Methods: Archaeosome-entrapped secretory protein antigens (SAgs of L. monocytogenes were evaluated for their immunological responses and tendency to deplete bacterial burden in BALB/c mice challenged with sublethal listerial infection. Various immunological studies involving cytokine profiling, lymphocyte proliferation assay, detection of various surface markers (by flowcytometric analysis, and antibody isotypes (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for establishing the vaccine potential of archaeosome-entrapped secretory proteins.Results: Immunization schedule involving archaeosome-encapsulated SAgs resulted in upregulation of Th1 cytokine production along with boosted memory in BALB/c mice. It also showed protective effect by reducing listerial burden in various vital organs (liver and spleen of the infected mice. However, the soluble form of the antigens (SAgs

  14. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-07

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats.

  15. Heterosubtypic protection against pathogenic human and avian influenza viruses via in vivo electroporation of synthetic consensus DNA antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick J Laddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI highlights the need for novel vaccination techniques that can quickly and effectively respond to emerging viral threats. We evaluated the use of optimized consensus influenza antigens to provide broad protection against divergent strains of H5N1 influenza in three animal models of mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. We also evaluated the use of in vivo electroporation to deliver these vaccines to overcome the immunogenicity barrier encountered in larger animal models of vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice, ferrets and non-human primates were immunized with consensus plasmids expressing H5 hemagglutinin (pH5HA, N1 neuraminidase (pN1NA, and nucleoprotein antigen (pNP. Dramatic IFN-gamma-based cellular immune responses to both H5 and NP, largely dependent upon CD8+ T cells were seen in mice. Hemaggutination inhibition titers classically associated with protection (>1:40 were seen in all species. Responses in both ferrets and macaques demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus antigens to induce antibodies capable of inhibiting divergent strains of the H5N1 subtype, and studies in the mouse and ferret demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus vaccines to induce protection even in the absence of such neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals. CONCLUSIONS: By combining several consensus influenza antigens with in vivo electroporation, we demonstrate that these antigens induce both protective cellular and humoral immune responses in mice, ferrets and non-human primates. We also demonstrate the ability of these antigens to protect from both morbidity and mortality in a ferret model of HPAI, in both the presence and absence of neutralizing antibody, which will be critical in responding to the

  16. Defining Moments in MMWR History: CDC's Response to Intentional Release of Anthrax - 2001

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    On October 4, 2001, shortly after the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, the Palm Beach County Health Department, the Florida State Department of Health, and CDC reported a case of anthrax in a 63-year-old man from Florida. This case was first reported in MMWR and marked the beginning of a series of anthrax cases that resulted from intentional delivery of Bacillus anthracis spores sent through the mail. In this podcast, Dr. Sherif Zaki recalls CDC's investigation and response to the anthrax attacks.

  17. Detailed Safety Review of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    To date, 18 human studies have assessed the safety of anthrax vaccination. These studies, some stretching back almost 50 years, reported adverse events after vaccination in varying degrees of detail...

  18. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved......No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well...

  19. Vaccinomics Approach to the Identification of Candidate Protective Antigens for the Control of Tick Vector Infestations and Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Contreras

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA, tick-borne fever (TBF in small ruminants, and other forms of anaplasmosis in different domestic and wild animals. The main vectors of this pathogen are Ixodes tick species, particularly I. scapularis in the United States and I. ricinus in Europe. One of the main limitations for the development of effective vaccines for the prevention and control of A. phagocytophilum infection and transmission is the identification of effective tick protective antigens. The objective of this study was to apply a vaccinomics approach to I. scapularis-A. phagocytophilum interactions for the identification and characterization of candidate tick protective antigens for the control of vector infestations and A. phagocytophilum infection. The vaccinomics pipeline included the use of quantitative transcriptomics and proteomics data from uninfected and A. phagocytophilum-infected I. scapularis ticks for the selection of candidate protective antigens based on the variation in tick mRNA and protein levels in response to infection, their putative biological function, and the effect of antibodies against these proteins on tick cell apoptosis and pathogen infection. The characterization of selected candidate tick protective antigens included the identification and characterization of I. ricinus homologs, functional characterization by different methodologies including RNA interference, immunofluorescence, gene expression profiling, and artificial tick feeding on rabbit antibodies against the recombinant antigens to select the candidates for vaccination trials. The vaccinomics pipeline developed in this study resulted in the identification of two candidate tick protective antigens that could be selected for future vaccination trials. The results showed that I. scapularis lipocalin (ISCW005600 and lectin pathway inhibitor (AAY66632 and I. ricinus homologs constitute

  20. [Expression, purification and protective antigen analysis of cell wall protein MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-ping; Pian, Ya-ya; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Yu-ling; Jiang, Yong-qiang; Xiong, Zheng-ying

    2012-02-01

    To amplify the mrp gene of Streptococcus suis type 2 05ZYH33, express it in E.coli BL21 in order to acquire high purity recombinant protein MRP, then evaluate the protective antigen of recombinant protein MRP. Using PCR technology to obtain the product of mrp gene of 05ZYH33, and then cloned it into the expression vector pET28a(+). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography, later immunized New Zealand rabbit to gain anti-serum, then test the anti-serum titer by ELISA. The opsonophagocytic killing test demonstrated the abilities of protective antigen of MRP. The truncated of MRP recombinant protein in E.coli BL21 expressed by inclusion bodies, and purified it in high purity. After immunoprotection, the survival condition of CD-1 was significantly elevated. The survival rate of wild-type strain 05ZYH33 in blood was apparently decreased after anti-serum opsonophagocyticed, but the mutant delta; MRP showed no differences. MRP represent an important protective antigen activity.

  1. Enhanced acquired antibodies to a chimeric Plasmodium falciparum antigen; UB05-09 is associated with protective immunity against malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinga, J N; Gamua, S D; Titanji, V P K

    2017-08-01

    It has been shown that covalently linking two antigens could enhance the immunogenicity of the chimeric construct. To prioritize such a chimera for malaria vaccine development, it is necessary to demonstrate that naturally acquired antibodies against the chimera are associated with protection from malaria. Here, we probe the ability of a chimeric construct of UB05 and UB09 antigens (UB05-09) to better differentiate between acquired immune protection and susceptibility to malaria. In a cross-sectional study, recombinant UB05-09 chimera and the constituent antigens were used to probe for specific antibodies in the plasma from children and adults resident in a malaria-endemic zone, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Anti-UB05-09 antibody levels doubled that of its constituent antigens, UB09 and UB05, and this correlated with protection against malaria. The presence of enhanced UB05-09-specific antibody correlated with the absence of fever and parasitaemia, which are the main symptoms of malaria infection. The chimera is more effective in detecting and distinguishing acquired protective immunity against malaria than any of its constituents taken alone. Online B-cell epitope prediction tools confirmed the presence of B-cell epitopes in the study antigens. UB05-09 chimera is a marker of protective immunity against malaria that needs to be studied further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Whole Genome Analysis of Injectional Anthrax Identifies Two Disease Clusters Spanning More Than 13 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Keim

    2015-11-01

    Lay Person Interpretation: Injectional anthrax has been plaguing heroin drug users across Europe for more than 10 years. In order to better understand this outbreak, we assessed genomic relationships of all available injectional anthrax strains from four countries spanning a >12 year period. Very few differences were identified using genome-based analysis, but these differentiated the isolates into two distinct clusters. This strongly supports a hypothesis of at least two separate anthrax spore contamination events perhaps during the drug production processes. Identification of two events would not have been possible from standard epidemiological analysis. These comprehensive data will be invaluable for classifying future injectional anthrax isolates and for future geographic attribution.

  3. Modeling the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana and estimating populations at risk: Implications for vaccination and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracalik, Ian T; Kenu, Ernest; Ayamdooh, Evans Nsoh; Allegye-Cudjoe, Emmanuel; Polkuu, Paul Nokuma; Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Bower, William A; Traxler, Rita; Blackburn, Jason K

    2017-10-01

    Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups. To predict the environmental suitability of anthrax, we used an ensemble of random forest (RF) models built using a combination of climatic and environmental factors. From 2005 through the first six months of 2016, there were 67 anthrax outbreaks (851 cases) in livestock; outbreaks showed a seasonal peak during February through April and primarily involved cattle. There was a median of 19,709 vaccine doses [range: 0-175 thousand] administered annually. Results from the RF model suggest a marked ecological divide separating the broad areas of environmental suitability in northern Ghana from the southern part of the country. Increasing alkaline soil pH was associated with a higher probability of anthrax occurrence. We estimated 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0, 2.5) million livestock and 805 (95% CI: 519, 890) thousand low income rural livestock keepers were located in anthrax risk areas. Based on our estimates, the current anthrax vaccination efforts in Ghana cover a fraction of the livestock potentially at risk, thus control efforts should be focused on improving vaccine coverage among high risk groups.

  4. Modeling the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana and estimating populations at risk: Implications for vaccination and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T Kracalik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is hyper-endemic in West Africa. Despite the effectiveness of livestock vaccines in controlling anthrax, underreporting, logistics, and limited resources makes implementing vaccination campaigns difficult. To better understand the geographic limits of anthrax, elucidate environmental factors related to its occurrence, and identify human and livestock populations at risk, we developed predictive models of the environmental suitability of anthrax in Ghana. We obtained data on the location and date of livestock anthrax from veterinary and outbreak response records in Ghana during 2005-2016, as well as livestock vaccination registers and population estimates of characteristically high-risk groups. To predict the environmental suitability of anthrax, we used an ensemble of random forest (RF models built using a combination of climatic and environmental factors. From 2005 through the first six months of 2016, there were 67 anthrax outbreaks (851 cases in livestock; outbreaks showed a seasonal peak during February through April and primarily involved cattle. There was a median of 19,709 vaccine doses [range: 0-175 thousand] administered annually. Results from the RF model suggest a marked ecological divide separating the broad areas of environmental suitability in northern Ghana from the southern part of the country. Increasing alkaline soil pH was associated with a higher probability of anthrax occurrence. We estimated 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0, 2.5 million livestock and 805 (95% CI: 519, 890 thousand low income rural livestock keepers were located in anthrax risk areas. Based on our estimates, the current anthrax vaccination efforts in Ghana cover a fraction of the livestock potentially at risk, thus control efforts should be focused on improving vaccine coverage among high risk groups.

  5. Progesterone impairs antigen-non-specific immune protection by CD8 T memory cells via interferon-γ gene hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yushi; Li, Hui; Ding, Jie; Xia, Yixin; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM), which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm) cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense against LM. However, whether and how increased progesterone during pregnancy modulates CD8 Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ production and immune protection against LM remain poorly understood. Here we show in pregnant women that increased serum progesterone levels are associated with DNA hypermethylation of IFN-γ gene promoter region and decreased IFN-γ production in CD8 Tm cells upon antigen-non-specific stimulation ex vivo. Moreover, IFN-γ gene hypermethylation and significantly reduced IFN-γ production post LM infection in antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells are also observed in pregnant mice or progesterone treated non-pregnant female mice, which is a reversible phenotype following demethylation treatment. Importantly, antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells from progesterone treated mice have impaired anti-LM protection when adoptive transferred in either pregnant wild type mice or IFN-γ-deficient mice, and demethylation treatment rescues the adoptive protection of such CD8 Tm cells. These data demonstrate that increased progesterone impairs immune protective functions of antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells via inducing IFN-γ gene hypermethylation. Our findings thus provide insights into a new mechanism through which increased female sex hormone regulate CD8 Tm cell functions during pregnancy.

  6. Progesterone impairs antigen-non-specific immune protection by CD8 T memory cells via interferon-γ gene hypermethylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM, which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense against LM. However, whether and how increased progesterone during pregnancy modulates CD8 Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ production and immune protection against LM remain poorly understood. Here we show in pregnant women that increased serum progesterone levels are associated with DNA hypermethylation of IFN-γ gene promoter region and decreased IFN-γ production in CD8 Tm cells upon antigen-non-specific stimulation ex vivo. Moreover, IFN-γ gene hypermethylation and significantly reduced IFN-γ production post LM infection in antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells are also observed in pregnant mice or progesterone treated non-pregnant female mice, which is a reversible phenotype following demethylation treatment. Importantly, antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells from progesterone treated mice have impaired anti-LM protection when adoptive transferred in either pregnant wild type mice or IFN-γ-deficient mice, and demethylation treatment rescues the adoptive protection of such CD8 Tm cells. These data demonstrate that increased progesterone impairs immune protective functions of antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells via inducing IFN-γ gene hypermethylation. Our findings thus provide insights into a new mechanism through which increased female sex hormone regulate CD8 Tm cell functions during pregnancy.

  7. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  8. Cutaneous anthrax in the northeast of Iran: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is an aerobic, gram-positive, and spore-forming Bacillus species. The most common form of anthrax infection is the cutaneous form. The infection usually develops several days after exposure to products of infected animals and manifest as black sore with severe swelling on the skin.A 52-year-old female with a black and swollen lesion on her index finger presented to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, in October 2015. Biopsy and swab culture were performed immediately. Cutaneous anthrax was characterized by microscopic examination of B. anthracis spore using Gram staining. The patient was then treated with antibiotics after diagnosis.According to the reports of Provincial Health Center of Khorasan Razavi, northeast of Iran, no cases of anthrax have been reported in humans since 2013. There were neither occupational risk factors, nor any routine predisposing factors for acquiring anthrax in this woman. Although this patient is the first case reported with cutaneous anthrax since the past three years, two cases of sheep anthrax have been reported in Khorasan Razavi Province during 2013-2015. This patient had a history of contact with the skull of a slaughtered sheep. The patient was treated after making correct and rapid diagnosis and sufficient antibiotic therapy.

  9. Historical evolution of human anthrax from occupational disease to potentially global threat as bioweapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Gentile, Bernardina; Lista, Florigio; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can naturally infect livestock, wildlife and occupationally exposed humans. However, for its resistance due to spore formation, ease of dissemination, persistence in the environment and high virulence, B. anthracis has been considered the most serious bioterrorism agent for a long time. During the last century anthrax evolved from limited natural disease to potentially global threat if used as bioweapon. Several factors may mitigate the consequences of an anthrax attack, including 1. the capability to promptly recognize and manage the illness and its public health consequences; 2. the limitation of secondary contamination risk through an appropriate decontamination; and 3. the evolution of genotyping methods (for microbes characterization at high resolution level) that can influence the course and/or focus of investigations, impacting the response of the government to an attack. A PubMed search has been done using the key words “bioterrorism anthrax”. Over one thousand papers have been screened and the most significant examined to present a comprehensive literature review in order to discuss the current knowledge and strategies in preparedness for a possible deliberate release of B. anthracis spores and to indicate the most current and complete documents in which to deepen. The comprehensive analysis of the two most relevant unnatural anthrax release events, Sverdlovsk in the former Soviet Union (1979) and the contaminated letters in the USA (2001), shows that inhalational anthrax may easily and cheaply be spread resulting in serious consequences. The damage caused by an anthrax attack can be limited if public health organization, first responders, researchers and investigators will be able to promptly manage anthrax cases and use new technologies for decontamination methods and in forensic microbiology.

  10. Changing patterns of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during the post-Soviet and preemptive livestock vaccination eras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Kracalik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of (+11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of -35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated "One Health" approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease.

  11. Evaluation of cutaneous anthrax cases during an outbreak in the east region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural Ünüvar, Esra; Akgün Karapınar, Deniz Bahar; Dizen Namdar, Nazlı

    2016-11-17

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate cutaneous anthrax cases that occurred during an outbreak in eastern Turkey (Hakkari-Yüksekova), where people mostly earn their living from animal husbandry. Forty-six cutaneous anthrax patients that were admitted to the hospital during a very short duration of 3 months (June-August 2011) were evaluated. Out of 46 patients, 27 (52%) were women and 19 (48%) were men. The mean age was 37 ± 13 years. The distribution of occupations was 1 butcher, 1 cook, 5 farmers, 27 housewives, 11 shepherds, and 1 teacher. Multiple lesions were seen in 7 patients (15%) and the rest of the patients had only 1 lesion. We observed significant clinical differences among the cases and noted which particular symptoms were associated with the various skin lesions. We treated our patients with intramuscular procaine penicillin or oral ciprofloxacin/doxycycline. Anthrax is an important health problem that can cause lethal outbreaks. Therefore, one should think about anthrax when faced with a patient with history of animal contact that has a painless ulcer with edema and/or vesicles, especially in endemic countries like Turkey.

  12. Awareness and attitudes towards anthrax and meat consumption practices among affected communities in Zambia: A mixed methods approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Chilolo Sitali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, human anthrax cases often occur following cases of animal anthrax. Human behaviour has been implicated in this transmission. The objective of the study was to explore human behavioural patterns that may contribute to outbreaks of anthrax among affected communities.A mixed methods study was conducted in four districts of Zambia from November 2015 to February 2016. A cross sectional survey involving 1,127 respondents, six focus group discussions and seven key informant interviews with professional staff were conducted. Descriptive statistics on socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of anthrax, attitudes towards cattle vaccination and risk factors for anthrax and vaccination practices were run using STATA 12 for analysis.Overall, 88% of respondents heard about anthrax, 85.1% were aware that anthrax is transmitted by eating infected meat and 64.2% knew that animals and humans can be infected with anthrax. However, qualitative data suggested that awareness of anthrax varied across communities. Qualitative findings also indicated that, in Western and Muchinga provinces, human anthrax was transmitted by eating infected beef and hippo (Hippopotamus amphibious meat, respectively. Although survey data indicated that 62.2% of respondents vaccinated their animals, qualitative interviews and annual vaccination reports indicated low vaccination rates, which were attributed to inadequate veterinary service provision and logistical challenges. While 82% of respondents indicated that they reported animal deaths to veterinary officers, only 13.5% of respondents buried infected carcasses. Majority (78.1% of respondents either ate, sold or shared meat from dead animals with other community members. Poverty, lack of access to meat protein and economic reasons were cited as drivers for consuming infected meat.Health education campaigns must be intensified to reduce the risk of human exposure. Veterinary extension services should be strengthened and

  13. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Diane E.; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti

  14. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Diane E. [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Program of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Hoover, Benjamin [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cloud, Loretta Grey [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Shihui [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Molinolo, Alfredo A. [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Leppla, Stephen H. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bugge, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.bugge@nih.go [Proteases and Tissue Remodeling Section, Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5–3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. - Highlights: • Toxicity and anti

  15. Anthrax does not forgive mistakes: the information assessment following the yamal peninsula outbreak in the summer of 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shestakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time in a long time period the sources of actual information about anthrax in Russia and in the world are systematized. The essence of the problem, features of epidemiology and clinical manifestations of the current forms of anthrax disease are analyzed. The upgraded classification of anthrax is presented, the clinical manifestations of oro-oropharyngeal varieties of intestinal form and injectable form of anthrax are described, according to extensive literature data and international guidelines and recommendations. The recommendations for clinical management of patients and diagnosis of disease are given. The need for strict compliance to the vaccination requirements of anthrax among animals and persons from risk groups is proven.

  16. Proteome-wide antigen discovery of novel protective vaccine candidates against Staphylococcus aureus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karina Juhl; Mattsson, Andreas Holm; Pilely, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    -five different S. aureus proteins were identified, recombinantly expressed, and tested for protection in a lethal sepsis mouse model using S. aureus strain MRSA252 as the challenge organism. We found that 13 of the 35 recombinant peptides yielded significant protection and that 12 of these antigens were highly...

  17. Antibodies to variable Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface antigens are associated with protection from novel malaria infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D

    2000-01-01

    is maintained at low densities. Here, we test the hypothesis that the presence or absence of antibodies against variant antigens on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes protect individuals against some infectious challenges and render them susceptible to others. Plasma collected in Daraweesh...... susceptible and protected individuals. Together, the results indicate that pre-existing anti-PfEMP1 antibodies can reduce the risk of contracting clinical malaria when challenged by novel parasite clones expressing homologous, but not heterologous variable surface antigens. The results also confirm...

  18. Frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Bellan, Steven E; Turner, Wendy C; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have examined host-pathogen interactions in wildlife from an immunological perspective, particularly in the context of seasonal and longitudinal dynamics. In addition, though most ecological immunology studies employ serological antibody assays, endpoint titre determination is usually based on subjective criteria and needs to be made more objective. Despite the fact that anthrax is an ancient and emerging zoonotic infectious disease found world-wide, its natural ecology is not well understood. In particular, little is known about the adaptive immune responses of wild herbivore hosts against Bacillus anthracis. Working in the natural anthrax system of Etosha National Park, Namibia, we collected 154 serum samples from plains zebra (Equus quagga), 21 from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) and 45 from African elephants (Loxodonta africana) over 2-3 years, resampling individuals when possible for seasonal and longitudinal comparisons. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure anti-anthrax antibody titres and developed three increasingly conservative models to determine endpoint titres with more rigourous, objective mensuration. Between 52 and 87% of zebra, 0-15% of springbok and 3-52% of elephants had measurable anti-anthrax antibody titres, depending on the model used. While the ability of elephants and springbok to mount anti-anthrax adaptive immune responses is still equivocal, our results indicate that zebra in ENP often survive sublethal anthrax infections, encounter most B. anthracis in the wet season and can partially booster their immunity to B. anthracis. Thus, rather than being solely a lethal disease, anthrax often occurs as a sublethal infection in some susceptible hosts. Though we found that adaptive immunity to anthrax wanes rapidly, subsequent and frequent sublethal B. anthracis infections cause maturation of anti-anthrax immunity. By triggering host immune responses, these common sublethal infections may act as

  19. Anthrax and the Geochemistry of Soils in the Contiguous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale W. Griffin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil geochemical data from sample sites in counties that reported occurrences of anthrax in wildlife and livestock since 2000 were evaluated against counties within the same states (MN, MT, ND, NV, OR, SD and TX that did not report occurrences. These data identified the elements, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn, phosphorus (P and strontium (Sr, as having statistically significant differences in concentrations between county type (anthrax occurrence versus no occurrence. Tentative threshold values of the lowest concentrations of each of these elements (Ca = 0.43 wt %, Mn = 142 mg/kg, P = 180 mg/kg and Sr = 51 mg/kg and average concentrations (Ca = 1.3 wt %, Mn = 463 mg/kg, P = 580 mg/kg and Sr = 170 mg/kg were identified from anthrax-positive counties as prospective investigative tools in determining whether an outbreak had “potential” or was “likely” at any given geographic location in the contiguous United States.

  20. Evaluating the protective efficacy of antigen combinations against Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida infections in cobia, Rachycentron canadum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, L-P; Chang, C-J; Liu, H-C; Yang, H-L; Lin, J H-Y

    2014-01-01

    Cobia, Rachycentron canadum L., is a very important aquatic fish that faces the risk of infection with the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, and there are few protective approaches available that use multiple antigens. In the present study, potent bivalent antigens from P. damselae ssp. piscicida showed more efficient protection than did single antigens used in isolation. In preparations of three antigens that included recombinant heat shock protein 60 (rHSP60), recombinant α-enolase (rENOLASE) and recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rGAPDH), we analysed the doses that elicited the best immune responses and found that this occurred at a total of 30 μg of antigen per fish. Subsequently, vaccination of fish with rHSP60, rENOLASE and rGAPDH achieved 46.9, 52 and 25% relative per cent survival (RPS), respectively. In addition, bivalent subunit vaccines--combination I (rHSP60 + rENOLASE), combination II (rENOLASE + rGAPDH) and combination III (rHSP60 + rGAPDH)--were administered and the RPS in these groups (65.6, 64.0 and 48.4%, respectively), was higher than that achieved with single-antigen administration. Finally, in combination IV, the trivalent vaccine rHSP60 + rENOLASE + rGAPDH, the RPS was 1.6%. Taken together, our results suggest that combinations of two antigens may achieve a better efficiency than monovalent or trivalent antigens, and this may provide new insights into pathogen prevention strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Patient and family physician preferences for care and communication in the eventuality of anthrax terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Ernesto; Fogelman, Yacov; Kitai, Eliezer; Vinker, Shlomo

    2003-08-01

    The threat of bioterrorism consequent to the September 11, 2001 attack in the USA generated suggestions for improved medical response mainly through hospital preparedness. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of this period of tension on patients' first choice for care and for receiving relevant information, and on primary care doctors' feelings of responsibility in the eventuality of an anthrax attack. During October 11-31, 2001, 500 patients from 30 clinics throughout Israel were asked to complete a questionnaire on their awareness of the anthrax threat, measures taken to prepare for it, and preferred sources of care and information. Their 30 physicians, and an additional 20, completed a questionnaire on knowledge about anthrax and anthrax-related patient behaviours and clinic visits. The outstanding finding was the low rate (30%) of patients who chose the hospital emergency department as their first choice for care or information if they were worried about an anthrax attack or the media communicated that an attack was in progress. The other two-thirds preferred their family doctor or the health authorities. Most of the physicians (89%) felt it was their responsibility to treat anthrax-infected patients and that they should therefore be supplied with appropriate guidelines. This study suggests that in Israel, a country with a high degree of awareness of civil defence aspects, both patients and primary care doctors believe that family physicians should have a major role in the case of bioterrorist attacks. This must be seriously considered during formulation of relevant health services programmes.

  2. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged...

  3. Selection of protective antigens in Lawsonia intracellularis by reverse vaccinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadekær, Dorte Fink; Lundegaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    protection against L. intracellularis. To this end, a reverse vaccinology approach was applied: the entire L. intracellularis genome encoding 1340 proteins was screened in silico using bioinformatics tools to identify potential protein antigens. Advanced software algorithms predicted 150 secreted and outer...... present in top 30 of both lists, and a combined rank was calculated. The two highest ranking proteins were initially selected for production. Synthetic genes have been designed, and the proteins are currently being produced in recombinant forms in bacterial expression systems. They will be analyzed...

  4. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Dina A; Scarff, Jennifer M; Garcia, Preston P; Cassidy, Sara K B; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M; Inzana, Thomas J; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  5. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  6. Failure to protect calves against Taenia saginata using antigens prepared from in vitro cultivation of the larval stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G B; Armour, J

    1980-11-01

    Calves were vaccinated intramuscularly against the tapeworm Taenia saginata using excretory/secretory (ES) antigens from short and long term periods of in vitro cultivation of the larval stage of the parasite, four weeks before challenge with 5000 T saginata onchospheres. Neither immunisation regime employed afforded significant protection against challenge. It was considered that this may have been due to a reduction in concentration of, or detrimental effects to, potential immunogens during vaccine production. Elucidation of the nature of the protective ES antigens necessary for standardization of the technique has yet to be achieved in helminths.

  7. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, David; Hess, Jessica A; Mejia, Rojelio; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B; Lustigman, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-10-19

    Human intestinal infections with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis remain a significant problem worldwide and a vaccine would be a useful addition to the tools available to prevent and control this infection. The goal of this study was to test single antigens for their efficacy in a vaccine against S. stercoralis larvae in mice. Alum was used as the adjuvant in these studies and antigens selected for analysis were either recognized by protective human IgG (Ss-TMY-1, Ss-EAT-6, and Ss-LEC-5) or were known to be highly immunogenic in humans (Ss-NIE-1 and Ss-IR). Only mice immunized with the Ss-IR antigen demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 80% in the survival of larval parasites in the challenge infection. Antibodies, recovered from mice with protective immunity to S. stercoralis after immunization with Ss-IR, were used to locate the antigen in the larvae. Confocal microscopy revealed that IgG from mice immunized with Ss-IR bound to the surface of the parasites and observations by electron microscopy indicated that IgG bound to granules in the glandular esophagus. Serum collected from mice immunized with Ss-IR passively transferred immunity to naïve mice. These studies demonstrate that Ss-IR, in combination with alum, induces high levels of protective immunity through an antibody dependent mechanism and may therefore be suitable for further development as a vaccine against human strongyloidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro evaluation, biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging in mice of radiolabeled anthrax toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Rivera, Johanna; Revskaya, Ekaterina; Nakouzi, Antonio; Cahill, Sean M.; Blumenstein, Michael; Xiao, Hui; Rykunov, Dmitry; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is a lot of interest towards creating therapies and vaccines for Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium which causes anthrax in humans and which spores can be made into potent biological weapons. Systemic injection of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA) in mice produces toxicity, and this protocol is commonly used to investigate the efficacy of specific antibodies in passive protection and vaccine studies. Availability of toxins labeled with imageable radioisotopes would allow to demonstrate their tissue distribution after intravenous injection at toxin concentration that are below pharmacologically significant to avoid masking by toxic effects. Methods: LF, EF and PA were radiolabeled with 188 Re and 99m Tc, and their performance in vitro was evaluated by macrophages and Chinese hamster ovary cells toxicity assays and by binding to macrophages. Scintigraphic imaging and biodistribution of intravenously (IV) injected 99m Tc-and 123 I-labeled toxins was performed in BALB/c mice. Results: Radiolabeled toxins preserved their biological activity. Scatchard-type analysis of the binding of radiolabeled PA to the J774.16 macrophage-like cells revealed 6.6x10 4 binding sites per cell with a dissociation constant of 6.7 nM. Comparative scintigraphic imaging of mice injected intravenously with either 99m Tc-or 123 I-labeled PA, EF and LF toxins demonstrated similar biodistribution patterns with early localization of radioactivity in the liver, spleen, intestines and excretion through kidneys. The finding of renal excretion shortly after IV injection strongly suggests that toxins are rapidly degraded which could contribute to the variability of mouse toxigenic assays. Biodistribution studies confirmed that all three toxins concentrated in the liver and the presence of high levels of radioactivity again implied rapid degradation in vivo. Conclusions: The availability of 188 Re and 99m Tc-labeled PA, LF and EF toxins allowed us to

  9. Identification of pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens that target hepatocytes for killing in vivo and contribute to protection elicited by whole-parasite vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccines, including those based on whole-parasite approaches, have shown protective efficacy in animal and human studies. However few pre-erythocytic antigens other than the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP have been studied in depth with the goal of developing potent subunit malaria vaccines that are suited for use in endemic areas. Here we describe a novel technique to identify pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens that contribute to protection elicited by whole-parasite vaccination in the mouse model. Our approach combines immunization with genetically attenuated parasites and challenge with DNA plasmids encoding for potential protective pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens as luciferase fusions by hydrodynamic tail vein injection. After optimizing the technique, we first showed that immunization with Pyfabb/f-, a P. yoelii genetically attenuated parasite, induces killing of CSP-presenting hepatocytes. Depletion of CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells diminished the killing of CSP-expressing hepatocytes, indicating that killing is CD8+ T cell-dependent. Finally we showed that the use of heterologous prime/boost immunization strategies that use genetically attenuated parasites and DNA vaccines enabled the characterization of a novel pre-erythrocytic antigen, Tmp21, as a contributor to Pyfabb/f- induced protection. This technique will be valuable for identification of potentially protective liver stage antigens and has the potential to contribute to the understanding of immunity elicited by whole parasite vaccination, as well as the development of effective subunit malaria vaccines.

  10. A Survey about Protective Effect of Echinococcus Granulosus Protoscolices Surface Antigens in Preventing Secondary Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Yousofi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Hydatid cyst is located in human and some animal visceral organs such as liver and lung. The disease is considered as a medical, veterinary and economical problem in endemic area. When the hydatid cyst is ruptured, protoscolices from inside the cyst may spread out to other parts of the body and develops a new cyst named secondary hydatid cyst. In this research in an attempt to prevent secondary hydatid cyst, protective potential of protoscolices surface antigens extracted with different detergents has been investigated in animal model. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, groups of Balb/c mice were immunized intra-peritoneally with protoscolices homogenate and three detergent (SDS, Tween and Triton x–100 extracted protoscolices surface antigens and alum as adjuvant. These mice were then boosted two times with the same antigens fortnightly. Control mice were simultaneously injected with alum alone. Two weeks following the last injection all the mice in cases and control groups were challenged with live protoscolices. Three months afterward all the mice in case and control groups were sacrificed and their peritoneal cavities were explored for hydatid cysts. Results: The mean of developed cyst number in mice injected with protoscolices homogenate was 3±2, while in control group the mean of developed cysts number was 5.8 ± 1.7 (p< 0.02. The mean of developed cyst number in mice injected with SDS, Tween and Triton x–100 extracted protoscolices surface antigens was 3, 3.6 and 3.4, respectively, while the mean of developed cyst number in control group was 5.8. Conclusion: The mean of cyst number in cases and control groups was different and this difference was statistically significant. Results of this investigation revealed that protoscolices homogenate antigens and some detergent extracted antigens are protective against secondary hydatid cyst infection

  11. Defining Moments in MMWR History: CDC’s Response to Intentional Release of Anthrax - 2001

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-12

    On October 4, 2001, shortly after the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, the Palm Beach County Health Department, the Florida State Department of Health, and CDC reported a case of anthrax in a 63-year-old man from Florida. This case was first reported in MMWR and marked the beginning of a series of anthrax cases that resulted from intentional delivery of Bacillus anthracis spores sent through the mail. In this podcast, Dr. Sherif Zaki recalls CDC’s investigation and response to the anthrax attacks.  Created: 10/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/12/2017.

  12. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  13. Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No 2016/429): anthrax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon J.; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Anthrax has been assessed according to the criteria of the Animal Health Law (AHL), in particular criteria of Article 7 on disease profile and impacts, Article 5 on the eligibility of anthrax to be listed, Article 9 for the categorisation of anthrax according to disease prevention and control rul...... species to be listed for anthrax according to Article 8(3) are several species of mammals, birds and reptiles, and susceptible herbivores and pigs as reservoir....

  14. [Properties of live antibiotics-resistant anthrax vaccine STI-PR after long-term storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, L Iu; Buravtseva, N P; Kogotkova, O I; Eremenko, E I; Tsygankova, O I

    2007-01-01

    Study showed that cultural, morphologic, genetic, immunologic characteristics, and resistance to antibiotics of STI-PR anthrax vaccine did not change after storage during 20 years in lyophilized condition. It has been shown that medium for lyophilization plays important role in preservation of vitality of anthrax spores. Optimal preservative properties have been observed for thioureal and sucrose-gelatinous media for lyophilization. Obtained results give reasons for prolongation of shelf live of STI-PR vaccine from 2 - 3 to 5 - 8 years.

  15. Confirmation of acute nitrate poisoning differentiating from anthrax in three Indian indigenous cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaresan Nagarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports cases of nitrate poisoning in Indian indigenous cattle breeds comprising two Gir cows aging 4 years each, and one Barugur cow at 1.5 years of age. The cattle with case history of sudden death and oozing of partially clotted blood from the anal opening were brought to the Central University Laboratory (CUL, Center for Animal Health Studies (CAHS, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS for diagnostic investigation with a suspicion of anthrax. According to anamnesis, all the animals were clinically normal and did not reveal any abnormality on the previous day. The animals were fed with recently harvested sorghum leaves and stalks. Smears examined for anthrax were found negative. Biological test (mice inoculation for anthrax was also negative. Gross lesions on necropsy examination of the carcases were suggestive of nitrate intoxication. Finally, nitrate intoxication of these cattle was confirmed by chemical and toxicological analysis of fodder, rumen content, aqueous humor, liver, kidney and urine.

  16. Production of a DNA Vaccine Specific for the 64 kDa Protective Antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middlebrooks, Bobby L

    2007-01-01

    The gene for the protective antigen of E. rhusiopathiae will be inserted into a eukaryotic vector both for the production of a DNA vaccine and for large scale production of the recombinant protein (in vitro...

  17. Expression of the ’Bacillus anthracis’ Protective Antigen Gene by Baculovirus and Vaccinia Virus Recombinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    procaryotic systems (12. 45). Certain eucaryotic ically cleaved by a trypsin-like proteas: ito produce a recep- viruses are currently being explored as...19847. Proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin bound to cellular recep- ACKN()WEIX;NMNTS tor%.. p. 111-112. In F. Fehrenbach et al. ifed.). Bacterial

  18. Expression of Brucella Antigens in Vaccinia Virus to Prevent Brucellosis in Humans: Protection Studies in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schurig, Gerhardt

    2000-01-01

    .... Based on our present studies and the finding that Brucella Cu/ZN SOD and L7/Ll2 proteins are protective antigens and that the presence of IL-12 is necessary at the moment of immunization, we conclude...

  19. O-mannosylation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adhesin Apa is crucial for T cell antigenicity during infection but is expendable for protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Subhadra; Kannanganat, Sunil; Dobos, Karen M; Lucas, Megan; Spencer, John S; Fang, Sunan; McDonald, Melissa A; Pohl, Jan; Birkness, Kristin; Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Ramirez, Melissa V; Plikaytis, Bonnie B; Posey, James E; Amara, Rama Rao; Sable, Suraj B

    2013-01-01

    Glycosylation is the most abundant post-translational polypeptide chain modification in nature. Although carbohydrate modification of protein antigens from many microbial pathogens constitutes important components of B cell epitopes, the role in T cell immunity is not completely understood. Here, using ELISPOT and polychromatic flow cytometry, we show that O-mannosylation of the adhesin, Apa, of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is crucial for its T cell antigenicity in humans and mice after infection. However, subunit vaccination with both mannosylated and non-mannosylated Apa induced a comparable magnitude and quality of T cell response and imparted similar levels of protection against Mtb challenge in mice. Both forms equally improved waning BCG vaccine-induced protection in elderly mice after subunit boosting. Thus, O-mannosylation of Apa is required for antigenicity but appears to be dispensable for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice. These results have implications for the development of subunit vaccines using post-translationally modified proteins such as glycoproteins against infectious diseases like tuberculosis.

  20. False alarms, real challenges--one university's communication response to the 2001 anthrax crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher E; Chess, Caron

    2006-01-01

    Considerable research exists on how government agencies at the federal, state, and local levels communicated during the fall 2001 anthrax attacks. However, there is little research on how other institutions handled this crisis, in terms of their response to potential anthrax contamination (aka "white powder scares") and their approach to disseminating important health and safety information. In this article, we investigate a major university's communication response to the anthrax crisis. First, we describe its communication experiences relating to a large white powder scare that occurred in October 2001. Second, we describe the university's broader communication efforts in terms of several important elements of risk communication research, including influence of source attributes, key messages, preferred channels, responses to information requests, and organizational influences. This study underlines that an institution does not have to be directly affected by a crisis to find itself on the communication "front lines." Moreover, other institutions may find it useful to learn from the experiences of this university, so that they may communicate more effectively during future crises.

  1. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B

    2015-01-01

    The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing determinant in alpha

  2. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Oscherwitz

    Full Text Available The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing

  3. The anthrax vaccine and research: reactions from postal workers and public health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Thomas, Tammy; Kumar, Supriya

    2008-12-01

    During the 2001 anthrax attacks, public health agencies faced operational and communication decisions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and the anthrax vaccine with affected groups, including postal workers. This communication occurred within an evolving situation with incomplete and uncertain data. Guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics changed several times, contributing to confusion and mistrust. At the end of 60 days of taking antibiotics, people were offered an additional 40 days' supply of antibiotics, with or without the anthrax vaccine, the former constituting an investigational new drug protocol. Using data from interviews and focus groups with 65 postal workers in 3 sites and structured interviews with 16 public health professionals, this article examines the challenges for public health professionals who were responsible for communication with postal workers about the vaccine. Multiple factors affected the response, including a lack of trust, risk perception, disagreement about the recommendation, and the controversy over the military's use of the vaccine. Some postal workers reacted with suspicion to the vaccine offer, believing that they were the subjects of research, and some African American workers specifically drew an analogy to the Tuskegee syphilis study. The consent forms required for the protocol heightened mistrust. Postal workers also had complex and ambivalent responses to additional research on their health. The anthrax attacks present us with an opportunity to understand the challenges of communication in the context of uncertain science and suggest key strategies that may improve communications about vaccines and other drugs authorized for experimental use in future public health emergencies.

  4. [Anthrax in the canton of Zurich between 1878 and 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes Ammann, A; Brandl, H

    2007-07-01

    Historical records reporting cases of animal anthrax in the canton of Zurich between 1878 and 2005 were analysed on the level of political communities regarding occurrence and number of cases, animals affected, and number of communities affected. Data were correlated with industrial activities (tanning, wool and horse hair processing) in a community and to the prevailing meteorological conditions. A total of 830 cases of animal anthrax has been recorded in 140 of 171 communities. Occurrence correlated with industrial activities in a community such as companies handling potentially contaminated materials (hides, fur, wool, hair, meat, or bone meal). The influence of wool processing companies (P = 0. 004) and tanneries (P = 0. 032) was significant whereas horse hair processing had no effect. However, a statistical relationship between the number of cases reported and meteorological data (rainfall, mean temperature) was not found.

  5. Oral Vaccination Against Anthrax Using a Transgenic Plant Expressing Protective Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Nicotiana plumbaginifolia )" Science 223:496-498. 15. Jefferson, R.A. (1987), "Assaying chimeric genes in plants: The GUS gene fusion system" Plant Mol.Biol...interest. Tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2) cells were grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS; 1962) media containing 0.2 [tg/ml 2,4-D with shaking at 8

  6. Protection Conferred by recombinant Yersinia pestis Antigens Produced by a Rapid and Highly Scalable Plant Expression System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santi, Luca; Giritch, Anatoli; Roy, Chad J; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri; Webb, Robert; Arntzen, Charles J; Mason, Hugh S

    2006-01-01

    ... have highlighted the need for a safe, efficacious, and rapidly producible vaccine. The use of F1 and V antigens and the derived protein fusion F1-V has shown great potential as a protective vaccine in animal studies...

  7. Pathogens Inactivated by Low-Energy-Electron Irradiation Maintain Antigenic Properties and Induce Protective Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertey, Jasmin; Bayer, Lea; Grunwald, Thomas; Pohl, Alexandra; Beckmann, Jana; Gotzmann, Gaby; Casado, Javier Portillo; Schönfelder, Jessy; Rögner, Frank-Holm; Wetzel, Christiane; Thoma, Martin; Bailer, Susanne M.; Hiller, Ekkehard; Rupp, Steffen; Ulbert, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation. It acts very fast and predominantly damages nucleic acids, conserving most of the antigenic structures. However, currently used irradiation technologies (mostly gamma-rays and high energy electrons) require large and complex shielding constructions to protect the environment from radioactivity or X-rays generated during the process. This excludes them from direct integration into biological production facilities. Here, low-energy electron irradiation (LEEI) is presented as an alternative inactivation method for pathogens in liquid solutions. LEEI can be used in normal laboratories, including good manufacturing practice (GMP)- or high biosafety level (BSL)-environments, as only minor shielding is necessary. We show that LEEI efficiently inactivates different viruses (influenza A (H3N8), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1)) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) and maintains their antigenicity. Moreover, LEEI-inactivated influenza A viruses elicit protective immune responses in animals, as analyzed by virus neutralization assays and viral load determination upon challenge. These results have implications for novel ways of developing and manufacturing inactivated vaccines with improved efficacy. PMID:27886076

  8. Gastrointestinal helminths may affect host susceptibility to anthrax through seasonal immune trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Wagner, Bettina; Küsters, Martina; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

    2014-11-12

    Most vertebrates experience coinfections, and many pathogen-pathogen interactions occur indirectly through the host immune system. These interactions are particularly strong in mixed micro-macroparasite infections because of immunomodulatory effects of helminth parasites. While these trade-offs have been examined extensively in laboratory animals, few studies have examined them in natural systems. Additionally, many wildlife pathogens fluctuate seasonally, at least partly due to seasonal host immune changes. We therefore examined seasonality of immune resource allocation, pathogen abundance and exposure, and interactions between infections and immunity in plains zebra (Equus quagga) in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, a system with strongly seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth infection intensity and concurrent anthrax outbreaks. Both pathogens are environmentally transmitted, and helminth seasonality is driven by environmental pressures on free living life stages. The reasons behind anthrax seasonality are currently not understood, though anthrax is less likely directly driven by environmental factors. We measured a complex, interacting set of variables and found evidence that GI helminth infection intensities, eosinophil counts, IgE and IgGb antibody titers, and possibly IL-4 cytokine signaling were increased in wetter seasons, and that ectoparasite infestations and possibly IFN-γ cytokine signaling were increased in drier seasons. Monocyte counts and anti-anthrax antibody titers were negatively associated with wet season eosinophilia, and monocytes were negatively correlated with IgGb and IgE titers. Taken together, this supports the hypothesis that ENP wet seasons are characterized by immune resource allocation toward Th-2 type responses, while Th1-type immunity may prevail in drier seasons, and that hosts may experience Th1-Th2 trade-offs. We found evidence that this Th2-type resource allocation is likely driven by GI parasite infections

  9. Positive correlation between Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine antigen concentration and protection in vaccinated rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss evaluated by a tail fin infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marana, M. H.; Skov, J.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), are able to raise a protective immune response against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) following injection vaccination with commercial vaccines containing formalin-killed bacteria, but the protection is often suboptimal under Danish...... mariculture conditions. We elucidated whether protection can be improved by increasing the concentration of antigen (formalin-killed bacteria) in the vaccine. Rainbow trout juveniles were vaccinated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with a bacterin of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain 090710...... bacteria. The infection method proved to be efficient and could differentiate efficacies of different vaccines. It was shown that protection and antibody production in exposed fish were positively correlated to the AS antigen concentration in the vaccine....

  10. Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Rattanaporn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin, CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2, an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG. We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS: p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI, with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  11. Transient co-expression of post-transcriptional gene silencing suppressors for increased in planta expression of a recombinant anthrax receptor fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M; McDonald, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI.

  12. Rapid generation of an anthrax immunotherapeutic from goats using a novel non-toxic muramyl dipeptide adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Cassandra D; O'Loughlin, Chris; Gelder, Frank B; Peterson, Johnny W; Sower, Laurie E; Cirino, Nick M

    2007-01-01

    Background There is a clear need for vaccines and therapeutics for potential biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging diseases. Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, has been used as both a biological warfare agent and bioterrorist weapon previously. Although antibiotic therapy is effective in the early stages of anthrax infection, it does not have any effect once exposed individuals become symptomatic due to B. anthracis exotoxin accumulation. The bipartite exotoxin...

  13. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A global increase in invasive infections due to group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes or GAS has been observed since the 1980s, associated with emergence of a clonal group of strains of the M1T1 serotype. Among other virulence attributes, the M1T1 clone secretes NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase. When GAS binds to epithelial cells in vitro, NADase is translocated into the cytosol in a process mediated by streptolysin O (SLO, and expression of these two toxins is associated with enhanced GAS intracellular survival. Because SLO is required for NADase translocation, it has been difficult to distinguish pathogenic effects of NADase from those of SLO. To resolve the effects of the two proteins, we made use of anthrax toxin as an alternative means to deliver NADase to host cells, independently of SLO. We developed a novel method for purification of enzymatically active NADase fused to an amino-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LFn-NADase that exploits the avid, reversible binding of NADase to its endogenous inhibitor. LFn-NADase was translocated across a synthetic lipid bilayer in vitro in the presence of anthrax toxin protective antigen in a pH-dependent manner. Exposure of human oropharyngeal keratinocytes to LFn-NADase in the presence of protective antigen resulted in cytosolic delivery of NADase activity, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death, whereas a similar construct of an enzymatically inactive point mutant had no effect. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of NADase in an amount comparable to that observed during in vitro infection with live GAS rescued the defective intracellular survival of NADase-deficient GAS and increased the survival of SLO-deficient GAS. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that delivery of LFn-NADase prevented intracellular trafficking of NADase-deficient GAS to lysosomes. We conclude that NADase mediates cytotoxicity and promotes intracellular survival of GAS in host cells.

  14. A booster vaccine expressing a latency-associated antigen augments BCG induced immunity and confers enhanced protection against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bappaditya Dey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of a consistent protection against tuberculosis (TB in children, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG fails to provide adequate protection against the disease in adults as well as against reactivation of latent infections or exogenous reinfections. It has been speculated that failure to generate adequate memory T cell response, elicitation of inadequate immune response against latency-associated antigens and inability to impart long-term immunity against M. tuberculosis infections are some of the key factors responsible for the limited efficiency of BCG in controlling TB. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we evaluated the ability of a DNA vaccine expressing α-crystallin--a key latency antigen of M. tuberculosis to boost the BCG induced immunity. 'BCG prime-DNA boost' regimen (B/D confers robust protection in guinea pigs along with a reduced pathology in comparison to BCG vaccination (1.37 log(10 and 1.96 log(10 fewer bacilli in lungs and spleen, respectively; p<0.01. In addition, B/D regimen also confers enhanced protection in mice. Further, we show that B/D immunization in mice results in a heightened frequency of PPD and antigen specific multi-functional CD4 T cells (3(+ simultaneously producing interferon (IFNγ, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα and interleukin (IL2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results clearly indicate the superiority of α-crystallin based B/D regimen over BCG. Our study, also demonstrates that protection against TB is predictable by an increased frequency of 3(+ Th1 cells with superior effector functions. We anticipate that this study would significantly contribute towards the development of superior booster vaccines for BCG vaccinated individuals. In addition, this regimen can also be expected to reduce the risk of developing active TB due to reactivation of latent infection.

  15. Targeting Antigens to Dec-205 on Dendritic Cells Induces Immune Protection in Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadwa, Munisch; Klopfleisch, Robert; Buer, Jan; Westendorf, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    The endocytotic c-type lectin receptor DEC-205 is highly expressed on immature dendritic cells. In previous studies, it was shown that antigen-targeting to DEC-205 is a useful tool for the induction of antigen-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and thereby can prevent inflammatory processes. However, whether this approach is sufficient to mediate tolerance in mucosal tissues like the gut is unknown. In this study, we established a new mouse model in which the adoptive transfer of naive hemagglutinin (HA)-specific CD4+Foxp3– T cells into VILLIN-HA transgenic mice leads to severe colitis. To analyze if antigen-targeting to DEC-205 could protect against inflammation of the gut, VILLIN-HA transgenic mice were injected with an antibody–antigen complex consisting of the immunogenic HA110–120 peptide coupled to an α-DEC-205 antibody (DEC-HA) before adoptive T cell transfer. DEC-HA-treated mice showed significantly less signs of intestinal inflammation as was demonstrated by reduced loss of body weight and histopathology in the gut. Strikingly, abrogated intestinal inflammation was mediated via the conversion of naive HA-specific CD4+Foxp3– T cells into HA-specific CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we provide evidence that antigen-targeting to DEC-205 can be utilized for the induction of tolerance in mucosal organs that are confronted with large numbers of exogenous antigens. PMID:27141310

  16. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Petitdidier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA, from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA, combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates.

  17. Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with Plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    or the early liver-stages of the mammalian life cycle . One of these antigens is the cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS...Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with... Plasmodium berghei Elke S. Bergmann-Leitner1*, Ryan M. Mease1, Patricia De La Vega1, Tatyana Savranskaya2, Mark Polhemus1, Christian Ockenhouse1, Evelina

  18. No protection in chickens immunized by the oral or intra-muscular immunization route with Ascaridia galli soluble antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Janne Pleidrup; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    In chickens, the nematode Ascaridia galli is found with prevalences of up to 100% causing economic losses to farmers. No avian nematode vaccines have yet been developed and detailed knowledge about the chicken immune response towards A. galli is therefore of great importance. The objective...... of this study was to evaluate the induction of protective immune responses to A. galli soluble antigen by different immunization routes. Chickens were immunized with a crude extract of A. galli via an oral or intra-muscular route using cholera toxin B subunit as adjuvant and subsequently challenged with A...... immunization had an effect on both Th1 and Th2 cytokines in caecal tonsils and Meckel's diverticulum. Thus both humoral and cellular immune responses are inducible by soluble A. galli antigen, but in this study no protection against the parasite was achieved....

  19. Characterization of SeseC_01411 as a surface protective antigen of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Honglin; Wei, Zigong; Ma, Chunquan; Li, Shun; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is a commensal bacterium related to opportunistic infections of many species, including humans, dogs, cats, and pigs. SeseC_01411 has been proven to be immunogenic. However, its protective efficacy remained to be evaluated. In the present study, the purified recombinant SeseC_01411 could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect against lethal challenge with virulent SEZ in mice. Our finding confirmed that SeseC_01411 distributes on the surface of SEZ. In addition, the hyperimmune sera against SeseC_01411 could efficiently kill the bacteria in the phagocytosis test. The present study identified the immunogenic protein, SeseC_01411, as a novel surface protective antigen of SEZ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Diane E; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Leppla, Stephen H; Bugge, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5-3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. rBCG30-induced immunity and cross-protection against Mycobacterium leprae challenge are enhanced by boosting with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 30-kilodalton antigen 85B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Thomas P; Tullius, Michael V; Horwitz, Marcus A

    2014-09-01

    Leprosy remains a major global health problem and typically occurs in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. Vaccines are needed that protect against both infections and do so better than the suboptimal Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Here, we evaluated rBCG30, a vaccine previously demonstrated to induce protection superior to that of BCG against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis challenge in animal models, for efficacy against Mycobacterium leprae challenge in a murine model of leprosy. rBCG30 overexpresses the M. tuberculosis 30-kDa major secretory protein antigen 85B, which is 85% homologous with the M. leprae homolog (r30ML). Mice were sham immunized or immunized intradermally with BCG or rBCG30 and challenged 2.5 months later by injection of viable M. leprae into each hind footpad. After 7 months, vaccine efficacy was assessed by enumerating the M. leprae bacteria per footpad. Both BCG and rBCG30 induced significant protection against M. leprae challenge. In the one experiment in which a comparison between BCG and rBCG30 was feasible, rBCG30 induced significantly greater protection than did BCG. Immunization of mice with purified M. tuberculosis or M. leprae antigen 85B also induced protection against M. leprae challenge but less so than BCG or rBCG30. Notably, boosting rBCG30 with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B significantly enhanced r30ML-specific immune responses, substantially more so than boosting BCG, and significantly augmented protection against M. leprae challenge. Thus, rBCG30, a vaccine that induces improved protection against M. tuberculosis, induces cross-protection against M. leprae that is comparable or potentially superior to that induced by BCG, and boosting rBCG30 with antigen 85B further enhances immune responses and protective efficacy. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Highly predictive support vector machine (SVM) models for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal, acute infectious disease caused by the rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), a zinc metalloprotease secreted by the bacilli, plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis and is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related toxemia and host death, partly via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) enzymes and consequent disruption of key cellular signaling pathways. Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones are capable of clearing the bacilli but have no effect on LF-mediated toxemia; LF itself therefore remains the preferred target for toxin inactivation. However, currently no LF inhibitor is available on the market as a therapeutic, partly due to the insufficiency of existing LF inhibitor scaffolds in terms of efficacy, selectivity, and toxicity. In the current work, we present novel support vector machine (SVM) models with high prediction accuracy that are designed to rapidly identify potential novel, structurally diverse LF inhibitor chemical matter from compound libraries. These SVM models were trained and validated using 508 compounds with published LF biological activity data and 847 inactive compounds deposited in the Pub Chem BioAssay database. One model, M1, demonstrated particularly favorable selectivity toward highly active compounds by correctly predicting 39 (95.12%) out of 41 nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, 46 (93.88%) out of 49 inactives, and 844 (99.65%) out of 847 Pub Chem inactives in external, unbiased test sets. These models are expected to facilitate the prediction of LF inhibitory activity for existing molecules, as well as identification of novel potential LF inhibitors from large datasets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Search for protective antigens in Ixodes persulcatus (ixodidae) salivary gland extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtannikov, A V; Reshetniak, T V; Repolovskaia, T V; Panfertsev, E A; Perovskaia, O N; Gutova, V P; Vasil'eva, I S; Ershova, A S; Prilipov, A G; Biketov, S F; Zeidner, N

    2010-01-01

    RT-PCR evaluation of the activity of eight Ixodes persulcatus salivary gland genes shows clear distinctions in their expression depending of the stage of tick feeding. Out of them, only Salp 10 and Salp 15 proteins may be regarded as candidates for protective antigens to develop anti-tick and anti-Borrelia vaccines. Firstly they play an important role in feeding a tick and modifying a host's immune response. Secondly, the increasing expression of the salp 10 and salp 10 genes begins at early tick feeding stages. Thirdly, the activity of these genes increases with the beginning of feeding by tens and hundreds times and keeps at this level until the third tick feeding stage is over.

  4. Protection of Rhesus Monkeys by a DNA Prime/Poxvirus Boost Malaria Vaccine Depends on Optimal DNA Priming and Inclusion of Blood Stage Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Walter R.; Kumar, Anita; Jiang, George; Williams, Jackie; Bostick, Anthony; Conteh, Solomon; Fryauff, David; Aguiar, Joao; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T.; Ulmer, Jeffery B.; Richie, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Background We have previously described a four antigen malaria vaccine consisting of DNA plasmids boosted by recombinant poxviruses which protects a high percentage of rhesus monkeys against Plasmodium knowlesi (Pk) malaria. This is a multi-stage vaccine that includes two pre-erythrocytic antigens, PkCSP and PkSSP2(TRAP), and two erythrocytic antigens, PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-1(42kD). The present study reports three further experiments where we investigate the effects of DNA dose, timing, and formulation. We also compare vaccines utilizing only the pre-erythrocytic antigens with the four antigen vaccine. Methodology In three experiments, rhesus monkeys were immunized with malaria vaccines using DNA plasmid injections followed by boosting with poxvirus vaccine. A variety of parameters were tested, including formulation of DNA on poly-lactic co-glycolide (PLG) particles, varying the number of DNA injections and the amount of DNA, varying the interval between the last DNA injection to the poxvirus boost from 7 to 21 weeks, and using vaccines with from one to four malaria antigens. Monkeys were challenged with Pk sporozoites given iv 2 to 4 weeks after the poxvirus injection, and parasitemia was measured by daily Giemsa stained blood films. Immune responses in venous blood samples taken after each vaccine injection were measured by ELIspot production of interferon-γ, and by ELISA. Conclusions 1) the number of DNA injections, the formulation of the DNA plasmids, and the interval between the last DNA injection and the poxvirus injection are critical to vaccine efficacy. However, the total dose used for DNA priming is not as important; 2) the blood stage antigens PkAMA-1 and PkMSP-1 were able to protect against high parasitemias as part of a genetic vaccine where antigen folding is not well defined; 3) immunization with PkSSP2 DNA inhibited immune responses to PkCSP DNA even when vaccinations were given into separate legs; and 4) in a counter-intuitive result, higher

  5. Role of Food Insecurity in Outbreak of Anthrax Infections among Humans and Hippopotamuses Living in a Game Reserve Area, Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Mark W; Craig, Allen S; Malama, Constantine; Kapina-Kany'anga, Muzala; Malenga, Philip; Munsaka, Fanny; Muwowo, Sergio; Shadomy, Sean; Marx, Melissa A

    2017-09-01

    In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamuses deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent outbreaks by addressing the root cause of exposure, such as food insecurity.

  6. Immunological correlates for protection against intranasal challenge of Bacillus anthracis spores conferred by a protective antigen-based vaccine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Marcus, Hadar; Pass, Avi; Rothschild, Nili; Altboum, Zeev

    2006-01-01

    Correlates between immunological parameters and protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in animals vaccinated with protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines could provide surrogate markers to evaluate the putative protective efficiency of immunization in humans. In previous studies we demonstrated that neutralizing antibody levels serve as correlates for protection in guinea pigs (S. Reuveny et al., Infect. Immun. 69:2888-2893, 2001; H. Marcus et al., Infect. Immun. 72:3471-3477, 2004). In this study we evaluated similar correlates for protection by active and passive immunization of New Zealand White rabbits. Full immunization and partial immunization were achieved by single and multiple injections of standard and diluted doses of a PA-based vaccine. Passive immunization was carried out by injection of immune sera from rabbits vaccinated with PA-based vaccine prior to challenge with B. anthracis spores. Immunized rabbits were challenged by intranasal spore instillation with one of two virulent strains (strains Vollum and ATCC 6605). The immune competence was estimated by measuring the level of total anti-PA antibodies, the neutralizing antibody titers, and the conferred protective immunity. The results indicate that total anti-PA antibody titers greater than 1 x 10(5) conferred protection, whereas lower titers (between 10(4) and 10(5)) provided partial protection but failed to predict protection. Neutralizing antibody titers between 500 and 800 provided partial protection, while titers higher than 1,000 conferred protection. In conclusion, this study emphasizes that regardless of the immunization regimen or the time of challenge, neutralizing antibody titers are better predictors of protection than total anti-PA titers.

  7. Recent outbreak of cutaneous anthrax in Bangladesh: clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of cases attended at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital

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    Siddiqui Muhammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cutaneous anthrax results from skin exposure to B. anthracis, primarily due to occupational exposure. Bangladesh has experienced a number of outbreaks of cutaneous anthrax in recent years. The last episode occurred from April to August, 2011 and created mass havoc due to its dreadful clinical outcome and socio-cultural consequences. We report here the clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of 15 cutaneous anthrax cases attended at the Dermatology Outpatient Department of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh between April and August, 2011 with an aim to create awareness for early case detection and management. Findings Anthrax was suspected primarily based on cutaneous manifestations of typical non-tender ulcer with black eschar, with or without oedema, and a history of butchering, or dressing/washing of cattle/goat or their meat. Diagnosis was established by demonstration of large gram-positive rods, typically resembling B. anthracis under light microscope where possible and also by ascertaining therapeutic success. The mean age of cases was 21.4 years (ranging from 3 to 46 years, 7 (46.7% being males and 8 (53.3% females. The majority of cases were from lower middle socioeconomic status. Types of exposures included butchering (20%, contact with raw meat (46.7%, and live animals (33.3%. Malignant pustule was present in upper extremity, both extremities, face, and trunk at frequencies of 11 (73.3%, 2 (13.3%, 1 (6.7% and 1 (6.7% respectively. Eight (53.3% patients presented with fever, 7 (46.7% had localized oedema and 5 (33.3% had regional lymphadenopathy. Anthrax was confirmed in 13 (86.7% cases by demonstration of gram-positive rods. All cases were cured with 2 months oral ciprofloxacin combined with flucoxacillin for 2 weeks. Conclusions We present the findings from this series of cases to reinforce the criteria for clinical diagnosis and to urge prompt therapeutic measures to treat

  8. Efficacy of Oritavancin in a Murine Model of Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Anthrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heine, H. S; Bassett, J; Miller, L; Bassett, A; Ivins, B. E; Lehous, D; Arhin, F. F; Parr, Jr., T. R; Moeck, G

    2008-01-01

    The inhaled form of Bacillus anthracis infection may be fatal to humans. The current standard of care for inhalational anthrax postexposure prophylaxis is ciprofloxacin therapy twice daily for 60 days...

  9. Role of visible light-activated photocatalyst on the reduction of anthrax spore-induced mortality in mice.

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    Jyh-Hwa Kau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photocatalysis of titanium dioxide (TiO(2 substrates is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Anion-doped TiO(2 substrates were shown to exhibit photocatalytic activities under visible-light illumination, relative environmentally-friendly materials. Their anti-spore activity against Bacillus anthracis, however, remains to be investigated. We evaluated these visible-light activated photocatalysts on the reduction of anthrax spore-induced pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standard plating method was used to determine the inactivation of anthrax spore by visible light-induced photocatalysis. Mouse models were further employed to investigate the suppressive effects of the photocatalysis on anthrax toxin- and spore-mediated mortality. We found that anti-spore activities of visible light illuminated nitrogen- or carbon-doped titania thin films significantly reduced viability of anthrax spores. Even though the spore-killing efficiency is only approximately 25%, our data indicate that spores from photocatalyzed groups but not untreated groups have a less survival rate after macrophage clearance. In addition, the photocatalysis could directly inactivate lethal toxin, the major virulence factor of B. anthracis. In agreement with these results, we found that the photocatalyzed spores have tenfold less potency to induce mortality in mice. These data suggest that the photocatalysis might injury the spores through inactivating spore components. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Photocatalysis induced injuries of the spores might be more important than direct killing of spores to reduce pathogenicity in the host.

  10. O-antigen protects gram-negative bacteria from histone killing.

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    Catherine Chaput

    Full Text Available Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  11. Patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial prophylaxis for anthrax during the 2001 bioterrorism-related outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aber Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate use of antibiotics by individuals worried about biological agent exposures during bioterrorism events is an important public health concern. However, little is documented about the extent to which individuals with self-identified risk of anthrax exposure approached physicians for antimicrobial prophylaxis during the 2001 bioterrorism attacks in the United States. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected members of the Pennsylvania Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians to assess patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial agents during the 2001 anthrax attacks. Results Ninety-seven physicians completed the survey. Sixty-four (66% respondents had received requests from patients for anthrax prophylaxis; 16 (25% of these physicians prescribed antibiotics to a total of 23 patients. Ten physicians prescribed ciprofloxacin while 8 physicians prescribed doxycycline. Conclusion During the 2001 bioterrorist attacks, the majority of the emergency physicians we surveyed encountered patients who requested anthrax prophylaxis. Public fears may lead to a high demand for antibiotic prophylaxis during bioterrorism events. Elucidation of the relationship between public health response to outbreaks and outcomes would yield insights to ease burden on frontline clinicians and guide strategies to control inappropriate antibiotic allocation during bioterrorist events.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Enolase of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anding; Chen, Bo; Mu, Xiaofeng; Li, Ran; Zheng, Pei; Zhao, Yaxin; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2009-02-25

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is a porcine and human pathogen with adhesive and invasive properties. The absence of suitable vaccine or virulent marker can be the bottleneck to control SS2 infection. In the present study, a novel immunogenic Enolase identified in the previous study was inducibly overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and confer efficient immunity against challenge with lethal dose of SS2 or SS7 infection in mouse model. The roles Enolase plays in pathogenicity of SS2 were also explored as reasons for which Enolase could be a protective antigen. The Enolase was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the indirect immunofluorescent assay and the inhibition assay. These suggested that Enolase could play important roles in pathogenicity and may serve as a novel vaccine candidate against SS2 infection.

  13. The characteristics exosporium antigens from different vaccine strains of bacillus antracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranova, E.; Biketov, S.; Dunaytsev, I.; Mironova, R.; Dyatlov, I.

    2009-01-01

    To develop of both test-systems for rapid detection and identification of B. anthracis spores and a new subunit vaccine the antigens on the spore surface should be characterized. Exosporium consists of two layers-basal and peripheral and has been form by protein, amino- and neutral polysaccharides, lipids and ash. Number of anthrax exosporium proteins was described and identified: glycoprotein BclA, BclB, alanine racemase, inosine hydrolase, glycosyl hydrolase, superoxid dismutase, ExsF, ExsY, ExsK,CotB,CotY and SoaA. So far no glycosylated proteins other then highly immunogenic glycoproteins BclA, BclB were detected in the B. anthracis spore extract although several exosporium-specific glycoprotein have been described in other members of the B.cereus family- B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. Although EA1 protein originally described as main component of S-layer from vegetative cells he can regular observed in different exosporium preparations and additionally some anti- EA1 monoclonal antibodies able to recognize spore surface. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1contain carbohydrate which determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Because some time ago we have found that exosporium protein's pattern variable among B. anthracis strains we investigated exosporium from spore of different strains of B. anthracis including STI-1, Ames, Stern and others. We have comparative characterized antigens by using Western Blotting, Two-Dimensional electrophoresis and Mass Spec analysis. The results of analysis will be presented and discussed.(author)

  14. A recombinant multi-antigen vaccine with broad protection potential against avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Van Goor

    Full Text Available Chickens are a major source of protein worldwide, yet infectious diseases continue to threaten the poultry industry. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC, a subgroup of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC, causes colibacillosis in chickens resulting in economic loss because of treatment, condemnation of products, and death. In this study, we evaluated a recombinant antigens (rAg vaccine combining common ExPEC surface proteins EtsC, OmpA, OmpT, and TraT for broad protective potential against APEC infections in chickens. The specific objectives were to evaluate antibody (serum and cytokines (lymphoid organs responses to vaccination; in vitro bactericidal ability of serum and splenocytes against multiple APEC serotypes; and in vivo protection against APEC challenge in chickens. Groups of four-day old chickens (N = 10 were vaccinated twice (two-week interval subcutaneously with rAgs alone or in combination and CpG adjuvant or PBS (control. IgY antibody in the serum and mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, IL-4, IFN-β, and IL-8 in bursa, spleen, and thymus were measured using ELISA and RT-qPCR, respectively. Serum and splenocytes were tested for their bactericidal ability in vitro against multiple APEC isolates. Vaccinated and non-vaccinated chickens were challenged with 108 CFU of APEC-O2 via air sac at 31 days post first vaccination. Vaccine protection was determined by the decrease of bacterial loads in blood and organs (lung, heart, spleen, and liver, as well as gross colibacillosis lesion scores in air sac, heart, and liver. Vaccination significantly (P < 0.05 elicited IgY against specific antigens, induced immune related mRNA expression in the spleen and bursa, reduced in vitro growth of multiple APEC serotypes, and decreased bacterial loads in the heart and spleen, and gross lesion scores of the air sac, heart and liver in chickens. The vaccine reported may be used to provide broad protection against APEC strains

  15. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

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    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  16. Protective immunity induced in mice by F8.1 and F8.2 antigens purified from Schistosoma mansoni eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Campra Ferreira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens (SEA were fractionated by isoelectric focusing, resulting in 20 components, characterized by pH, absorbance and protein concentration. The higher absorbance fractions were submitted to electrophoresis, and fraction 8 (F8 presented a specific pattern of bands on its isoelectric point. Protein 3 was observed only on F8, and so, it was utilized to rabbit immunization, in order to evaluate its capacity of inducing protective immunity. IgG antibodies from rabbit anti-F8 serum were coupled to Sepharose, and used to obtain the specific antigen by affinity chromatography. This antigen, submitted to electrophoresis, presented two proteic bands (F8.1 and F8.2, which were transferred to nitrocellulose membrane (PVDF and sequenciated. The homology of F8.2 to known proteins was determined using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool program (BLASTp. Significant homologies were obtained for the rabbit cytosolic Ca2+ uptake inhibitor, and for the bird a1-proteinase inhibitor. Immunization of mice with F8.1 and F8.2, in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH3 as adjuvant, induced a significant protection degree against challenge infection, as observed by the decrease on worm burden recovered from portal system.

  17. Specificity of antigens on UV radiation-induced antigenic tumor cell variants measured in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, L.W.; Romerdahl, C.A.; Kripke, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether antigenic variants cross-react immunologically with the parental tumor and whether the UVR-associated antigen unique to UVR-induced tumors is also present on the variants. Antigenic (regressor) variants and nonimmunogenic (progressor) clones derived from UV-irradiated cultures of the C3H K1735 melanoma and SF19 spontaneous fibrosarcoma cell lines were used to address these questions. In an in vivo immunization and challenge assay, the antigenic variants did not induce cross-protection among themselves, but each induced immunity against the immunizing variant, the parent tumor cells, and nonimmunogenic clones derived from UV-irradiated parent cultures. Therefore, the variants can be used to induce in mice a protective immunity that prevents the growth of the parent tumor and nonimmunogenic clones, but not other antigenic variants. In contrast, immunization with cells of the parental tumor or the nonimmunogenic clones induced no protective immunity against challenge with any of the cell lines. Utilizing the K1735 melanoma-derived cell lines in vitro, T-helper (Th) cells isolated from tumor-immunized mice were tested for cross-reactivity by their ability to collaborate with trinitrophenyl-primed B-cells in the presence of trinitrophenyl-conjugated tumor cells. Also, the cross-reactivity of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from tumor-immunized mice was assessed by a 4-h 51Cr-release assay. Antigenic variants induced cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and Th activity that was higher than that induced by the parent tumor and nonimmunogenic clones from the UVR-exposed parent tumor and cross-reacted with the parental tumor cells and nonimmunogenic clones, but not with other antigenic variants

  18. Multiepitope fusion antigen induces broadly protective antibodies that prevent adherence of Escherichia coli strains expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I), CFA/II, and CFA/IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Wollenberg, Katie M; Sack, David A; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years and continues to be a major threat to global health. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains are able to attach to host small intestinal epithelial cells by using bacterial colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins. This attachment helps to initiate the diarrheal disease. Vaccines that induce antiadhesin immunity to block adherence of ETEC strains that express immunologically heterogeneous CFA adhesins are expected to protect against ETEC diarrhea. In this study, we created a CFA multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) carrying representative epitopes of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1, CS2, and CS3), and CFA/IV (CS4, CS5, and CS6), examined its immunogenicity in mice, and assessed the potential of this MEFA as an antiadhesin vaccine against ETEC. Mice intraperitoneally immunized with this CFA MEFA exhibited no adverse effects and developed immune responses to CFA/I, CFA/II, and CFA/IV adhesins. Moreover, after incubation with serum of the immunized mice, ETEC or E. coli strains expressing CFA/I, CFA/II, or CFA/IV adhesins were significantly inhibited in adherence to Caco-2 cells. Our results indicated this CFA MEFA elicited antibodies that not only cross-reacted to CFA/I, CFA/II and CFA/IV adhesins but also broadly inhibited adherence of E. coli strains expressing these seven adhesins and suggested that this CFA MEFA could be a candidate to induce broad-spectrum antiadhesin protection against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, this antigen construction approach (creating an MEFA) may be generally used in vaccine development against heterogenic pathogens.

  19. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  20. Estimating the location and spatial extent of a covert anthrax release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Legrand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly identifying the features of a covert release of an agent such as anthrax could help to inform the planning of public health mitigation strategies. Previous studies have sought to estimate the time and size of a bioterror attack based on the symptomatic onset dates of early cases. We extend the scope of these methods by proposing a method for characterizing the time, strength, and also the location of an aerosolized pathogen release. A back-calculation method is developed allowing the characterization of the release based on the data on the first few observed cases of the subsequent outbreak, meteorological data, population densities, and data on population travel patterns. We evaluate this method on small simulated anthrax outbreaks (about 25-35 cases and show that it could date and localize a release after a few cases have been observed, although misspecifications of the spore dispersion model, or the within-host dynamics model, on which the method relies can bias the estimates. Our method could also provide an estimate of the outbreak's geographical extent and, as a consequence, could help to identify populations at risk and, therefore, requiring prophylactic treatment. Our analysis demonstrates that while estimates based on the first ten or 15 observed cases were more accurate and less sensitive to model misspecifications than those based on five cases, overall mortality is minimized by targeting prophylactic treatment early on the basis of estimates made using data on the first five cases. The method we propose could provide early estimates of the time, strength, and location of an aerosolized anthrax release and the geographical extent of the subsequent outbreak. In addition, estimates of release features could be used to parameterize more detailed models allowing the simulation of control strategies and intervention logistics.

  1. [Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case following a cutaneous lesion in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadi, A; Hachimi, A; Soraa, N; Tassi, N; Nejmi, H; Elkhayari, M; Samkaoui, M A

    2014-05-01

    Anthrax meningoencephalitis is very rare especially following skin location. We report a case of meningoencephalitis secondary to skin lesion. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and confirmed by microbiological tests. Its evolution remains fatal despite aggressive resuscitation. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke R Klee

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a Bacillus strain isolated from a chimpanzee that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax. Unlike classic B. anthracis, this strain was motile and lacked the four prohages and the nonsense mutation. Four replicons were identified, a chromosome and three plasmids. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the chromosome resembles those of non-B. anthracis members of the Bacillus cereus group, whereas two plasmids were identical to the anthrax virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. The function of the newly discovered third plasmid with a length of 14 kbp is unknown. A detailed comparison of genomic loci encoding key features confirmed a higher similarity to B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27 and B. cereus E33L than to B. anthracis strains. For the first time we describe the sequence of an anthrax causing bacterium possessing both anthrax plasmids that apparently does not belong to the monophyletic group of all so far known B. anthracis strains and that differs in important diagnostic features. The data suggest that this bacterium has evolved from a B. cereus strain independently from the classic B. anthracis strains and established a B. anthracis lifestyle. Therefore we suggest to designate this isolate as "B. cereus variety (var. anthracis".

  3. America’s Food: Does Anthrax Pose A Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    a 1996 JAMA article, “Unexplained Severe Illness Possibly Associated with Consumption of Kombucha Tea - Iowa 1995.”13 For clarification, the... Kombucha “mush- room” is a “ symbiotic colony of several species of yeast and bacteria that are bound to- gether by a surrounding membrane.”14 Dr. Sadjadi...described an outbreak in Iran of cuta- 9 neous anthrax related to the Kombucha mushroom. In 1996 in a village on the outskirts of Tehran, 20 people

  4. KSAC, a defined Leishmania antigen, plus adjuvant protects against the virulence of L. major transmitted by its natural vector Phlebotomus duboscqi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Gomes

    Full Text Available Recombinant KSAC and L110f are promising Leishmania vaccine candidates. Both antigens formulated in stable emulsions (SE with the natural TLR4 agonist MPL® and L110f with the synthetic TLR4 agonist GLA in SE protected BALB/c mice against L. major infection following needle challenge. Considering the virulence of vector-transmitted Leishmania infections, we vaccinated BALB/c mice with either KSAC+GLA-SE or L110f+GLA-SE to assess protection against L. major transmitted via its vector Phlebotomus duboscqi.Mice receiving the KSAC or L110f vaccines were challenged by needle or L. major-infected sand flies. Weekly disease progression and terminal parasite loads were determined. Immunological responses to KSAC, L110f, or soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA were assessed throughout vaccination, three and twelve weeks after immunization, and one week post-challenge.Following sand fly challenge, KSAC-vaccinated mice were protected while L110f-vaccinated animals showed partial protection. Protection correlated with the ability of SLA to induce IFN-γ-producing CD4(+CD62L(lowCCR7(low effector memory T cells pre- and post-sand fly challenge.This study demonstrates the protective efficacy of KSAC+GLA-SE against sand fly challenge; the importance of vector-transmitted challenge in evaluating vaccine candidates against Leishmania infection; and the necessity of a rapid potent Th1 response against Leishmania to attain true protection.

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel protective antigen, Sec_205 of Streptococcus equi ssp. Zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huihuang; Tang, Bin; Zhao, Pengpeng; Deng, Mingyong; Yan, Lili; Zhai, Pan; Wei, Zigong

    2018-02-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an important pathogen of swine streptococcal diseases and can infect a wide range of animals as well as human beings. The absence of effective vaccine confounds the control of SEZ infection. Sec_205, a novel protein identified in the previous study, was inducibly over-expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study. The purified recombinant protein could elicit a significant humoral antibody response and provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of SEZ C55138 in mouse model. The protection against SEZ infection was mediated by specific antibodies to Sec_205 to some extent and was identified by the passive protection assay. The Sec_205 was an in vivo-induced antigen confirmed by the real-time PCR and could adhere to the Hep-2 cells by the inhibition assay. These suggest that Sec_205 may play a vital role in pathogenicity and serve as a new vaccine candidate against SEZ infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthrax in America: A Chronology and Analysis of the Fall 2001 Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Glenville, CT, 55 miles west of Oxford. • Officials confirm that the anthrax spores in a letter received by Santiago, Chile pediatrician Antonio Barfi were...process of opening the Leahy letter after two weeks of planning and rehearsals. In charge is John Ezzell , a man described by the Weekend Australian as

  7. The Importance of Health Risk Communication in the Creation of the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Bradley

    2001-01-01

    ... press. This paper suggests that a more proactive educational program with a greater utilization of health risk communication techniques would have reduced much of the negative reaction to the anthrax vaccine...

  8. Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-06-30

    On March 19, 2008, policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and Public Health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Catastrophic Incident Recovery: Long-Term Recovery from an Anthrax Event. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about restoration and recovery through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems.

  9. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  10. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  11. PREDICTION OF AEROSOL HAZARDS ARISING FROM THE OPENING OF AN ANTHRAX-TAINTED LETTER IN AN OPEN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    OpenAIRE

    FUE-SANG LIEN; HUA JI; EUGENE YEE; BILL KOURNIKAKIS

    2010-01-01

    Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have ...

  12. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of cDNA vaccine encoded antigens by modulation of antigen processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Marit de Groot, A; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2016-01-01

    Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA

  13. Enhancement of an Analytical Method for the Determination of Squalene in Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed Formulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spanggord, Ronald J; Sun, Meg; Lim, Peter; Ellis, William Y

    2006-01-01

    Specific lots of anthrax vaccine adsorbed administered to members of the U.S. Armed Forces have been alleged to contain squalene, a chemical purported to be associated with illnesses of Gulf War veterans...

  14. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żakowska

    2015-05-01

    Recently, progress has been achieved in inhalation anthrax treatment. The most promising new possibilities include: new antibiotics, peptides and bacteriophages enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigen PA mutants, and inter alpha inhibitors applications. In the case of the possibility of bioterrorist attacks, the examination of inhalation anthrax treatment should be intensively continued.

  15. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  16. The evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of 63 inpatient with cutaneous anthrax: Characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Despite a very uncommon disease in developed countries, cutaneous anthrax (CA is currently endemic in our countries. In this study, we aimed to bring out characteristic of anthrax of Turkey by comparing our results and the other CA reports in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Sixty three inpatients with CA between October 2009 and December 2012 were investigated retrospectively. All patients were diagnosed CA by clinical finding and/or microbiological examination. The demographic characteristics patient, routine tests, wound culture and gram staining results were recorded. Results were recorded on statistical program of SPSS 13.0 and were written using percent (%. Results: There were 63 inpatients (41 female (65.1%, 22 male (34.9%, mean age 35.9 years range10-83. Forty nine patients (77.8% had a history of contact with animals or animal product. Thirty-eight (60.3% and twenty-one (33.3% patients were found in the summer and fall season, respectively. Gram staining and culture were performed in 51 patients. Gram-positive bacilli were detected in 17 patients (33.3% by gram smear. Bacillus anthracis bacilli were produced in 11 patients (21.5% in cultures test. The lesions were mostly seen on the left hand (30.2%. Penicillin was most frequently preferred in treatment of CA (87.3%. Conclusion: CA is still endemic in Eastern Anatolia and continues to increase in recent years. Women living in the villages in which income is obtained from buying and selling of animals constitute the most important risk group. Preventive actions such as training of the risky society, vaccination of animals, and obstructing of illegal animal entries across the border, will reduce the incidence of CA.

  17. Antigen Availability Shapes T Cell Differentiation and Function during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguche, Albanus O; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Plumlee, Courtney R; Mearns, Helen; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Smit, Erica; Abrahams, Deborah; Rozot, Virginie; Dintwe, One; Hoff, Søren T; Kromann, Ingrid; Ruhwald, Morten; Bang, Peter; Larson, Ryan P; Shafiani, Shahin; Ma, Shuyi; Sherman, David R; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; McKinney, Denise M; Maecker, Holden; Hanekom, Willem A; Hatherill, Mark; Andersen, Peter; Scriba, Thomas J; Urdahl, Kevin B

    2017-06-14

    CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells. The ability of each T cell population to control Mtb in the lungs of mice was restricted for opposite reasons: Ag85B-specific T cells were limited by reduced antigen expression during persistent infection, whereas ESAT-6-specific T cells became functionally exhausted due to chronic antigenic stimulation. Our findings suggest that different vaccination strategies will be required to optimize protection mediated by T cells recognizing antigens expressed at distinct stages of Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total Leishmania antigens with Poly(I:C) induce Th1 protective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M V; Eliçabe, R J; Di Genaro, M S; Germanó, M J; Gea, S; García Bustos, M F; Salomón, M C; Scodeller, E A; Cargnelutti, D E

    2017-11-01

    Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at 3-week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad. Mice vaccinated with TLA-Poly(I:C) showed a high anti-Leishmania IgG titre, as well as increased IgG1 and IgG2a subclass titres compared with mice vaccinated with the TLA alone. The high IgG2a indicated a Th1 bias response induced by the TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization. Accordingly, the cellular immune response elicited by the formulation was characterized by an increased production of IFN-γ and no significant production of IL-4. The TLA-Poly(I:C) immunization elicited good protection, which was associated with decreased footpad swelling, a lower parasite load and a reduced histopathological alteration in the footpad. Our findings demonstrate a promising vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis that is relatively economic and easy to develop and which should be taken into account for preventing leishmaniasis in developing countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Affinity Maturation of an Anti-V Antigen IgG Expressed In Situ Via Adenovirus Gene Delivery Confers Enhanced Protection Against Yersinia pestis Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarcom, Thomas J.; Sofer-Podesta, Carolina; Ang, John; Boyer, Julie L.; Crystal, Ronald G.; Georgiou, George

    2013-01-01

    Genetic transfer of neutralizing antibodies has been shown to confer strong and persistent protection against bacterial and viral infectious agents. While it is well established that for many exogenous neutralizing antibodies increased antigen affinity correlates with protection, the effect of antigen affinity on antibodies produced in situ following adenoviral gene transfer has not been examined. The mouse IgG2b monoclonal antibody 2C12.4 recognizes the Yersinia pestis Type III secretion apparatus protein LcrV (V antigen) and confers protection in mice when administered as an IgG intraperitoneally or, following genetic immunization with engineered, replication-defective serotype 5 human adenovirus (Ad) 1. 2C12.4 was expressed as a scFv fragment in E. coli and was shown to display a KD=3.5 nM by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. The 2C12.4 scFv was subjected to random mutagenesis and variants with increased affinity were isolated by flow cytometry using the Anchored Periplasmic Expression (APEx) bacterial display system. After a single round of mutagenesis, variants displaying up to 35-fold lower KD values (H8, KD=100 pM) were isolated. The variable domains of the H8 scFv were used to replace those of the parental 2C12.4 IgG encoded in the Ad vector, AdαV giving rise to AdαV.H8. The two adenoviral vectors resulted in similar titers of anti-V antigen antibodies 3 days post-immunization with 109, 1010 or 1011 particle units. Following intranasal challenge with 363 LD50Y. pestis CO92, 54% of the mice immunized with 1010 pu of AdαV.H8 survived at the 14 day end point compared to only 15% survivors for the group immunized with AdαV expressing the lower affinity 2C12.4 (Pgenetic transfer may confer increased protection not only for Y. pestis challenge but possibly for other pathogens. PMID:20393511

  20. Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Nick M.; Jackson, Paul J.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

  1. Prevention, detection, and response to anthrax outbreak in Northern Tanzania using one health approach: A case study of Selela ward in Monduli district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elibariki R. Mwakapeje

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthrax is an infectious fatal zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax outbreak was confirmed in samples of wild animals following rumors of the outbreak in wild animals, livestock, and humans in Selela ward, Monduli district of Northern Tanzania. Therefore, a multi-sectorial team was deployed for outbreak response in the affected areas. Objectives: The aim of the response was to manage the outbreak in a One Health approach and specifically: (i To determine the magnitude of anthrax outbreak in humans, livestock, and wild animals in Selela ward, (ii to assess the outbreak local response capacity, (iii to establish mechanisms for safe disposal of animal carcasses in the affected areas, and (iv to mount effective control and preventive strategies using One Health approach in the affected areas. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional field survey using: (i Active searching of suspected human cases at health facilities and community level, (ii physical counting and disposal of wild animal carcasses in the affected area, (iii collection of specimens from suspected human cases and animal carcasses for laboratory analysis, and (iv meetings with local animal and human health staff, political, and traditional leaders at local levels. We analyzed data by STATA software, and a map was created using Quantum GIS software. Results: A total of 21 humans were suspected, and most of them (62% being from Selela ward. The outbreak caused deaths of 10 cattle, 26 goats, and three sheep, and 131 wild animal carcasses were discarded the majority of them being wildebeest (83%. Based on laboratory results, three blood smears tested positive for anthrax using Giemsa staining while two wildebeest samples tested positive and five human blood samples tested negative for anthrax using quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. Clinical forms of anthrax were also observed in humans and livestock which suggest that wild animals may

  2. Recombinant α-actinin subunit antigens of Trichomonas vaginalis as potential vaccine candidates in protecting against trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Ting; Gao, Jiang-Mei; Wu, Ya-Ping; Tang, Petrus; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2017-02-16

    stimulation with the corresponding antigens in vitro. Immunization with both ACT-F and ACT-T could confer partial to complete protection and trigger strong Th1/Th2 mixed humoral and cellular immune responses in the mouse host. This suggested that recombinant α-actinin subunit antigens may be promising vaccine candidates against trichomoniasis.

  3. Approval of raxibacumab for the treatment of inhalation anthrax under the US Food and Drug Administration Animal rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei eTsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 14, 2012, the FDA approved raxibacumab, the first product developed under Project BioShield to achieve this milestone, and the first biologic product to be approved through the FDA animal efficacy rule (or Animal Rule. Raxibacumab is approved for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with inhalational anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis in combination with appropriate antibiotic drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or are not appropriate. The approval of Raxibacumab illustrates many of the challenges that product developers may encounter when pursuing approval under the Animal Rule and highlights a number of important regulatory and policy issues.

  4. Detection of anthrax lef with DNA-based photonic crystal sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bailin; Dallo, Shatha; Peterson, Ralph; Hussain, Syed; Weitao, Tao; Ye, Jing Yong

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis has posed a threat of becoming biological weapons of mass destruction due to its virulence factors encoded by the plasmid-borne genes, such as lef for lethal factor. We report the development of a fast and sensitive anthrax DNA biosensor based on a photonic crystal structure used in a total-internal-reflection configuration. For the detection of the lef gene, a single-stranded DNA lef probe was biotinylated and immobilized onto the sensor via biotin-streptavidin interactions. A positive control, lef-com, was the complementary strand of the probe, while a negative control was an unrelated single-stranded DNA fragment from the 16S rRNA gene of Acinetobacter baumannii. After addition of the biotinylated lef probe onto the sensor, significant changes in the resonance wavelength of the sensor were observed, resulting from binding of the probe to streptavidin on the sensor. The addition of lef-com led to another significant increase as a result of hybridization between the two DNA strands. The detection sensitivity for the target DNA reached as low as 0.1 nM. In contrast, adding the unrelated DNAs did not cause an obvious shift in the resonant wavelength. These results demonstrate that detection of the anthrax lef by the photonic crystal structure in a total-internal-reflection sensor is highly specific and sensitive.

  5. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granberg Malin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative

  6. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima . In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria . After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1's and E. maxima oocyst antigens' specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain.

  7. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  8. Protection against heterologous infection by using cross antigenicity between schistosoma mansoni and fasciola hepatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moawad, M.A.; Amin, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis in many areas in America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. There is an urgent need for improved methods to control the parasite's transmission. The present study is parasitological, immunological (interleukine-1β and interleukine-6) and histopathological investigations on the immunizing effect of cross antigenicity between S. mansoni and F. hepatica against schistosomiasis and fasciolosis in mice. Parasitological study showed that vaccination with irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni or vaccination by F. hepatica whole worm extract (FhWWE) before challenged with encysted metacercariae of F. hepatica or cercariae of S. mansoni played a significant control on the parasitic infection manifested by a remarkable reduction in the means of worm count. Assessment of IL-1β and IL-6 in sera of the experimental groups showed that there are cross reactivity between fasciola / schistosoma and its relation to cross protection. Histopathological examination of vaccinated mice livers showed protection against parasite maturation and liver damage after challenged, as compared to mice infected only without vaccination

  9. The medicinal chemistry of botulinum, ricin and anthrax toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rickey P; Hartell, Mark G; Nichols, Daniel A; Bhattacharjee, Apurba K; van Hamont, John E; Skillman, Donald R

    2005-01-01

    The potential use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological or chemical) by terrorist organizations represents a major threat to world peace and safety. Only a limited number of vaccines are available to protect the general population from the medical consequences of these weapons. In addition there are major health concerns associated with a pre-exposure mass vaccination of the general population. To reduce or eliminate the impact of these terrible threats, new drugs must be developed to safely treat individuals exposed to these agents. A review of all therapeutic agents under development for the treatment of the illnesses and injuries that result from exposure to nuclear, biological or chemical warfare agents is beyond the scope of any single article. The intent here is to provide a focused review for medicinal and organic chemists of three widely discussed and easily deployed biological warfare agents, botulinum neurotoxin and ricin toxins and the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax will be addressed because of its similarity in both structure and mechanism of catalytic activity with botulinum toxin. The common feature of these three agents is that they exhibit their biological activity via toxin enzymatic hydrolysis of a specific bond in their respective substrate molecules. A brief introduction to the history of each of the biological warfare agents is presented followed by a discussion on the mechanisms of action of each at the molecular level, and a review of current potential inhibitors under investigation.

  10. Protective Efficacy of Coccidial Common Antigen Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) against Challenge with Three Eimeria Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Li, Wenyu; Huang, Xinmei; Tian, Di; Liu, Jianhua; Yang, Xinchao; Liu, Lianrui; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui; Song, Xiaokai

    2017-01-01

    Coccidiosis is an intestinal disorder of poultry and often caused by simultaneous infections of several Eimeria species. GAPDH is one of the immunogenic common antigens among Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina, and E. maxima identified in our previous study. The present study was performed to further evaluate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The genes of GAPDH cloned from E. acervulina and E. maxima were named as EaGAPDH and EmGAPDH, respectively. The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins of EaGAPDH and EmGAPDH were analyzed by Western blot. The transcription and expression of pVAX-EaGAPDH and pVAX-EmGAPDH in the injected muscles were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. GAPDH-induced changes of T lymphocytes subpopulation, cytokines production, and antibody were determined using flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and ELISA, respectively. Finally, the protective efficacies of pVAX-EaGAPDH and pVAX-EmGAPDH were evaluated by vaccination and challenge experiments. The results revealed that the recombinant GAPDH proteins reacted with the corresponding chicken antisera. The EaGAPDH genes were successfully transcribed and expressed in the injected muscles. Vaccination with pVAX-EaGAPDH and pVAX-EmGAPDH significantly increased the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the cytokines productions of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 et al., and IgG antibody levels compared to controls. The vaccination increased the weight gains, decreased the oocyst outputs, alleviate the enteric lesions compared to controls, and induced moderate anti-coccidial index (ACI). In conclusion, the coccidial common antigen of GAPDH induced significant humoral and cellular immune response and effective protection against E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. maxima, and mixed infection of the three Eimeria species. PMID:28769877

  11. Host immunity in the protective response to nasal immunization with a pneumococcal antigen associated to live and heat-killed Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintiñi, Elisa O; Medina, Marcela S

    2011-08-11

    At present, available pneumococcal vaccines have failed to eradicate infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Search for effective vaccine continues and some serotype independent pneumococcal proteins are considered as candidates for the design of new vaccines, especially a mucosal vaccine, since pneumococci enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Selection of the appropriate adjuvant is important for mucosal vaccines, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with immunostimulant properties are promissory candidates. In this work, we assessed the adjuvant effect of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), when nasally administered with a pneumococcal antigen (pneumococcal protective protein A: PppA) for the prevention of pneumococcal infection. Adjuvanticity of both live (LcV) and heat-killed (LcM) was evaluated and humoral and cellular antigen-specific immune response was assessed in mucosal and systemic compartments. The potential mechanisms induced by nasal immunization were discussed. Nasal immunization of young mice with PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM induced anti-PppA IgA and IgG antibodies in mucosal and systemic compartments and levels of these specific antibodies remained high even at day 45 after the 3rd Immunization (3rd I). These results were correlated with IL-4 induction by the mixture of antigen plus LcV and LcM. Also, PppA+Lc (V and M) induced stimulation of Th1 and Th17 cells involved in the defence against pneumococci. The protection against pneumococcal respiratory challenge at day 30 after the 3rd I showed that PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM immunizations significantly reduced pathogen counts in nasal lavages while prventing their passage into lung and blood. Survival of mice immunized with the co-application of PppA plus LcV and LcM was significantly higher than in mice immunized with PppA alone and control mice when intraperitoneal challenge was performed. No significant differences between the treatments involving LcV and LcM were found. Live and heat-killed L

  12. Host immunity in the protective response to nasal immunization with a pneumococcal antigen associated to live and heat-killed Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintiñi Elisa O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, available pneumococcal vaccines have failed to eradicate infections caused by S. pneumoniae. Search for effective vaccine continues and some serotype independent pneumococcal proteins are considered as candidates for the design of new vaccines, especially a mucosal vaccine, since pneumococci enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Selection of the appropriate adjuvant is important for mucosal vaccines, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB with immunostimulant properties are promissory candidates. In this work, we assessed the adjuvant effect of a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei, when nasally administered with a pneumococcal antigen (pneumococcal protective protein A: PppA for the prevention of pneumococcal infection. Adjuvanticity of both live (LcV and heat-killed (LcM was evaluated and humoral and cellular antigen-specific immune response was assessed in mucosal and systemic compartments. The potential mechanisms induced by nasal immunization were discussed. Results Nasal immunization of young mice with PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM induced anti-PppA IgA and IgG antibodies in mucosal and systemic compartments and levels of these specific antibodies remained high even at day 45 after the 3rd Immunization (3rd I. These results were correlated with IL-4 induction by the mixture of antigen plus LcV and LcM. Also, PppA+Lc (V and M induced stimulation of Th1 and Th17 cells involved in the defence against pneumococci. The protection against pneumococcal respiratory challenge at day 30 after the 3rd I showed that PppA+LcV and PppA+LcM immunizations significantly reduced pathogen counts in nasal lavages while prventing their passage into lung and blood. Survival of mice immunized with the co-application of PppA plus LcV and LcM was significantly higher than in mice immunized with PppA alone and control mice when intraperitoneal challenge was performed. No significant differences between the treatments involving LcV and

  13. One-pot synthesis of strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS2 quantum dots for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ziping; Su, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, high quality DNA-CuInS 2 QDs are facilely synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal method with fluorescence quantum yield as high as 23.4%, and the strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS 2 QDs have been utilized as a novel fluorescent biosensor for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA. L-Cysteine (L-Cys) and a specific-sequence DNA are used as co-ligands to stabilize the CuInS 2 QDs. The specific-sequence DNA consists of two domains: phosphorothiolates domain (sulfur-containing variants of the usual phosphodiester backbone) controls the nanocrystal passivation and serves as a ligand, and the functional domain (non-phosphorothioates) controls the biorecognition. The as-prepared DNA-CuInS 2 QDs have high stability, good water-solubility and low toxicity. Under the optimized conditions, a linear correlation was established between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I 0 (I 0 is the original fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS 2 QDs, and I is the fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS 2 QDs/GO with the addition of various concentrations of anthrax lethal factor DNA) and the concentration of anthrax lethal factor DNA in the range of 0.029–0.733 nmol L −1 with a detection limit of 0.013 nmol L −1 . The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of anthrax lethal factor DNA sequence in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Because of low toxicity and fine biocompatibility, DNA-CuInS 2 QDs also hold potential applications in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Strongly fluorescent DNA-QDs were successfully prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method with quantum yield up to 23.4%. • A biosensor for label-free detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA was established based on the as-prepared DNA-QDs. • The DNA sensor took advantage of the feature that ssDNA binds to GO with significantly higher affinity than dsDNA. • Good sensitivity and selectivity were obtained. • This method was utilized to detect

  14. Noninvasive imaging technologies reveal edema toxin as a key virulence factor in anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumetz, Fabien; Jouvion, Grégory; Khun, Huot; Glomski, Ian Justin; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Rougeaux, Clémence; Tang, Wei-Jen; Mock, Michèle; Huerre, Michel; Goossens, Pierre Louis

    2011-06-01

    Powerful noninvasive imaging technologies enable real-time tracking of pathogen-host interactions in vivo, giving access to previously elusive events. We visualized the interactions between wild-type Bacillus anthracis and its host during a spore infection through bioluminescence imaging coupled with histology. We show that edema toxin plays a central role in virulence in guinea pigs and during inhalational infection in mice. Edema toxin (ET), but not lethal toxin (LT), markedly modified the patterns of bacterial dissemination leading, to apparent direct dissemination to the spleen and provoking apoptosis of lymphoid cells. Each toxin alone provoked particular histological lesions in the spleen. When ET and LT are produced together during infection, a specific temporal pattern of lesion developed, with early lesions typical of LT, followed at a later stage by lesions typical of ET. Our study provides new insights into the complex spatial and temporal effects of B. anthracis toxins in the infected host, suggesting a greater role than previously suspected for ET in anthrax and suggesting that therapeutic targeting of ET contributes to protection. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of protective pneumococcal T(H17 antigens from the soluble fraction of a killed whole cell vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Moffitt

    Full Text Available Mucosal or parenteral immunization with a killed unencapsulated pneumococcal whole cell antigen (WCA with an adjuvant protects mice from colonization by a T(H17 CD4+ cell-mediated mechanism. Using preparative SDS gels, we separated the soluble proteins that compose the WCA in order to identify fractions that were immunogenic and protective. We screened these fractions for their ability to stimulate IL-17A secretion from splenocytes obtained from mice immunized with WCA and adjuvant. We identified 12 proteins within the stimulatory fractions by mass spectrometry; these proteins were then cloned, recombinantly expressed and purified using an Escherichia coli expression system. The ability of these proteins to induce IL-17A secretion was then evaluated by stimulation of mouse splenocytes. Of the four most stimulatory proteins, three were protective in a mouse pneumococcal serotype 6B colonization model. This work thus describes a method for identifying immunogenic proteins from the soluble fraction of pneumococcus and shows that several of the proteins identified protect mice from colonization when used as mucosal vaccines. We propose that, by providing protection against pneumococcal colonization, one or more of these proteins may serve as components of a multivalent pneumococcal vaccine.

  16. Protection against Escherichia coli K1 infection in newborn rats by antibody to K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, R; Ferrier, P

    1980-01-01

    The protective value of antibody to the K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen of Escherichia coli was investigated in a newborn rat model of E. coli K1 infection. Pregnant rats were immunized intravenously with E. coli, and the agglutinating titer to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, which is identical to K1 polysaccharide, was measured in the serum of rats and their offspring. Convalescent serum from rat mothers showed an increased antibody titer in animals injected twice but not once with ...

  17. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  18. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima. In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria. After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1’s and E. maxima oocyst antigens’ specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain. PMID:29375584

  19. Indirect Detection Of Bacillus Anthracis (Anthrax) Using Amplified Gamma Phage-Based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    enter 26 Figure 3.0 Model of anthrax toxin entry into eukaryotic cells 27 the lungs and into the mucus membrane...extract from porcine and mixture meat and milk peptones, 2.0 g D(+) glucose, 5.0 g NaCl and 2.5 g disodium phosphate) and TSB (g/L: 17.0 pancreatic...are present in blood serum, lymph fluid, gastric secretions, milk , and saliva. Serum antibody concentrations are commonly determined using the

  20. Antigen-driven focal inflammatory death of malaria liver stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganchimeg eBayarsaikhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple immunizations using live irradiated sporozoites, the infectious plasmodial stage delivered into the host skin during a mosquito bite, can elicit sterile immunity to malaria. CD8+ T cells seem to play an essential role in this protective immunity, since their depletion consistently abolishes sterilizing protection in several experimental models. So far, only a few parasite antigens are known to induce CD8+ T cell-dependent protection, but none of them can reach the levels of protection afforded by live attenuated parasites. Systematic attempts to identify novel antigens associated with this efficient cellular protection were so far unsuccessful. In addition, the precise mechanisms involved in the recognition and elimination of parasitized hepatocytes in vivo by CD8+ T cells still remain obscure. Recently, it has been shown that specific effector CD8+ T cells, after recognition of parasitized hepatocytes, recruit specific and non-specific activated CD8+ T cells to the site of infection, resulting in the formation of cellular clusters around and in the further elimination of intracellular parasites. The significance of this finding is discussed in the perspective of a general mechanism of antigen-dependent focalized inflammation and its consequences for the elimination of malaria liver stages.

  1. Antigenicity and protective efficacy of a Leishmania amastigote-specific protein, member of the super-oxygenase family, against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian T Martins

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate a hypothetical Leishmania amastigote-specific protein (LiHyp1, previously identified by an immunoproteomic approach performed in Leishmania infantum, which showed homology to the super-oxygenase gene family, attempting to select a new candidate antigen for specific serodiagnosis, as well as to compose a vaccine against VL.The LiHyp1 DNA sequence was cloned; the recombinant protein (rLiHyp1 was purified and evaluated for its antigenicity and immunogenicity. The rLiHyp1 protein was recognized by antibodies from sera of asymptomatic and symptomatic animals with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL, but presented no cross-reactivity with sera of dogs vaccinated with Leish-Tec, a Brazilian commercial vaccine; with Chagas' disease or healthy animals. In addition, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of rLiHyp1 plus saponin was evaluated in BALB/c mice challenged subcutaneously with virulent L. infantum promastigotes. rLiHyp1 plus saponin vaccinated mice showed a high and specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with the recombinant protein. Immunized and infected mice, as compared to the control groups (saline and saponin, showed significant reductions in the number of parasites found in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and in the paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ, produced mainly by CD4 T cells. In these mice, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 response could also be observed.The present study showed that this Leishmania oxygenase amastigote-specific protein can be used for a more sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic CVL and, when combined with a Th1-type adjuvant, can also be employ as a candidate antigen to develop vaccines against VL.

  2. Protective Effect of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Allele DRB1*13:02 on Age-Related Brain Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. James

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reduction of brain volume (brain atrophy during healthy brain aging is well documented and dependent on genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. Here we investigated the possible dependence of brain gray matter volume reduction in the absence of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA allele DRB1*13:02 which prevents brain atrophy in Gulf War Illness (James et al., 2017. Methods: Seventy-one cognitively healthy women (32–69 years old underwent a structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI scan to measure the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter. Participants were assigned to two groups, depending on whether they lacked the DRB1*13:02 allele (No DRB1*13:02 group, N = 60 or carried the DRB1*13:02 allele (N = 11. We assessed the change of brain gray matter volume with age in each group by performing a linear regression where the brain volume (adjusted for total intracranial volume was the dependent variable and age was the independent variable. Findings: In the No DRB1*13:02 group, the volumes of total gray matter, cerebrocortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter were reduced highly significantly. In contrast, none of these volumes showed a statistically significant reduction with age in the DRB1*13:02 group. Interpretation: These findings document the protective effect of DRB1*13:02 on age-dependent reduction of brain gray matter in healthy individuals. Since the role of this allele is to connect to matching epitopes of external antigens for the subsequent production of antibodies and elimination of the offending antigen, we hypothesize that its protective effect may be due to the successful elimination of such antigens to which we are exposed during the lifespan, antigens that otherwise would persist causing gradual brain atrophy. In addition, we consider a possible beneficial role of DRB1*13:02 attributed to its binding to cathepsin S, a known harmful substance in brain

  3. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  4. One-pot synthesis of strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ziping; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-10-26

    Herein, high quality DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs are facilely synthesized through a one-pot hydrothermal method with fluorescence quantum yield as high as 23.4%, and the strongly fluorescent DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs have been utilized as a novel fluorescent biosensor for label-free and ultrasensitive detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA. L-Cysteine (L-Cys) and a specific-sequence DNA are used as co-ligands to stabilize the CuInS{sub 2} QDs. The specific-sequence DNA consists of two domains: phosphorothiolates domain (sulfur-containing variants of the usual phosphodiester backbone) controls the nanocrystal passivation and serves as a ligand, and the functional domain (non-phosphorothioates) controls the biorecognition. The as-prepared DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs have high stability, good water-solubility and low toxicity. Under the optimized conditions, a linear correlation was established between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I{sub 0} (I{sub 0} is the original fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs, and I is the fluorescence intensity of DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs/GO with the addition of various concentrations of anthrax lethal factor DNA) and the concentration of anthrax lethal factor DNA in the range of 0.029–0.733 nmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.013 nmol L{sup −1}. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of anthrax lethal factor DNA sequence in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Because of low toxicity and fine biocompatibility, DNA-CuInS{sub 2} QDs also hold potential applications in bioimaging. - Highlights: • Strongly fluorescent DNA-QDs were successfully prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal method with quantum yield up to 23.4%. • A biosensor for label-free detection of anthrax lethal factor DNA was established based on the as-prepared DNA-QDs. • The DNA sensor took advantage of the feature that ssDNA binds to GO with significantly higher affinity than dsDNA. • Good sensitivity and selectivity were

  5. A Lipid Based Antigen Delivery System Efficiently Facilitates MHC Class-I Antigen Presentation in Dendritic Cells to Stimulate CD8+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Mithun; Mazumder, Saumyabrata; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Sabur, Abdus; Shadab, Md.; Bhattacharya, Pradyot; Ali, Nahid

    2016-06-01

    The most effective strategy for protection against intracellular infections such as Leishmania is vaccination with live parasites. Use of recombinant proteins avoids the risks associated with live vaccines. However, due to low immunogenicity, they fail to trigger T cell responses particularly of CD8+ cells requisite for persistent immunity. Previously we showed the importance of protein entrapment in cationic liposomes and MPL as adjuvant for elicitation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses for long-term protection. In this study we investigated the role of cationic liposomes on maturation and antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). We observed that cationic liposomes were taken up very efficiently by DCs and transported to different cellular sites. DCs activated with liposomal rgp63 led to efficient presentation of antigen to specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, lymphoid CD8+ T cells from liposomal rgp63 immunized mice demonstrated better proliferative ability when co-cultured ex vivo with stimulated DCs. Addition of MPL to vaccine enhanced the antigen presentation by DCs and induced more efficient antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses when compared to free and liposomal antigen. These liposomal formulations presented to CD8+ T cells through TAP-dependent MHC-I pathway offer new possibilities for a safe subunit vaccine.

  6. PREDICTION OF AEROSOL HAZARDS ARISING FROM THE OPENING OF AN ANTHRAX-TAINTED LETTER IN AN OPEN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT USING COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FUE-SANG LIEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Early experimental work, conducted at Defence R&D Canada–Suffield, measured and characterized the personal and environmental contamination associated with simulated anthrax-tainted letters under a number of different scenarios in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical and biological processes for detecting, assessing, and formulating potential mitigation strategies for managing the risks associated with opening an anthrax-tainted letter. These experimental investigations have been extended in the present study to simulate numerically the contamination from the opening of anthrax-tainted letters in an open office environment using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. A quantity of 0.1 g of Bacillus atropheus (formerly referred to as Bacillus subtilis var globigii (BG spores in dry powder form, which was used here as a surrogate species for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax, was released from an opened letter in the experiment. The accuracy of the model for prediction of the spatial distribution of BG spores in the office from the opened letter is assessed qualitatively (and to the extent possible, quantitatively by detailed comparison with measured BG concentrations obtained under a number of different scenarios, some involving people moving within the office. The observed discrepancy between the numerical predictions and experimental measurements of concentration was probably the result of a number of physical processes which were not accounted for in the numerical simulation. These include air flow leakage from cracks and crevices of the building shell; the dispersion of BG spores in the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system; and, the effect of deposition and re-suspension of BG spores from various surfaces in the office environment.

  7. A retrospective study on the epidemiology of anthrax, foot and mouth disease, haemorrhagic septicaemia, peste des petits ruminants and rabies in Bangladesh, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar P Mondal

    Full Text Available Anthrax, foot and mouth disease (FMD, haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and rabies are considered to be endemic in Bangladesh. This retrospective study was conducted to understand the geographic and seasonal distribution of these major infectious diseases in livestock based on data collected through passive surveillance from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Data analysis for this period revealed 5,937 cases of anthrax, 300,333 of FMD, 13,436 of HS, 247,783 of PPR and 14,085 cases of dog bite/rabies. While diseases were reported in almost every district of the country, the highest frequency of occurrence corresponded to the susceptible livestock population in the respective districts. There was no significant difference in the disease occurrences between districts bordering India/Myanmar and non-border districts (p>0.05. Significantly higher (p<0.01 numbers of anthrax (84.5%, FMD (88.3%, HS (84.9% and dog bite/rabies (64.3% cases were reported in cattle than any other species. PPR cases were reported mostly (94.8% in goats with only isolated cases (5.2% in sheep. The diseases occur throughout the year with peak numbers reported during June through September and lowest during December through April, with significant differences (p<0.01 between the months. The annual usages of vaccines for anthrax, FMD, HS and PPR were only 7.31%, 0.61%, 0.84% and 11.59% of the susceptible livestock population, respectively. Prophylactic vaccination against rabies was 21.16% of cases. There were significant differences (p<0.01 in the administration of anthrax, FMD and HS vaccines between border and non-border districts, but not PPR or rabies vaccines. We recommend that surveillance and reporting of these diseases need to be improved throughout the country. Furthermore, all suspected clinical cases should be confirmed by laboratory examination. The findings of this study can be used in the formulation of more effective disease

  8. Glassy-state stabilization of a dominant negative inhibitor anthrax vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Vance, David J; Jain, Nishant K; Sahni, Neha; Rabia, Lilia A; Cousins, Megan C; Joshi, Sangeeta; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2015-02-01

    During transport and storage, vaccines may be exposed to temperatures outside of the range recommended for storage, potentially causing efficacy losses. To better understand and prevent such losses, dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a recombinant protein antigen for a candidate vaccine against anthrax, was formulated as a liquid and as a glassy lyophilized powder with the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and glycopyranoside lipid A (GLA). Freeze-thawing of the liquid vaccine caused the adjuvants to aggregate and decreased its immunogenicity in mice. Immunogenicity of liquid vaccines also decreased when stored at 40°C for 8 weeks, as measured by decreases in neutralizing antibody titers in vaccinated mice. Concomitant with efficacy losses at elevated temperatures, changes in DNI structure were detected by fluorescence spectroscopy and increased deamidation was observed by capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) after only 1 week of storage of the liquid formulation at 40°C. In contrast, upon lyophilization, no additional deamidation after 4 weeks at 40°C and no detectable changes in DNI structure or reduction in immunogenicity after 16 weeks at 40°C were observed. Vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide and GLA elicited higher immune responses than vaccines adjuvanted with only aluminum hydroxide, with more mice responding to a single dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have handled anthrax material is thorough cleansing of the hands and arms with liquid soap and running... Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND... request to the Scientific Services, Meat and Poultry Inspection, Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S...

  10. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  11. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  12. Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Kaur, Manpreet; Midha, Shuchi; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Banerjee-Bhatnagar, Nirupama

    2006-01-01

    We report the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis to deliver genetically fused ESAT-6 (early secretory antigen target), a potent T cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, into cytosol to elicit Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In vitro Th1 cytokines data and CTL assay proved that efficient delivery of LFn.ESAT-6 occurs in cytosol, in the presence of protective antigen (PA), and leads to generation of effective CTL response. Since CTL response is essential for protection against intracellular pathogens and, it is well known that only single T cell epitope or single antigenic protein is not sufficient to elicit protective CTL response due to variation or polymorphism in MHC-I alleles among the individuals, we suggest that as a fusion protein LFn can be used to deliver multiepitopes of T cells or multiproteins which can generate effective CTLs against intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis. It can be used to enhance the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine

  13. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. 309.7 Section 309.7 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and... followed immediately by a thorough disinfection of the exposed premises by soaking the ground, fences...

  14. Anthrax Cases Associated with Animal-Hair Shaving Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szablewski, Christine M; Hendricks, Kate; Bower, William A; Shadomy, Sean V; Hupert, Nathaniel

    2017-05-01

    During the First World War, anthrax cases in the United States and England increased greatly and seemed to be associated with use of new shaving brushes. Further investigation revealed that the source material and origin of shaving brushes had changed during the war. Cheap brushes of imported horsehair were being made to look like the preferred badger-hair brushes. Unfortunately, some of these brushes were not effectively disinfected and brought with them a nasty stowaway: Bacillus anthracis. A review of outbreak summaries, surveillance data, and case reports indicated that these cases originated from the use of ineffectively disinfected animal-hair shaving brushes. This historical information is relevant to current public health practice because renewed interest in vintage and animal-hair shaving brushes has been seen in popular culture. This information should help healthcare providers and public health officials answer questions on this topic.

  15. The Asd+-DadB+ Dual-Plasmid System Offers a Novel Means To Deliver Multiple Protective Antigens by a Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xiangmin; Santander, Javier; Scarpellini, Giorgio; Ellis, Karen; Alamuri, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    We developed means to deliver multiple heterologous antigens on dual plasmids with non-antibiotic-resistance markers in a single recombinant attenuated vaccine strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The first component of this delivery system is a strain of S. Typhimurium carrying genomic deletions in alr, dadB, and asd, resulting in obligate requirements for diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and d-alanine for growth. The second component is the Asd+-DadB+ plasmid pair carrying wild-type copies of asdA and dadB, respectively, to complement the mutations. To evaluate the protection efficacy of the dual-plasmid vaccine, S. Typhimurium strain χ9760 (a strain with multiple attenuating mutations: Δasd Δalr ΔdadB ΔrecF) was transformed with Asd+ and DadB+ plasmids specifying pneumococcal antigens PspA and PspC, respectively. Both plasmids were stable in χ9760 for 50 generations when grown in nonselective medium. This was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the stability seen in its recF+ counterpart χ9590 and could be attributed to reduced interplasmid recombination in χ9760. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with 1 × 109 CFU of χ9760 (carrying Asd+-PspA and DadB+-PspC plasmids) elicited a dominant Th1-type serum IgG response against both antigens and protected mice against intraperitoneal challenge with 200 50% lethal doses (LD50s) of virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae strain WU2 or intravenous challenge with 100 LD50s of virulent S. pneumoniae strain L81905 or intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae A66.1 in a pneumonia model. Protection offered by χ9760 was superior to that offered by the mixture of two strains, χ9828 (Asd+-PspA) and χ11026 (DadB+-PspC). This novel dual-plasmid system marks a remarkable improvement in the development of live bacterial vaccines. PMID:22868499

  16. The Asd(+)-DadB(+) dual-plasmid system offers a novel means to deliver multiple protective antigens by a recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xiangmin; Santander, Javier; Scarpellini, Giorgio; Ellis, Karen; Alamuri, Praveen; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-10-01

    We developed means to deliver multiple heterologous antigens on dual plasmids with non-antibiotic-resistance markers in a single recombinant attenuated vaccine strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The first component of this delivery system is a strain of S. Typhimurium carrying genomic deletions in alr, dadB, and asd, resulting in obligate requirements for diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and d-alanine for growth. The second component is the Asd(+)-DadB(+) plasmid pair carrying wild-type copies of asdA and dadB, respectively, to complement the mutations. To evaluate the protection efficacy of the dual-plasmid vaccine, S. Typhimurium strain χ9760 (a strain with multiple attenuating mutations: Δasd Δalr ΔdadB ΔrecF) was transformed with Asd(+) and DadB(+) plasmids specifying pneumococcal antigens PspA and PspC, respectively. Both plasmids were stable in χ9760 for 50 generations when grown in nonselective medium. This was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the stability seen in its recF(+) counterpart χ9590 and could be attributed to reduced interplasmid recombination in χ9760. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with 1 × 10(9) CFU of χ9760 (carrying Asd(+)-PspA and DadB(+)-PspC plasmids) elicited a dominant Th1-type serum IgG response against both antigens and protected mice against intraperitoneal challenge with 200 50% lethal doses (LD(50)s) of virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae strain WU2 or intravenous challenge with 100 LD(50)s of virulent S. pneumoniae strain L81905 or intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae A66.1 in a pneumonia model. Protection offered by χ9760 was superior to that offered by the mixture of two strains, χ9828 (Asd(+)-PspA) and χ11026 (DadB(+)-PspC). This novel dual-plasmid system marks a remarkable improvement in the development of live bacterial vaccines.

  17. Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giha, Hayder A; Nasr, Amre; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2010-01-01

    The certainty of the protective role of acquired immunity in malaria is the major drive for malaria vaccine development. In this study, we measured the levels of total IgG and IgG subclasses to four candidate malaria vaccine antigens; MSP2-3D7, MSP2-FC27, AMA-1 and Pf332-C231, in plasma obtained ...

  18. A Supramolecular Sensing Platform for Phosphate Anions and an Anthrax Biomarker in a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Huskens

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A supramolecular platform based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs has been implemented in a microfluidic device. The system has been applied for the sensing of two different analyte types: biologically relevant phosphate anions and aromatic carboxylic acids, which are important for anthrax detection. A Eu(III-EDTA complex was bound to β-cyclodextrin monolayers via orthogonal supramolecular host-guest interactions. The self-assembly of the Eu(III-EDTA conjugate and naphthalene β-diketone as an antenna resulted in the formation of a highly luminescent lanthanide complex on the microchannel surface. Detection of different phosphate anions and aromatic carboxylic acids was demonstrated by monitoring the decrease in red emission following displacement of the antenna by the analyte. Among these analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP and pyrophosphate, as well as dipicolinic acid (DPA which is a biomarker for anthrax, showed a strong response. Parallel fabrication of five sensing SAMs in a single multichannel chip was performed, as a first demonstration of phosphate and carboxylic acid screening in a multiplexed format that allows a general detection platform for both analyte systems in a single test run with µM and nM detection sensitivity for ATP and DPA, respectively.

  19. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  20. Temporal dynamics in microbial soil communities at anthrax carcass sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valseth, Karoline; Nesbø, Camilla L; Easterday, W Ryan; Turner, Wendy C; Olsen, Jaran S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Haverkamp, Thomas H A

    2017-09-26

    Anthrax is a globally distributed disease affecting primarily herbivorous mammals. It is caused by the soil-dwelling and spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The dormant B. anthracis spores become vegetative after ingestion by grazing mammals. After killing the host, B. anthracis cells return to the soil where they sporulate, completing the lifecycle of the bacterium. Here we present the first study describing temporal microbial soil community changes in Etosha National Park, Namibia, after decomposition of two plains zebra (Equus quagga) anthrax carcasses. To circumvent state-associated-challenges (i.e. vegetative cells/spores) we monitored B. anthracis throughout the period using cultivation, qPCR and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The combined results suggest that abundance estimation of spore-forming bacteria in their natural habitat by DNA-based approaches alone is insufficient due to poor recovery of DNA from spores. However, our combined approached allowed us to follow B. anthracis population dynamics (vegetative cells and spores) in the soil, along with closely related organisms from the B. cereus group, despite their high sequence similarity. Vegetative B. anthracis abundance peaked early in the time-series and then dropped when cells either sporulated or died. The time-series revealed that after carcass deposition, the typical semi-arid soil community (e.g. Frankiales and Rhizobiales species) becomes temporarily dominated by the orders Bacillales and Pseudomonadales, known to contain plant growth-promoting species. Our work indicates that complementing DNA based approaches with cultivation may give a more complete picture of the ecology of spore forming pathogens. Furthermore, the results suggests that the increased vegetation biomass production found at carcass sites is due to both added nutrients and the proliferation of microbial taxa that can be beneficial for plant growth. Thus, future B. anthracis transmission events at carcass sites may be

  1. Mother-Newborn Pairs in Malawi Have Similar Antibody Repertoires to Diverse Malaria Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudová, Sarah; Walldorf, Jenny A; Bailey, Jason A; Divala, Titus; Mungwira, Randy; Mawindo, Patricia; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Ouattara, Amed; Adams, Matthew; Felgner, Philip L; Plowe, Christopher V; Travassos, Mark A; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-10-01

    Maternal antibodies may play a role in protecting newborns against malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum parasite surface antigens are diverse, and protection from infection requires allele-specific immunity. Although malaria-specific antibodies have been shown to cross the placenta, the extent to which antibodies that respond to the full repertoire of diverse antigens are transferred from the mother to the infant has not been explored. Understanding the breadth of maternal antibody responses and to what extent these antibodies are transferred to the child can inform vaccine design and evaluation. We probed plasma from cord blood and serum from mothers at delivery using a customized protein microarray that included variants of malaria vaccine target antigens to assess the intensity and breadth of seroreactivity to three malaria vaccine candidate antigens in mother-newborn pairs in Malawi. Among the 33 paired specimens that were assessed, mothers and newborns had similar intensity and repertoire of seroreactivity. Maternal antibody levels against vaccine candidate antigens were the strongest predictors of infant antibody levels. Placental malaria did not significantly impair transplacental antibody transfer. However, mothers with placental malaria had significantly higher antibody levels against these blood-stage antigens than mothers without placental malaria. The repertoire and levels of infant antibodies against a wide range of malaria vaccine candidate antigen variants closely mirror maternal levels in breadth and magnitude regardless of evidence of placental malaria. Vaccinating mothers with an effective malaria vaccine during pregnancy may induce high and potentially protective antibody repertoires in newborns. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. The Antigen Presenting Cells Instruct Plasma Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eXu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs, including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but nonspecific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells, which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only signal 1 (the antigen, but also signal 2 to directly instruct the differentiation process of plasma cells in a T cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  3. The antigen presenting cells instruct plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Banchereau, Jacques

    2014-01-06

    The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but non-specific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs), which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only "signal 1" (the antigen), but also "signal 2" to directly instruct the differentiation process of PCs in a T-cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching, and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  4. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi* and morphology cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Kracalik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared a local clustering and a cluster morphology statistic using anthrax outbreaks in large (cattle and small (sheep and goats domestic ruminants across Kazakhstan. The Getis-Ord (Gi* statistic and a multidirectional optimal ecotope algorithm (AMOEBA were compared using 1st, 2nd and 3rd order Rook contiguity matrices. Multivariate statistical tests were used to evaluate the environmental signatures between clusters and non-clusters from the AMOEBA and Gi* tests. A logistic regression was used to define a risk surface for anthrax outbreaks and to compare agreement between clustering methodologies. Tests revealed differences in the spatial distribution of clusters as well as the total number of clusters in large ruminants for AMOEBA (n = 149 and for small ruminants (n = 9. In contrast, Gi* revealed fewer large ruminant clusters (n = 122 and more small ruminant clusters (n = 61. Significant environmental differences were found between groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and Mann- Whitney U tests. Logistic regression was used to model the presence/absence of anthrax outbreaks and define a risk surface for large ruminants to compare with cluster analyses. The model predicted 32.2% of the landscape as high risk. Approximately 75% of AMOEBA clusters corresponded to predicted high risk, compared with ~64% of Gi* clusters. In general, AMOEBA predicted more irregularly shaped clusters of outbreaks in both livestock groups, while Gi* tended to predict larger, circular clusters. Here we provide an evaluation of both tests and a discussion of the use of each to detect environmental conditions associated with anthrax outbreak clusters in domestic livestock. These findings illustrate important differences in spatial statistical methods for defining local clusters and highlight the importance of selecting appropriate levels of data aggregation.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Sta58 Major Antigen Gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: Sequence homology and Antigenic Comparison of Sta58 to the 60-Kilodalton Family of Stress Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    encoding the animals have shown that both cellular and humoral immune Sta58 protein antigen in E. coli. DNA sequence analysis of a responses occur after...infection, with the cellular immune 2.9-kilobase (kb) HindIl fragment carrying the Sta58 gene response being required for protection (16, 19, 25, 42...The first evidence of a 60-kDa common HtpB antigen) reacted strongly with protein antigens in the antigen family (Hsp6O) among procaryotes was based

  6. Molecular characterisation and the protective immunity evaluation of Eimeria maxima surface antigen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqi; Huang, Jingwei; Li, Yanlin; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Zhouyang; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-05-30

    Coccidiosis is recognised as a major parasitic disease in chickens. Eimeria maxima is considered as a highly immunoprotective species within the Eimeria spp. family that infects chickens. In the present research, the surface antigen gene of E. maxima (EmSAG) was cloned, and the ability of EmSAG to stimulate protection against E. maxima was evaluated. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic plasmids expressing EmSAG were constructed. The EmSAG transcription and expression in vivo was performed based on the RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The expression of EmSAG in sporozoites and merozoites was detected through immunofluorescence analyses. The immune protection was assessed based on challenge experiments. Flow cytometry assays were used to determine the T cell subpopulations. The serum antibody and cytokine levels were evaluated by ELISA. The open reading frame (ORF) of EmSAG gene contained 645 bp encoding 214 amino acid residues. The immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the EmSAG gene were transcribed and expressed in vivo. The EmSAG proteins were expressed in sporozoite and merozoite stages of E. maxima by the immunofluorescence assay. Challenge experiments showed that both pVAX1-SAG and the recombinant EmSAG (rEmSAG) proteins were successful in alleviating jejunal lesions, decreasing loss of body weight and the oocyst ratio. Additionally, these experiments possessed anticoccidial indices (ACI) of more than 170. Higher percentages of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were detected in both EmSAG-inoculated birds than those of the negative control groups (P maxima.

  7. Targeting Mucosal Dendritic Cells with Microbial Antigens from Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    this antigen-targeting approach to DCs, including B. anthracis protective antigen and botulinum toxin (heavy chain) in vivo. More studies are planned ...through impairment of germinal center development. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91(7), 2639–2643 (1994). 45 Rescigno M, Urbano M, Valzasina B et al

  8. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory.

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie S Morgan; S Dean Rider; Larry G Arlian

    2017-01-01

    Background Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose. Objective The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test...

  9. Profiling the Targets of Protective CD8+ T Cell Responses to Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Bruder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available T cells are critical effectors of host immunity that target intracellular pathogens, such as the causative agents of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. The development of vaccines that induce effective cell-mediated immunity against such pathogens has proved challenging; for tuberculosis and malaria, many of the antigens targeted by protective T cells are not known. Here, we report a novel approach for screening large numbers of antigens as potential targets of T cells. Malaria provides an excellent model to test this antigen discovery platform because T cells are critical mediators of protection following immunization with live sporozoite vaccines and the specific antigen targets are unknown. We generated an adenovirus array by cloning 312 highly expressed pre-erythrocytic Plasmodium yoelii antigens into adenovirus vectors using high-throughput methodologies. The array was screened to identify antigen-specific CD8+ T cells induced by a live sporozoite vaccine regimen known to provide high levels of sterile protection mediated by CD8+ T cells. We identified 69 antigens that were targeted by CD8+ T cells induced by this vaccine regimen. The antigen that recalled the highest frequency of CD8+ T cells, PY02605, induced protective responses in mice, demonstrating proof of principle for this approach in identifying antigens for vaccine development.

  10. Characterization of Specific Immune Responses to Different Aspergillus Antigens during the Course of Invasive Aspergillosis in Hematologic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Anne; Beau, Remi; Candoni, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Rossi, Giulio; Morselli, Monica; Zanetti, Eleonora; Quadrelli, Chiara; Codeluppi, Mauro; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pagano, Livio; Caira, Morena; Giovane, Cinzia Del; Maccaferri, Monica; Stefani, Alessandro; Morandi, Uliano; Tazzioli, Giovanni; Girardis, Massimo; Delia, Mario; Specchia, Giorgina; Longo, Giuseppe; Marasca, Roberto; Narni, Franco; Merli, Francesco; Imovilli, Annalisa; Apolone, Giovanni; Carvalho, Agostinho; Comoli, Patrizia; Romani, Luigina; Latgè, Jean Paul; Luppi, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Several studies in mouse model of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and in healthy donors have shown that different Aspergillus antigens may stimulate different adaptive immune responses. However, the occurrence of Aspergillus-specific T cells have not yet been reported in patients with the disease. In patients with IA, we have investigated during the infection: a) whether and how specific T-cell responses to different Aspergillus antigens occur and develop; b) which antigens elicit the highest frequencies of protective immune responses and, c) whether such protective T cells could be expanded ex-vivo. Forty hematologic patients have been studied, including 22 patients with IA and 18 controls. Specific T cells producing IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17A have been characterized through enzyme linked immunospot and cytokine secretion assays on 88 peripheral blood (PB) samples, by using the following recombinant antigens: GEL1p, CRF1p, PEP1p, SOD1p, α1–3glucan, β1–3glucan, galactomannan. Specific T cells were expanded through short term culture. Aspergillus-specific T cells producing non-protective interleukin-10 (IL-10) and protective interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) have been detected to all the antigens only in IA patients. Lower numbers of specific T cells producing IL-4 and IL-17A have also been shown. Protective T cells targeted predominantly Aspergillus cell wall antigens, tended to increase during the IA course and to be associated with a better clinical outcome. Aspergillus-specific T cells could be successfully generated from the PB of 8 out of 8 patients with IA and included cytotoxic subsets able to lyse Aspergillus hyphae. Aspergillus specific T-cell responses contribute to the clearance of the pathogen in immunosuppressed patients with IA and Aspergillus cell wall antigens are those mainly targeted by protective immune responses. Cytotoxic specific T cells can be expanded from immunosuppressed patients even during the infection by using the above mentioned

  11. Pharmacophore Selection and Redesign of Non-nucleotide Inhibitors of Anthrax Edema Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estrella Jimenez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF, an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxin’s basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was identified that inhibited the release of cAMP from cells treated with EF. The lead inhibitor was also shown to inhibit the diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC in a murine model, perhaps by serving as a quorum sensor. These inhibitors are now being tested for their ability to inhibit Anthrax infection in animal models and may have use against other pathogens that produce toxins similar to EF, such as Bordetella pertussis or Vibrio cholera.

  12. Pharmacophore selection and redesign of non-nucleotide inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Catherine H; Chen, Deliang; Ma, Lili; Kanalas, John J; Gao, Jian; Jimenez, Maria Estrella; Sower, Laurie E; Walter, Mary A; Gilbertson, Scott R; Peterson, Johnny W

    2012-11-08

    Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF), an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxin's basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was identified that inhibited the release of cAMP from cells treated with EF. The lead inhibitor was also shown to inhibit the diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in a murine model, perhaps by serving as a quorum sensor. These inhibitors are now being tested for their ability to inhibit Anthrax infection in animal models and may have use against other pathogens that produce toxins similar to EF, such as Bordetella pertussis or Vibrio cholera.

  13. Acanthocheilonema viteae: Vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucius, R.; Textor, G.; Kern, A.; Kirsten, C.

    1991-01-01

    Jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (L3) of Acanthocheilonema viteae. The induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. Immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated L3 induced approximately 90% resistance. Immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated L3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 L3 induced 94.1% protection. The protection induced with 3 doses of 50 irradiated L3 did not decrease significantly during a period of 6 months. Sera of a proportion, but not all resistant jirds, contained antibodies against the surface of vector derived L3 as defined by IFAT. No surface antigens of microfilariae or adult worms were recognized by the sera. Vaccinated animals had antibody responses against antigens in the inner organs of L3 and in the cuticle and reproductive organs of adult worms as shown by IFAT. Immunoblotting with SDS-PAGE-separated L3 antigens and L3-CSN revealed that all sera contained antibodies against two exported antigens of 205 and 68 kDa, and against a nonexported antigen of 18 kDa. The 205-kDa antigen easily degraded into fragments of 165, 140, 125, and 105 kDa which were recognized by resistant jird sera. Various antigens of adult worms, but relatively few antigens of microfilariae, were also recognized. To test the relevance of exported antigens of L3 to resistance, jirds were immunized with L3-CSN together with a mild adjuvant. This immunization induced 67.7% resistance against challenge infection and sera of the immunized animals recognized the 205- and 68-kDa antigens of L3

  14. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A. Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Braun

    Full Text Available During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS. PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis.

  15. Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Dias, Joana; Correia, Alexandra; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santos, Carlos; Teixeira, Luzia; Ribeiro, Adília; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. In the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with N. caninum membrane antigens plus CpG adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. Immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 107 tachyzoites, showing that significant protection was achieved by this immunization strategy. Intestinal IgA antibodies raised by immunization markedly agglutinated live N. caninum tachyzoites whereas previous opsonization with IgG antibodies purified from immunized mice sera reduced parasite survival within macrophage cells. Although an IgG1 : IgG2a ratio < 1 was detected in the immunized mice before and after infection, indicative of a predominant T helper type 1 immune response, no increased production of interferon-γ was detected in the spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes of the immunized mice. Altogether, these results show that mucosal immunization with N. caninum membrane proteins plus CpG adjuvant protect against intragastrically established neosporosis and indicate that parasite-specific mucosal and circulating antibodies have a protective role against this parasitic infection. PMID:24128071

  16. Expression of H5 hemagglutinin vaccine antigen in common duckweed (Lemna minor) protects against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus challenge in immunized chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Thomas, Colleen; Guo, Xuan; Bublot, Michel; Pritchard, Nikki; Regan, Jeffrey T; Cox, Kevin M; Gasdaska, John R; Dickey, Lynn F; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2015-07-09

    A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.2μg or 2.3 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) mean chicken embryo infectious doses (EID50) of homologous virus strain. Both dosages of rLemna-HA conferred clinical protection and dramatically reduced viral shedding. Almost all the birds immunized with either dosage of rLemna-HA elicited HA antibody titers against Indo/03 antigen, suggesting an association between levels of anti-Indo/03 antibodies and protection. In Experiment 2, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on birds immunized with 0.9 μg or 2.2 μg HA and challenged with 10(6) EID50 of heterologous H5N1 virus strains A/chicken/Vietnam/NCVD-421/2010 (VN/10) or A/chicken/West Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Birds challenged with VN/10 exhibited 100% survival regardless of immunization dosage, while birds challenged with PWT/06 had 50% and 30% mortality at 0.9 μg HA and 2.2 μg HA, respectively. For each challenge virus, viral shedding titers from 2.2 μg HA vaccinated birds were significantly lower than those from 0.9μg HA vaccinated birds, and titers from both immunized groups were in turn significantly lower than those from sham vaccinated birds. Even if immunized birds elicited HA titers against the vaccine antigen Indo/03, only the groups challenged with VN/10 developed humoral immunity against the challenge antigen. None (rLemna-HA 0.9 μg HA) and 40% (rLemna-HA 2.2 μg HA) of the immunized birds challenged with PWT/06 elicited pre-challenge antibody titers, respectively. In conclusion, Lemna-expressed HA demonstrated complete protective immunity against homologous challenge and suboptimal protection against heterologous challenge, the latter being similar to results from inactivated whole virus vaccines. Transgenic duckweed-derived HA could be a

  17. Partial Protection of Mice against Trypanosoma cruzi after Immunizing with the TcY 72 Antigenic Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara M Gomes

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A 72 kDa Trypanosoma cruzi glycoprotein recognized by the 164C11 monoclonal antibody (IgM isotype was purified by preparative electrophoresis. The antigenic preparation obtained, named TcY 72, was used to immunize C57Bl/10 mice. The following results were observed after immunization: (1 induction of higher titres of IgG than IgM antibodies, as evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence; (2 significant DTH after injection of epimastigotes in mice footpads; (3 peak parasitemia in immunized mice was significantly reduced and animals were negative by 13 days post-infection, although the mice still succumb to infection; (4 the phenotypic analysis of spleen cell populations showed a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio in immunized mice. Taken as a whole, these findings indicate that TcY 72 is immunogenic and potentially important for protective immunity.

  18. Fc Receptor-Targeting of Immunogen as a Strategy for Enhanced Antigen Loading, Vaccination, and Protection Using Intranasally-Administered Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H.; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Gosselin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using an F. tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25068496

  19. Fc receptor-targeting of immunogen as a strategy for enhanced antigen loading, vaccination, and protection using intranasally administered antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2014-09-08

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using a Francisella tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR-targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographical and temporal conservation of antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten A; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2004-01-01

    The slow acquisition of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria probably reflects the extensive diversity of important antigens. The variant surface antigens (VSA) that mediate parasite adhesion to a range of host molecules are regarded as important targets of acquired protective immunity......, but their diversity makes them questionable vaccine candidates. We determined levels of VSA-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in human plasma collected at four geographically distant and epidemiologically distinct localities with specificity for VSA expressed by P. falciparum isolates from three African countries...

  1. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. [Blood groups - minuses and pluses. Do the blood group antigens protect us from infectious diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiński, Marcin

    2015-06-25

    Human blood can be divided into groups, which is a method of blood classification based on the presence or absence of inherited erythrocyte surface antigens that can elicit immune response. According to the International Society of Blood Transfusion, there are 341 blood group antigens collected in 35 blood group systems. These antigens can be proteins, glycoproteins or glycosphingolipids, and function as transmembrane transporters, ion channels, adhesion molecules or receptors for other proteins. The majority of blood group antigens is present also on another types of cells. Due to their localization on the surface of cells, blood group antigens can act as receptors for various pathogens or their toxins, such as protozoa (malaria parasites), bacteria (Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae) and viruses (Noroviruses, Parvoviruses, HIV). If the presence of group antigen (or its variant which arised due to mutation) is beneficial for the host (e.g. because pathogens are not able to bind to the cells), the blood group may become a selection trait, leading to its dissemination in the population exposed to that pathogen. There are thirteen blood group systems that can be related to pathogen resistance, and it seems that the particular influence was elicit by malaria parasites. It is generally thought that the high incidence of blood groups such as O in the Amazon region, Fy(a-b-) in Africa and Ge(-) in Papua-New Guinea is the result of selective pressure from malaria parasite. This review summarizes the data about relationship between blood groups and resistance to pathogens.

  3. Strategic evaluation of vaccine candidate antigens for the prevention of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Favila, Michelle; Hofmeyer, Kimberley A; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Reed, Steven J; Laurance, John D; Picone, Alessandro; Guderian, Jeffrey; Bailor, H Remy; Vallur, Aarthy C; Liang, Hong; Mohamath, Raodoh; Vergara, Julie; Howard, Randall F; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2016-05-27

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes, the most severe of which is visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Vaccination will likely provide the most effective long-term control strategy, as the large number of vectors and potential infectious reservoirs renders sustained interruption of Leishmania parasite transmission extremely difficult. Selection of the best vaccine is complicated because, although several vaccine antigen candidates have been proposed, they have emerged following production in different platforms. To consolidate the information that has been generated into a single vaccine platform, we expressed seven candidates as recombinant proteins in E. coli. After verifying that each recombinant protein could be recognized by VL patients, we evaluated their protective efficacy against experimental L. donovani infection of mice. Administration in formulation with the Th1-potentiating adjuvant GLA-SE indicated that each antigen could elicit antigen-specific Th1 responses that were protective. Considering the ability to reduce parasite burden along with additional factors such as sequence identity across Leishmania species, we then generated a chimeric fusion protein comprising a combination of the 8E, p21 and SMT proteins. This E. coli -expressed fusion protein was also demonstrated to protect against L. donovani infection. These data indicate a novel recombinant vaccine antigen with the potential for use in VL control programs. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. [Genodiagnosis and molecular typing of the pathogens for plague, cholera, and anthrax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I

    2003-01-01

    The paper contains a survey of published data about the use of DNA-diagnostics in indicating and identifying the causative agents of highly dangerous infections like plague, cholera and anthrax. A discussion of data about the genetic relationship between strains of the mentioned causative agents isolated from different sources by using the molecular-typing methods as well as about the evolution ties between strains of different origins is in the focus of attention. Results of comparative studies of nucleotide sequences of genomes or of individual genomes in different Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae and Bacillus anthracis strains, which are indicative of the evolution of their pathogenicity, are also under discussion.

  5. Variant surface antigen-specific IgG and protection against clinical consequences of pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Shulman, Caroline E; Bulmer, Judith N

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum adherence to chondroitin sulfate A in the placental intervillous space is a major cause of low birthweight and maternal anaemia in areas of endemic P falciparum transmission. Adhesion-blocking antibodies that specifically...... recognise parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) are associated with resistance to pregnancy-associated malaria. We looked for a possible relation between VSA-specific antibody concentrations, placental infection, and protection from low birthweight and maternal anaemia. METHODS: We used flow...... cytometry to measure VSA-specific IgG concentrations in plasma samples taken during child birth from 477 Kenyan women selected from a cohort of 910 women on the basis of HIV-1 status, gravidity, and placental histology. We measured VSA expressed by one placental P falciparum isolate and two isolates...

  6. Influence of polymer architecture on antigens camouflage, CD47 protection and complement mediated lysis of surface grafted red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Rossi, Nicholas A A; Medvedev, Nadia; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2012-11-01

    Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers with similar hydrodynamic sizes in solution were grafted to red blood cells (RBCs) to investigate the impact of polymer architecture on the cell structure and function. The hydrodynamic sizes of polymers were calculated from the diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. The hydration of the HPG and PEG was determined by differential scanning calorimetry analyses. RBCs grafted with linear PEG had different properties compared to the compact HPG grafted RBCs. HPG grafted RBCs showed much higher electrophoretic mobility values than PEG grafted RBCs at similar grafting concentrations and hydrodynamic sizes indicating differences in the structure of the polymer exclusion layer on the cell surface. PEG grafting impacted the deformation properties of the membrane to a greater degree than HPG. The complement mediated lysis of the grafted RBCs was dependent on the type of polymer, grafting concentration and molecular size of grafted chains. At higher molecular weights and graft concentrations both HPG and PEG triggered complement activation. The magnitude of activation was higher with HPG possibly due to the presence of many hydroxyl groups per molecule. HPG grafted RBCs showed significantly higher levels of CD47 self-protein accessibility than PEG grafted RBCs at all grafting concentrations and molecular sizes. PEG grafted polymers provided, in general, a better shielding and protection to ABO and minor antigens from antibody recognition than HPG polymers, however, the compact HPGs provided greater protection of certain antigens on the RBC surface. Our data showed that HPG 20 kDa and HPG 60 kDa grafted RBCs exhibited properties that are more comparable to the native RBC than PEG 5 kDa and PEG 10 kDa grafted RBCs of comparable hydrodynamic sizes. The study shows that small compact polymers such as HPG 20 kDa have a greater potential in the generation of functional RBC for therapeutic

  7. Novel approaches to identify protective malaria vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Ni eChia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines against malaria have been the focus of substantial research activities for decades. Several categories of candidate vaccines are currently being developed for protection against malaria, based on antigens corresponding to the pre-erythrocytic, blood-stage or sexual stages of the parasite. Long lasting sterile protection from Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge has been observed in human following vaccination with whole parasite formulations, clearly demonstrating that a protective immune response targeting predominantly the pre-erythrocytic stages can develop against malaria. However, most of vaccine candidates currently being investigated, which are mostly subunits vaccines, have not been able to induce substantial (>50% protection thus far. This is due to the fact that the antigens responsible for protection against the different parasite stages are still yet to be known and relevant correlates of protection have remained elusive. For a vaccine to be developed in a timely manner, novel approaches are required. In this article, we review the novel approaches that have been developed to identify the antigens for the development of an effective malaria vaccine.

  8. High antibody titer against apical membrane antigen-1 is required to protect against malaria in the Aotus model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetij Dutta

    Full Text Available A Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1 vaccine, formulated with AS02(A adjuvant, slowed parasite growth in a recent Phase 1/2a trial, however sterile protection was not observed. We tested this AS02(A, and a Montanide ISA720 (ISA formulation of 3D7 AMA1 in Aotus monkeys. The 3D7 parasite does not invade Aotus erythrocytes, hence two heterologous strains, FCH/4 and FVO, were used for challenge, FCH/4 AMA1 being more homologous to 3D7 than FVO AMA1. Following three vaccinations, the monkeys were challenged with 50,000 FCH/4 or 10,000 FVO parasites. Three of the six animals in the AMA+ISA group were protected against FCH/4 challenge. One monkey did not become parasitemic, another showed only a short period of low level parasitemia that self-cured, and a third animal showed a delay before exhibiting its parasitemic phase. This is the first protection shown in primates with a recombinant P. falciparum AMA1 without formulation in Freund's complete adjuvant. No animals in the AMA+AS02(A group were protected, but this group exhibited a trend towards reduced growth rate. A second group of monkeys vaccinated with AMA+ISA vaccine was not protected against FVO challenge, suggesting strain-specificity of AMA1-based protection. Protection against FCH/4 strain correlated with the quantity of induced antibodies, as the protected animals were the only ones to have in vitro parasite growth inhibitory activity of >70% at 1:10 serum dilution; immuno-fluorescence titers >8,000; ELISA titers against full-length AMA1 >300,000 and ELISA titer against AMA1 domains1+2 >100,000. A negative correlation between log ELISA titer and day 11 cumulative parasitemia (Spearman rank r = -0.780, p value = 0.0001, further confirmed the relationship between antibody titer and protection. High titers of cross-strain inhibitory antibodies against AMA1 are therefore critical to confer solid protection, and the Aotus model can be used to down-select future AMA1

  9. Inhalation Anthrax (Ames aerosol) in Naive and Vaccinated New Zealand Rabbits: Characterizing the Spread of Bacteria from Lung Deposition to Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    Lond.) 51, 372–385. Henderson, D. W., Peacock , S., and Belton, F. C. (1956). Observations on the prophylaxis of experimental pulmonary anthrax in...terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in other forums

  10. Liposome-antigen-nucleic acid complexes protect mice from lethal challenge with western and eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron T; Schountz, Tony; Toth, Ann M; Rico, Amber B; Jarvis, Donald L; Powers, Ann M; Olson, Ken E

    2014-02-01

    Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause significant disease in animals and humans. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), two New World alphaviruses, can cause fatal encephalitis, and EEEV is a select agent of concern in biodefense. However, we have no antiviral therapies against alphaviral disease, and current vaccine strategies target only a single alphavirus species. In an effort to develop new tools for a broader response to outbreaks, we designed and tested a novel alphavirus vaccine comprised of cationic lipid nucleic acid complexes (CLNCs) and the ectodomain of WEEV E1 protein (E1ecto). Interestingly, we found that the CLNC component, alone, had therapeutic efficacy, as it increased survival of CD-1 mice following lethal WEEV infection. Immunization with the CLNC-WEEV E1ecto mixture (lipid-antigen-nucleic acid complexes [LANACs]) using a prime-boost regimen provided 100% protection in mice challenged with WEEV subcutaneously, intranasally, or via mosquito. Mice immunized with LANACs mounted a strong humoral immune response but did not produce neutralizing antibodies. Passive transfer of serum from LANAC E1ecto-immunized mice to nonimmune CD-1 mice conferred protection against WEEV challenge, indicating that antibody is sufficient for protection. In addition, the LANAC E1ecto immunization protocol significantly increased survival of mice following intranasal or subcutaneous challenge with EEEV. In summary, our LANAC formulation has therapeutic potential and is an effective vaccine strategy that offers protection against two distinct species of alphavirus irrespective of the route of infection. We discuss plausible mechanisms as well the potential utility of our LANAC formulation as a pan-alphavirus vaccine.

  11. The role of Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens in protective immunity and vaccine development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    There is substantial immuno-epidemiological evidence that the parasite-encoded, so-called variant surface antigens (VSAs) such as PfEMP1 on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) are important-in some cases probably decisive-determinants of clinical outcome of P. falciparum malaria. The evide...... of VSAs, and how vaccines based on this type of antigens fit into the current global strategy to reduce, eliminate and eventually eradicate the burden of malaria....

  12. Elucidating the mechanisms of protein antigen adsorption to the CAF/NAF liposomal vaccine adjuvant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamborg, Mette; Rose, Fabrice; Jorgensen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    is generally known about how antigens and adjuvants interact at the molecular level. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between the equally sized, but oppositely charged model protein antigens α-lactalbumin and lysozyme, and i) the clinically tested cationic liposomal...... antigens are presented to antigen-presenting cells, and may play an important role for the efficacy of the vaccine-induced immune response. These studies thus exemplify the importance of characterizing the molecular interactions between the vaccine antigen and adjuvant along with immunogenicity......The reverse vaccinology approach has recently resulted in the identification of promising protein antigens, which in combination with appropriate adjuvants can stimulate customized, protective immune responses. Although antigen adsorption to adjuvants influences vaccine efficacy and safety, little...

  13. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  14. Delivery of antigen to nasal-associated lymphoid tissue microfold cells through secretory IgA targeting local dendritic cells confers protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochereau, Nicolas; Pavot, Vincent; Verrier, Bernard; Jospin, Fabienne; Ensinas, Agathe; Genin, Christian; Corthésy, Blaise; Paul, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Transmission of mucosal pathogens relies on their ability to bind to the surfaces of epithelial cells, to cross this thin barrier, and to gain access to target cells and tissues, leading to systemic infection. This implies that pathogen-specific immunity at mucosal sites is critical for the control of infectious agents using these routes to enter the body. Although mucosal delivery would ensure the best onset of protective immunity, most of the candidate vaccines are administered through the parenteral route. The present study evaluates the feasibility of delivering the chemically bound p24gag (referred to as p24 in the text) HIV antigen through secretory IgA (SIgA) in nasal mucosae in mice. We show that SIgA interacts specifically with mucosal microfold cells present in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. p24-SIgA complexes are quickly taken up in the nasal cavity and selectively engulfed by mucosal dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin-positive dendritic cells. Nasal immunization with p24-SIgA elicits both a strong humoral and cellular immune response against p24 at the systemic and mucosal levels. This ensures effective protection against intranasal challenge with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding p24. This study represents the first example that underscores the remarkable potential of SIgA to serve as a carrier for a protein antigen in a mucosal vaccine approach targeting the nasal environment. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical and parasitological protection in a Leishmania infantum-macaque model vaccinated with adenovirus and the recombinant A2 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Gabriel; Teva, Antonio; Porrozzi, Renato; Pinto, Marcelo A; Marchevsky, Renato S; Rocha, Maria Gabrielle L; Dutra, Miriam S; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Fernandes, Ana-Paula; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2) protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12) adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum); two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2) followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum); and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2) boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2). Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. The remarkable clinical protection induced by A2 in an animal model that is

  16. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Strain Shows Protective Effects against the B. anthracis LT Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  17. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain shows protective effects against the B. anthracis LT toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-10-30

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  18. Novel Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccines: evidence-based searching for variant surface antigens as candidates for vaccination against pregnancy-associated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsoe, Trine; Jensen, Anja T R; Theander, Thor G

    2002-01-01

    Malaria vaccine development has traditionally concentrated on careful molecular, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of candidate antigens. In contrast, evidence of the importance of identified antigens in immunity to human infection and disease has generally been limited to statistic......Malaria vaccine development has traditionally concentrated on careful molecular, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of candidate antigens. In contrast, evidence of the importance of identified antigens in immunity to human infection and disease has generally been limited...... to statistically significant co-variation with protection rather than on demonstration of causal relationships. We have studied the relationship between variant surface antigen-specific antibodies and clinical protection from Plasmodium falciparum malaria in general, and from pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM......) in particular, to provide robust evidence of a causal link between the two in order to allow efficient and evidence-based identification of candidate antigens for malaria vaccine development....

  19. Antigenicity of Leishmania-Activated C-Kinase Antigen (LACK in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Protective Effect of Prime-Boost Vaccination With pCI-neo-LACK Plus Attenuated LACK-Expressing Vaccinia Viruses in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania-activated C-kinase antigen (LACK is a highly conserved protein among Leishmania species and is considered a viable vaccine candidate for human leishmaniasis. In animal models, prime-boost vaccination with LACK-expressing plasmids plus attenuated vaccinia viruses (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and mutant M65 expressing LACK, has been shown to protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. Further, LACK demonstrated to induce the production of protective cytokines in patients with active CL or cured visceral leishmaniasis, as well as in asymptomatic individuals from endemic areas. However, whether LACK is capable to trigger cytokine release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients cured of CL due to Leishmania infantum (L. infantum or induce protection in L. infantum-infected hamsters [visceral leishmaniasis (VL model], has not yet been analyzed. The present work examines the ex vivo immunogenicity of LACK in cured VL and CL patients, and asymptomatic subjects from an L. infantum area. It also evaluates the vaccine potential of LACK against L. infantum infection in hamsters, in a protocol of priming with plasmid pCI-neo-LACK (DNA-LACK followed by a booster with the poxvirus vectors MVA-LACK or M65-LACK. LACK-stimulated PBMC from both asymptomatic and cured subjects responded by producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granzyme B (Th1-type response. Further, 78% of PBMC samples that responded to soluble Leishmania antigen showed IFN-γ secretion following stimulation with LACK. In hamsters, the protocol of DNA-LACK prime/MVA-LACK or M65-LACK virus boost vaccination significantly reduced the amount of Leishmania DNA in the liver and bone marrow, with no differences recorded between the use of MVA or M65 virus vector options. In summary, the Th1-type and cytotoxic responses elicited by LACK in PBMC from human subjects infected with L. infantum, and the parasite protective effect of prime/boost vaccination in hamsters with DNA

  20. Identification and characterization of surface antigens in parasites, using radiolabelling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasamy, R.

    1982-04-01

    Surface proteins of Schistosoma sp and Leishmania sp were studied using 125-Iodine as tracer. The surface proteins were labelled by the Lactoperoxidase method and the proteins then separated using SDS PAG electrophoresis and autoradiography. The possible immunogens were then separated using immunoprecipitation and Fluorescent Antibody techniques using sera from patients or from artificially immunized rabbits. Four common antigens were identified from the surfaces of male and female adult worms, cercariae and schistosomulae of S.mansoni. These antigens, which had molecular weights of 150,000, 78,000, 45,000, and 22,000 were also isolated from the surfaces of S.haematobium adults. The surface antigens on promastigotes of a Kenyan strain of Leishmania donovani were separated into three protein antigens with molecular weights of 66,000, 59,000 and 43,000 respectively. The 59,000 molecular weight antigen was a glycoprotein and was common to promastigotes of an American and Indian strain of L.donovani and to L.braziliensis mexicana. None of the isolated antigens have been shown to have a protective effect when vaccinated into mice, but the study illustrates the value of radionuclide tracers in the unravelling of the mosaic of antigens which parasites possess

  1. Prime-boost BCG vaccination with DNA vaccines based in β-defensin-2 and mycobacterial antigens ESAT6 or Ag85B improve protection in a tuberculosis experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto R; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Biragyn, Arya; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio; Bodogai, Monica; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita; Sada, Eduardo; Trujillo, Valentin; Enciso-Moreno, Antonio; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno

    2013-01-11

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that there are about 8 million new cases annually of active Tuberculosis (TB). Despite its irregular effectiveness (0-89%), the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) BCG is the only vaccine available worldwide for prevention of TB; thus, the design is important of novel and more efficient vaccination strategies. Considering that β-defensin-2 is an antimicrobial peptide that induces dendritic cell maturation through the TLR-4 receptor and that both ESAT-6 and Ag85B are immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and efficient activators of the protective immune response, we constructed two DNA vaccines by the fusion of the gene encoding β-defensin-2 and antigens ESAT6 (pDE) and 85B (pDA). After confirming efficient local antigen expression that induced high and stable Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in intramuscular (i.m.) vaccinated Balb/c mice, groups of mice were vaccinated with DNA vaccines in a prime-boost regimen with BCG and with BCG alone, and 2 months later were challenged with the mild virulence reference strain H37Rv and the highly virulent clinical isolate LAM 5186. The level of protection was evaluated by survival, lung bacilli burdens, and extension of tissue damage (pneumonia). Vaccination with both DNA vaccines showed similar protection to that of BCG. After the challenge with the highly virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, animals that were prime-boosted with BCG and then boosted with both DNA vaccines showed significant higher survival and less tissue damage than mice vaccinated only with BCG. These results suggest that improvement of BCG vaccination, such as the prime-boost DNA vaccine, represents a more efficient vaccination scheme against TB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mimotope-based vaccines of Leishmania infantum antigens and their protective efficacy against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourena Emanuele Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of cost-effective prophylactic strategies to prevent leishmaniasis has become a high-priority. The present study has used the phage display technology to identify new immunogens, which were evaluated as vaccines in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Epitope-based immunogens, represented by phage-fused peptides that mimic Leishmania infantum antigens, were selected according to their affinity to antibodies from asymptomatic and symptomatic VL dogs' sera. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: Twenty phage clones were selected after three selection cycles, and were evaluated by means of in vitro assays of the immune stimulation of spleen cells derived from naive and chronically infected with L. infantum BALB/c mice. Clones that were able to induce specific Th1 immune response, represented by high levels of IFN-γ and low levels of IL-4 were selected, and based on their selectivity and specificity, two clones, namely B10 and C01, were further employed in the vaccination protocols. BALB/c mice vaccinated with clones plus saponin showed both a high and specific production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with individual clones or L. infantum extracts. Additionally, these animals, when compared to control groups (saline, saponin, wild-type phage plus saponin, or non-relevant phage clone plus saponin, showed significant reductions in the parasite burden in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and paws' draining lymph nodes. Protection was associated with an IL-12-dependent production of IFN-γ, mainly by CD8+ T cells, against parasite proteins. These animals also presented decreased parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, and increased levels of parasite-specific IgG2a antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes two phage clones that mimic L. infantum antigens, which were directly used as immunogens in vaccines and presented Th1-type immune responses, and that significantly reduced the

  3. 76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    .... ADDRESSES: Washington Plaza Hotel, 10 Thomas Circle Northwest, Washington, DC. The call-in details will be.../PREPAREDNESS/LEGAL/BOARDS/NBSB/Pages/default.aspx . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: E-mail: [email protected]/PREPAREDNESS/LEGAL/BOARDS/NBSB/Pages/default.aspx . Procedures for Providing Public Input: Any member of the...

  4. Immunogenic Properties of Lactobacillus plantarum Producing Surface-Displayed Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Minic, Rajna; Moen, Lars F; Øverland, Lise; Tjåland, Rannei; Carlsen, Harald; Lea, Tor; Mathiesen, Geir; Eijsink, Vincent G H

    2017-01-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the most deadly diseases in the world. The only available vaccine against tuberculosis is the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which does not ensure full protection in adults. There is a global urgency for the development of an effective vaccine for preventing disease transmission, and it requires novel approaches. We are exploring the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a vector for antigen delivery to mucosal sites. Here, we demonstrate the successful expression and surface display of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion antigen (comprising Ag85B and ESAT-6, referred to as AgE6) on Lactobacillus plantarum The AgE6 fusion antigen was targeted to the bacterial surface using two different anchors, a lipoprotein anchor directing the protein to the cell membrane and a covalent cell wall anchor. AgE6-producing L. plantarum strains using each of the two anchors induced antigen-specific proliferative responses in lymphocytes purified from TB-positive donors. Similarly, both strains induced immune responses in mice after nasal or oral immunization. The impact of the anchoring strategies was reflected in dissimilarities in the immune responses generated by the two L. plantarum strains in vivo The present study comprises an initial step toward the development of L. plantarum as a vector for M. tuberculosis antigen delivery. This work presents the development of Lactobacillus plantarum as a candidate mucosal vaccine against tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains one of the top infectious diseases worldwide, and the only available vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), fails to protect adults and adolescents. Direct antigen delivery to mucosal sites is a promising strategy in tuberculosis vaccine development, and lactic acid bacteria potentially provide easy, safe, and low-cost delivery vehicles for mucosal immunization. We have engineered L. plantarum strains to produce a Mycobacterium tuberculosis fusion antigen and to anchor this

  5. Genetic distribution of noncapsular meningococcal group B vaccine antigens in Neisseria lactamica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucidarme, Jay; Gilchrist, Stefanie; Newbold, Lynne S; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Richardson, Lynne; Bennett, Julia S; Maiden, Martin C J; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray

    2013-09-01

    The poor immunogenicity of the meningococcal serogroup B (MenB) capsule has led to the development of vaccines targeting subcapsular antigens, in particular the immunodominant and diverse outer membrane porin, PorA. These vaccines are largely strain specific; however, they offer limited protection against the diverse MenB-associated diseases observed in many industrialized nations. To broaden the scope of its protection, the multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) incorporates a PorA-containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV) alongside relatively conserved recombinant protein components, including factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), and neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA). The expression of PorA is unique to meningococci (Neisseria meningitidis); however, many subcapsular antigens are shared with nonpathogenic members of the genus Neisseria that also inhabit the nasopharynx. These organisms may elicit cross-protective immunity against meningococci and/or occupy a niche that might otherwise accommodate pathogens. The potential for 4CMenB responses to impact such species (and vice versa) was investigated by determining the genetic distribution of the primary 4CMenB antigens among diverse members of the common childhood commensal, Neisseria lactamica. All the isolates possessed nhba but were devoid of fhbp and nadA. The nhba alleles were mainly distinct from but closely related to those observed among a representative panel of invasive MenB isolates from the same broad geographic region. We made similar findings for the immunogenic typing antigen, FetA, which constitutes a major part of the 4CMenB OMV. Thus, 4CMenB vaccine responses may impact or be impacted by nasopharyngeal carriage of commensal neisseriae. This highlights an area for further research and surveillance should the vaccine be routinely implemented.

  6. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  7. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym S Antonation

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats in West and Central Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans.

  8. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Joshi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous CD1d-binding glycolipid (alpha-Galactosylceramide, alpha-GC stimulates TCR signaling and activation of type-1 natural killer-like T (NKT cells. Activated NKT cells play a central role in the regulation of adaptive and protective immune responses against pathogens and tumors. In the present study, we tested the effect of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT on NKT cells both in vivo and in vitro. LT is a binary toxin known to suppress host immune responses during anthrax disease and intoxicates cells by protective antigen (PA-mediated intracellular delivery of lethal factor (LF, a potent metalloprotease. We observed that NKT cells expressed anthrax toxin receptors (CMG-2 and TEM-8 and bound more PA than other immune cell types. A sub-lethal dose of LT administered in vivo in C57BL/6 mice decreased expression of the activation receptor NKG2D by NKT cells but not by NK cells. The in vivo administration of LT led to decreased TCR-induced cytokine secretion but did not affect TCR expression. Further analysis revealed LT-dependent inhibition of TCR-stimulated MAP kinase signaling in NKT cells attributable to LT cleavage of the MAP kinase kinase MEK-2. We propose that Bacillus anthracis-derived LT causes a novel form of functional anergy in NKT cells and therefore has potential for contributing to immune evasion by the pathogen.

  9. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  10. HA03 as an Iranian Candidate Concealed Antigen for Vaccination against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum: Comparative Structural and In silico Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades researchers had focused on developing a vaccine against tick based on protective antigen. Recombinant vaccines based on concealed antigen from Boophilus microplus have been developed in Australia and Cuba by the name of TICKGARD and GAVAC (De La Fuente and Kocan, 2006. Further studies on this antigen have shown some extent of protection against other species (De Vos et al., 2001. In Iran most important species is Hyalomma anatolicum and limited information about its control are available. This paper reports structural and polymorphic analysis of HA03 as an Iranian candidate concealed antigen of H. a. anatolicum deposited in Gen-Bank .(Aghaeipour et al. GQ228820. The comparison between this antigen and other mid gut concealed antigen that their characteristics are available in GenBank showed there are high rate of similarity between them. The HA03 amino acid sequence had a homology of around 89%, 64%, 56% with HA98, BM86, BM95 respectively. Potential of MHC class I and II binding region indicated a considerable variation between BM86 antigen and its efficiency against Iranian H. a. anatolicum. In addition, predicted major of hydrophobisity and similarity in N-glycosylation besides large amount of cystein and seven EGF like regions presented in protein structure revealed that value of HA03 as a new protective antigen and the necessity of the development, BM86 homolog of H. a. anatolicum HA03 based recombinant vaccine.

  11. Ligand-induced expansion of the S1' site in the anthrax toxin lethal factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Kurbanov, Elbek K.; Johnson, Rodney L.; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Finzel, Barry C. (UMM)

    2016-07-05

    The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1'* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite.

  12. Identification of candidate vaccine antigens of bovine hemoparasites Theileria parva and Babesia bovis by use of helper T cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W C; Zhao, S; Logan, K S; Grab, D J; Rice-Ficht, A C

    1995-03-01

    Current vaccines for bovine hemoparasites utilize live attenuated organisms or virulent organisms administered concurrently with antiparasitic drugs. Although such vaccines can be effective, for most hemoparasites the mechanisms of acquired resistance to challenge infection with heterologous parasite isolates have not been clearly defined. Selection of potentially protective antigens has traditionally made use of antibodies to identify immunodominant proteins. However, numerous studies have indicated that induction of high antibody titers neither predicts the ability of an antigen to confer protective immunity nor correlates with protection. Because successful parasites have evolved antibody evasion tactics, alternative strategies to identify protective immunogens should be used. Through the elaboration of cytokines, T helper 1-(Th1)-like T cells and macrophages mediate protective immunity against many intracellular parasites, and therefore most likely play an important role in protective immunity against bovine hemoparasites. CD4+ T cell clones specific for soluble or membrane antigens of either Theileria parva schizonts or Babesia bovis merozoites were therefore employed to identify parasite antigens that elicit strong Th cell responses in vitro. Soluble cytosolic parasite antigen was fractionated by gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography or hydroxylapatite chromatography, or a combination thereof, and fractions were tested for the ability to induce proliferation of Th cell clones. This procedure enabled the identification of stimulatory fractions containing T. parva proteins of approximately 10 and 24 kDa. Antisera raised against the purified 24 kDa band reacted with a native schizont protein of approximately 30 kDa. Babesia bovis-specific Th cell clones tested against fractionated soluble Babesia bovis merozoite antigen revealed the presence of at least five distinct antigenic epitopes. Proteins separated by gel filtration revealed four patterns of

  13. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  14. A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weber

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV causes high fever and severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe and has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change and vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle and, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses.E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells and a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 and consisting of linear and/or structural antigens were created, and were expressed in and purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins and the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L and surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B and a part of the β-ribbon (called B+ was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+ induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA, MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ and/or the recombinant protein sAB+ and were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice.The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice and its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

  15. Uso de la vacuna contra el carbunco en los Estados Unidos de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Full Text Available This piece presents the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the United States of America concerning the use of aluminum hydroxide adsorbed cell-free anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, or AVA and the use of chemoprophylaxis against Bacillus anthracis in the United States. The recommended vaccination schedule consists of three subcutaneous injections, at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and three booster vaccinations, at 6, 12, and 18 months. To maintain immunity, an annual booster injection is recommended. Approximately 95% of vaccinees seroconvert, with a fourfold rise in anti-PA (protective antigen IgG titers after three doses. Analysis of data from the United States' Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System has documented no pattern of serious adverse events clearly associated with the vaccine, except injection-site reactions. Vaccination is contraindicated in the case of a previous history of anthrax infection or anaphylactic reaction following a previous dose of AVA or any of the vaccine components. In addition, vaccination should be postponed in the case of moderate or severe acute illness. Pregnant women should be vaccinated against anthrax only if the potential benefits of vaccination outweigh the potential risks to the fetus. Vaccination during breast-feeding is not medically contraindicated. Routine preexposure vaccination with AVA is indicated for persons engaged in: a work involving production quantities or concentrations of B. anthracis cultures or b activities with a high potential for aerosol production. For the military and other select populations or for groups for which a calculable risk can be assessed, preexposure vaccination may be indicated. Following confirmed or suspected exposure to B. anthracis, postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, penicillin VK, or amoxicillin. If the vaccine is available, prophylaxis should continue for 4 weeks

  16. A Retrospective Study on the Epidemiology of Anthrax, Foot and Mouth Disease, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia, Peste des Petits Ruminants and Rabies in Bangladesh, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shankar P.; Yamage, Mat

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax, foot and mouth disease (FMD), haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS), peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and rabies are considered to be endemic in Bangladesh. This retrospective study was conducted to understand the geographic and seasonal distribution of these major infectious diseases in livestock based on data collected through passive surveillance from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. Data analysis for this period revealed 5,937 cases of anthrax, 300,333 of FMD, 13,436 of HS, 247,783 of PPR and 14,085 cases of dog bite/rabies. While diseases were reported in almost every district of the country, the highest frequency of occurrence corresponded to the susceptible livestock population in the respective districts. There was no significant difference in the disease occurrences between districts bordering India/Myanmar and non-border districts (p>0.05). Significantly higher (pBangladesh. PMID:25101836

  17. A Lactococcus lactis BFE920 feed vaccine expressing a fusion protein composed of the OmpA and FlgD antigens from Edwardsiella tarda was significantly better at protecting olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) from edwardsiellosis than single antigen vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bo Ram; Lee, Soon Ho; Kim, Daniel; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Kwon, San-Sung; Lee, Kwan Hee; Lee, Jae Il; Song, Seong Kyu

    2017-09-01

    Edwardsiellosis is a major fish disease that causes a significant economic damage in the aquaculture industry. Here, we assessed vaccine efficacy after feeding oral vaccines to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), either L. lactis BFE920 expressing Edwardsiella tarda outer membrane protein A (OmpA), flagellar hook protein D (FlgD), or a fusion antigen of the two. Feed vaccination was done twice with a one-week interval. Fish were fed regular feed adsorbed with the vaccines. Feed vaccination was given over the course of one week to maximize the interaction between the feed vaccines and the fish intestine. Flounder fed the vaccine containing the fusion antigen had significantly elevated levels T cell genes (CD4-1, CD4-2, and CD8α), type 1 helper T cell (Th1) subset indicator genes (T-bet and IFN-γ), and antigen-specific antibodies compared to the groups fed the single antigen-expressing vaccines. Furthermore, the superiority of the fusion vaccine was also observed in survival rates when fish were challenged with E. tarda: OmpA-FlgD-expressing vaccine (82.5% survival); FlgD-vaccine (55.0%); OmpA-vaccine (50%); WT L. lactis BFE920 (37.5%); Ctrl (10%). In addition, vaccine-fed fish exhibited increased weight gain (∼20%) and a decreased feed conversion ratio (∼20%) during the four week vaccination period. Flounder fed the FlgD-expressing vaccine, either the single or the fusion form, had significantly increased expression of TLR5M, IL-1β, and IL-12p40, suggesting that the FlgD may be a ligand of olive flounder TLR5M receptor or closely related to the TLR5M pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that olive flounder fed L. lactis BFE920 expressing a fusion antigen composed of E. tarda OmpA and FlgD showed a strong protective effect against edwardsiellosis indicating this may be developed as an E. tarda feed vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual lanthanide-doped complexes: the development of a time-resolved ratiometric fluorescent probe for anthrax biomarker and a paper-based visual sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Xian; Xue, Shi-Fan; Chen, Zi-Han; Ma, Shi-Hui; Zhang, Shengqiang; Shi, Guoyue; Zhang, Min

    2017-08-15

    In this work, a novel time-resolved ratiometric fluorescent probe based on dual lanthanide (Tb: terbium, and Eu: europium)-doped complexes (Tb/DPA@SiO 2 -Eu/GMP) has been designed for detecting anthrax biomarker (dipicolinic acid, DPA), a unique and major component of anthrax spores. In such complexes-based probe, Tb/DPA@SiO 2 can serve as a stable reference signal with green fluorescence and Eu/GMP act as a sensitive response signal with red fluorescence for ratiometric fluorescent sensing DPA. Additionally, the probe exhibits long fluorescence lifetime, which can significantly reduce the autofluorescence interferences from biological samples by using time-resolved fluorescence measurement. More significantly, a paper-based visual sensor for DPA has been devised by using filter paper embedded with Tb/DPA@SiO 2 -Eu/GMP, and we have proved its utility for fluorescent detection of DPA, in which only a handheld UV lamp is used. In the presence of DPA, the paper-based visual sensor, illuminated by a handheld UV lamp, would result in an obvious fluorescence color change from green to red, which can be easily observed with naked eyes. The paper-based visual sensor is stable, portable, disposable, cost-effective and easy-to-use. The feasibility of using a smartphone with easy-to-access color-scanning APP as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays has been also demonstrated by coupled with our proposed paper-based visual sensor. This work unveils an effective method for accurate, sensitive and selective monitoring anthrax biomarker with backgroud-free and self-calibrating properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection against Fasciola gigantica using paramyosin antigen as a candidate for vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elhakam, H; Rabee, I; El Deeb, S; El Amir, A

    2013-11-15

    Yet no vaccine to protect ruminants against liver fluke infection has been commercialized. In an attempt to develop a suitable vaccine against Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) infection in rabbits, using 97 kDa Pmy antigen. It was found that, the mean worm burdens and bile egg count after challenge were reduced significantly by 58.40 and 61.40%, respectively. On the other hand, immunization of rabbits with Pmy induced a significant expression of humoral antibodies (IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4) and different cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, L-12 and TNF-alpha). Among Ig isotypes, IgG2 and IgG4 were most dominant Post-infection (PI) while, recording a low IgG1 level. The dominance of IgG2 and IgG4 suggested late T helper1 (Th1) involvement in rabbit's cellular response. While, the low IgG1 level suggested Th2 response to adult F. gigantica worm Pmy. Among all cytokines, IL-10 was the highest in rabbits immunized with Pmy PI suggesting also the enhancement of Th2 response. It was clear that the native F. gigantica Pmy is considered as a relevant candidate for vaccination against fascioliasis. Also, these data suggested the immunoprophylactic effect of the native F. gigantica Pmy which is mediated by a mixed Th1/Th2 response.

  20. Survival and antigenic profile of irradiated malarial sporozoites in infected liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhrbier, A.; Winger, L.A.; Castellano, E.; Sinden, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Exoerythrocytic (EE) stages of Plasmodium berghei derived from irradiated sporozoites were cultured in vitro in HepG2 cells. They synthesized several antigens, predominantly but not exclusively those expressed by normal early erythrocytic schizonts. After invasion, over half the intracellular sporozoites, both normal and irradiated, appeared to die. After 24 h, in marked contrast to the normal parasites, EE parasites derived from irradiated sporozoites continued to break open, shedding their antigens into the cytoplasm of the infected host cells. Increasing radiation dosage, which has previously been shown to reduce the ability of irradiated sporozoites to protect animals, correlated with reduced de novo antigen synthesis by EE parasites derived from irradiated sporozoites

  1. Cell wall anchoring of the Campylobacter antigens to Lactococcus lactis

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    Patrycja Anna Kobierecka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type Campylobacter jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analysed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered

  2. Facilitation of risk communication during the anthrax attacks of 2001: the organizational backstory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Caron; Clarke, Lee

    2007-09-01

    The anthrax attacks of 2001 created risk communication problems that cannot be fully understood without appreciating the dynamics among organizations. Case studies of communication in New Jersey, consisting of interviews with a range of participants, found that existing organizational and professional networks facilitated trust among decisionmakers. This interpersonal trust improved communication among agencies and thereby risk communication with the public. For example, "white powder scares" were a problem even in places without contamination. Professionals' trust in each other was vital for responding productively. Conversely, organizational challenges, including conflict among agencies, hindered communication with key audiences. Although centralization and increased control are often seen as the remedy for communicative confusion, they also can quash the improvisational responses needed during crises.

  3. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żakowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. [i]Bacillus anthracis[/i] is one of biological agents which may be used in bioterrorism attacks. The aim of this study a review of the new treatment possibilities of anthrax, with particular emphasis on the treatment of pulmonary anthrax. [b]Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge[/b]. Pulmonary anthrax, as the most dangerous clinical form of the disease, is also extremely difficult to treat. Recently, considerable progress in finding new drugs and suitable therapy for anthrax has been achieved, for example, new antibiotics worth to mentioning, levofloxacin, daptomycin, gatifloxacin and dalbavancin. However, alternative therapeutic options should also be considered, among them the antimicrobial peptides, characterized by lack of inducible mechanisms of pathogen resistance. Very promising research considers bacteriophages lytic enzymes against selected bacteria species, including antibiotic-resistant strains. [b]Results[/b]. Interesting results were obtained using monoclonal antibodies: raxibacumab, cAb29 or cocktails of antibodies. The application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to boost the immune response elicited by Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed and CMG2 protein complexes, also produced satisfying therapy results. Furthermore, the IFN-α and IFN-β, PA-dominant negative mutant, human inter-alpha inhibitor proteins and LF inhibitors in combination with ciprofloxacin, also showed very promising results. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Recently, progress has been achieved in inhalation anthrax treatment. The most promising new possibilities include: new antibiotics, peptides and bacteriophages enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigen PA mutants, and inter alpha inhibitors applications. In the case of the possibility of bioterrorist attacks, the examination of inhalation anthrax treatment should be intensively continued.

  4. The Doctrine of Original Antigenic Sin: Separating Good From Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monto, Arnold S; Malosh, Ryan E; Petrie, Joshua G; Martin, Emily T

    2017-06-15

    The term "original antigenic sin" was coined approximately 60 years ago to describe the imprinting by the initial first influenza A virus infection on the antibody response to subsequent vaccination. These studies did not suggest a reduction in the response to current antigens but instead suggested anamnestic recall of antibody to earlier influenza virus strains. Then, approximately 40 years ago, it was observed that sequential influenza vaccination might lead to reduced vaccine effectiveness (VE). This conclusion was largely dismissed after an experimental study involving sequential administration of then-standard influenza vaccines. Recent observations have provided convincing evidence that reduced VE after sequential influenza vaccination is a real phenomenon. We propose that such reduction in VE be termed "negative antigenic interaction," given that there is no age cohort effect. In contrast, the potentially positive protective effect of early influenza virus infection later in life continues to be observed. It is essential that we understand better the immunologic factors underlying both original antigenic sin and negative antigenic interaction, to support development of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose.The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host's protective response.An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies.We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum.Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite's ability to modulate its host's innate and adaptive immune responses.

  6. Clinical and parasitological protection in a Leishmania infantum-macaque model vaccinated with adenovirus and the recombinant A2 antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grimaldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe vector-born disease of humans and dogs caused by Leishmania donovani complex parasites. Approximately 0.2 to 0.4 million new human VL cases occur annually worldwide. In the new world, these alarming numbers are primarily due to the impracticality of current control methods based on vector reduction and dog euthanasia. Thus, a prophylactic vaccine appears to be essential for VL control. The current efforts to develop an efficacious vaccine include the use of animal models that are as close to human VL. We have previously reported a L. infantum-macaque infection model that is reliable to determine which vaccine candidates are most worthy for further development. Among the few amastigote antigens tested so far, one of specific interest is the recombinant A2 (rA2 protein that protects against experimental L. infantum infections in mice and dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primates were vaccinated using three rA2-based prime-boost immunization regimes: three doses of rA2 plus recombinant human interleukin-12 (rhIL-12 adsorbed in alum (rA2/rhIL-12/alum; two doses of non-replicative adenovirus recombinant vector encoding A2 (Ad5-A2 followed by two boosts with rA2/rhIL-12/alum (Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum; and plasmid DNA encoding A2 gene (DNA-A2 boosted with two doses of Ad5-A2 (DNA-A2+Ad5-A2. Primates received a subsequent infectious challenge with L. infantum. Vaccines, apart from being safe, were immunogenic as animals responded with increased pre-challenge production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies, though with some variability in the response, depending on the vaccine formulation/protocol. The relative parasite load in the liver was significantly lower in immunized macaques as compared to controls. Protection correlated with hepatic granuloma resolution, and reduction of clinical symptoms, particularly when primates were vaccinated with the Ad5-A2+rA2/rhIL12/alum protocol. CONCLUSIONS

  7. Felix Hoppe-Seyler Lecture 1997. Protective antibody responses against viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, R M

    1997-08-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses against the acute cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have been studied in mice to evaluate their general characteristics including specificity, self-/non-self discrimination and memory. IgM responses are generated very early, by day 3 to 4, in a T helper cell-independent fashion and without VSV having polyclonal activating capacities. The order of the glycoprotein tips on the virus envelope (multiple, 8-10 nm distance, paracrystalline) exhibiting the neutralizing determinants are key to this prompt response. These paracrystalline identical multimeric antigens are characteristic of infectious agents and are always reacted against by B cells. Self-antigens that are accessible to B cells in the intact host are either monomeric in serum or mobile multimers on cell surfaces; these configurations need contact dependent or contact independent T help, respectively. Because T help is tolerant against self-antigens, no anti-self B cell responses are usually induced against monomeric self-antigens. If collagen or DNA (rigid multimeric self-antigens) become accessible, however, they may become targets of auto-antibody responses. The antibody repertoire against VSV is partially contained in the germline and partially is generated by somatic mutation; they seem not to undergo affinity-maturation. In any case protection against lethal infection is dependent upon strictly T helper cell dependent IgG generated by day 6 to 7 and reaches a protective level of about 1-10 micrograms/ml. Interesting affinity/avidity and onrate above a minimal threshold are of no apparent advantage for protection in vivo. Maintenance of these antibody levels by antigen depots, and not the presence of memory B cells alone, is key to providing protective immunological memory. Collectively these data suggest that studying biologically important protective antibody responses may modify some of the parameters that have been defined by studying hapten specific antibody

  8. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, CANR, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Schafer, Elizabeth [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Burrage, Thomas G. [Department of Homeland Security, S & T, Targeted Advance Development, Virus, Cellular and Molecular Imaging Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Hoeprich, Paul D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: Elizabeth.Rieder@ars.usda.gov [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co{sup 2+} affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni{sup 2+}-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A{sub 24} FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A{sub 24} FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  9. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San; Schafer, Elizabeth; Burrage, Thomas G.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co"2"+ affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni"2"+-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A_2_4 FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A_2_4 FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  10. Perturbing Tandem Energy Transfer in Luminescent Heterobinuclear Lanthanide Coordination Polymer Nanoparticles Enables Real-Time Monitoring of Release of the Anthrax Biomarker from Bacterial Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Zhang, Yunfang; Huang, Pengcheng; Xiang, Zhehao; Wu, Fang-Ying; Mao, Lanqun

    2018-06-05

    Lanthanide-based luminescent sensors have been widely used for the detection of the anthrax biomarker dipicolinic acid (DPA). However, mainly based on DPA sensitization to the lanthanide core, most of them failed to realize robust detection of DPA in bacterial spores. We proposed a new strategy for reliable detection of DPA by perturbing a tandem energy transfer in heterobinuclear lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticles simply constructed by two kinds of lanthanide ions, Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ , and guanosine 5'-monophosphate. This smart luminescent probe was demonstrated to exhibit highly sensitive and selective visual luminescence color change upon exposure to DPA, enabling accurate detection of DPA in complex biosystems such as bacterial spores. DPA release from bacterial spores on physiological germination was also successfully monitored in real time by confocal imaging. This probe is thus expected to be a powerful tool for efficient detection of bacterial spores in responding to anthrax threats.

  11. Prolonged antigen presentation is required for optimal CD8+ T cell responses against malaria liver stage parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A Cockburn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunization with irradiated sporozoites is currently the most effective vaccination strategy against liver stages of malaria parasites, yet the mechanisms underpinning the success of this approach are unknown. Here we show that the complete development of protective CD8+ T cell responses requires prolonged antigen presentation. Using TCR transgenic cells specific for the malaria circumsporozoite protein, a leading vaccine candidate, we found that sporozoite antigen persists for over 8 weeks after immunization--a remarkable finding since irradiated sporozoites are incapable of replication and do not differentiate beyond early liver stages. Persisting antigen was detected in lymphoid organs and depends on the presence of CD11c+ cells. Prolonged antigen presentation enhanced the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response in a number of ways. Firstly, reducing the time primed CD8+ T cells were exposed to antigen in vivo severely reduced the final size of the developing memory population. Secondly, fully developed memory cells expanded in previously immunized mice but not when transferred to naïve animals. Finally, persisting antigen was able to prime naïve cells, including recent thymic emigrants, to become functional effector cells capable of eliminating parasites in the liver. Together these data show that the optimal development of protective CD8+ T cell immunity against malaria liver stages is dependent upon the prolonged presentation of sporozoite-derived antigen.

  12. The Leishmania HSP20 Is Antigenic during Natural Infections, but, as DNA Vaccine, It does not Protect BALB/c Mice against Experimental L. amazonensis Infection

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    Ana M. Montalvo-Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of leishmaniasis, an important health problem in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we describe a new heat shock protein (HSP in Leishmania, belonging to the small HSP (sHSP family in kinetoplastids. The protein is highly conserved in different Leishmania species, showing instead significant divergence with sHSP's from other organisms. The humoral response elicited against this protein during Leishmania infection has been investigated in natural infected humans and dogs, and in experimentally infected hamsters. Leishmania HSP20 is a prominent antigen for canine hosts; on the contrary, the protein seems to be a poor antigen for human immune system. Time-course analysis of appearance of anti-HSP20 antibodies in golden hamsters indicated that these antibodies are produced at late stages of the infection, when clinical symptoms of disease are patent. Finally, the protective efficacy of HSP20 was assessed in mice using a DNA vaccine approach prior to challenge with Leishmania amazonensis.

  13. Immunity against mouse thymus-leukemia antigen (TL) protects against development of lymphomas induced by a chemical carcinogen, N-butyl-N-nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kunio; Obata, Yuichi; Matsudaira, Yasue; Ozeki, Satoshi; Taguchi, Osamu; Nishida, Keiko; Okanami, Yuko; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Toshitada

    2004-11-01

    Mouse thymus-leukemia antigens (TL) are aberrantly expressed on T lymphomas in C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/He (C3H) mice, while they are not expressed on normal T lymphocytes in these strains. When N-butyl-N-nitrosourea (NBU), a chemical carcinogen, was administered orally to B6 and C3H strains, lymphoma development was slower than in T3(b)-TL gene-transduced counterpart strains expressing TL ubiquitously as self-antigens, suggesting that anti-TL immunity may play a protective role. In addition, the development of lymphomas was slightly slower in C3H than in B6, which seems to be in accordance with the results of skin graft experiments indicating that both cellular and humoral immunities against TL were stronger in C3H than B6 mice. The interesting finding that B lymphomas derived from a T3(b)-TL transgenic strain (C3H background) expressing a very high level of TL were rejected in C3H, but not in H-2K(b) transgenic mice (C3H background), raises the possibility that TL-specific effector T cell populations are eliminated and/or energized to a certain extent by interacting with H-2K(b) molecules.

  14. Targeting tumor antigens to secreted membrane vesicles in vivo induces efficient antitumor immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Ostrowski, Matias; Krumeich, Sophie; Bobrie, Angélique; Jancic, Carolina; Boissonnas, Alexandre; Delcayre, Alain; Le Pecq, Jean-Bernard; Combadière, Béhazine; Amigorena, Sebastian; Théry, Clotilde

    2008-02-15

    Expression of non-self antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo, although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. CD8+ T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor antigens by dendritic cells). The modes of tumor antigen capture by dendritic cells in vivo remain unclear. Here we examine the immunogenicity of the same model antigen secreted by live tumors either in association with membrane vesicles (exosomes) or as a soluble protein. We have artificially addressed the antigen to secreted vesicles by coupling it to the factor VIII-like C1C2 domain of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8)/lactadherin. We show that murine fibrosarcoma tumor cells that secrete vesicle-bound antigen grow slower than tumors that secrete soluble antigen in immunocompetent, but not in immunodeficient, host mice. This growth difference is due to the induction of a more potent antigen-specific antitumor immune response in vivo by the vesicle-bound than by the soluble antigen. Finally, in vivo secretion of the vesicle-bound antigen either by tumors or by vaccination with naked DNA protects against soluble antigen-secreting tumors. We conclude that the mode of secretion can determine the immunogenicity of tumor antigens and that manipulation of the mode of antigen secretion may be used to optimize antitumor vaccination protocols.

  15. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Du

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1 and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5 from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05. Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system.

  16. Targeted Delivery of GP5 Antigen of PRRSV to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-Specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Luping; Yu, Zhengyu; Pang, Fengjiao; Xu, Xiangwei; Mao, Aihua; Yuan, Wanzhe; He, Kongwang; Li, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Efficient delivery of antigens through oral immunization is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity, which can provide protection against pathogens invading the mucosa. Membranous/microfold cells (M cells) within the mucosa can transcytose internalized antigen without degradation and thus play an important role in initiating antigen-specific mucosal immune responses through inducing secretory IgA production. In this research, we modified poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) with Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) and successfully prepared an oral vaccine delivery system, UEA-1/PLGA NPs. PLGA NPs were prepared using a standard double emulsion solvent evaporation technique, which can protect the entrapped PRRSV DNA vaccine [pcDNA3.1-SynORF5 (synthetic ORF5)] or subunit vaccine ORF5-encoded glycoprotein (GP5) from exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and release the plasmids in a controlled manner. With UEA-1 modification, the UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be effectively transported by M-cells. We investigated immune response induced by UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5 or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 following inoculation in mice and piglets. Compared with PLGA-SynORF5 or PLGA-GP5 NPs, UEA-1/PLGA-SynORF5, or UEA-1/PLGA-GP5 NPs stimulated significantly increased serum IgG levels and augmented intestinal IgA levels in mice and piglets (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate UEA-1/PLGA NPs can be applied as a promising and universally robust oral vaccine delivery system. PMID:29423381

  17. Poly-functional and long-lasting anticancer immune response elicited by a safe attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vector for antigens delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Chauchet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated bacterial vectors for antigens delivery have aroused growing interest in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Their potency to stimulate innate immunity and to promote intracellular antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells could be exploited to elicit a strong and specific cellular immune response against tumor cells. We previously described genetically-modified and attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vectors able to deliver in vivo protein antigens into antigen-presenting cells, through Type 3 secretion system of the bacteria. Using this approach, we managed to protect immunized mice against aggressive B16 melanoma development in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In this study, we further investigated the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response, in terms of phenotypic and functional aspects, obtained after immunizations with a killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa attenuated vector. We demonstrated that P. aeruginosa vaccine induces a highly functional pool of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell able to infiltrate the tumor. Furthermore, multiple immunizations allowed the development of a long-lasting immune response, represented by a pool of predominantly effector memory cells which protected mice against late tumor challenge. Overall, killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa vector is a safe and promising approach for active and specific antitumor immunotherapy.

  18. Controlled and targeted release of antigens by intelligent shell for improving applicability of oral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Zhanzhuang; Hu, Chaohua; Bellis, Susan L; Yang, Wendi; Su, Yintao; Zhang, Xinyan; Wu, Yunkun

    2016-01-01

    Conventional oral vaccines with simple architecture face barriers with regard to stimulating effective immunity. Here we describe oral vaccines with an intelligent phase-transitional shielding layer, poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(methyl acrylate)-co-(methacrylic acid)]-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PMMMA-PLGA), which can protect antigens in the gastro-intestinal tract and achieve targeted vaccination in the large intestine. With the surface immunogenic protein (SIP) from group B Streptococcus (GBS) entrapped as the antigen, oral administration with PMMMA-PLGA (PTRBL)/Trx-SIP nanoparticles stimulated robust immunity in tilapia, an animal with a relatively simple immune system. The vaccine succeeded in protecting against Streptococcus agalactiae, a pathogen of worldwide importance that threatens human health and is transmitted in water with infected fish. After oral vaccination with PTRBL/Trx-SIP, tilapia produced enhanced levels of SIP specific antibodies and displayed durability of immune protection. 100% of the vaccinated tilapia were protected from GBS infection, whereas the control groups without vaccines or vaccinated with Trx-SIP only exhibited respective infection rates of 100% or >60% within the initial 5 months after primary vaccination. Experiments in vivo demonstrated that the recombinant antigen Trx-SIP labeled with FITC was localized in colon, spleen and kidney, which are critical sites for mounting an immune response. Our results revealed that, rather than the size of the nanoparticles, it is more likely that the negative charge repulsion produced by ionization of the carboxyl groups in PMMMA shielded the nanoparticles from uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. This system resolves challenges arising from gastrointestinal damage to antigens, and more importantly, offers a new approach applicable for oral vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Chemically Synthesized Capture Agent Enables the Selective, Sensitive, and Robust Electrochemical Detection of Anthrax Protective Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation of Catechol and Para - Aminophenol Esters in the Presence of Hydrolases. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 1980, 7, 11–24. 26. Evans-Nguyen, K. M...platform. Analytical HPLC (a) and MALDI-TOF (b) traces of biligand capture agentwithno thermal treatment, and after 5 days of storage as a powder at...sample of biligand was stored for 5 days at 65 C under nitrogen atmosphere. Analy- tical HPLC traces (Figure 4a) andMALDI-TOF (Figure 4b) reveal

  20. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  1. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  2. Natural micropolymorphism in human leukocyte antigens provides a basis for genetic control of antigen recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archbold, Julia K.; Macdonald, Whitney A.; Gras, Stephanie; Ely, Lauren K.; Miles, John J.; Bell, Melissa J.; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Clements, Craig S.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.); (Melbourne)

    2009-07-10

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphism plays a critical role in protective immunity, disease susceptibility, autoimmunity, and drug hypersensitivity, yet the basis of how HLA polymorphism influences T cell receptor (TCR) recognition is unclear. We examined how a natural micropolymorphism in HLA-B44, an important and large HLA allelic family, affected antigen recognition. T cell-mediated immunity to an Epstein-Barr virus determinant (EENLLDFVRF) is enhanced when HLA-B*4405 was the presenting allotype compared with HLA-B*4402 or HLA-B*4403, each of which differ by just one amino acid. The micropolymorphism in these HLA-B44 allotypes altered the mode of binding and dynamics of the bound viral epitope. The structure of the TCR-HLA-B*4405EENLLDFVRF complex revealed that peptide flexibility was a critical parameter in enabling preferential engagement with HLA-B*4405 in comparison to HLA-B*4402/03. Accordingly, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism can alter the dynamics of the peptide-MHC landscape, resulting in fine-tuning of T cell responses between closely related allotypes.

  3. Rapid assessment of agents of biological terrorism: defining the differential diagnosis of inhalational anthrax using electronic communication in a practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Anderson, Anna Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Early detection of bioterrorism requires assessment of diagnoses assigned to cases of rare diseases with which clinicians have little experience. In this study, we evaluated the process of defining the differential diagnosis for inhalational anthrax using electronic communication within a practice-based research network (PBRN) and compared the results with those obtained from a nationwide random sample of family physicians with a mailed instrument. We distributed survey instruments by e-mail to 55 physician members of the Wisconsin Research Network (WReN), a regional PBRN. The instruments consisted of 3 case vignettes randomly drawn from a set describing 11 patients with inhalational anthrax, 2 with influenza A, and 1 with Legionella pneumonia. Physicians provided their most likely nonanthrax diagnosis, along with their responses to 4 yes-or-no management questions for each case. Physicians who had not responded at 1 week received a second e-mail with the survey instrument. The comparison group consisted of the nationwide sample of physicians who completed mailed survey instruments. Primary outcome measures were response rate, median response time, and frequencies of diagnostic categories assigned to cases of inhalational anthrax. The PBRN response rate compared favorably with that of the national sample (47.3% vs 37.0%; P = not significant). The median response time for the PBRN was significantly shorter than that for the national sample (2 vs 28 days; P < .001). No significant differences were found between the PBRN and the Midwest subset of the national sample in the frequencies of major diagnostic categories or in case management. Electronic means of creating differential diagnoses for rare infectious diseases of national significance is feasible within PBRNs. Information is much more rapidly acquired and is consistent with that obtained by conventional methods.

  4. Multiple antigens of Yersinia pestis delivered by live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains elicit protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Patel, Hetal; Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2016-05-05

    Based on our improved novel Salmonella vaccine delivery platform, we optimized the recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine (RASV) χ12094 to deliver multiple Yersinia pestis antigens. These included LcrV196 (amino acids, 131-326), Psn encoded on pYA5383 and F1 encoded in the chromosome, their synthesis did not cause adverse effects on bacterial growth. Oral immunization with χ12094(pYA5383) simultaneously stimulated high antibody titers to LcrV, Psn and F1 in mice and presented complete protection against both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intranasal (i.n.) challenges with high lethal doses of Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, no deaths or other disease symptoms were observed in SCID mice orally immunized with χ12094(pYA5383) over a 60-day period. Therefore, the trivalent S. typhimurium-based live vaccine shows promise for a next-generation plague vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection of ewes against Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in the periparturient period by vaccination with recombinant antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; McNeilly, Tom N; Greer, Andrew W; Bartley, Yvonne; Oliver, E Margaret; Smith, Stephen; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-09-15

    Teladorsagiosis is a major production-limiting disease in ruminants in temperate regions throughout the world and one of the key interventions in the management of the disease is the prevention of pasture contamination with Teladorsagia circumcincta eggs by ewes during the periparturient relaxation in immunity which occurs in the period around lambing. Here, we describe the immunisation of twin-bearing ewes with a T. circumcincta recombinant subunit vaccine and the impact that vaccination has on their immune responses and shedding of parasite eggs during a continuous T. circumcincta challenge period spanning late gestation and lactation. In ewes which displayed a clear periparturient relaxation in immunity, vaccination resulted in a 45% reduction in mean cumulative faecal egg count (cFEC, p=0.027) compared to control (immunised with adjuvant only) ewes. Recombinant antigen-specific IgG and IgA, which bound each of the vaccine antigens, were detected in the serum of vaccinated ewes following each immunisation and in colostrum taken from vaccinated ewes post-partum whereas low levels of antigen-specific IgG were detected in serum and colostrum from control ewes. Antigen-specific IgG and IgA levels in blood collected within 48h of birth from lambs largely reflected those in the colostrum of their ewes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis vector delivering SaoA antigen confers protection against Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 7 in mice and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-An; Ji, Zhenying; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Shifeng; Shi, Huoying

    2017-12-21

    Streptococcus suis is one of the major pathogens that cause economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. However, current bacterins only provide limited prophylactic protection in the field. An ideal vaccine against S. suis should protect pigs against the clinical diseases caused by multiple serotypes, or at least protect against the dominant serotype in a given geographic region. A new recombinant Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis vaccine vector, rSC0011, that is based on the regulated delayed attenuation system and regulated delayed antigen synthesis system, was developed recently. In this study, an improved recombinant attenuated Salmonella Choleraesuis vector, rSC0016, was developed by incorporating a sopB mutation to ensure adequate safety and maximal immunogenicity. In the spleens of mice, rSC0016 colonized less than rSC0011. rSC0016 and rSC0011 colonized similarly in Peyer's patches of mice. The recombinant vaccine rSC0016(pS-SaoA) induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses in mice and swine against SaoA, a conserved surface protein that is present in many S. suis serotypes, than did rSC0011(pS-SaoA) without sopB or rSC0018(pS-SaoA), which is an avirulent, chemically attenuated vaccine strain. rSC0016(pS-SaoA) provided 100% protection against S. suis serotype 2 in mice and pigs, and full cross-protection against SS7 in pigs. This new vaccine vector provides a foundation for the development of a universal vaccine against multiple serotypes of S. suis in pigs.

  8. Neisseria meningitidis antigen NMB0088: sequence variability, protein topology and vaccine potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiñas, Gretel; Yero, Daniel; Climent, Yanet; Caballero, Evelin; Cobas, Karem; Niebla, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    The significance of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B membrane proteins as vaccine candidates is continually growing. Here, we studied different aspects of antigen NMB0088, a protein that is abundant in outer-membrane vesicle preparations and is thought to be a surface protein. The gene encoding protein NMB0088 was sequenced in a panel of 34 different meningococcal strains with clinical and epidemiological relevance. After this analysis, four variants of NMB0088 were identified; the variability was confined to three specific segments, designated VR1, VR2 and VR3. Secondary structure predictions, refined with alignment analysis and homology modelling using FadL of Escherichia coli, revealed that almost all the variable regions were located in extracellular loop domains. In addition, the NMB0088 antigen was expressed in E. coli and a procedure for obtaining purified recombinant NMB0088 is described. The humoral immune response elicited in BALB/c mice was measured by ELISA and Western blotting, while the functional activity of these antibodies was determined in a serum bactericidal assay and an animal protection model. After immunization in mice, the recombinant protein was capable of inducing a protective response when it was administered inserted into liposomes. According to our results, the recombinant NMB0088 protein may represent a novel antigen for a vaccine against meningococcal disease. However, results from the variability study should be considered for designing a cross-protective formulation in future studies.

  9. Effect of reduced dose schedules and intramuscular injection of anthrax vaccine adsorbed on immunological response and safety profile: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Rose, Charles E; Parker, Scott D; Babcock, Janiine; Keitel, Wendy; El Sahly, Hana; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M; Keyserling, Harry L; Semenova, Vera A; Li, Han; Schiffer, Jarad; Dababneh, Hanan; Martin, Sandra K; Martin, Stacey W; Marano, Nina; Messonnier, Nancy E; Quinn, Conrad P

    2014-02-12

    We evaluated an alternative administration route, reduced schedule priming series, and increased intervals between booster doses for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA). AVA's originally licensed schedule was 6 subcutaneous (SQ) priming injections administered at months (m) 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 18 with annual boosters; a simpler schedule is desired. Through a multicenter randomized, double blind, non-inferiority Phase IV human clinical trial, the originally licensed schedule was compared to four alternative and two placebo schedules. 8-SQ group participants received 6 SQ injections with m30 and m42 "annual" boosters; participants in the 8-IM group received intramuscular (IM) injections according to the same schedule. Reduced schedule groups (7-IM, 5-IM, 4-IM) received IM injections at m0, m1, m6; at least one of the m0.5, m12, m18, m30 vaccine doses were replaced with saline. All reduced schedule groups received a m42 booster. Post-injection blood draws were taken two to four weeks following injection. Non-inferiority of the alternative schedules was compared to the 8-SQ group at m2, m7, and m43. Reactogenicity outcomes were proportions of injection site and systemic adverse events (AEs). The 8-IM group's m2 response was non-inferior to the 8-SQ group for the three primary endpoints of anti-protective antigen IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC), geometric mean titer, and proportion of responders with a 4-fold rise in titer. At m7 anti-PA IgG GMCs for the three reduced dosage groups were non-inferior to the 8-SQ group GMCs. At m43, 8-IM, 5-IM, and 4-IM group GMCs were superior to the 8-SQ group. Solicited injection site AEs occurred at lower proportions in the IM group compared to SQ. Route of administration did not influence the occurrence of systemic AEs. A 3 dose IM priming schedule with doses administered at m0, m1, and m6 elicited long term immunological responses and robust immunological memory that was efficiently stimulated by a single booster vaccination at

  10. Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak: An Educational Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S. J.; van der Vink, G.

    2002-05-01

    In April and May of 1979 an Anthrax epidemic broke out in the city of Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg) in the former Soviet Union. Sixty-four people were reported to have died from the outbreak, although there is still debate concerning the actual number of victims. While Soviet officials initially attributed this outbreak to contaminated meat, the US Government maintained that the outbreak was due to a leakage from a biological weapons facility. We have created and implemented an undergraduate educational exercise based on the forensic analysis of this event. Students were provided case data of the victims, area satellite images and meteorological data. One goal of the exercise was for students to reconstruct the most probable scenario of events through valid inference based on the limited information and uncertainties associated with the data set. Another goal was to make students sensitive to issues of biological weapons and bioterrorism. The exercise was highly rated by students even before the events of September 11. There is a clear need to educate students, particularly in the sciences, to be aware of the signatures of terrorist activities. Evidence of terrorist activities is more likely to appear from unintended discoveries than from active intelligence gathering. We believe our national security can be enhanced by sensitizing those that monitor the natural environment to the signatures of terrorist activities through the types of educational exercises that we have developed.

  11. Co-culture with podoplanin+ cells protects leukemic blast cells with leukemia-associated antigens in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yoon; Han, A-Reum; Lee, Sung-Eun; Min, Woo-Sung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-05-01

    Podoplanin+ cells are indispensable in the tumor microenvironment. Increasing evidence suggests that podoplanin may support the growth and metastasis of solid tumors; however, to the best of our knowledge no studies have determined whether or not podoplanin serves a supportive role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The effects of co‑culture with podoplanin+ cells on the cellular activities of the leukemic cells, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to the expression of podoplanin in leukemic cells, were investigated. Due to the fact that genetic abnormalities are the primary cause of leukemogenesis, the overexpression of the fibromyalgia‑like tyrosine kinase‑3 gene in colony forming units was also examined following cell sorting. Podoplanin+ cells were found to play a protective role against apoptosis in leukemic cells and to promote cell proliferation. Tumor‑associated antigens, including Wilms' tumor gene 1 and survivin, were increased when leukemic cells were co‑cultured with podoplanin+ cells. In combination, the present results also suggest that podoplanin+ cells can function as stromal cells for blast cell retention in the AML tumor microenvironment.

  12. Protection against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) 89.6P in macaques after coimmunization with SHIV antigen and IL-15 plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jean D.; Robinson, Tara M.; Kutzler, Michele A.; Vansant, Gordon; Hokey, David A.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Parkinson, Rose; Wu, Ling; Sidhu, Maninder K.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.; Brown, Charles; Silvera, Peter; Lewis, Mark G.; Monforte, Joseph; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Eldridge, John; Weiner, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune profile induced by a recombinant DNA vaccine was assessed in the simian/HIV (SHIV) and macaque model. The vaccine strategy included coimmunization of a DNA-based vaccine alone or in combination with an optimized plasmid encoding macaque IL-15 (pmacIL-15). We observed strong induction of vaccine-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8+ and CD4+ effector T cells in the vaccination groups. Animals were subsequently challenged with 89.6p. The vaccine groups were protected from ongoing infection, and the IL-15 covaccinated group showed a more rapidly controlled infection than the group treated with DNA vaccine alone. Lymphocytes isolated from the group covaccinated with pmacIL-15 had higher cellular proliferative responses than lymphocytes isolated from the macaques that received SHIV DNA alone. Vaccine antigen activation of lymphocytes was also studied for a series of immunological molecules. Although mRNA for IFN-γ was up-regulated after antigen stimulation, the inflammatory molecules IL-8 and MMP-9 were down-regulated. These observed immune profiles are potentially reflective of the ability of the different groups to control SHIV replication. This study demonstrates that an optimized IL-15 immune adjuvant delivered with a DNA vaccine can impact the cellular immune profile in nonhuman primates and lead to enhanced suppression of viral replication. PMID:18000037

  13. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Rider, S. Dean; Arlian, Larry G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose. Objective The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host’s protective response. Methods An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies. Results We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum. Conclusions Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite’s ability to modulate its host’s innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:28604804

  14. Investigation of the response to the enterobacterial common antigen after typhoid vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete M. Milhomem

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies against the Salmonella typhi enterobacterial common antigen (ECA and the O and H antigens were investigated in sera from healthy male subjects who had been previously vaccinated with the typhoid vaccine. No serological response to ECA was observed. Sera from subjects not previously vaccinated presented titers of ECA hemagglutinins which quantitatively were related to the presence ofH titers, but not to O agglutinins but with no statistical significance. The results are discussed in relation to the possible protective immunological mechanisms in typhoid fever.

  15. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, S K; Ramaswamy, K

    2013-07-18

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to the vaccinated host. This hypothesis was tested using single dose of DNA and protein or protein alone of the BmHAT vaccination in gerbils followed by live trickle L3 infection as booster dose. Vaccine-induced protection in gerbils was determined by worm establishment, micropore chamber assay and by antibody dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Results were compared with the traditional prime-boost vaccination regimen. Gerbils vaccinated with BmHAT and boosted with L3 trickle infection were protected 51% (BmHAT DNA-protein) and 48% (BmHAT protein) respectively. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster generated significant titer of antigen-specific IgG antibodies comparable to the traditional prime boost vaccination approach. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster also generated antigen-specific cells in the spleen of vaccinated animals and these cells secreted predominantly IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to the vaccine antigens. These studies thus show that single dose of BmHAT multivalent vaccination followed by L3 trickle booster infection can confer significant protection against lymphatic filariasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, SK; Ramaswamy, K

    2013-01-01

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to the vaccinated host. This hypothesis was tested using single dose of DNA and Protein or Protein alone of the BmHAT vaccination in gerbils followed by live trickle L3 infection as booster dose. Vaccine-induced protection in gerbils was determined by worm establishment, micropore chamber assay and by antibody dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Results were compared with the traditional prime-boost vaccination regimen. Gerbils vaccinated with BmHAT and boosted with L3 trickle infection were protected 51% (BmHAT DNA-Protein) and 48% (BmHAT Protein) respectively. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster generated significant titer of antigen-specific IgG antibodies comparable to the traditional prime boost vaccination approach. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster also generated antigen-specific cells in the spleen of vaccinated animals and these cells secreted predominantly IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to the vaccine antigens. These studies thus show that single dose of BmHAT multivalent vaccination followed by L3 trickle booster infection can confer significant protection against lymphatic filariasis. PMID:23735679

  17. Shigella outer membrane protein PSSP-1 is broadly protective against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced cross-protection against experimental shigellosis, and we have named it pan-Shigella surface protein 1 (PSSP-1). PSSP-1-induced protection requires a mucosal administration route and coadministration of an adjuvant. When PSSP-1 was administered intranasally, it induced cross-protection against Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a, 5a, and 6, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Intradermally administered PSSP-1 induced strong serum antibody responses but failed to induce protection in the mouse lung pneumonia model. In contrast, intranasal administration elicited efficient local and systemic antibody responses and production of interleukin 17A and gamma interferon. Interestingly, blood samples from patients with recent-onset shigellosis showed variable but significant mucosal antibody responses to other conserved Shigella protein antigens but not to PSSP-1. We suggest that PSSP-1 is a promising antigen for a broadly protective vaccine against Shigella. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Long-lived immunity to canine core vaccine antigens in UK dogs as assessed by an in-practice test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killey, R; Mynors, C; Pearce, R; Nell, A; Prentis, A; Day, M J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the utility of an in-practice test kit to detect protective serum antibody against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus type 2 in a sample of the UK dog population. Serum samples from 486 dogs, last vaccinated between less than 1 month and 124 months previously, were tested with the VacciCheck™ test kit for protective antibodies against distemper, adenovirus and parvovirus type 2. A high proportion of the dogs tested (93·6%) had protective antibody against all three of the core vaccine antigens: 95·7% of the dogs were seropositive against canine distemper virus, 97·3% against canine adenovirus and 98·5% against canine parvovirus type 2. The small number of dogs that were seronegative for one or more of the antigens (n = 31) may have had waning of previous serum antibody or may have been rare genetic non-responders to that specific antigen. UK veterinarians can be reassured that triennial revaccination of adult dogs with core vaccines provides long-lived protective immunity. In-practice serological test kits are a valuable tool for informing decision-making about canine core revaccination. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Initiating informatics and GIS support for a field investigation of Bioterrorism: The New Jersey anthrax experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skinner Ric

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of potential exposure to anthrax spores in a Trenton, New Jersey, mail-processing facility required rapid assessment of informatics needs and adaptation of existing informatics tools to new physical and information-processing environments. Because the affected building and its computers were closed down, data to list potentially exposed persons and map building floor plans were unavailable from the primary source. Results Controlling the effects of anthrax contamination required identification and follow-up of potentially exposed persons. Risk of exposure had to be estimated from the geographic relationship between work history and environmental sample sites within the contaminated facility. To assist in establishing geographic relationships, floor plan maps of the postal facility were constructed in ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS software and linked to a database of personnel and visitors using Epi Info and Epi Map 2000. A repository for maintaining the latest versions of various documents was set up using Web page hyperlinks. Conclusions During public health emergencies, such as bioterrorist attacks and disease epidemics, computerized information systems for data management, analysis, and communication may be needed within hours of beginning the investigation. Available sources of data and output requirements of the system may be changed frequently during the course of the investigation. Integrating data from a variety of sources may require entering or importing data from a variety of digital and paper formats. Spatial representation of data is particularly valuable for assessing environmental exposure. Written documents, guidelines, and memos important to the epidemic were frequently revised. In this investigation, a database was operational on the second day and the GIS component during the second week of the investigation.

  20. Chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens confer dual immunity against cholera and malaria by oral or injectable delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi-Semiromi, Abdoreza; Schreiber, Melissa; Nalapalli, Samson; Verma, Dheeraj; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Banks, Robert K; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Daniell, Henry

    2010-02-01

    Cholera and malaria are major diseases causing high mortality. The only licensed cholera vaccine is expensive; immunity is lost in children within 3 years and adults are not fully protected. No vaccine is yet available for malaria. Therefore, in this study, the cholera toxin-B subunit (CTB) of Vibrio cholerae fused to malarial vaccine antigens apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1) was expressed in lettuce and tobacco chloroplasts. Southern blot analysis confirmed homoplasmy and stable integration of transgenes. CTB-AMA1 and CTB-MSP1 fusion proteins accumulated up to 13.17% and 10.11% (total soluble protein, TSP) in tobacco and up to 7.3% and 6.1% (TSP) in lettuce, respectively. Nine groups of mice (n = 10/group) were immunized subcutaneously (SQV) or orally (ORV) with purified antigens or transplastomic tobacco leaves. Significant levels of antigen-specific antibody titres of immunized mice completely inhibited proliferation of the malarial parasite and cross-reacted with the native parasite proteins in immunoblots and immunofluorescence studies. Protection against cholera toxin challenge in both ORV (100%) and SQV (89%) mice correlated with CTB-specific titres of intestinal, serum IgA and IgG1 in ORV and only IgG1 in SQV mice, but no other immunoglobulin. Increasing numbers of interleukin-10(+) T cell but not Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, suppression of interferon-gamma and absence of interleukin-17 were observed in protected mice, suggesting that immunity is conferred via the Tr1/Th2 immune response. Dual immunity against two major infectious diseases provided by chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens for long-term (>300 days, 50% of mouse life span) offers a realistic platform for low cost vaccines and insight into mucosal and systemic immunity.

  1. Impact of Dendrimer Terminal Group Chemistry on Blockage of the Anthrax Toxin Channel: A Single Molecule Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Goli; Kalu, Nnanya; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M

    2016-11-15

    Nearly all the cationic molecules tested so far have been shown to reversibly block K⁺ current through the cation-selective PA 63 channels of anthrax toxin in a wide nM-mM range of effective concentrations. A significant increase in channel-blocking activity of the cationic compounds was achieved when multiple copies of positively charged ligands were covalently linked to multivalent scaffolds, such as cyclodextrins and dendrimers. Even though multivalent binding can be strong when the individual bonds are relatively weak, for drug discovery purposes we often strive to design multivalent compounds with high individual functional group affinity toward the respective binding site on a multivalent target. Keeping this requirement in mind, here we perform a single-channel/single-molecule study to investigate kinetic parameters of anthrax toxin PA 63 channel blockage by second-generation (G2) poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with different surface ligands, including G2-NH₂, G2-OH, G2-succinamate, and G2-COONa. We found that the previously reported difference in IC 50 values of the G2-OH/PA 63 and G2-NH₂/PA 63 binding was determined by both on- and off-rates of the reversible dendrimer/channel binding reaction. In 1 M KCl, we observed a decrease of about three folds in k o n and a decrease of only about ten times in t r e s with G2-OH compared to G2-NH₂. At the same time for both blockers, k o n and t r e s increased dramatically with transmembrane voltage increase. PAMAM dendrimers functionalized with negatively charged succinamate, but not carboxyl surface groups, still had some residual activity in inhibiting the anthrax toxin channels. At 100 mV, the on-rate of the G2-succinamate binding was comparable with that of G2-OH but showed weaker voltage dependence when compared to G2-OH and G2-NH₂. The residence time of G2-succinamate in the channel exhibited opposite voltage dependence compared to G2-OH and G2-NH₂, increasing with the cis

  2. [The protective properties of the endotoxin protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, V I; Belkin, Z P; Egorova, T P

    1991-08-01

    The isolation and properties of endotoxin protein, or lipid A-associated protein (LAP), from Shigella sonnei were described earlier (Zh. mikrobiol. epidemiol. immunobiol., 1991, No. 4, pp. 11-17, and No. 7). In this report the data on its protective activity are presented. In experiments on mice one nanogram of LAP injected i. v. protected 50% of the animals against i. p. challenge with 40 LD50 of virulent S. sonnei. Guinea pigs injected s. c. with 10 micrograms of LAP were protected against local (keratoconjunctival) challenge with S. sonnei, the efficiency of immunization being 58%. LAP preparations containing no detectable amounts of O-antigen (less than 0.003%) were found to have a protective effect. Hyperimmune anti-LAP rabbit serum prevented local infection when incubated with S. sonnei challenge inoculum before injection into guinea pigs. Both active and passive protection induced by LAP was specific since no effect was observed in animals challenged with Shigella flexneri. In the homologous system the protective effect of anti-LAP serum was abolished by the addition of protein-free LPS. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that the protective activity of LAP depends on the presence of minute amounts of O-antigen whose immunogenic effect is greatly amplified by the protein component of the natural endotoxin complex.

  3. Analysis of host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in a multi-site study of subjects with different TB and HIV infection states in sub-Saharan Africa.

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    Jayne S Sutherland

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a global health threat with 9 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year. In order to develop a protective vaccine, we need to define the antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, which are relevant to protective immunity in high-endemic areas.We analysed responses to 23 Mtb antigens in a total of 1247 subjects with different HIV and TB status across 5 geographically diverse sites in Africa (South Africa, The Gambia, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda. We used a 7-day whole blood assay followed by IFN-γ ELISA on the supernatants. Antigens included PPD, ESAT-6 and Ag85B (dominant antigens together with novel resuscitation-promoting factors (rpf, reactivation proteins, latency (Mtb DosR regulon-encoded antigens, starvation-induced antigens and secreted antigens.There was variation between sites in responses to the antigens, presumably due to underlying genetic and environmental differences. When results from all sites were combined, HIV- subjects with active TB showed significantly lower responses compared to both TST(- and TST(+ contacts to latency antigens (Rv0569, Rv1733, Rv1735, Rv1737 and the rpf Rv0867; whilst responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein (EC, PPD, Rv2029, TB10.3, and TB10.4 were significantly higher in TST(+ contacts (LTBI compared to TB and TST(- contacts fewer differences were seen in subjects with HIV co-infection, with responses to the mitogen PHA significantly lower in subjects with active TB compared to those with LTBI and no difference with any antigen.Our multi-site study design for testing novel Mtb antigens revealed promising antigens for future vaccine development. The IFN-γ ELISA is a cheap and useful tool for screening potential antigenicity in subjects with different ethnic backgrounds and across a spectrum of TB and HIV infection states. Analysis of cytokines other than IFN-γ is currently on-going to determine correlates of protection, which may be useful for vaccine

  4. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

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    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  5. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  6. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  7. Targeted delivery of antigen to intestinal dendritic cells induces oral tolerance and prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Wu, Jie; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Bohui; Xu, Xiaojun; Zong, Li

    2018-03-15

    The intestinal immune system is an ideal target to induce immune tolerance physiologically. However, the efficiency of oral protein antigen delivery is limited by degradation of the antigen in the gastrointestinal tract and poor uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Gut dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are prone to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance. In this study, we delivered the antigen heat shock protein 65-6×P277 (H6P) directly to the gut DCs of NOD mice through oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting nanoparticles (NPs), and investigated the ability of this antigen to induce immune tolerance to prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. A targeting NP delivery system was developed to encapsulate H6P, and the ability of this system to protect and facilitate H6P delivery to gut DCs was assessed. NOD mice were immunised with H6P-loaded targeting NPs orally once a week for 7 weeks and the onset of diabetes was assessed by monitoring blood glucose levels. H6P-loaded targeting NPs protected the encapsulated H6P from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract environment and significantly increased the uptake of H6P by DCs in the gut Peyer's patches (4.1 times higher uptake compared with the control H6P solution group). Oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting NPs induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented diabetes in 100% of NOD mice. Immune deviation (T helper [Th]1 to Th2) and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were found to participate in the induction of immune tolerance. In this study, we successfully induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at delivering antigen to gut DCs using targeting NPs to induce T cell tolerance.

  8. Targeted Delivery of Toxoplasma gondii Antigens to Dendritic Cells Promote Immunogenicity and Protective Efficiency against Toxoplasmosis

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    Zineb Lakhrif

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem and the development of a human vaccine is of high priority. Efficient vaccination against Toxoplasma gondii requires both a mucosal and systemic Th1 immune response. Moreover, dendritic cells play a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune functions and driving specific adaptive immunity to T. gondii. In this study, we explore an original vaccination strategy that combines administration via mucosal and systemic routes of fusion proteins able to target the major T. gondii surface antigen SAG1 to DCs using an antibody fragment single-chain fragment variable (scFv directed against DEC205 endocytic receptor. Our results show that SAG1 targeting to DCs by scFv via intranasal and subcutaneous administration improved protection against chronic T. gondii infection. A marked reduction in brain parasite burden is observed when compared with the intranasal or the subcutaneous route alone. DC targeting improved both local and systemic humoral and cellular immune responses and potentiated more specifically the Th1 response profile by more efficient production of IFN-γ, interleukin-2, IgG2a, and nasal IgA. This study provides evidence of the potential of DC targeting for the development of new vaccines against a range of Apicomplexa parasites.

  9. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  11. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  12. The search and identification of the new immunodiagnostic targets of bacillus anthracis spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biketov, S.; Dunaytsev, I.; Baranova, E.; Marinin, L.; Dyatlov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as bio warfare agent to bio terrorize purposes. As efficiency of anti-epidemic measures included urgent prevention and treatment is determined by terms within which the bio agent is identified. Direct and rapid spore detection by antibodies based detection system is very attractive alternative to current PCR-based assays or routine phenotyping which are the most accurate but are also complex, time-consumption and expensive. The main difficulty with respect to such kind of anthrax spores detection is a cross-reaction with spores of closely related bacteria. For development of species-specific antibodies to anthrax spores recombinant scFvs or hybridoma technique were used. In both case surface spore antigens contained species-specific epitopes are need. Among exosporium proteins only ExsF(BxpB), ExsK and SoaA are specific to B.cereus group. On the surface of B. anthracis spores, a unique tetrasaccharides containing an novel monosaccharide - anthrose, was discovered. It was shown that anthrose can be serving as species-specific target for B. anthracis spores detection. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1 contain carbohydrate which formed species-specific epitopes and determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Antibodies to this antigen specifically recognized the surface target of B. anthracis spores and do not reacted with others Bacillus spore. Based on these antibodies we developed the test-systems in different formats for rapid direct detection and identification of B. anthracis spores. The results of trial these test-systems with using more than 50 different Bacillus strains were indicated that carbohydrate of EA1 isolated from spore is effective immunodiagnostic target for anthrax spores bio detection.(author)

  13. Glycan elongation beyond the mucin associated Tn antigen protects tumor cells from immune-mediated killing.

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    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Membrane bound mucins are up-regulated and aberrantly glycosylated during malignant transformation in many cancer cells. This results in a negatively charged glycoprotein coat which may protect cancer cells from immune surveillance. However, only limited data have so far demonstrated the critical steps in glycan elongation that make aberrantly glycosylated mucins affect the interaction between cancer cells and cytotoxic effector cells of the immune system. Tn (GalNAc-Ser/Thr, STn (NeuAcα2-6GalNAc-Ser/Thr, T (Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr, and ST (NeuAcα2-6Galβ1-3GalNAc-Ser/Thr antigens are recognized as cancer associated truncated glycans, and are expressed in many adenocarcinomas, e.g. breast- and pancreatic cancer cells. To investigate the role of the cancer associated glycan truncations in immune-mediated killing we created glyco-engineered breast- and pancreatic cancer cells expressing only the shortest possible mucin-like glycans (Tn and STn. Glyco-engineering was performed by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN knockout (KO of the Core 1 enzyme chaperone COSMC, thereby preventing glycan elongation beyond the initial GalNAc residue in O-linked glycans. We find that COSMC KO in the breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines T47D and Capan-1 increases sensitivity to both NK cell mediated antibody-dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL-mediated killing. In addition, we investigated the association between total cell surface expression of MUC1/MUC16 and NK or CTL mediated killing, and observed an inverse correlation between MUC16/MUC1 expression and the sensitivity to ADCC and CTL-mediated killing. Together, these data suggest that up-regulation of membrane bound mucins protects cells from immune mediated killing, and that particular glycosylation steps, as demonstrated for glycan elongation beyond Tn and STn, can be important for fine tuning of the immune escape mechanisms in cancer cells.

  14. CELLULAR VACCINES IN LISTERIOSIS: ROLE OF THE LISTERIA ANTIGEN GAPDH.

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    Ricardo eCalderon-Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189–201 and LLO91–99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1–22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1–22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91–99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1–22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes.

  15. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L.; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189−201 and LLO91−99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1−22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1−22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91−99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1−22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes. PMID:24600592

  16. Identification of a Novel CD8 T Cell Epitope Derived from Plasmodium berghei Protective Liver-Stage Antigen

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    Alexander Pichugin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently identified novel Plasmodium berghei (Pb liver stage (LS genes that as DNA vaccines significantly reduce Pb LS parasite burden (LPB in C57Bl/6 (B6 mice through a mechanism mediated, in part, by CD8 T cells. In this study, we sought to determine fine antigen (Ag specificities of CD8 T cells that target LS malaria parasites. Guided by algorithms for predicting MHC class I-restricted epitopes, we ranked sequences of 32 Pb LS Ags and selected ~400 peptides restricted by mouse H-2Kb and H-2Db alleles for analysis in the high-throughput method of caged MHC class I-tetramer technology. We identified a 9-mer H-2Kb restricted CD8 T cell epitope, Kb-17, which specifically recognized and activated CD8 T cell responses in B6 mice immunized with Pb radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS and challenged with infectious sporozoites (spz. The Kb-17 peptide is derived from the recently described novel protective Pb LS Ag, PBANKA_1031000 (MIF4G-like protein. Notably, immunization with the Kb-17 epitope delivered in the form of a minigene in the adenovirus serotype 5 vector reduced LPB in mice infected with spz. On the basis of our results, Kb-17 peptide was available for CD8 T cell activation and recall following immunization with Pb RAS and challenge with infectious spz. The identification of a novel MHC class I-restricted epitope from the protective Pb LS Ag, MIF4G-like protein, is crucial for advancing our understanding of immune responses to Plasmodium and by extension, toward vaccine development against malaria.

  17. IgG2 antibodies against a clinical grade Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen associate with protection against transgenic sporozoite challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schwenk

    Full Text Available The availability of a highly purified and well characterized circumsporozoite protein (CSP is essential to improve upon the partial success of recombinant CSP-based malaria vaccine candidates. Soluble, near full-length, Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen (CS/D was produced in E. coli under bio-production conditions that comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP. A mouse immunogenicity study was conducted using a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE of CS/D in combination with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4 agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA/SE, or one of two TLR7/8 agonists: R848 (un-conjugated or 3M-051 (covalently conjugated. Compared to Alum and SE, GLA/SE induced higher CS/D specific antibody response in Balb/c mice. Subclass analysis showed higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio of GLA/SE induced antibodies as compared to Alum and SE. TLR synergy was not observed when soluble R848 was mixed with GLA/SE. Antibody response of 3M051 formulations in Balb/c was similar to GLA/SE, except for the higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio and a trend towards higher T cell responses in 3M051 containing groups. However, no synergistic enhancement of antibody and T cell response was evident when 3M051 conjugate was mixed with GLA/SE. In C57Bl/6 mice, CS/D adjuvanted with 3M051/SE or GLA/SE induced higher CSP repeat specific titers compared to SE. While, 3M051 induced antibodies had high IgG2c:IgG1 ratio, GLA/SE promoted high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2c. GLA/SE also induced more potent T-cell responses compared to SE in two independent C57/BL6 vaccination studies, suggesting a balanced and productive T(H1/T(H2 response. GLA and 3M-051 similarly enhanced the protective efficacy of CS/D against challenge with a transgenic P. berghei parasite and most importantly, high levels of cytophilic IgG2 antibodies were associated with protection in this model. Our data indicated that the cGMP-grade, soluble CS/D antigen combined with the TLR4-containing adjuvant GLA/SE warrants

  18. Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Upton, Jaki F.

    2010-02-01

    On October 9, 2008, federal, state and local policy makers, emergency managers, and medical and public health officials convened in Seattle, Washington, for a workshop on Addressing the Federal-State-Local Interface Issues During a Catastrophic Event Such as an Anthrax Attack. The day-long symposium was aimed at generating a dialogue about recovery and restoration through a discussion of the associated challenges that impact entire communities, including people, infrastructure, and critical systems. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) provided an overview of the role of the PFO in a catastrophic event. A high-level summary of an anthrax scenario was presented. The remainder of the day was focused on interactive discussions among federal, state and local emergency management experts in the areas of: • Decision-making, prioritization, and command and control • Public health/medical services • Community resiliency and continuity of government. Key topics and issues that resulted from discussions included: • Local representation in the Joint Field Office (JFO) • JFO transition to the Long-Term Recovery Office • Process for prioritization of needs • Process for regional coordination • Prioritization - process and federal/military intervention • Allocation of limited resources • Re-entry decision and consistency • Importance of maintaining a healthy hospital system • Need for a process to establish a consensus on when it is safe to re-enter. This needs to be across all jurisdictions including the military. • Insurance coverage for both private businesses and individuals • Interaction between the government and industry. The symposium was sponsored by the Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration, a collaborative regional program jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of Defense. To aid the program’s efforts and inform the development of blueprint for recovery from a biological incident

  19. Induction of Robust Immune Responses in Swine by Using a Cocktail of Adenovirus-Vectored African Swine Fever Virus Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Shehnaz; Waghela, Suryakant D; Bray, Jocelyn; Martin, Cameron L; Sangewar, Neha; Charendoff, Chloe; Shetti, Rashmi; Ashley, Clay; Chen, Chang-Hsin; Berghman, Luc R; Mwangi, Duncan; Dominowski, Paul J; Foss, Dennis L; Rai, Sharath; Vora, Shaunak; Gabbert, Lindsay; Burrage, Thomas G; Brake, David; Neilan, John; Mwangi, Waithaka

    2016-11-01

    The African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in domestic swine, and at present no treatment or vaccine is available. Natural and gene-deleted, live attenuated strains protect against closely related virulent strains; however, they are yet to be deployed and evaluated in the field to rule out chronic persistence and a potential for reversion to virulence. Previous studies suggest that antibodies play a role in protection, but induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could be the key to complete protection. Hence, generation of an efficacious subunit vaccine depends on identification of CTL targets along with a suitable delivery method that will elicit effector CTLs capable of eliminating ASFV-infected host cells and confer long-term protection. To this end, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of an adenovirus-vectored ASFV (Ad-ASFV) multiantigen cocktail formulated in two different adjuvants and at two immunizing doses in swine. Immunization with the cocktail rapidly induced unprecedented ASFV antigen-specific antibody and cellular immune responses against all of the antigens. The robust antibody responses underwent rapid isotype switching within 1 week postpriming, steadily increased over a 2-month period, and underwent rapid recall upon boost. Importantly, the primed antibodies strongly recognized the parental ASFV (Georgia 2007/1) by indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA) assay and Western blotting. Significant antigen-specific gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) responses were detected postpriming and postboosting. Furthermore, this study is the first to demonstrate induction of ASFV antigen-specific CTL responses in commercial swine using Ad-ASFV multiantigens. The relevance of the induced immune responses in regard to protection needs to be evaluated in a challenge study. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. IL-4Rα-associated antigen processing by B cells promotes immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G C Horsnell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, B cell function in protective T(H2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4⁺ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88⁻/⁻ B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4⁺ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection.

  1. The role of MPL and imiquimod adjuvants in enhancement of immune response and protection in BALB/c mice immunized with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) encapsulated in nanoliposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Tara; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Khamesipour, Ali; Madani, Rasool; Habibi, Gholamreza; Hojatizade, Mansure; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2018-04-01

    Adjuvants play an essential role in the induction of immunity against leishmaniasis. In this study, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod (IMQ) were used as TLR ligands adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Nanoliposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) and adjuvants were consisted of DSPC, DSPG and Chol prepared by using lipid film method followed by bath sonication. The size of nanoliposomes was around 95 nm and their zeta potential was negative. BALB/c mice were immunized by liposomal formulations of lip/SLA, lip/MPL/SLA, lip/IMQ/SLA, lip/MPL/IMQ/SLA, lip/SLA + lip/IMQ, lip/SLA + lip/MPL, lip/SLA + lip/MPL/IMQ and five controls of SLA, lip/MPL, lip/IMQ, lip/MPL/IMQ and buffer by subcutaneously (SC) injections, three times in 2 weeks intervals. The synergic effect of two adjuvants when they are used in one formulation showed significantly (p MPL and IMQ adjuvants and antigen in nanoliposome carrier could be an appropriate delivery system to induce cellular immunity pathway against leishmaniasis.

  2. Production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccines in plants via the chloroplast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry

    2006-10-01

    Transgenic plants offer many advantages, including low cost of production (by elimination of fermenters), storage and transportation; heat stability; and absence of human pathogens. When therapeutic proteins are orally delivered, plant cells protect antigens in the stomach through bioencapsulation and eliminate the need for expensive purification and sterile injections, in addition to development of both systemic and mucosal immunity. Chloroplast genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgene expression, transgene containment via maternal inheritance and multi-gene expression in a single transformation event. Hyper-expression of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague or canine parvovirus (4-31% of total soluble protein, tsp) in transgenic chloroplasts (leaves) or non-green plastids (carrots, tomato), as well as the availability of antibiotic-free selectable markers or the ability to excise selectable marker genes, facilitate oral delivery. Hyper-expression of several therapeutic proteins, including human serum albumin (11.1% tsp), somatotropin (7% tsp), interferon-gamma (6% tsp), anti-microbial peptide (21.5% tsp), facilitates efficient and economic purification. Also, the presence of chaperones and enzymes in chloroplasts facilitate assembly of complex multi-subunit proteins and correct folding of human blood proteins with proper disulfide bonds. Functionality of chloroplast-derived vaccine antigens and therapeutic proteins has been demonstrated by several assays, including the macrophage lysis assay, GM1-ganglioside binding assay, protection of HeLa cells or human lung carcinoma cells against encephalomyocarditis virus, systemic immune response, protection against pathogen challenge, and growth or inhibition of cell cultures. Thus, transgenic chloroplasts are ideal bioreactors for production of functional human and animal therapeutic proteins in an environmentally friendly manner.

  3. Human antibody responses to Schistosoma mansoni: does antigen directed, isotype restriction result in the production of blocking antibodies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Dunne

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available After treatment young Kenyan schoolchildren are highly susceptible to reinfection with Schistosoma mansoni. Older children and adults are resistant to reinfection. There is no evidence that this age related resistance is due to a slow development of protective immunological mechanisms, rather, it appears that young children are susceptible because of the presence of blocking antibodies which decline with age, thus allowing the expression of protective responses. Correlations between antibody responses to different stages of the parasite life-cycle suggest that, in young children, antigen directed, isotype restriction of the response against cross-reactive polysaccharide egg antigens results in an ineffectual, or even blocking antibody response to the schistosomulum.

  4. The highly antigenic 53/25 kDa Taenia solium protein fraction with cathepsin-L like activity is present in the oncosphere/cysticercus and induces non-protective IgG antibodies in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko; Pajuelo, Mónica; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Rueda, Luis D.; Flores, Myra; Chile, Nancy; Verástegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin L-like proteases are secreted by several parasites including Taenia solium. The mechanism used by T. solium oncospheres to degrade and penetrate the intestine and infect the host is incompletely understood. It is assumed that intestinal degradation is driven by the proteolytic activity of enzymes secreted by the oncosphere. Blocking the proteolytic activity by an antibody response would prevent the oncosphere penetration and further infection. Serine and cysteine proteases including chymotrypsin, trypsin, elastase, and cathepsin L, are secreted by T. solium and Taenia saginata oncospheres when cultured in vitro, being potential vaccine candidates. However, the purification of a sufficient quantity of proteases secreted by oncospheres to conduct a vaccine trial is costly and lengthy. A 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like fraction partially purified from T. solium cyst fluid was described previously as an important antigen for immunodiagnostics. In this study we found that this antigen is present in the T. solium oncosphere and is also secreted by the cysticercus. This protein fraction was tested for its ability to protect pigs against an oral challenge with T. solium oncospheres in a vaccine trial. IgG antibodies against the 53/25 kDa cathepsin L-like protein fraction were elicited in the vaccinated animals but did not confer protection. PMID:22119017

  5. Antigen delivery by α2-macroglobulin enhances the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Edith V.; Horvath, Jeffrey J.; Bond, Jennifer E.; Cianciolo, George J.; Pizzo, Salvatore V.

    2009-01-01

    α2M* targets antigens to APCs for rapid internalization, processing, and presentation. When used as an antigen-delivery vehicle, α2M* amplifies MHC class II presentation, as demonstrated by increased antibody titers. Recent evidence, however, suggests that α2M* encapsulation may also enhance antigen-specific CTL immunity. In this study, we demonstrate that α2M*-delivered antigen (OVA) enhances the production of specific in vitro and in vivo CTL responses. Murine splenocytes expressing a transgenic TCR specific for CTL peptide OVA257–264 (SIINFEKL) demonstrated up to 25-fold greater IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion when treated in vitro with α2M*-OVA compared with soluble OVA. The frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells was increased ∼15-fold, as measured by ELISPOT. Expansion of the OVA-specific CD8+ T cell population, as assayed by tetramer binding and [3H]thymidine incorporation, and OVA-specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity, as determined by a flow cytometric assay, were also enhanced significantly by α2M*-OVA. Furthermore, significant CTL responses were observed at antigen doses tenfold lower than those required with OVA alone. Finally, we also observed enhanced humoral and CTL responses by naïve mice following intradermal immunization with α2M*-OVA. These α2M*-OVA-immunized mice demonstrated increased protection against a s.c.-implanted, OVA-expressing tumor, as demonstrated by delayed tumor growth and prolonged animal survival. The observation that α2M*-mediated antigen delivery elicits specific CTL responses suggests the cross-presentation of antigen onto MHC class I. These results support α2M* as an effective antigen-delivery system that may be particularly useful for vaccines based on weakly immunogenic subunits or requiring dose sparing. PMID:19652028

  6. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp and distinct bands of three antigens have been found in double immunodiffusion using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit indicating the presence of specific antibody against each antigen. All three antigens have shown major and minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 15 to 110 kDa during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: The antigenic cross-reactivity was thought to result from shared antigens. The existence of paracloacal papillae found in the anterior part of the male was not a unique feature for species differentiation.

  7. Sickle cell protection from malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eridani, Sandro

    2011-10-19

    A linkage between presence of Sickle Haemoglobin (HbS) and protection from malaria infection and clinical manifestations in certain areas was suspected from early observations and progressively elucidated by more recent studies. Research has confirmed the abovementioned connection, but also clarified how such protection may be abolished by coexistence of sickle cell trait (HbS trait) and alpha thalassemia, which may explain the relatively low incidence of HbS trait in the Mediterranean. The mechanisms of such protective effect are now being investigated: factors of genetic, molecular and immunological nature are prominent. As for genetic factors attention is given to the role of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane complement regulatory proteins as polymorphisms of these components seem to be associated with resistance to severe malaria; genetic ligands like the Duffy group blood antigen, necessary for erythrocytic invasion, and human protein CD36, a major receptor for P. falciparum-infected RBC's, are also under scrutiny: attention is focused also on plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigens, which bind to RBC surface components. Genome-wide linkage and association studies are now carried out too, in order to identify genes associated with malaria resistance. Only a minor role is attributed to intravascular sickling, phagocytosis and haemolysis, while specific molecular mechanisms are the object of intensive research: among these a decisive role is played by a biochemical sequence, involving activation of haeme oxygenase (HMO-1), whose effect appears mediated by carbon monoxide (CO). A central role in protection from malaria is also played by immunological factors, which may stimulate antibody production to plasmodium antigens in the early years of life; the role of agents like pathogenic CD8 T-cells has been suggested while the effects of molecular actions on the immunity mechanism are presently investigated. It thus appears that protection from malaria can be

  8. Immune markers and correlates of protection for vaccine induced immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Jungersen, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    of an appropriate humoral response currently remain the best validated correlates of protective immunity after vaccination. Despite advancements in the field of immunology over the past few decades currently there are, however, no sufficiently validated immune correlates of vaccine induced protection against......-specific production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has been promoted as a quantitative marker of protective cell-mediated immune responses over the past couple of decades. More recently, however, evidence from several infections has pointed towards the quality of the immune response, measured through increased levels...... of antigen-specific polyfunctional T cells capable of producing a triad of relevant cytokines, as a better correlate of sustained protective immunity against this type of infections. Also the possibilities to measure antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) during infection or in response to vaccination...

  9. Gamma irradiated antigen extracts improves the immune response and protection in experimental toxoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andrea da; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de, E-mail: andreacosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Medicina Tropical; Zorgi, Nahiara Estevez [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to use ionizing radiation on soluble extracts of T. gondii tachyzoites (AgTg) and tested the ability of these extracts to induce immunity in BALB/c mice against a challenge. T. gondii RH strain AgTg was irradiated with Co-60 at 0.25 to 4 kGy and were affected after 1 kGy, as evidenced by a progressive high molecular weight protein aggregates and no loss in antigenicity, as detected by immunoblotting, except after 4kGy. BALB/c mice were immunized with biweekly doses of 03 s.c. native or irradiated AgTg without adjuvants; the anti-T.gondii IgG production was detected by ELISA, and higher levels and avidity were detected in mice immunized with 1.5 kGy AgTg compared to controls (p<0.05). Mice immunized with native AgTg exhibited spleen CD19{sup +} B, CD3{sup +}CD4{sup +} or CD3{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cell proliferation levels of 5%, while 1.5 kGy-immunized mice exhibited spleen cell proliferation levels of 12.2%, primarily for CD19{sup +} or CD3{sup +}CD8{sup +} lymphocytes and less evidently for CD3{sup +}CD4{sup +} (8.8%) helper T lymphocytes. All cells from control mice showed little to no proliferation when stimulated with AgTg. These cells secreted more IFN-γ in the 1.5 kGy AgTg-immunized group (p<0.05). BALB/c mice immunized with 1.5 kGy and challenged with different strains of T. gondii were partially protected, as evidenced by survival after RH virulent strain challenge (p<0.0001) but also after ME-49 strain challenge: the brain cyst numbers (p<0.05) and the levels of T. gondii DNA measured by real-time PCR (p<0.05) decreased compared to non-immunized controls. (author)

  10. Gamma irradiated antigen extracts improves the immune response and protection in experimental toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Andrea da; Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to use ionizing radiation on soluble extracts of T. gondii tachyzoites (AgTg) and tested the ability of these extracts to induce immunity in BALB/c mice against a challenge. T. gondii RH strain AgTg was irradiated with Co-60 at 0.25 to 4 kGy and were affected after 1 kGy, as evidenced by a progressive high molecular weight protein aggregates and no loss in antigenicity, as detected by immunoblotting, except after 4kGy. BALB/c mice were immunized with biweekly doses of 03 s.c. native or irradiated AgTg without adjuvants; the anti-T.gondii IgG production was detected by ELISA, and higher levels and avidity were detected in mice immunized with 1.5 kGy AgTg compared to controls (p<0.05). Mice immunized with native AgTg exhibited spleen CD19 + B, CD3 + CD4 + or CD3 + CD8 + T cell proliferation levels of 5%, while 1.5 kGy-immunized mice exhibited spleen cell proliferation levels of 12.2%, primarily for CD19 + or CD3 + CD8 + lymphocytes and less evidently for CD3 + CD4 + (8.8%) helper T lymphocytes. All cells from control mice showed little to no proliferation when stimulated with AgTg. These cells secreted more IFN-γ in the 1.5 kGy AgTg-immunized group (p<0.05). BALB/c mice immunized with 1.5 kGy and challenged with different strains of T. gondii were partially protected, as evidenced by survival after RH virulent strain challenge (p<0.0001) but also after ME-49 strain challenge: the brain cyst numbers (p<0.05) and the levels of T. gondii DNA measured by real-time PCR (p<0.05) decreased compared to non-immunized controls. (author)

  11. Oral delivery of human biopharmaceuticals, autoantigens and vaccine antigens bioencapsulated in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Verma, Dheeraj; Singh, Nameirakpam D; Herzog, Roland; Daniell, Henry

    2013-06-15

    Among 12billion injections administered annually, unsafe delivery leads to >20million infections and >100million reactions. In an emerging new concept, freeze-dried plant cells (lettuce) expressing vaccine antigens/biopharmaceuticals are protected in the stomach from acids/enzymes but are released to the immune or blood circulatory system when plant cell walls are digested by microbes that colonize the gut. Vaccine antigens bioencapsulated in plant cells upon oral delivery after priming, conferred both mucosal and systemic immunity and protection against bacterial, viral or protozoan pathogens or toxin challenge. Oral delivery of autoantigens was effective against complications of type 1 diabetes and hemophilia, by developing tolerance. Oral delivery of proinsulin or exendin-4 expressed in plant cells regulated blood glucose levels similar to injections. Therefore, this new platform offers a low cost alternative to deliver different therapeutic proteins to combat infectious or inherited diseases by eliminating inactivated pathogens, expensive purification, cold storage/transportation and sterile injections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  13. Identification of immune protective genes of Eimeria maxima through cDNA expression library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XinChao; Li, MengHui; Liu, JianHua; Ji, YiHong; Li, XiangRui; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai

    2017-02-16

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most prevalent Eimeria species causing avian coccidiosis, and results in huge economic loss to the global poultry industry. Current control strategies, such as anti-coccidial medication and live vaccines have been limited because of their drawbacks. The third generation anticoccidial vaccines including the recombinant vaccines as well as DNA vaccines have been suggested as a promising alternative strategy. To date, only a few protective antigens of E. maxima have been reported. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel protective antigens of E. maxima for the development of neotype anticoccidial vaccines. With the aim of identifying novel protective genes of E. maxima, a cDNA expression library of E. maxima sporozoites was constructed using Gateway technology. Subsequently, the cDNA expression library was divided into 15 sub-libraries for cDNA expression library immunization (cDELI) using parasite challenged model in chickens. Protective sub-libraries were selected for the next round of screening until individual protective clones were obtained, which were further sequenced and analyzed. Adopting the Gateway technology, a high-quality entry library was constructed, containing 9.2 × 10 6 clones with an average inserted fragments length of 1.63 kb. The expression library capacity was 2.32 × 10 7 colony-forming units (cfu) with an average inserted fragments length of 1.64 Kb. The expression library was screened using parasite challenged model in chickens. The screening yielded 6 immune protective genes including four novel protective genes of EmJS-1, EmRP, EmHP-1 and EmHP-2, and two known protective genes of EmSAG and EmCKRS. EmJS-1 is the selR domain-containing protein of E. maxima whose function is unknown. EmHP-1 and EmHP-2 are the hypothetical proteins of E. maxima. EmRP and EmSAG are rhomboid-like protein and surface antigen glycoproteins of E. maxima respectively, and involved in invasion of the parasite. Our

  14. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  15. Directed antigen delivery as a vaccine strategy for an intracellular bacterial pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, H. G. Archie; Alberti-Segui, Christine; Montfort, Megan J.; Berkowitz, Nathan D.; Higgins, Darren E.

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a vaccine strategy for generating an attenuated strain of an intracellular bacterial pathogen that, after uptake by professional antigen-presenting cells, does not replicate intracellularly and is readily killed. However, after degradation of the vaccine strain within the phagolysosome, target antigens are released into the cytosol for endogenous processing and presentation for stimulation of CD8+ effector T cells. Applying this strategy to the model intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we show that an intracellular replication-deficient vaccine strain is cleared rapidly in normal and immunocompromised animals, yet antigen-specific CD8+ effector T cells are stimulated after immunization. Furthermore, animals immunized with the intracellular replication-deficient vaccine strain are resistant to lethal challenge with a virulent WT strain of L. monocytogenes. These studies suggest a general strategy for developing safe and effective, attenuated intracellular replication-deficient vaccine strains for stimulation of protective immune responses against intracellular bacterial pathogens. CD8+ T cell | replication-deficient | Listeria monocytogenes

  16. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Annual Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that co-localization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. NLPs are are biocompatible, high-density lipoprotein mimetics that are amenable to the incorporation of multiple, chemically-disparate adjuvant and antigen molecules. We hypothesize that the ability to co-localize optimized adjuvant formulations with subunit antigens within a single particle will enhance the stimulation and activation of key immune effector cells, increasing the protective efficacy of subunit antigen-based vaccines. While Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis subunit antigens are the focus of this proposal, we anticipate that this approach is applicable to a wide range of DOD-relevant biothreat agents. The F344 rat aerosol challenge model for F. tularensis has been successfully established at Battelle under this contract, and Year 3 efficacy studies performed at Battelle demonstrated that an NLP vaccine formulation was able to enhance survival of female F344 rats relative to naïve animals. In addition, Year 3 focused on the incorporation of multiple Burkholderia antigens (both polysaccharides and proteins) onto adjuvanted NLPs, with immunological analysis poised to begin in the next quarter.

  17. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelkamal Chaudhary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H1-T(H17 and destructive allergic (T(H2 immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown.To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17 to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein, Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase, Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and Asp f22 (enolase. Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals.Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  18. Immunization with PIII, a fraction of Schistosoma mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation, affects nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Magalhães de Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important effector molecule involved in immune regulation and defense. NO produced by cytokine-activated macrophages was reported to be cytotoxic against the helminth Schistosoma mansoni. Identification and characterization of S. mansoni antigens that can provide protective immunity is crucial for understanding the complex immunoregulatory events that modulate the immune response in schistosomiasis. It is, then, essential to have available defined, purified parasite antigens. Previous work by our laboratory identified a fraction of S. mansoni soluble adult worm antigenic preparation (SWAP, named PIII, able to elicit significant in vitro cell proliferation and at the same time lower in vitro and in vivo granuloma formation when compared either to SEA (soluble egg antigen or to SWAP. In the present work we report the effect of different in vivo trials with mice on their spleen cells ability to produce NO. We demonstrate that PIII-immunization is able to significantly increase NO production by spleen cells after in vitro stimulation with LPS. These data suggest a possible role for NO on the protective immunity induced by PIII.

  19. Design of monodisperse and well-defined polypeptide-based polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Sanket; Boggara, Mohan; Maheshwari, Ronak; Srivastava, Sunit K; Arha, Manish; Douaisi, Marc; Martin, Jacob T; Harvey, Ian B; Brier, Matthew; Rosen, Tania; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

    2014-07-28

    The design of polyvalent molecules, presenting multiple copies of a specific ligand, represents a promising strategy to inhibit pathogens and toxins. The ability to control independently the valency and the spacing between ligands would be valuable for elucidating structure-activity relationships and for designing potent polyvalent molecules. To that end, we designed monodisperse polypeptide-based polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin in which multiple copies of an inhibitory toxin-binding peptide were separated by flexible peptide linkers. By tuning the valency and linker length, we designed polyvalent inhibitors that were over four orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent ligands. This strategy for the rational design of monodisperse polyvalent molecules may not only be broadly applicable for the inhibition of toxins and pathogens, but also for controlling the nanoscale organization of cellular receptors to regulate signaling and the fate of stem cells. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  1. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  2. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  3. Conventional CD4+ T cells present bacterial antigens to induce cytotoxic and memory CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aránzazu; Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Osuna-Pérez, Jesús; Torres-Torresano, Mónica; Zorita, Virgina; Martínez-Riaño, Ana; Boccasavia, Viola; Borroto, Aldo; Martínez Del Hoyo, Gloria; González-Granado, José María; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Veiga, Esteban

    2017-11-17

    Bacterial phagocytosis and antigen cross-presentation to activate CD8 + T cells are principal functions of professional antigen presenting cells. However, conventional CD4 + T cells also capture and kill bacteria from infected dendritic cells in a process termed transphagocytosis (also known as transinfection). Here, we show that transphagocytic T cells present bacterial antigens to naive CD8 + T cells, which proliferate and become cytotoxic in response. CD4 + T-cell-mediated antigen presentation also occurs in vivo in the course of infection, and induces the generation of central memory CD8 + T cells with low PD-1 expression. Moreover, transphagocytic CD4 + T cells induce protective anti-tumour immune responses by priming CD8 + T cells, highlighting the potential of CD4 + T cells as a tool for cancer immunotherapy.

  4. The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Hess

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types of antigen-specific immune responses.Immunizing mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing and host protection. The immune response was biased towards Th2 with all three of the adjuvants, with IgG1 the dominant antibody. Improved larval killing and host protection was observed in mice immunized with co-administered Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with each of the three adjuvants as compared to single immunizations. Antigen-specific antibody titers were significantly increased in mice immunized concurrently with the two antigens. Based on chemokine levels, it appears that neutrophils and eosinophils participate in the protective immune response induced by Ov-103, and macrophages and neutrophils participate in immunity induced by Ov-RAL-2.The mechanism of protective immunity induced by Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59, appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells. The vaccines developed in this study have the potential of reducing the morbidity associated with onchocerciasis in humans.

  5. Role of 4-1BB receptor in the control played by CD8(+ T cells on IFN-gamma production by Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific CD4(+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Palma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen-specific IFN-gamma producing CD4(+ T cells are the main mediators of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection both under natural conditions and following vaccination. However these cells are responsible for lung damage and poor vaccine efficacy when not tightly controlled. Discovering new tools to control nonprotective antigen-specific IFN-gamma production without affecting protective IFN-gamma is a challenge in tuberculosis research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Immunization with DNA encoding Ag85B, a candidate vaccine antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, elicited in mice a low but protective CD4(+ T cell-mediated IFN-gamma response, while in mice primed with DNA and boosted with Ag85B protein a massive increase in IFN-gamma response was associated with loss of protection. Both protective and non-protective Ag85B-immunization generated antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells which suppressed IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+ T cells. However, ex vivo ligation of 4-1BB, a member of TNF-receptor super-family, reduced the massive, non-protective IFN-gamma responses by CD4(+ T cells in protein-boosted mice without affecting the low protective IFN-gamma-secretion in mice immunized with DNA. This selective inhibition was due to the induction of 4-1BB exclusively on CD8(+ T cells of DNA-primed and protein-boosted mice following Ag85B protein stimulation. The 4-1BB-mediated IFN-gamma inhibition did not require soluble IL-10, TGF-beta, XCL-1 and MIP-1beta. In vivo Ag85B stimulation induced 4-1BB expression on CD8(+ T cells and in vivo 4-1BB ligation reduced the activation, IFN-gamma production and expansion of Ag85B-specific CD4(+ T cells of DNA-primed and protein-boosted mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antigen-specific suppressor CD8(+ T cells are elicited through immunization with the mycobacterial antigen Ag85B. Ligation of 4-1BB receptor further enhanced their suppressive activity on IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+ T cells. The selective

  6. "It is the antigen(s), stupid" and other lessons from over a decade of vaccitherapy of human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Matthew R; Srivastava, Pramod K

    2008-10-01

    The lessons are: (a) human cancers certainly respond to immunological manipulations. Efforts at human cancer immunotherapy are therefore worthwhile. (b) Prophylaxis is very different from therapy of pre-existing disease, and hence much enthusiasm should not be derived from successful prophylaxis studies. Even in case of infectious agents against which robust prophylaxis is routinely achieved, therapy is nearly impossible once the disease has established. (c) Studies with appropriate cancer models of mice and rats are useful. The notion that it is easy to cure cancers in mice is generally advanced the most confidently by those who have never cured a mouse of cancer by immunotherapy. (d) With a nod to James Carville, it is the antigen(s), stupid! We still do not know the identity of protective tumor antigens. If any lesson can be drawn at all, it may well be that cancer immunotherapy must move away from the one-shoe-fits-all therapeutic models of chemotherapy and must move to individualized approaches. (e) All targets are equal, but some are more equal than others. The key is specificity for cancer. That does not necessarily mean specificity for cancer cells. (f) Vaccitherapy must be attempted preferably in the minimal residual disease setting, even though this is certain to be time-taking and expensive. In the setting of bulky disease, vaccitherapy must be combined with blockade of inhibitory signals, or depletion of down-regulatory T cells. Inhibition of effector level suppression of immune response is a key. Vaccitherapy alone or immuno-modulation alone is unlikely to succeed in therapy of bulky metastatic disease.

  7. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested.

  8. Regulated programmed lysis of recombinant Salmonella in host tissues to release protective antigens and confer biological containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Wanda, Soo-Young; Zhang, Xin; Bollen, Wendy; Tinge, Steven A; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-07-08

    We have devised and constructed a biological containment system designed to cause programmed bacterial cell lysis with no survivors. We have validated this system, using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines for antigen delivery after colonization of host lymphoid tissues. The system is composed of two parts. The first component is Salmonella typhimurium strain chi8937, with deletions of asdA and arabinose-regulated expression of murA, two genes required for peptidoglycan synthesis and additional mutations to enhance complete lysis and antigen delivery. The second component is plasmid pYA3681, which encodes arabinose-regulated murA and asdA expression and C2-regulated synthesis of antisense asdA and murA mRNA transcribed from the P22 P(R) promoter. An arabinose-regulated c2 gene is present in the chromosome. chi8937(pYA3681) exhibits arabinose-dependent growth. Upon invasion of host tissues, an arabinose-free environment, transcription of asdA, murA, and c2 ceases, and concentrations of their gene products decrease because of cell division. The drop in C2 concentration results in activation of P(R), driving synthesis of antisense mRNA to block translation of any residual asdA and murA mRNA. A highly antigenic alpha-helical domain of Streptococcus pneumoniae Rx1 PspA was cloned into pYA3681, resulting in pYA3685 to test antigen delivery. Mice orally immunized with chi8937(pYA3685) developed antibody responses to PspA and Salmonella outer membrane proteins. No viable vaccine strain cells were detected in host tissues after 21 days. This system has potential applications with other Gram-negative bacteria in which biological containment would be desirable.

  9. The location of splenic NKT cells favours their rapid activation by blood-borne antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses. PMID:22505026

  10. The location of splenic NKT cells favours their rapid activation by blood-borne antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2012-05-16

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses.

  11. Freeze-thaw stress of Alhydrogel ® alone is sufficient to reduce the immunogenicity of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine containing native antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Tanya; Munks, Michael W; Trivedi, Ruchit; Kompella, Uday B; Braun, LaToya Jones

    2014-06-24

    Preventing losses in vaccine potency due to accidental freezing has recently become a topic of interest for improving vaccines. All vaccines with aluminum-containing adjuvants are susceptible to such potency losses. Recent studies have described excipients that protect the antigen from freeze-induced inactivation, prevent adjuvant agglomeration and retain potency. Although these strategies have demonstrated success, they do not provide a mechanistic understanding of freeze-thaw (FT) induced potency losses. In the current study, we investigated how adjuvant frozen in the absence of antigen affects vaccine immunogenicity and whether preventing damage to the freeze-sensitive recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) was sufficient for maintaining vaccine potency. The final vaccine formulation or Alhydrogel(®) alone was subjected to three FT-cycles. The vaccines were characterized for antigen adsorption, rHBsAg tertiary structure, particle size and charge, adjuvant elemental content and in-vivo potency. Particle agglomeration of either vaccine particles or adjuvant was observed following FT-stress. In vivo studies demonstrated no statistical differences in IgG responses between vaccines with FT-stressed adjuvant and no adjuvant. Adsorption of rHBsAg was achieved; regardless of adjuvant treatment, suggesting that the similar responses were not due to soluble antigen in the frozen adjuvant-containing formulations. All vaccines with adjuvant, including the non-frozen controls, yielded similar, blue-shifted fluorescence emission spectra. Immune response differences could not be traced to differences in the tertiary structure of the antigen in the formulations. Zeta potential measurements and elemental content analyses suggest that FT-stress resulted in a significant chemical alteration of the adjuvant surface. This data provides evidence that protecting a freeze-labile antigen from subzero exposure is insufficient to maintain vaccine potency. Future studies should

  12. Immunogenicity in pig-tailed macaques of poliovirus replicons expressing HIV-1 and SIV antigens and protection against SHIV-89.6P disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Patricia N.; Stallworth, Jackie; Porter, Donna; Novak, Miroslav; Anderson, Marie J.; Morrow, Casey D.

    2003-01-01

    In the search for an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), novel ways to deliver viral antigens are being evaluated. One such approach is the use of nonreplicating viral vectors encoding HIV and/or SIV genes that are expressed after infection of host cells. Nonreplicating poliovirus vectors, termed replicons, that expressed HIV-1/HXB2 and SIVmac239 gag and various HIV-1 env genes from different clades were tested for immunogenicity and protective efficacy against intravenous challenge of pig-tailed macaques with SHIV-89.6P. To maximize both cellular and humoral immune responses, a prime-boost regimen was used. Initially, macaques were immunized four times over 35 weeks by either the intranasal and intrarectal or the intramuscular (im) route with mixtures of poliovirus replicons expressing HIV-1 gag and multiple env genes. Immunization with replicons alone induced both serum antibodies and lymphocyte proliferative responses. After boosting with purified Env protein, neutralizing antibodies to SHIV-89.6P were induced in four of five immunized animals. In a second experiment, four macaques were immunized im three times over 27 weeks with replicons expressing the SIVmac239 gag and HIV-1/HXB2 env genes. All immunized animals were then boosted twice with purified HIV-1-89.6 rgp140-Env and SIVmac239 p55-Gag proteins. Four control animals received only the two protein inoculations. Immunized and control animals were then challenged intravenously with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6P. After challenge the animals were monitored for virus isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma viremia and for changes in virus-specific antibody titers. Naieve pig-tailed macaques experienced rapid loss of CD4 + T cells and died between 38 and 62 weeks after infection. In contrast, macaques immunized with replicons and proteins rapidly cleared plasma virus and did not experience sustained loss of CD4 + lymphocytes. Furthermore, two of the four macaques

  13. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  14. Proteomic Profiling of Serological Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus Antigens in Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutschbein, Janka; Simon, Svenja; Lother, Jasmin; Springer, Jan; Hortschansky, Peter; Morton, C Oliver; Löffler, Jürgen; Einsele, Hermann; Conneally, Eibhlin; Rogers, Thomas R; Guthke, Reinhard; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2016-05-06

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the species that most commonly causes the opportunistic infection invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients being treated for hematological malignancies. Little is known about the A. fumigatus proteins that trigger the production of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies during the course of IA. To characterize the serological response to A. fumigatus protein antigens, mycelial proteins were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. The gels were immunoblotted with sera from patients with probable and proven IA and control patients without IA. We identified 49 different fungal proteins, which gave a positive IgG antibody signal. Most of these antigens play a role in primary metabolism and stress responses. Overall, our analysis identified 18 novel protein antigens from A. fumigatus. To determine whether these antigens can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers or exhibit a protective activity, we employed supervised machine learning with decision trees. We identified two candidates for further analysis, the protein antigens CpcB and Shm2. Heterologously produced Shm2 induced a strongly proinflammatory response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after in vitro stimulation. In contrast, CpcB did not activate the immune response of PBMCs. These findings could serve as the basis for the development of an immunotherapy of IA.

  15. Potential radioimmunoassay system for detection of Hanganutziu-Deicher type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukuria, J C; Naiki, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Masato; Nishiura, Katsumi; Okabe, Masahiro; Kato, Shiro

    1985-06-12

    A relatively simple, specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigen(s) and antibodies. The SVI-labeled H-D antigen-active molecule used for the assay is a bovine erythrocyte major glycoprotein previously found to have a strong H-D antigen potency. Different H-D antigen-active molecules were compared for heterophile H-D antigen potency. Eight different lung cancer tissues were assayed for H-D antigen. The sera from the 8 lung cancer patients were also screened by ELISA and RIA in an attmept to correlate expression of H-D antigen on tissues with elevation of H-D antibodies.

  16. Discovering naturally processed antigenic determinants that confer protective T cell immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchuk, Pavlo; Spencer, Charles T; Conant, Stephanie B

    2013-01-01

    and elicited protective TCD8 immunity against lethal intranasal VACV infection. Notably, efficient processing and stable presentation of immune determinants as well as the availability of naive TCD8 precursors were sufficient to drive a multifunctional, protective TCD8 response. Our approach uses fundamental...

  17. Successful vaccination against Boophilus microplus and Babesia bovis using recombinat antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Willadsen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as an effective, recombinant protein. A vaccine incorporating this antigen is currently undergoing field trials. In the Australian situation, improved tick control will probably increase endemic instability with respect to B. bovis. Fortunately, a trivalent, recombinant B. bovis vaccine has also been developed. This too is now undergoing pre-registration field trials.

  18. Improved protection conferred by vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus that incorporates a foreign antigen into the extracellular enveloped virion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Heesun; Mustafa, Waleed; Speirs, Kendra; Abdool, Asha J.; Paterson, Yvonne; Isaacs, Stuart N.

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant poxviruses have shown promise as vaccine vectors. We hypothesized that improved cellular immune responses could be developed to a foreign antigen by incorporating it as part of the extracellular enveloped virion (EEV). We therefore constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus that replaced the cytoplasmic domain of the B5R protein with a test antigen, HIV-1 Gag. Mice immunized with the virus expressing Gag fused to B5R had significantly better primary CD4 T-cell responses than recombinant virus expressing HIV-Gag from the TK-locus. The CD8 T-cell responses were less different between the two groups. Importantly, although we saw differences in the immune response to the test antigen, the vaccinia virus-specific immune responses were similar with both constructs. When groups of vaccinated mice were challenged 30 days later with a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes that expresses HIV-Gag, mice inoculated with the virus that expresses the B5R-Gag fusion protein had lower colony counts of Listeria in the liver and spleen than mice vaccinated with the standard recombinant. Thus, vaccinia virus expressing foreign antigen incorporated into EEV may be a better vaccine strategy than standard recombinant vaccinia virus

  19. Presenting Influenza A M2e Antigen on Recombinant Spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łęga

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses. In this work we evaluated the possible use of Bacillus subtilis spores as a carrier of the Influenza A M2e antigen in mucosal vaccination. A tandem repeat of 4 consensus sequences coding for human-avian-swine-human M2e (M2eH-A-S-H peptide was fused to spore coat proteins and stably exposed on the spore surface, as demonstrated by the immunostaining of intact, recombinant spores. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant endospores carrying M2eH-A-S-H elicited specific antibody production without the addition of adjuvants. Bacillus subtilis endospores can serve as influenza antigen carriers. Recombinant spores constructed in this work showed low immunogenicity although were able to induce antibody production. The System of influenza antigen administration presented in this work is attractive mainly due to the omitting time-consuming and cost-intensive immunogen production and purification. Therefore modification should be made to increase the immunogenicity of the presented system.

  20. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-06

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the second quarter of the third year, LLNL finalized all immunological assessments of NLP vaccine formulations in the F344 model. Battelle has immunized rats with three unique NLP formulations by either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All inoculations have been completed, and protective efficacy against an aerosolized challenge will begin at the end of October, 2014.

  1. Impact of genetic changes, pathogenicity and antigenicity on Enterovirus- A71 vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Pinn Tsin Isabel; Laa Poh, Chit

    2017-06-01

    Enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) is an etiological agent of the hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 infection produces high fever and ulcers in children. Some EV-A71 strains produce severe infections leading to pulmonary edema and death. Although the protective efficacy of the inactivated vaccine (IV) was ≥90% against mild HFMD, there was approximately 80% protection against severe HFMD. The monovalent EV-A71 IV elicits humoral immunity but lacks long-term immunogenicity. Spontaneous mutations of the EV-A71 genome could lead to antigenicity changes and the virus may not be neutralized by antibodies elicited by the IV. A better alternative would be the live attenuated vaccine (LAV) that elicits cellular and humoral immunity. The LAV induces excellent antigenicity and chances of reversion is reduced by presence of multiple mutations which could reduce pathogenicity. Besides CV-A16, outbreaks have been caused by CV-A6 and CV-A10, hence the development of bivalent and trivalent vaccines is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaccination with Recombinant Cryptococcus Proteins in Glucan Particles Protects Mice against Cryptococcosis in a Manner Dependent upon Mouse Strain and Cryptococcal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Specht

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of a vaccine to protect against cryptococcosis is a priority given the enormous global burden of disease in at-risk individuals. Using glucan particles (GPs as a delivery system, we previously demonstrated that mice vaccinated with crude Cryptococcus-derived alkaline extracts were protected against lethal challenge with Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The goal of the present study was to identify protective protein antigens that could be used in a subunit vaccine. Using biased and unbiased approaches, six candidate antigens (Cda1, Cda2, Cda3, Fpd1, MP88, and Sod1 were selected, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and loaded into GPs. Three mouse strains (C57BL/6, BALB/c, and DR4 were then vaccinated with the antigen-laden GPs, following which they received a pulmonary challenge with virulent C. neoformans and C. gattii strains. Four candidate vaccines (GP-Cda1, GP-Cda2, GP-Cda3, and GP-Sod1 afforded a significant survival advantage in at least one mouse model; some vaccine combinations provided added protection over that seen with either antigen alone. Vaccine-mediated protection against C. neoformans did not necessarily predict protection against C. gattii. Vaccinated mice developed pulmonary inflammatory responses that effectively contained the infection; many surviving mice developed sterilizing immunity. Predicted T helper cell epitopes differed between mouse strains and in the degree to which they matched epitopes predicted in humans. Thus, we have discovered cryptococcal proteins that make promising candidate vaccine antigens. Protection varied depending on the mouse strain and cryptococcal species, suggesting that a successful human subunit vaccine will need to contain multiple antigens, including ones that are species specific.

  3. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  4. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-12-13

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia ( Niloticus oreochromis ) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy.

  5. An Overview of Vaccination Strategies and Antigen Delivery Systems for Streptococcus agalactiae Vaccines in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. PMID:27983591

  6. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  7. Immunization of Pigs by DNA Prime and Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Boost To Identify and Rank African Swine Fever Virus Immunogenic and Protective Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancovich, James K; Chapman, Dave; Hansen, Debra T; Robida, Mark D; Loskutov, Andrey; Craciunescu, Felicia; Borovkov, Alex; Kibler, Karen; Goatley, Lynnette; King, Katherine; Netherton, Christopher L; Taylor, Geraldine; Jacobs, Bertram; Sykes, Kathryn; Dixon, Linda K

    2018-04-15

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs, with high socioeconomic impact. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to 100% protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. To identify additional ASFV immunogenic and potentially protective antigens, we cloned 47 viral genes in individual plasmids for gene vaccination and in recombinant vaccinia viruses. These antigens were selected to include proteins with different functions and timing of expression. Pools of up to 22 antigens were delivered by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost to groups of pigs. Responses of immune lymphocytes from pigs to individual recombinant proteins and to ASFV were measured by interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays to identify a subset of the antigens that consistently induced the highest responses. All 47 antigens were then delivered to pigs by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost, and pigs were challenged with a lethal dose of ASFV isolate Georgia 2007/1. Although pigs developed clinical and pathological signs consistent with acute ASFV, viral genome levels were significantly reduced in blood and several lymph tissues in those pigs immunized with vectors expressing ASFV antigens compared with the levels in control pigs. IMPORTANCE The lack of a vaccine limits the options to control African swine fever. Advances have been made in the development of genetically modified live attenuated ASFV that can induce protection against challenge. However, there may be safety issues relating to the use of these in the field. There is little information about ASFV antigens that can induce a protective immune response against challenge. We carried out a large screen of 30% of ASFV antigens by delivering individual genes in different pools to pigs by DNA immunization prime and recombinant vaccinia

  8. Antigen Uptake during Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio Using a GFP-Tagged Yersinia ruckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalia Korbut

    Full Text Available Immersion-vaccines (bacterins are routinely used for aquacultured rainbow trout to protect against Yersinia ruckeri (Yr. During immersion vaccination, rainbow trout take up and process the antigens, which induce protection. The zebrafish was used as a model organism to study uptake mechanisms and subsequent antigen transport in fish. A genetically modified Yr was developed to constitutively express green fluorescent protein (GFP and was used for bacterin production. Larval, juvenile and adult transparent zebrafish (tra:nac mutant received a bath in the bacterin for up to 30 minutes. Samples were taken after 1 min, 15 min, 30 min, 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. At each sampling point fish were used for live imaging of the uptake using a fluorescence stereomicroscope and for immunohistochemistry (IHC. In adult fish, the bacterin could be traced within 30 min in scale pockets, skin, oesophagus, intestine and fins. Within two hours post bath (pb Yr-antigens were visible in the spleen and at 24 h in liver and kidney. Bacteria were associated with the gills, but uptake at this location was limited. Antigens were rarely detected in the blood and never in the nares. In juvenile fish uptake of the bacterin was seen in the intestine 30 min pb and in the nares 2 hpb but never in scale pockets. Antigens were detected in the spleen 12 hpb. Zebrafish larvae exhibited major Yr uptake only in the mid-intestine enterocytes 24 hpb. The different life stages of zebrafish varied with regard to uptake locations, however the gut was consistently a major uptake site. Zebrafish and rainbow trout tend to have similar uptake mechanisms following immersion or bath vaccination, which points towards zebrafish as a suitable model organism for this aquacultured species.

  9. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Inhaled Versus Deposited Dose Using the Exponential Dose-Response Model for Inhalational Anthrax in Nonhuman Primate, Rabbit, and Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutting, Bradford W; Rukhin, Andrey; Mackie, Ryan S; Marchette, David; Thran, Brandolyn

    2015-05-01

    The application of the exponential model is extended by the inclusion of new nonhuman primate (NHP), rabbit, and guinea pig dose-lethality data for inhalation anthrax. Because deposition is a critical step in the initiation of inhalation anthrax, inhaled doses may not provide the most accurate cross-species comparison. For this reason, species-specific deposition factors were derived to translate inhaled dose to deposited dose. Four NHP, three rabbit, and two guinea pig data sets were utilized. Results from species-specific pooling analysis suggested all four NHP data sets could be pooled into a single NHP data set, which was also true for the rabbit and guinea pig data sets. The three species-specific pooled data sets could not be combined into a single generic mammalian data set. For inhaled dose, NHPs were the most sensitive (relative lowest LD50) species and rabbits the least. Improved inhaled LD50 s proposed for use in risk assessment are 50,600, 102,600, and 70,800 inhaled spores for NHP, rabbit, and guinea pig, respectively. Lung deposition factors were estimated for each species using published deposition data from Bacillus spore exposures, particle deposition studies, and computer modeling. Deposition was estimated at 22%, 9%, and 30% of the inhaled dose for NHP, rabbit, and guinea pig, respectively. When the inhaled dose was adjusted to reflect deposited dose, the rabbit animal model appears the most sensitive with the guinea pig the least sensitive species. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  12. Limited transplantation of antigen-expressing hematopoietic stem cells induces long-lasting cytotoxic T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren L Denning

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs to recognize and eradicate tumor or pathogen-infected cells is a critical goal of modern immune-based therapies. Although multiple immunization strategies efficiently induce high levels of antigen-specific CTLs, the initial increase is typically followed by a rapid contraction phase resulting in a sharp decline in the frequency of functional CTLs. We describe a novel approach to immunotherapy based on a transplantation of low numbers of antigen-expressing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs following nonmyeloablative or partially myeloablative conditioning. Continuous antigen presentation by a limited number of differentiated transgenic hematopoietic cells results in an induction and prolonged maintenance of fully functional effector T cell responses in a mouse model. Recipient animals display high levels of antigen-specific CTLs four months following transplantation in contrast to dendritic cell-immunized animals in which the response typically declines at 4-6 weeks post-immunization. Majority of HSC-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells display central memory phenotype, efficiently kill target cells in vivo, and protect recipients against tumor growth in a preventive setting. Furthermore, we confirm previously published observation that high level engraftment of antigen-expressing HSCs following myeloablative conditioning results in tolerance and an absence of specific cytotoxic activity in vivo. In conclusion, the data presented here supports potential application of immunization by limited transplantation of antigen-expressing HSCs for the prevention and treatment of cancer and therapeutic immunization of chronic infectious diseases such as HIV-1/AIDS.

  13. Evaluation of Expedient Decontamination Options with Activated Peroxide-based Liquid Sporicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    Figure 2-1) that are typical of the materials found in residential dwellings and meet industry standards or specifications for indoor use. Documented...Anthrax inhalation and lethal human infection. Lancet, 2002. 359(9307): p. 710-1. 14. Glassman, H.N., Industrial inhalation anthrax. Bacteriol. Rev...Begin by donning PPE (gloves, lab coat, and protective eyewear ). 2. Clean the workspace by wiping with pAB, next with DI water , and lastly with a 70

  14. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Adhesin-Toxoid Multiepitope Fusion Antigen CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTaN12S-mnLTG192G/L211A-Derived Antibodies Inhibit Adherence of Seven Adhesins, Neutralize Enterotoxicity of LT and STa Toxins, and Protect Piglets against Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandre, Rahul; Ruan, Xiaosai; Lu, Ti; Duan, Qiangde; Sack, David; Zhang, Weiping

    2018-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Vaccines inducing antibodies to broadly inhibit bacterial adherence and to neutralize toxin enterotoxicity are expected to be effective against ETEC-associated diarrhea. 6×His-tagged adhesin-toxoid fusion proteins were shown to induce neutralizing antibodies to several adhesins and LT and STa toxins (X. Ruan, D. A. Sack, W. Zhang, PLoS One 10:e0121623, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121623). However, antibodies derived from His-tagged CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa A14Q -dmLT or CFA/I/II/IV-2xSTa N12S -dmLT protein were less effective in neutralizing STa enterotoxicity and were not evaluated in vivo for efficacy against ETEC diarrhea. Additionally, His-tagged proteins are considered less desirable for human vaccines. In this study, we produced a tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) protein, enhanced anti-STa immunogenicity by including a third copy of STa toxoid STa N12S , and examined antigen immunogenicity in a murine model. Moreover, we immunized pregnant pigs with the tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA protein and evaluated passive antibody protection against STa + or LT + ETEC infection in a pig challenge model. Results showed that tagless adhesin-toxoid MEFA CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broad antiadhesin and antitoxin antibody responses in the intraperitoneally immunized mice and the intramuscularly immunized pigs. Mouse and pig serum antibodies significantly inhibited adherence of seven colonization factor antigen (CFA) adhesins (CFA/I and CS1 to CS6) and effectively neutralized both toxins. More importantly, suckling piglets born to the immunized mothers acquired antibodies and were protected against STa + ETEC and LT + ETEC diarrhea. These results indicated that tagless CFA/I/II/IV-3xSTa N12S -mnLT R192G/L211A induced broadly protective antiadhesin and antitoxin antibodies and demonstrate that this adhesin

  15. Sickle cell protection from malaria: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Eridani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A linkage between presence of Sickle Haemoglobin (HbS and protection from malaria infection and clinical manifestations in certain areas was suspected from early observations and progressively elucidated by more recent studies. Research has confirmed the abovementioned connection, but also clarified how such protection may be abolished by coexistence of sickle cell trait (HbS trait and alpha thalassemia, which may explain the relatively low incidence of HbS trait in the Mediterranean. The mechanisms of such protective effect are now being investigated: factors of genetic, molecular and immunological nature are prominent. As for genetic factors attention is given to the role of the red blood cell (RBC membrane complement regulatory proteins as polymorphisms of these components seem to be associated with resistance to severe malaria; genetic ligands like the Duffy group blood antigen, necessary for erythrocytic invasion, and human protein CD36, a major receptor for P. falciparum-infected RBC‘s, are also under scrutiny: attention is focused also on plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigens, which bind to RBC surface components. Genome-wide linkage and association studies are now carried out too, in order to identify genes associated with malaria resistance. Only a minor role is attributed to intravascular sickling, phagocytosis and haemolysis, while specific molecular mechanisms are the object of intensive research: among these a decisive role is played by a biochemical sequence, involving activation of haeme oxygenase (HMO-1, whose effect appears mediated by carbon monoxide (CO. A central role in protection from malaria is also played by immunological factors, which may stimulate antibody production to plasmodium antigens in the early years of life; the role of agents like pathogenic CD8 T-cells has been suggested while the effects of molecular actions on the immunity mechanism are presently investigated. It thus appears that protection from

  16. Liposome-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccines: Formulation Strategies for Subunit Antigens and Immunostimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Tandrup Schmidt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of subunit vaccines has become very attractive in recent years due to their superior safety profiles as compared to traditional vaccines based on live attenuated or whole inactivated pathogens, and there is an unmet medical need for improved vaccines and vaccines against pathogens for which no effective vaccines exist. The subunit vaccine technology exploits pathogen subunits as antigens, e.g., recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, allowing for highly specific immune responses against the pathogens. However, such antigens are usually not sufficiently immunogenic to induce protective immunity, and they are often combined with adjuvants to ensure robust immune responses. Adjuvants are capable of enhancing and/or modulating immune responses by exposing antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APCs concomitantly with conferring immune activation signals. Few adjuvant systems have been licensed for use in human vaccines, and they mainly stimulate humoral immunity. Thus, there is an unmet demand for the development of safe and efficient adjuvant systems that can also stimulate cell-mediated immunity (CMI. Adjuvants constitute a heterogeneous group of compounds, which can broadly be classified into delivery systems or immunostimulators. Liposomes are versatile delivery systems for antigens, and they can carefully be customized towards desired immune profiles by combining them with immunostimulators and optimizing their composition, physicochemical properties and antigen-loading mode. Immunostimulators represent highly diverse classes of molecules, e.g., lipids, nucleic acids, proteins and peptides, and they are ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, which are differentially expressed on APC subsets. Different formulation strategies might thus be required for incorporation of immunostimulators and antigens, respectively, into liposomes, and the choice of immunostimulator should ideally be based on knowledge regarding the

  17. Limited antigenic variation in the Trypanosoma cruzi candidate vaccine antigen TSA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J M; Zingales, B; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P; Zhan, B

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Western Hemisphere. The toxicities and limited efficacies of current antitrypanosomal drugs have prompted a search for alternative technologies such as a therapeutic vaccine comprised of T. cruzi antigens, including a recombinant antigen encoding the N-terminal 65 kDa portion of Trypomastigote surface antigen-1 (TSA-1). With at least six known genetically distinct T. cruzi lineages, variability between the different lineages poses a unique challenge for the development of broadly effective therapeutic vaccine. The variability across the major lineages in the current vaccine candidate antigen TSA-1 has not previously been addressed. To assess the variation in TSA-1, we cloned and sequenced TSA-1 from several different T. cruzi strains representing three of the most clinically relevant lineages. Analysis of the different alleles showed limited variation in TSA-1 across the different strains and fit with the current theory for the evolution of the different lineages. Additionally, minimal variation in known antigenic epitopes for the HLA-A 02 allele suggests that interlineage variation in TSA-1 would not impair the range and efficacy of a vaccine containing TSA-1. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Influences of Glycosylation on the Antigenicity, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Ebola Virus GP DNA Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, William; Thompson, Elizabeth; Badger, Catherine; Mellquist, Jenny L; Garrison, Aura R; Smith, Jeffrey M; Paragas, Jason; Hogan, Robert J; Schmaljohn, Connie

    2006-01-01

    ... or with deletions in the central hypervariable mucin region. We showed that mutation of one of the two N-linked GP2 glycosylation sites was highly detrimental to the antigenicity and immunogenicity of GP...

  19. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G

    1998-01-01

    GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well...... as the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). In addition, M. tuberculosis and MT-CF-induced T-cell lines were tested in the same assays against the panel of purified and complex antigens. The compiled data from PBMC and T-cell lines tested for antigen-induced proliferation and IFN...

  20. Studies on the protection effects of functional foods for skin immune system from radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Shin, Seong Hae; Kim, Do Sun; Heo, Ji Yun; Kang, Hye In

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the protective effects of pilot products (HemoHIM and HemoTonic) on the UV-induced skin immune damages as the following. · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic against UV using contact hypersensitivity model - Protection against depression of contact hypersensitivity by administration and skin application of HemoHIM and HemoTonic - Induction of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment - Improvement of antigen-presenting activity of dedritic cells by HemoHIM and HemoTonic treatment · Protective effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic on skin immune system against UV-irradiation - Protection of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells under UV-irradiation - In vivo protection of antigen-presenting activity of Langerhans cells in UV-irradiated mice · Protective effects of HemoHIM on UV-induced apoptosis of dendritic cells - Inhibition of cell membrane change, mitochondrial potential change, SubG1 cell population, nuclear condensation, and DNA fragmentation in UV-irradiated dendritic cells · Anti-allergic effects of HemoHIM and HemoTonic in human adipocyte HMC-1 cells - Inhibition of allergic histamine release from adipocytes - Inhibition of secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, GM-CSF) - Inhibition of c-kit, tryptase, FcεRI mRNA expression From these results, the developed functional food products (HemoHIM, HemoTonic) showed the protection and recovery of the immune functions in the UV-irradiated skin. It is suggested that these products may be used as a new functional food or cosmetic material for the protection of skin damage and the promotion of recovery

  1. The antigenic property of the H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three influenza pandemics outbroke in the last century accompanied the viral antigen shift and drift, resulting in the change of antigenic property and the low cross protective ability of the existed antibody to the newly emerged pandemic virus, and eventually the death of millions of people. The antigenic characterizations of the viruses isolated in central China in 2004 and 2006–2007 were investigated in the present study. Results Hemagglutinin inhibition assay and neutralization assay displayed differential antigenic characteristics of the viruses isolated in central China in two periods (2004 and 2006–2007. HA genes of the viruses mainly located in two branches in phylogeny analysis. 53 mutations of the deduced amino acids of the HA genes were divided into 4 patterns. Mutations in pattern 2 and 3 showed the main difference between viruses isolated in 2004 and 2006–2007. Meanwhile, most amino acids in pattern 2 and 3 located in the globular head of the HA protein, and some of the mutations evenly distributed at the epitope sites. Conclusions The study demonstrated that a major antigenic drift had occurred in the viruses isolated in central China. And monitoring the antigenic property should be the priority in preventing the potential pandemic of H5N1 avian influenza virus.

  2. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  3. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  4. Assessment and optimization of theileria parva sporozoite full-length p67 antigen expression in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delivery of various forms of recombinant Theileria parva sporozoite antigen (p67) has been shown to elicit antibody responses in cattle capable of providing protection against East Coast fever, the clinical disease caused by T. parva. Previous formulations of full-length and shorter recombinant vers...

  5. Bovine anaplasmosis with emphasis on immune responses and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, M.

    1980-01-01

    Anaplasmosis is an infectious and transmissible disease manifested by progressive anaemia and the appearance of other characteristic disease symptoms. It is a world-wide tick-borne disease of cattle and some wild ruminants caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale. By drawing on information obtained from studies of plasmodial cell cultures, a method has recently been developed for short-term in vitro cultivation of A. marginale. An attenuated Anaplasma organism capable of growth in both ovine and bovine erythrocytes was used to demonstrate that the in vitro system provided the necessary requirements for active transfer of the organism from cell to cell. Organismal antigens are found in the erythrocytes of infected animals, whereas soluble antigens are derived from their erythrocytes and serum. Serums from convalescing animals interact with these antigens in agglutination, complement fixation, fluorescent antibody and precipitation tests. Passive transfer of sera from immune to susceptible cattle, however, does not seem to confer protection against the infection and development of the disease. Studies that employed various tests for measuring cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses (leukocyte migration inhibition, blast transformation and cytotoxicity), in association with information collected simultaneously on antibody activity, have shown that both humoral and cellular immune responses are needed for the development of protective immunity in anaplasmosis. It was further shown that an active replication of Anaplasma is essential for induction of these two types of immune responses. Consequently, live virulent and attenuated immunogens fulfil requirements for induction of protective immunity. With the virulent agent, however, development of protective immunity is preceded by induction of auto-immune responses apparently associated with pathogenesis of anaemia in anaplasmosis. Inactivated immunogens derived from blood of infected cattle and used in combination with

  6. Clostridium perfringens Antigens Recognized by Broiler Chickens Immune to Necrotic Enteritis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R. R.; Parreira, V. R.; Sharif, S.; Prescott, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about immunity to necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens. A recent study of broiler chickens showed that protection against NE was associated with infection-immunization with virulent but not with avirulent Clostridium perfringens.In the current study, six secreted antigenic proteins unique to virulent C. perfringens that reacted to serum antibodies from immune birds were identified by mass spectrophotometry; three of these proteins are part of the VirR-VirS regulon.

  7. Successful vaccination against Boophilus microplus and Babesia bovis using recombinat antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Willadsen,P.; Kemp,D. H.; Cobon,G. S.; Wright,I. G.

    1992-01-01

    Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophils microplus and the agent of bovine babesiosis, Babesia bovis are unsatisfactory. Effective immunological control of both parasites would have great advantages. However, naturally acquired immunity to the tick is generally unable to prevent serious production losses. A vaccine against the tick, based on a novel form of immunization, is being developed. A protective antigen has been isolated from the tick, characterized and produced as ...

  8. Antigenicity and diagnostic potential of vaccine candidates in human Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivali Gupta

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and an emerging infectious disease in the US and Europe. We have shown TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 antigens elicit protective immunity to T. cruzi in mice and dogs. Herein, we investigated antigenicity of the recombinant proteins in humans to determine their potential utility for the development of next generation diagnostics for screening of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease.Sera samples from inhabitants of the endemic areas of Argentina-Bolivia and Mexico-Guatemala were analyzed in 1(st-phase for anti-T. cruzi antibody response by traditional serology tests; and in 2(nd-phase for antibody response to the recombinant antigens (individually or mixed by an ELISA. We noted similar antibody response to candidate antigens in sera samples from inhabitants of Argentina and Mexico (n=175. The IgG antibodies to TcG1, TcG2, and TcG4 (individually and TcG(mix were present in 62-71%, 65-78% and 72-82%, and 89-93% of the subjects, respectively, identified to be seropositive by traditional serology. Recombinant TcG1- (93.6%, TcG2- (96%, TcG4- (94.6% and TcG(mix- (98% based ELISA exhibited significantly higher specificity compared to that noted for T. cruzi trypomastigote-based ELISA (77.8% in diagnosing T. cruzi-infection and avoiding cross-reactivity to Leishmania spp. No significant correlation was noted in the sera levels of antibody response and clinical severity of Chagas disease in seropositive subjects.Three candidate antigens were recognized by antibody response in chagasic patients from two distinct study sites and expressed in diverse strains of the circulating parasites. A multiplex ELISA detecting antibody response to three antigens was highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing T. cruzi infection in humans, suggesting that a diagnostic kit based on TcG1, TcG2 and TcG4 recombinant proteins will be useful in diverse situations.

  9. Characterization of Antigen-Specific B Cells Using Nominal Antigen-Coated Flow-Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmed; Lepetit, Maud; Crochette, Romain; Giral, Magali; Lepourry, Julie; Pallier, Annaick; Castagnet, Stéphanie; Dugast, Emilie; Guillot-Gueguen, Cécile; Jacq-Foucher, Marylène; Saulquin, Xavier; Cesbron, Anne; Laplaud, David; Nicot, Arnaud; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the reactivity of B cells against nominal antigens, a method based on the coupling of antigens onto the surface of fluorescent core polystyrene beads was developed. We first demonstrate that murine B cells with a human MOG-specific BCR are able to interact with MOG-coated beads and do not recognize beads coated with human albumin or pp65. B cells purified from human healthy volunteer blood or immunized individuals were tested for their ability to interact with various nominal antigens, including viral, vaccine, self and alloantigens, chosen for their usefulness in studying a variety of pathological processes. A substantial amount of B cells binding self-antigen MOG-coated beads can be detected in normal blood. Furthermore, greater frequencies of B cell against anti-Tetanic Toxin or anti-EBNA1 were observed in primed individuals. This method can reveal increased frequencies of anti-HLA committed B cells in patients with circulating anti-HLA antibodies compared to unsensitized patients and normal individuals. Of interest, those specific CD19 cells were preferentially identified within CD27−IgD+ (i-e naïve) subset. These observations suggest that a broad range of medical situations could benefit from a tool that allows the detection, the quantification and the characterization of antigen-specific blood B cells. PMID:24386360

  10. Antigen Uptake during Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Using a GFP-Tagged Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbut, Rozalia; Mehrdana, Foojan; Kania, Per Walter

    2016-01-01

    Immersion-vaccines (bacterins) are routinely used for aquacultured rainbow trout to protect against Yersinia ruckeri (Yr). During immersion vaccination, rainbow trout take up and process the antigens, which induce protection. The zebrafish was used as a model organism to study uptake mechanisms...... the gut was consistently a major uptake site. Zebrafish and rainbow trout tend to have similar uptake mechanisms following immersion or bath vaccination, which points towards zebrafish as a suitable model organism for this aquacultured species....

  11. Protective Immunity and Reduced Renal Colonization Induced by Vaccines Containing Recombinant Leptospira interrogans Outer Membrane Proteins and Flagellin Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaris, D.; Sbrogio-Almeida, M. E.; Dib, C. C.; Canhamero, T. A.; Souza, G. O.; Vasconcellos, S. A.; Ferreira, L. C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease caused by different Leptospira species, such as Leptospira interrogans, that colonize the renal tubules of wild and domestic animals. Thus far, attempts to develop effective leptospirosis vaccines, both for humans and animals, have failed to induce immune responses capable of conferring protection and simultaneously preventing renal colonization. In this study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by subunit vaccines containing seven different recombinant Leptospira interrogans outer membrane proteins, including the carboxy-terminal portion of the immunoglobulinlike protein A (LigAC) and six novel antigens, combined with aluminum hydroxide (alum) or Salmonella flagellin (FliC) as adjuvants. Hamsters vaccinated with the different formulations elicited high antigen-specific antibody titers. Immunization with LigAC, either with alum or flagellin, conferred protective immunity but did not prevent renal colonization. Similarly, animals immunized with LigAC or LigAC coadministered with six leptospiral proteins with alum adjuvant conferred protection but did not reduce renal colonization. In contrast, immunizing animals with the pool of seven antigens in combination with flagellin conferred protection and significantly reduced renal colonization by the pathogen. The present study emphasizes the relevance of antigen composition and added adjuvant in the efficacy of antileptospirosis subunit vaccines and shows the complex relationship between immune responses and renal colonization by the pathogen. PMID:26108285

  12. [Efficacy of enterocin S760 in treatment of mice with anthrax infection due to Bacillus anthracis M-71].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetoch, E A; Borzilov, A I; Eruslanov, B V; Korobova, O V; Kombarova, T I; Levchuk, V P; Teĭmurazov, M G; Stepanshin, Iu G; Marinin, L I; Diatlov, I A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of enterocin S760, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide produced by Enterococcus faecium LWP760 was tested on mice infected with Bacillus anthracis M-71 to induce anthrax (second Tsenkovsky's vaccine). Intraperitoneal four-, two- or one-fold administration of the peptide in a dose of 25 mg/kg for 10 days for prophylactic (1 hour after the contamination) and therapeutic (24 hours after the contamination) purposes prevented or cured the infection in 90-100% of the mice versus the 100-percent lethality in the control (untreated animals). The antimicrobial activity of enterocin S760 against B. anthracis M-71 in vivo correlated with activity in vitro. Enterocin S760 is considered a novel promising antimicrobial for the treatment of grampositive and gramnegative infections.

  13. Facts on the fragmentation of antigens in presenting cells, on the association of antigen fragments with MHC molecules in cell-free systems, and speculation on the cell biology of antigen processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werdelin, O; Mouritsen, S; Petersen, B L

    1988-01-01

    The processing of a protein antigen is a multi-step event taking place in antigen-presenting cells. Processing is a prerequisite for the recognition of most antigens by T lymphocytes. The antigen is ingested by endocytosis, transported to an acid cellular compartment and subjected to proteolytic...... fragmentation. Some of the antigen fragments bind to MHC class II molecules and are transported to the surface of the antigen-presenting cell where the actual presentation to T lymphocytes occurs. The nature of the processed antigen, how and where it is derived and subsequently becomes associated with MHC...... molecules are the questions discussed in this review. To us, the entire concept of processing has appeal not only because it explains some hitherto well-established, but poorly understood, phenomena such as the fact that T lymphocytes focus their attention entirely upon antigens on other cells. It has...

  14. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered NK-92 Cells: An Off-the-Shelf Cellular Therapeutic for Targeted Elimination of Cancer Cells and Induction of Protective Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in recent years toward realizing the potential of natural killer (NK cells for cancer immunotherapy. NK cells can respond rapidly to transformed and stressed cells and have the intrinsic potential to extravasate and reach their targets in almost all body tissues. In addition to donor-derived primary NK cells, also the established NK cell line NK-92 is being developed for adoptive immunotherapy, and general safety of infusion of irradiated NK-92 cells has been established in phase I clinical trials with clinical responses observed in some of the cancer patients treated. To enhance their therapeutic utility, NK-92 cells have been modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs composed of a tumor-specific single chain fragment variable antibody fragment fused via hinge and transmembrane regions to intracellular signaling moieties such as CD3ζ or composite signaling domains containing a costimulatory protein together with CD3ζ. CAR-mediated activation of NK cells then bypasses inhibitory signals and overcomes NK resistance of tumor cells. In contrast to primary NK cells, CAR-engineered NK-92 cell lines suitable for clinical development can be established from molecularly and functionally well-characterized single cell clones following good manufacturing practice-compliant procedures. In preclinical in vitro and in vivo models, potent antitumor activity of NK-92 variants targeted to differentiation antigens expressed by hematologic malignancies, and overexpressed or mutated self-antigens associated with solid tumors has been found, encouraging further development of CAR-engineered NK-92 cells. Importantly, in syngeneic mouse tumor models, induction of endogenous antitumor immunity after treatment with CAR-expressing NK-92 cells has been demonstrated, resulting in cures and long-lasting immunological memory protecting against tumor rechallenge at distant sites. Here, we summarize the current status and future

  15. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  16. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  17. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  18. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data