WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthracis dihydrofolate reductase

  1. Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edman, J C; Edman, U; Cao, Mi-Mi

    1989-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) cDNA sequences have been isolated by their ability to confer trimethoprim resistance to Escherichia coli. Consistent with the recent conclusion that P. carinii is a member of the Fungi...

  2. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of human dihydrofolate reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, N.J.; Delcamp, T.J.; Smith, P.L.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-05-17

    A procaryotic high-level expression vector for human dihydrofolate reductase has been constructed and the protein characterized as a first step toward structure-function studies of this enzyme. A vector bearing the tac promoter, four synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, and a restriction fragment from the dihydrofolate reductase cDNA were ligated in a manner which optimized the transcriptional and translational frequency of the enzyme mRNA. The reductase, comprising ca. 17% of the total soluble protein in the host bacteria, was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized by amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequence, and steady-sate kinetic analysis. This expression vector has been used as a template for double-stranded plasmid DNA site-specific mutagenesis. Functional studies on a Cys-6 ..-->.. Ser-6 mutant enzyme support the contention that Cys-6 is obligatory for organomercurial activation of human dihydrofolate reductase. The Ser-6 mutant enzyme was not activated to any extent following a 24-h incubation with p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH), whereas the k/sub cat/ for Cys-6 reductase increased 2-fold under identical conditions. The specific activities of the Cys-6 and Ser-6 enzymes were virtually identical as determined by methotrexate titration as were the K/sub m/ values for both dihydrofolate and NADPH. The Ser-6 mutant showed a decreased temperature stability and was more sensitive to inactivation by ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin when compared to the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that the Ser-6 mutant reductase is conformationally altered relative to the Cys-6 native enzyme.

  3. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of human dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, N.J.; Delcamp, T.J.; Smith, P.L.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    A procaryotic high-level expression vector for human dihydrofolate reductase has been constructed and the protein characterized as a first step toward structure-function studies of this enzyme. A vector bearing the tac promoter, four synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, and a restriction fragment from the dihydrofolate reductase cDNA were ligated in a manner which optimized the transcriptional and translational frequency of the enzyme mRNA. The reductase, comprising ca. 17% of the total soluble protein in the host bacteria, was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized by amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequence, and steady-sate kinetic analysis. This expression vector has been used as a template for double-stranded plasmid DNA site-specific mutagenesis. Functional studies on a Cys-6 → Ser-6 mutant enzyme support the contention that Cys-6 is obligatory for organomercurial activation of human dihydrofolate reductase. The Ser-6 mutant enzyme was not activated to any extent following a 24-h incubation with p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH), whereas the k/sub cat/ for Cys-6 reductase increased 2-fold under identical conditions. The specific activities of the Cys-6 and Ser-6 enzymes were virtually identical as determined by methotrexate titration as were the K/sub m/ values for both dihydrofolate and NADPH. The Ser-6 mutant showed a decreased temperature stability and was more sensitive to inactivation by α-chymotrypsin when compared to the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that the Ser-6 mutant reductase is conformationally altered relative to the Cys-6 native enzyme

  4. Dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genotypes associated with in vitro resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, sulfadoxine, and sulfamethoxazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Insaf; Rønn, Anita M; Alifrangis, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A total of 70 Plasmodium falciparum isolates were tested in vitro against pyrimethamine (PYR), trimethoprim (TRM), sulfadoxine (SDX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genotypes were determined. dhfr genotypes correlated...

  5. Isolation and characterization of dihydrofolate reductase from trimethoprim-susceptible and trimethoprim-resistant Pseudomonas cepacia.

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, J L; Lien, D M; Hedin, L A

    1989-01-01

    Trimethoprim resistance was investigated in cystic fibrosis isolates of Pseudomonas cepacia. Determination of the MIC of trimethoprim for 111 strains revealed at least two populations of resistant organisms, suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of resistance. Investigation of the antibiotic target, dihydrofolate reductase, was undertaken in both a susceptible strain and a strain with high-level resistance (MIC, greater than 1,000 micrograms/ml). The enzyme was purified by using ...

  6. Crystallographic investigation of the cooperative interaction between trimethoprim, reduced cofactor and dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champness, J.N.; Stammers, D.K.; Beddell, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the complex between E. coli form I dihydrofolate reductase, the antibacterial trimethoprim and NADPH has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitor and cofactor are in mutual contact. A flexible chain segment which includes Met 20 is in contact with the inhibitor in the presence of NADPH, but more distant in its absence. By contrast, the inhibitor conformation is little changed with NADPH present. The authors discuss these observations with regard to the mutually cooperative binding of these ligands to the protein, and to the associated enhancement of inhibitory selectivity shown by trimethoprim for bacterial as opposed to vertebrate enzyme. (Auth.)

  7. Fragment Discovery for the Design of Nitrogen Heterocycles as Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelke, Rupesh U; Degani, Mariam S; Raju, Archana; Ray, Mukti Kanta; Rajan, Mysore G R

    2016-08-01

    Fragment-based drug design was used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors. Screening of ligands against the Mtb DHFR enzyme resulted in the identification of multiple fragment hits with IC50 values in the range of 38-90 μM versus Mtb DHFR and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 31.5-125 μg/mL. These fragment scaffolds would be useful for anti-tubercular drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. [Comparison of Physico-chemical Aspects between E. coli and Human Dihydrofolate Reductase: an Equilibrium Unfolding Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Charu; Jain, Neha; Chaudhuri, Pratima

    2015-01-01

    A protein, differing in origin, may exhibit variable physicochemical behaviour, difference in sequence homology, fold and function. Thus studying structure-function relationship of proteins from altered sources is meaningful in the sense that it may give rise to comparative aspects of their sequence-structure-function relationship. Dihydrofolate reductase is an enzyme involved in cell cycle regulation. It is a significant enzyme as.a target for developing anticancer drugs. Hence, detailed understanding of structure-function relationships of wide variants of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase would be important for developing an inhibitor or an antagonist against the enzyme involved in the cellular developmental processes. In this communication, we have reported the comparative structure-function relationship between E. coli and human dihydrofolate reductase. The differences in the unfolding behaviour of these two proteins have been investigated to understand various properties of these two proteins like relative' stability differences and variation in conformational changes under identical denaturing conditions. The equilibrium unfolding mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase proteins using guanidine hydrochloride as a denaturant in the presence of various types of osmolytes has been monitored using loss in enzymatic activity, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and an extrinsic fluorophore 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid as probes. It has been observed that osmolytes, such as 1M sucrose, and 30% glycerol, provided enhanced stability to both variants of dihydrofolate reductase. Their level of stabilisation has been observed to be dependent on intrinsic protein stability. It was observed that 100 mM proline does not show any 'significant stabilisation to either of dihydrofolate reductases. In the present study, it has been observed that the human protein is relatively less stable than the E.coli counterpart.

  9. para-Aminosalicylic acid is a prodrug targeting dihydrofolate reductase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Rubin, Eric J; Bifani, Pablo; Mathys, Vanessa; Lim, Vivian; Au, Melvin; Jang, Jichan; Nam, Jiyoun; Dick, Thomas; Walker, John R; Pethe, Kevin; Camacho, Luis R

    2013-08-09

    para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is one of the antimycobacterial drugs currently used for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Although it has been in clinical use for over 60 years, its mechanism(s) of action remains elusive. Here we report that PAS is a prodrug targeting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) through an unusual and novel mechanism of action. We provide evidences that PAS is incorporated into the folate pathway by dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate synthase (DHFS) to generate a hydroxyl dihydrofolate antimetabolite, which in turn inhibits DHFR enzymatic activity. Interestingly, PAS is recognized by DHPS as efficiently as its natural substrate para-amino benzoic acid. Chemical inhibition of DHPS or mutation in DHFS prevents the formation of the antimetabolite, thereby conferring resistance to PAS. In addition, we identified a bifunctional enzyme (riboflavin biosynthesis protein (RibD)), a putative functional analog of DHFR in a knock-out strain. This finding is further supported by the identification of PAS-resistant clinical isolates encoding a RibD overexpression mutation displaying cross-resistance to genuine DHFR inhibitors. Our findings reveal that a metabolite of PAS inhibits DHFR in the folate pathway. RibD was shown to act as a functional analog of DHFR, and as for DHFS, both were shown to be associated in PAS resistance in laboratory strains and clinical isolates.

  10. Role of Lysine-54 in determining cofactor specificity and binding in human dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shaoming; Tan, Xuehai; Thompson, P.D.; Freisheim, J.H.; Appleman, J.R.; Blakley, R.L.; Sheridan, R.P.; Venkataraghavan, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lysine-54 of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) appears to be involved in the interaction with the 2'-phosphate of NADPH and is conserved as a basic residue in other species. Studies have suggested that in Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase Arg-43, the homologous residue at this position, plays an important role in the binding of NADPH and in the differentiation of K m values for NADPH and NADH. A Lys-54 to Gln-54 mutant (K54Q) of hDHFR has been constructed by oligodeoxynucleotide-directed mutagenesis in order to study the role of Lys-54 in differentiating K m and k cat values for NADPH and NADH as well as in other functions of hDHFR. The purpose of this paper is to delineate in quantitative terms the magnitude of the effect of the Lys-54 to Gln-54 replacement on the various kinetic parameters of hDHFR. Such quantitative effects cannot be predicted solely on the basis of X-ray structures. The ratio of K m (NADH)/K m (NADPH) decreases from 69 in the wild-type enzyme to 4.7 in the K54Q enzyme, suggesting that Lys-54, among other interactions between protein side-chain residues and the 2'-phosphate, makes a major contribution in terms of binding energy and differentiation of K m values for NADPH and NADH. Agents at concentrations that show activating effects on the wild-type enzyme such as potassium chloride and urea all inactivate the K54Q enzyme. There appear to be no gross conformational differences between wild-type and K54Q enzyme molecules as judged by competitive ELISA using peptide-specific antibodies against human dihydrofolate reductase and from protease susceptibility studies on both wild-type and K54Q mutant enzymes. The pH-rate profiles using NADPH for K54Q and wild-type enzymes show divergences at certain pH values, suggesting the possibility of alteration(s) in the steps of the catalytic pathway for the K54Q enzyme

  11. Multiple ligand-binding modes in bacterial R67 dihydrofolate reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Hernán; Gillies, Malcolm B.; Cummins, Peter L.; Bliznyuk, Andrey A.; Gready, Jill E.

    2005-03-01

    R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a bacterial plasmid-encoded enzyme associated with resistance to the drug trimethoprim, shows neither sequence nor structural homology with the chromosomal DHFR. It presents a highly symmetrical toroidal structure, where four identical monomers contribute to the unique central active-site pore. Two reactants (dihydrofolate, DHF), two cofactors (NADPH) or one of each (R67•DHF•NADPH) can be found simultaneously within the active site, the last one being the reactive ternary complex. As the positioning of the ligands has proven elusive to empirical determination, we addressed the problem from a theoretical perspective. Several potential structures of the ternary complex were generated using the docking programs AutoDock and FlexX. The variability among the final poses, many of which conformed to experimental data, prompted us to perform a comparative scoring analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to assess the stability of the complexes. Analysis of ligand-ligand and ligand-protein interactions along the 4 ns trajectories of eight different structures allowed us to identify important inter-ligand contacts and key protein residues. Our results, combined with published empirical data, clearly suggest that multipe binding modes of the ligands are possible within R67 DHFR. While the pterin ring of DHF and the nicotinamide ring of NADPH assume a stacked endo-conformation at the centre of the pore, probably assisted by V66, Q67 and I68, the tails of the molecules extend towards opposite ends of the cavity, adopting multiple configurations in a solvent rich-environment where hydrogen-bond interactions with K32 and Y69 may play important roles.

  12. Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei model

    OpenAIRE

    Tipsuwan, Wachiraporn; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Uthaipibull, Chairat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistance amongst the human malaria Plasmodium species has most commonly been associated with genomic mutation within the parasites. This phenomenon necessitates evolutionary predictive studies of possible resistance mutations, which may occur when a new drug is introduced. Therefore, identification of possible new Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) mutants that confer resistance to antifolate drugs is essential in the process of...

  13. Chemical Ligation and Isotope Labeling to Locate Dynamic Effects during Catalysis by Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Louis Y P; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Adesina, Aduragbemi S; Loveridge, E Joel; Tuñón, Iñaki; Moliner, Vincent; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2015-07-27

    Chemical ligation has been used to alter motions in specific regions of dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli and to investigate the effects of localized motional changes on enzyme catalysis. Two isotopic hybrids were prepared; one with the mobile N-terminal segment containing heavy isotopes ((2) H, (13) C, (15) N) and the remainder of the protein with natural isotopic abundance, and the other one with only the C-terminal segment isotopically labeled. Kinetic investigations indicated that isotopic substitution of the N-terminal segment affected only a physical step of catalysis, whereas the enzyme chemistry was affected by protein motions from the C-terminal segment. QM/MM studies support the idea that dynamic effects on catalysis mostly originate from the C-terminal segment. The use of isotope hybrids provides insights into the microscopic mechanism of dynamic coupling, which is difficult to obtain with other studies, and helps define the dynamic networks of intramolecular interactions central to enzyme catalysis. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Fitness trade-offs in the evolution of dihydrofolate reductase and drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna S Costanzo

    Full Text Available Patterns of emerging drug resistance reflect the underlying adaptive landscapes for specific drugs. In Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most serious form of malaria, antifolate drugs inhibit the function of essential enzymes in the folate pathway. However, a handful of mutations in the gene coding for one such enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, confer drug resistance. Understanding how evolution proceeds from drug susceptibility to drug resistance is critical if new antifolate treatments are to have sustained usefulness.We use a transgenic yeast expression system to build on previous studies that described the adaptive landscape for the antifolate drug pyrimethamine, and we describe the most likely evolutionary trajectories for the evolution of drug resistance to the antifolate chlorcycloguanil. We find that the adaptive landscape for chlorcycloguanil is multi-peaked, not all highly resistant alleles are equally accessible by evolution, and there are both commonalities and differences in adaptive landscapes for chlorcycloguanil and pyrimethamine.Our findings suggest that cross-resistance between drugs targeting the same enzyme reflect the fitness landscapes associated with each particular drug and the position of the genotype on both landscapes. The possible public health implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Effect of gamma rays at the dihydrofolate reductase locus: deletions and inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urlaub, G.; Mitchell, P.J.; Kas, E.; Chasin, L.A.; Funanage, V.L.; Myoda, T.T.; Hamlin, J.

    1986-01-01

    A series 11 gamma-ray-induced mutants at the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus in Chinese hamster ovary cells has been examined for the types of DNA sequence change brought about by this form of ionizing radiation. All 11 mutants were found to have suffered major structural changes affecting the dhfr gene. In eight of the mutants, all or part of the dhfr gene has been deleted. The extent of these deletions was examined in seven of these mutants and, for comparison, in two deletion mutants that were induced by UV irradiation. For this purpose, probes from an overlapping set of cosmids that span 210 kb of DNA in this region were used. Three of seven gamma-ray-induced mutants and one UV-induced mutant were shown to have deleted the entire 210-kb region. In the remaining mutants, endpoints ranging from within the dhfr gene to 100 kb downstream were observed. No upstream endpoints were detected, so that an upper limit on the size of these large deletions could not be assigned. Three of the 11 gamma-ray-induced mutants contained an interruption in the dhfr gene without any detectable loss of sequence. Restriction analysis of these interrupted mutants showed that at least 8-14 kb of foreign DNA sequence became joined to the gene at the point of disruption. Cytogenetic analysis of these mutants showed that in two cases an inversion of the banding pattern on chromosome Z-2 had taken place. The inverted dhfr mutants contain very low amounts of dhfr RNA sequences, and the 5' end of an inversion mutant gene exhibits the same pattern of DNA methylation and DNase I-hypersensitivity as the wild-type gene. Our results suggest that ionizing radiation causes primarily, if not exclusively, large deletions and inversions in mammalian cells

  16. Structural analysis of dihydrofolate reductases enables rationalization of antifolate binding affinities and suggests repurposing possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosle, Amrisha; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-03-01

    Antifolates are competitive inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a conserved enzyme that is central to metabolism and widely targeted in pathogenic diseases, cancer and autoimmune disorders. Although most clinically used antifolates are known to be target specific, some display a fair degree of cross-reactivity with DHFRs from other species. A method that enables identification of determinants of affinity and specificity in target DHFRs from different species and provides guidelines for the design of antifolates is currently lacking. To address this, we first captured the potential druggable space of a DHFR in a substructure called the 'supersite' and classified supersites of DHFRs from 56 species into 16 'site-types' based on pairwise structural similarity. Analysis of supersites across these site-types revealed that DHFRs exhibit varying extents of dissimilarity at structurally equivalent positions in and around the binding site. We were able to explain the pattern of affinities towards chemically diverse antifolates exhibited by DHFRs of different site-types based on these structural differences. We then generated an antifolate-DHFR network by mapping known high-affinity antifolates to their respective supersites and used this to identify antifolates that can be repurposed based on similarity between supersites or antifolates. Thus, we identified 177 human-specific and 458 pathogen-specific antifolates, a large number of which are supported by available experimental data. Thus, in the light of the clinical importance of DHFR, we present a novel approach to identifying differences in the druggable space of DHFRs that can be utilized for rational design of antifolates. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Probing the electrostatics of active site microenvironments along the catalytic cycle for Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C Tony; Layfield, Joshua P; Stewart, Robert J; French, Jarrod B; Hanoian, Philip; Asbury, John B; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2014-07-23

    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in enzyme catalysis by guiding ligand binding and facilitating chemical reactions. These electrostatic interactions are modulated by conformational changes occurring over the catalytic cycle. Herein, the changes in active site electrostatic microenvironments are examined for all enzyme complexes along the catalytic cycle of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) by incorporation of thiocyanate probes at two site-specific locations in the active site. The electrostatics and degree of hydration of the microenvironments surrounding the probes are investigated with spectroscopic techniques and mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations. Changes in the electrostatic microenvironments along the catalytic environment lead to different nitrile (CN) vibrational stretching frequencies and (13)C NMR chemical shifts. These environmental changes arise from protein conformational rearrangements during catalysis. The QM/MM calculations reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational frequency shifts of the thiocyanate probes across the catalyzed hydride transfer step, which spans the closed and occluded conformations of the enzyme. Analysis of the molecular dynamics trajectories provides insight into the conformational changes occurring between these two states and the resulting changes in classical electrostatics and specific hydrogen-bonding interactions. The electric fields along the CN axes of the probes are decomposed into contributions from specific residues, ligands, and solvent molecules that make up the microenvironments around the probes. Moreover, calculation of the electric field along the hydride donor-acceptor axis, along with decomposition of this field into specific contributions, indicates that the cofactor and substrate, as well as the enzyme, impose a substantial electric field that facilitates hydride transfer. Overall, experimental and theoretical data provide evidence for

  18. Multiple origins of resistance-conferring mutations in Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Michael T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to maximize the useful therapeutic life of antimalarial drugs, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs are selected and spread in natural populations. Recent work has demonstrated that pyrimethamine-resistance conferring mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr have arisen rarely de novo, but spread widely in Asia and Africa. The origin and spread of mutations in Plasmodium vivax dhfr were assessed by constructing haplotypes based on sequencing dhfr and its flanking regions. Methods The P. vivax dhfr coding region, 792 bp upstream and 683 bp downstream were amplified and sequenced from 137 contemporary patient isolates from Colombia, India, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vanuatu. A repeat motif located 2.6 kb upstream of dhfr was also sequenced from 75 of 137 patient isolates, and mutational relationships among the haplotypes were visualized using the programme Network. Results Synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the dhfr coding region were identified, as was the well-documented in-frame insertion/deletion (indel. SNPs were also identified upstream and downstream of dhfr, with an indel and a highly polymorphic repeat region identified upstream of dhfr. The regions flanking dhfr were highly variable. The double mutant (58R/117N dhfr allele has evolved from several origins, because the 58R is encoded by at least 3 different codons. The triple (58R/61M/117T and quadruple (57L/61M/117T/173F, 57I/58R/61M/117T and 57L/58R/61M/117T mutant alleles had at least three independent origins in Thailand, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea/Vanuatu. Conclusion It was found that the P. vivax dhfr coding region and its flanking intergenic regions are highly polymorphic and that mutations in P. vivax dhfr that confer antifolate resistance have arisen several times in the Asian region. This contrasts

  19. Biosynthetic incorporation of telluromethionine into dihydrofolate reductase and crystallographic analysis of the distribution of tellurium atoms in the protein molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkle, M.G.; Lewinski, K.; Boles, J.O.; Dunlap, R.B.; Odom, J.D.; Lebioda, L. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Recent successes in crystallographic studies of proteins with methionine (Met) residues replaced with SeMet, pioneered by Hendrickson and coworkers, inspired us to replace Met with TeMet in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). E. coli DHFR, which catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, consists of 159 residues, 5 of which are Met. TeMet was incorporated into DHFR using the Met auxotroph, E. coli DL41, carrying the expression vector pWT8 with an IPTG inducible promoter and ampicillin resistance gene. The enzyme was purified by successive chromatography on Q-Sepharose and PHenyl Sepharose resins, yielding milligram quantities of homogeneous enzyme with a specific activity of 40 units/mg. TeMet DHFR exhibits kinetic properties similar to those of wt DHFR. Amino acid analysis indicated 3 authentic Met residues in TeMet DHFR, whereas atomic absorption spectroscopy detected 2 Te per protein molecule. Amino acid sequence analysis results suggested that only authentic Met was present in the first three Met positions (1,16,and 20). Crystals of Te-DHFR were grown in the presence of methotrexate from PEG 4000 and were isomorphous with wt-DHFR crystals grown from ethanol. Difference Fourier maps and restrained least-squares refinement show very little, if any, Te in the first three Met positions: Met{sup 1}, Met{sup 16}, and Met{sup 20}, whereas the occupancy of Te in positions 42 and 92 is 0.64. Apparently, the process of folding, subsequent purification, and crystallization select DHFR molecules with Te in Met{sup 42} and Met{sup 92}. Replacing Met with TeMet provides an internal probe that should facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of proteins.

  20. Rational Design of Novel Allosteric Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors Showing Antibacterial Effects on Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Escape Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Rodrigues, João V; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2017-07-21

    In drug discovery, systematic variations of substituents on a common scaffold and bioisosteric replacements are often used to generate diversity and obtain molecules with better biological effects. However, this could saturate the small-molecule diversity pool resulting in drug resistance. On the other hand, conventional drug discovery relies on targeting known pockets on protein surfaces leading to drug resistance by mutations of critical pocket residues. Here, we present a two-pronged strategy of designing novel drugs that target unique pockets on a protein's surface to overcome the above problems. Dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR, is a critical enzyme involved in thymidine and purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Several classes of compounds that are structural analogues of the substrate dihydrofolate have been explored for their antifolate activity. Here, we describe 10 novel small-molecule inhibitors of Escherichia coli DHFR, EcDHFR, belonging to the stilbenoid, deoxybenzoin, and chalcone family of compounds discovered by a combination of pocket-based virtual ligand screening and systematic scaffold hopping. These inhibitors show a unique uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, distinct from those reported for all known inhibitors of DHFR, indicative of binding to a unique pocket distinct from either substrate or cofactor-binding pockets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that rescue mutants of EcDHFR, with reduced affinity to all known classes of DHFR inhibitors, are inhibited at the same concentration as the wild-type. These compounds also exhibit antibacterial activity against E. coli harboring the drug-resistant variant of DHFR. This discovery is the first report on a novel class of inhibitors targeting a unique pocket on EcDHFR.

  1. Mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli: pH and deuterium isotope effects with NADPH as the variable substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, J.F.; Stone, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The variations with pH of the kinetic parameters and primary deuterium isotope effects for the reaction of NADPH with dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli have been determined. The aims of the investigations were to elucidate the chemical mechanism of the reaction and to obtain information about the location of the rate-limiting steps. The V and V/K/sub NADPH/ profiles indicate that a single ionizing group at the active center of the enzyme must be protonated for catalysis, whereas the K/sub i/ profiles show that the binding of NADPH to the free enzyme and of ATP-ribose to the enzyme-dihydrofolate complex is pH independent. From the results of deuterium isotope effects on V/K/sub NADPH/, it is concluded that NADPH behaves as a sticky substrate. It is this stickiness that raises artificially the intrinsic pK value of 6.4 for the Asp-27 residue of the enzyme-dihydrofolate complex to an observed value of 8.9. Thus, the binary enzyme complex is largely protonated at neutral pH. The elevation of the intrinsic pK value of 6.4 for the ternary enzyme-NADPH-dihydrofolate complex to 8.5 is not due to the kinetic effects of substrates. Rather, it is the consequence of the lower, pH-independent rate of product release and the faster pH-dependent catalytic step. The data for deuterium isotope and deuterium solvent isotope effects are consistent with the postulate that, for the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, protonation precedes hydride transfer. A scheme is proposed for the indirect transfer of a proton from the enzyme to dihydrofolate

  2. An approximate but efficient method to calculate free energy trends by computer simulation: Application to dihydrofolate reductase-inhibitor complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Paul R.; Mark, Alan E.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    1993-06-01

    Derivatives of free energy differences have been calculated by molecular dynamics techniques. The systems under study were ternary complexes of Trimethoprim (TMP) with dihydrofolate reductases of E. coli and chicken liver, containing the cofactor NADPH. Derivatives are taken with respect to modification of TMP, with emphasis on altering the 3-, 4- and 5-substituents of the phenyl ring. A linear approximation allows the encompassing of a whole set of modifications in a single simulation, as opposed to a full perturbation calculation, which requires a separate simulation for each modification. In the case considered here, the proposed technique requires a factor of 1000 less computing effort than a full free energy perturbation calculation. For the linear approximation to yield a significant result, one has to find ways of choosing the perturbation evolution, such that the initial trend mirrors the full calculation. The generation of new atoms requires a careful treatment of the singular terms in the non-bonded interaction. The result can be represented by maps of the changed molecule, which indicate whether complex formation is favoured under movement of partial charges and change in atom polarizabilities. Comparison with experimental measurements of inhibition constants reveals fair agreement in the range of values covered. However, detailed comparison fails to show a significant correlation. Possible reasons for the most pronounced deviations are given.

  3. Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuthavong Yongyuth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistance amongst the human malaria Plasmodium species has most commonly been associated with genomic mutation within the parasites. This phenomenon necessitates evolutionary predictive studies of possible resistance mutations, which may occur when a new drug is introduced. Therefore, identification of possible new Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR mutants that confer resistance to antifolate drugs is essential in the process of antifolate anti-malarial drug development. Methods A system to identify mutations in Pfdhfr gene that confer antifolate drug resistance using an animal Plasmodium parasite model was developed. By using error-prone PCR and Plasmodium transfection technologies, libraries of Pfdhfr mutant were generated and then episomally transfected to Plasmodium berghei parasites, from which pyrimethamine-resistant PfDHFR mutants were selected. Results The principal mutation found from this experiment was S108N, coincident with the first pyrimethamine-resistance mutation isolated from the field. A transgenic P. berghei, in which endogenous Pbdhfr allele was replaced with the mutant PfdhfrS108N, was generated and confirmed to have normal growth rate comparing to parental non-transgenic parasite and also confer resistance to pyrimethamine. Conclusion This study demonstrated the power of the transgenic P. berghei system to predict drug-resistant Pfdhfr mutations in an in vivo parasite/host setting. The system could be utilized for identification of possible novel drug-resistant mutants that could arise against new antifolate compounds and for prediction the evolution of resistance mutations.

  4. Defining the Structural Basis for Allosteric Product Release from E. coli Dihydrofolate Reductase Using NMR Relaxation Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, David; Fenwick, R Bryn; Aoto, Phillip C; Stanfield, Robyn L; Wilson, Ian A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2017-08-16

    The rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase is tetrahydrofolate (THF) product release, which can occur via an allosteric or an intrinsic pathway. The allosteric pathway, which becomes accessible when the reduced cofactor NADPH is bound, involves transient sampling of a higher energy conformational state, greatly increasing the product dissociation rate as compared to the intrinsic pathway that obtains when NADPH is absent. Although the kinetics of this process are known, the enzyme structure and the THF product conformation in the transiently formed excited state remain elusive. Here, we use side-chain proton NMR relaxation dispersion measurements, X-ray crystallography, and structure-based chemical shift predictions to explore the structural basis of allosteric product release. In the excited state of the E:THF:NADPH product release complex, the reduced nicotinamide ring of the cofactor transiently enters the active site where it displaces the pterin ring of the THF product. The p-aminobenzoyl-l-glutamate tail of THF remains weakly bound in a widened binding cleft. Thus, through transient entry of the nicotinamide ring into the active site, the NADPH cofactor remodels the enzyme structure and the conformation of the THF to form a weakly populated excited state that is poised for rapid product release.

  5. Assessment of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnant Women by Estimation of Serum Levels of Tetrahydrofolic Acid, Dihydrofolate Reductase, and Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Naithani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Status of folic acid use in pregnant women of the hilly regions in North India was little known. This study was carried out to assess the folic acid use and estimate folate metabolites in pregnant women of this region. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional study is comprised of 76 pregnant women, whose folic acid supplementation was assessed by a questionnaire and serum levels of homocysteine, tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immunoassays. Results. The study data revealed awareness of folic acid use during pregnancy was present in 46.1% and 23.7% were taking folic acid supplements. The study depicted that there was no statistically significant difference between serum levels of THFA and DHFR in pregnant women with and without folic acid supplements (p=0.790. Hyperhomocysteinemia was present in 15.78% of the participants. Conclusion. Less awareness about folic acid supplementation and low use of folic acid by pregnant women were observed in this region. Sufficient dietary ingestion may suffice for the escalated requirements in pregnancy, but since this cannot be ensured, hence folic acid supplementation should be made as an integral part of education and reproductive health programs for its better metabolic use, growth, and development of fetus.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of interaction of ligands with Streptococcus faecium dihydrofolate reductase labeled with [#betta#-13C]tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Groff, J.P.; Cocco, L.; Blakley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Streptococcus faecium has been labeled with [#betta#- 13 C]tryptophan. We have determined changes occurring in the chemical shifts and line widths of the four resonances of the 13 C NMR spectrum of the labeled enzyme, due to its interaction with various ligands. These include the coenzyme, NPDPH and related nucleotides, folate and its polyglutamate derivatives, and many inhibitors including methotrexate and trimethoprim. In addition, paramagnetic relaxation effects produced by a bound spin-labeled analogue of 2'-phosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose on the tryptophan C/sup #betta#/ carbons have been measured. Distances calculated from the relaxation data have been compared with corresponding distances in the crystallographic model of the NADPH-methotrexate ternary complex of Lactobacillus casei reductase. The paramagnetic relaxation data indicate that the two downfield resonances (1 and 2) correspond to tryptophans (W/sub A/ and W/sub B/) that are more remote from the catalytic site, and from the crystallographic model these are seen to be Trp-115 and Trp-160. The upfield resonances (3 and 4) that show broadening due to chemical exchange correspond to closer residues (W/sub C/ and W/sub D/), and these are identified with Trp-6 and Trp-22. However, the relaxation data do not permit specific assignments within the nearer and farther pairs. Although resonance 3, which is split due to chemical exchange, was formerly assigned to Trp-6, data obtained for the enzyme in the presence of various ligands are better interpreted if resonance 3 is assigned to Trp-22, which is located on a loop that joins elements of secondary structure and forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity

  7. Halophilic mechanism of the enzymatic function of a moderately halophilic dihydrofolate reductase from Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Yurina; Ohmae, Eiji; Ikura, Teikichi; Nakasone, Kaoru; Katayanagi, Katsuo

    2017-05-01

    Dihydrofolate (DHF) reductase coded by a plasmid of the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica strain TR-1 (HjDHFR P1) shows moderate halophilicity on enzymatic activity at pH 6.0, although there is no significant effect of NaCl on its secondary structure. To elucidate the salt-activation and -inactivation mechanisms of this enzyme, we investigated the effects of pH and salt concentration, deuterium isotope effect, steady-state kinetics, and rapid-phase ligand-binding kinetics. Enzyme activity was increased eightfold by the addition of 500 mM NaCl at pH 6.0, fourfold by 250 mM at pH 8.0, and became independent of salt concentration at pH 10.0. Full isotope effects observed at pH 10.0 under 0-1000 mM NaCl indicated that the rate of hydride transfer, which was the rate-determining step at the basic pH region, was independent of salt concentration. Conversely, rapid-phase ligand-binding experiments showed that the amplitude of the DHF-binding reaction increased and the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-releasing rate decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. These results suggested that the salt-activation mechanism of HjDHFR P1 is via the population change of the anion-unbound and anion-bound conformers, which are binding-incompetent and -competent conformations for DHF, respectively, while that of salt inactivation is via deceleration of the THF-releasing rate, which is the rate-determining step at the neutral pH region.

  8. NMR studies of differences in the conformations and dynamics of ligand complexes formed with mutant dihydrofolate reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, B.; Andrews, J.; Ostler, G.; Tendler, S.J.B.; Feeney, J.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Davies, R.W.; Cheung, H.T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase, Trp 21 → Leu and Asp 26 → Glu, have been prepared by using site-directed mutagenesis methods, and their ligand binding and structural properties have been compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P NMR studies have been carried out to characterize the structural changes in the complexes of the mutant and wild-type enzymes. Replacement of the conserved Trp 21 by a Leu residue causes a decrease in activity of the enzyme and reduces the NADPH binding constant by a factor of 400. The binding of substrates and substrate analogues is only slightly affected. 1 H NMR studies of the Trp 21 → Leu enzyme complexes have confirmed the original resonance assignments for Trp 21. In complexes formed with methotrexate and the mutant enzyme, the results indicate some small changes in conformation occurring as much as 14 angstrom away from the site of substitution. For the enzyme-NADPH complexes, the chemical shifts of nuclei in the bound coenzyme indicate that the nicotinamide ring binds differently in complexes with the mutant and the wild-type enzyme. There are complexes where the wild-type enzyme has been shown to exist in solution as a mixture of conformations, and studies on the corresponding complexes with the Trp 21 → Leu mutant indicate that the delicately poised equilibria can be perturbed. Some conformational adjustments are required to allow the carboxylate of Glu 26 to bind effectively to the N1 proton of inhibitors such as methotrexate and trimethoprim

  9. Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug-resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matange, Nishad; Bodkhe, Swapnil; Patel, Maitri; Shah, Pooja

    2018-06-05

    Structural stability is a major constraint on the evolution of protein sequences. However, under strong directional selection, mutations that confer novel phenotypes but compromise structural stability of proteins may be permissible. During the evolution of antibiotic resistance, mutations that confer drug resistance often have pleiotropic effects on the structure and function of antibiotic-target proteins, usually essential metabolic enzymes. In this study, we show that trimethoprim-resistant alleles of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR) harbouring the Trp30Gly, Trp30Arg or Trp30Cys mutations are significantly less stable than the wild type making them prone to aggregation and proteolysis. This destabilization is associated with lower expression level resulting in a fitness cost and negative epistasis with other TMP-resistant mutations in EcDHFR. Using structure-based mutational analysis we show that perturbation of critical stabilizing hydrophobic interactions in wild type EcDHFR enzyme explains the phenotypes of Trp30 mutants. Surprisingly, though crucial for the stability of EcDHFR, significant sequence variation is found at this site among bacterial DHFRs. Mutational and computational analyses in EcDHFR as well as in DHFR enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrate that natural variation at this site and its interacting hydrophobic residues, modulates TMP-resistance in other bacterial DHFRs as well, and may explain the different susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens to trimethoprim. Our study demonstrates that trade-offs between structural stability and function can influence innate drug resistance as well as the potential for mutationally acquired drug resistance of an enzyme. ©2018 The Author(s).

  10. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 1. Photoaffinity labeling of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase and amino acid sequence of the binding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.M.; Smith, P.L.; Klein, T.E.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    N/sup α/-(4-Amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroyl)-N/sup epsilon/-(4-azido-5-[ 125 I]iodosalicylyl)-L-lysine, a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate, is only 2-fold less potent than methotrexate in the inhibition of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase. Irradiation of the enzyme in the presence of an equimolar concentration of the 125 I-labeled analogue ultimately leads to an 8% incorporation of the photoprobe. A 100-fold molar excess of methotrexate essentially blocks this incorporation. Cyanogen bromide digestion of the labeled enzyme, followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography purification of the generated peptides, indicates that greater than 85% of the total radioactivity is incorporated into a single cyanogen bromide peptide. Sequence analysis revealed this peptide to be residues 53-111, with a majority of the radioactivity centered around residues 63-65 (Lys-Asn-Arg). These data demonstrate that the photoaffinity analogue specifically binds to dihydrofolate reductase and covalently modifies the enzyme following irradiation and is therefore a photolabeling agent useful for probing the inhibitor binding domain of the enzyme

  11. Imaging of dihydrofolate reductase fusion gene expression in xenografts of human liver metastases of colorectal cancer in living rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Bertino, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Debabrata [Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School/UMDNJ, 195 Little Albany Street, NJ 08903, New Brunswick (United States); Doubrovin, Mikhail; Blasberg, Ronald; Tjuvajev, Juri Gelovani [Department of Neurooncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gusani, Niraj J.; Fong, Yuman [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Gade, Terence; Koutcher, Jason A. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Balatoni, Julius; Finn, Ronald [Radiochemistry/Cyclotron Core Facility, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Akhurst, Tim; Larson, Steven [Nuclear Medicine Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Radionuclide imaging has been demonstrated to be feasible to monitor transgene expression in vivo. We hypothesized that a potential application of this technique is to non-invasively detect in deep tissue, such as cancer cells metastatic to the liver, a specific molecular response following systemic drug treatment. Utilizing human colon adenocarcinoma cells derived from a patient's liver lesion we first developed a nude rat xenograft model for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Expression of a dihydrofolate reductase-herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase fusion (DHFR-HSV1 TK) transgene in the hepatic tumors was monitored in individual animals using the tracer [{sup 124}I]2'-fluoro-2'-deoxy-5-iodouracil-{beta}-d-arabinofuranoside (FIAU) and a small animal micro positron emission tomograph (microPET), while groups of rats were imaged using the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a clinical gamma camera. Growth of the human metastatic colorectal cancer cells in the rat liver was detected using magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed by surgical inspection. Single as well as multiple lesions of different sizes and sites were observed in the liver of the animals. Next, using a subset of rats bearing hepatic tumors, which were retrovirally bulk transduced to express the DHFR-HSV1 TK transgene, we imaged the fusion protein expression in the hepatic tumor of living rats using the tracer [{sup 124}I]FIAU and a microPET. The observed deep tissue signals were highly specific for the tumors expressing the DHFR-HSV1 TK fusion protein compared with parental untransduced tumors and other tissues as determined by gamma counting of tissue samples. A subsequent study used the tracer [{sup 131}I]FIAU and a gamma camera to monitor two groups of transduced hepatic tumor-bearing rats. Prior to imaging, one group was treated with trimetrexate to exploit DHFR-mediated upregulation of the fusion gene product. Imaging in the living animal as well as subsequent gamma

  12. Direct 19F NMR observation of the conformational selection of optically active rotamers of the antifolate compound fluoronitropyrimethamine bound to enzyme dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, S.J.B.; Birdsall, B.; Feeney, J.; Griffin, R.J.; Stevens, M.F.G.; Roberts, G.C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The molucular basis of the binding of the lipophilic antifolate compound fluoronitropyrimethamine to its target enzyme dihydrofolate reductase has been investigated using a combination of 19 F NMR spectroscopy and molecular mechanical calculations 19 F NMR reveals the presence of two different conformational states for the fluoronitropyrimethamine-Lactobacillus casei enzyme complex. MM2 molecular mechanical calculations predict restricted rotation about the C5-C1 bond of the ligand and this give rise to two slowly interconverting rotamers which are an enantiomeric pair. The results of 19 F NMR spectroscopy reveal that both these isomers bind to the enzyme, with different affinities. There is no detectable interconversion of the bound rotamers themselves on the NMR timescale. The effect of the addition of co-enzyme to the sample is to reverse the preference the enzyme has for each rotamer. (author). 11 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Protein dynamics and stability: The distribution of atomic fluctuations in thermophilic and mesophilic dihydrofolate reductase derived using elastic incoherent neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, Lars; Clement, David; Tehei, M.; Daniel, R.M.; Finney, J.L.; Smith, Jeremy C.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the dynamics of mesophilic and thermophilic dihydrofolate reductase is examined using elastic incoherent neutron scattering. It is demonstrated that the distribution of atomic displacement amplitudes can be derived from the elastic scattering data by assuming a (Weibull) functional form that resembles distributions seen in molecular dynamics simulations. The thermophilic enzyme has a significantly broader distribution than its mesophilic counterpart. Furthermore, although the rate of increase with temperature of the atomic mean-square displacements extracted from the dynamic structure factor is found to be comparable for both enzymes, the amplitudes are found to be slightly larger for the thermophilic enzyme. Therefore, these results imply that the thermophilic enzyme is the more flexible of the two

  14. Structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase of Trypanosoma cruzi in the folate-free state and in complex with two antifolate drugs, trimetrexate and methotrexate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senkovich, Olga; Schormann, Norbert; Chattopadhyay, Debasish; (UAB)

    2010-11-22

    The flagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the pathogenic agent of Chagas disease (also called American trypanosomiasis), which causes approximately 50 000 deaths annually. The disease is endemic in South and Central America. The parasite is usually transmitted by a blood-feeding insect vector, but can also be transmitted via blood transfusion. In the chronic form, Chagas disease causes severe damage to the heart and other organs. There is no satisfactory treatment for chronic Chagas disease and no vaccine is available. There is an urgent need for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of T. cruzi infection and therefore for the identification of potential drug targets. The dihydrofolate reductase activity of T. cruzi, which is expressed as part of a bifunctional enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS), is a potential target for drug development. In order to gain a detailed understanding of the structure-function relationship of T. cruzi DHFR, the three-dimensional structure of this protein in complex with various ligands is being studied. Here, the crystal structures of T. cruzi DHFR-TS with three different compositions of the DHFR domain are reported: the folate-free state, the complex with the lipophilic antifolate trimetrexate (TMQ) and the complex with the classical antifolate methotrexate (MTX). These structures reveal that the enzyme is a homodimer with substantial interactions between the two TS domains of neighboring subunits. In contrast to the enzymes from Cryptosporidium hominis and Plasmodium falciparum, the DHFR and TS active sites of T. cruzi lie on the same side of the monomer. As in other parasitic DHFR-TS proteins, the N-terminal extension of the T. cruzi enzyme is involved in extensive interactions between the two domains. The DHFR active site of the T. cruzi enzyme shows subtle differences compared with its human counterpart. These differences may be exploited for the development of

  15. In Silico Screening, Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Some Quinazolinone and Pyridine Derivatives as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors for Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Nerkar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR is the important target for anticancer drugs belonging to the class of antimetabolites as the enzyme plays important role in the de novo purine synthesis. We here report the in silico screening to obtain best fit molecules as DHFR inhibitors, synthesis of some ʻbest fitʼ quinazolinone from 2-phenyl-3-(substituted-benzilidine-amino quinazolinones (Quinazolinone Shiff's bases QSB1-5 and pyridine-4-carbohydrazide Shiff's bases (ISB1-5 derivatives and their in vitro anticancer assay. Synthesis of the molecules was performed using microwave assisted synthesis. The structures of these molecules were elucidated by IR and 1H-NMR. These compounds were then subjected for in vitro anticancer evaluation against five human cancer cell-lines for anticancer cyto-toxicity assay. Methotrexate (MTX was used as standard for this evaluation to give a comparable inhibition of the cell proliferation by DHFR inhibition. Placlitaxel, adriamycin and 5-fluoro-uracil were also used as standard to give a comparable activity of these compounds with other mechanism of anticancer activity. ISB3 (4-(N, N-dimethyl-amino-phenyl Schiff''s base derivative of pyridine carbohydrazide showed equipotent activity with the standards used in in vitro anticancer assay as per the NCI (National Cancer Institute guidelines.

  16. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  17. Design, Synthesis, and X-ray Crystal Structures of 2,4-Diaminofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines as Multireceptor Tyrosine Kinase and Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangjee, Aleem; Li, Wei; Lin, Lu; Zeng, Yibin; Ihnat, Michael; Warnke, Linda A.; Green, Dixy W.; Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Queener, Sherry F.

    2009-01-01

    To optimize dual receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibition, the E- and Z-isomers of 5-[2-(2-methoxyphenyl)prop-1-en-1-yl]furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4-diamines (1a and 1b) were separated by HPLC and the X-ray crystal structures (2.0 Å and 1.4 Å respectively) with mouse DHFR and NADPH as well as 1b with human DHFR (1.5 Å) were determined. The E- and Z-isomers adopt different binding modes when bound to mouse DHFR. A series of 2,4-diaminofuro[2,3-d]pyrimidines 2–13 were designed and synthesized using the X-ray crystal structures of 1a and 1b with DHFR to increase their DHFR inhibitory activity. Wittig reactions of appropriate 2-methoxyphenyl ketones with 2,4-diamino-6-chloromethyl furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine afforded the C8–C9 unsaturated compounds 2–7 and catalytic reduction gave the saturated 8–13. Homologation of the C9-methyl analog maintains DHFR inhibitory activity. In addition, inhibition of EGFR and PDGFR-β were discovered for saturated C9-homologated analogs 9 and 10 that were absent in the saturated C9-methyl analogs. PMID:19748785

  18. Fragment-based design of symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles as selective inhibitors of the trimethoprim-resistant, type II R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Dominic; Ebert, Maximilian C C J C; Forge, Delphine; Toulouse, Jacynthe; Kadnikova, Natalia; Perron, Florent; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2012-04-12

    The continuously increasing use of trimethoprim as a common antibiotic for medical use and for prophylactic application in terrestrial and aquatic animal farming has increased its prevalence in the environment. This has been accompanied by increased drug resistance, generally in the form of alterations in the drug target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The most highly resistant variants of DHFR are known as type II DHFR, among which R67 DHFR is the most broadly studied variant. We report the first attempt at designing specific inhibitors to this emerging drug target by fragment-based design. The detection of inhibition in R67 DHFR was accompanied by parallel monitoring of the human DHFR, as an assessment of compound selectivity. By those means, small aromatic molecules of 150-250 g/mol (fragments) inhibiting R67 DHFR selectively in the low millimolar range were identified. More complex, symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles and a bis-carboxyphenyl were then assayed as fragment-based leads, which procured selective inhibition of the target in the low micromolar range (K(i) = 2-4 μM). The putative mode of inhibition is discussed according to molecular modeling supported by in vitro tests. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. Site-specific bioconjugation of a murine dihydrofolate reductase enzyme by copper(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition with retained activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung In Lim

    Full Text Available Cu(I-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC is an efficient reaction linking an azido and an alkynyl group in the presence of copper catalyst. Incorporation of a non-natural amino acid (NAA containing either an azido or an alkynyl group into a protein allows site-specific bioconjugation in mild conditions via CuAAC. Despite its great potential, bioconjugation of an enzyme has been hampered by several issues including low yield, poor solubility of a ligand, and protein structural/functional perturbation by CuAAC components. In the present study, we incorporated an alkyne-bearing NAA into an enzyme, murine dihydrofolate reductase (mDHFR, in high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli, and performed CuAAC conjugation with fluorescent azide dyes to evaluate enzyme compatibility of various CuAAC conditions comprising combination of commercially available Cu(I-chelating ligands and reductants. The condensed culture improves the protein yield 19-fold based on the same amount of non-natural amino acid, and the enzyme incubation under the optimized reaction condition did not lead to any activity loss but allowed a fast and high-yield bioconjugation. Using the established conditions, a biotin-azide spacer was efficiently conjugated to mDHFR with retained activity leading to the site-specific immobilization of the biotin-conjugated mDHFR on a streptavidin-coated plate. These results demonstrate that the combination of reactive non-natural amino acid incorporation and the optimized CuAAC can be used to bioconjugate enzymes with retained enzymatic activity.

  20. Structural comparison of complexes of methotrexate analogues with Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase by two-dimensional 1H NMR at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, S.J.; Birdsall, B.; Feeney, J.; Searle, M.S.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Cheung, H.T.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods to examine complexes of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase and methotrexate (MTX) analogues having structural modifications of the benzoyl ring and also the glutamic acid moiety. Assignments of the 1 H signals in the spectra of the various complexes were made by comparison of their 2D spectra with those complexes containing methotrexate where we have previously assigned resonances from 32 of the 162 amino acid residues. In the complexes formed with the dihalomethotrexate analogues, the glutamic acid and pteridine ring moieties were shown to bind to the enzyme in a manner similar to that found in the methotrexate-enzyme complex. Perturbations in 1 H chemical shifts of protons in Phe-49, Leu-54, and Leu-27 and the methotrexate H7 and NMe protons were observed in the different complexes and were accounted for by changes in orientation of the benzoyl ring in the various complexes. Binding of oxidized or reduced coenzyme to the binary complexes did not result in different shifts for Leu-27, Leu-54, or Leu-19 protons, and thus, the orientation of the benzoyl ring of the methotrexate analogues is not perturbed greatly by the presence of either oxidized or reduced coenzyme. In the complex with the γ-monoamide analog, the 1 H signals of assigned residues in the protein had almost identical shifts with the corresponding protons in the methotrexate-enzyme complex for all residues except His-28 and, to a lesser extent, Leu-27. This indicates that while the His-28 interaction with the MTX γ-CO 2 - is no longer present in this complex with the γ-amide, there has not been a major change in the overall structure of the two complexes. This behavior contrasts to that of the α-amide complex where 1 H signals from protons in several amino acid residues are different compared with their values in the complex formed with methotrexate

  1. A simple, high-throughput method to detect Plasmodium falciparum single nucleotide polymorphisms in the dihydrofolate reductase, dihydropteroate synthase, and P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter genes using polymerase chain reaction- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Enosse, Sonia; Pearce, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps), and chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) genes are used as molecular markers of P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine....... However, to be a practical tool in the surveillance of drug resistance, simpler methods for high-throughput haplotyping are warranted. Here we describe a quick and simple technique that detects dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  2. Frequencies distribution of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase mutant alleles associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum population from Hadhramout Governorate, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-12-22

    Malaria in Yemen is mainly caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 25% of the population is at high risk. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) had been used as monotherapy against P. falciparum. Emergence of chloroquine resistance led to the shift in anti-malarial treatment policy in Yemen to artemisinin-based combination therapy, that is artesunate (AS) plus SP as first-line therapy for uncomplicated malaria and artemether-lumefantrine as second-line treatment. This study aimed to screen mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) genes associated with SP resistance among P. falciparum population in Hadhramout governorate, Yemen. Genomic DNA was extracted from dried blood spots of 137 P. falciparum isolates collected from a community-based study. DNA was amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Sequences were analysed for mutations in Pfdhfr gene codons 51, 59, 108, and 164 and in Pfdhps gene codons 436, 437, and 540. A total of 128 and 114 P. falciparum isolates were successfully sequenced for Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes, respectively. Each Pfdhfr mutant allele (I51 and N108) in P. falciparum population had a frequency of 84%. Pfdhfr R59 mutant allele was detected in one isolate. Mutation at codon 437 (G437) in the Pfdhps gene was detected in 44.7% of falciparum malaria isolates. Frequencies of Pfdhfr double mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps triple mutant genotype (I51C59N108I164-S436G437K540) were 82.8 and 39.3%, respectively. One isolate harboured Pfdhfr triple mutant genotype (I51, R59, N108, I164) and Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quadruple mutant genotype (I51R59N108I164-S436G437K540). High frequencies of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutant alleles and genotypes in P. falciparum population in Hadhramout, Yemen, highlight the risk of developing resistance for SP, the partner drug of AS, which subsequently will expose the parasite to AS monotherapy increasing then the

  3. Ebselen and analogs as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis thioredoxin reductase and bactericidal antibacterials targeting Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Tomas N; Osman, Harer; Werngren, Jim; Hoffner, Sven; Engman, Lars; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease associated with a very high mortality rate in its invasive forms. We studied a number of ebselen analogs as inhibitors of B. anthracis thioredoxin reductase and their antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most potent compounds in the series gave IC(50) values down to 70 nM for the pure enzyme and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) down to 0.4 μM (0.12 μg/ml) for B. subtilis, 1.5 μM (0.64 μg/ml) for S. aureus, 2 μM (0.86 μg/ml) for B. cereus and 10 μg/ml for M. tuberculosis. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were found at 1-1.5 times the MIC, indicating a general, class-dependent, bactericidal mode of action. The combined bacteriological and enzymological data were used to construct a preliminary structure-activity-relationship for the benzoisoselenazol class of compounds. When S. aureus and B. subtilis were exposed to ebselen, we were unable to isolate resistant mutants on both solid and in liquid medium suggesting a high resistance barrier. These results suggest that ebselen and analogs thereof could be developed into a novel antibiotic class, useful for the treatment of infections caused by B. anthracis, S. aureus, M. tuberculosis and other clinically important bacteria. Furthermore, the high barrier against resistance development is encouraging for further drug development. We have characterized the thioredoxin system from B. anthracis as a novel drug target and ebselen and analogs thereof as a potential new class of antibiotics targeting several important human pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Mutations in Dihydrofolate Reductase DfrA (Rv2763c) and Thymidylate Synthase ThyA (Rv2764c) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Koser, C. U.

    2010-09-17

    We would like to comment on a number of recent reports in this journal (6, 8, 12, 18) concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), encoded by dfrA (Rv2763c). Around 36% of phenotypically para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS)-resistant M. tuberculosis strains harbor mutations in thyA (Rv2764c), which encodes a thymidylate synthase (20). In their effort to elucidate the remaining unknown resistance mechanism(s), Mathys et al. extended their sequence analysis to a number of additional genes, including dfrA (12). It was unclear whether the three dfrA mutations they identified in the PAS-resistant strains P-693 and P-3158 could contribute to PAS resistance on their own. Nonetheless, these findings are notable for two reasons. First, isoniazid (INH) has been shown to inhibit M. tuberculosis DHFR in vitro (1). Whether the same holds true for ethionamide, which shares a number of common resistance mechanisms with INH, was not tested (J. Blanchard, personal communication). In any case, the clinical relevance of DHFR-mediated INH resistance remains enigmatic. To date, only Ho et al. have addressed this question, but they did not identify any dfrA mutations in a screen of 127 INH-resistant clinical isolates (8). Consequently, Mathys et al. remain the first to describe mutations in this target (12). However, given that isolates with mutated DHFR are members of a cluster with baseline INH resistance, the importance of these mutations with respect to INH resistance remains unclear. Irrespective of their relevance in INH resistance, these dfrA mutations are noteworthy for a second reason. Contrary to previous wisdom, Forgacs et al. recently showed that M. tuberculosis is sensitive to the drug combination trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) (6, 18). DHFR is competitively inhibited by TMP, and consequently, mutations therein lead to resistance in a variety of organisms (9, 16, 19). The crystal structures of the wild-type M. tuberculosis DHFR in complex with

  5. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXX. sequence analysis of Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthase resistance markers in clinical isolates from children treated with an artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menemedengue, Virginie; Sahnouni, Khalifa; Basco, Leonardo; Tahar, Rachida

    2011-07-01

    Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes are reliable molecular markers for antifolate resistance. The P. falciparum ATPase 6 (pfatp6) gene has been proposed to be a potential marker for artemisinin resistance. In our previous clinical study, we showed that artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is highly effective against uncomplicated malaria in Yaoundé, Cameroon. In the present study, dhfr, dhps, and pfatp6 mutations in P. falciparum isolates obtained from children treated with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine were determined. All 61 isolates had wild-type Pfatp6 263, 623, and 769 alleles, and 11 (18%) had a single E431K substitution. Three additional mutations, E643Q, E432K, and E641Q, were detected. The results did not indicate any warning signal of serious concern (i.e., no parasites were seen with quintuple dhfr-dhps, DHFR Ile164Leu, or pfatp6 mutations), as confirmed by the high clinical efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Further studies are required to identify a molecular marker that reliably predicts artemisinin resistance.

  6. Bioinformatic analysis of dihydrofolate reductase predicted in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    TASSER was used to predict the 3-D model structure of the protein and potential active binding site residues. ..... co-ordinate file model in PDB format was visualized with Jmol molecular .... evolutionary preservation of the protein dynamics to.

  7. Bioinformatic analysis of dihydrofolate reductase predicted in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologic studies of Lactobacillus species show that some species cannot synthesize folate de novo, which is required for growth. Folate plays a critical role in regulating the amount of tetrahydrofolate in the cell that is utilized for DNA replication, and proliferation of the erythropoietic system. We recently sequenced the ...

  8. Decontamination of Soil Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This technical summary will provide decontamination personnel rapid access to information on which decontamination approaches are most effective for soils contaminated with B anthracis.

  9. Purification and properties of the dihydrofolate synthetase from Serratia indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masamichi; Iwai, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The dihydrofolate synthetase (EC6.3.2.12) responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from dihydropteroic acid and L-glutamic acid was purified about 130-fold from extracts of Serratia indica IFO 3759 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme preparation obtained was shown to be homogeneous by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and ultracentrifugal analysis. The sedimentation coefficient of this enzyme was 3.9 S, and the molecular weight was determined to be about 47,000 by Sephadex G-100. The optimum pH for the reaction was 9.0. The enzymatic reaction required dihydropteroate, L-glutamate and ATP as substrates, and Mg 2+ and K + as cofactors. γ-L-Glutamyl-L-glutamic acid cannot replace L-glutamic acid as the substrate. Neither pteroic acid nor tetrahydropteroic acid can be used as the substrate. ATP was partially replaced by ITP or GTP. The enzyme reaction was inhibited by the addition of ADP, but not by AMP. One mole of dihydrofolate, 1 mole of ADP and 1 mole of orthophosphate were produced from each 1 mole of dihydropteroic acid, L-glutamic acid, and ATP. These results suggest that the systematic name for the dihydrofolate synthetase is 7,8-dihydropteroate: L-glutamate ligase (ADP). (auth.)

  10. Characterization of 21 Strains of Bacillus Anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of Bacillus anthracis currently held in the culture collection at DRES were characterized by colonial morphology, antibiotic sensitivity and BiologTM metabolic identification profiles...

  11. Homology building as a means to define antigenic epitopes on dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Christensen, Inge T; Jørgensen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    in the gene coding for Pf-DHFR. Furthermore, we wanted to study the potential use of homology models in general and of Pf-DHFR in particular in predicting antigenic malarial surface epitopes. METHODS: A homology model of Pf-DHFR domain was employed to define an epitope for the development of site...

  12. Dihydrofolate reductase amplification and sensitization to methotrexate of methotrexate-resistant colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Torres, Christina; García, Maria J; Ribas, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gene amplification is one of the most frequent manifestations of genomic instability in human tumors and plays an important role in tumor progression and acquisition of drug resistance. To better understand the factors involved in acquired resistance to cytotoxic drugs via gene amplification, we ...

  13. Identification of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors through rational drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mymoona Akhter

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Structure based drug design can be used as an effective tool for the design of new cheiocal entity. Number of novel agents have been identified as antitubercular agents whose mechanism of action needs to be ascertained.

  14. Prevalence of Dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolate from pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparumisolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who have been exposed to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine. Thick and thin blood films and PCR were used for malaria parasite detection. Blood group and hemoglobin concentration were also determined. Mutations in P. falciparum dhfr were analyzed by sequencing DNA obtained from blood spots on filter paper. Prevalence of P. falciparum in the population (PCR corrected was 44.1% (79/179 with 66.7% and 33.3% in the second and third trimester, respectively. Primigravide (51.3% were more infected than multigravide (48.7% but the difference was not statistically significant. Women in blood group A had the highest P. falciparum malaria infection (30.8%. The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower among those infected with malaria parasite. Also, more women with the malaria parasite (38.4% had anemia compare to those without (21.4%. The prevalence of the P. falciparum dhfr mutant alleles was 64.1%, 61.5%, 38.5%, and 12.8% for I51, R59, N108 and T108, respectively. None of the samples had the L164 mutation. The combined triple dhfr mutation (51 + 59 + 108 in the population was 17.9% (7 of 39. Also, the prevalence of the triple mutant alleles was not significantly associated to the number of doses of SP taken by the women. These findings highlight the need for a regular assessment of IPTp/SP efficacy, and evaluation of possible alternative drugs.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the thermal inactivation and chaperone assisted folding of zebrafish dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Charu; Jain, Neha; Rashid, Naira; Chaudhuri Chattopadhyay, Pratima

    2018-01-01

    The maintenance of thermal stability is a major issue in protein engineering as many proteins tend to form inactive aggregates at higher temperatures. Zebrafish DHFR, an essential protein for the survival of cells, shows irreversible thermal unfolding transition. The protein exhibits complete unfolding and loss of activity at 50 °C as monitored by UV-Visible, fluorescence and far UV-CD spectroscopy. The heat induced inactivation of zDHFR follows first-order kinetics and Arrhenius law. The variation in the value of inactivation rate constant, k with increasing temperatures depicts faster inactivation at elevated temperatures. We have attempted to study the chaperoning ability of a shorter variant of GroEL (minichaperone) and compared it with that of conventional GroEL-GroES chaperone system. Both the chaperone system prevented the aggregation and assisted in refolding of zDHFR. The rate of thermal inactivation was significantly retarded in the presence of chaperones which indicate that it enhances the thermal stability of the enzyme. As minichaperone is less complex, and does not require high energy co-factors like ATP, for its function as compared to conventional GroEL-GroES system, it can act as a very good in vitro as well as in vivo chaperone model for monitoring assisted protein folding phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    future predictive modeling toolkits. 1 1. Introduction The use of Bacillus anthracis as a bio - weapon in the United States in 2001 affirmed the need...for improved sensing and detection of biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Protective Antigen (PA) protein of Bacillus anthracis is the...Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis by Deborah A. Sarkes, Joshua M. Kogot, Irene Val-Addo

  17. Identification of Proteins in the Exosporium of Bacillus Anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redmond, Caroline; Baillie, Leslie W. J; Hibbs, Stephen; Moir, Arthur J. G; Moir, Anne

    2004-01-01

    .... The protein profiles of SDS-PAGE-separated exosporium extracts were similar for all three. This suggests that avirulent variants lacking either or both plasmids are realistic models for studying the exosporium from spores of B. anthracis...

  18. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  19. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mohamadi, Sakineh; Moradi Bidhendi, Soheila; Tadayon, Keyvan; Ghaderi, Rainak

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Some level of diversity. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine. This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping. In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A.Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.

  20. Functional Comparison of the Two Bacillus anthracis Glutamate Racemases▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Dylan; Reese, Joseph G.; Louer, Craig R.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Spies, M. Ashley; Blanke, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate racemase activity in Bacillus anthracis is of significant interest with respect to chemotherapeutic drug design, because l-glutamate stereoisomerization to d-glutamate is predicted to be closely associated with peptidoglycan and capsule biosynthesis, which are important for growth and virulence, respectively. In contrast to most bacteria, which harbor a single glutamate racemase gene, the genomic sequence of B. anthracis predicts two genes encoding glutamate racemases, racE1 and rac...

  1. Bacillus Collagen Like Protein of Anthracis: Immunological and Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-21

    factors such as heat, radiation, desiccation, pH extremes, and toxic chemicals (87). Cultivation of B. anthracis can be accomplished on non...obtained from the Naval Medical Research Center. B. anthracis was induced to sporulate on Leighton-Doi Medium (LD) (75). The broth was inoculated with an...heated at 65°C for 30 minutes, diluted, and plated on trypticase soy agar ( TSA ) to obtain viable counts. Since heat treatment kills the vegetative

  2. Differences in Susceptibility of Inbred Mice to Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-26

    dilutions of the mixture were prepared and injected into A/J and CBA/J mice via the tail vein, as described by Ezzell et al. (9). Five mice per strain were...xylazine (Rompun, Miles Laboratories, Shawnee, Kansas) in 50 pl, and were dissected iwnmediately. Gross pathological changes were noted, heart blood and...anthracis; a histopathological study of skin lesions produced by B. anthracis in susceptible and resistant animal species. J. Infect. Dis. 80:1-13. 9. Ezzell

  3. The crystal structure of the bifunctional deaminase/reductase RibD of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli: implications for the reductive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Pål; Moche, Martin; Gurmu, Daniel; Nordlund, Pär

    2007-10-12

    We have determined the crystal structure of the bi-functional deaminase/reductase enzyme from Escherichia coli (EcRibD) that catalyzes two consecutive reactions during riboflavin biosynthesis. The polypeptide chain of EcRibD is folded into two domains where the 3D structure of the N-terminal domain (1-145) is similar to cytosine deaminase and the C-terminal domain (146-367) is similar to dihydrofolate reductase. We showed that EcRibD is dimeric and compared our structure to tetrameric RibG, an ortholog from Bacillus subtilis (BsRibG). We have also determined the structure of EcRibD in two binary complexes with the oxidized cofactor (NADP(+)) and with the substrate analogue ribose-5-phosphate (RP5) and superposed these two in order to mimic the ternary complex. Based on this superposition we propose that the invariant Asp200 initiates the reductive reaction by abstracting a proton from the bound substrate and that the pro-R proton from C4 of the cofactor is transferred to C1 of the substrate. A highly flexible loop is found in the reductase active site (159-173) that appears to control cofactor and substrate binding to the reductase active site and was therefore compared to the corresponding Met20 loop of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (EcDHFR). Lys152, identified by comparing substrate analogue (RP5) coordination in the reductase active site of EcRibD with the homologous reductase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (MjaRED), is invariant among bacterial RibD enzymes and could contribute to the various pathways taken during riboflavin biosynthesis in bacteria and yeast.

  4. An inverted repeat motif stabilizes binding of E2F and enhances transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, M; Blake, M C; Jambou, R C

    1995-01-01

    consensus E2F site, significantly decrease the binding stability of all of the forms of E2F tested. The rate of association of E2F-1/DP-1 heterodimers with the inverted repeat wild type site was not significantly different from those with the two single site mutated probes. Furthermore, the mutations...

  5. Prognostic significance of numeric aberrations of genes for thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase and dihydrofolate reductase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Astrup; Vainer, B.; Witton, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    ) in colorectal cancer, and to evaluate its prognostic significance following adjuvant chemotherapy, since these enzymes are closely related to efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients (n = 314), who were completely resected for colorectal cancer stages II-IV and adjuvantly...

  6. The implication of dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase gene mutations in modification of Plasmodium falciparum characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A-Elbasit, Ishraga E; Alifrangis, Michael; Khalil, Insaf F

    2007-01-01

    the effects of dhfr/dhps mutations on parasite characteristics other than SP resistance. METHOD: Parasite infections obtained from 153 Sudanese patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with SP or SP + chloroquine, were successfully genotyped at nine codons in the dhfr/dhps genes by PCR...... grades: wild-types (grade 0; frequency, 0.03) and infections with MOM grades of 1 to 5, with the following cumulative frequency; 0.97, 0.931, 0.866, 0.719, 0.121, respectively. There was no significant association between the MOM and SP response. Importantly, immunity, using age as a surrogate marker...

  7. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict

  9. Alleged B. anthracis exposure claims in a workers' compensation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Gregory; Dunning, Kari; Lockey, James E

    2006-01-01

    Workers' compensation insurance in some states may not provide coverage for medical evaluation costs of workplace exposures related to potential bioterrorism acts if there is no diagnosed illness or disease. Personal insurance also may not provide coverage for these exposures occurring at the workplace. Governmental entities, insurers, and employers need to consider how to address such situations and the associated costs. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics of workers and total costs associated with workers' compensation claims alleging potential exposure to the bioterrorism organism B. anthracis. We examined 192 claims referred for review to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) from October 10, 2001, through December 20, 2004. Although some cases came from out-of-state areas where B. anthracis exposure was known to exist, no Ohio claim was associated with true B. anthracis exposure or B. anthracis-related illness. Of the 155 eligible claims, 126 included medical costs averaging dollar 219 and ranging from dollar 24 to dollar 3,126. There was no difference in mean cost for government and non-government employees (p = 0.202 Wilcoxon). The number of claims and associated medical costs for evaluation and treatment of potential workplace exposure to B. anthracis were relatively small. These results can be attributed to several factors, including no documented B. anthracis exposures and disease in Ohio and prompt transmission of recommended diagnostic and prophylactic treatment protocols to physicians. How employers, insurers, and jurisdictions address payment for evaluation and treatment of potential or documented exposures resulting from a potential terrorism-related event should be addressed proactively.

  10. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) site in Bacillus anthracis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqi; Wang, Dongshu; Feng, Erling; Wang, Bingxiang; Hui, Yiming; Han, Shaobo; Jiao, Lei; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Hengliang

    2014-11-04

    To investigate the polymorphism of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in Bacillu santhracis and the application to molecular typing based on the polymorphism of CRISPR in B. anthracis. We downloaded the whole genome sequence of 6 B. anthracis strains and extracted the CRISPR sites. We designed the primers of CRISPR sites and amplified the CRISPR fragments in 193 B. anthracis strains by PCR and sequenced these fragments. In order to reveal the polymorphism of CRISPR in B. anthracis, wealigned all the extracted sequences and sequenced results by local blasting. At the same time, we also analyzed the CRISPR sites in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We did not find any polymorphism of CRISPR in B. anthracis. The molecular typing approach based on CRISPR polymorphism is not suitable for B. anthracis, but it is possible for us to distinguish B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis.

  11. Crystallographic Analysis Reveals a Novel Second Binding Site for Trimethoprim in Active Site Double Mutants of Human Dihydrofolate Reductase†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Vivian; Pace, Jim; Piraino, Jennifer; Queener, Sherry F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce a more potent replacement for trimethoprim (TMP) used as a therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia and targets dihydrofolate reductase from Pneumocystis jirovecii (pjDHFR), it is necessary to understand the determinants of potency and selectivity against DHFR from the mammalian host and fungal pathogen cells. To this end, active site residues in human (h)DHFR were replaced with those from pjDHFR. Structural data are reported for two complexes of TMP with the double mutants Gln35Ser/Asn64Phe (Q35S/N64F) and Gln35Lys/Asn64Phe (Q35K/N64F) of hDHFR that unexpectedly show evidence for the binding of two molecules of TMP: one molecule that binds in the normal folate binding site and the second molecule that binds in a novel subpocket site such that the mutated residue Phe64 is involved in van der Waals contacts to the trimethoxyphenyl ring of the second TMP molecule. Kinetic data for the binding of TMP to hDHFR and pjDHFR reveal an 84-fold selectivity of TMP against pjDHFR (Ki 49 nM) compared to hDHFR (Ki 4093 nM). Two mutants that contain one substitution from pj- and one from the closely related Pneumocystis carinii DHFR (pcDHFR) (Q35K/N64F and Q35S/N64F) show Ki values of 593 and 617 nM, respectively; these Ki values are well above both the Ki for pjDHFR and are similar to pcDHFR (Q35K/N64F) and Q35S/N64F) (305 nM). These results suggest that active site residues 35 and 64 play key roles in determining selectivity for pneumocystis DHFR, but that other residues contribute to the unique binding of inhibitors to these enzymes. PMID:21684339

  12. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  13. Literature Review of DNA-Based Subspecies Analysis of Bacillus Anthracis Burkholderia Pseudomallel Burkholderia Mallei, and Yersinia Pestis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Steven

    1999-01-01

    ...; Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia mallei, and Yersinia pestis. Considerable research has been accomplished for the identification of polymorphisms from the strains B. anthracis and B. pseudomallei. The B...

  14. Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Nick M.; Jackson, Paul J.; Lehnert, Bruce E.

    2001-01-01

    The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

  15. Historical distribution and molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikembayev, Alim M; Lukhnova, Larissa; Temiraliyeva, Gulnara; Meka-Mechenko, Tatyana; Pazylov, Yerlan; Zakaryan, Sarkis; Denissov, Georgiy; Easterday, W Ryan; Van Ert, Matthew N; Keim, Paul; Francesconi, Stephen C; Blackburn, Jason K; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2010-05-01

    To map the distribution of anthrax outbreaks and strain subtypes in Kazakhstan during 1937-2005, we combined geographic information system technology and genetic analysis by using archived cultures and data. Biochemical and genetic tests confirmed the identity of 93 archived cultures in the Kazakhstan National Culture Collection as Bacillus anthracis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis genotyping identified 12 genotypes. Cluster analysis comparing these genotypes with previously published genotypes indicated that most (n = 78) isolates belonged to the previously described A1.a genetic cluster, 6 isolates belonged to the A3.b cluster, and 2 belonged to the A4 cluster. Two genotypes in the collection appeared to represent novel genetic sublineages; 1 of these isolates was from Krygystan. Our data provide a description of the historical, geographic, and genetic diversity of B. anthracis in this Central Asian region.

  16. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  17. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Rume

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR, demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  18. Encapsulated Bacillus anthracis interacts closely with liver endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris-Gimenez, Alejandro; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jouvion, Gregory; Candela, Thomas; Khun, Huot; Goossens, Pierre L

    2009-11-01

    The Bacillus anthracis poly-gamma-D-glutamate capsule is essential for virulence. It impedes phagocytosis and protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. To further define the virulence mechanisms brought into play by the capsule, we characterized the interactions between encapsulated nontoxinogenic B. anthracis and its host in vivo through histological analysis, perfusion, and competition experiments with purified capsule. Clearance of encapsulated bacilli from the blood was rapid (>90% clearance within 5 min), with 75% of the bacteria being trapped in the liver. Competition experiments with purified capsule polyglutamate inhibited this interaction. At the septicemic phase of cutaneous infection with spores, the encapsulated bacilli were trapped in the vascular spaces of the liver and interacted closely with the liver endothelium in the sinusoids and terminal and portal veins. They often grow as microcolonies containing capsular material shed by the bacteria. We show that, in addition to its inhibitory effect on the interaction with the immune system, the capsule surrounding B. anthracis plays an active role in mediating the trapping of the bacteria within the liver and may thus contribute to anthrax pathogenesis. Because other microorganisms produce polyglutamate, it may also represent a general mechanism of virulence or in vivo survival.

  19. Toxin-independent virulence of Bacillus anthracis in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Levy

    Full Text Available The accepted paradigm states that anthrax is both an invasive and toxinogenic disease and that the toxins play a major role in pathogenicity. In the guinea pig (GP model we have previously shown that deletion of all three toxin components results in a relatively moderate attenuation in virulence, indicating that B. anthracis possesses an additional toxin-independent virulence mechanism. To characterize this toxin-independent mechanism in anthrax disease, we developed a new rabbit model by intravenous injection (IV of B. anthracis encapsulated vegetative cells, artificially creating bacteremia. Using this model we were able to demonstrate that also in rabbits, B. anthracis mutants lacking the toxins are capable of killing the host within 24 hours. This virulent trait depends on the activity of AtxA in the presence of pXO2, as, in the absence of the toxin genes, deletion of either component abolishes virulence. Furthermore, this IV virulence depends mainly on AtxA rather than the whole pXO1. A similar pattern was shown in the GP model using subcutaneous (SC administration of spores of the mutant strains, demonstrating the generality of the phenomenon. The virulent strains showed higher bacteremia levels and more efficient tissue dissemination; however our interpretation is that tissue dissemination per se is not the main determinant of virulence whose exact nature requires further elucidation.

  20. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  1. Assembly and Function of the Bacillus anthracis S-Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-09-08

    Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts. BslA surface display and function are dependent on the bacterial S-layer, whose constituents assemble by binding to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) via S-layer homology (SLH) domains. B. anthracis and other pathogenic B. cereus isolates harbor genes for the secretion of S-layer proteins, for S-layer assembly, and for synthesis of the SCWP. We review here recent insights into the assembly and function of the S-layer and the SCWP.

  2. Ketopantoyl lactone reductase is a conjugated polyketone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, H; Shimizu, S; Hattori, S; Yamada, H

    1989-03-01

    Ketopantoyl lactone reductase (EC 1.1.1.168) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to catalyze the reduction of a variety of natural and unnatural conjugated polyketone compounds and quinones, such as isatin, ninhydrin, camphorquinone and beta-naphthoquinone in the presence of NADPH. 5-Bromoisatin is the best substrate for the enzyme (Km = 3.1 mM; Vmax = 650 mumol/min/mg). The enzyme is inhibited by quercetin, and several polyketones. These results suggest that ketopantoyl lactone reductase is a carbonyl reductase which specifically catalyzes the reduction of conjugated polyketones.

  3. Improvements to a Markerless Allelic Exchange System for Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Plaut

    Full Text Available A system was previously developed for conducting I-SceI-mediated allelic exchange in Bacillus anthracis. In this system, recombinational loss of a chromosomally-integrated allelic exchange vector is stimulated by creation of a double-stranded break within the vector by the homing endonuclease I-SceI. Although this system is reasonably efficient and represents an improvement in the tools available for allelic exchange in B. anthracis, researchers are nonetheless required to "pick and patch" colonies in order to identify candidate "exchangeants." In the present study, a number of improvements have been made to this system: 1 an improved I-SceI-producing plasmid includes oriT so that both plasmids can now be introduced by conjugation, thus avoiding the need for preparing electro-competent cells of each integration intermediate; 2 antibiotic markers have been changed to allow the use of the system in select agent strains; and 3 both plasmids have been marked with fluorescent proteins, allowing the visualization of plasmid segregation on a plate and obviating the need for "picking and patching." These modifications have made the process easier, faster, and more efficient, allowing for parallel construction of larger numbers of mutant strains. Using this improved system, the genes encoding the tripartite anthrax toxin were deleted singly and in combination from plasmid pXO1 of Sterne strain 34F2. In the course of this study, we determined that DNA transfer to B. anthracis could be accomplished by conjugation directly from a methylation-competent E. coli strain.

  4. Hal Is a Bacillus anthracis Heme Acquisition Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Miriam A.; Nobles, Christopher L.; Honsa, Erin S.; Alicki, Embriette R.

    2012-01-01

    The metal iron is a limiting nutrient for bacteria during infection. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a potential weapon of bioterrorism, grows rapidly in mammalian hosts, which suggests that it efficiently attains iron during infection. Recent studies have uncovered both heme (isd) and siderophore-mediated (asb) iron transport pathways in this pathogen. Whereas deletion of the asb genes results in reduced virulence, the loss of three surface components from isd had no effect, thereby leaving open the question of what additional factors in B. anthracis are responsible for iron uptake from the most abundant iron source for mammals, heme. Here, we describe the first functional characterization of bas0520, a gene recently implicated in anthrax disease progression. bas0520 encodes a single near-iron transporter (NEAT) domain and several leucine-rich repeats. The NEAT domain binds heme, despite lacking a stabilizing tyrosine common to the NEAT superfamily of hemoproteins. The NEAT domain also binds hemoglobin and can acquire heme from hemoglobin in solution. Finally, deletion of bas0520 resulted in bacilli unable to grow efficiently on heme or hemoglobin as an iron source and yielded the most significant phenotype relative to that for other putative heme uptake systems, a result that suggests that this protein plays a prominent role in the replication of B. anthracis in hematogenous environments. Thus, we have assigned the name of Hal (heme-acquisition leucine-rich repeat protein) to BAS0520. These studies advance our understanding of heme acquisition by this dangerous pathogen and justify efforts to determine the mechanistic function of this novel protein for vaccine or inhibitor development. PMID:22865843

  5. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  6. [Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in various tannery baths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of tannery baths: liming, deliming, bating, pickling, tanning, retannage on the survival and on the germination dynamism of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) was investigated. The periods and the conditions of this influence were established according to technological process of cow hide tannage. Practically after every bath some part of the spores remained vital. The most effective killing of spores occurred after pickling, liming and deliming. Inversely, the most viable spores remained after bating and retannage process. The lack of correlation that was observed between survival and germination of spores after retannage bath can be explained by different mechanism of spores germination inhibition and their killing.

  7. Identification of Bacillus anthracis specific chromosomal sequences by suppressive subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redkar Rajendra

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus are closely related members of the B. cereus-group of bacilli. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH was used to identify specific chromosomal sequences unique to B. anthracis. Results Two SSH libraries were generated. Genomic DNA from plasmid-cured B. anthracis was used as the tester DNA in both libraries, while genomic DNA from either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis served as the driver DNA. Progressive screening of the libraries by colony filter and Southern blot analyses identified 29 different clones that were specific for the B. anthracis chromosome relative not only to the respective driver DNAs, but also to seven other different strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis included in the process. The nucleotide sequences of the clones were compared with those found in genomic databases, revealing that over half of the clones were located into 2 regions on the B. anthracis chromosome. Conclusions Genes encoding potential cell wall synthesis proteins dominated one region, while bacteriophage-related sequences dominated the other region. The latter supports the hypothesis that acquisition of these bacteriophage sequences occurred during or after speciation of B. anthracis relative to B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This study provides insight into the chromosomal differences between B. anthracis and its closest phylogenetic relatives.

  8. Characterization of the sortase repertoire in Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Aucher

    Full Text Available LPXTG proteins, present in most if not all Gram-positive bacteria, are known to be anchored by sortases to the bacterial peptidoglycan. More than one sortase gene is often encoded in a bacterial species, and each sortase is supposed to specifically anchor given LPXTG proteins, depending of the sequence of the C-terminal cell wall sorting signal (cwss, bearing an LPXTG motif or another recognition sequence. B. anthracis possesses three sortase genes. B. anthracis sortase deleted mutant strains are not affected in their virulence. To determine the sortase repertoires, we developed a genetic screen using the property of the gamma phage to lyse bacteria only when its receptor, GamR, an LPXTG protein, is exposed at the surface. We identified 10 proteins that contain a cell wall sorting signal and are covalently anchored to the peptidoglycan. Some chimeric proteins yielded phage lysis in all sortase mutant strains, suggesting that cwss proteins remained surface accessible in absence of their anchoring sortase, probably as a consequence of membrane localization of yet uncleaved precursor proteins. For definite assignment of the sortase repertoires, we consequently relied on a complementary test, using a biochemical approach, namely immunoblot experiments. The sortase anchoring nine of these proteins has thus been determined. The absence of virulence defect of the sortase mutants could be a consequence of the membrane localization of the cwss proteins.

  9. Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jeffrey; Zhu, Wenhan; Passalacqua, Karla D.; Bergman, Nicholas; Borodovsky, Mark

    2010-03-22

    Emerging knowledge of whole prokaryotic transcriptomes could validate a number of theoretical concepts introduced in the early days of genomics. What are the rules connecting gene expression levels with sequence determinants such as quantitative scores of promoters and terminators? Are translation efficiency measures, e.g. codon adaptation index and RBS score related to gene expression? We used the whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of a bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis to assess correlation of gene expression level with promoter, terminator and RBS scores, codon adaptation index, as well as with a new measure of gene translational efficiency, average translation speed. We compared computational predictions of operon topologies with the transcript borders inferred from RNA-Seq reads. Transcriptome mapping may also improve existing gene annotation. Upon assessment of accuracy of current annotation of protein-coding genes in the B. anthracis genome we have shown that the transcriptome data indicate existence of more than a hundred genes missing in the annotation though predicted by an ab initio gene finder. Interestingly, we observed that many pseudogenes possess not only a sequence with detectable coding potential but also promoters that maintain transcriptional activity.

  10. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  11. Efficacy of Oritavancin in a Murine Model of Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Anthrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heine, H. S; Bassett, J; Miller, L; Bassett, A; Ivins, B. E; Lehous, D; Arhin, F. F; Parr, Jr., T. R; Moeck, G

    2008-01-01

    The inhaled form of Bacillus anthracis infection may be fatal to humans. The current standard of care for inhalational anthrax postexposure prophylaxis is ciprofloxacin therapy twice daily for 60 days...

  12. Lethality of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Due to Short Duration Heating Measured Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goetz, Kristina M

    2005-01-01

    In this research, Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to bursts of heat lasting on the order of one second in duration using a laser system to simulate the explosive environment from an agent defeat weapon...

  13. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke in North Indian population: A hospital based case–control study. Amit Kumar, Shubham Misra, Anjali Hazarika, Pradeep Kumar, Ram Sagar, Abhishek Pathak, Kamalesh Chakravarty, Kameshwar ...

  14. The Bacillus anthracis chromosome contains four conserved, excision-proficient, putative prophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sozhamannan Shanmuga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis is considered to be a recently emerged clone within the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. The B. anthracis genome sequence contains four putative lambdoid prophages. We undertook this study in order to understand whether the four prophages are unique to B. anthracis and whether they produce active phages. Results More than 300 geographically and temporally divergent isolates of B. anthracis and its near neighbors were screened by PCR for the presence of specific DNA sequences from each prophage region. Every isolate of B. anthracis screened by PCR was found to produce all four phage-specific amplicons whereas none of the non-B. anthracis isolates, produced more than one phage-specific amplicon. Excision of prophages could be detected by a PCR based assay for attP sites on extra-chromosomal phage circles and for attB sites on phage-excised chromosomes. SYBR-green real-time PCR assays indicated that prophage excision occurs at very low frequencies (2 × 10-5 - 8 × 10-8/cell. Induction with mitomycin C increased the frequency of excision of one of the prophages by approximately 250 fold. All four prophages appear to be defective since, mitomycin C induced culture did not release any viable phage particle or lyse the cells or reveal any phage particle under electron microscopic examination. Conclusion The retention of all four putative prophage regions across all tested strains of B. anthracis is further evidence of the very recent emergence of this lineage and the prophage regions may be useful for differentiating the B. anthracis chromosome from that of its neighbors. All four prophages can excise at low frequencies, but are apparently defective in phage production.

  15. Ecological Niche Modelling of the Bacillus anthracis A1.a sub-lineage in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a globally distributed zoonotic pathogen that continues to be a veterinary and human health problem in Central Asia. We used a database of anthrax outbreak locations in Kazakhstan and a subset of genotyped isolates to model the geographic distribution and ecological associations of B. anthracis in Kazakhstan. The aims of the study were to test the influence of soil variables on a previous ecological niche based prediction of B. anthracis in Kazakhstan and to determine if a single sub-lineage of B. anthracis occupies a unique ecological niche. Results The addition of soil variables to the previously developed ecological niche model did not appreciably alter the limits of the predicted geographic or ecological distribution of B. anthracis in Kazakhstan. The A1.a experiment predicted the sub-lineage to be present over a larger geographic area than did the outbreak based experiment containing multiple lineages. Within the geographic area predicted to be suitable for B. anthracis by all ten best subset models, the A1.a sub-lineage was associated with a wider range of ecological tolerances than the outbreak-soil experiment. Analysis of rule types showed that logit rules predominate in the outbreak-soil experiment and range rules in the A1.a sub-lineage experiment. Random sub-setting of locality points suggests that models of B. anthracis distribution may be sensitive to sample size. Conclusions Our analysis supports careful consideration of the taxonomic resolution of data used to create ecological niche models. Further investigations into the environmental affinities of individual lineages and sub-lineages of B. anthracis will be useful in understanding the ecology of the disease at large and small scales. With model based predictions serving as approximations of disease risk, these efforts will improve the efficacy of public health interventions for anthrax prevention and control. PMID:22152056

  16. Functional and Immunological Analyses of Superoxide Dismutases and Other Spore-Associated Proteins of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-20

    L., S. Hibbs, P. Tsai, G. L. Cao, and G. M. Rosen . 2005. Role of superoxide in the germination of Bacillus anthracis endospores. FEMS Microbiol...178:7994-8001. 42. Cohen, S., I. Mendelson, Z. Altboum, D. Kobiler, E. Elhanany, T. Bino, M. Leitner, I. Inbar, H. Rosenberg, Y. Gozes, R. Barak ...K. W. Raines, G. L. Cao, S. Hibbs, P. Tsai, L. Baillie, G. M. Rosen , and A. S. Cross. 2007. Protective role of Bacillus anthracis exosporium in

  17. Identification of Bacillus anthracis by Using Monoclonal Antibody to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Bacillus circulans ATCC 4513 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus eugilitis B-61 f - - NR NT NT NT NT...American Society for Microbiology W Identification of Bacillus anthracis by-U-sing Monoclonal Antibody CC to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine...Received 22 June 1989/Accepted 31 October 1989 ’ Guanidine extracts of crude Bacillus anthracis cell wall were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice and to

  18. The secret life of the anthrax agent Bacillus anthracis: bacteriophage-mediated ecological adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Schuch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and genetic factors that govern the occurrence and persistence of anthrax reservoirs in the environment are obscure. A central tenet, based on limited and often conflicting studies, has long held that growing or vegetative forms of Bacillus anthracis survive poorly outside the mammalian host and must sporulate to survive in the environment. Here, we present evidence of a more dynamic lifecycle, whereby interactions with bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, elicit phenotypic alterations in B. anthracis and the emergence of infected derivatives, or lysogens, with dramatically altered survival capabilities. Using both laboratory and environmental B. anthracis strains, we show that lysogeny can block or promote sporulation depending on the phage, induce exopolysaccharide expression and biofilm formation, and enable the long-term colonization of both an artificial soil environment and the intestinal tract of the invertebrate redworm, Eisenia fetida. All of the B. anthracis lysogens existed in a pseudolysogenic-like state in both the soil and worm gut, shedding phages that could in turn infect non-lysogenic B. anthracis recipients and confer survival phenotypes in those environments. Finally, the mechanism behind several phenotypic changes was found to require phage-encoded bacterial sigma factors and the expression of at least one host-encoded protein predicted to be involved in the colonization of invertebrate intestines. The results here demonstrate that during its environmental phase, bacteriophages provide B. anthracis with alternatives to sporulation that involve the activation of soil-survival and endosymbiotic capabilities.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans Predation on Bacillus anthracis: Decontamination of Spore Contaminated Soil with Germinants and Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Choi, Young; Baillie, Leslie W; Richter, William; Buyuk, Fatih; Celik, Elif; Wendling, Morgan; Sahin, Mitat; Gallagher, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Remediation of Bacillus anthracis -contaminated soil is challenging and approaches to reduce overall spore levels in environmentally contaminated soil or after intentional release of the infectious disease agent in a safe, low-cost manner are needed. B. anthracis spores are highly resistant to biocides, but once germinated they become susceptible to traditional biocides or potentially even natural predators such as nematodes in the soil environment. Here, we describe a two-step approach to reducing B. anthracis spore load in soil during laboratory trials, whereby germinants and Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are applied concurrently. While the application of germinants reduced B. anthracis spore load by up to four logs depending on soil type, the addition of nematodes achieved a further log reduction in spore count. These laboratory based results suggest that the combined use of nematodes and germinants could represent a promising approach for the remediation of B. anthracis spore contaminated soil. Originality-Significance Statement: This study demonstrates for the first time the successful use of environmentally friendly decontamination methods to inactivate Bacillus anthracis spores in soil using natural predators of the bacterium, nematode worms.

  20. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  1. Distribution and molecular evolution of bacillus anthracis genotypes in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Beyer

    Full Text Available The recent development of genetic markers for Bacillus anthracis has made it possible to monitor the spread and distribution of this pathogen during and between anthrax outbreaks. In Namibia, anthrax outbreaks occur annually in the Etosha National Park (ENP and on private game and livestock farms. We genotyped 384 B. anthracis isolates collected between 1983-2010 to identify the possible epidemiological correlations of anthrax outbreaks within and outside the ENP and to analyze genetic relationships between isolates from domestic and wild animals. The isolates came from 20 animal species and from the environment and were genotyped using a 31-marker multi-locus-VNTR-analysis (MLVA and, in part, by twelve single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers and four single nucleotide repeat (SNR markers. A total of 37 genotypes (GT were identified by MLVA, belonging to four SNP-groups. All GTs belonged to the A-branch in the cluster- and SNP-analyses. Thirteen GTs were found only outside the ENP, 18 only within the ENP and 6 both inside and outside. Genetic distances between isolates increased with increasing time between isolations. However, genetic distance between isolates at the beginning and end of the study period was relatively small, indicating that while the majority of GTs were only found sporadically, three genetically close GTs, accounting for more than four fifths of all the ENP isolates, appeared dominant throughout the study period. Genetic distances among isolates were significantly greater for isolates from different host species, but this effect was small, suggesting that while species-specific ecological factors may affect exposure processes, transmission cycles in different host species are still highly interrelated. The MLVA data were further used to establish a model of the probable evolution of GTs within the endemic region of the ENP. SNR-analysis was helpful in correlating an isolate with its source but did not elucidate

  2. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  3. Island-wide diversity in single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genes in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Salanti, Ali

    2007-01-01

    into the level of drug pressure caused by SP use and presumably other antifolate drugs. In Sri Lanka, chloroquine (CQ) with primaquine (PQ) and SP with PQ is used as first and second line treatment, respectively, against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax infections. CQ/PQ is still efficacious...... against P. vivax infections, thus SP is rarely used and it is assumed that the prevalence of SNPs related to P. vivax SP resistance is low. However, this has not been assessed in Sri Lanka as in most other parts of Asia. This study describes the prevalence and distribution of SNPs related to P. vivax SP...... and 383, 553 and 585 of the Pvdhps gene by applying PCR followed by a hybridization step using sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) in an ELISA format. RESULTS: In the study period, the government of Sri Lanka recorded 2,149 P. vivax cases from the nine districts out of which, 454 (21...

  4. Role of Mutations in Dihydrofolate Reductase DfrA (Rv2763c) and Thymidylate Synthase ThyA (Rv2764c) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Koser, C. U.; Veerapen-Pierce, R. N.; Summers, D. K.; Archer, John A.C.

    2010-01-01

    note that the mutational loss of ThyA leads to TMP resistance in other organisms. Under these circumstances, tetrahydrofolate, the product of DHFR, is no longer required to regenerate N5,N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, which would otherwise be oxidized

  5. Characterization of human warfarin reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolová, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Simona Sokolová Supervisor: PharmDr. Petra Malátková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Characterization of human warfarin reductase Warfarin is widely used anticoagulant drug. Considering the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin, it is important to fully understand its metabolism in human body. Oxidative, reductive and conjugation reactions are involved in warfarin metabolism. Howev...

  6. Bacillus anthracis in China and its relationship to worldwide lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupp James M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global pattern of distribution of 1033 B. anthracis isolates has previously been defined by a set of 12 conserved canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms (canSNP. These studies reinforced the presence of three major lineages and 12 sub-lineages and sub-groups of this anthrax-causing pathogen. Isolates that form the A lineage (unlike the B and C lineages have become widely dispersed throughout the world and form the basis for the geographical disposition of "modern" anthrax. An archival collection of 191 different B. anthracis isolates from China provides a glimpse into the possible role of Chinese trade and commerce in the spread of certain sub-lineages of this pathogen. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA typing has been used to examine this archival collection of isolates. Results The canSNP study indicates that there are 5 different sub-lineages/sub-groups in China out of 12 previously described world-wide canSNP genotypes. Three of these canSNP genotypes were only found in the western-most province of China, Xinjiang. These genotypes were A.Br.008/009, a sub-group that is spread across most of Europe and Asia; A.Br.Aust 94, a sub-lineage that is present in Europe and India, and A.Br.Vollum, a lineage that is also present in Europe. The remaining two canSNP genotypes are spread across the whole of China and belong to sub-group A.Br.001/002 and the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage, two closely related genotypes. MLVA typing adds resolution to the isolates in each canSNP genotype and diversity indices for the A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 sub-groups suggest that these represent older and established clades in China. Conclusion B. anthracis isolates were recovered from three canSNP sub-groups (A.Br.008/009, A.Br.Aust94, and A.Br.Vollum in the western most portion of the large Chinese province of Xinjiang. The city of Kashi in this province appears to have served as a crossroads

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of APS reductase and bisulfite reductase in three Desulfovibrio species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, D.R.; Veenhuis, M.; Fauque, G.; Peck Jr., H.D.; LeGall, J.; Lampreia, J.; Moura, J.J.G.; Hansen, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    The localization of APS reductase and bisulfite reductase in Desulfovibrio gigas, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and D. thermophilus was studied by immunoelectron microscopy. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified enzymes from each strain. Cells fixed with formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde were

  8. Novel Sample Preparation Method for Safe and Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Powders and Nasal Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra; Davis, Carisa; Rycerz, Tony; Ewert, Matthew; Cannons, Andrew; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as a biological weapon in the United States. We wanted to develop a safe, rapid method of sample preparation that provided safe DNA for the detection of spores in environmental and clinical specimens. Our method reproducibly detects B. anthracis in samples containing

  9. Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the air, soil and animal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušar D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to establish effective and rapid diagnostic methods for the detection of Bacillus anthracis, a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen, in the air, soil and animal (or human tissue samples. Liquid culture of B. anthracis was aerosolized and four air sampling procedures were employed. Detection of B. anthracis in the air samples was successful with RCS High Flow sampler (culturebased detection and when sampling through the air filter (molecular detection using SmartHelix Complex Samples DNA Extraction Kit. Liquid B. anthracis culture was also employed for spiking the homogenised bovine lymphatic gland tissue and soil samples. DNA extraction was performed using three different commercial kits for each sample type. High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit was the most effective for DNA extraction from animal tissue samples. Detection in the soil was successful when PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit was used. Our results indicate that B. anthracis can be monitored in different matrices by rapid molecular methods when appropriate sampling and DNA extraction procedures are employed prior to PCR assay. The selected rapid protocols can be implemented in specialized veterinary or human diagnostic laboratories with moderate costs.

  10. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W Stratilo

    Full Text Available Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin, compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes.

  11. In silico and in vitro evaluation of PCR-based assays for the detection of Bacillus anthracis chromosomal signature sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågren, Joakim; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Hansen, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a zoonotic pathogen that is relatively common throughout the world and may cause life threatening diseases in animals and humans. There are many PCR-based assays in use for the detection of B. anthracis. While most of the developed assays rely...... on unique markers present on virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, relatively few assays incorporate chromosomal DNA markers due to the close relatedness of B. anthracis to the B. cereus group strains. For the detection of chromosomal DNA, different genes have been used, such as BA813, rpoB, gyrA, plcR, S...... targets evaluated are claimed to be specific to B. anthracis, cross-reactions with closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains were often observed. Of the 35 investigated PCR assays, only 4 were 100% specific for the B. anthracis chromosome. An interlaboratory ring trial among five European...

  12. Oxygen and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeptar, A.R.; Scheerens, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen reductase and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) are reviewed. During the oxygen reductase activity of P450, molecular oxygen is reduced to superoxide anion radicals (O

  13. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żakowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. [i]Bacillus anthracis[/i] is one of biological agents which may be used in bioterrorism attacks. The aim of this study a review of the new treatment possibilities of anthrax, with particular emphasis on the treatment of pulmonary anthrax. [b]Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge[/b]. Pulmonary anthrax, as the most dangerous clinical form of the disease, is also extremely difficult to treat. Recently, considerable progress in finding new drugs and suitable therapy for anthrax has been achieved, for example, new antibiotics worth to mentioning, levofloxacin, daptomycin, gatifloxacin and dalbavancin. However, alternative therapeutic options should also be considered, among them the antimicrobial peptides, characterized by lack of inducible mechanisms of pathogen resistance. Very promising research considers bacteriophages lytic enzymes against selected bacteria species, including antibiotic-resistant strains. [b]Results[/b]. Interesting results were obtained using monoclonal antibodies: raxibacumab, cAb29 or cocktails of antibodies. The application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to boost the immune response elicited by Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed and CMG2 protein complexes, also produced satisfying therapy results. Furthermore, the IFN-α and IFN-β, PA-dominant negative mutant, human inter-alpha inhibitor proteins and LF inhibitors in combination with ciprofloxacin, also showed very promising results. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Recently, progress has been achieved in inhalation anthrax treatment. The most promising new possibilities include: new antibiotics, peptides and bacteriophages enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigen PA mutants, and inter alpha inhibitors applications. In the case of the possibility of bioterrorist attacks, the examination of inhalation anthrax treatment should be intensively continued.

  14. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ayan Israeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Edema Factor (EF, the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules.

  15. clpC operon regulates cell architecture and sporulation in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lalit K; Dhasmana, Neha; Sajid, Andaleeb; Kumar, Prasun; Bhaduri, Asani; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Gandotra, Sheetal; Kalia, Vipin C; Das, Taposh K; Goel, Ajay K; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Misra, Richa; Gerth, Ulf; Leppla, Stephen H; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-03-01

    The clpC operon is known to regulate several processes such as genetic competence, protein degradation and stress survival in bacteria. Here, we describe the role of clpC operon in Bacillus anthracis. We generated knockout strains of the clpC operon genes to investigate the impact of CtsR, McsA, McsB and ClpC deletion on essential processes of B. anthracis. We observed that growth, cell division, sporulation and germination were severely affected in mcsB and clpC deleted strains, while none of deletions affected toxin secretion. Growth defect in these strains was pronounced at elevated temperature. The growth pattern gets restored on complementation of mcsB and clpC in respective mutants. Electron microscopic examination revealed that mcsB and clpC deletion also causes defect in septum formation leading to cell elongation. These vegetative cell deformities were accompanied by inability of mutant strains to generate morphologically intact spores. Higher levels of polyhydroxybutyrate granules accumulation were also observed in these deletion strains, indicating a defect in sporulation process. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the vital role played by McsB and ClpC in physiology of B. anthracis and open up further interest on this operon, which might be of importance to success of B. anthracis as pathogen. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Real-Time PCR Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    13061 Neisseria lactamica .............................................................. 23970 Bacillus coagulans ...NEG Bacillus coagulane 7050 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13472 NEG NEG Bacillus licheniforms 12759 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13824 NEG NEG Bacillus ...Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Elizabeth Bode,1 William Hurtle,2† and David Norwood1* United States Army Medical

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanwei; Harvey, Amanda; Barbieri, Ruth; Reuter, Tim; Stanford, Kim; Amoako, Kingsley K.; Selinger, Leonard B.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in livestock have social, economic and health implications, altering farmer’s livelihoods, impacting trade and posing a zoonotic risk. Our study investigated the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. anthracis spores sporulated at 15, 20, or 37°C, over 33 days of composting. Spores (∼7.5 log10 CFU g-1) were mixed with manure and composted in laboratory scale composters. After 15 days, the compost was mixed and returned to the composter for a second cycle. Temperatures peaked at 71°C on day 2 and remained ≥55°C for an average of 7 days in the first cycle, but did not exceed 55°C in the second. For B. thuringiensis, spores generated at 15 and 21°C exhibited reduced (P composting for spores generated at 15, 21, and 37°C, respectively. For both species, spore viability declined more rapidly (P composting cycle. Our findings suggest that the duration of thermophilic exposure (≥55°C) is the main factor influencing survival of B. anthracis spores in compost. As sporulation temperature did not influence survival of B. anthracis, composting may lower the viability of spores associated with carcasses infected with B. anthracis over a range of sporulation temperatures. PMID:27303388

  18. The effect of growth medium on B. anthracis Sterne spore carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Heather A; Wunschel, David S; Antolick, Kathryn C; Melville, Angela M; Valentine, Nancy B

    2011-06-01

    The expressed characteristics of biothreat agents may be impacted by variations in the culture environment, including growth medium formulation. The carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis spores has been well studied, particularly for the exosporium, which is the outermost spore structure. The carbohydrate composition of the exosporium has been demonstrated to be distinct from the vegetative form containing unique monosaccharides. We have investigated the carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis Sterne spores produced using four different medium types formulated with different sources of medium components. The amount of rhamnose, 3-O-methyl rhamnose and galactosamine was found to vary significantly between spores cultured using different medium formulations. The relative abundance of these monosaccharides compared to other monosaccharides such as mannosamine was also found to vary with medium type. Specific medium components were also found to impact the carbohydrate profile. Xylose has not been previously described in B. anthracis spores but was detected at low levels in two media. This may represent residual material from the brewery yeast extract used to formulate these two media. These results illustrate the utility of this method to capture the impact of growth medium on carbohydrate variation in spores. Detecting carbohydrate profiles in B. anthracis evidentiary material may provide useful forensic information on the growth medium used for sporulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella thyphimurium: a molybdenum containing enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojosa-Leon, M.; Dubourdieu, M.; Sanchez-Crispin, J.A.; Chippaux, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of radioactive molybdenum demonstrates that the tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella typhimurium is a molydenum containing enzyme. It is proposed that this enzyme shares with other molybdo-proteins, such as nitrate reductase, a common molybdenum containing cofactor the defect of which leads to the loss of the tetrathionate reductase and nitrate reductase activities

  20. Impact of spores on the comparative efficacies of five antibiotics for treatment of Bacillus anthracis in an in vitro hollow fiber pharmacodynamic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Arnold; VanScoy, Brian D; Brown, David L; Kulawy, Robert W; Heine, Henry S; Drusano, George L

    2012-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes anthrax, is an agent of bioterrorism. The most effective antimicrobial therapy for B. anthracis infections is unknown. An in vitro pharmacodynamic model of B. anthracis was used to compare the efficacies of simulated clinically prescribed regimens of moxifloxacin, linezolid, and meropenem with the "gold standards," doxycycline and ciprofloxacin. Treatment outcomes for isogenic spore-forming and non-spore-forming strains of B. anthracis were compared. Against spore-forming B. anthracis, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and meropenem reduced the B. anthracis population by 4 log(10) CFU/ml over 10 days. Doxycycline reduced the population of this B. anthracis strain by 5 log(10) CFU/ml (analysis of variance [ANOVA] P = 0.01 versus other drugs). Against an isogenic non-spore-forming strain, meropenem killed the vegetative B. anthracis the fastest, followed by moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin and then doxycycline. Linezolid offered the lowest bacterial kill rate. Heat shock studies using the spore-producing B. anthracis strain showed that with moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and meropenem therapies the total population was mostly spores, while the population was primarily vegetative bacteria with linezolid and doxycycline therapies. Spores have a profound impact on the rate and extent of killing of B. anthracis. Against spore-forming B. anthracis, the five antibiotics killed the total (spore and vegetative) bacterial population at similar rates (within 1 log(10) CFU/ml of each other). However, bactericidal antibiotics killed vegetative B. anthracis faster than bacteriostatic drugs. Since only vegetative-phase B. anthracis produces the toxins that may kill the infected host, the rate and mechanism of killing of an antibiotic may determine its overall in vivo efficacy. Further studies are needed to examine this important observation.

  1. The Use of Germinants to Potentiate the Sensitivity of Bacillus anthracis Spores to Peracetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ozgur; Buyuk, Fatih; Pottage, Tom; Crook, Ant; Hawkey, Suzanna; Cooper, Callum; Bennett, Allan; Sahin, Mitat; Baillie, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the environment is a difficult and costly process due in part to the toxicity of current sporicidal agents. For this reason we investigated the ability of the spore germinants L-alanine (100 mM) and inosine (5 mM) to reduce the concentration of peracetic acid (PAA) required to inactivate B. anthracis spores. While L-alanine significantly enhanced (p = 0.0085) the bactericidal activity of 500 ppm PAA the same was not true for inosine suggesting some form of negative interaction. In contrast the germinant combination proved most effective at 100 ppm PAA (p = 0.0009). To determine if we could achieve similar results in soil we treated soil collected from the burial site of an anthrax infected animal which had been supplemented with spores of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis to increase the level of contamination to 10(4) spores/g. Treatment with germinants followed 1 h later by 5000 ppm PAA eliminated all of the spores. In contrast direct treatment of the animal burial site using this approach delivered using a back pack sprayer had no detectable effect on the level of B. anthracis contamination or on total culturable bacterial numbers over the course of the experiment. It did trigger a significant, but temporary, reduction (p < 0.0001) in the total spore count suggesting that germination had been triggered under real world conditions. In conclusion, we have shown that the application of germinants increase the sensitivity of bacterial spores to PAA. While the results of the single field trial were inconclusive, the study highlighted the potential of this approach and the challenges faced when attempting to perform real world studies on B. anthracis spores contaminated sites.

  2. The use of germinants to potentiate the sensitivity of Bacillus anthracis spores to peracetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur eCelebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the environment is a difficult and costly process due in part to the toxicity of current sporicidal agents. For this reason we investigated the ability of the spore germinants L-alanine (100 mM and inosine (5 mM to reduce the concentration of peracetic acid (PAA required to inactivate B.anthracis spores. While L-alanine significantly enhanced (p=0.0085 the bactericidal activity of 500 ppm PAA the same was not true for inosine suggesting some form of negative interaction. In contrast the germinant combination proved most effective at 100 ppm PAA (p=0.0009. To determine if we could achieve similar results in soil we treated soil collected from the burial site of an anthrax infected animal which had been supplemented with spores of the Sterne strain of B.anthracis to increase the level of contamination to 104 spores/g. Treatment with germinants followed one hour later by 5000 ppm PAA eliminated all of the spores. In contrast direct treatment of the animal burial site using this approach delivered using a back pack sprayer had no detectable effect on the level of B.anthracis contamination or on total culturable bacterial numbers over the course of the experiment. It did trigger a significant, but temporary, reduction (p<0.0001 in the total spore count suggesting that germination had been triggered under real world conditions. In conclusion, we have shown that the application of germinants increase the sensitivity of bacterial spores to PAA. While the results of the single field trial were inconclusive, the study highlighted the potential of this approach and the challenges faced when attempting to perform real world studies on B.anthracis spores contaminated sites.

  3. The search and identification of the new immunodiagnostic targets of bacillus anthracis spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biketov, S.; Dunaytsev, I.; Baranova, E.; Marinin, L.; Dyatlov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as bio warfare agent to bio terrorize purposes. As efficiency of anti-epidemic measures included urgent prevention and treatment is determined by terms within which the bio agent is identified. Direct and rapid spore detection by antibodies based detection system is very attractive alternative to current PCR-based assays or routine phenotyping which are the most accurate but are also complex, time-consumption and expensive. The main difficulty with respect to such kind of anthrax spores detection is a cross-reaction with spores of closely related bacteria. For development of species-specific antibodies to anthrax spores recombinant scFvs or hybridoma technique were used. In both case surface spore antigens contained species-specific epitopes are need. Among exosporium proteins only ExsF(BxpB), ExsK and SoaA are specific to B.cereus group. On the surface of B. anthracis spores, a unique tetrasaccharides containing an novel monosaccharide - anthrose, was discovered. It was shown that anthrose can be serving as species-specific target for B. anthracis spores detection. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1 contain carbohydrate which formed species-specific epitopes and determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Antibodies to this antigen specifically recognized the surface target of B. anthracis spores and do not reacted with others Bacillus spore. Based on these antibodies we developed the test-systems in different formats for rapid direct detection and identification of B. anthracis spores. The results of trial these test-systems with using more than 50 different Bacillus strains were indicated that carbohydrate of EA1 isolated from spore is effective immunodiagnostic target for anthrax spores bio detection.(author)

  4. Kinetics of carbonyl reductase from human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Bohren, K M; von Wartburg, J P; Wermuth, B

    1987-01-01

    Initial-rate analysis of the carbonyl reductase-catalysed reduction of menadione by NADPH gave families of straight lines in double-reciprocal plots consistent with a sequential mechanism being obeyed. The fluorescence of NADPH was increased up to 7-fold with a concomitant shift of the emission maximum towards lower wavelength in the presence of carbonyl reductase, and both NADPH and NADP+ caused quenching of the enzyme fluorescence, indicating formation of a binary enzyme-coenzyme complex. D...

  5. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  6. ORF Alignment: NC_002945 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hain A, Dihydrofolate ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complexed With ... Nadph And... Methotrexate pdb|1DG8|A Chain A, Dihydrofolate ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis... Complexed With ... Nadph pdb|1DG7|A Chain A, Dihydrofolate Reductase Of ... Mycobacterium Tuberculosi...late ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complexed With ... Nadph And Trimethoprim emb

  7. ORF Alignment: NC_000962 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hain A, Dihydrofolate ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complexed With ... Nadph And... Methotrexate pdb|1DG8|A Chain A, Dihydrofolate ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis... Complexed With ... Nadph pdb|1DG7|A Chain A, Dihydrofolate Reductase Of ... Mycobacterium Tuberculosi...late ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complexed With ... Nadph And Trimethoprim emb

  8. ORF Alignment: NC_002755 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hain A, Dihydrofolate ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complexed With ... Nadph And... Methotrexate pdb|1DG8|A Chain A, Dihydrofolate ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis... Complexed With ... Nadph pdb|1DG7|A Chain A, Dihydrofolate Reductase Of ... Mycobacterium Tuberculosi...late ... Reductase Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complexed With ... Nadph And Trimethoprim emb

  9. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  10. Laboratory Studies on Surface Sampling of Bacillus anthracis Contamination: Summary, Gaps, and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Hu, Rebecca

    2011-11-28

    This report summarizes previous laboratory studies to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing/transporting, processing, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis or related surrogates. The focus is on plate culture and count estimates of surface contamination for swab, wipe, and vacuum samples of porous and nonporous surfaces. Summaries of the previous studies and their results were assessed to identify gaps in information needed as inputs to calculate key parameters critical to risk management in biothreat incidents. One key parameter is the number of samples needed to make characterization or clearance decisions with specified statistical confidence. Other key parameters include the ability to calculate, following contamination incidents, the (1) estimates of Bacillus anthracis contamination, as well as the bias and uncertainties in the estimates, and (2) confidence in characterization and clearance decisions for contaminated or decontaminated buildings. Gaps in knowledge and understanding identified during the summary of the studies are discussed and recommendations are given for future studies.

  11. Automated thermochemolysis reactor for detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Rands, Anthony D.; Losee, Scott C. [Torion Technologies, American Fork, UT 84003 (United States); Holt, Brian C. [Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Williams, John R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lammert, Stephen A. [Torion Technologies, American Fork, UT 84003 (United States); Robison, Richard A. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Tolley, H. Dennis [Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lee, Milton L., E-mail: milton_lee@byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An automated sample preparation system for Bacillus anthracis endospores was developed. •A thermochemolysis method was applied to produce and derivatize biomarkers for Bacillus anthracis detection. •The autoreactor controlled the precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. •Solid phase microextraction was used to extract biomarkers, and GC–MS was used for final identification. •This autoreactor was successfully applied to the identification of Bacillus anthracis endospores. -- Abstract: An automated sample preparation system was developed and tested for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for eventual use in the field. This reactor is capable of automatically processing suspected bio-threat agents to release and derivatize unique chemical biomarkers by thermochemolysis (TCM). The system automatically controls the movement of sample vials from one position to another, crimping of septum caps onto the vials, precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. The specific operations of introduction of sample vials, solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling, injection into the GC–MS system, and ejection of used vials from the system were performed manually in this study, although they can be integrated into the automated system. Manual SPME sampling is performed by following visual and audible signal prompts for inserting the fiber into and retracting it from the sampling port. A rotating carousel design allows for simultaneous sample collection, reaction, biomarker extraction and analysis of sequential samples. Dipicolinic acid methyl ester (DPAME), 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (a fragment of anthrose) and two methylated sugars were used to compare the performance of the autoreactor with manual TCM. Statistical algorithms were used to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures, and 24

  12. Automated thermochemolysis reactor for detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Rands, Anthony D.; Losee, Scott C.; Holt, Brian C.; Williams, John R.; Lammert, Stephen A.; Robison, Richard A.; Tolley, H. Dennis; Lee, Milton L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An automated sample preparation system for Bacillus anthracis endospores was developed. •A thermochemolysis method was applied to produce and derivatize biomarkers for Bacillus anthracis detection. •The autoreactor controlled the precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. •Solid phase microextraction was used to extract biomarkers, and GC–MS was used for final identification. •This autoreactor was successfully applied to the identification of Bacillus anthracis endospores. -- Abstract: An automated sample preparation system was developed and tested for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for eventual use in the field. This reactor is capable of automatically processing suspected bio-threat agents to release and derivatize unique chemical biomarkers by thermochemolysis (TCM). The system automatically controls the movement of sample vials from one position to another, crimping of septum caps onto the vials, precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. The specific operations of introduction of sample vials, solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling, injection into the GC–MS system, and ejection of used vials from the system were performed manually in this study, although they can be integrated into the automated system. Manual SPME sampling is performed by following visual and audible signal prompts for inserting the fiber into and retracting it from the sampling port. A rotating carousel design allows for simultaneous sample collection, reaction, biomarker extraction and analysis of sequential samples. Dipicolinic acid methyl ester (DPAME), 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (a fragment of anthrose) and two methylated sugars were used to compare the performance of the autoreactor with manual TCM. Statistical algorithms were used to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures, and 24

  13. Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis and Other Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis And Other Bacteria Thomas Brown, Salwa Shan, Teresa...infection can be detected as early as one hour after exposing as few as 105 CFU bacteria to the stressor. We predicted that similar responses could be used... bacteria to form confluent growth and for phage-induced plaques to appear. Techniques that permit faster detection of species-specific bacteria /phage

  14. Recombinant expression and purification of a tumor-targeted toxin in Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachran, Christopher; Abdelazim, Suzanne; Fattah, Rasem J.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-infectious and protease-deficient Bacillus anthracis protein expression system. ► Successful expression and purification of a tumor-targeted fusion protein drug. ► Very low endotoxin contamination of purified protein. ► Efficient protein secretion simplifies purification. ► Functional anti-tumor fusion protein purified. -- Abstract: Many recombinant therapeutic proteins are purified from Escherichia coli. While expression in E. coli is easily achieved, some disadvantages such as protein aggregation, formation of inclusion bodies, and contamination of purified proteins with the lipopolysaccharides arise. Lipopolysaccharides have to be removed to prevent inflammatory responses in patients. Use of the Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis as an expression host offers a solution to circumvent these problems. Using the multiple protease-deficient strain BH460, we expressed a fusion of the N-terminal 254 amino acids of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), the N-terminal 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT389) and human transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα). The resulting fusion protein was constitutively expressed and successfully secreted by B. anthracis into the culture supernatant. Purification was achieved by anion exchange chromatography and proteolytic cleavage removed LFn from the desired fusion protein (DT389 fused to TGFα). The fusion protein showed the intended specific cytotoxicity to epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing human head and neck cancer cells. Final analyses showed low levels of lipopolysaccharides, originating most likely from contamination during the purification process. Thus, the fusion to LFn for protein secretion and expression in B. anthracis BH460 provides an elegant tool to obtain high levels of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant protein.

  15. Green-Tea and Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate are Bactericidal against Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-13

    strategies against B. anthracis (3). 60 After water, tea is the most consumed beverage in the world. Although containing little 61 caloric value, teas...Civilian B. 2002. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated 270 recommendations for management . JAMA 287:2236-52. 271 4. Cabrera C, Artacho R...Sharma A, Gupta S, Sarethy IP, Dang S, Gabrani R. 2012. Green tea extract: possible mechanism 285 and antibacterial activity on skin pathogens. Food

  16. Evaluation of immunoradiometric and ELISA versions of a microtitre plate assay for Bacillus anthracis spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, A P; Martin, K L; Cross, N L [Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton (UK); Drake, R G [Glasgow Univ. (UK). Inst. of Biochemistry

    1984-05-11

    Solid-phase indirectly-labelled antibody assays for Bacillus anthracis spores heat-fixed on polystyrene microtitre plates were compared as immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) versions. Signal-to-noise ratios were usually higher in the IRMA than in the ELISA performed under parallel conditions but replicates were more varied in the IRMA. The antigen detection threshold and resolution limit calculated after regression analysis were broadly comparable in the 2 types of assay.

  17. Modeling the potential distribution of Bacillus anthracis under multiple climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Andrew Joyner

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that persists throughout much of the world in livestock, wildlife, and secondarily infects humans. This is true across much of Central Asia, and particularly the Steppe region, including Kazakhstan. This study employed the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP to model the current and future geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis in Kazakhstan based on the A2 and B2 IPCC SRES climate change scenarios using a 5-variable data set at 55 km(2 and 8 km(2 and a 6-variable BioClim data set at 8 km(2. Future models suggest large areas predicted under current conditions may be reduced by 2050 with the A2 model predicting approximately 14-16% loss across the three spatial resolutions. There was greater variability in the B2 models across scenarios predicting approximately 15% loss at 55 km(2, approximately 34% loss at 8 km(2, and approximately 30% loss with the BioClim variables. Only very small areas of habitat expansion into new areas were predicted by either A2 or B2 in any models. Greater areas of habitat loss are predicted in the southern regions of Kazakhstan by A2 and B2 models, while moderate habitat loss is also predicted in the northern regions by either B2 model at 8 km(2. Anthrax disease control relies mainly on livestock vaccination and proper carcass disposal, both of which require adequate surveillance. In many situations, including that of Kazakhstan, vaccine resources are limited, and understanding the geographic distribution of the organism, in tandem with current data on livestock population dynamics, can aid in properly allocating doses. While speculative, contemplating future changes in livestock distributions and B. anthracis spore promoting environments can be useful for establishing future surveillance priorities. This study may also have broader applications to global public health surveillance relating to other diseases in addition to B

  18. Recombinant expression and purification of a tumor-targeted toxin in Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachran, Christopher; Abdelazim, Suzanne; Fattah, Rasem J.; Liu, Shihui [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Leppla, Stephen H., E-mail: sleppla@niaid.nih.gov [National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-infectious and protease-deficient Bacillus anthracis protein expression system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful expression and purification of a tumor-targeted fusion protein drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low endotoxin contamination of purified protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient protein secretion simplifies purification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional anti-tumor fusion protein purified. -- Abstract: Many recombinant therapeutic proteins are purified from Escherichia coli. While expression in E. coli is easily achieved, some disadvantages such as protein aggregation, formation of inclusion bodies, and contamination of purified proteins with the lipopolysaccharides arise. Lipopolysaccharides have to be removed to prevent inflammatory responses in patients. Use of the Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis as an expression host offers a solution to circumvent these problems. Using the multiple protease-deficient strain BH460, we expressed a fusion of the N-terminal 254 amino acids of anthrax lethal factor (LFn), the N-terminal 389 amino acids of diphtheria toxin (DT389) and human transforming growth factor alpha (TGF{alpha}). The resulting fusion protein was constitutively expressed and successfully secreted by B. anthracis into the culture supernatant. Purification was achieved by anion exchange chromatography and proteolytic cleavage removed LFn from the desired fusion protein (DT389 fused to TGF{alpha}). The fusion protein showed the intended specific cytotoxicity to epidermal growth factor receptor-expressing human head and neck cancer cells. Final analyses showed low levels of lipopolysaccharides, originating most likely from contamination during the purification process. Thus, the fusion to LFn for protein secretion and expression in B. anthracis BH460 provides an elegant tool to obtain high levels of lipopolysaccharide-free recombinant protein.

  19. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Dyer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion.In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity.These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  20. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  1. Structural study and thermodynamic characterization of inhibitor binding to lumazine synthase from Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgunova, Ekaterina [Karolinska Institutet NOVUM, Center of Structural Biochemistry, Hälsovägen 7-9, 141 57 Huddinge (Sweden); Illarionov, Boris; Saller, Sabine [Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Universität Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Popov, Aleksander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble CEDEX 09 (France); Sambaiah, Thota [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University (United States); Bacher, Adelbert [Chemistry Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany); Cushman, Mark [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University (United States); Fischer, Markus [Institut für Lebensmittelchemie, Universität Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Ladenstein, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.ladenstein@ki.se [Karolinska Institutet NOVUM, Center of Structural Biochemistry, Hälsovägen 7-9, 141 57 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Crystallographic studies of lumazine synthase, the penultimate enzyme of the riboflavin-biosynthetic pathway in B. anthracis, provide a structural framework for the design of antibiotic inhibitors, together with calorimetric and kinetic investigations of inhibitor binding. The crystal structure of lumazine synthase from Bacillus anthracis was solved by molecular replacement and refined to R{sub cryst} = 23.7% (R{sub free} = 28.4%) at a resolution of 3.5 Å. The structure reveals the icosahedral symmetry of the enzyme and specific features of the active site that are unique in comparison with previously determined orthologues. The application of isothermal titration calorimetry in combination with enzyme kinetics showed that three designed pyrimidine derivatives bind to lumazine synthase with micromolar dissociation constants and competitively inhibit the catalytic reaction. Structure-based modelling suggested the binding modes of the inhibitors in the active site and allowed an estimation of the possible contacts formed upon binding. The results provide a structural framework for the design of antibiotics active against B. anthracis.

  2. Storage Effects on Sample Integrity of Environmental Surface Sampling Specimens with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, K Allison; O'Connell, Heather A; Rose, Laura J; Noble-Wang, Judith A; Arduino, Matthew J

    The effect of packaging, shipping temperatures and storage times on recovery of Bacillus anthracis . Sterne spores from swabs was investigated. Macrofoam swabs were pre-moistened, inoculated with Bacillus anthracis spores, and packaged in primary containment or secondary containment before storage at -15°C, 5°C, 21°C, or 35°C for 0-7 days. Swabs were processed according to validated Centers for Disease Control/Laboratory Response Network culture protocols, and the percent recovery relative to a reference sample (T 0 ) was determined for each variable. No differences were observed in recovery between swabs held at -15° and 5°C, (p ≥ 0.23). These two temperatures provided significantly better recovery than swabs held at 21°C or 35°C (all 7 days pooled, p ≤ 0.04). The percent recovery at 5°C was not significantly different if processed on days 1, 2 or 4, but was significantly lower on day 7 (day 2 vs. 7, 5°C, 10 2 , p=0.03). Secondary containment provided significantly better percent recovery than primary containment, regardless of storage time (5°C data, p ≤ 0.008). The integrity of environmental swab samples containing Bacillus anthracis spores shipped in secondary containment was maintained when stored at -15°C or 5°C and processed within 4 days to yield the optimum percent recovery of spores.

  3. Rap phosphatase of virulence plasmid pXO1 inhibits Bacillus anthracis sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Cristina; Stoessel, Ricarda; Shoemaker, Dorinda; Perego, Marta

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 virulence plasmid carries a Rap-Phr system, BXA0205, which regulates sporulation initiation in this organism. The BXA0205Rap protein was shown to dephosphorylate the Spo0F response regulator intermediate of the phosphorelay signal transduction system that regulates the initiation of the developmental pathway in response to environmental, metabolic, and cell cycle signals. The activity of the Rap protein was shown to be inhibited by the carboxy-terminal pentapeptide generated through an export-import processing pathway from the associated BXA0205Phr protein. Deregulation of the Rap activity by either overexpression or lack of the Phr pentapeptide resulted in severe inhibition of sporulation. Five additional Rap-Phr encoding systems were identified on the chromosome of B. anthracis, one of which, BA3790-3791, also affected sporulation initiation. The results suggest that the plasmid-borne Rap-Phr system may provide a selective advantage to the virulence of B. anthracis.

  4. Rap Phosphatase of Virulence Plasmid pXO1 Inhibits Bacillus anthracis Sporulation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, Cristina; Stoessel, Ricarda; Shoemaker, Dorinda; Perego, Marta

    2006-01-01

    This study shows that the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 virulence plasmid carries a Rap-Phr system, BXA0205, which regulates sporulation initiation in this organism. The BXA0205Rap protein was shown to dephosphorylate the Spo0F response regulator intermediate of the phosphorelay signal transduction system that regulates the initiation of the developmental pathway in response to environmental, metabolic, and cell cycle signals. The activity of the Rap protein was shown to be inhibited by the carboxy-terminal pentapeptide generated through an export-import processing pathway from the associated BXA0205Phr protein. Deregulation of the Rap activity by either overexpression or lack of the Phr pentapeptide resulted in severe inhibition of sporulation. Five additional Rap-Phr encoding systems were identified on the chromosome of B. anthracis, one of which, BA3790-3791, also affected sporulation initiation. The results suggest that the plasmid-borne Rap-Phr system may provide a selective advantage to the virulence of B. anthracis. PMID:16385039

  5. Bacillus anthracis TIR Domain-Containing Protein Localises to Cellular Microtubule Structures and Induces Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emil; Thwaite, Joanne E; Jenner, Dominic C; Spear, Abigail M; Flick-Smith, Helen; Atkins, Helen S; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and mediate downstream immune signalling via Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. TIR domain proteins (Tdps) have been identified in multiple pathogenic bacteria and have recently been implicated as negative regulators of host innate immune activation. A Tdp has been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here we present the first study of this protein, designated BaTdp. Recombinantly expressed and purified BaTdp TIR domain interacted with several human TIR domains, including that of the key TLR adaptor MyD88, although BaTdp expression in cultured HEK293 cells had no effect on TLR4- or TLR2- mediated immune activation. During expression in mammalian cells, BaTdp localised to microtubular networks and caused an increase in lipidated cytosolic microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), indicative of autophagosome formation. In vivo intra-nasal infection experiments in mice showed that a BaTdp knockout strain colonised host tissue faster with higher bacterial load within 4 days post-infection compared to the wild type B. anthracis. Taken together, these findings indicate that BaTdp does not play an immune suppressive role, but rather, its absence increases virulence. BaTdp present in wild type B. anthracis plausibly interact with the infected host cell, which undergoes autophagy in self-defence.

  6. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Valdez, Yolanda E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shou, Yulin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marrone, Babetta L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunbar, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  7. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  8. Light Sensitivity of Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas

    The thioredoxin system has evolved in all kingdoms of life acting as a key antioxidant system in the defense against oxidative stress. The thioredoxin system utilizes reducing equivalents from NADPH to reduce protein disulfide targets. The reducing equivalents are shuttled via a flavin and redox...... active dithiol motif in thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) to reduce the small ubiquitous thioredoxin (Trx). Trx in turn regulates the protein dithiol/disulfide balance by reduction of protein disulfide targets in e.g. ribonucleotide reductase, peroxiredoxins and methionine sulfoxide reductase. The glutathione......, thus expected to rely mainly on the Trx system for thiol-disulfide control. L. lactis is an important industrial microorganism used as starter culture in the dairy production of cheese, buttermilk etc. and known to be sensitive to oxidative stress. The L. lactis TrxR (LlTrxR) is a homodimeric...

  9. A Dual Role for the Bacillus anthracis Master Virulence Regulator AtxA: Control of Sporulation and Anthrax Toxin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jennifer L; Raynor, Malik J; Ty, Maureen C; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria; Koehler, Theresa M

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is an endemic soil bacterium that exhibits two different lifestyles. In the soil environment, B. anthracis undergoes a cycle of saprophytic growth, sporulation, and germination. In mammalian hosts, the pathogenic lifestyle of B. anthracis is spore germination followed by vegetative cell replication, but cells do not sporulate. During infection, and in specific culture conditions, transcription of the structural genes for the anthrax toxin proteins and the biosynthetic operon for capsule synthesis is positively controlled by the regulatory protein AtxA. A critical role for the atxA gene in B. anthracis virulence has been established. Here we report an inverse relationship between toxin production and sporulation that is linked to AtxA levels. During culture in conditions favoring sporulation, B. anthracis produces little to no AtxA. When B. anthracis is cultured in conditions favoring toxin gene expression, AtxA is expressed at relatively high levels and sporulation rate and efficiency are reduced. We found that a mutation within the atxA promoter region resulting in AtxA over-expression leads to a marked sporulation defect. The sporulation phenotype of the mutant is dependent upon pXO2-0075 , an atxA -regulated open reading frame located on virulence plasmid pXO2. The predicted amino acid sequence of the pXO2-0075 protein has similarity to the sensor domain of sporulation sensor histidine kinases. It was shown previously that pXO2-0075 overexpression suppresses sporulation. We have designated pXO2-0075 " skiA " for "sporulation kinase inhibitor." Our results indicate that in addition to serving as a positive regulator of virulence gene expression, AtxA modulates B. anthracis development.

  10. In vitro evaluation of the effect of linezolid and levofloxacin on Bacillus anthracis toxin production, spore formation and cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Breanne M; Alfa, Michelle; Sitar, Daniel S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Meyers, Adrienne F A

    2017-02-01

    Owing to its ability to form spores and toxins, Bacillus anthracis is considered a bioterror agent. Although current therapeutic strategies can be effective, treatment does not prevent sporulation and toxin production. To quantify the combined effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor and a bactericidal agent on B. anthracis toxin production, sporulation and cell growth. Susceptibility and synergy titrations were conducted on B. anthracis Sterne and 03-0191 strains using linezolid and levofloxacin. The effect of antibiotic exposure on cell viability was evaluated using a continuous medium replacement model. In vitro static models were used to study the effect of linezolid and levofloxacin on sporulation and toxin production. Spores were quantified using the heat shock method. Toxin was quantified via commercial ELISA. Synergy titrations indicated that the combination was synergistic or indifferent; however, in all models antagonism was observed. In the spore model, linezolid resulted in the lowest sporulation rates, while combination therapy resulted in the highest. In the toxin model, linezolid prevented toxin production altogether. This study advances our understanding of the effects of combination therapy on B. anthracis infection. Used alone, linezolid therapy abolishes toxin production and reduces sporulation. These results suggest that studies using a step-wise approach using linezolid initially to stop sporulation and toxin production followed by levofloxacin to rapidly kill vegetative B. anthracis can be recommended. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The reporting of a Bacillus anthracis B-clade strain in South Africa after more than 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekota, K E; Hassim, A; Rogers, P; Dekker, E H; Last, R; de Klerk-Lorist, L; van Heerden, H

    2018-05-02

    Anthrax is a disease with an age old history in Africa caused by the Gram-positive endospore forming soil bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Epizootics of wild ungulates occur annually in the enzootic region of Pafuri, Kruger National Park (KNP) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Rigorous routine surveillance and diagnostics in KNP, has not revealed these rare isolates since the 1990s, despite unabated annual outbreaks. In 2011 a cheetah was diagnosed as anthrax positive from a private game reserve in Limpopo Province and reported to State Veterinary Services for further investigation. Isolation, molecular diagnostics, whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics were carried out for B. anthracis KC2011. Bacteriological and molecular diagnostics confirmed the isolate as B. anthracis. Subsequent typing and whole genome single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis indicated it clustered alongside B. anthracis SA A0091 in the B.Br.010 SNP branch. Unlike B. anthracis KrugerB strain, KC2011 strain has unique SNPs and represents a new branch in the B-clade. The isolation and genotypic characterisation of KC2011 demonstrates a gap in the reporting of anthrax outbreaks in the greater Limpopo province area. The identification of vulnerable and susceptible cheetah mortalities due to this strain has implications for conservation measures and disease control.

  12. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym S Antonation

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats in West and Central Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans.

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients with type-I diabetes mellitus folate deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction. So, polymorphism in genes involved in folate metabolism may have a role in vascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism ...

  14. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) are enzymes involve in folate regulation in human. The C to T transition of the cSHMT and MTHFR genes at the 1420 as well as 677 nucleotides both carries TT genotype respectively. These enzymes have direct and ...

  15. Enhanced production and purification of recombinant surface array protein (Sap) for use in detection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Nidhi; Tripathi, N K; Pal, V; Goel, Ajay Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Surface array protein (Sap) can be an important biomarker for specific detection of Bacillus anthracis , which is released by the bacterium during its growth in culture broth. In the present work, we have cloned and expressed Sap in Escherichia coli . The culture conditions and cultivation media were optimized and used in batch fermentation process for scale up of Sap in soluble form. The recombinant Sap was purified employing affinity chromatography followed by diafiltration. The final yield of purified protein was 20 and 46 mg/l of culture during shake flasks and batch fermentation, respectively. The protein purity and its reactivity were confirmed employing SDS-PAGE and Western blot, respectively. The antibodies raised against purified Sap were evaluated by Western blotting for detection of Sap released by B. anthracis . Our results showed that the Sap could be a novel marker for detection and confirmation of B. anthracis .

  16. Bacillus anthracis: una mirada molecular a un patógeno célebre Bacillus anthracis: a molecular look at a famous pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Pavan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis es un bacilo gram positivo del grupo Bacillus cereus, que posee un genoma extremadamente monomórfco y comparte gran similitud fsiológica y de estructura genética con B. cereus y Bacillus thuringiensis. En este artículo se describen nuevos métodos moleculares para la identifcación y tipifcación de B. anthracis, basados en repeticiones en tándem de número variable o en diferencias genéticas detectadas por secuenciación, desarrollados en los últimos años. Los aspectos moleculares de los factores de virulencia tradicionales, cápsula, antígeno protector, factor letal y factor edema se describen en profundidad, junto con factores de virulencia recientemente propuestos, como los sideróforos, petrobactina y bacilibactina, la adhesina de la capa S y la lipoproteína MntA. También se detalla la organización molecular de los megaplásmidos pXO1 y pXO2, incluyendo la isla de patogenicidad de pXO1. El esqueleto genético de estos plásmidos se ha encontrado en otras especies relacionadas, probablemente debido a eventos de transferencia lateral. Finalmente, se presentan los dos receptores celulares del antígeno protector, ANTXR1/TEM8 y ANTXR2/CMG2, esenciales en la interacción del patógeno con el hospedador. Los estudios moleculares realizados en los últimos años han permitido aumentar enormemente el conocimiento de los diferentes aspectos de este microorganismo y su relación con el hospedador, pero a la vez han abierto nuevos interrogantes sobre este notorio patógeno.Bacillus anthracis, a gram-positive rod belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, has an extremely monomorphic genome, and presents high structural and physiological similarity with B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In this work, the new molecular methods for the identifcation and typing of B. anthracis developed in the last years, based on variable number tandem repeats or on genetic differences detected through sequencing, are described. The

  17. Rapid-viability PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E; Murphy, Gloria A; Alfaro, Teneile M; Avila, Julie R; Kane, Staci R; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M; Shah, Sanjiv R

    2011-09-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples.

  18. Replacement of the folC gene, encoding folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase in Escherichia coli, with genes mutagenized in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, C; Bognar, A L

    1992-03-01

    The folylpolyglutamate synthetase-dihydrofolate synthetase gene (folC) in Escherichia coli was deleted from the bacterial chromosome and replaced by a selectable Kmr marker. The deletion strain required a complementing gene expressing folylpolyglutamate synthetase encoded on a plasmid for viability, indicating that folC is an essential gene in E. coli. The complementing folC gene was cloned into the vector pPM103 (pSC101, temperature sensitive for replication), which segregated spontaneously at 42 degrees C in the absence of selection. This complementing plasmid was replaced in the folC deletion strain by compatible pUC plasmids containing folC genes with mutations generated in vitro, producing strains which express only mutant folylpolyglutamate synthetase. Mutant folC genes expressing insufficient enzyme activity could not complement the chromosomal deletion, resulting in retention of the pPM103 plasmid. Some mutant genes expressing low levels of enzyme activity replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strains produced were auxotrophic for products of folate-dependent pathways. The folylpolyglutamate synthetase gene from Lactobacillus casei, which may lack dihydrofolate synthetase activity, replaced the complementing plasmid, but the strain was auxotrophic for all folate end products.

  19. Protein profiles of field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from different endemic areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhakti Poerwadikarta

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonicated cell-free extract proteins of 14 field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from six different endemic areas of Indonesia were analyzed by the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods . The protein profiles of each field isolate tested demonstrated slightly different at the protein bands with molecular weights of 18, 37, 52, 65 and 70 kDa, and varied between the field isolates and vaccine strains. The variation could provide clues to the source of anthrax transmission whether it was originated from similar strain or not.

  20. Ionic liquid mediated stereoselective synthesis of alanine linked hybrid quinazoline-4(3H)-one derivatives perturbing the malarial reductase activity in folate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tarosh S; Bhatt, Jaimin D; Vanparia, Satish F; Patel, Urmila H; Dixit, Ritu B; Chudasama, Chaitanya J; Patel, Bhavesh D; Dixit, Bharat C

    2017-12-15

    Grimmel's method was optimized as well as modified leading to the cyclization and incorporation of alanine linked sulphonamide in 4-quinazolin-(3H)-ones. Further, the generation of heterocyclic motif at position-3 of 4-quinazolinones was explored by synthesis of imines, which unfortunately led to an isomeric mixture of stereoisomers. The hurdle of diastereomers encountered on the path was eminently rectified by development of new rapid and reproducible methodology involving the use of imidazolium based ionic liquid as solvents as well as catalyst for cyclization as well as synthesis of imines in situ at position-3 leading to procurement of single E-isomer as the target hybrid heterocyclic molecules. The purity and presence of single isomer was also confirmed by HPLC and spectroscopic techniques. Further, the synthesized sulphonamide linked 4-quinazolin-(3H)-ones hybrids were screened for their antimalarial potency rendering potent entities (4b, 4c, 4 l, 4 t and 4u). The active hybrids were progressively screened for enzyme inhibitory efficacy against presumed receptor Pf-DHFR and h-DHFR computationally as well as in vitro, proving their potency as dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. The ADME properties of these active molecules were also predicted to enhance the knowhow of the oral bioavailability, indicating good bioavailability of the active entities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase from Candida parapsilosis: purification and characterization as a conjugated polyketone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, H; Shimizu, S; Hattori, S; Yamada, H

    1989-02-24

    Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase (2-dehydropantoyl-lactone reductase, EC 1.1.1.168) was purified and crystallized from cells of Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The enzyme was found to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation, high-performance gel-permeation liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular mass of the native and SDS-treated enzyme is approximately 40,000. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is 6.3. The enzyme was found to catalyze specifically the reduction of a variety of natural and unnatural polyketones and quinones other than ketopantoyl lactone in the presence of NADPH. Isatin and 5-methylisatin are rapidly reduced by the enzyme, the Km and Vmax values for isatin being 14 microM and 306 mumol/min per mg protein, respectively. Ketopantoyl lactone is also a good substrate (Km = 333 microM and Vmax = 481 mumol/min per mg protein). Reverse reaction was not detected with pantoyl lactone and NADP+. The enzyme is inhibited by quercetin, several polyketones and SH-reagents. 3,4-Dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione, cyclohexenediol-1,2,3,4-tetraone and parabanic acid are uncompetitive inhibitors for the enzyme, the Ki values being 1.4, 0.2 and 3140 microM, respectively, with isatin as substrate. Comparison of the enzyme with the conjugated polyketone reductase of Mucor ambiguus (S. Shimizu, H. Hattori, H. Hata and H. Yamada (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 174, 37-44) and ketopantoyl-lactone reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that ketopantoyl-lactone reductase is a kind of conjugated polyketone reductase.

  2. Modeling the Ecological Niche of Bacillus anthracis to Map Anthrax Risk in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Matakarimov, Saitbek; Kozhokeeva, Sabira; Tagaeva, Zhyldyz; Bell, Lindsay K; Kracalik, Ian T; Zhunushov, Asankadyr

    2017-03-01

    AbstractAnthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis , is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance. Disease control for both humans and livestock relies on annual livestock vaccination ahead of outbreaks. Toward this, we used a historic database of livestock anthrax reported from 1932 to 2006 mapped at high resolution to develop an ecological niche model-based prediction of B. anthracis across Kyrgyzstan and identified spatial clusters of livestock anthrax using a cluster morphology statistic. We also defined the seasonality of outbreaks in livestock. Cattle were the most frequently reported across the time period, with the greatest number of cases in late summer months. Our niche models defined four areas as suitable to support pathogen persistence, the plateaus near Talas and Bishkek, the valleys of western Kyrgyzstan along the Fergana Valley, and the low-lying areas along the shore of Lake Isyk-Kul. These areas should be considered "at risk" for livestock anthrax and subsequent human cases. Areas defined by the niche models can be used to prioritize anthrax surveillance and inform efforts to target livestock vaccination campaigns.

  3. Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Amperometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Waller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Portable detection and quantitation methods for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax spores in pure culture or in environmental samples are lacking. Here, an amperometric immunoassay has been developed utilizing immunomagnetic separation to capture the spores and remove potential interferents from test samples followed by amperometric measurement on a field-portable instrument. Antibody-conjugated magnetic beads and antibody-conjugated glucose oxidase were used in a sandwich format for the capture and detection of target spores. Glucose oxidase activity of spore pellets was measured indirectly via amperometry by applying a bias voltage after incubation with glucose, horseradish peroxidase, and the electron mediator 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid. Target capture was mediated by polyclonal antisera, whereas monoclonal antibodies were used for signal generation. This strategy maximized sensitivity (500 target spores, 5000 cfu/mL, while also providing a good specificity for Bacillus anthracis spores. Minimal signal deviation occurs in the presence of environmental interferents including soil and modified pH conditions, demonstrating the strengths of immunomagnetic separation. The simultaneous incubation of capture and detection antibodies and rapid substrate development (5 min result in short sample-to-signal times (less than an hour. With attributes comparable or exceeding that of ELISA and LFDs, amperometry is a low-cost, low-weight, and practical method for detecting anthrax spores in the field.

  4. The role of DNA restriction-modification systems in the biology of Bacillus anthracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eSitaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction-modification (R-M systems are widespread among prokaryotes and, depending on their type, may be viewed as selfish genetic elements that persist as toxin-antitoxin modules or as cellular defense systems against phage infection. Studies in the last decade have made it amply clear that these two options do not exhaust the list of possible biological roles for R-M systems. Their presence in a cell may also have a bearing on other processes such as horizontal gene transfer and gene regulation. From genome sequencing and experimental data, we know that Bacillus anthracis encodes at least three methylation-dependent (typeIV restriction endonucleases, and an orphan DNA methyltransferase. In this article, we first present an outline of our current knowledge of R-M systems in Bacillus anthracis. Based on available DNA sequence data, and on our current understanding of the functions of similar genes in other systems, we conclude with hypotheses on the possible roles of the three restriction endonucleases and the orphan DNA methyltransferase.

  5. [An historical, sociocultural view and in the fiction literature of Bacillus anthracis cases by shaving brushes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Espinosa, E; Laganà, C; Vazquez, F

    2018-06-01

    In the period from 1915 to 1924 anthrax outbreaks were described by Bacillus anthracis due to the contamination of razor brushes that reached Europe and the United States from areas such as Japan, China or Russia. The brushes were made with badger hair, and then, to reduce the cost with horse hair and other animals. World War I supoosed that the traffics of these brushes, that passed through Europe, changed and the processes of sterilization of the same were deficient giving rise to these outbreaks, that in a percentage of 20% produced the death of the users. The impact of the fashion of wearing a beard, the presence of these cases in the press, in the society of that period, and literature are studied through the work of Agatha Christie who wrote, in 1936, the Hercules Poirot´s novel Cards on the table, and where she describes the murder of one of the characters with the shaving brush contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. ©The Author 2018. Published by Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

  6. Identification of the immunogenic spore and vegetative proteins of Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankai Liu

    Full Text Available Immunoproteomics was used to screen the immunogenic spore and vegetative proteins of Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R. The spore and vegetative proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, and then western blotting was performed with rabbit immune serum against B.anthracis live spores. Immunogenic spots were cut and digested by trypsin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed to identify the proteins. As a result, 11 and 45 immunogenic proteins were identified in the spores and vegetative cells, respectively; 26 of which have not been reported previously. To verify their immunogenicity, 12 of the identified proteins were selected to be expressed, and the immune sera from the mice vaccinated by the 12 expressed proteins, except BA0887, had a specific western blot band with the A16R whole cellular lytic proteins. Some of these immunogenic proteins might be used as novel vaccine candidates themselves or for enhancing the protective efficacy of a protective-antigen-based vaccine.

  7. A Study on molecular characterization of Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon, K.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, has affected humans since ancient times. For genomic characterization of Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping method developed by Van Erth, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR-8 analysis proposed by Keim, and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA-3 introduced by Levy were employed. In the SNPs typing system, where the nucleotide content of the genome at 13 evolutionary canonical loci was collectively analyzed, the originally South African 34F2 substrain was categorized in the A.Br.001/002 subgroup. In the VNTR-8 analysis, fragments with lengths of 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, and 137 bp were identified at the following loci: vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3, and pxO1, respectively. In addition, application of Levy's MLVA-3 genotyping method revealed that the genome of this strain carried 941, 451, and 864 bp fragments at AA03, AJ03, and AA07 loci, respectively. The present findings are undoubtedly helpful in meeting the requirements set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and World Health Organization (WHO for anthrax vaccine manufacturers including Razi Institute. However, further similar studies are required to promote the current epidemiological knowledge of anthrax in Iran.

  8. Sporulation and germination gene expression analysis of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in skim milk under heat and different intervention techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate how B. anthracis Stene spores survive in milk under heat (80 degree C, 10 minutes), pasteurization (72 degree C, 15 seconds) and pasteurization plus microfiltration, the expression levels of genes that related to sporulation and germination were tested using real-time PCR assays. Tw...

  9. Pilot-scale crossflow-microfiltration and pasturization to remove spores of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) from milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    HTST pasteurization of milk is generally ineffective against spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis (BA) but is lethal to its vegetative cells. Crossflow microfiltration (MF), using ceramic membranes with a pore diameter of 1.4 um, has been shown to physically remove somatic cells, vegeta...

  10. Reagent-free and portable detection of Bacillus anthracis spores using a microfluidic incubator and smartphone microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Janine R; Erikson, Rebecca L; Sheen, Allison M; Ozanich, Richard M; Kelly, Ryan T

    2015-09-21

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and can be contracted by humans and herbivorous mammals by inhalation, ingestion, or cutaneous exposure to bacterial spores. Due to its stability and disease potential, B. anthracis is a recognized biothreat agent and robust detection and viability methods are needed to identify spores from unknown samples. Here we report the use of smartphone-based microscopy (SPM) in combination with a simple microfluidic incubation device (MID) to detect 50 to 5000 B. anthracis Sterne spores in 3 to 5 hours. This technique relies on optical monitoring of the conversion of the ∼1 μm spores to the filamentous vegetative cells that range from tens to hundreds of micrometers in length. This distinguishing filament formation is unique to B. anthracis as compared to other members of the Bacillus cereus group. A unique feature of this approach is that the sample integrity is maintained, and the vegetative biomass can be removed from the chip for secondary molecular analysis such as PCR. Compared with existing chip-based and rapid viability PCR methods, this new approach reduces assay time by almost half, and is highly sensitive, specific, and cost effective.

  11. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  12. Structure and mechanism of dimethylsulfoxide reductase, a molybdopterin-containing enzyme of DMSO reductase family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.G.; Ridge, J.P.; McDevitt, C.A.; Hanson, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Apart from nitrogenase, enzymes containing molybdenum are members of a superfamily, the molybdopterin-containing enzymes. Most of these enzymes catalyse an oxygen atom transfer and two electron transfer reaction. During catalysis the Mo at the active site cycles between the Mo(VI) and Mo(IV) states. The DMSO reductase family of molybdopterin-containing enzymes all contain a bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide)Mo cofactor and over thirty examples have now been described. Over the last five years crystal structures of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase and four other enzymes of the DMSO reductase family have revealed that enzymes of this family have a similar tertiary structure. The Mo atom at the active site is coordinated by four thiolate ligands provided by the dithiolene side chains of the two MGD molecules of the bis(MGD)Mo cofactor as well as a ligand provided by an amino acid side chain. In addition, an oxygen atom in the form of an oxo, hydroxo or aqua group is also coordinated to the Mo atom. In the case of dimethylsulfoxide reductase X-ray crystallography of the product-reduced species and Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated that the enzyme contains a single exchangeable oxo group that is H-bonded to W116

  13. DNA damage induction of ribonucleotide reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Elledge, S J; Davis, R W

    1989-01-01

    RNR2 encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the pathway for the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA synthesis. RNR2 is a member of a group of genes whose activities are cell cycle regulated and that are transcriptionally induced in response to the stress of DNA damage. An RNR2-lacZ fusion was used to further characterize the regulation of RNR2 and the pathway responsible for its response to DNA damage. beta-Galactosidas...

  14. Bacillus anthracis secretome time course under host-simulated conditions and identification of immunogenic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whittington Jessica

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secretion time course of Bacillus anthracis strain RA3R (pXO1+/pXO2- during early, mid, and late log phase were investigated under conditions that simulate those encountered in the host. All of the identified proteins were analyzed by different software algorithms to characterize their predicted mode of secretion and cellular localization. In addition, immunogenic proteins were identified using sera from humans with cutaneous anthrax. Results A total of 275 extracellular proteins were identified by a combination of LC MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS. All of the identified proteins were analyzed by SignalP, SecretomeP, PSORT, LipoP, TMHMM, and PROSITE to characterize their predicted mode of secretion, cellular localization, and protein domains. Fifty-three proteins were predicted by SignalP to harbor the cleavable N-terminal signal peptides and were therefore secreted via the classical Sec pathway. Twenty-three proteins were predicted by SecretomeP for secretion by the alternative Sec pathway characterized by the lack of typical export signal. In contrast to SignalP and SecretomeP predictions, PSORT predicted 171 extracellular proteins, 7 cell wall-associated proteins, and 6 cytoplasmic proteins. Moreover, 51 proteins were predicted by LipoP to contain putative Sec signal peptides (38 have SpI sites, lipoprotein signal peptides (13 have SpII sites, and N-terminal membrane helices (9 have transmembrane helices. The TMHMM algorithm predicted 25 membrane-associated proteins with one to ten transmembrane helices. Immunogenic proteins were also identified using sera from patients who have recovered from anthrax. The charge variants (83 and 63 kDa of protective antigen (PA were the most immunodominant secreted antigens, followed by charge variants of enolase and transketolase. Conclusion This is the first description of the time course of protein secretion for the pathogen Bacillus anthracis. Time course studies of protein secretion and

  15. Pathology of wild-type and toxin-independent Bacillus anthracis meningitis in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa Sittner

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic meningitis is considered a complication of anthrax and was reported in about 50% of deadly cases in humans and non-human primates (NHP. Recently we demonstrated in Guinea pigs and rabbits that 100% of the B. anthracis-infected animals presented histopathology of meningitis at the time of death, some without any sign of hemorrhage. A similar pathology was observed in animals that succumbed following infection with the toxin deficient mutant, thus indicating that anthrax meningitis is a toxin-independent phenomenon. In this manuscript we describe a histopathological study of the B. anthracis infection of the central nervous system (CNS. Though we could find sporadic growth of the bacteria around blood vessels in the cortex, we report that the main infiltration route is the choroid plexus. We found massive destruction of entire sections of the choroid plexus coupled with massive aggregation of bacilli in the ventricles, in close proximity to the parenchyma. The choroid plexus also contained significant amounts of intravascular bacterial aggregates, often enclosed in what appear to be fibrin-like clots. The high concentration of these aggregates in areas of significant tissue destruction combined with the fact that capsular B. anthracis bacteria have a low tendency to adhere to endothelial cells, might suggest that these clots are used as an adherence mechanism by the bacteria. The major histopathological finding is meningitis. We find massive bacterial growth in the meninges without evidence of encephalitis, even when the bacteria emerge from a parenchymal blood vessel. Erythrocytes were present within the meningeal space but no clear vasculitis could be detected. Histology of the brain stem indicates meningitis, edema and hemorrhages that might explain death from suffocation due to direct damage to the respiratory center. All of these processes are toxin-independent, since they were observed following infection with either the wild

  16. The genome of a Bacillus isolate causing anthrax in chimpanzees combines chromosomal properties of B. cereus with B. anthracis virulence plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke R Klee

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a fatal disease caused by strains of Bacillus anthracis. Members of this monophyletic species are non motile and are all characterized by the presence of four prophages and a nonsense mutation in the plcR regulator gene. Here we report the complete genome sequence of a Bacillus strain isolated from a chimpanzee that had died with clinical symptoms of anthrax. Unlike classic B. anthracis, this strain was motile and lacked the four prohages and the nonsense mutation. Four replicons were identified, a chromosome and three plasmids. Comparative genome analysis revealed that the chromosome resembles those of non-B. anthracis members of the Bacillus cereus group, whereas two plasmids were identical to the anthrax virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. The function of the newly discovered third plasmid with a length of 14 kbp is unknown. A detailed comparison of genomic loci encoding key features confirmed a higher similarity to B. thuringiensis serovar konkukian strain 97-27 and B. cereus E33L than to B. anthracis strains. For the first time we describe the sequence of an anthrax causing bacterium possessing both anthrax plasmids that apparently does not belong to the monophyletic group of all so far known B. anthracis strains and that differs in important diagnostic features. The data suggest that this bacterium has evolved from a B. cereus strain independently from the classic B. anthracis strains and established a B. anthracis lifestyle. Therefore we suggest to designate this isolate as "B. cereus variety (var. anthracis".

  17. Physical Sequestration of Bacillus anthracis in the Pulmonary Capillaries in Terminal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvion, Gregory; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Khun, Huot; Moya-Nilges, Marie; Roux, Pascal; Latroche, Claire; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Huerre, Michel; Chrétien, Fabrice; Goossens, Pierre L

    2016-07-15

    The lung is the terminal target of Bacillus anthracis before death, whatever the route of infection (cutaneous, inhalational, or digestive). During a cutaneous infection in absence of toxins, we observed encapsulated bacteria colonizing the alveolar capillary network, bacteria and hemorrhages in alveolar and bronchiolar spaces, and hypoxic foci in the lung (endothelial cells) and brain (neurons and neuropil). Circulating encapsulated bacteria were as chains of approximately 13 µm in length. Bacteria of such size were immediately trapped within the lung capillary network, but bacteria of shorter length were not. Controlling lung-targeted pathology would be beneficial for anthrax treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Esterase activity as a novel parameter of spore germination in Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencko, Linda; Cote, Mindy A.; Rotman, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis were shown to produce esterase activity about 4 min after exposure to conventional germinants such as combinations of amino acids and purine ribosides. Neither amino acids nor ribosides alone induce germination and esterase activity. Expression of esterase activity was chloramphenicol resistant, and correlated with loss of spore refractivity, a traditional parameter of early germination. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that esterase activity could be used as a novel parameter for quantifying early events during spore germination. To test this hypothesis, we measured expression of esterase activity under a variety of germinating conditions. Using diacetyl fluorescein as fluorogenic substrate of esterases, we demonstrated that esterase activity was invariably induced whenever spores were triggered by known germinants. Moreover, D-alanine, an inhibitor of L-alanine-mediated germination, was found to significantly inhibit expression of esterase activity. In terms of molecular mechanisms, esterase expression could represent activation of proteases at the onset of spore germination

  19. Proteomic signatures differentiating Bacillus anthracis Sterne sporulation on soil relative to laboratory media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunschel, D S; Hutchison, J R; Deatherage Kaiser, B L; Merkley, E D; Hess, B M; Lin, A; Warner, M G

    2017-12-18

    The process of sporulation is vital for the stability and infectious cycle of Bacillus anthracis. The spore is the infectious form of the organism and therefore relevant to biodefense. While the morphological and molecular events occurring during sporulation have been well studied, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the proteins expressed in sporulated cultures is not well understood. Understanding the features of B. anthracis sporulation specific to natural vs. laboratory production will address an important question in microbial forensics. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a system for sporulation on two types of agar-immobilized soils was used for comparison to cultures sporulated on two common types of solid laboratory media, and one liquid sporulation medium. The total number of proteins identified as well as their identity differed between samples generated in each medium and growth temperature, demonstrating that sporulation environment significantly impacts the protein content of the spore. In addition, a subset of proteins common in all of the soil-cultivated samples was distinct from the expression profiles in laboratory medium (and vice versa). These differences included proteins involved in thiamine and phosphate metabolism in the sporulated cultures produced on soils with a notable increase in expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters annotated to be for phosphate and antimicrobial peptides. A distinct set of ABC transporters for amino acids, sugars and oligopeptides were found in cultures produced on laboratory media as well as increases in carbon and amino acid metabolism-related proteins. These protein expression changes indicate that the sporulation environment impacts the protein profiles in specific ways that are reflected in the metabolic and membrane transporter proteins present in sporulated cultures.

  20. Bacillus anthracis Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Interacts with and Modifies Elongation Factor Tu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnicker, Nicholas J. [Department; Razzaghi, Mortezaali [Department; Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta [Department; Chakravarthy, Srinivas [Biophysics; Dey, Mishtu [Department

    2017-10-17

    Prolyl hydroxylation is a very common post-translational modification and plays many roles in eukaryotes such as collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and controlling protein transcription and translation. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that prokaryotes contain prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) homologous to the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes that act on elongation factor Tu (EFTu) and are likely involved in the regulation of bacterial translation. Recent biochemical and structural studies with a PHD from Pseudomonas putida (PPHD) determined that it forms a complex with EFTu and hydroxylates a prolyl residue of EFTu. Moreover, while animal, plant, and viral P4Hs act on peptidyl proline, most prokaryotic P4Hs have been known to target free l-proline; the exceptions include PPHD and a P4H from Bacillus anthracis (BaP4H) that modifies collagen-like proline-rich peptides. Here we use biophysical and mass spectrometric methods to demonstrate that BaP4H recognizes full-length BaEFTu and a BaEFTu 9-mer peptide for site-specific proline hydroxylation. Using size-exclusion chromatography coupled small-angle X-ray scattering (SEC–SAXS) and binding studies, we determined that BaP4H forms a 1:1 heterodimeric complex with BaEFTu. The SEC–SAXS studies reveal dissociation of BaP4H dimeric subunits upon interaction with BaEFTu. While BaP4H is unusual within bacteria in that it is structurally and functionally similar to the animal PHDs and collagen P4Hs, respectively, this work provides further evidence of its promiscuous substrate recognition. It is possible that the enzyme might have evolved to hydroxylate a universally conserved protein in prokaryotes, similar to the PHDs, and implies a functional role in B. anthracis.

  1. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for

  2. Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores Inactivated with Rapid Dry Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Daniel L.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  3. Rapid detection and identification of Bacillus anthracis in food using pyrosequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, Kingsley K; Janzen, Timothy W; Shields, Michael J; Hahn, Kristen R; Thomas, Matthew C; Goji, Noriko

    2013-08-01

    The development of advanced methodologies for the detection of Bacillus anthracis has been evolving rapidly since the release of the anthrax spores in the mail in 2001. Recent advances in detection and identification techniques could prove to be an essential component in the defense against biological attacks. Sequence based such as pyrosequencing, which has the capability to determine short DNA stretches in real-time using biotinylated PCR amplicons, has potential biodefense applications. Using markers from the virulence plasmids (pXO1 and pXO2) and chromosomal regions, we have demonstrated the power of this technology in the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of B. anthracis spores in food matrices including milk, juice, bottled water, and processed meat. The combined use of immunomagnetic separation and pyrosequencing showed positive detection when liquid foods (bottled water, milk, juice), and processed meat were experimentally inoculated with 6CFU/mL and 6CFU/g, respectively, without an enrichment step. Pyrosequencing is completed in about 60min (following PCR amplification) and yields accurate and reliable results with an added layer of confidence. The entire assay (from sample preparation to sequencing information) can be completed in about 7.5h. A typical run on food samples yielded 67-80bp reads with 94-100% identity to the expected sequence. This sequence based approach is a novel application for the detection of anthrax spores in food with potential application in foodborne bioterrorism response and biodefense involving the use of anthrax spores. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing prevalence of wildtypes in the dihydrofolate reductase gene of Plasmodium falciparum in an area with high levels of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance after introduction of treated bed nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alifrangis, Michael; Lemnge, Martha M; Rønn, Anita M

    2003-01-01

    years old living in the villages from 1998 to 2000. In 2000, after two years of bed net use, the prevalence of wild types in codon 51, 59, and 108 of dhfr increased significantly in Magoda compared with previous years. Furthermore, the prevalence of dhfr wild types was significantly higher in Magoda...

  5. [Efficacy of enterocin S760 in treatment of mice with anthrax infection due to Bacillus anthracis M-71].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetoch, E A; Borzilov, A I; Eruslanov, B V; Korobova, O V; Kombarova, T I; Levchuk, V P; Teĭmurazov, M G; Stepanshin, Iu G; Marinin, L I; Diatlov, I A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of enterocin S760, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide produced by Enterococcus faecium LWP760 was tested on mice infected with Bacillus anthracis M-71 to induce anthrax (second Tsenkovsky's vaccine). Intraperitoneal four-, two- or one-fold administration of the peptide in a dose of 25 mg/kg for 10 days for prophylactic (1 hour after the contamination) and therapeutic (24 hours after the contamination) purposes prevented or cured the infection in 90-100% of the mice versus the 100-percent lethality in the control (untreated animals). The antimicrobial activity of enterocin S760 against B. anthracis M-71 in vivo correlated with activity in vitro. Enterocin S760 is considered a novel promising antimicrobial for the treatment of grampositive and gramnegative infections.

  6. Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei by Use of Laser Light Scattering Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugrysheva, Julia V; Lascols, Christine; Sue, David; Weigel, Linda M

    2016-06-01

    Rapid methods to determine antimicrobial susceptibility would assist in the timely distribution of effective treatment or postexposure prophylaxis in the aftermath of the release of bacterial biothreat agents such as Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, or Burkholderia pseudomallei Conventional susceptibility tests require 16 to 48 h of incubation, depending on the bacterial species. We evaluated a method that is based on laser light scattering technology that measures cell density in real time. We determined that it has the ability to rapidly differentiate between growth (resistant) and no growth (susceptible) of several bacterial threat agents in the presence of clinically relevant antimicrobials. Results were available in 10 h of incubation. Use of laser scattering technology decreased the time required to determine antimicrobial susceptibility by 50% to 75% for B. anthracis, Y. pestis, and B. pseudomallei compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Structure and expression of human dihydropteridine reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockyer, J.; Cook, R.G.; Milstien, S.; Kaufman, S.; Woo, S.L.C.; Ledley, F.D.

    1987-01-01

    Dihydropteridine reductase catalyzes the NADH-mediated reduction of quinonoid dihydrobiopterin and is an essential component of the pterindependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylating systems. A cDNA for human DHPR was isolated from a human liver cDNA library in the vector λgt11 using a monospecific antibody against sheep DHPR. The nucleic acid sequence and amino acid sequence of human DHPR were determined from a full-length clone. A 112 amino acid sequence of sheep DHPR was obtained by sequencing purified sheep DHPR. This sequence is highly homologous to the predicted amino acid sequence of the human protein. Gene transfer of the recombinant human DHPR into COS cells leads to expression of DHPR enzymatic activity. These results indicate that the cDNA clone identified by antibody screening is an authentic and full-length cDNA for human DHPR

  8. Monodehydroascorbate reductase mediates TNT toxicity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emily J; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Beynon, Emily; Lorenz, Astrid; Chechik, Victor; Bruce, Neil C

    2015-09-04

    The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a highly toxic and persistent environmental pollutant. Due to the scale of affected areas, one of the most cost-effective and environmentally friendly means of removing explosives pollution could be the use of plants. However, mechanisms of TNT phytotoxicity have been elusive. Here, we reveal that phytotoxicity is caused by reduction of TNT in the mitochondria, forming a nitro radical that reacts with atmospheric oxygen, generating reactive superoxide. The reaction is catalyzed by monodehydroascorbate reductase 6 (MDHAR6), with Arabidopsis deficient in MDHAR6 displaying enhanced TNT tolerance. This discovery will contribute toward the remediation of contaminated sites. Moreover, in an environment of increasing herbicide resistance, with a shortage in new herbicide classes, our findings reveal MDHAR6 as a valuable plant-specific target. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by super-paramagnetic lateral-flow immunoassays based on "Road Closure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian-Bing; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Xu-Ying; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Li-Jun; Yang, Rui-Fu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2015-05-15

    Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the field, whether as a natural infection or as a biothreat remains challenging. Here we have developed a new lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) for B. anthracis spore detection based on the fact that conjugates of B. anthracis spores and super-paramagnetic particles labeled with antibodies will block the pores of chromatographic strips and form retention lines on the strips, instead of the conventionally reported test lines and control lines in classic LFIA. As a result, this new LFIA can simultaneously realize optical, magnetic and naked-eye detection by analyzing signals from the retention lines. As few as 500-700 pure B. anthracis spores can be recognized with CV values less than 8.31% within 5 min of chromatography and a total time of 20 min. For powdery sample tests, this LFIA can endure interference from 25% (w/v) milk, 10% (w/v) baking soda and 10% (w/v) starch without any sample pre-treatment, and has a corresponding detection limit of 6×10(4) spores/g milk powder, 2×10(5) spores/g starch and 5×10(5) spores/g baking soda. Compared with existing methods, this new approach is very competitive in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost and ease of operation. This proof-of-concept study can also be extended for detection of many other large-sized analytes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    decontamination strategies>> Maryline DEFEZ 1𔃼, Melissa HUNTER3J Susan WELKOS :~J Christopher COTE3 1 University Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. 1...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a...8217 • Accidentally in Humans • Natural reservoir is soil • Anthrax Disease Cycle: - animals infected by soilborne spores in food and water or bites from certain

  11. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerstrom, Troy G.; Horton, Lori B.; Swick, Michelle C.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthesis operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO2/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO2/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity, and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-bin...

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Omadacycline Against Two Biothreat Pathogens: Bacillus Anthracis and Yersinia Pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    visually at 18-24 hours (B. anthracis) or 42-48 hours (Y. pestis) and also by absorbance at 600 nm (SpectroMax M2, Molecular Devices). Thirty...certain uncomplicated infections; warns about disabling side effects that can occur together. May 12, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2016. Flamm RK, Rhomberg... odontology in the management of bioterrorism. In Evidence-Based Forensic Dentistry. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. pp. 149-152. Rotz LD

  13. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA, the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation, whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis.

  14. The structure of apo and holo forms of xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase from Candida tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2002-07-16

    Xylose reductase is a homodimeric oxidoreductase dependent on NADPH or NADH and belongs to the largely monomeric aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins. It catalyzes the first step in the assimilation of xylose, an aldose found to be a major constituent monosaccharide of renewable plant hemicellulosic material, into yeast metabolic pathways. It does this by reducing open chain xylose to xylitol, which is reoxidized to xylulose by xylitol dehydrogenase and metabolically integrated via the pentose phosphate pathway. No structure has yet been determined for a xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase or a family 2 aldo-keto reductase. The structures of the Candida tenuis xylose reductase apo- and holoenzyme, which crystallize in spacegroup C2 with different unit cells, have been determined to 2.2 A resolution and an R-factor of 17.9 and 20.8%, respectively. Residues responsible for mediating the novel dimeric interface include Asp-178, Arg-181, Lys-202, Phe-206, Trp-313, and Pro-319. Alignments with other superfamily members indicate that these interactions are conserved in other dimeric xylose reductases but not throughout the remainder of the oligomeric aldo-keto reductases, predicting alternate modes of oligomerization for other families. An arrangement of side chains in a catalytic triad shows that Tyr-52 has a conserved function as a general acid. The loop that folds over the NAD(P)H cosubstrate is disordered in the apo form but becomes ordered upon cosubstrate binding. A slow conformational isomerization of this loop probably accounts for the observed rate-limiting step involving release of cosubstrate. Xylose binding (K(m) = 87 mM) is mediated by interactions with a binding pocket that is more polar than a typical aldo-keto reductase. Modeling of xylose into the active site of the holoenzyme using ordered waters as a guide for sugar hydroxyls suggests a convincing mode of substrate binding.

  15. Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by Spd1 involves multiple mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestoras, Konstantinos; Mohammed, Asma Hadi; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie

    2010-01-01

    The correct levels of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and their relative abundance are important to maintain genomic integrity. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. RNR is regulated allosterically by two nucleotide-binding sites, by transcriptional control, and...

  16. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of thioredoxin reductase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koháryová, Michaela; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kollárová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductase from S. coelicolor was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Thioredoxin reductases are homodimeric flavoenzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxidized thioredoxin substrate. Bacterial thioredoxin reductases represent a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase TrxB from Streptomyces coelicolor was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals to 2.4 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 82.9, b = 60.6, c = 135.4 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 96.5°

  17. Cloning and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Alexander et al., 2005) and heme-type nitrite reductase gene (Smith and ... owing to a genotype-dependent response (Zhang et al.,. 1991; Sakhanokho et al., ..... Improvement of cell culture conditions for rice. Jpn. Agric. Res.

  18. Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, Brian M.; Hondal, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k cat of 610 min -1 and a K m of 610 μM using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k cat is 25% of the k cat of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate

  19. 5α-reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-01-01

    We measured the 5 α-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of [ 3 H] dihydrotestosterone from [ 3 H] testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5α-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10 -8 M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5α-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5α-reductase activity in each tissue studied

  20. Intraethnic variation in steroid-5-alpha-reductase polymorphisms in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... in prostate cancer patients: a potential factor implicated ... reductase alpha polypeptides 1 and 2 in a set of 601 prostate cancer patients from four ..... tion in the key androgen-regulating genes androgen receptor, cytochrome ...

  1. Streptococcus sanguinis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlynets, Olga; Boal, Amie K.; Rhodes, DeLacy V.; Kitten, Todd; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a causative agent of infective endocarditis. Deletion of SsaB, a manganese transporter, drastically reduces S. sanguinis virulence. Many pathogenic organisms require class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides under aerobic conditions, and recent studies demonstrate that this enzyme uses a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (MnIII2-Y•) cofactor in vivo. The proteins required for S. sanguinis ribonucleotide reduction (NrdE and NrdF, α and β subunits of RNR; NrdH and TrxR, a glutaredoxin-like thioredoxin and a thioredoxin reductase; and NrdI, a flavodoxin essential for assembly of the RNR metallo-cofactor) have been identified and characterized. Apo-NrdF with FeII and O2 can self-assemble a diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) cofactor (1.2 Y•/β2) and with the help of NrdI can assemble a MnIII2-Y• cofactor (0.9 Y•/β2). The activity of RNR with its endogenous reductants, NrdH and TrxR, is 5,000 and 1,500 units/mg for the Mn- and Fe-NrdFs (Fe-loaded NrdF), respectively. X-ray structures of S. sanguinis NrdIox and MnII2-NrdF are reported and provide a possible rationale for the weak affinity (2.9 μm) between them. These streptococcal proteins form a structurally distinct subclass relative to other Ib proteins with unique features likely important in cluster assembly, including a long and negatively charged loop near the NrdI flavin and a bulky residue (Thr) at a constriction in the oxidant channel to the NrdI interface. These studies set the stage for identifying the active form of S. sanguinis class Ib RNR in an animal model for infective endocarditis and establishing whether the manganese requirement for pathogenesis is associated with RNR. PMID:24381172

  2. Cloning, expression, and characterization of recombinant nitric oxide synthase-like protein from Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midha, Shuchi; Mishra, Rajeev; Aziz, M.A.; Sharma, Meenakshi; Mishra, Ashish; Khandelwal, Puneet; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is amongst a family of evolutionarily conserved enzymes, involved in a multi-turnover process that results in NO as a product. The significant role of NO in various pathological and physiological processes has created an interest in this enzyme from several perspectives. This study describes for the first time, cloning and expression of a NOS-like protein, baNOS, from Bacillus anthracis, a pathogenic bacterium responsible for causing anthrax. baNOS was expressed in Escherichia coli as a soluble and catalytically active enzyme. Homology models generated for baNOS indicated that the key structural features that are involved in the substrate and active site interaction have been highly conserved. Further, the behavior of baNOS in terms of heme-substrate interactions and heme-transitions was studied in detail. The optical perturbation spectra of the heme domain demonstrated that the ligands perturb the heme site in a ligand specific manner. baNOS forms a five-coordinate, high-spin complex with L-arginine analogs and a six-coordinate low-spin complex with inhibitor imidazole. Studies indicated that the binding of L-arginine, N ω -hydroxy-L-arginine, and imidazole produces various spectroscopic species that closely correspond to the equivalent complexes of mammalian NOS. The values of spectral binding constants further corroborated these results. The overall conservation of the key structural features and the correlation of heme-substrate interactions in baNOS and mammalian NOS, thus, point towards an interesting phenomenon of convergent evolution. Importantly, the NO generated by NOS of mammalian macrophages plays a potent role in antimicrobicidal activity. Because of the existence of high structural and behavioral similarity between mammalian NOS and baNOS, we propose that NO produced by B. anthracis may also have a pivotal pathophysiological role in anthrax infection. Therefore, this first report of characterization of a NOS-like protein

  3. Comparison of false-negative rates and limits of detection following macrofoam-swab sampling of Bacillus anthracis surrogates via Rapid Viability PCR and plate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, J R; Piepel, G F; Amidan, B G; Hess, B M; Sydor, M A; Deatherage Kaiser, B L

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD 95 ) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2-500 per coupon) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile and plastic. Samples were assayed using a modified Rapid Viability-PCR (mRV-PCR) method and the traditional plate culture method to obtain FNR and LOD 95 results. Mean FNRs tended to be lower for mRV-PCR compared to culturing, and increased as spore concentration decreased for all surface materials. Surface material, but not B. anthracis surrogate, influenced FNRs with the mRV-PCR method. The mRV-PCR LOD 95 was lowest for glass and highest for vinyl tile. LOD 95 values overall were lower for mRV-PCR than for the culture method. This study adds to the limited data on FNR and LOD 95 for mRV-PCR and culturing methods with low concentrations of B. anthracis sampled from various surface materials by the CDC macrofoam-swab method. These are key inputs for planning characterization and clearance studies for low contamination levels of B. anthracis. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  5. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1"G"F"P mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR"W"T background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. - Highlights: • AR inhibition prevents retinal microglial activation. • Endotoxin-induced ocular cytokine production is reduced in AR null mice. • Overexpression of AR spontaneously induces retinal microglial activation.

  6. Aldose reductase inhibitory compounds from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ha Na; Lee, Min Young; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-09-01

    As part of our ongoing search for natural sources of therapeutic and preventive agents for diabetic complications, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of components of the fruit of Xanthium strumarium (X. strumarium) on aldose reductase (AR) and galactitol formation in rat lenses with high levels of glucose. To identify the bioactive components of X. strumarium, 7 caffeoylquinic acids and 3 phenolic compounds were isolated and their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with published data. The abilities of 10 X. strumarium-derived components to counteract diabetic complications were investigated by means of inhibitory assays with rat lens AR (rAR) and recombinant human AR (rhAR). From the 10 isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed the most potent inhibition, with IC₅₀ values of 0.30 and 0.67 μM for rAR and rhAR, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate showed competitive inhibition of rhAR. Furthermore, methyl-3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinate inhibited galactitol formation in the rat lens and in erythrocytes incubated with a high concentration of glucose, indicating that this compound may be effective in preventing diabetic complications.

  7. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: mark.petrash@ucdenver.edu

    2016-04-29

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1{sup GFP} mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR{sup WT} background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. - Highlights: • AR inhibition prevents retinal microglial activation. • Endotoxin-induced ocular cytokine production is reduced in AR null mice. • Overexpression of AR spontaneously induces retinal microglial activation.

  8. Binding of Fidarestat Stereoisomers with Aldose Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Sil Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The stereospecificity in binding to aldose reductase (ALR2 of two fidarestat {6-fluoro-2',5'-dioxospiro[chroman-4,4'-imidazolidine]-2-carboxamide} stereoisomers [(2S,4Sand (2R,4S] has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations using freeenergy integration techniques. The difference in the free energy of binding was found to be2.0 ± 1.7 kJ/mol in favour of the (2S,4S-form, in agreement with the experimentalinhibition data. The relative mobilities of the fidarestats complexed with ALR2 indicate alarger entropic penalty for hydrophobic binding of (2R,4S-fidarestat compared to (2S,4S-fidarestat, partially explaining its lower binding affinity. The two stereoisomers differmainly in the orientation of the carbamoyl moiety with respect to the active site and rotationof the bond joining the carbamoyl substituent to the ring. The detailed structural andenergetic insights obtained from out simulations allow for a better understanding of thefactors determining stereospecific inhibitor-ALR2 binding in the EPF charges model.

  9. In Silico Genomic Fingerprints of the Bacillus anthracis Group Obtained by Virtual Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueman Jaimes-Díaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the capacity of Virtual Hybridization to identify between highly related bacterial strains. Eight genomic fingerprints were obtained by virtual hybridization for the Bacillus anthracis genome set, and a set of 15,264 13-nucleotide short probes designed to produce genomic fingerprints unique for each organism. The data obtained from each genomic fingerprint were used to obtain hybridization patterns simulating a DNA microarray. Two virtual hybridization methods were used: the Direct and the Extended method to identify the number of potential hybridization sites and thus determine the minimum sensitivity value to discriminate between genomes with 99.9% similarity. Genomic fingerprints were compared using both methods and phylogenomic trees were constructed to verify that the minimum detection value is 0.000017. Results obtained from the genomic fingerprints suggest that the distribution in the trees is correct, as compared to other taxonomic methods. Specific virtual hybridization sites for each of the genomes studied were also identified.

  10. Regulation of expression of a select group of Bacillus anthracis spore coat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Arthur

    2018-04-01

    The spore coat of Bacilli is a relatively complex structure comprised of about 70 species of proteins in 2 or 3 layers. While some are involved in assembly or protection, the regulation of many are not well defined so lacZ transcriptional fusions were constructed to six Bacillus anthracis spore coat genes in order to gain insight into their possible functions. The genes were selected on the basis of the location of the encoded proteins within the coat and distribution among spore forming species. Conditions tested were temperature and media either as solid or liquid. The most extensive differences were for the relatively well expressed fusions to the cotH and cotM genes, which were greatest at 30°C on plates of a nutrient rich medium. The cotJ operon was moderately expressed under all conditions although somewhat higher on enriched plates at 30°C. Cot S was low under all conditions except for a substantial increase in biofilm medium. Cot∝ and cotF were essentially invariant with a somewhat greater expression in the more enriched medium. The capacity of a subset of coat genes to respond to various conditions reflects a flexibility in spore coat structure that may be necessary for adaptation to environmental challenges. This could account, at least in part, for the complexity of this structure.

  11. The regulated synthesis of a Bacillus anthracis spore coat protein that affects spore surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, A; Goodman, B; Smith, Z

    2014-05-01

    Examine the regulation of a spore coat protein and the effects on spore properties. A c. 23 kDa band in coat/exosporial extracts of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores varied in amount depending upon the conditions of sporulation. It was identified by MALDI as a likely orthologue of ExsB of Bacillus cereus. Little if any was present in an exosporial preparation with a location to the inner coat/cortex region established by spore fractionation and immunogold labelling of electron micrograph sections. Because of its predominant location in the inner coat, it has been renamed Cotγ. It was relatively deficient in spores produced at 37°C and when acidic fermentation products were produced a difference attributable to transcriptional regulation. The deficiency or absence of Cotγ resulted in a less robust exosporium positioned more closely to the coat. These spores were less hydrophobic and germinated somewhat more rapidly. Hydrophobicity and appearance were rescued in the deletion strain by introduction of the cotγ gene. The deficiency or lack of a protein largely found in the inner coat altered spore hydrophobicity and surface appearance. The regulated synthesis of Cotγ may be a paradigm for other spore coat proteins with unknown functions that modulate spore properties in response to environmental conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 Strain Shows Protective Effects against the B. anthracis LT Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Pontier-Bres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  13. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  14. Effect of animal sera on Bacillus anthracis Sterne spore germination and vegetative cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensman, M D; Mackie, R S; Minter, Z A; Gutting, B W

    2012-08-01

     The aims of this work were to investigate the effects of sera on B. anthracis Sterne germination and growth. Sera examined included human, monkey and rabbit sera, as well as sera from eight other species.  Standard dilution plate assay (with and without heat kill) was used as a measure of germination, and spectroscopy was used to measure growth. In addition, a Coulter Counter particle counter was used to monitor germination and growth based on bacterial size. Spores germinated best in foetal bovine and monkey sera, moderately with human sera and showed limited germination in the presence of rabbit or rat sera. Vegetative bacteria grew best in foetal bovine sera and moderately in rabbit sera. Human and monkey sera supported little growth of vegetative bacteria.  The data suggested sera can have a significant impact on germination and growth of Sterne bacteria.  These data should be considered when conducting in vitro cell culture studies and may aid in interpreting in vivo infection studies. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacillus anthracis Co-Opts Nitric Oxide and Host Serum Albumin for Pathogenicity in Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eSt John

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is a dangerous pathogen of humans and many animal species. Its virulence has been mainly attributed to the production of Lethal and Edema toxins as well as the antiphagocytic capsule. Recent data indicate that the nitric oxide (NO synthase (baNOS plays an important pathogenic role at the early stage of disease by protecting bacteria from the host reactive species and S-nytrosylating the mitochondrial proteins in macrophages. In this study we for the first time present evidence that bacteria-derived NO participates in the generation of highly reactive oxidizing species which could be abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, free thiols, and superoxide dismutase but not catalase. The formation of toxicants is likely a result of the simultaneous formation of NO and superoxide leading to a labile peroxynitrite and its stable decomposition product, nitrogen dioxide. The toxicity of bacteria could be potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin. This effect is consistent with the property of serum albumin to serves as a trap of a volatile NO accelerating its reactions. Our data suggest that during infection in the hypoxic environment of pre-mortal host the accumulated NO is expected to have a broad toxic impact on host cell functions.

  17. Measurements of the Ultraviolet Fluorescence Cross Sections and Spectra of Bacillus Anthracis Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.R.

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of the ultraviolet autofluorescence spectra and absolute cross sections of the Bacillus anthracis (Ba) simulants Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and Bacillus cereus (Bc) were measured. Fluorescence spectra and cross sections of pine pollen (Pina echinata) were measured for comparison. Both dried vegetative cells and spores separated from the sporulated vegetative material were studied. The spectra were obtained by suspending a small number (<10) of particles in air in our Single Particle Spectroscopy Apparatus (SPSA), illuminating the particles with light from a spectrally filtered arc lamp, and measuring the fluorescence spectra of the particles. The illumination was 280 nm (20 nm FWHM) and the fluorescence spectra was measured between 300 and 450 nm. The fluorescence cross section of vegetative Bg peaks at 320 nm with a maximum cross section of 5 X 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle while the Bg spore fluorescence peaks at 310 nm with peak fluorescence of 8 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Pine pollen particles showed a higher fluorescence peaking at 355 nm with a cross section of 1.7 X 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Integrated cross sections ranged from 3.0 X 10{sup -13} for the Bg spores through 2.25 X 10{sup -12} (cm{sup 2}/sr-particle) for the vegetative cells.

  18. The Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain shows protective effects against the B. anthracis LT toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier-Bres, Rodolphe; Rampal, Patrick; Peyron, Jean-François; Munro, Patrick; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Czerucka, Dorota

    2015-10-30

    The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) has been prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of several infectious diarrheal diseases. Gastrointestinal anthrax causes fatal systemic disease. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects conferred by Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 strain on polarized T84 columnar epithelial cells intoxicated by the lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis. Exposure of polarized T84 cells to LT affected cell monolayer integrity, modified the morphology of tight junctions and induced the formation of actin stress fibers. Overnight treatment of cells with S. boulardii before incubation with LT maintained the integrity of the monolayers, prevented morphological modification of tight junctions, restricted the effects of LT on actin remodeling and delayed LT-induced MEK-2 cleavage. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that in the presence of S. boulardii, the medium is depleted of both LF and PA sub-units of LT and the appearance of a cleaved form of PA. Our study highlights the potential of the S. boulardii CNCM I-745 strain as a prophylactic agent against the gastrointestinal form of anthrax.

  19. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required.

  20. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+-catechin and (--epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05 in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus.

  1. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  2. 5α-reductases in human physiology: an unfolding story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2012-01-01

    5α-reductases are a family of isozymes expressed in a wide host of tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and play a pivotal role in male sexual differentiation, development and physiology. A comprehensive literature search from 1970 to 2011 was made through PubMed and the relevant information was summarized. 5α reductases convert testosterone, progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, aldosterone and corticosterone into their respective 5α-dihydro-derivatives, which serve as substrates for 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. The latter transforms these 5α-reduced metabolites into a subclass of neuroactive steroid hormones with distinct physiological functions. The neuroactive steroid hormones modulate a multitude of functions in human physiology encompassing regulation of sexual differentiation, neuroprotection, memory enhancement, anxiety, sleep and stress, among others. In addition, 5α -reductase type 3 is also implicated in the N-glycosylation of proteins via formation of dolichol phosphate. The family of 5α-reductases was targeted for drug development to treat pathophysiological conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical use of 5α-reductase inhibitors was well established, the scope and the magnitude of the adverse side effects of such drugs, especially on the CNS, is still unrecognized due to lack of knowledge of the various physiological functions of this family of enzymes, especially in the CNS. There is an urgent need to better understand the function of 5α-reductases and the role of neuroactive steroids in human physiology in order to minimize the potential adverse side effects of inhibitors targeting 5α-reductases to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia.

  3. Rapid focused sequencing: a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection and strain typing of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S Turingan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States in 2001 has heightened concern about the use of pathogenic microorganisms in bioterrorism attacks. Many of the deadliest bacteria, including the Class A Select Agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis, are highly infectious via the pulmonary route when released in aerosolized form. Hence, rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for detection of these biothreats and characterization of their potential impact on the exposed population are of critical importance to initiate and support rapid military, public health, and clinical responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed microfluidic multiplexed PCR and sequencing assays based on the simultaneous interrogation of three pathogens per assay and ten loci per pathogen. Microfluidic separation of amplified fluorescently labeled fragments generated characteristic electrophoretic signatures for identification of each agent. The three sets of primers allowed significant strain typing and discrimination from non-pathogenic closely-related species and environmental background strains based on amplicon sizes alone. Furthermore, sequencing of the 10 amplicons per pathogen, termed "Rapid Focused Sequencing," allowed an even greater degree of strain discrimination and, in some cases, can be used to determine virulence. Both amplification and sequencing assays were performed in microfluidic biochips developed for fast thermal cycling and requiring 7 µL per reaction. The 30-plex sequencing assay resulted in genotypic resolution of 84 representative strains belonging to each of the three biothreat species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microfluidic multiplexed assays allowed identification and strain differentiation of the biothreat agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis and clear discrimination from closely-related species and several environmental

  4. Development and field testing of a mobile chlorine dioxide generation system for the decontamination of buildings contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Joseph P.; Blair Martin, G.

    2009-01-01

    The numerous buildings that became contaminated with Bacillus anthracis (the bacterium causing the disease anthrax) in 2001, and more recent B. anthracis - related events, point to the need to have effective decontamination technologies for buildings contaminated with biological threat agents. The U.S. Government developed a portable chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) generation system to decontaminate buildings contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and this so-called mobile decontamination trailer (MDT) prototype was tested through a series of three field trials. The first test of the MDT was conducted at Fort McClellan in Anniston, AL. during October 2004. Four test attempts occurred over two weekends; however, a number of system problems resulted in termination of the activity prior to any ClO 2 introduction into the test building. After making several design enhancements and equipment changes, the MDT was subjected to a second test. During this test, extensive leak checks were made using argon and nitrogen in lieu of chlorine gas; each subsystem was checked for functionality, and the MDT was operated for 24 h. This second test demonstrated the MDT flow and control systems functioned satisfactorily, and thus it was decided to proceed to a third, more challenging field trial. In the last field test, ClO 2 was generated and routed directly to the scrubber in a 12-h continuous run. Measurement of ClO 2 levels at the generator outlet showed that the desired production rate was not achieved. Additionally, only one of the two scrubbers performed adequately with regard to maintaining ClO 2 emissions below the limit. Numerous lessons were learned in the field trials of this ClO 2 decontamination technology.

  5. The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author) [de

  6. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  7. The Nox/Ferric reductase/Ferric reductase-like families of Eumycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissa, Ibtissem; Bidard, Frédérique; Grognet, Pierre; Grossetete, Sandrine; Silar, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are involved in plant biomass degradation by fungi and development of fungal structures. While the ROS-generating NADPH oxidases from filamentous fungi are under strong scrutiny, much less is known about the related integral Membrane (or Ferric) Reductases (IMRs). Here, we present a survey of these enzymes in 29 fungal genomes covering the entire available range of fungal diversity. IMRs are present in all fungal genomes. They can be classified into at least 24 families, underscoring the high diversity of these enzymes. Some are differentially regulated during colony or fruiting body development, as well as by the nature of the carbon source of the growth medium. Importantly, functional characterization of IMRs has been made on proteins belonging to only two families, while nothing or very little is known about the proteins of the other 22 families. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proanthocyanidin synthesis in Theobroma cacao: genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase, anthocyanidin reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shi, Zi; Maximova, Siela; Payne, Mark J; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2013-12-05

    The proanthocyanidins (PAs), a subgroup of flavonoids, accumulate to levels of approximately 10% total dry weight of cacao seeds. PAs have been associated with human health benefits and also play important roles in pest and disease defense throughout the plant. To dissect the genetic basis of PA biosynthetic pathway in cacao (Theobroma cacao), we have isolated three genes encoding key PA synthesis enzymes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We measured the expression levels of TcANR, TcANS and TcLAR and PA content in cacao leaves, flowers, pod exocarp and seeds. In all tissues examined, all three genes were abundantly expressed and well correlated with PA accumulation levels, suggesting their active roles in PA synthesis. Overexpression of TcANR in an Arabidopsis ban mutant complemented the PA deficient phenotype in seeds and resulted in reduced anthocyanidin levels in hypocotyls. Overexpression of TcANS in tobacco resulted in increased content of both anthocyanidins and PAs in flower petals. Overexpression of TcANS in an Arabidopsis ldox mutant complemented its PA deficient phenotype in seeds. Recombinant TcLAR protein converted leucoanthocyanidin to catechin in vitro. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing TcLAR had decreased amounts of anthocyanidins and increased PAs. Overexpressing TcLAR in Arabidopsis ldox mutant also resulted in elevated synthesis of not only catechin but also epicatechin. Our results confirm the in vivo function of cacao ANS and ANR predicted based on sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes from other species. In addition, our results provide a clear functional analysis of a LAR gene in vivo.

  9. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnachit, U; Darnell, R

    2004-04-01

    Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate-containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species. Nitrate, ammonium and iron uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activities were compared in two Vaccinium species grown hydroponically in either nitrate or ammonia, with or without iron. The species studied were the wild V. arboreum and the cultivated V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid, which exhibits the strict soil requirements of most Vaccinium species. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater than nitrate uptake in both species, while nitrate uptake was greater in the wild species, V. arboreum, compared with the cultivated species, V. corymbosum. The increased nitrate uptake in V. arboreum was correlated with increased root NR activity compared with V. corymbosum. The lower nitrate uptake in V. corymbosum was reflected in decreased plant dry weight in this species compared with V. arboreum. Root FCR activity increased significantly in V. corymbosum grown under iron-deficient conditions, compared with the same species grown under iron-sufficient conditions or with V. arboreum grown under either iron condition. V. arboreum appears to be more efficient in acquiring nitrate compared with V. corymbosum, possibly due to increased NR activity and this may partially explain the wider soil adaptation of V. arboreum.

  10. The Drosophila carbonyl reductase sniffer is an efficient 4-oxonon-2-enal (4ONE) reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hans-Jörg; Ziemba, Marta; Kisiela, Michael; Botella, José A; Schneuwly, Stephan; Maser, Edmund

    2011-05-30

    Studies with the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that the enzyme sniffer prevented oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Mutant flies overexpressing sniffer had significantly extended life spans in a 99.5% oxygen atmosphere compared to wild-type flies. However, the molecular mechanism of this protection remained unclear. Sequence analysis and database searches identified sniffer as a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily with a 27.4% identity to the human enzyme carbonyl reductase type I (CBR1). As CBR1 catalyzes the reduction of the lipid peroxidation products 4HNE and 4ONE, we tested whether sniffer is able to metabolize these lipid derived aldehydes by carbonyl reduction. To produce recombinant enzyme, the coding sequence of sniffer was amplified from a cDNA-library, cloned into a bacterial expression vector and the His-tagged protein was purified by Ni-chelate chromatography. We found that sniffer catalyzed the NADPH-dependent carbonyl reduction of 4ONE (K(m)=24±2 μM, k(cat)=500±10 min(-1), k(cat)/K(m)=350 s(-1) mM(-1)) but not that of 4HNE. The reaction product of 4ONE reduction by sniffer was mainly 4HNE as shown by HPLC- and GC/MS analysis. Since 4HNE, though still a potent electrophile, is less neurotoxic and protein reactive than 4ONE, one mechanism by which sniffer exerts its neuroprotective effects in Drosophila after oxidative stress may be enzymatic reduction of 4ONE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Composite sampling of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate with cellulose sponge surface samplers from a nonporous surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia A M Tufts

    Full Text Available A series of experiments was conducted to explore the utility of composite-based collection of surface samples for the detection of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate using cellulose sponge samplers on a nonporous stainless steel surface. Two composite-based collection approaches were evaluated over a surface area of 3716 cm2 (four separate 929 cm2 areas, larger than the 645 cm2 prescribed by the standard Centers for Disease Control (CDC and Prevention cellulose sponge sampling protocol for use on nonporous surfaces. The CDC method was also compared to a modified protocol where only one surface of the sponge sampler was used for each of the four areas composited. Differences in collection efficiency compared to positive controls and the potential for contaminant transfer for each protocol were assessed. The impact of the loss of wetting buffer from the sponge sampler onto additional surface areas sampled was evaluated. Statistical tests of the results using ANOVA indicate that the collection of composite samples using the modified sampling protocol is comparable to the collection of composite samples using the standard CDC protocol (p  =  0.261. Most of the surface-bound spores are collected on the first sampling pass, suggesting that multiple passes with the sponge sampler over the same surface may be unnecessary. The effect of moisture loss from the sponge sampler on collection efficiency was not significant (p  =  0.720 for both methods. Contaminant transfer occurs with both sampling protocols, but the magnitude of transfer is significantly greater when using the standard protocol than when the modified protocol is used (p<0.001. The results of this study suggest that composite surface sampling, by either method presented here, could successfully be used to increase the surface area sampled per sponge sampler, resulting in reduced sampling times in the field and decreased laboratory processing cost and turn-around times.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, Senthil; Suffield, Sarah R.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Jacob, Rick E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Colby, Sean M.; Saunders, James H.; Hines, Stephanie; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Straub, Tim M.; Moe, M.; Taft, Sarah; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-09-30

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.

  14. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence......Hb reductase activity in fish offsets their higher Hb autoxidation and higher likelihood of encountering elevated nitrite. Deoxygenation significantly raised the rates of RBC metHb reduction, and more so in rainbow trout than in carp. The temperature sensitivity of metHb reduction in rainbow trout RBCs...

  15. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fuels the tricarboxylic acid cycle and de novo lipid biosynthesis during Bacillus anthracis sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadykov, Marat R; Ahn, Jong-Sam; Widhelm, Todd J; Eckrich, Valerie M; Endres, Jennifer L; Driks, Adam; Rutkowski, Gregory E; Wingerd, Kevin L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2017-06-01

    Numerous bacteria accumulate poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) as an intracellular reservoir of carbon and energy in response to imbalanced nutritional conditions. In Bacillus spp., where PHB biosynthesis precedes the formation of the dormant cell type called the spore (sporulation), the direct link between PHB accumulation and efficiency of sporulation was observed in multiple studies. Although the idea of PHB as an intracellular carbon and energy source fueling sporulation was proposed several decades ago, the mechanisms underlying PHB contribution to sporulation have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that PHB deficiency impairs Bacillus anthracis sporulation through diminishing the energy status of the cells and by reducing carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and de novo lipid biosynthesis. Consequently, this metabolic imbalance decreased biosynthesis of the critical components required for spore integrity and resistance, such as dipicolinic acid (DPA) and the spore's inner membrane. Supplementation of the PHB deficient mutant with exogenous fatty acids overcame these sporulation defects, highlighting the importance of the TCA cycle and lipid biosynthesis during sporulation. Combined, the results of this work reveal the molecular mechanisms of PHB contribution to B. anthracis sporulation and provide valuable insight into the metabolic requirements for this developmental process in Bacillus species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identification of B. anthracis N(5)-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase (PurE) active site binding compounds via fragment library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Christopher; Zhu, Tian; Patel, Kavankumar; Wolf, Nina M; Fung, Leslie W-M; Lee, Hyun; Johnson, Michael E

    2016-02-15

    The de novo purine biosynthesis pathway is an attractive target for antibacterial drug design, and PurE from this pathway has been identified to be crucial for Bacillus anthracis survival in serum. In this study we adopted a fragment-based hit discovery approach, using three screening methods-saturation transfer difference nucleus magnetic resonance (STD-NMR), water-ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (WaterLOGSY) NMR, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), against B. anthracis PurE (BaPurE) to identify active site binding fragments by initially testing 352 compounds in a Zenobia fragment library. Competition STD NMR with the BaPurE product effectively eliminated non-active site binding hits from the primary hits, selecting active site binders only. Binding affinities (dissociation constant, KD) of these compounds varied between 234 and 301μM. Based on test results from the Zenobia compounds, we subsequently developed and applied a streamlined fragment screening strategy to screen a much larger library consisting of 3000 computationally pre-selected fragments. Thirteen final fragment hits were confirmed to exhibit binding affinities varying from 14μM to 700μM, which were categorized into five different basic scaffolds. All thirteen fragment hits have ligand efficiencies higher than 0.30. We demonstrated that at least two fragments from two different scaffolds exhibit inhibitory activity against the BaPurE enzyme. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Joshi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Exogenous CD1d-binding glycolipid (alpha-Galactosylceramide, alpha-GC stimulates TCR signaling and activation of type-1 natural killer-like T (NKT cells. Activated NKT cells play a central role in the regulation of adaptive and protective immune responses against pathogens and tumors. In the present study, we tested the effect of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT on NKT cells both in vivo and in vitro. LT is a binary toxin known to suppress host immune responses during anthrax disease and intoxicates cells by protective antigen (PA-mediated intracellular delivery of lethal factor (LF, a potent metalloprotease. We observed that NKT cells expressed anthrax toxin receptors (CMG-2 and TEM-8 and bound more PA than other immune cell types. A sub-lethal dose of LT administered in vivo in C57BL/6 mice decreased expression of the activation receptor NKG2D by NKT cells but not by NK cells. The in vivo administration of LT led to decreased TCR-induced cytokine secretion but did not affect TCR expression. Further analysis revealed LT-dependent inhibition of TCR-stimulated MAP kinase signaling in NKT cells attributable to LT cleavage of the MAP kinase kinase MEK-2. We propose that Bacillus anthracis-derived LT causes a novel form of functional anergy in NKT cells and therefore has potential for contributing to immune evasion by the pathogen.

  18. Characterization of the variable-number tandem repeats in vrrA from different Bacillus anthracis isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.J.; Walthers, E.A.; Richmond, K.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    PCR analysis of 198 Bacillus anthracis isolates revealed a variable region of DNA sequence differing in length among the isolates. Five Polymorphisms differed by the presence Of two to six copies of the 12-bp tandem repeat 5{prime}-CAATATCAACAA-3{prime}. This variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) region is located within a larger sequence containing one complete open reading frame that encodes a putative 30-kDa protein. Length variation did not change the reading frame of the encoded protein and only changed the copy number of a 4-amino-acid sequence (QYQQ) from 2 to 6. The structure of the VNTR region suggests that these multiple repeats are generated by recombination or polymerase slippage. Protein structures predicted from the reverse-translated DNA sequence suggest that any structural changes in the encoded protein are confined to the region encoded by the VNTR sequence. Copy number differences in the VNTR region were used to define five different B. anthracis alleles. Characterization of 198 isolates revealed allele frequencies of 6.1, 17.7, 59.6, 5.6, and 11.1% sequentially from shorter to longer alleles. The high degree of polymorphism in the VNTR region provides a criterion for assigning isolates to five allelic categories. There is a correlation between categories and geographic distribution. Such molecular markers can be used to monitor the epidemiology of anthrax outbreaks in domestic and native herbivore populations. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Label-Free Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spore Uptake in Macrophage Cells Using Analytical Optical Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Colin G; Hart, Sean; Leski, Tomasz A; Terray, Alex; Lu, Qin

    2017-10-03

    Understanding the interaction between macrophage cells and Bacillus anthracis spores is of significant importance with respect to both anthrax disease progression, spore detection for biodefense, as well as understanding cell clearance in general. While most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins and fluorescent labels to identify the target(s) of interest, label-free methods probe changes in intrinsic properties, such as size, refractive index, and morphology, for correlation with a particular biological event. Optical chromatography is a label free technique that uses the balance between optical and fluidic drag forces within a microfluidic channel to determine the optical force on cells or particles. Here we show an increase in the optical force experienced by RAW264.7 macrophage cells upon the uptake of both microparticles and B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 spores. In the case of spores, the exposure was detected in as little as 1 h without the use of antibodies or fluorescent labels of any kind. An increase in the optical force was also seen in macrophage cells treated with cytochalasin D, both with and without a subsequent exposure to spores, indicating that a portion of the increase in the optical force arises independent of phagocytosis. These results demonstrate the capability of optical chromatography to detect subtle biological differences in a rapid and sensitive manner and suggest future potential in a range of applications, including the detection of biological threat agents for biodefense and pathogens for the prevention of sepsis and other diseases.

  20. The Efficiency of Methionine as a Radioprotectant of Bacillus anthracis for Cell Viability and Outgrowth Time after UVC and Gamma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Qiagen, "EndoFree Plasmid Purification Handbook ," 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.qiagen.com/resources/resourcedetail?id=f8ed5bab-15c3-4211 - bfa8...115] L. J. Hoffman, "Thermogravimetric Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores of DNA by Spectroscopy and Chromatography of Pyrolysis Products," M.S

  1. Failure of Sterne- and Pasteur-like strains of Bacillus anthracis to replicate and survive in the urban bluebottle blow fly Calliphora vicina under laboratory conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta von Terzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the bacteriological events occurring within the gut of Calliphora vicina, selected as the European representative of blow flies held responsible for the spread of anthrax during epidemics in certain parts of the world. Green-fluorescent-protein-carrying derivatives of Bacillus anthracis were used. These lacked either one of the virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 and were infected, or not infected, with a worm intestine phage (Wip4 known to influence the phenotype and survival of the pathogen. Blood meals were prepared for the flies by inoculation of sheep blood with germinated and, in case of pXO2+ strains, encapsulated cells of the four B. anthracis strains. After being fed for 4 h an initial 10 flies were externally disinfected with peracetic acid to ensure subsequent quantitation representing ingested B. anthracis only. Following neutralization, they were crushed in sterile saline. Over each of the ensuing 7 to 10 days, 10 flies were removed and processed the same way. In the absence of Wip4, strains showed steady declines to undetectable in the total B. anthracis counts, within 7-9 days. With the phage infected strains, the falls in viable counts were significantly more rapid than in their uninfected counterparts. Spores were detectable in flies for longer periods than vegetative bacteria. In line with the findings in both biting and non-biting flies of early workers our results indicate that B. anthracis does not multiply in the guts of blow flies and survival is limited to a matter of days.

  2. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A. Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Braun

    Full Text Available During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS. PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis.

  3. Transcriptional modulation of genes encoding nitrate reductase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The free aluminum (Al) content in soil can reach levels that are toxic to plants, and this has frequently limited increased productivity of cultures. Four genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR) were identified, named ZmNR1–4. With the aim of evaluating NR activity and the transcriptional modulation of the ZmNR1, ZmNR2, ...

  4. Intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    ) as the level of reduction increased in both the WT and the His mutant. Equilibrium standard enthalpy and entropy changes and activation parameters of this ET process were determined. We concluded that negative cooperativity is a common feature among the cd(1) nitrite reductases, and we discuss this control...

  5. Evaluation of the conserve flavin reductase gene from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... means of PCR technique. The nucleic acid sequences of the PCR primers were designed using conserved nucleic acid sequences of the flavin reductase enzyme from. Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. The oligonucleotide primers were as follows: 5'-GAA TTC ATG TCT GAC. AAG CCG AAT GCC-3' (forward) ...

  6. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Bacterial Mercuric Reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... In order to characterize the bacterial mercuric reductase (merA) gene, mercury resistant (Hgr). Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from various mercury contaminated sites of India. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Hg and zone of inhibition for different antibiotics were measured, and ...

  7. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory and Antiglycation Activities of Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldose Reductase Inhibitory and Antiglycation Activities of Four Medicinal Plant Standardized Extracts and Their Main Constituents for the Prevention of ... levels in galactosemic condition by using reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) was determined.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Bacterial Mercuric Reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to characterize the bacterial mercuric reductase (merA) gene, mercury resistant (Hgr) Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from various mercury contaminated sites of India. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Hg and zone of inhibition for different antibiotics were measured, and finally mer operon ...

  9. Xylose reductase from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Xylose reductase is involved in the first step of the fungal pentose catabolic pathway. The gene .... proteins with reversed coenzyme preference from NADPH to NADH ..... 399–404. Hasper A A, Visser J and de Graaff L H 2000 The Aspergillus.

  10. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  11. Plasmid-encoded diacetyl (acetoin) reductase in Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, Fergal P; Myling-Petersen, Dorte; Larsen, Dianna

    2003-01-01

    A plasmid-borne diacetyl (acetoin) reductase (butA) from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CHCC2114 was sequenced and cloned. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 257 amino acids which had high identity at the amino acid level to diacetyl (acetoin...

  12. Naturally acquired antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in vultures of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C.B. Turnbull

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available TURNBULLP, P.C.B. DIEKMANNM,M., KILIAN, J.W., VERSFELDW, W.,DE VOS, V., ARNTZENL, L.,WOLTER, K., BARTELS, P. & KOTZE, A. 2008.N aturally acquired antibodies to Bacillusa nthracisp rotective antigeni n vultureso f southern Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, T5:95-102 Sera from 19 wild caught vultures in northern Namibia and 15 (12 wild caught and three captive bred but with minimal histories in North West Province, South Africa, were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbenats say( ELISAf or antibodiesto the Bacillus anthracis toxin protective antigen (PA. As assessed from the baseline established with a control group of ten captive reared vultures with well-documented histories, elevated titres were found in 12 of the 19 (63% wild caught Namibian birds as compared with none of the 15 South African ones. There was a highly significant difference between the Namibian group as a hole and the other groups (P 0.05. Numbers in the Namibian group were too small to determine any significances in species-, sex- or age-related differences within the raw data showing elevated titres in four out of six Cape Vultures, Gyps coprotheress, six out of ten Whitebacked Vultures, Gyps africanus, and one out of three Lappet-faced Vultures, Aegypiust racheliotus, or in five of six males versus three of seven females, and ten of 15 adults versus one of four juveniles. The results are in line with the available data on the incidence of anthrax in northern Namibia and South Africa and the likely contact of the vultures tested with anthrax carcasses. lt is not known whether elevated titre indicates infection per se in vultures or absorption of incompletely digested epitopes of the toxin or both. The results are discussed in relation to distances travelled by vultures as determined by new tracking techniques, how serology can reveal anthrax activity in an area and the issue of the role of vultures in transmission of anthrax.

  13. CD4+ T cells targeting dominant and cryptic epitopes from Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eAscough

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an endemic infection in many countries, particularly in the developing world. The causative agent, Bacillus anthracis, mediates disease through the secretion of binary exotoxins. Until recently, research into adaptive immunity targeting this bacterial pathogen has largely focused on the humoral response to these toxins. There is, however, growing recognition that cellular immune responses involving IFNγ producing CD4+ T cells also contribute significantly to a protective memory response. An established concept in adaptive immunity to infection is that during infection of host cells, new microbial epitopes may be revealed, leading to immune recognition of so called ‘cryptic’ or ‘subdominant’ epitopes. We analysed the response to both cryptic and immunodominant T cell epitopes derived from the toxin component lethal factor and presented by a range of HLA-DR alleles. Using IFNγ-ELISPOT assays we characterised epitopes that elicited a response following immunisation with synthetic peptide and the whole protein and tested their capacities to bind purified HLA-DR molecules in vitro. We found that DR1 transgenics demonstrated T cell responses to a greater number of domain III cryptic epitopes than other HLA-DR transgenics, and that this pattern was repeated with the immunodominant epitopes, a greater proportion of these epitopes induced a T cell response when presented within the context of the whole protein. Immunodominant epitopes LF457-476 and LF467-487 were found to induce a T cell response to the peptide, as well as to the whole native LF protein in DR1 and DR15, but not in DR4 trangenics. The analysis of Domain I revealed the presence of several unique cryptic epitopes all of which showed a strong to moderate relative binding affinity to HLA-DR4 molecules. However, none of the cryptic epitopes from either domain III or I displayed notably high binding affinities across all HLA-DR alleles assayed. These responses were

  14. Identification of Novel Raft Marker Protein, FlotP in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Vikas K; Aggarwal, Somya; Singh, Damini; Prasad, Tulika; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are dynamic, nanoscale assemblies of specific proteins and lipids, distributed heterogeneously on eukaryotic membrane. Flotillin-1, a conserved eukaryotic raft marker protein (RMP) harbor SPFH (Stomatin, Prohibitin, Flotillin, and HflK/C) and oligomerization domains to regulate various cellular processes through its interactions with other signaling or transport proteins. Rafts were thought to be absent in prokaryotes hitherto, but recent report of its presence and significance in physiology of Bacillus subtilis prompted us to investigate the same in pathogenic bacteria (PB) also. In prokaryotes, proteins of SPFH2a subfamily show highest identity to SPFH domain of Flotillin-1. Moreover, bacterial genome organization revealed that Flotillin homolog harboring SPFH2a domain exists in an operon with an upstream gene containing NFeD domain. Here, presence of RMP in PB was initially investigated in silico by analyzing the presence of SPFH2a, oligomerization domains in the concerned gene and NfeD domain in the adjacent upstream gene. After investigating 300 PB, four were found to harbor RMP. Among them, domains of Bas0525 (FlotP) of Bacillus anthracis (BA) showed highest identity with characteristic domains of RMP. Considering the global threat of BA as the bioterror agent, it was selected as a model for further in vitro characterization of rafts in PB. In silico and in vitro analysis showed significant similarity of FlotP with numerous attributes of Flotillin-1. Its punctate distribution on membrane with exclusive localization in detergent resistant membrane fraction; strongly favors presence of raft with RMP FlotP in BA. Furthermore, significant effect of Zaragozic acid (ZA), a raft associated lipid biosynthesis inhibitor, on several patho-physiological attributes of BA such as growth, morphology, membrane rigidity etc., were also observed. Specifically, a considerable decrease in membrane rigidity, strongly recommended presence of an unknown raft associated

  15. Identification of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi de Souza, Lucilene; Paradis, Manon; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Price, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia X in dogs is a noninflammatory alopecia that may be caused by a hormonal dysfunction. It may be similar to androgenic alopecia in men that is caused by the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5α-reductase isoenzymes, 5αR1 and 5αR2, and a recently described 5αR3, are responsible for the conversion of testosterone into DHT. However, which 5α-reductases are present in canine skin has not yet been described. The main objective of this study was to determine the pattern of expression of 5α-reductase genes in canine skin. Skin biopsies were obtained from healthy, intact young-mature beagles (three males, four females) at three anatomical sites normally affected by alopecia X (dorsal neck, back of thighs and base of tail) and two sites generally unaffected (dorsal head and ventral thorax). Prostate samples (n = 3) were collected as positive controls for 5α-reductase mRNA abundance measurement by real-time PCR. We detected mRNA encoding 5αR1 and 5αR3 but not 5αR2. There were no significant differences in 5αR1 and 5αR3 mRNA levels between the different anatomical sites, irrespective of gender (P > 0.05). Moreover, the mean mRNA abundance in each anatomical site did not differ between males and females (P > 0.05). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the expression of 5α-reductases in canine skin and the expression of 5αR3 in this tissue. These results may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of alopecia X and to determine more appropriate treatments for this disorder. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. Comparative genomics of Bacillus anthracis from the wool industry highlights polymorphisms of lineage A.Br.Vollum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Frey, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    With the advent of affordable next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, major progress has been made in the understanding of the population structure and evolution of the B. anthracis species. Here we report the use of whole genome sequencing and computer-based comparative analyses to characterize six strains belonging to the A.Br.Vollum lineage. These strains were isolated in Switzerland, in 1981, during iterative cases of anthrax involving workers in a textile plant processing cashmere wool from the Indian subcontinent. We took advantage of the hundreds of currently available B. anthracis genomes in public databases, to investigate the genetic diversity existing within the A.Br.Vollum lineage and to position the six Swiss isolates into the worldwide B. anthracis phylogeny. Thirty additional genomes related to the A.Br.Vollum group were identified by whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, including two strains forming a new evolutionary branch at the basis of the A.Br.Vollum lineage. This new phylogenetic lineage (termed A.Br.H9401) splits off the branch leading to the A.Br.Vollum group soon after its divergence to the other lineages of the major A clade (i.e. 6 SNPs). The available dataset of A.Br.Vollum genomes were resolved into 2 distinct groups. Isolates from the Swiss wool processing facility clustered together with two strains from Pakistan and one strain of unknown origin isolated from yarn. They were clearly differentiated (69 SNPs) from the twenty-five other A.Br.Vollum strains located on the branch leading to the terminal reference strain A0488 of the lineage. Novel analytic assays specific to these new subgroups were developed for the purpose of rapid molecular epidemiology. Whole genome SNP surveys greatly expand upon our knowledge on the sub-structure of the A.Br.Vollum lineage. Possible origin and route of spread of this lineage worldwide are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  18. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  19. Evidence that steroid 5alpha-reductase isozyme genes are differentially methylated in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorantes, M; Lizano-Soberón, M; Camacho-Arroyo, I; Calzada-León, R; Morimoto, S; Téllez-Ascencio, N; Cerbón, M A

    2002-03-01

    The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is catalyzed by steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes 1 and 2, and this function determines the development of the male phenotype during embriogenesis and the growth of androgen sensitive tissues during puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the cytosine methylation status of 5alpha-reductase isozymes types 1 and 2 genes in normal and in 5alpha-reductase deficient men. Genomic DNA was obtained from lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with primary 5alpha-reductase deficiency due to point mutations in 5alpha-reductase 2 gene. Southern blot analysis of 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 genes from DNA samples digested with HpaII presented a different cytosine methylation pattern compared to that observed with its isoschizomer MspI, indicating that both genes are methylated in CCGG sequences. The analysis of 5alpha-reductase 1 gene from DNA samples digested with Sau3AI and its isoschizomer MboI which recognize methylation in GATC sequences showed an identical methylation pattern. In contrast, 5alpha-reductase 2 gene digested with Sau3AI presented a different methylation pattern to that of the samples digested with MboI, indicating that steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 gene possess methylated cytosines in GATC sequences. Analysis of exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene after metabisulfite PCR showed that normal and deficient subjects present a different methylation pattern, being more methylated in patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 mutated gene. The overall results suggest that 5alpha-reductase genes 1 and 2 are differentially methylated in lymphocytes from normal and 5alpha-reductase deficient patients. Moreover, the extensive cytosine methylation pattern observed in exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in deficient patients, points out to an increased rate of mutations in this gene.

  20. A strain-variable bacteriocin in Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with repeated Cys-Xaa-Xaa motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haft Daniel H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriocins are peptide antibiotics from ribosomally translated precursors, produced by bacteria often through extensive post-translational modification. Minimal sequence conservation, short gene lengths, and low complexity sequence can hinder bacteriocin identification, even during gene calling, so they are often discovered by proximity to accessory genes encoding maturation, immunity, and export functions. This work reports a new subfamily of putative thiazole-containing heterocyclic bacteriocins. It appears universal in all strains of Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus, but has gone unrecognized because it is always encoded far from its maturation protein operon. Patterns of insertions and deletions among twenty-four variants suggest a repeating functional unit of Cys-Xaa-Xaa. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Andrei Osterman and Lakshminarayan Iyer.

  1. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA and effects of phosphorylated histidines on multimerization and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstrom, Troy G; Horton, Lori B; Swick, Michelle C; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Koehler, Theresa M

    2015-02-01

    The Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA controls transcription of the anthrax toxin genes and capsule biosynthetic operon. AtxA activity is elevated during growth in media containing glucose and CO(2)/bicarbonate, and there is a positive correlation between the CO(2)/bicarbonate signal, AtxA activity and homomultimerization. AtxA activity is also affected by phosphorylation at specific histidines. We show that AtxA crystallizes as a dimer. Distinct folds associated with predicted DNA-binding domains (HTH1 and HTH2) and phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system-regulated domains (PRD1 and PRD2) are apparent. We tested AtxA variants containing single and double phosphomimetic (His→Asp) and phosphoablative (His→Ala) amino acid changes for activity in B. anthracis cultures and for protein-protein interactions in cell lysates. Reduced activity of AtxA H199A, lack of multimerization and activity of AtxAH379D variants, and predicted structural changes associated with phosphorylation support a model for control of AtxA function. We propose that (i) in the AtxA dimer, phosphorylation of H199 in PRD1 affects HTH2 positioning, influencing DNA-binding; and (ii) phosphorylation of H379 in PRD2 disrupts dimer formation. The AtxA structure is the first reported high-resolution full-length structure of a PRD-containing regulator, and can serve as a model for proteins of this family, especially those that link virulence to bacterial metabolism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The central nervous system as target of Bacillus anthracis toxin independent virulence in rabbits and guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim Levy

    Full Text Available Infection of the central nervous system is considered a complication of Anthrax and was reported in humans and non-human primates. Previously we have reported that Bacillus anthracis possesses a toxin-independent virulent trait that, like the toxins, is regulated by the major virulence regulator, AtxA, in the presence of pXO2. This toxin-independent lethal trait is exhibited in rabbits and Guinea pigs following significant bacteremia and organ dissemination. Various findings, including meningitis seen in humans and primates, suggested that the CNS is a possible target for this AtxA-mediated activity. In order to penetrate into the brain tissue, the bacteria have to overcome the barriers isolating the CNS from the blood stream. Taking a systematic genetic approach, we compared intracranial (IC inoculation and IV/SC inoculation for the outcome of the infection in rabbits/GP, respectively. The outstanding difference between the two models is exhibited by the encapsulated strain VollumΔpXO1, which is lethal when injected IC, but asymptomatic when inoculated IV/SC. The findings demonstrate that there is an apparent bottleneck in the ability of mutants to penetrate into the brain. Any mutant carrying either pXO1 or pXO2 will kill the host upon IC injection, but only those carrying AtxA either on pXO1 or in the chromosome in the background of pXO2 can penetrate into the brain following peripheral inoculation. The findings were corroborated by histological examination by H&E staining and immunofluorescence of rabbits' brains following IV and IC inoculations. These findings may have major implications on future research both on B. anthracis pathogenicity and on vaccine development.

  3. Hydroxyurea-Mediated Cytotoxicity Without Inhibition of Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Li Phing; Lim, Zun Yi; Cohen, Matan; Kong, Ziqing; Marjavaara, Lisette; Chabes, Andrei; Bell, Stephen D

    2016-11-01

    In many organisms, hydroxyurea (HU) inhibits class I ribonucleotide reductase, leading to lowered cellular pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The reduced levels for DNA precursors is believed to cause replication fork stalling. Upon treatment of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus with HU, we observe dose-dependent cell cycle arrest, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, and elevated levels of recombination structures. However, Sulfolobus has a HU-insensitive class II ribonucleotide reductase, and we reveal that HU treatment does not significantly impact cellular DNA precursor pools. Profiling of protein and transcript levels reveals modulation of a specific subset of replication initiation and cell division genes. Notably, the selective loss of the regulatory subunit of the primase correlates with cessation of replication initiation and stalling of replication forks. Furthermore, we find evidence for a detoxification response induced by HU treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystallization of purple nitrous oxide reductase from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomowski, Anja; Zumft, Walter G.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Einsle, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The physiologically active form of nitrous oxide reductase was isolated and crystallized under strict exclusion of dioxygen and diffraction data were collected from crystals belonging to two different space groups. Nitrous oxide reductase (N 2 OR) from Pseudomonas stutzeri catalyzes the final step in denitrification: the two-electron reduction of nitrous oxide to molecular dinitrogen. Crystals of the enzyme were grown under strict exclusion of dioxygen by sitting-drop vapour diffusion using 2R,3R-butanediol as a cryoprotectant. N 2 OR crystallized in either space group P1 or P6 5 . Interestingly, the key determinant for the resulting space group was the crystallization temperature. Crystals belonging to space group P1 contained four 130 kDa dimers in the asymmetric unit, while crystals belonging to space group P6 5 contained a single dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to resolutions better than 2 Å

  5. Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.K.; Vanoni, M.A.; Blanchard, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed, saturating concentration of the other substrate, solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed on V but not V/K. Plots of Vm vs mole fraction of D 2 O (proton inventories) were linear in both cases for the yeast, spinach, and human erythrocyte enzymes. When solvent kinetic isotope effect studies were performed with DTNB instead of GSSG as an alternate substrate, a solvent kinetic isotope effect of 1.0 was observed. Solvent kinetic isotope effect measurements were also performed on the asymmetric disulfides GSSNB and GSSNP by using human erythrocyte glutathione reductase. The Km values for GSSNB and GSSNP were 70 microM and 13 microM, respectively, and V values were 62 and 57% of the one calculated for GSSG, respectively. Both of these substrates yield solvent kinetic isotope effects greater than 1.0 on both V and V/K and linear proton inventories, indicating that a single proton-transfer step is still rate limiting. These data are discussed in relationship to the chemical mechanism of GSSG reduction and the identity of the proton-transfer step whose rate is sensitive to solvent isotopic composition. Finally, the solvent equilibrium isotope effect measured with yeast glutathione reductase is 4.98, which allows us to calculate a fractionation factor for the thiol moiety of GSH of 0.456

  6. Differential expression of disulfide reductase enzymes in a free-living platyhelminth (Dugesia dorotocephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Guevara-Flores

    Full Text Available A search of the disulfide reductase activities expressed in the adult stage of the free-living platyhelminth Dugesia dorotocephala was carried out. Using GSSG or DTNB as substrates, it was possible to obtain a purified fraction containing both GSSG and DTNB reductase activities. Through the purification procedure, both disulfide reductase activities were obtained in the same chromatographic peak. By mass spectrometry analysis of peptide fragments obtained after tryptic digestion of the purified fraction, the presence of glutathione reductase (GR, thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR, and a putative thioredoxin reductase (TrxR was detected. Using the gold compound auranofin to selectively inhibit the GSSG reductase activity of TGR, it was found that barely 5% of the total GR activity in the D. dorotocephala extract can be assigned to GR. Such strategy did allow us to determine the kinetic parameters for both GR and TGR. Although It was not possible to discriminate DTNB reductase activity due to TrxR from that of TGR, a chromatofocusing experiment with a D. dorotocephala extract resulted in the obtention of a minor protein fraction enriched in TrxR, strongly suggesting its presence as a functional protein. Thus, unlike its parasitic counterparts, in the free-living platyhelminth lineage the three disulfide reductases are present as functional proteins, albeit TGR is still the major disulfide reductase involved in the reduction of both Trx and GSSG. This fact suggests the development of TGR in parasitic flatworms was not linked to a parasitic mode of life.

  7. Cloning and sequence of the human adrenodoxin reductase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Dong; Shi, Y.; Miller, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Adrenodoxin reductase is a flavoprotein mediating electron transport to all mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P450. The authors cloned the human adrenodoxin reductase gene and characterized it by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. The entire gene is approximately 12 kilobases long and consists of 12 exons. The first exon encodes the first 26 of the 32 amino acids of the signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the remainder of signal peptide and the apparent FAD binding site. The remaining 10 exons are clustered in a region of only 4.3 kilobases, separated from the first two exons by a large intron of about 5.6 kilobases. Two forms of human adrenodoxin reductase mRNA, differing by the presence or absence of 18 bases in the middle of the sequence, arise from alternate splicing at the 5' end of exon 7. This alternately spliced region is directly adjacent to the NADPH binding site, which is entirely contained in exon 6. The immediate 5' flanking region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes; however, this region is rich in G+C and contains six copies of the sequence GGGCGGG, resembling promoter sequences of housekeeping genes. RNase protection experiments show that transcription is initiated from multiple sites in the 5' flanking region, located about 21-91 base pairs upstream from the AUG translational initiation codon

  8. Nitrate reductase gene involvement in hexachlorobiphenyl dechlorination by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Supriyo; Perkins, Michael; Dutta, Sisir K.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) degradation usually occurs through reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions and phenolic ring cleavage under aerobic conditions. In this paper, we provide evidence of nitrate reductase (NaR) mediated dechlorination of hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-ligninolytic condition and the gene involved. The NaR enzyme and its cofactor, molybdenum (Mo), were found to mediate reductive dechlorination of PCBs even in aerobic condition. Tungsten (W), a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme, was found to suppress this dechlorination. Chlorine release assay provided further evidence of this nitrate reductase mediated dechlorination. Commercially available pure NaR enzyme from Aspergillus was used to confirm these results. Through homology search using TBLASTN program, NaR gene was identified, primers were designed and the RT-PCR product was sequenced. The NaR gene was then annotated in the P. chrysosporium genome (GenBank accession no. AY700576). This is the first report regarding the presence of nitrate reductase gene in this fungus with the explanation why this fungus can dechlorinate PCBs even in aerobic condition. These fungal inoculums are used commercially as pellets in sawdust for enhanced bioremediation of PCBs at the risk of depleting soil nitrates. Hence, the addition of nitrates to the pellets will reduce this risk as well as enhance its activity

  9. Gene cloning and overexpression of two conjugated polyketone reductases, novel aldo-keto reductase family enzymes, of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Delacruz-Hidalgo, A-R G; Akond, M A; Sakuradani, E; Kita, K; Shimizu, S

    2004-04-01

    The genes encoding two conjugated polyketone reductases (CPR-C1, CPR-C2) of Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 were cloned and sequenced. The genes encoded a total of 304 and 307 amino acid residues for CPR-C1 and CPR-C2, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two enzymes showed high similarity to each other and to several proteins of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, several amino acid residues in putative active sites of AKRs were not conserved in CPR-C1 and CPR-C2. The two CPR genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The E. coli transformant bearing the CPR-C2 gene almost stoichiometrically reduced 30 mg ketopantoyl lactone/ml to D-pantoyl lactone.

  10. Preliminary report for analysis of genome wide mutations from four ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates generated by Illumina, 454 sequencing and microarrays for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, Crystal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinckley, Aubree [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thissen, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gardner, Shea [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McLoughlin, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellingson, Sally [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauser, Loren [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brettin, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fofanov, Viacheslav [Eureka Genomics, Hercules, CA (United States); Koshinsky, Heather [Eureka Genomics, Hercules, CA (United States); Fofanov, Yuriy [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-06-21

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. As the result of a different DHS project, we have selected for and isolated a large number of ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates. These isolates vary in the concentrations of ciprofloxacin that they can tolerate, suggesting multiple mutations in the samples. In collaboration with University of Houston, Eureka Genomics and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we analyzed the ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates by microarray hybridization, Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing to understand the error rates and sensitivity of the different methods. The report provides an assessment of the results and a complete set of all protocols used and all data generated along with information to interpret the protocols and data sets.

  11. Cloning and Expression of Fusion Genes of Domain A-1 Protective Antigen of Bacillus Anthracis and Shigella Enterotoxin B Subunit (Stxb In E. Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the current study revealed that this antigen can be raised as an anti-cancer and recombinant vaccine candidate against types of Shigella, Escherichia coli and Bacillus anthracis which can be due to such factors as identification of antigen(PA by antibody PA20, its apoptosis induction properties, property of immunogenicity, adjuvant and delivery of STxB protein and high expression levels of Gb3 in human cancer cells.

  12. Identification of Ciprofloxacin Resistance by SimpleProbe (trademark), High Resolution Melt and Pyrosequencing (trademark) Nucleic Acid Analysis in Biothreat Agents: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    tularensis strain Schu4 following standardmicrobiological techniques to develop antibiotic resistance. Colonies from an original chocolate agar culture...35 C for two weeks. Growth in broth containing 16 mg/ml ciprofloxacin was transferred to chocolate agar plates containing 64 mg/ml ciprofloxacin and...expeditious therapy , the three PCR technologies described in this study were evaluated for the ability to accurately differentiate wt B. anthracis, Y

  13. Hepatocyte Hyperproliferation upon Liver-Specific Co-disruption of Thioredoxin-1, Thioredoxin Reductase-1, and Glutathione Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Prigge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Energetic nutrients are oxidized to sustain high intracellular NADPH/NADP+ ratios. NADPH-dependent reduction of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1 disulfide and glutathione disulfide by thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1 and glutathione reductase (Gsr, respectively, fuels antioxidant systems and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Mouse livers lacking both TrxR1 and Gsr sustain these essential activities using an NADPH-independent methionine-consuming pathway; however, it remains unclear how this reducing power is distributed. Here, we show that liver-specific co-disruption of the genes encoding Trx1, TrxR1, and Gsr (triple-null causes dramatic hepatocyte hyperproliferation. Thus, even in the absence of Trx1, methionine-fueled glutathione production supports hepatocyte S phase deoxyribonucleotide production. Also, Trx1 in the absence of TrxR1 provides a survival advantage to cells under hyperglycemic stress, suggesting that glutathione, likely via glutaredoxins, can reduce Trx1 disulfide in vivo. In triple-null livers like in many cancers, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis places a critical yet relatively low-volume demand on these reductase systems, thereby favoring high hepatocyte turnover over sustained hepatocyte integrity.

  14. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N; Kristensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    can replace light in eliciting an increase of nitrate reductase mRNA accumulation in dark-adapted green Arabidopsis plants. We show further that sucrose alone is sufficient for the full expression of nitrate reductase genes in etiolated Arabidopsis plants. Finally, using a reporter gene, we show......Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression....... Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light might play, via photosynthesis, in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression. We show that sucrose...

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Bacillus anthracis in the presence of pyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Jarrod E.; Scally, Stephen W.; Taylor, Nicole L.; Dogovski, Con; Alderton, Malcolm R.; Hutton, Craig A.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Parker, Michael W.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses an important step in lysine biosynthesis. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 2.15 Å resolution of DHDPS from B. anthracis soaked with the substrate pyruvate are reported. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyses the first committed step in the lysine-biosynthesis pathway in bacteria, plants and some fungi. In this study, the expression of DHDPS from Bacillus anthracis (Ba-DHDPS) and the purification of the recombinant enzyme in the absence and presence of the substrate pyruvate are described. It is shown that DHDPS from B. anthracis purified in the presence of pyruvate yields greater amounts of recombinant enzyme with more than 20-fold greater specific activity compared with the enzyme purified in the absence of substrate. It was therefore sought to crystallize Ba-DHDPS in the presence of the substrate. Pyruvate was soaked into crystals of Ba-DHDPS prepared in 0.2 M sodium fluoride, 20%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.1 M bis-tris propane pH 8.0. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data of the recombinant enzyme soaked with pyruvate at a resolution of 2.15 Å are presented. The pending crystal structure of the pyruvate-bound form of Ba-DHDPS will provide insight into the function and stability of this essential bacterial enzyme

  16. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Youngsu; Lee, Jonghee; Kim, Seongsoo

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field

  17. A survey of the occurrence of Bacillus anthracis in North American soils over two long-range transects and within post-Katrina New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Petrosky, Terry; Morman, Suzette A.; Luna, Vicki A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected along a north-south transect extending from Manitoba, Canada, to the US-Mexico border near El Paso, Texas in 2004 (104 samples), a group of sites within New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina in 2005 (19 samples), and a Gulf Coast transect extending from Sulphur, Louisiana, to DeFuniak Springs, Florida, in 2007 (38 samples). Samples were collected from the top 40 cm of soil and were screened for the presence of total Bacillus species and Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), specifically using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using an assay with a sensitivity of ~170 equivalent colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 field moist soil, the prevalence rate of Bacillus sp./B. anthracis in the north-south transect and the 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina sample set were 20/5% and 26/26%, respectively. Prevalence in the 2007 Gulf Coast sample set using an assay with a sensitivity of ~4 CFU g-1 of soil was 63/0%. Individual transect-set data indicate a positive relation between occurrences of species and soil moisture or soil constituents (i.e., Zn and Cu content). The 2005 New Orleans post-Katrina data indicated that B. anthracis is readily detectable in Gulf Coast soils following flood events. The data also indicated that occurrence, as it relates to soil chemistry, may be confounded by flood-induced dissemination of germinated cells and the mixing of soil constituents for short temporal periods following an event.

  18. Discrimination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Direct in-situ Analysis of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Youngsu; Lee, Jonghee; Kim, Seongsoo [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The rapid and accurate identification of biological agents is a critical step in the case of bio-terror and biological warfare attacks. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of microorganisms. In this study, we describe a method for the rapid and accurate discrimination of Bacillus anthracis spores using MALDI-TOF MS. Our direct in-situ analysis of MALDI-TOF MS does not involve subsequent high-resolution mass analyses and sample preparation steps. This method allowed the detection of species-specific biomarkers from each Bacillus spores. Especially, B. anthracis spores had specific biomarker peaks at 2503, 3089, 3376, 6684, 6698, 6753, and 6840 m/z. Cluster and PCA analyses of the mass spectra of Bacillus spores revealed distinctively separated clusters and within-groups similarity. Therefore, we believe that this method is effective in the real-time identification of biological warfare agents such as B. anthracis as well as other microorganisms in the field.

  19. Structures of an alanine racemase from Bacillus anthracis (BA0252) in the presence and absence of (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-Ala-P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Kinfai; Ren, Jingshan; Walter, Thomas S.; Harlos, Karl; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Stuart, David I.; Esnouf, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Structures of BA0252, an alanine racemase from B. anthracis, in the presence and absence of the inhibitor (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-Ala-P) and determined by X-ray crystallography to resolutions of 2.1 and 1.47 Å, respectively, are described. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has been targeted by the Oxford Protein Production Facility to validate high-throughput protocols within the Structural Proteomics in Europe project. As part of this work, the structures of an alanine racemase (BA0252) in the presence and absence of the inhibitor (R)-1-aminoethylphosphonic acid (l-Ala-P) have determined by X-ray crystallo@@graphy to resolutions of 2.1 and 1.47 Å, respectively. Difficulties in crystallizing this protein were overcome by the use of reductive methylation. Alanine racemase has attracted much interest as a possible target for anti-anthrax drugs: not only is d-alanine a vital component of the bacterial cell wall, but recent studies also indicate that alanine racemase, which is accessible in the exosporium, plays a key role in inhibition of germination in B. anthracis. These structures confirm the binding mode of l-Ala-P but suggest an unexpected mechanism of inhibition of alanine racemase by this compound and could provide a basis for the design of improved alanine racemase inhibitors with potential as anti-anthrax therapies

  20. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  1. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  2. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT-Reductase in Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. Methods The fresh frozen tissue sections (8m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. Results  The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. Conclusion The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  3. In vivo photoinactivation of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside reductase by near-ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some experimental work is described showing that near-U.V. irradiation of E.coli cells selectively destroys RDP-reductase (ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) activity in vivo are providing evidence relating the loss of RDP-reductase to loss of cellular visibility and the inactivity of irrdiated cells to support the replication of DNA phages. The data are consistent with the interpretation that the principal cause in the killing of exponentially growing E.coli cells by near-U.V., and the loss of ability of irradiated host cells to support the replication of DNA phages, is the photoinactivation of the RDP-reductase complex. (U.K.)

  4. Identification of the 7-Hydroxymethyl Chlorophyll a Reductase of the Chlorophyll Cycle in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Miki; Ito, Hisashi; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2011-01-01

    The interconversion of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, referred to as the chlorophyll cycle, plays a crucial role in the processes of greening, acclimation to light intensity, and senescence. The chlorophyll cycle consists of three reactions: the conversions of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b by chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll b to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by chlorophyll b reductase, and 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase. We identified 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase, which is the last remaining unidentified enzyme of the chlorophyll cycle, from Arabidopsis thaliana by genetic and biochemical methods. Recombinant 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase converted 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a using ferredoxin. Both sequence and biochemical analyses showed that 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase contains flavin adenine dinucleotide and an iron-sulfur center. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis elucidated the evolution of 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase from divinyl chlorophyllide vinyl reductase. A mutant lacking 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase was found to accumulate 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a and pheophorbide a. Furthermore, this accumulation of pheophorbide a in the mutant was rescued by the inactivation of the chlorophyll b reductase gene. The downregulation of pheophorbide a oxygenase activity is discussed in relation to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a accumulation. PMID:21934147

  5. In vivo photoinactivation of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside reductase by near-ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1977-06-09

    Some experimental work is described showing that near-uv irradiation of E.coli cells selectively destroys RDP-reductase (ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) activity in vivo are providing evidence relating the loss of RDP-reductase to loss of cellular visibility and the inactivity of irrdiated cells to support the replication of DNA phages. The data are consistent with the interpretation that the principal cause in the killing of exponentially growing E.coli cells by near-uv, and the loss of ability of irradiated host cells to support the replication of DNA phages, is the photoinactivation of the RDP-reductase complex.

  6. [Development and comparative evaluation of up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfeng; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Yong; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Chengbin; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Lei

    2015-01-01

    To develop an up-converting phosphor technology based lateral flow (UPT-LF) assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Yersinia pestis, Bacillus anthracis spore and Brucella spp.and make the comparison with BioThreat Alert (BTA) test strips (Tetracore Inc., USA). Using up-converting phosphor nano-particles (UCP-NPs) as the bio-marker, three double-antibody-sandwich model based UPT-LF strips including Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF, Brucella-UPT-LF were prepared and its sensitivity, accuracy, linearity and specificity were determined by detecting 10(10), 10(9), 10(8), 10(7), 10(6), 10(5) and 0 CFU/ml series of concentrations of Y.pestis, B.anthracis, Brucella standards and other 27 kinds of 10(9) CFU/ml series of contrations of bacteria strains.Furthermore, the speed, sensitivity and accuracy of bacteria standards and simulated sample detection were compared between UPT-LF and BTA system. The detection limit of Plague-UPT-LF, Anthrax-UPT-LF and Brucella-LF was 10(5) CFU/ml. The CV of series of bacteria concentrations was ≤ 15%, and the r between lg (T/C-cut-off) and lg (concentration) was 0.996,0.998 and 0.999 (F values were 1 647.57, 743.51 and 1 822.17. All the P values were Brucella-LF were excellent, while that of Anthrax-UPT-LF was a little bit regretful because of non-specific reaction with two isolates of B. subtilis and one B.cereus. On-site evaluation showed the detection time of UPT-LF for all Y.pestis, B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp.was 33, 36 and 37 min, while BTA was 115, 115 and 111 min, which revealed the higher detection speed and sensitivity of UPT-LF comparing with BTA. The negative rate of two methods for blank standard was both 5/5, the sensitivity of UPT-LF for Y.pestis,B.anthracis spore and Brucella spp. was all 10(5) CFU/ml, then BTA was 10(6), 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. The detection rate of UPT-LF for all three bacteria analog positive samples was 16/16, while BTA for B.anthracis was 7/16 only. The good performance

  7. Identification of a Novel Epoxyqueuosine Reductase Family by Comparative Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallot, Rémi; Ross, Robert; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bruner, Steven D; Limbach, Patrick A; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2017-03-17

    The reduction of epoxyqueuosine (oQ) is the last step in the synthesis of the tRNA modification queuosine (Q). While the epoxyqueuosine reductase (EC 1.17.99.6) enzymatic activity was first described 30 years ago, the encoding gene queG was only identified in Escherichia coli in 2011. Interestingly, queG is absent from a large number of sequenced genomes that harbor Q synthesis or salvage genes, suggesting the existence of an alternative epoxyqueuosine reductase in these organisms. By analyzing phylogenetic distributions, physical gene clustering, and fusions, members of the Domain of Unknown Function 208 (DUF208) family were predicted to encode for an alternative epoxyqueuosine reductase. This prediction was validated with genetic methods. The Q modification is present in Lactobacillus salivarius, an organism missing queG but harboring the duf208 gene. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is one of the few organisms that harbor both QueG and DUF208, and deletion of both corresponding genes was required to observe the absence of Q and the accumulation of oQ in tRNA. Finally, the conversion oQ to Q was restored in an E. coli queG mutant by complementation with plasmids harboring duf208 genes from different bacteria. Members of the DUF208 family are not homologous to QueG enzymes, and thus, duf208 is a non-orthologous replacement of queG. We propose to name DUF208 encoding genes as queH. While QueH contains conserved cysteines that could be involved in the coordination of a Fe/S center in a similar fashion to what has been identified in QueG, no cobalamin was identified associated with recombinant QueH protein.

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency presenting as a rash.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crushell, Ellen

    2012-09-01

    We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; both rash and seizures abated following empiric introduction of pyridoxine and folinic acid as treatment of possible vitamin responsive seizures. We postulate that phenobarbitone in combination with MTHFR deficiency may have caused her rash to deteriorate and subsequent folinic acid was helpful in treating the rash and preventing further acute neurological decline as commonly associated with this condition.

  9. Aldose Reductase-Deficient Mice Develop Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Horace T. B.; Chung, Sookja K.; Law, Janice W. S.; Ko, Ben C. B.; Tam, Sidney C. F.; Brooks, Heddwen L.; Knepper, Mark A.; Chung, Stephen S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases associated with diabetes mellitus, such as cataract, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. However, its physiological functions are not well understood. We developed mice deficient in this enzyme and found that they had no apparent developmental or reproductive abnormality except that they drank and urinated significantly more than their wild-type littermates. These ALR2-deficient mice exhibited a partially defective urine-concentrating ability, having a phenotype resembling that of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. PMID:10913167

  10. Bacillus anthracis o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase: reaction kinetics and a novel inhibitor mimicking its reaction intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Suk, Dae-Hwan; Cai, Feng; Crich, David; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2008-11-25

    o-Succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.26) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of o-succinylbenzoate (OSB) and CoA to form OSB-CoA, the fourth step of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway in Bacillus anthracis. Gene knockout studies have highlighted this enzyme as a potential target for the discovery of new antibiotics. Here we report the first studies on the kinetic mechanism of B. anthracis OSB-CoA synthetase, classifying it as an ordered bi uni uni bi ping-pong mechanism. Through a series of pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetic studies in conjunction with direct binding studies, it is demonstrated that CoA, the last substrate to bind, strongly activates the first half-reaction after the first round of turnover. The activation of the first half-reaction is most likely achieved by CoA stabilizing conformations of the enzyme in the "F" form, which slowly isomerize back to the E form. Thus, the kinetic mechanism of OSB-CoA synthetase may be more accurately described as an ordered bi uni uni bi iso ping-pong mechanism. The substrate specificity of OSB-CoA synthetase was probed using a series of OSB analogues with alterations in the carboxylate groups. OSB-CoA shows a strong preference for OSB over all of the analogues tested as none were active except 4-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-oxobutyric acid which exhibited a 100-fold decrease in k(cat)/K(m). On the basis of an understanding of OSB-CoA synthetase's kinetic mechanism and substrate specificity, a reaction intermediate analogue of OSB-AMP, 5'-O-{N-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-oxobutyl}adenosine sulfonamide (TFMP-butyl-AMS), was designed and synthesized. This inhibitor was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor to CoA and a mixed-type inhibitor to ATP and OSB with low micromolar inhibition constants. Collectively, these results should serve as an important forerunner to more detailed and extensive inhibitor design studies aimed at developing lead compounds against the OSB-CoA synthetase

  11. Bacillus anthracis o-succinylbenzoyl-CoA synthetase: reaction kinetics and a novel inhibitor mimicking its reaction intermediate †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Suk, Dae-Hwan; Cai, Feng; Crich, David; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    O-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.26) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of o-succinylbenzoate (OSB) and CoA to form OSB-CoA, the fourth step of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway in Bacillus anthracis. Gene knockout studies have highlighted this enzyme as a potential target for the discovery of new antibiotics. Here we report the first studies on the kinetic mechanism of B. anthracis OSB-CoA synthetase, classifying it as an ordered Bi Uni Uni Bi ping-pong mechanism. Through a series of pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetic studies in conjunction with direct-binding studies, it is demonstrated that CoA, the last substrate to bind, strongly activates the first half-reaction after the first round of turnover. The activation of the first-half reaction is most likely achieved by CoA stabilizing conformations of the enzyme in the ‘F’ form, which slowly isomerize back to the E form. Thus, the kinetic mechanism of OSB-CoA synthetase may be more accurately described as an ordered Bi Uni Uni Bi Iso ping-pong mechanism. The substrate specificity of OSB-CoA synthetase was probed using a series of OSB analogs with alterations in the carboxylate groups. OSB-CoA shows a strong preference for OSB over all of the analogs tested as none were active except 4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-oxobutyric acid which exhibited a 100-fold decrease in kcat/Km. Based on an understanding of OSB-CoA synthetase’s kinetic mechanism and substrate specificity, a reaction intermediate analog of OSB-AMP, 5’-O-(N-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-oxobutyl) adenosine sulfonamide (TFMP-butyl-AMS), was designed and synthesized. This inhibitor was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor to CoA and a mixed-type inhibitor to ATP and OSB with low micromolar inhibition constants. Collectively, these results should serve as an important forerunner to more detailed and extensive inhibitor design studies aimed at developing lead compounds against the OSB-CoA synthetase class of

  12. Comparison of false-negative rates and limits of detection following macrofoam-swab sampling of Bacillus anthracis surrogates via Rapid Viability PCR and plate culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J. R. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Piepel, G. F. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Amidan, B. G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Hess, B. M. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sydor, M. A. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deatherage Kaiser, B. L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-03-13

    Aims: We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials, and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD95) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. Methods and Results: Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2 – 500 coupon-1) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic. Samples were assayed using a modified Rapid Viability-PCR (mRV-PCR) method and the traditional plate culture method to obtain FNR and LOD95 results. Conclusions: Mean FNRs tended to be lower for mRV-PCR compared to culturing, and increased as spore concentration decreased for all surface materials. Surface material, but not B. anthracis surrogate, influenced FNRs with the mRV-PCR method. The mRV-PCR LOD95 was lowest for glass and highest for vinyl tile. LOD95 values overall were lower for mRV-PCR than for the culture method. Significance and Impact of Study: This study adds to the limited data on FNR and LOD95 for mRV-PCR and culturing methods with low concentrations of B. anthracis sampled from various surface materials by the CDC macrofoam-swab method. These are key inputs for planning characterization and clearance studies for low contamination levels of B. anthracis.

  13. Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabaugh, M.B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated passage of vaccinia virus in increasing concentrations of hydroxyurea followed by plaque purification resulted in the isolation of variants capable of growth in 5 mM hydroxyurea, a drug concentration which inhibited the reproduction of wild-type vaccinia virus 1000-fold. Analyses of viral protein synthesis by using [ 35 S]methionine pulse-labeling at intervals throughout the infection cycle revealed that all isolates overproduced a 34,000-molecular-weight (MW) early polypeptide. Measurement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity after infection indicated that 4- to 10-fold more activity was induced by hydroxyurea-resistant viruses than by the wild-type virus. A two-step partial purification resulted in a substantial enrichment for the 34,000-MW protein from extracts of wild-type and hydroxyurea-resistant-virus-infected, but not mock-infected, cells. In the presence of the drug, the isolates incorporated [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA earlier and a rate substantially greater than that of the wild type, although the onset of DNA synthesis was delayed in both cases. The drug resistance trait was markedly unstable in all isolates. In the absence of selective pressure, plaque-purified isolated readily segregated progeny that displayed a wide range of resistance phenotypes. The results of this study indicate that vaccinia virus encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase which is 34,000-MW early protein whose overproduction confers hydroxyurea resistance on reproducing viruses

  14. ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouanneau, Y.; Roby, C.; Meyer, C.M.; Vignais, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus, nitrogenase is regulated by a reversible covalent modification of Fe protein or dinitrogenase reductase (Rc2). The linkage of the modifying group to inactive Rc2 was found to be sensitive to alkali and to neutral hydroxylamine. Complete release of the modifying group was achieved by incubation of inactive Rc2 in 0.4 or 1 M hydroxylamine. After hydroxylamine treatment of the Rc2 preparation, the modifying group could be isolated and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The modifying group comigrated with ADP-ribose on both ion-exchange HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Analyses by 31 P NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry provided further evidence that the modifying group was ADP-ribose. The NMR spectrum of inactive Rc2 exhibited signals characteristic of ADP-ribose; integration of these signals allowed calculation of a molar ration ADP-ribose/Rc2 of 0.63. A hexapeptide carrying the ADP-ribose moiety was purified from a subtilisin digest of inactive Rc2. The structure of this peptide, determined by amino acid analysis and sequencing, is Gly-Arg(ADP-ribose)-Gly-Val-Ile-Thr. This structure allows identification of the binding site for ADP-ribose as Arg 101 of the polypeptide chain of Rc2. It is concluded that nitrogenase activity in R. capsulatus is regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginyl residue of dinitrogenase reductase

  15. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cong; Seo, Kyung Hye; Kim, Hye Lim; Zhuang, Ningning; Park, Young Shik; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-01-01

    The dihydropteridine reductase from D. discoideum has been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from a rectangular-shaped crystal to 2.16 Å resolution. Dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum (dicDHPR) can produce d-threo-BH 4 [6R-(1′R,2′R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin], a stereoisomer of l-erythro-BH 4 , in the last step of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) recycling. In this reaction, DHPR uses NADH as a cofactor to reduce quinonoid dihydrobiopterin back to BH 4 . To date, the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from many sources. In this report, the dicDHPR–NAD complex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Rectangular-shaped crystals were obtained. Crystals grew to maximum dimensions of 0.4 × 0.6 × 0.1 mm. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 49.81, b = 129.90, c = 78.76 Å, β = 100.00°, and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit, forming two closely interacting dicDHPR–NAD dimers. Diffraction data were collected to 2.16 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure has been determined using the molecular-replacement method

  16. Characterization and regulation of Leishmania major 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalvetti, A; Pena Diaz, Javier; Hurtado, R

    2000-01-01

    In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from L...

  17. Bioinformatics approach of three partial polyprenol reductase genes in Kandelia obovata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.; Sagami, H.; Oku, H.; Baba, S.

    2018-03-01

    This present study describesthe bioinformatics approach to analyze three partial polyprenol reductase genes from mangrove plant, Kandeliaobovataas well aspredictedphysical and chemical properties, potential peptide, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic. The diversity was noted in the physical and chemical properties of three partial polyprenol reductase genes. The values of chloroplast were relatively high, showed that chloroplast transit peptide occurred in mangrove polyprenol reductase. The target peptide value of mitochondria varied from 0.088 to 0.198 indicated it was possible to be present. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity of physicochemical properties of the different amino acids in polyprenol reductase. The subcellular localization of two partial genes located in the plasma membrane. To confirm the homology among the polyprenol reductase in the database, a dendrogram was drawn. The phylogenetic tree depicts that there are three clusters, the partial genes of K. obovata joined the largest one: C23157 was close to Ricinus communis polyprenol reductase. Whereas, C23901 and C24171 were grouped with Ipomoea nil polyprenol reductase, suggested that these polyprenol reductase genes form distinct separation into tropical habitat plants.

  18. Substrate and cofactor binding to nitrile reductase : A mass spectrometry based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gjonaj, L.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Fernandez Fueyo, E.; Hollmann, F.; Hanefeld, U.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrile reductases catalyse a two-step reduction of nitriles to amines. This requires the binding of two NADPH molecules during one catalytic cycle. For the nitrile reductase from E. coli (EcoNR) mass spectrometry studies of the catalytic mechanism were performed. EcoNR is dimeric and has no Rossman

  19. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...

  20. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N; Kristensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression. ...

  1. Differential Binding of Co(II) and Zn(II) to Metallo-beta-Lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, M.; Breece, R; Hajdin, C; Bender, K; Hu, Z; Costello, A; Bennett, B; Tierney, D; Crowder, M

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to probe the structure, mechanism, and biochemical properties of metallo-{beta}-lactamase Bla2 from Bacillus anthracis, the enzyme was overexpressed, purified, and characterized. Metal analyses demonstrated that recombinant Bla2 tightly binds 1 equiv of Zn(II). Steady-state kinetic studies showed that mono-Zn(II) Bla2 (1Zn-Bla2) is active, while di-Zn(II) Bla2 (ZnZn-Bla2) was unstable. Catalytically, 1Zn-Bla2 behaves like the related enzymes CcrA and L1. In contrast, di-Co(II) Bla2 (CoCo-Bla2) is substantially more active than the mono-Co(II) analogue. Rapid kinetics and UV-vis, 1H NMR, EPR, and EXAFS spectroscopic studies show that Co(II) binding to Bla2 is distributed, while EXAFS shows that Zn(II) binding is sequential. To our knowledge, this is the first documented example of a Zn enzyme that binds Co(II) and Zn(II) via distinct mechanisms, underscoring the need to demonstrate transferability when extrapolating results on Co(II)-substituted proteins to the native Zn(II)-containing forms.

  2. Obiltoxaximab Prevents Disseminated Bacillus anthracis Infection and Improves Survival during Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Animal Models of Inhalational Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Brent J.; Shadiack, Annette M.; Carpenter, Sarah; Sanford, Daniel; Henning, Lisa N.; Gonzales, Nestor; O'Connor, Edward; Casey, Leslie S.

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend adjunctive antitoxins when systemic anthrax is suspected. Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with antibiotics and for prophylaxis when alternative therapies are not available. The impact of toxin neutralization with obiltoxaximab during pre- and postexposure prophylaxis was explored, and efficacy results that supported the prophylaxis indication are presented here. New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques received obiltoxaximab as a single intramuscular or intravenous dose of 2 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at various times relative to Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge. The primary endpoint was survival, and effect of treatment timing was explored. In rabbits, obiltoxaximab administration 9 h postchallenge singly or combined with a 5-day levofloxacin regimen protected 89% to 100% of animals compared to 33% with levofloxacin monotherapy. In cynomolgus macaques, a single intramuscular dose of 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab led to 100% survival when given 1 to 3 days preexposure and 83% to 100% survival when given 18 to 24 h postexposure and prior to systemic bacteremia onset. Obiltoxaximab administration after bacteremia onset resulted in lower (25% to 50%) survival rates reflective of treatment setting. Prophylactic administration of obiltoxaximab before spore challenge or to spore-challenged animals before systemic bacterial dissemination is efficacious in promoting survival, ameliorating toxemia, and inhibiting bacterial spread to the periphery. PMID:27431219

  3. BLACK-BACKED JACKAL EXPOSURE TO RABIES VIRUS, CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS, AND BACILLUS ANTHRACIS IN ETOSHA NATIONAL PARK, NAMIBIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Steve E.; Cizauskas, Carrie A.; Miyen, Jacobeth; Ebersohn, Karen; Küsters, Martina; Prager, Katie; Van Vuuren, Moritz; Sabeta, Claude; Getz, Wayne M.

    2017-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RABV) occur worldwide in wild carnivore and domestic dog populations and pose threats to wildlife conservation and public health. In Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, anthrax is endemic and generates carcasses frequently fed on by an unusually dense population of black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas). Using serology and phylogenetic analyses (on samples obtained from February, 2009 to July, 2010), and historical mortality records (1975–2011), we assessed jackal exposure to Bacillus anthracis (BA; the causal bacterial agent of anthrax), CDV, and RABV. Seroprevalence to all three pathogens was relatively high with 95% (n = 86), 73% (n = 86), and 9% (n = 81) of jackals exhibiting antibodies to BA, CDV, and RABV, respectively. Exposure to BA, as assessed with an anti-Protective Antigen ELISA test, increased significantly with age and all animals >1 yr old tested positive. Seroprevalence of exposure to CDV also increased significantly with age, with similar age-specific trends during both years of the study. No significant effect of age was found on RABV seroprevalence. Three of the seven animals exhibiting immunity to RABV were monitored for more than one year after sampling and did not succumb to the disease. Mortality records revealed that rabid animals are destroyed nearly every year inside the ENP tourist camps. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that jackal RABV in ENP is part of the same transmission cycle as other dog-jackal RABV cycles in Namibia. PMID:22493112

  4. Biochemical and Structural Analysis of an Eis Family Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase from Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Keith D.; Biswas, Tapan; Chang, Changsoo; Wu, Ruiying; Chen, Wenjing; Janes, Brian K.; Chalupska, Dominika; Gornicki, Piotr; Hanna, Philip C.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2015-05-26

    Proteins from the enhanced intracellular survival (Eis) family are versatile acetyltransferases that acetylate amines at multiple positions of several aminoglycosides (AGs). Their upregulation confers drug resistance. Homologues of Eis are present in diverse bacteria, including many pathogens. Eis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Eis_Mtb) has been well characterized. In this study, we explored the AG specificity and catalytic efficiency of the Eis family protein from Bacillus anthracis (Eis_Ban). Kinetic analysis of specificity and catalytic efficiency of acetylation of six AGs indicates that Eis_Ban displays significant differences from Eis_Mtb in both substrate binding and catalytic efficiency. The number of acetylated amines was also different for several AGs, indicating a distinct regiospecificity of Eis_Ban. Furthermore, most recently identified inhibitors of Eis_Mtb did not inhibit Eis_Ban, underscoring the differences between these two enzymes. To explain these differences, we determined an Eis_Ban crystal structure. The comparison of the crystal structures of Eis_Ban and Eis_Mtb demonstrates that critical residues lining their respective substrate binding pockets differ substantially, explaining their distinct specificities. Our results suggest that acetyltransferases of the Eis family evolved divergently to garner distinct specificities while conserving catalytic efficiency, possibly to counter distinct chemical challenges. The unique specificity features of these enzymes can be utilized as tools for developing AGs with novel modifications and help guide specific AG treatments to avoid Eis-mediated resistance.

  5. The effect of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the growth, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion into the medium of 5 mg•dm-3 of non-ionic (ENF or ionic (DBST surfactant caused 50-60% inhibition of nitrite reductase MR activity in S. polyrrhiza. At the same time, increased accumulation of NO2- in the plant tissues and lowering of the total and soluble protein contents were found. DBST also lowered the nitrate reductase (NR activity and the dry mass of the plants.

  6. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaiser, Brooke L.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm2). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD95 was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm2 with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm2 with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm2 with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD95 values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm2 and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm2). The FNR and LOD95 values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  7. Comparison of French and Worldwide Bacillus anthracis Strains Favors a Recent, Post-Columbian Origin of the Predominant North-American Clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnaud, Gilles; Girault, Guillaume; Thierry, Simon; Pourcel, Christine; Madani, Nora; Blouin, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the highly dangerous zoonotic bacterial pathogen species is currently composed of three genetic groups, called A, B and C. Group A is represented worldwide whereas group B is present essentially in Western Europe and Southern Africa. Only three strains from group C have been reported. This knowledge is derived from the genotyping of more than 2000 strains collected worldwide. Strains from both group A and group B are present in France. Previous investigations showed that the majority of sporadic French strains belong to the so-called A.Br.011/009 group A clade and define a very remarkable polytomy with six branches. Here we explore the significance of this polytomy by comparing the French B. anthracis lineages to worldwide lineages. We take advantage of whole genome sequence data previously determined for 122 French strains and 45 strains of various origins. A total of 6690 SNPs was identified among the available dataset and used to draw the phylogeny. The phylogeny of the French B group strains which belongs to B.Br.CNEVA indicates an expansion from the south-east part of France (the Alps) towards the south-west (Massif-Central and Pyrenees). The relatively small group A strains belonging to A.Br.001/002 results from at least two independent introductions. Strikingly, the data clearly demonstrates that the currently predominant B. anthracis lineage in North America, called WNA for Western North American, is derived from one branch of the A.Br.011/009 polytomy predominant in France. The present work extends the range of observed substitution rate heterogeneity within B. anthracis, in agreement with its ecology and in contrast with some other pathogens. The population structure of the six branches A.Br.011/009 polytomy identified in France, diversity of branch length, and comparison with the WNA lineage, suggests that WNA is of post-Columbian and west European origin, with France as a likely source. Furthermore, it is tempting to speculate that

  8. Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) polymorphisms, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Erik G; Larsson, Kristina; Vares, Maria

    2008-01-01

    disorder. In a replication attempt the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were analyzed in three Scandinavian schizophrenia case-control samples. In addition, Norwegian patients with bipolar disorder were investigated. There were no statistically significant allele or genotype case-control differences....... The present Scandinavian results do not verify previous associations between the putative functional MTHFR gene polymorphisms and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, when combined with previous studies in meta-analyses there is still evidence for association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism......Recent meta-analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) have suggested association between two of its functional single gene polymorphisms (SNPs; C677T and A1298C) and schizophrenia. Studies have also suggested association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C variation and bipolar...

  9. Crystal structure of isoflavone reductase from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; He, Xianzhi; Lin, Jianqiao; Shao, Hui; Chang, Zhenzhan; Dixon, Richard A

    2006-05-19

    Isoflavonoids play important roles in plant defense and exhibit a range of mammalian health-promoting activities. Isoflavone reductase (IFR) specifically recognizes isoflavones and catalyzes a stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction to (3R)-isoflavanone. The crystal structure of Medicago sativa IFR with deletion of residues 39-47 has been determined at 1.6A resolution. Structural analysis, molecular modeling and docking, and comparison with the structures of other NADPH-dependent enzymes, defined the putative binding sites for co-factor and substrate and potential key residues for enzyme activity and substrate specificity. Further mutagenesis has confirmed the role of Lys144 as a catalytic residue. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the enzymatic mechanism and substrate specificity of IFRs as well as the functions of IFR-like proteins.

  10. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellenbrand Janine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba, domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis.

  11. Fatty acyl-CoA reductases of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Birds clean and lubricate their feathers with waxes that are produced in the uropygial gland, a holocrine gland located on their back above the tail. The type and the composition of the secreted wax esters are dependent on the bird species, for instance the wax ester secretion of goose contains branched-chain fatty acids and unbranched fatty alcohols, whereas that of barn owl contains fatty acids and alcohols both of which are branched. Alcohol-forming fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) catalyze the reduction of activated acyl groups to fatty alcohols that can be esterified with acyl-CoA thioesters forming wax esters. Results cDNA sequences encoding fatty acyl-CoA reductases were cloned from the uropygial glands of barn owl (Tyto alba), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and domestic goose (Anser anser domesticus). Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that they encode membrane associated enzymes which catalyze a NADPH dependent reduction of acyl-CoA thioesters to fatty alcohols. By feeding studies of transgenic yeast cultures and in vitro enzyme assays with membrane fractions of transgenic yeast cells two groups of isozymes with different properties were identified, termed FAR1 and FAR2. The FAR1 group mainly synthesized 1-hexadecanol and accepted substrates in the range between 14 and 18 carbon atoms, whereas the FAR2 group preferred stearoyl-CoA and accepted substrates between 16 and 20 carbon atoms. Expression studies with tissues of domestic chicken indicated that FAR transcripts were not restricted to the uropygial gland. Conclusion The data of our study suggest that the identified and characterized avian FAR isozymes, FAR1 and FAR2, can be involved in wax ester biosynthesis and in other pathways like ether lipid synthesis. PMID:22151413

  12. Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Megha; Muthenna, P; Suryanarayana, P; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2008-01-01

    Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase activity is one of the several mechanisms that have been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Though numerous synthetic aldose reductase inhibitors have been tested, these have not been very successful clinically. Therefore, a number of common plant/ natural products used in Indian culinary have been evaluated for their aldose reductase inhibitory potential in the present study. The aqueous extracts of 22 plant-derived materials were prepared and evaluated for the inhibitory property against rat lens and human recombinant aldose reductase. Specificity of these extracts towards aldose reductase was established by testing their ability to inhibit a closely related enzyme viz, aldehyde reductase. The ex vivo incubation of erythrocytes in high glucose containing medium was used to underscore the significance in terms of prevention of intracellular sorbitol accumulation. Among the 22 dietary sources tested, 10 showed considerable inhibitory potential against both rat lens and human recombinant aldose reductase. Prominent inhibitory property was found in spinach, cumin, fennel, lemon, basil and black pepper with an approximate IC50 of 0.2 mg/mL with an excellent selectivity towards aldose reductase. As against this, 10 to 20 times higher concentrations were required for 50% inhibition of aldehyde reductase. Reduction in the accumulation of intracellular sorbitol by the dietary extracts further substantiated their in vivo efficacy. The findings reported here indicate the scope of adapting life-style modifications in the form of inclusion of certain common sources in the diet for the management of diabetic complications.

  13. Bacterial spores as possible contaminants of biomedical materials and devices. [Bacillus anthracis, clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens, C. tetani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecz, N; Kang, T

    1973-01-01

    Destruction of spores on biomedical devices in drugs, and biologicals is essential for prevention of infection of patients with pathogenic sporeformers. Of particular concern are Clostridium tetani, C. perfringens, C. botulinum, Bacillus anthracis and other sporeforming pathogens. Spores are ubiquitous in nature and contamination of biomedical devices varies depending on manufacturing process, handling, raw materials and other variables. In the last 20 years the number of cases per year of specific notifiable diseases in the United States was as follows: tetanus, 120 to 500 cases, botulism, 7 to 47 cases, and anthrax, 2 to 10 cases. Gas gangrene is caused by a mixed flora consisting predominantly of sporeformers. C botulinum, which usually acts as saprophytic agent of food poisoning, may also initiate pathogenic processes; there are nine cases on record in the United States of botulism wound infections almost half of which ended in death. The spores of these organisms are distinguished by high radiation resistance and their erradication often requires severe radiation treatments. Representative bacterial spores in various suspending media show D/sub 10/ values (dose necessary to destroy 90 percent of a given population) ranging from approximately 0.1 to 0.4 Mrad. Some viruses show D/sub 10/ values up to greater than 1 Mrad. The D/sub 10/-values of spores vary depending on physical, chemical and biological factors. This variability is important in evaluation and selection of biological indicator organisms. Radiation sterilization of biomedical devices and biomedical materials must provide safety from infectious microorganisms including radiation resistant spores and viruses.

  14. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores using PES-Solid, a solid source of peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, T L; Wells, C M; Young, A A; Minter, Z A; Johnson, C A; Payne, A N; McPherson, D C

    2013-08-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus anthracis Ames, B. anthracis ∆Sterne and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure to PES-Solid (a solid source of peracetic acid), including PES-Solid formulations with bacteriostatic surfactants. Spores (≥ 7 logs) were dried on seven different test materials and treated with three different PES-Solid formulations (or preneutralized controls) at room temperature for 15 min. There was either no spore survival or less than 1 log (<10 spores) of spore survival in 56 of 63 test combinations (strain, formulation and substrate). Less than 2.7 logs (<180 spores) survived in the remaining seven test combinations. The highest spore survival rates were seen on water-dispersible chemical agent resistant coating (CARC-W) and Naval ship topcoat (NTC). Electron microscopy and Coulter analysis showed that all spore structures were intact after spore inactivation with PES-Solid. Three PES-Solid formulations inactivated Bacillus spores that were dried on seven different materials. A test method was developed to show that PES-Solid formulations effectively inactivate Bacillus spores on different materials. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Bioinformatics analysis of the predicted polyprenol reductase genes in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluates the bioinformatics methods to analyze twenty-four predicted polyprenol reductase genes from higher plants on GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, similarity, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic. The physicochemical properties of plant polyprenol showed diversity among the observed genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of plant polyprenol genes followed the ratio order of α helix > random coil > extended chain structure. The values of chloroplast but not signal peptide were too low, indicated that few chloroplast transit peptide in plant polyprenol reductase genes. The possibility of the potential transit peptide showed variation among the plant polyprenol reductase, suggested the importance of understanding the variety of peptide components of plant polyprenol genes. To clarify this finding, a phylogenetic tree was drawn. The phylogenetic tree shows several branches in the tree, suggested that plant polyprenol reductase genes grouped into divergent clusters in the tree.

  17. Survival and Psychomotor Development With Early Betaine Treatment in Patients With Severe Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES

  18. Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E.F.; Koning, T.J. de; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Hasselt, P.M. van

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES

  19. A case of severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency presenting as neonatal encephalopathy, seizures, microcephaly and central hypoventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniam, S.; Salomons, G.S.; Blom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key regulatory enzyme in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. S-adenosylmethionine, formed from methionine and adenosine triphosphate, is the methyl donor in crucial reactions for brain development and function. MTHFR deficiency is the

  20. The 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase gene from Taxus media: Cloning, characterization and functional identification. Y Sun, M Chen, J Tang, W Liu, C Yang, Y Yang, X Lan, M Hsieh, Z Liao ...

  1. Genome sequence analysis of predicted polyprenol reductase gene from mangrove plant kandelia obovata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sagami, H.; Baba, S.; Oku, H.

    2018-03-01

    It has been previously reported that dolichols but not polyprenols were predominated in mangrove leaves and roots. Therefore, the occurrence of larger amounts of dolichol in leaves of mangrove plants implies that polyprenol reductase is responsible for the conversion of polyprenol to dolichol may be active in mangrove leaves. Here we report the early assessment of probably polyprenol reductase gene from genome sequence of mangrove plant Kandelia obovata. The functional assignment of the gene was based on a homology search of the sequences against the non-redundant (nr) peptide database of NCBI using Blastx. The degree of sequence identity between DNA sequence and known polyprenol reductase was confirmed using the Blastx probability E-value, total score, and identity. The genome sequence data resulted in three partial sequences, termed c23157 (700 bp), c23901 (960 bp), and c24171 (531 bp). The c23157 gene showed the highest similarity (61%) to predicted polyprenol reductase 2- like from Gossypium raimondii with E-value 2e-100. The second gene was c23901 to exhibit high similarity (78%) to the steroid 5-alpha-reductase Det2 from J. curcas with E-value 2e-140. Furthermore, the c24171 gene depicted highest similarity (79%) to the polyprenol reductase 2 isoform X1 from Jatropha curcas with E- value 7e-21.The present study suggested that the c23157, c23901, and c24171, genes may encode predicted polyprenol reductase. The c23157, c23901, c24171 are therefore the new type of predicted polyprenol reductase from K. obovata.

  2. X-Ray crystal structure of GarR—tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Osipiuk, J.; Zhou, M.; Moy, S.; Collart, F.; Joachimiak, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determi...

  3. Isolation and primary structural analysis of two conjugated polyketone reductases from Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A R; Akond, M A; Kita, K; Kataoka, M; Shimizu, S

    2001-12-01

    Two conjugated polyketone reductases (CPRs) were isolated from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The primary structures of CPRs (C1 and C2) were analyzed by amino acid sequencing. The amino acid sequences of both enzymes had high similarity to those of several proteins of the aldo-keto-reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, several amino acid residues in the putative active sites of AKRs were not conserved in CPRs-C1 and -C2.

  4. Nitrate reductase activity and its relationship with applied nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Wenting; Jin Xijun; Ma Chunmei; Dong Shoukun; Gong Zhenping; Zhang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the nitrate reductase activity and its relationship to nitrogen by using frame tests (pot without bottom), sand culture and 15 N-urea at transplanting in soybean variety Suinong 14. Results showed that the activity of nitrate reductase in leaf changed as a signal peak curve with the soybean growth, lower in vegetative growth phase, higher in reproductive growth period and reached the peak in blooming period, then decreased gradually. Nitrogen application showed obvious effect on the nitrate reductase activity. The activities of nitrate reductase in leaves followed the order of N 135 > N 90 > N 45 > N 0 in vegetative growth stage, no clear regularity was found during the whole reproductive growth period. The activities of nitrate reductase in leaves were accorded with the order of upper leaves > mid leaves > lower leaves, and it was very significant differences (P 15 N labeling method during beginning seed stage and full seed stage shown that 15 N abundance in various organs at different node position also followed the same order, suggesting that high level of nitrate reductase activity at upper leaves of soybean promoted the assimilation of NO 3 - . (authors)

  5. Increased 5α-reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5α-reductase activity (5α-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5α-RA. In vitro 5α-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with 14 C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstane 3α-17β-estradiol (3α-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3α-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3α-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5α-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5α-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5α-RA

  6. Role of Helicobacter pylori methionine sulfoxide reductase in urease maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Mahawar, Manish; Sharp, Joshua S.; Benoit, Stéphane; Maier, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The persistence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is due in part to urease and Msr (methionine sulfoxide reductase). Upon exposure to relatively mild (21% partial pressure of O2) oxidative stress, a Δmsr mutant showed both decreased urease specific activity in cell-free extracts and decreased nickel associated with the partially purified urease fraction as compared with the parent strain, yet urease apoprotein levels were the same for the Δmsr and wild-type extracts. Urease activity of the Δmsr mutant was not significantly different from the wild-type upon non-stress microaerobic incubation of strains. Urease maturation occurs through nickel mobilization via a suite of known accessory proteins, one being the GTPase UreG. Treatment of UreG with H2O2 resulted in oxidation of MS-identified methionine residues and loss of up to 70% of its GTPase activity. Incubation of pure H2O2-treated UreG with Msr led to reductive repair of nine methionine residues and recovery of up to full enzyme activity. Binding of Msr to both oxidized and non-oxidized UreG was observed by cross-linking. Therefore we conclude Msr aids the survival of H. pylori in part by ensuring continual UreG-mediated urease maturation under stress conditions. PMID:23181726

  7. Determination of Nitrate Reductase Assay Depending on the Microbial Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid micro-dilution assay for determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of different bacterial isolates was developed. This assay is based on the ability of the most of viable organisms to reduce nitrates. The MIC or MBC could be determined by nitrate reductase (NR) only after 30 to 90 min of incubation depending on the behaviour of microbial growth. Bacterial viability is detected by a positive nitrite reduction rather than visible turbidity. The nitrate reduction assay was compared with standard micro-assay using 250 isolates of different taxa against 10 antibiotics belonging to different classes. An excellent agreement of 82.5 % was found between the two methods and only 17.5 % of 1794 trials showed difference in the determined MIC by tow-dilution interval above or below the MIC determined by the turbidimetric method under the same test conditions. However, the nitrate reduction assay was more rapid and sensitive in detecting viable bacteria and so, established an accurate estimate of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) or the minimal bacterial concentration (MBC). The nitrate reduction assay offers the additional advantage that it could be used to determine the MBC without having to subculture the broth. 232 cases of resistance were detected by NR and 4 different media were tested for susceptibility test. The bacterial isolates were exposed to ultra violet (UV) light for different period

  8. Inhibition of aldose reductase by Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  9. Expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y X; Chen, H R; Wu, A Z; Cai, R; Pan, J S

    2015-05-12

    Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes from Rosa chinensis (Asn type) and Calibrachoa hybrida (Asp type), driven by a CaMV 35S promoter, were integrated into the petunia (Petunia hybrida) cultivar 9702. Exogenous DFR gene expression characteristics were similar to flower-color changes, and effects on anthocyanin concentration were observed in both types of DFR gene transformants. Expression analysis showed that exogenous DFR genes were expressed in all of the tissues, but the expression levels were significantly different. However, both of them exhibited a high expression level in petals that were starting to open. The introgression of DFR genes may significantly change DFR enzyme activity. Anthocyanin ultra-performance liquid chromatography results showed that anthocyanin concentrations changed according to DFR enzyme activity. Therefore, the change in flower color was probably the result of a DFR enzyme change. Pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside was found in two different transgenic petunias, indicating that both CaDFR and RoDFR could catalyze dihydrokaempferol. Our results also suggest that transgenic petunias with DFR gene of Asp type could biosynthesize pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside.

  10. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and prostatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F H

    1994-08-01

    5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors are a new class of substances with very specific effects on type I and type II 5 alpha R which may be of use in the treatment of skin disease, such as male pattern baldness, male acne and hirsutism, as well as prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. At least two types of 5 alpha R inhibitors with a different pH optimum have been described. cDNA encoding for both the type I and the type II enzyme has been cloned. Most of the orally effective 5 alpha R inhibitors belong to the class of 4-azasteroids. The radical substituted in the 17 position of the steroid ring seems to be related to species specific variations and to the types of 5 alpha R enzymes in different species and organ systems. 5 alpha R inhibitors lead to a decrease of plasma DHT by about 65% while there is a slight rise in plasma testosterone. The decrease of tissue DHT in the ventral prostate of the intact rat, the dog and in humans is more pronounced and amounts to about 85%. There is a reciprocal rise of tissue T in these systems. The application of an inhibitor of 5 alpha R type II leads to a shrinkage of BPH in men by about 30%. In the rat a similar shrinkage accompanied by a significant decrease of total organ DNA occurs. This decrease, however, is not as pronounced as can be achieved with castration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Direct electrochemistry of nitrate reductase from the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Ringel, Phillip; Kruse, Tobias; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2016-09-01

    We report the first direct (unmediated) catalytic electrochemistry of a eukaryotic nitrate reductase (NR). NR from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, is a member of the mononuclear molybdenum enzyme family and contains a Mo, heme and FAD cofactor which are involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to the (Mo) active site where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. NR was adsorbed on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPG) working electrode. Non-turnover redox responses were observed in the absence of nitrate from holo NR and three variants lacking the FAD, heme or Mo cofactor. The FAD response is due to dissociated cofactor in all cases. In the presence of nitrate, NR shows a pronounced cathodic catalytic wave with an apparent Michaelis constant (KM) of 39μM (pH7). The catalytic cathodic current increases with temperature from 5 to 35°C and an activation enthalpy of 26kJmol(-1) was determined. In spite of dissociation of the FAD cofactor, catalytically activity is maintained. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  13. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Cindy [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Mueller, Uwe [Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Lianli [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Zhao, Yu [Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-12-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å.

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222 1 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å

  15. False Negative Rates of a Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates via Real-Time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Surface sampling for Bacillus anthracis spores has traditionally relied on detection via bacterial cultivation methods. Although effective, this approach does not provide the level of organism specificity that can be gained through molecular techniques. False negative rates (FNR) and limits of detection (LOD) were determined for two B. anthracis surrogates with modified rapid viability-polymerase chain reaction (mRV-PCR) following macrofoam-swab sampling. This study was conducted in parallel with a previously reported study that analyzed spores using a plate-culture method. B. anthracis Sterne (BAS) or B. atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores were deposited onto four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic) at nine target concentrations (2 to 500 spores/coupon; 0.078 to 19.375 colony-forming units [CFU] per cm²). Mean FNR values for mRV-PCR analysis ranged from 0 to 0.917 for BAS and 0 to 0.875 for BG and increased as spore concentration decreased (over the concentrations investigated) for each surface material. FNRs based on mRV-PCR data were not statistically different for BAS and BG, but were significantly lower for glass than for vinyl tile. FNRs also tended to be lower for the mRV-PCR method compared to the culture method. The mRV-PCR LOD₉₅ was lowest for glass (0.429 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.341 CFU/cm² with BG) and highest for vinyl tile (0.919 CFU/cm² with BAS and 0.917 CFU/cm² with BG). These mRV-PCR LOD₉₅ values were lower than the culture values (BAS: 0.678 to 1.023 CFU/cm² and BG: 0.820 to 1.489 CFU/cm²). The FNR and LOD₉₅ values reported in this work provide guidance for environmental sampling of Bacillus spores at low concentrations.

  16. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores by a Combination of Biocides and Heating under High-Temperature Short-Time Pasteurization Conditions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85°C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80°C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80°C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80°C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80°C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80°C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be used in HTST milk plants to process

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores by a combination of biocides and heating under high-temperature short-time pasteurization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sa; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    The milk supply is considered a primary route for a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis spores because typical high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization conditions cannot inactivate spores. In the event of intentional contamination, an effective method to inactivate the spores in milk under HTST processing conditions is needed. This study was undertaken to identify combinations and concentrations of biocides that can inactivate B. anthracis spores at temperatures in the HTST range in less than 1 min. Hydrogen peroxide (HP), sodium hypochlorite (SH), and peroxyacetic acid (PA) were evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating spores of strains 7702, ANR-1, and 9131 in milk at 72, 80, and 85 degrees C using a sealed capillary tube technique. Strains ANR-1 and 9131 were more resistant to all of the biocide treatments than strain 7702. Addition of 1,260 ppm SH to milk reduced the number of viable spores of each strain by 6 log CFU/ml in less than 90 and 60 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. After neutralization, 1,260 ppm SH reduced the time necessary to inactivate 6 log CFU/ml (TTI6-log) at 80 degrees C to less than 20 s. Treatment of milk with 7,000 ppm HP resulted in a similar level of inactivation in 60 s. Combined treatment with 1,260 ppm SH and 1,800 ppm HP inactivated spores of all strains in less than 20 s at 80 degrees C. Mixing 15 ppm PA with milk containing 1,260 ppm SH resulted in TTI6-log of 25 and 12 s at 72 and 80 degrees C, respectively. TTI6-log of less than 20 s were also achieved at 80 degrees C by using two combinations of biocides: 250 ppm SH, 700 ppm HP, and 150 ppm PA; and 420 ppm SH (pH 7), 1,100 ppm HP, and 15 ppm PA. These results indicated that different combinations of biocides could consistently result in 6-log reductions in the number of B. anthracis spores in less than 1 min at temperatures in the HTST range. This information could be useful for developing more effective thermal treatment strategies which could be

  18. Methylenetetrahy-drofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermina Kiseljaković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR is key enzyme in metabolism of homocysteine. Homozygotes for mutation (TT genotype have hyperhomocysteinemia, risk factor for atherosclerosis development. The aim of the study was to find out distribution of genotype frequencies of C677T MTHFR among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Possible association of alleles and genotypes of C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene with age of onset, duration of dialysis and cause of kidney failure was studied also. Cross-sectional study includes 80 patients from Clinic of Hemodialysis KUCS in Sarajevo. In order to perform genotyping, isolated DNA was analyzed by RFLP-PCR and gel-electrophoresis. From total of 80 patients, 42.5% (n=24 were female, 57.5% (n=46 were male, mean age 54.59±1.78 years and duration of dialysis 79.92±6.32 months. Genotype distribution was: CC 51.2% (n=41, CT 37.5% (n=30 and TT 11.2% (n=9. Patients with wild-type genotype have longer duration of dialysis in month (87.1 ± 63.93 comparing to TT genotype patients (67.06 ± 39.3, with no statistical significance. T allele frequency was significantly higher in group of vascular and congenital cause of kidney failure (Pearson X2 =6.049, P<0.05 comparing to inflammation etiology group. Genotype distribution results are within the results other studies in Europe. Obtained results indicate that C677T polymorphism is not associated with onset, duration and cause of kidney failure in our hemodialysis population. There is an association of T allele of the MTHFR gene and vascular and congenital cause kidney failure.

  19. Rapid Identification of Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Compounds from Perilla frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hun Paek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethyl acetate (EtOAc soluble fraction of methanol extracts of Perilla frutescens (P. frutescens inhibits aldose reductase (AR, the key enzyme in the polyol pathway. Our investigation of inhibitory compounds from the EtOAc soluble fraction of P. frutescens was followed by identification of the inhibitory compounds by a combination of HPLC microfractionation and a 96-well enzyme assay. This allowed the biological activities to be efficiently matched with selected HPLC peaks. Structural analyses of the active compounds were performed by LC-MSn. The main AR inhibiting compounds were tentatively identified as chlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid by LC-MSn. A two-step high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC isolation method was developed with a solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at 1.5 : 5 : 1 : 5, v/v and 3 : 7 : 5 : 5, v/v. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined by 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR. The main compounds inhibiting AR in the EtOAc fraction of methanol extracts of P. frutescens were identified as chlorogenic acid (2 (IC50 = 3.16 μM, rosmarinic acid (4 (IC50 = 2.77 μM, luteolin (5 (IC50 = 6.34 μM, and methyl rosmarinic acid (6 (IC50 = 4.03 μM.

  20. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  1. Pyranopterin Coordination Controls Molybdenum Electrochemistry in Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Rothery, Richard A; Weiner, Joel H

    2015-10-09

    We test the hypothesis that pyranopterin (PPT) coordination plays a critical role in defining molybdenum active site redox chemistry and reactivity in the mononuclear molybdoenzymes. The molybdenum atom of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) is coordinated by two PPT-dithiolene chelates that are defined as proximal and distal based on their proximity to a [4Fe-4S] cluster known as FS0. We examined variants of two sets of residues involved in PPT coordination: (i) those interacting directly or indirectly with the pyran oxygen of the bicyclic distal PPT (NarG-Ser(719), NarG-His(1163), and NarG-His(1184)); and (ii) those involved in bridging the two PPTs and stabilizing the oxidation state of the proximal PPT (NarG-His(1092) and NarG-His(1098)). A S719A variant has essentially no effect on the overall Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential, whereas the H1163A and H1184A variants elicit large effects (ΔEm values of -88 and -36 mV, respectively). Ala variants of His(1092) and His(1098) also elicit large ΔEm values of -143 and -101 mV, respectively. An Arg variant of His(1092) elicits a small ΔEm of +18 mV on the Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential. There is a linear correlation between the molybdenum Em value and both enzyme activity and the ability to support anaerobic respiratory growth on nitrate. These data support a non-innocent role for the PPT moieties in controlling active site metal redox chemistry and catalysis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Pyranopterin Coordination Controls Molybdenum Electrochemistry in Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Yi; Rothery, Richard A.; Weiner, Joel H.

    2015-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that pyranopterin (PPT) coordination plays a critical role in defining molybdenum active site redox chemistry and reactivity in the mononuclear molybdoenzymes. The molybdenum atom of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A (NarGHI) is coordinated by two PPT-dithiolene chelates that are defined as proximal and distal based on their proximity to a [4Fe-4S] cluster known as FS0. We examined variants of two sets of residues involved in PPT coordination: (i) those interacting directly or indirectly with the pyran oxygen of the bicyclic distal PPT (NarG-Ser719, NarG-His1163, and NarG-His1184); and (ii) those involved in bridging the two PPTs and stabilizing the oxidation state of the proximal PPT (NarG-His1092 and NarG-His1098). A S719A variant has essentially no effect on the overall Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential, whereas the H1163A and H1184A variants elicit large effects (ΔEm values of −88 and −36 mV, respectively). Ala variants of His1092 and His1098 also elicit large ΔEm values of −143 and −101 mV, respectively. An Arg variant of His1092 elicits a small ΔEm of +18 mV on the Mo(VI/IV) reduction potential. There is a linear correlation between the molybdenum Em value and both enzyme activity and the ability to support anaerobic respiratory growth on nitrate. These data support a non-innocent role for the PPT moieties in controlling active site metal redox chemistry and catalysis. PMID:26297003

  3. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  4. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  5. The mechanism of DNA ejection in the Bacillus anthracis spore-binding phage 8a revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaofeng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Walter, Michael H. [Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States); Paredes, Angel [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morais, Marc C., E-mail: mcmorais@utmb.edu [Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Liu, Jun, E-mail: Jun.Liu.1@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The structure of the Bacillus anthracis spore-binding phage 8a was determined by cryo-electron tomography. The phage capsid forms a T = 16 icosahedron attached to a contractile tail via a head-tail connector protein. The tail consists of a six-start helical sheath surrounding a central tail tube, and a structurally novel baseplate at the distal end of the tail that recognizes and attaches to host cells. The parameters of the icosahedral capsid lattice and the helical tail sheath suggest protein folds for the capsid and tail-sheath proteins, respectively, and indicate evolutionary relationships to other dsDNA viruses. Analysis of 2518 intact phage particles show four distinct conformations that likely correspond to four sequential states of the DNA ejection process during infection. Comparison of the four observed conformations suggests a mechanism for DNA ejection, including the molecular basis underlying coordination of tail sheath contraction and genome release from the capsid.

  6. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Immunological correlates for protection against intranasal challenge of Bacillus anthracis spores conferred by a protective antigen-based vaccine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shay; Kobiler, David; Levy, Haim; Marcus, Hadar; Pass, Avi; Rothschild, Nili; Altboum, Zeev

    2006-01-01

    Correlates between immunological parameters and protection against Bacillus anthracis infection in animals vaccinated with protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines could provide surrogate markers to evaluate the putative protective efficiency of immunization in humans. In previous studies we demonstrated that neutralizing antibody levels serve as correlates for protection in guinea pigs (S. Reuveny et al., Infect. Immun. 69:2888-2893, 2001; H. Marcus et al., Infect. Immun. 72:3471-3477, 2004). In this study we evaluated similar correlates for protection by active and passive immunization of New Zealand White rabbits. Full immunization and partial immunization were achieved by single and multiple injections of standard and diluted doses of a PA-based vaccine. Passive immunization was carried out by injection of immune sera from rabbits vaccinated with PA-based vaccine prior to challenge with B. anthracis spores. Immunized rabbits were challenged by intranasal spore instillation with one of two virulent strains (strains Vollum and ATCC 6605). The immune competence was estimated by measuring the level of total anti-PA antibodies, the neutralizing antibody titers, and the conferred protective immunity. The results indicate that total anti-PA antibody titers greater than 1 x 10(5) conferred protection, whereas lower titers (between 10(4) and 10(5)) provided partial protection but failed to predict protection. Neutralizing antibody titers between 500 and 800 provided partial protection, while titers higher than 1,000 conferred protection. In conclusion, this study emphasizes that regardless of the immunization regimen or the time of challenge, neutralizing antibody titers are better predictors of protection than total anti-PA titers.

  8. Development of Protective Immunity in New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis Spores and Treated with Antibiotics and Obiltoxaximab, a Monoclonal Antibody against Protective Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Lisa N; Carpenter, Sarah; Stark, Gregory V; Serbina, Natalya V

    2018-02-01

    The recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax protective antigen (PA), is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for the treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease reemergence after treatment cessation is a concern, and there is a need to understand the development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens. Here, acquired protective immunity was examined in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits challenged with a targeted lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis spores and treated with antibiotics, obiltoxaximab, or a combination of both. Survivors of the primary challenge were rechallenged 9 months later and monitored for survival. Survival rates after primary and rechallenge for controls and animals treated with obiltoxaximab, levofloxacin, or a combination of both were 0, 65, 100, and 95%, and 0, 100, 95, and 89%, respectively. All surviving immune animals had circulating antibodies to PA and serum toxin-neutralizing titers prior to rechallenge. Following rechallenge, systemic bacteremia and toxemia were not detected in most animals, and the levels of circulating anti-PA IgG titers increased starting at 5 days postrechallenge. We conclude that treatment with obiltoxaximab, alone or combined with antibiotics, significantly improves the survival of rabbits that received a lethal inhalation B. anthracis spore challenge dose and does not interfere with the development of immunity. Survivors of primary challenge are protected against reexposure, have rare incidents of systemic bacteremia and toxemia, and have evidence of an anamnestic response. Copyright © 2018 Henning et al.

  9. Comparative modelling and molecular docking of nitrate reductase from Bacillus weihenstephanensis (DS45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seenivasagan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase catalyses the oxidation of NAD(PH and the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. NR serves as a central point for the integration of metabolic pathways by governing the flux of reduced nitrogen through several regulatory mechanisms in plants, algae and fungi. Bacteria express nitrate reductases that convert nitrate to nitrite, but mammals lack these specific enzymes. The microbial nitrate reductase reduces toxic compounds to nontoxic compounds with the help of NAD(PH. In the present study, our results revealed that Bacillus weihenstephanensis expresses a nitrate reductase enzyme, which was made to generate the 3D structure of the enzyme. Six different modelling servers, namely Phyre2, RaptorX, M4T Server, HHpred, SWISS MODEL and Mod Web, were used for comparative modelling of the structure. The model was validated with standard parameters (PROCHECK and Verify 3D. This study will be useful in the functional characterization of the nitrate reductase enzyme and its docking with nitrate molecules, as well as for use with autodocking.

  10. Role of aldose reductase C-106T polymorphism among diabetic Egyptian patients with different microvascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Hossam Zakaria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aldose reductase pathway proves that elevated blood glucose promotes cellular dysfunction. The polyol pathway converts excess intracellular glucose into alcohols via activity of the aldose reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol which triggers variety of intracellular changes in the tissues. Among diabetes, activity is drastically increased in association with three main consequences inside the cells. The aim of this study was to detect the association of the C-106 T polymorphism of the aldose reductase gene and its frequency among a sample of 150 Egyptian adults with type 2 diabetic patients having diabetic microvascular. The detection of the aldose reductase C-106 T polymorphism gene was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The genotype distribution of the C-106 T polymorphism showed that CC genotype was statistically significantly higher among patients with retinopathy compared to nephropathy. Patients with nephropathy had significant association with the TT genotype when compared with diabetic retinopathy patients. Follow up study after the genotype detection among recently diagnosed diabetic patients in order to give a prophylactic aldose reductase inhibitors; studying the microvascular complications and its relation to the genotype polymorphisms. The study may include multiple gene polymorphisms to make the relation between the gene and the occurrence of these complications more evident.

  11. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Russell, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5α-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5α-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5α-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5α-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

  12. Overexpression of Nitrate Reductase in Tobacco Delays Drought-Induced Decreases in Nitrate Reductase Activity and mRNA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario-Méry, Sylvie; Valadier, Marie-Hélène; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Transformed (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter [35S]) tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia L.) plants constitutively expressing nitrate reductase (NR) and untransformed controls were subjected to drought for 5 d. Drought-induced changes in biomass accumulation and photosynthesis were comparable in both lines of plants. After 4 d of water deprivation, a large increase in the ratio of shoot dry weight to fresh weight was observed, together with a decrease in the rate of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation. Foliar sucrose increased in both lines during water stress, but hexoses increased only in leaves from untransformed controls. Foliar NO3− decreased rapidly in both lines and was halved within 2 d of the onset of water deprivation. Total foliar amino acids decreased in leaves of both lines following water deprivation. After 4 d of water deprivation no NR activity could be detected in leaves of untransformed plants, whereas about 50% of the original activity remained in the leaves of the 35S-NR transformants. NR mRNA was much more stable than NR activity. NR mRNA abundance increased in the leaves of the 35S-NR plants and remained constant in controls for the first 3 d of drought. On the 4th d, however, NR mRNA suddenly decreased in both lines. Rehydration at d 3 caused rapid recovery (within 24 h) of 35S-NR transcripts, but no recovery was observed in the controls. The phosphorylation state of the protein was unchanged by long-term drought. There was a strong correlation between maximal extractable NR activity and ambient photosynthesis in both lines. We conclude that drought first causes increased NR protein turnover and then accelerates NR mRNA turnover. Constitutive NR expression temporarily delayed drought-induced losses in NR activity. 35S-NR expression may therefore allow more rapid recovery of N assimilation following short-term water deficit. PMID:9576799

  13. Pilot-scale crossflow-microfiltration and pasteurization to remove spores of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Datta, N; Porto-Fett, A; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Renye, J; Tunick, M

    2011-09-01

    High-temperature, short-time pasteurization of milk is ineffective against spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis (BA), but is lethal to its vegetative cells. Crossflow microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membranes with a pore size of 1.4 μm has been shown to reject most microorganisms from skim milk; and, in combination with pasteurization, has been shown to extend its shelf life. The objectives of this study were to evaluate MF for its efficiency in removing spores of the attenuated Sterne strain of BA from milk; to evaluate the combined efficiency of MF using a 0.8-μm ceramic membrane, followed by pasteurization (72°C, 18.6s); and to monitor any residual BA in the permeates when stored at temperatures of 4, 10, and 25°C for up to 28 d. In each trial, 95 L of raw skim milk was inoculated with about 6.5 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk. It was then microfiltered in total recycle mode at 50°C using ceramic membranes with pore sizes of either 0.8 μm or 1.4 μm, at crossflow velocity of 6.2 m/s and transmembrane pressure of 127.6 kPa, conditions selected to exploit the selectivity of the membrane. Microfiltration using the 0.8-μm membrane removed 5.91±0.05 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk and the 1.4-μm membrane removed 4.50±0.35 log(10) BA spores/mL of milk. The 0.8-μm membrane showed efficient removal of the native microflora and both membranes showed near complete transmission of the casein proteins. Spore germination was evident in the permeates obtained at 10, 30, and 120 min of MF time (0.8-μm membrane) but when stored at 4 or 10°C, spore levels were decreased to below detection levels (≤0.3 log(10) spores/mL) by d 7 or 3 of storage, respectively. Permeates stored at 25°C showed coagulation and were not evaluated further. Pasteurization of the permeate samples immediately after MF resulted in additional spore germination that was related to the length of MF time. Pasteurized permeates obtained at 10 min of MF and stored at 4 or 10°C showed no

  14. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  15. Resolution of oxidative stress by thioredoxin reductase: Cysteine versus selenocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cunniff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reductase (TR catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (TRX, which in turn reduces mammalian typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (PRXs 1–4, thiol peroxidases implicated in redox homeostasis and cell signaling. Typical 2-Cys PRXs are inactivated by hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine to cysteine-sulfinic acid, and regenerated in a two-step process involving retro-reduction by sulfiredoxin (SRX and reduction by TRX. Here transient exposure to menadione and glucose oxidase was used to examine the dynamics of oxidative inactivation and reactivation of PRXs in mouse C10 cells expressing various isoforms of TR, including wild type cytoplasmic TR1 (Sec-TR1 and mitochondrial TR2 (Sec-TR2 that encode selenocysteine, as well as mutants of TR1 and TR2 in which the selenocysteine codon was changed to encode cysteine (Cys-TR1 or Cys-TR2. In C10 cells endogenous TR activity was insensitive to levels of hydrogen peroxide that hyperoxidize PRXs. Expression of Sec-TR1 increased TR activity, reduced the basal cytoplasmic redox state, and increased the rate of reduction of a redox-responsive cytoplasmic GFP probe (roGFP, but did not influence either the rate of inactivation or the rate of retro-reduction of PRXs. In comparison to roGFP, which was reduced within minutes once oxidants were removed reduction of 2-Cys PRXs occurred over many hours. Expression of wild type Sec-TR1 or Sec-TR2, but not Cys-TR1 or TR2, increased the rate of reduction of PRXs and improved cell survival after menadione exposure. These results indicate that expression levels of TR do not reduce the severity of initial oxidative insults, but rather govern the rate of reduction of cellular factors required for cell viability. Because Sec-TR is completely insensitive to cytotoxic levels of hydrogen peroxide, we suggest TR functions at the top of a redox pyramid that governs the oxidation state of peroxiredoxins and other protein factors, thereby dictating a hierarchy of phenotypic

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyota, Eduardo [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Sousa, Sylvia Morais de [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Menossi, Marcelo [Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Yunes, José Andrés [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aparicio, Ricardo, E-mail: aparicio@iqm.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR.

  17. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake: reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the Nr activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which reflects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling

  18. Inhibitory effect of rhetsinine isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa on aldose reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A; Yasuko, H; Goto, H; Hollinshead, J; Nash, R J; Adachi, I

    2009-03-01

    Aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetic complications, without increased risk of hypoglycemia. Search for components inhibiting aldose reductase led to the discovery of active compounds contained in Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), which is the one of the component of Kampo-herbal medicine. The hot water extract from the E. rutaecarpa was subjected to distribution or gel filtration chromatography to give an active compound, N2-(2-methylaminobenzoyl)tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-one (rhetsinine). It inhibited aldose reductase with IC(50) values of 24.1 microM. Furthermore, rhetsinine inhibited sorbitol accumulation by 79.3% at 100 microM. These results suggested that the E. rutaecarpa derived component, rhetsinine, would be potentially useful in the treatment of diabetic complications.

  19. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... and improvement in objective parameters for bladder outflow obstruction. Approximately 30 to 50% of patients will respond to treatment with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. The definitive role of pharmacological treatment in symptomatic BPH remains to be established, although it seems that patients unfit...

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyota, Eduardo; Sousa, Sylvia Morais de; Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da; Menossi, Marcelo; Yunes, José Andrés; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR

  1. Inhibition of human anthracycline reductases by emodin — A possible remedy for anthracycline resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintzpeter, Jan, E-mail: hintzpeter@toxi.uni-kiel.de [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Seliger, Jan Moritz [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Hofman, Jakub [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Martin, Hans-Joerg [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Wsol, Vladimir [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Maser, Edmund [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The clinical application of anthracyclines, like daunorubicin and doxorubicin, is limited by two factors: dose-related cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. Both have been linked to reductive metabolism of the parent drug to their metabolites daunorubicinol and doxorubicinol, respectively. These metabolites show significantly less anti-neoplastic properties as their parent drugs and accumulate in cardiac tissue leading to chronic cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel and potent natural inhibitors for anthracycline reductases, which enhance the anticancer effect of anthracyclines by preventing the development of anthracycline resistance. Human enzymes responsible for the reductive metabolism of daunorubicin were tested for their sensitivity towards anthrachinones, in particular emodin and anthraflavic acid. Intense inhibition kinetic data for the most effective daunorubicin reductases, including IC{sub 50}- and K{sub i}-values, the mode of inhibition, as well as molecular docking, were compiled. Subsequently, a cytotoxicity profile and the ability of emodin to reverse daunorubicin resistance were determined using multiresistant A549 lung cancer and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Emodin potently inhibited the four main human daunorubicin reductases in vitro. Further, we could demonstrate that emodin is able to synergistically sensitize human cancer cells towards daunorubicin at clinically relevant concentrations. Therefore, emodin may yield the potential to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of anthracyclines by preventing anthracycline resistance via inhibition of the anthracycline reductases. In symphony with its known pharmacological properties, emodin might be a compound of particular interest in the management of anthracycline chemotherapy efficacy and their adverse effects. - Highlights: • Natural and synthetic compounds were identified as inhibitors for human daunorubicin reductases. • Emodin is a potent inhibitor for human daunorubicin

  2. Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and tumor promotion involving mammalian ribonucleotide reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, B.B.K.

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian ribonucleotide reductase is a highly regulated, rate-limiting activity responsible for converting ribonucleoside diphosphates to the deoxyribonucleotide precursors of DNA. The enzyme consists of two nonidentical proteins called M1 and M2, both of which are required for activity. Hydroxyurea is an antitumor agent which inhibits ribonucleotide reductase by interacting with the M2 component specifically at a unique tyrosyl free radical. Studies were conducted on a series of drug resistant mouse cell lines, selected by a step-wise procedure for increasing levels of resistance to the cytotoxic effects of hydroxyurea. Each successive drug selection step leading to the isolation of highly resistant cells was accompanied by stable elevations in cellular resistance and ribonucleotide reductase activity. The drug resistant cell lines exhibited gene amplification of the M2 gene, elevated M2 mRNA, and M2 protein. In addition to M2 gene amplification, posttranscriptional modulation also occurred during the drug selection. Studies of the biosynthesis rates with exogenously added iron suggest a role for iron in regulating the level of M2 protein when cells are cultured in the presence of hydroxyurea. The hydroxyurea-inactivated ribonucleotide reductase protein M2 has a destabilized iron centre, which readily releases iron. Altered expression of ferritin appears to be required for the development of hydroxyurea resistance in nammalian cells. The results show an interesting relationship between the expressions of ribonucleotide reductase and ferritin. The phorbol ester tumor promoter, TPA, is also able to alter the expression of M2. TPA was able to induce M2 mRNA levels transiently up to 18-fold within 1/2 hour. This rapid and large elevation of ribonucleotide reductase suggests that the enzyme may play a role in tumor promotion. Studies of the M2 promoter region were undertaken to better understand the mechanism of TPA induction of M2.

  3. Characterisation of a desmosterol reductase involved in phytosterol dealkylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora F Ciufo

    Full Text Available Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C(29 and C(28 yielding cholesterol (C(27. The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735. Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD-dependent reaction.Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250 kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation.

  4. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic soybean expressing the Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta; Eckert, Helene; Arahana, Venancio; Graef, George; Grusak, Michael A; Clemente, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) production is reduced under iron-limiting calcareous soils throughout the upper Midwest regions of the US. Like other dicotyledonous plants, soybean responds to iron-limiting environments by induction of an active proton pump, a ferric iron reductase and an iron transporter. Here we demonstrate that heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2, in transgenic soybean significantly enhances Fe(+3) reduction in roots and leaves. Root ferric reductase activity was up to tenfold higher in transgenic plants and was not subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. In leaves, reductase activity was threefold higher in the transgenic plants when compared to control. The enhanced ferric reductase activity led to reduced chlorosis, increased chlorophyll concentration and a lessening in biomass loss in the transgenic events between Fe treatments as compared to control plants grown under hydroponics that mimicked Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soil environments. However, the data indicate that constitutive FRO2 expression under non-iron stress conditions may lead to a decrease in plant productivity as reflected by reduced biomass accumulation in the transgenic events under non-iron stress conditions. When grown at Fe(III)-EDDHA levels greater than 10 microM, iron concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly higher than control. The same observation was found in the roots in plants grown at iron levels higher than 32 microM Fe(III)-EDDHA. These results suggest that heterologous expression of an iron chelate reductase in soybean can provide a route to alleviate iron deficiency chlorosis.

  5. BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ALDO-KETO REDUCTASES IN RETINOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS AND SIGNALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier eRuiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several aldo-keto reductase (AKR enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low Km and kcat values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3, as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in β-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance.

  6. Characterisation of a Desmosterol Reductase Involved in Phytosterol Dealkylation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufo, Leonora F.; Murray, Patricia A.; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J.; Rees, Huw H.

    2011-01-01

    Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C29 and C28) yielding cholesterol (C27). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD- dependent reaction. Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation. PMID:21738635

  7. Inhibition of human anthracycline reductases by emodin — A possible remedy for anthracycline resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Seliger, Jan Moritz; Hofman, Jakub; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Wsol, Vladimir; Maser, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    The clinical application of anthracyclines, like daunorubicin and doxorubicin, is limited by two factors: dose-related cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. Both have been linked to reductive metabolism of the parent drug to their metabolites daunorubicinol and doxorubicinol, respectively. These metabolites show significantly less anti-neoplastic properties as their parent drugs and accumulate in cardiac tissue leading to chronic cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel and potent natural inhibitors for anthracycline reductases, which enhance the anticancer effect of anthracyclines by preventing the development of anthracycline resistance. Human enzymes responsible for the reductive metabolism of daunorubicin were tested for their sensitivity towards anthrachinones, in particular emodin and anthraflavic acid. Intense inhibition kinetic data for the most effective daunorubicin reductases, including IC 50 - and K i -values, the mode of inhibition, as well as molecular docking, were compiled. Subsequently, a cytotoxicity profile and the ability of emodin to reverse daunorubicin resistance were determined using multiresistant A549 lung cancer and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Emodin potently inhibited the four main human daunorubicin reductases in vitro. Further, we could demonstrate that emodin is able to synergistically sensitize human cancer cells towards daunorubicin at clinically relevant concentrations. Therefore, emodin may yield the potential to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of anthracyclines by preventing anthracycline resistance via inhibition of the anthracycline reductases. In symphony with its known pharmacological properties, emodin might be a compound of particular interest in the management of anthracycline chemotherapy efficacy and their adverse effects. - Highlights: • Natural and synthetic compounds were identified as inhibitors for human daunorubicin reductases. • Emodin is a potent inhibitor for human daunorubicin reductases.

  8. The Poly-γ-D-Glutamic Acid Capsule of Bacillus licheniformis, a Surrogate of Bacillus anthracis Capsule Induces Interferon-Gamma Production in NK Cells through Interactions with Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Ri; Jeon, Jun Ho; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2017-05-28

    The poly-γ- D -glutamic acid (PGA) capsule, a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis , provides protection of the bacterium from phagocytosis and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. We investigated crosstalk between murine natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages stimulated with the PGA capsule of Bacillus licheniformis , a surrogate of the B. anthracis capsule. PGA induced interferon-gamma production from NK cells cultured with macrophages. This effect was dependent on macrophage-derived IL-12 and cell-cell contact interaction with macrophages through NK cell receptor NKG2D and its ligand RAE-1. The results showed that PGA could enhance NK cell activation by inducing IL-12 production in macrophages and a contact-dependent crosstalk with macrophages.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of ferredoxin reductase from Leptospira interrogans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Ferrarezi, Thiago; Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Crystals adequate for X-ray diffraction analysis have been prepared from L. interrogans ferredoxin-NADP + reductase. Ferredoxin-NADP + reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxin. Here, results are reported of the recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of FNR from Leptospira interrogans, a parasitic bacterium of animals and humans. The L. interrogans FNR crystals belong to a primitive monoclinic space group and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution at a synchrotron source

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of ferredoxin reductase from Leptospira interrogans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Ferrarezi, Thiago [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 (Brazil); Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A. [Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Molecular Biology Division, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, S2002LRK Rosario (Argentina); Polikarpov, Igor, E-mail: ipolikarpov@if.sc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Crystals adequate for X-ray diffraction analysis have been prepared from L. interrogans ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase. Ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxin. Here, results are reported of the recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of FNR from Leptospira interrogans, a parasitic bacterium of animals and humans. The L. interrogans FNR crystals belong to a primitive monoclinic space group and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution at a synchrotron source.

  11. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  12. A New Type of YumC-Like Ferredoxin (Flavodoxin) Reductase Is Involved in Ribonucleotide Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Solem, Christian

    2015-01-01

    . subtilis but that the addition of deoxynucleosides cannot compensate for the lethal phenotype displayed by the B. subtilis yumC knockout mutant. Ferredoxin (flavodoxin) reductase (FdR) is involved in many important reactions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, such as photosynthesis, nitrate reduction, etc. The recently...... ribonucleotide reductase, which represents the workhorse for the bioconversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in many prokaryotes and eukaryotic pathogens under aerobic conditions. As the partner of the flavodoxin (NrdI), the key FdR is missing in the current model describing the class Ib system...

  13. NADPH-Thioredoxin Reductase C Mediates the Response to Oxidative Stress and Thermotolerance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp PCC7120

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Riego, Ana M.; Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; Galmozzi, CarlaV.; Florencio, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thiioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of

  14. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  15. JS-K, a Nitric Oxide Prodrug, Has Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cells with Knockdown of Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Kornelia; Cassidy, Pamela; Shami, Paul J.; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 has a complex role relating to cell growth. It is induced as a component of the cellular response to potentially mutagenic oxidants, but also appears to provide growth advantages to transformed cells by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, selenocysteine-deficient or alkylated forms of thioredoxin reductase 1 have also demonstrated oxidative, pro-apoptotic activity. Therefore, a greater understanding of the role of thioredoxin reductase in redox initiated apoptotic processes is warranted. Methodology The role of thioredoxin reductase 1 in RKO cells was evaluated by attenuating endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1 expression with siRNA and then either inducing a selenium-deficient thioredoxin reductase or treatment with distinct redox challenges including, hydrogen peroxide, an oxidized lipid, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenol, and a nitric oxide donating prodrug. Thioredoxin redox status, cellular viability, and effector caspase activity were measured. Conclusions/Significance In cells with attenuated endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1, a stably integrated selenocysteine-deficient form of the enzyme was induced but did not alter either the thioredoxin redox status or the cellular growth kinetics. The oxidized lipid and the nitric oxide donor demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity when thioredoxin reductase 1 was knocked-down; however, the effect was more pronounced with the nitric oxide prodrug. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that attenuation of the thioredoxin-system can promote apoptosis in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. PMID:20098717

  16. Constitutive non-inducible expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nia 2 gene in two nitrate reductase mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, C; Crawford, N M; Malmberg, R L

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a haploid cell line of N. plumbaginifolia, hNP 588, that is constitutive and not inducible for nitrate reductase. Nitrate reductase mutants were isolated from hNP 588 protoplasts upon UV irradiation. Two of these nitrate reductase-deficient cell lines, nia 3 and nia 25, neither of which contained any detectable nitrate reductase activity, were selected for complementation studies. A cloned Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductase gene Nia 2 was introduced into each of the two mutants resulting in 56 independent kanamycin-resistant cell lines. Thirty of the 56 kanamycin-resistant cell lines were able to grow on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Eight of these were further analyzed for nitrate reductase enzyme activity and nitrate reductase mRNA production. All eight lines had detectable nitrate reductase activity ranging from 7% to 150% of wild-type hNP 588 callus. The enzyme activity levels were not influenced by the nitrogen source in the medium. The eight lines examined expressed a constitutive, non-inducible 3.2 kb mRNA species that was not present in untransformed controls.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å. PMID:17142919

  18. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the S-layer protein gene sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c infection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-03-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.

  19. Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in-vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni eToivola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC contains both reductase (NTRd and thioredoxin (TRXd domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive thioredoxin domain, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modelling of the 3-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protected pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for

  20. Kinetic properties and inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurtado-Guerrrero, Ramón; Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic analysis of the recombinant soluble enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) from Trypanosoma cruzi has been performed. The enzyme catalyzes the normal anabolic reaction and the reductant is NADPH. It also catalyzes the oxidation of mevalonate but at a lower propo...

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of steroid 5 alpha-reductase of rat liver and prostate microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.; Cheung, A.H.; Reynolds, G.F.; Rasmusson, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    21-Diazo-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (Diazo-MAPD) inhibits steroid 5 alpha-reductase in liver microsomes of female rats with a K/sub i/ value of 8.7 +/- 1.7 nM, and the inhibition is competitive with testosterone. It also inhibits the binding of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, [ 3 H] 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([ 3 H]4-MA), to the enzyme in liver microsomes. The inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity and of inhibitor binding activity by diazo-MAPD becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. [1,2- 3 H]Diazo-MAPD binds to a single high affinity site in liver microsomes of female rats, and this binding requires NADPH. Without UV irradiation, this binding is reversible, and it becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. Both the initial reversible binding and the subsequent irreversible conjugation after UV irradiation are inhibited by inhibitors (diazo-MAPD and 4-MA) and substrates (progesterone and testosterone) of 5 alpha-reductase, but they are not inhibited by 5 alpha-reduced steroids. Photoaffinity labeled liver microsomes of female rats were solubilized and fractionated by high performance gel filtration. The radioactive conjugate eluted in one major peak at Mr 50,000

  2. Caracemide, a site-specific irreversible inhibitor of protein R1 of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I. K.; Cornett, Claus; Karlsson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The anticancer drug caracemide, N-acetyl-N,O-di(methylcarbamoyl)hydroxylamine, and one of its degradation products, N-acetyl-O-methylcarbamoyl-hydroxylamine, were found to inhibit the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli by specific interaction with its larger component protein R1....

  3. Differential stress-induced regulation of two quinone reductases in the brown rot Basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roni Cohen; Melissa R. Suzuki; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2004-01-01

    Quinone reductases (QRDs) have two important functions in the basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum, which causes brown rot of wood. First, a QRD is required to generate biodegradative hydroxyl radicals via redox cycling between two G. trabeum extracellular metabolites, 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) and 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,5- DMBQ). Second, because 2,...

  4. NADPH-dependent D-aldose reductases and xylose fermentation in Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Christakopoulos, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two aldose (xylose) reductases (ARI and ARII) from Fusarium oxysporum were purified and characterized. The native ARI was a monomer with M-r 41000, pI 5.2 and showed a 52-fold preference for NADPH over NADH, while ARII was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 37000, pI 3.6 and a 60-fold preference...

  5. 1H, 15N and 13C NMR Assignments of Mouse Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Åshild S.; Aachmann, Finn L.; Sal, Lena S.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Del Conte, Rebecca; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Dikiy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant mouse methionine-r-sulfoxide reductase 2 (MsrB2ΔS) isotopically labeled with 15N and 15N/13C was generated. We report here the 1H, 15N and 13C NMR assignments of the reduced form of this protein. PMID:19636904

  6. Cloning, expression and antigenicity of the L. donovani reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Kemp, K; Theander, T G

    2001-01-01

    (K). Only 2 of 22 plasma samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis were found to have detectable anti-reductase antibodies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from one of three individuals previously infected with visceral leishmaniasis proliferated in the presence of recombinant...

  7. Thioredoxin reductase is a key factor in the oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, L.M.; Molenaar, D.; Wels, M.W.W.; Teusink, B.; Bron, P.A.; Vos, de W.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Thioredoxin (TRX) is a powerful disulfide oxido-reductase that catalyzes a wide spectrum of redox reactions in the cell. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the TRX system in the oxidative stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Results - We have identified the

  8. The role of quinone reductase (NQO1) and quinone chemistry in quercetin cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gliszczynska-Swiglo, A.; Woude, van der H.; Haan, de L.H.J.; Tyrakowska, B.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of quercetin on viability and proliferation of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and CHO cells overexpressing human quinone reductase (CHO+NQO1) were studied to investigate the involvement of the pro-oxidant quinone chemistry of quercetin. The toxicity of menadione was significantly

  9. Thioredoxin reductase is a key factor in the oxidative stress response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, L.M.; Molenaar, D; Sanders, M.W.W.; Teusink, B.; Bron, P.A.; Vos, W.M. de; Smid, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin (TRX) is a powerful disulfide oxido-reductase that catalyzes a wide spectrum of redox reactions in the cell. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the TRX system in the oxidative stress response in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. RESULTS: We have

  10. A Rational Approach to Identify Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chhabria, M. T.; Parmar, K. B.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2013), s. 3878-3883 ISSN 1381-6128 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mycobacterium tuberculosis * enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase * pharmacophore modeling * molecular docking * binding interactions Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.288, year: 2013

  11. In silico docking studies of aldose reductase inhibitory activity of commercially available flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Madeswaran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the aldose reductase inhibitory activity of flavonoids using in silico docking studies. In this perspective, flavonoids like biochanin, butein, esculatin, fisetin and herbacetin were selected. Epalrestat, a known aldose reductase inhibitor was used as the standard. In silico docking studies were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. The results showed that all the selected flavonoids showed binding energy ranging between -9.33 kcal/mol to -7.23 kcal/mol when compared with that of the standard (-8.73 kcal/mol. Inhibition constant (144.13 µM to 4.98 µM and intermolecular energy (-11.42 kcal/mol to -7.83 kcal/mol of the flavonoids also coincide with the binding energy. All the selected flavonoids contributed aldose reductase inhibitory activity because of its structural properties. These molecular docking analyses could lead to the further development of potent aldose reductase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. A soluble 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, A; Camacho, A

    1997-01-01

    of the genes described from eukaryotic organisms and the deduced amino acid sequence could be aligned with the C-terminal half of animal and plant reductases exhibiting pronounced similarity to other eukaryotic counterparts. Further examination of the 5' flanking region by cDNA analysis and establishment...

  13. Low activity of superoxide dismutase and high activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes from centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Jeune, B; Nybo, H

    1998-01-01

    aged between 60 and 79 years. MEASUREMENTS: enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) in erythrocytes. Functional capacity among the centenarians was evaluated by Katz' index of activities of daily living, the Physical...

  14. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  15. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara H Windahl

    Full Text Available Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2, encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2. 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05 and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05 but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05 in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05. Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  16. Identification and functional evaluation of the reductases and dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in vanillin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Vanillin, a type of phenolic released during the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials, is toxic to microorganisms and therefore its presence inhibits the fermentation. The vanillin can be reduced to vanillyl alcohol, which is much less toxic, by the ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reducing capacity of S. cerevisiae and its vanillin resistance are strongly correlated. However, the specific enzymes and their contribution to the vanillin reduction are not extensively studied. In our previous work, an evolved vanillin-resistant strain showed an increased vanillin reduction capacity compared with its parent strain. The transcriptome analysis suggested the reductases and dehydrogenases of this vanillin resistant strain were up-regulated. Using this as a starting point, 11 significantly regulated reductases and dehydrogenases were selected in the present work for further study. The roles of these reductases and dehydrogenases in the vanillin tolerance and detoxification abilities of S. cerevisiae are described. Among the candidate genes, the overexpression of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH6, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase gene ZWF1, NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene YNL134C, and aldo-keto reductase gene YJR096W increased 177, 25, 6, 15, and 18 % of the strain μmax in the medium containing 1 g L(-1) vanillin. The in vitro detected vanillin reductase activities of strain overexpressing ADH6, YNL134C and YJR096W were notably higher than control. The vanillin specific reduction rate increased by 8 times in ADH6 overexpressed strain but not in YNL134C and YJR096W overexpressed strain. This suggested that the enzymes encoded by YNL134C and YJR096W might prefer other substrate and/or could not show their effects on vanillin on the high background of Adh6p in vivo. Overexpressing ALD6 and ZWF1 mainly increased the [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] and [GSH]/[GSSG] ratios but not the vanillin reductase activities. Their

  17. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol biosynthesis by oxylanosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panini, S.R.; Sexton, R.C.; Gupta, A.K.; Parish, E.J.; Chitrakorn, S.; Rudney, H.

    1986-11-01

    Treatment of rat intestinal epithelial cell cultures with the oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitor, 3 beta-(2-(diethylamino)-ethoxy)androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A), resulted in an accumulation of squalene 2,3:22,23-dioxide (SDO). When U18666A was withdrawn and the cells were treated with the sterol 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor, ketoconazole, SDO was metabolized to a product identified as 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol. To test the biological effects and cellular metabolism of this compound, we prepared 24(RS),25-epoxylanosterol by chemical synthesis. The epimeric mixture of 24,25-epoxylanosterols could be resolved by high performance liquid chromatography on a wide-pore, non-endcapped, reverse phase column. Both epimers were effective suppressors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity of IEC-6 cells. The suppressive action of the natural epimer, 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol, but not that of 24(R),25-epoxylanosterol could be completely prevented by ketoconazole. IEC-6 cells could efficiently metabolize biosynthetic 24(S),25-epoxy(/sup 3/H)anosterol mainly to the known reductase-suppressor 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol. This metabolism was substantially reduced by ketoconazole. These data support the conclusion that 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol per se is not a suppressor of HMG-CoA reductase activity but is a precursor to a regulatory oxysterol(s). It has recently been reported that 25-hydroxycholesterol can occur naturally in cultured cells in amounts sufficient to effect regulation of HMG-CoA reductase. In order to investigate the biological effects of possible precursors of 25-hydroxycholesterol, we chemically synthesized 25-hydroxylanosterol and 25-hydroxylanostene-3-one. Both oxylanosterol derivatives suppressed cellular sterol synthesis at the level of HMG-CoA reductase. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Mitochondrial fumarate reductase as a target of chemotherapy: from parasites to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Chika; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on respiratory chain of the parasitic helminth, Ascaris suum has shown that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (fumarate respiration), which is composed of complex I (NADH-rhodoquinone reductase), rhodoquinone and complex II (rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase) plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult parasites inhabiting hosts. The enzymes in these parasite-specific pathways are potential target for chemotherapy. We isolated a novel compound, nafuredin, from Aspergillus niger, which inhibits NADH-fumarate reductase in helminth mitochondria at nM order. It competes for the quinone-binding site in complex I and shows high selective toxicity to the helminth enzyme. Moreover, nafuredin exerts anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus in in vivo trials with sheep indicating that mitochondrial complex I is a promising target for chemotherapy. In addition to complex I, complex II is a good target because its catalytic direction is reverse of succinate-ubiquionone reductase in the host complex II. Furthermore, we found atpenin and flutolanil strongly and specifically inhibit mitochondrial complex II. Interestingly, fumarate respiration was found not only in the parasites but also in some types of human cancer cells. Analysis of the mitochondria from the cancer cells identified an anthelminthic as a specific inhibitor of the fumarate respiration. Role of isoforms of human complex II in the hypoxic condition of cancer cells and fetal tissues is a challenge. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Mitochondria, Life and Intervention 2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T; Liao, S

    1992-01-01

    Human or rat microsomal 5 alpha-reductase activity, as measured by enzymic conversion of testosterone into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or by binding of a competitive inhibitor, [3H]17 beta-NN-diethulcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([3H]4-MA) to the reductase, is inhibited by low concentrations (less than 10 microM) of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The relative inhibitory potencies of unsaturated fatty acids are, in decreasing order: gamma-linolenic acid greater than cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid = cis-6,9,12,15-octatetraenoic acid = arachidonic acid = alpha-linolenic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than palmitoleic acid greater than oleic acid greater than myristoleic acid. Other unsaturated fatty acids such as undecylenic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid, are inactive. The methyl esters and alcohol analogues of these compounds, glycerols, phospholipids, saturated fatty acids, retinoids and carotenes were inactive even at 0.2 mM. The results of the binding assay and the enzymic assay correlated well except for elaidic acid and linolelaidic acid, the trans isomers of oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively, which were much less active than their cis isomers in the binding assay but were as potent in the enzymic assay. gamma-Linolenic acid had no effect on the activities of two other rat liver microsomal enzymes: NADH:menadione reductase and glucuronosyl transferase. gamma-Linolenic acid, the most potent inhibitor tested, decreased the Vmax. and increased Km values of substrates, NADPH and testosterone, and promoted dissociation of [3H]4-MA from the microsomal reductase. gamma-Linolenic acid, but not the corresponding saturated fatty acid (stearic acid), inhibited the 5 alpha-reductase activity, but not the 17 beta-dehydrogenase activity, of human prostate cancer cells in culture. These results suggest that unsaturated fatty acids may play an important role in regulating androgen action in target cells. PMID:1637346

  20. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol biosynthesis by oxylanosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, S.R.; Sexton, R.C.; Gupta, A.K.; Parish, E.J.; Chitrakorn, S.; Rudney, H.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of rat intestinal epithelial cell cultures with the oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitor, 3 beta-[2-(diethylamino)-ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A), resulted in an accumulation of squalene 2,3:22,23-dioxide (SDO). When U18666A was withdrawn and the cells were treated with the sterol 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor, ketoconazole, SDO was metabolized to a product identified as 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol. To test the biological effects and cellular metabolism of this compound, we prepared 24(RS),25-epoxylanosterol by chemical synthesis. The epimeric mixture of 24,25-epoxylanosterols could be resolved by high performance liquid chromatography on a wide-pore, non-endcapped, reverse phase column. Both epimers were effective suppressors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity of IEC-6 cells. The suppressive action of the natural epimer, 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol, but not that of 24(R),25-epoxylanosterol could be completely prevented by ketoconazole. IEC-6 cells could efficiently metabolize biosynthetic 24(S),25-epoxy[ 3 H]anosterol mainly to the known reductase-suppressor 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol. This metabolism was substantially reduced by ketoconazole. These data support the conclusion that 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol per se is not a suppressor of HMG-CoA reductase activity but is a precursor to a regulatory oxysterol(s). It has recently been reported that 25-hydroxycholesterol can occur naturally in cultured cells in amounts sufficient to effect regulation of HMG-CoA reductase. In order to investigate the biological effects of possible precursors of 25-hydroxycholesterol, we chemically synthesized 25-hydroxylanosterol and 25-hydroxylanostene-3-one. Both oxylanosterol derivatives suppressed cellular sterol synthesis at the level of HMG-CoA reductase. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. N-terminus determines activity and specificity of styrene monooxygenase reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas; Scholtissek, Anika; Westphal, Adrie H; van Berkel, Willem J H; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-enzyme systems that catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. The FADH 2 co-substrate of the epoxidase component (StyA) is supplied by an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (StyB). The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. The other system, originally reported as a fused system (RoStyA2B), is defined as E2-type. Here we found that E1-type RoStyB is inhibited by FMN, while RoStyA2B is known to be active with FMN. To rationalize the observed specificity of RoStyB for FAD, we generated an artificial reductase, designated as RoStyBart, in which the first 22 amino acid residues of RoStyB were joined to the reductase part of RoStyA2B, while the oxygenase part (A2) was removed. RoStyBart mainly purified as apo-protein and mimicked RoStyB in being inhibited by FMN. Pre-incubation with FAD yielded a turnover number at 30°C of 133.9±3.5s -1 , one of the highest rates observed for StyB reductases. RoStyBart holo-enzyme switches to a ping-pong mechanism and fluorescence analysis indicated for unproductive binding of FMN to the second (co-substrate) binding site. In summary, it is shown for the first time that optimization of the N-termini of StyB reductases allows the evolution of their activity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Cicero, Nicola; D'Angelo, Valeria; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Circosta, Clara

    2018-02-07

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Multiple Soluble Fe(III Reductases in Gram-Positive Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter indiensis BSB-33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoanaerobacter indiensis BSB-33 has been earlier shown to reduce Fe(III and Cr(VI anaerobically at 60°C optimally. Further, the Gram-positive thermophilic bacterium contains Cr(VI reduction activity in both the membrane and cytoplasm. The soluble fraction prepared from T. indiensis cells grown at 60°C was found to contain the majority of Fe(III reduction activity of the microorganism and produced four distinct bands in nondenaturing Fe(III reductase activity gel. Proteins from each of these bands were partially purified by chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry (MS with the help of T. indiensis proteome sequences. Two paralogous dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases (LPDs, thioredoxin reductase (Trx, NADP(H-nitrite reductase (Ntr, and thioredoxin disulfide reductase (Tdr were determined to be responsible for Fe(III reductase activity. Amino acid sequence and three-dimensional (3D structural similarity analyses of the T. indiensis Fe(III reductases were carried out with Cr(VI reducing proteins from other bacteria. The two LPDs and Tdr showed very significant sequence and structural identity, respectively, with Cr(VI reducing dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Thermus scotoductus and thioredoxin disulfide reductase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. It appears that in addition to their iron reducing activity T. indiensis LPDs and Tdr are possibly involved in Cr(VI reduction as well.

  4. Overview of Catalytic Properties of Fungal Xylose Reductases and Molecular Engineering Approaches for Improved Xylose Utilisation in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Amir Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Xylose reductases belong to the aldo-keto reductase family of enzymes, which catalyse the conversion of xylose to xylitol. Yeast xylose reductases have been intensively studied in the last two decades due to their significance in biotechnological production of ethanol and xylitol from xylose. Due to its GRAS status and pronounced tolerance to harsh conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ideal organism for industrial production of both xylitol and ethanol. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use xylose as the sole carbon source due to the lack of xylose specific transporters and insufficient activity of metabolic pathways for xylose utilisation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of attempts in increasing biotechnological potential of xylose reductases and to highlight the prospective of this application. Results and Conclusion: In order to create strains with improved xylose utilization, different approaches were attempted including simultaneous overexpression of xylitol dehydrogenase, xylose reductase and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes, heterologous expression of putative xylose transporters or heterologous expression of genes coding for enzymes included in the xylose metabolism, respectively. Furthermore, number of attempts to genetically modify different xylose reductases is increasing. This review presents current knowledge about yeast xylose reductases and the different approaches applied in order to improve xylose metabolism in yeast.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  5. Synthesis and Activity of a New Series of(Z-3-Phenyl-2-benzoylpropenoic Acid Derivatives as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Jie Wang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available During the course of studies directed towards the discovery of novel aldose reductase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetic complications, we synthesized a series of new (Z-3-phenyl-2-benzoylpropenoic acid derivatives and tested their in vitro inhibitory activities on rat lens aldose reductase. Of these compounds, (Z-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-(4-methylbenzoylpropenoicacid(3k was identified as the most potent inhibitor, with an IC50 of 0.49μM. The theoretical binding mode of 3k was obtained by simulation of its docking into the active site of the human aldose reductase crystal structure.

  6. Structure of the Bacillus anthracis dTDP- L -rhamnose-biosynthetic enzyme glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RfbA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Jackson; Lee, Jesi; Halavaty, Andrei S.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F.; Kuhn, Misty L. (NWU); (SFSU)

    2017-10-30

    L-Rhamnose is a ubiquitous bacterial cell-wall component. The biosynthetic pathway for its precursor dTDP-L-rhamnose is not present in humans, which makes the enzymes of the pathway potential drug targets. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the first protein of this pathway, glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RfbA), fromBacillus anthraciswas determined. In other organisms this enzyme is referred to as RmlA. RfbA was co-crystallized with the products of the enzymatic reaction, dTDP-α-D-glucose and pyrophosphate, and its structure was determined at 2.3 Å resolution. This is the first reported thymidylyltransferase structure from a Gram-positive bacterium. RfbA shares overall structural characteristics with known RmlA homologs. However, RfbA exhibits a shorter sequence at its C-terminus, which results in the absence of three α-helices involved in allosteric site formation. Consequently, RfbA was observed to exhibit a quaternary structure that is unique among currently reported glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase bacterial homologs. These structural analyses suggest that RfbA may not be allosterically regulated in some organisms and is structurally distinct from other RmlA homologs.

  7. High prevalence of dhfr triple mutant and correlation with high rates of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failures in vivo in Gabonese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombo-Ngoma, G.; Oyakhirome, S.; Ord, R.; Gabor, J.J.; Greutélaers, K.C.; Profanter, K.; Greutélaers, B.; Kurth, F.; Lell, B.; Kun, J.F.J.; Issifou, S.; Roper, C.; Kremsner, P.G.; Grobusch, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Drug resistance contributes to the global malaria burden. Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) polymorphisms confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Methods: The study assessed the frequency of SP resistance-conferring

  8. High prevalence of dhfr triple mutant and correlation with high rates of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment failures in vivo in Gabonese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Ord, Rosalynn; Gabor, Julian J.; Greutélaers, Katja C.; Profanter, Katharina; Greutélaers, Benedikt; Kurth, Florian; Lell, Bertrand; Kun, Jürgen F. J.; Issifou, Saadou; Roper, Cally; Kremsner, Peter G.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance contributes to the global malaria burden. Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) polymorphisms confer resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). The study assessed the frequency of SP resistance-conferring polymorphisms in

  9. Nitrite-dependent vasodilation is facilitated by hypoxia and is independent of known NO-generating nitrite reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fago, Angela; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Fago, Angela

    2007-01-01

    is largely intrinsic to the vessel and that under hypoxia physiological nitrite concentrations are sufficient to induce NO-mediated vasodilation independently of the nitrite reductase activities investigated here. Possible reaction mechanisms for nitrite vasoactivity, including formation of S...

  10. Clinical pattern, mutations and in vitro residual activity in 33 patients with severe 5, 10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huemer, Martina; Mulder-Bleile, Regina; Burda, Patricie; Froese, D. Sean; Suormala, Terttu; Ben Zeev, Bruria; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Dobbelaere, Dries; Gokcay, Gulden; Demirkol, Muebeccel; Haeberle, Johannes; Lossos, Alexander; Mengel, Eugen; Morris, Andrew A.; Niezen-Koning, Klary E.; Plecko, Barbara; Parini, Rossella; Rokicki, Dariusz; Schiff, Manuel; Schimmel, Mareike; Sewell, Adrian C.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Steinmann, Beat; Taddeucci, Grazia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M.; Trefz, Friedrich; Tsuji, Megumi; Antonia Vilaseca, Maria; von Kleist-Retzow, Juergen-Christoph; Walker, Valerie; Zeman, Jiri; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Fowler, Brian

    Background Severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is a rare inborn defect disturbing the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine ( Methods Clinical, biochemical and treatment data was obtained from physicians by using a questionnaire. MTHFR activity was measured in primary

  11. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation......Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial...

  12. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Mandal, P. K.; Gautham, Namasivayam; Chadha, Anju

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies on C. parapsilosis carbonyl reductase are reported. The NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 catalyses the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-phenyl-2-oxobutanoate to ethyl (R)-4-phenyl-2-hydroxybutanoate, a precursor of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors such as Cilazapril and Benazepril. The carbonyl reductase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by GST-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 1.86 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of carbonyl reductase, with a solvent content of 48%. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a search model

  13. Nitrate reductase and nitrous oxide production by Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakov, A V; Nosikov, A N; Skrynnikova, E V; L'vov, N P

    2000-08-01

    The fungus Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 was found to be able to grow and produce nitrous oxide on nitrate-containing medium in anaerobic conditions. The rate of nitrous oxide formation was three to six orders of magnitude lower than the rates of molecular nitrogen production by common denitrifying bacteria. Acetylene and ammonia did not affect the release of nitrous oxide release. It was shown that under anaerobic conditions fast increase of nitrate reductase activity occurred, caused by the synthesis of enzyme de novo and protein dephosphorylation. Reverse transfer of the mycelium to aerobic conditions led to a decline in nitrate reductase activity and stopped nitrous oxide production. The presence of two nitrate reductases was shown, which differed in molecular mass, location, temperature optima, and activity in nitrate- and ammonium-containing media. Two enzymes represent assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reductases, which are active in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively.

  14. Normal bone density in male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5a- reductase 2 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Elaine Maria Frade

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone is an androgen-dependent tissue, but it is not clear whether the androgen action in bone depends on testosterone or on dihydrotestosterone. Patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency present normal levels of testosterone and low levels of dihydrotestosterone, providing an in vivo human model for the analysis of the effect of testosterone on bone. OBJECTIVE: To analyze bone mineral density in 4 adult patients with male pseudohermaphroditism due to 5alpha-reductase 2 deficiency. RESULTS: Three patients presented normal bone mineral density of the lumbar column (L1-L4 and femur neck, and the other patient presented a slight osteopenia in the lumbar column. CONCLUSION: Patients with dihydrotestosterone deficiency present normal bone mineral density, suggesting that dihydrotestosterone is not the main androgen acting in bone.

  15. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...... been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD...... thus be a widespread feature among bacterial TrxR with the described characteristics, which affords applications in clinical photo-therapy of drug-resistant bacteria....

  16. X-Ray crystal structure of GarR—tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J.; Zhou, M.; Moy, S.; Collart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determined by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method and refined to 1.65 Å resolution. The active site of the enzyme contains L-tartrate which most likely mimics a position of a glycerate which is a product of the enzyme reaction. The analysis of the TSR structure shows also a putative NADPH binding site in the enzyme. PMID:19184529

  17. X-ray crystal structure of GarR-tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Zhou, M; Moy, S; Collart, F; Joachimiak, A

    2009-09-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related beta-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determined by the single-wavelength anomalous diffraction method and refined to 1.65 A resolution. The active site of the enzyme contains L-tartrate which most likely mimics a position of a glycerate which is a product of the enzyme reaction. The analysis of the TSR structure shows also a putative NADPH binding site in the enzyme.

  18. Novel bacterial sulfur oxygenase reductases from bioreactors treating gold-bearing concentrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Z-W; Liu, Y-Y; Wu, J-F

    2007-01-01

    The microbial community and sulfur oxygenase reductases of metagenomic DNA from bioreactors treating gold-bearing concentrates were studied by 16S rRNA library, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), conventional cultivation, and molecular cloning. Results indicated that major bacterial......) of bacteria and archaea were 4.59 x 10(9) and 6.68 x 10(5), respectively. Bacterial strains representing Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, and Sulfobacillus were isolated from the bioreactors. To study sulfur oxidation in the reactors, pairs of new PCR primers were designed for the detection of sulfur...... oxygenase reductase (SOR) genes. Three sor-like genes, namely, sor (Fx), sor (SA), and sor (SB) were identified from metagenomic DNAs of the bioreactors. The sor (Fx) is an inactivated SOR gene and is identical to the pseudo-SOR gene of Ferroplasma acidarmanus. The sor (SA) and sor (SB) showed...

  19. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault; Skjoldager, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two...... enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (∼25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is inactivated by visible light and furthermore reduces molecular oxygen 10 times faster than E. coli Trx......-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of heat-extracted FAD from light-damaged TrxR revealed a mass increment of 13.979 Da, relative to that of unmodified FAD, corresponding to the addition of one oxygen atom and the loss of two hydrogen atoms. Tandem mass spectrometry confined the increase in mass...

  20. Genetic and Biochemical Analysis of Intragenic Complementation Events among Nitrate Reductase Apoenzyme-Deficient Mutants of Nicotiana Plumbaginifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Pelsy, F.; Gonneau, M.

    1991-01-01

    Intragenic complementation has been observed between apoenzyme nitrate reductase-deficient mutants (nia) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. In vivo as in vitro, the NADH-nitrate reductase (NR) activity in plants heterozygous for two different nia alleles was lower than in the wild type plant, but the plants were able to grow on nitrate as a sole nitrogen source. NR activity, absent in extracts of homozygous nia mutants was restored by mixing extracts from two complementing nia mutants. These obser...

  1. Azospirillum Inoculation Alters Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrogen Uptake in Wheat Plant Under Water Deficit Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Aliasgharzad, N. Aliasgharzad; Heydaryan, Zahra; Sarikhani, M.R

    2014-01-01

    Water deficit stress usually diminishes nitrogen uptake by plants. There are evidences that some nitrogen fixing bacteria can alleviate this stress by supplying nitrogen and improving its metabolism in plants. Four Azospirillum strains, A. lipoferum AC45-II, A. brasilense AC46-I, A. irakense AC49-VII and A. irakense AC51-VI were tested for nitrate reductase activity (NRA). In a pot culture experiment using a sandy loam soil, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Sardari) were inoculated with...

  2. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Forlani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2. In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  3. A QM/MM–Based Computational Investigation on the Catalytic Mechanism of Saccharopine Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Almasi, Joel N.; Bushnell, Eric A.C.; Gauld, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an NADPH-containing enzyme in the α-aminoadipate pathway, catalyses the formation of saccharopine, a precursor to L-lysine, from the substrates glutamate and α-aminoadipate-δ-semialdehyde. Its catalytic mechanism has been investigated using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) ONIOM-based approaches. In particular, the overall catalytic pathway has been elucidated and the effects of electron correlation and the anisotropic polar protein...

  4. Nitrate reductase activity of Staphylococcus carnosus affecting the color formation in cured raw ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Gibis, Monika; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the nitrate reductase activity of two Staphylococcus carnosus strains used as starter cultures on the formation of nitrate, nitrite and color pigments in cured raw ham was investigated. In this context, microbiological, chemical and multivariate image analyses were carried out on cured raw hams, which were injected with different brines containing either nitrite or nitrate, with or without the S. carnosus starter cultures. During processing and storage, the viable counts of staphylococci remained constant at 6.5logcfu/g in the hams inoculated with starter cultures, while the background microbiota of the hams processed without the starter cultures developed after 14days. Those cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 7036 (high nitrate reductase activity) showed the highest decrease in nitrate and high nitrite concentrations in the end product, but were still in the range of the legal European level. The hams cured with nitrate and without starter culture or with the other strain, S. carnosus LTH 3838 (low nitrate reductase activity) showed higher residual nitrate levels and a lower nitrite content in the end product. The multivariate image analysis identified spatial and temporal differences in the meat pigment profiles of the differently cured hams. The cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 3838 showed an uncured core due to a delay in pigment formation. Therefore, the selection of starter cultures based on their nitrate reductase activity is a key point in the formation of curing compounds and color pigments in cured raw ham manufacture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics of N-4-benzoylaminophenylsulfonylglycine (BAPSG), a novel aldose reductase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Ayalasomayajula, Surya P.; Rao, Cheruku S.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; DeRuiter, Jack; Kompella, Uday B.

    2004-01-01

    To better develop N-[4-(benzoylamino)phenylsulfonyl]glycine (BAPSG), a potent and selective aldose reductase inhibitor capable of delaying the progression of ocular diabetic complications, the objective of this study was to assess its pharmacokinetics. The plasma pharmacokinetics of BASPG was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes of administration and its distribution to various tissues including those of the eye was studied following intr...

  6. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 5αα-REDUCTASE AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISMS IN PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Loran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of prostate cancer is inseparably linked with the effect of androgens on the fundamental prostatic intracellular processes,such as proliferation, apoptosis, which is realized through a number of second messengers. Major of them are the AR gene encoding androgenreceptors and the SRD5A2 gene encoding 5α-reductase enzyme. This paper deals with the study of the role of these genes in prostate cancer.  

  7. [Aldose reductase gene polymorphism and rate of appearance of retinopathy in non insulin dependent diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, P; Acosta, A M; Schiaffino, R; Díaz, R; Alvarado, D; O'Brien, A; Muñoz, X; Arriagada, P; Claro, J C; Vega, R; Vollrath, V; Velasco, S; Emmerich, M; Maiz, A

    1999-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that polymorphisms associated to the aldose reductase gene could be related to early retinopathy in noninsulin dependent diabetics (NIDDM). There is also new interest on the genetic modulation of coagulation factors in relation to this complication. To look for a possible relationship between the rate of appearance of retinopathy and the genotype of (AC)n polymorphic marker associated to aldose reductase gene. A random sample of 27 NIDDM, aged 68.1 +/- 10.6 years, with a mean diabetes duration of 20.7 +/- 4.8 years and a mean glycosilated hemoglobin of 10.6 +/- 1.6%, was studied. The genotype of the (AC)n, polymorphic marker associated to the 5' end of the aldose reductase (ALR2) gene was determined by 32P-PCR plus sequenciation. Mutations of the factor XIII-A gene were studied by single stranded conformational polymorphism, sequenciation and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Four patients lacked the (AC)24 and had a higher rate of appearance of retinopathy than patients with the (AC)24 allele (0.0167 and 0.0907 score points per year respectively, p = 0.047). Both groups had similar glycosilated hemoglobin (11.7 +/- 0.2 and 10.5 +/- 1.6% respectively). Factor XIII gene mutations were not related to the rate of appearance of retinopathy. Our data suggest that the absence of the (AC)24 allele of the (AC)n polymorphic marker associated to the 5' end of the aldose reductase gene, is associated to a five fold reduction of retinopathy appearance rate.

  8. Microbial production of branched-chain dicarboxylate 2-methylsuccinic acid via enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Ruihua; Shen, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhenya; Wang, Jia; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    2-Methylsuccinic acid (2-MSA) is a C5 branched-chain dicarboxylate that serves as an attractive synthon for the synthesis of polymers with extensive applications in coatings, cosmetic solvents and bioplastics. However, the lack of natural pathways for 2-MSA biosynthesis has limited its application as a promising bio-replacement. Herein, we conceived a non-natural three-step biosynthetic route for 2-MSA, via employing the citramalate pathway in combination with enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction of the pathway intermediate citraconate. First, over-expression of codon-optimized citramalate synthase variant CimA* from Methanococcus jannaschii, endogenous isopropylmalate isomerase EcLeuCD and enoate reductase YqjM from Bacillus subtilis allowed the production of 2-MSA in Escherichia coli for the first time, with a titer of 0.35g/L in shake flask experiments. Subsequent screening of YqjM-like enoate reductases of different bacterial origins enabled identification and characterization of a new NAD(P)H-dependent enoate reductase KpnER from Klebsiella pneumoniae, which exhibited higher activity towards citraconate than YqjM. Incorporation of KpnER into the 2-MSA biosynthetic pathway led to 2-MSA production improvement to a titer of 0.96g/L in aerobic condition. Subsequent optimizations including cofactor regeneration, microaerobic cultivation and host strain engineering, boosted 2-MSA titer to 3.61g/L with a molar yield of 0.36 in shake flask experiments. This work established a promising platform for 2-MSA bioproduction, which enabled the highest titer of 2-MSA production in microbial hosts so far. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The stability of the three transmembrane and the four transmembrane human vitamin K epoxide reductase models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2016-04-01

    The three transmembrane and the four transmembrane helix models are suggested for human vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). In this study, we investigate the stability of the human three transmembrane/four transmembrane VKOR models by employing a coarse-grained normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. Based on the analysis of the mobility of each transmembrane domain, we suggest that the three transmembrane human VKOR model is more stable than the four transmembrane human VKOR model.

  10. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2017-08-02

    In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  11. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2017-08-02

    In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  12. Regulation of schistosome egg production by HMG CoA reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandeWaa, E.A.; Bennett, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate in the synthesis of steroids, isoprenoids and terpenes. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreased egg production in Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro incubations. This was associated with a reduction in the incorporation of 14 C-acetate into polyisoprenoids and a reduction in the formation of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide. In vivo, mevinolin in daily doses of 50 mg/kg (p.o., from days 30-48 post-infection) caused no change in gross liver pathology in S. mansoni infected mice. However, when parasites exposed to mevinolin or its vehicle in vivo were cultured in vitro, worms from mevinolin-treated mice produced six times more eggs than control parasites. When infected mice were dosed with 250 mg/kg mevinolin daily (p.o., from days 35-45 post-infection), liver pathology was reduced in comparison to control mice. Thus, during in vivo exposure to a high dose of the drug egg production is decreased, while at a lower dose it appears unaffected until the parasites are cultured in a drug-free in vitro system wherein egg production is stimulated to extraordinarily high levels. It may be that at low doses mevinolin, by inhibiting the enzyme, is blocking the formation of a product (such as an isoprenoid) which normally acts to down-regulate enzyme synthesis, resulting in enzyme induction. Induction of HMG CoA reductase is then expressed as increased egg production when the worms are removed from the drug. These data suggest that HMG CoA reductase plays a role in schistosome egg production

  13. Cell death by SecTRAPs: thioredoxin reductase as a prooxidant killer of cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Anestål

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SecTRAPs (selenium compromised thioredoxin reductase-derived apoptotic proteins can be formed from the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR by targeting of its selenocysteine (Sec residue with electrophiles, or by its removal through C-terminal truncation. SecTRAPs are devoid of thioredoxin reductase activity but can induce rapid cell death in cultured cancer cell lines by a gain of function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both human and rat SecTRAPs killed human A549 and HeLa cells. The cell death displayed both apoptotic and necrotic features. It did not require novel protein synthesis nor did it show extensive nuclear fragmentation, but it was attenuated by use of caspase inhibitors. The redox active disulfide/dithiol motif in the N-terminal domain of TrxR had to be maintained for manifestation of SecTRAP cytotoxicity. Stopped-flow kinetics showed that NADPH can reduce the FAD moiety in SecTRAPs at similar rates as in native TrxR and purified SecTRAPs could maintain NADPH oxidase activity, which was accelerated by low molecular weight substrates such as juglone. In a cellular context, SecTRAPs triggered extensive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequently antioxidants could protect against the cell killing by SecTRAPs. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that formation of SecTRAPs could contribute to the cytotoxicity seen upon exposure of cells to electrophilic agents targeting TrxR. SecTRAPs are prooxidant killers of cells, triggering mechanisms beyond those of a mere loss of thioredoxin reductase activity.

  14. Characterization of a cultured human T-cell line with genetically altered ribonucleotide reductase activity. Model for immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, D; Ullman, B

    1983-04-10

    From human CCRF-CEM T-cells growing in continuous culture, we have selected, isolated, and characterized a clonal cell line, APHID-D2, with altered ribonucleotide reductase activity. In comparative growth rate experiments, the APHID-D2 cell line is less sensitive than the parental cell line to growth inhibition by deoxyadenosine in the presence of 10 microM erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine, an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. The APHID-D2 cell line has elevated levels of all four dNTPs. The resistance of the APHID-D2 cell line to growth inhibition by deoxyadenosine and the abnormal dNTP levels can be explained by the fact that the APHID-D2 ribonucleotide reductase, unlike the parental ribonucleotide reductase, is not normally sensitive to inhibition by dATP. These results suggest that the allosteric site of ribonucleotide reductase which binds both dATP and ATP is altered in the APHID-D2 line. The isolation of a mutant clone of human T-cells which contains a ribonucleotide reductase that has lost its normal sensitivity to dATP and which is resistant to deoxyadenosine-mediated growth inhibition suggests that a primary pathogenic target of accumulated dATP in lymphocytes from patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency may be the cellular ribonucleotide reductase.

  15. Purification of nitrate reductase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia by affinity chromatography using 5'AMP-sepharose and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureaux, T; Leydecker, M T; Meyer, C

    1989-02-15

    Nitrate reductase was purified from leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia using either 5'AMP-Sepharose chromatography or two steps of immunoaffinity chromatography involving monoclonal antibodies directed against nitrate reductase from maize and against ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from N. plumbaginifolia. Nitrate reductase obtained by the first method was purified 1000-fold to a specific activity of 9 units/mg protein. The second method produced an homogenous enzyme, purified 21,000-fold to a specific activity of 80 units/mg protein. SDS/PAGE of nitrate reductase always resulted in two bands of 107 and 99.5 kDa. The 107-kDa band was the nitrate reductase subunit of N. plumbaginifolia; the smaller one of 99.5 kDa is thought, as commonly reported, to result from proteolysis of the larger protein. The molecular mass of 107 kDa is close to the values calculated from the coding sequences of the two nitrate reductase genes recently cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi).

  16. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from  Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78 μM). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

  17. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  18. A genetic screen reveals a periplasmic copper chaperone required for nitrite reductase activity in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Freda E-C; Djoko, Karrera Y; Bent, Stephen J; Day, Christopher J; McEwan, Alastair G; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Under conditions of low oxygen availability, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are able to respire via a partial denitrification pathway in which nitrite is converted to nitrous oxide. In this process, nitrite reductase (AniA), a copper (Cu)-containing protein converts nitrite to NO, and this product is converted to nitrous oxide by nitric oxide reductase (NorB). NorB also confers protection against toxic NO, and so we devised a conditional lethal screen, using a norB mutant, to identify mutants that were resistant to nitrite-dependent killing. After random-deletion mutagenesis of N. meningitidis, this genetic screen identified a gene encoding a Cu chaperone that is essential for AniA function, AccA. Purified AccA binds one Cu (I) ion and also possesses a second binding site for Cu (II). This novel periplasmic Cu chaperone (AccA) appears to be essential for provision of Cu ions to AniA of pathogenic Neisseria to generate an active nitrite reductase. Apart from the Neisseria genus, AccA is distributed across a wide range of environmental Proteobacteria species. © FASEB.

  19. Research progress on the roles of aldose reductase in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhe Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase(ARbelonging to nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH-dependent aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway which plays an important role in the body's high-sugar metabolism. AR is widely present in the kidneys, blood vessels, lens, retina, heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues and organs, converts glucose to sorbitol which easy permeability of cell membranes, cause cell swelling, degeneration, necrosis, and have a close relationship with the development of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy(DRis a multifactorial disease, the exact cause is currently unknown, but polyol pathway has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR. Clinical risk factors such as blood sugar control, blood pressure and other treatments for DR only play a part effect of remission or invalid, if we can find out DR genes associated with the disease, this will contribute to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms and contribute to the development of new treatments and drugs. The current research progress of AR, AR gene polymorphism, Aldose reductase inhibitors to DR was reviewed in this article.

  20. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake:reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time, the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the NR activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which relfects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling. Thus, considering the sampling time as a point of reference, the former is a measure of the past and the latter is a measure of the future

  1. Effect of cystamine on rat tissue GSH level and glutathione reductase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarova, H.; Pulpanova, J.

    1979-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione reductase activity were determined by means of the spectrophotometric method in various rat tissues after i.p. administration of cystamine (50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). GSH amount dropped in the spleen and kidney at 10 and 20 min; following this interval, an increase of GSH level was observed in the liver at 20-30 min, in the spleen and kidney at 60 min after the treatment with a radioprotective cystamine dose (50 mg/kg). The changes in GSH level induced by a non-radioprotective cystamine dose (20 mg/kg) had an opposite tendency. The activity of glutathione reductase was decreased in all tissues studied. As to the mechanism of the radioprotective action, both the inactivation of glutathione reductase activity and the changes in GSH level seem to be the factors contributing to the radioprotective effect of cystamine by strengthening the cellular radioresistance. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RKD [de

  2. Structural insights into the neuroprotective-acting carbonyl reductase Sniffer of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgraja, Tanja; Ulschmid, Julia; Becker, Katja; Schneuwly, Stephan; Klebe, Gerhard; Reuter, Klaus; Heine, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    In vivo studies with the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the Sniffer protein prevents age-dependent and oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative processes. Sniffer is a NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase belonging to the enzyme family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). The crystal structure of the homodimeric Sniffer protein from Drosophila melanogaster in complex with NADP+ has been determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion and refined to a resolution of 1.75 A. The observed fold represents a typical dinucleotide-binding domain as detected for other SDRs. With respect to the cofactor-binding site and the region referred to as substrate-binding loop, the Sniffer protein shows a striking similarity to the porcine carbonyl reductase (PTCR). This loop, in both Sniffer and PTCR, is substantially shortened compared to other SDRs. In most enzymes of the SDR family this loop adopts a well-defined conformation only after substrate binding and remains disordered in the absence of any bound ligands or even if only the dinucleotide cofactor is bound. In the structure of the Sniffer protein, however, the conformation of this loop is well defined, although no substrate is present. Molecular modeling studies provide an idea of how binding of substrate molecules to Sniffer could possibly occur.

  3. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  4. Pichia stipitis xylose reductase helps detoxifying lignocellulosic hydrolysate by reducing 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röder Anja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (Ps-XR has been used to design Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to ferment xylose. One example is the industrial S. cerevisiae xylose-consuming strain TMB3400, which was constructed by expression of P. stipitis xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase and overexpression of endogenous xylulose kinase in the industrial S. cerevisiae strain USM21. Results In this study, we demonstrate that strain TMB3400 not only converts xylose, but also displays higher tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate during anaerobic batch fermentation as well as 3 times higher in vitro HMF and furfural reduction activity than the control strain USM21. Using laboratory strains producing various levels of Ps-XR, we confirm that Ps-XR is able to reduce HMF both in vitro and in vivo. Ps-XR overexpression increases the in vivo HMF conversion rate by approximately 20%, thereby improving yeast tolerance towards HMF. Further purification of Ps-XR shows that HMF is a substrate inhibitor of the enzyme. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that xylose reductase is also able to reduce the furaldehyde compounds that are present in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Possible implications of this newly characterized activity of Ps-XR on lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation are discussed.

  5. Inactivation of Vegetative Cells, but Not Spores, of Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus, and B. subtilis on Stainless Steel Surfaces Coated with an Antimicrobial Silver- and Zinc-Containing Zeolite Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Belinda; Korff, Emily; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Stainless steel surfaces coated with paints containing a silver- and zinc-containing zeolite (AgION antimicrobial) were assayed in comparison to uncoated stainless steel for antimicrobial activity against vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus species, namely, B. anthracis Sterne, B. cereus T, and B. subtilis 168. Under the test conditions (25°C and 80% relative humidity), the zeolite coating produced approximately 3 log10 inactivation of vegetative cells within a 5- to 24-h period, but viability of spores of the three species was not significantly affected. PMID:12839825

  6. Sterol-induced Dislocation of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase from Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes into the Cytosol through a Subcellular Compartment Resembling Lipid Droplets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Isamu Z.; Liu, Pingsheng; Zehmer, John K.; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Jo, Youngah; Anderson, Richard G. W.; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    Sterol-induced binding to Insigs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) allows for ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. This ubiquitination marks reductase for recognition by the ATPase VCP/p97, which mediates extraction and delivery of reductase from ER membranes to cytosolic 26 S proteasomes for degradation. Here, we report that reductase becomes dislocated from ER membranes into the cytosol of sterol-treated cells. This dislocation exhibits an absolute requirement for the actions of Insigs and VCP/p97. Reductase also appears in a buoyant fraction of sterol-treated cells that co-purifies with lipid droplets, cytosolic organelles traditionally regarded as storage depots for neutral lipids such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Genetic, biochemical, and localization studies suggest a model in which reductase is dislodged into the cytosol from an ER subdomain closely associated with lipid droplets. PMID:20406816

  7. Determination of the glycation sites of Bacillus anthracis neoglycoconjugate vaccine by MALDI-TOF/TOF-CID-MS/MS and LC-ESI-QqTOF-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahouh, Farid; Hou, Shu-jie; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    We present herein an efficient mass spectrometric method for the localization of the glycation sites of a model neoglycoconjugate vaccine formed by a construct of the tetrasaccharide side chain of the Bacillus anthracis exosporium and the protein carrier bovine serum albumin. The glycoconjugate was digested with both trypsin and GluC V8 endoproteinases, and the digests were then analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-CID-MS/MS and nano-LC-ESI-QqTOF-CID-MS/MS. The sequences of the unknown peptides analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-CID-MS/MS, following digestion with the GluC V8 endoproteinase, allowed us to recognize three glycopeptides whose glycation occupancies were, respectively, on Lys 235, Lys 420, and Lys 498. Similarly, the same analysis was performed on the tryptic digests, which permitted us to recognize two glycation sites on Lys 100 and Lys 374. In addition, we have also used LC-ESI-QqTOF-CID-MS/MS analysis for the identification of the tryptic digests. However, this analysis identified a higher number of glycopeptides than would be expected from a glycoconjugate composed of a carbohydrate–protein ratio of 5.4:1, which would have resulted in glycation occupancies of 18 specific sites. This discrepancy was due to the large number of glycoforms formed during the synthetic carbohydrate–spacer–carrier protein conjugation. Likewise, the LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of the GluC V8 digest also identified 17 different glycation sites on the synthetic glycoconjugate. PMID:22012665

  8. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  9. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaiser, Brooke L. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in × 2 in) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results are discussed in a separate report.

  10. Decontamination efficacy of three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS sporicidal disinfectants on medium-sized panels contaminated with surrogate spores of Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Edmonds

    Full Text Available In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation's remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm, resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2 panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types.

  11. Mapping the epitopes of a neutralizing antibody fragment directed against the lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis and cross-reacting with the homologous edema factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Thullier

    Full Text Available The lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis, composed of the protective antigen (PA and the lethal factor (LF, plays an essential role in anthrax pathogenesis. PA also interacts with the edema factor (EF, 20% identity with LF to form the edema toxin (ET, which has a lesser role in anthrax pathogenesis. The first recombinant antibody fragment directed against LF was scFv 2LF; it neutralizes LT by blocking the interaction between PA and LF. Here, we report that scFv 2LF cross-reacts with EF and cross-neutralizes ET, and we present an in silico method taking advantage of this cross-reactivity to map the epitope of scFv 2LF on both LF and EF. This method identified five epitope candidates on LF, constituted of a total of 32 residues, which were tested experimentally by mutating the residues to alanine. This combined approach precisely identified the epitope of scFv 2LF on LF as five residues (H229, R230, Q234, L235 and Y236, of which three were missed by the consensus epitope candidate identified by pre-existing in silico methods. The homolog of this epitope on EF (H253, R254, E258, L259 and Y260 was experimentally confirmed to constitute the epitope of scFv 2LF on EF. Other inhibitors, including synthetic molecules, could be used to target these epitopes for therapeutic purposes. The in silico method presented here may be of more general interest.

  12. Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase but not of glutathione reductase by the major classes of alkylating and platinum-containing anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; Anestål, Karin; Jerremalm, Elin; Ehrsson, Hans; Arnér, Elias S J

    2005-09-01

    Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is important for cell proliferation, antioxidant defense, and redox signaling. Together with glutathione reductase (GR) it is the main enzyme providing reducing equivalents to many cellular processes. GR and TrxR are flavoproteins of the same enzyme family, but only the latter is a selenoprotein. With the active site containing selenocysteine, TrxR may catalyze reduction of a wide range of substrates, but can at the same time easily be targeted by electrophilic compounds due to the extraordinarily high reactivity of a selenolate moiety. Here we addressed the inhibition of the enzyme by major anticancer alkylating agents and platinum-containing compounds and we compared it to that of GR. We confirmed prior studies suggesting that the nitrosourea carmustine can inhibit both GR and TrxR. We next found, however, that nitrogen mustards (chlorambucil and melphalan) and alkyl sulfonates (busulfan) efficiently inhibited TrxR while these compounds, surprisingly, did not inhibit GR. Inhibitions were concentration and time dependent and apparently irreversible. Anticancer anthracyclines (daunorubicin and doxorubicin) were, in contrast to the alkylating agents, not inhibitors but poor substrates of TrxR. We also found that TrxR, but not GR, was efficiently inhibited by both cisplatin, its monohydrated complex, and oxaliplatin. Carboplatin, in contrast, could not inhibit any of the two enzymes. These findings lead us to conclude that representative compounds of the major classes of clinically used anticancer alkylating agents and most platinum compounds may easily target TrxR, but not GR. The TrxR inhibition should thereby be considered as a factor that may contribute to the cytotoxicity seen upon clinical use of these drugs.

  13. Comparing the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways in arabinose and xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable option for the production of bioethanol. This process would greatly benefit from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains also able to ferment, besides the hexose sugar fraction, the pentose sugars, arabinose and xylose. Different pathways can be introduced in S. cerevisiae to provide arabinose and xylose utilisation. In this study, the bacterial arabinose isomerase pathway was combined with two different xylose utilisation pathways: the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways, respectively, in genetically identical strains. The strains were compared with respect to aerobic growth in arabinose and xylose batch culture and in anaerobic batch fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose. Results The specific aerobic arabinose growth rate was identical, 0.03 h-1, for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase strain. The xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain displayed higher aerobic growth rate on xylose, 0.14 h-1, and higher specific xylose consumption rate in anaerobic batch fermentation, 0.09 g (g cells-1 h-1 than the xylose isomerase strain, which only reached 0.03 h-1 and 0.02 g (g cells-1h-1, respectively. Whereas the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain produced higher ethanol yield on total sugars, 0.23 g g-1 compared with 0.18 g g-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, the xylose isomerase strain achieved higher ethanol yield on consumed sugars, 0.41 g g-1 compared with 0.32 g g-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain. Anaerobic fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose resulted in higher final ethanol concentration, 14.7 g l-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain compared with 11.8 g l-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, and in higher specific ethanol productivity, 0.024 g (g cells-1 h-1 compared with 0.01 g (g cells-1 h-1

  14. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) electrochemistry at multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelster, Lindsey N.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electron transport chain is important to the understanding of metabolism in the living cell. ► Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase is a membrane bound complex of the electron transport chain (Complex III). ► The paper details the first bioelectrochemical characterization of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase at an electrode. - Abstract: Electron transport chain complexes are critical to metabolism in living cells. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) is responsible for carrying electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, but the complex has not been evaluated electrochemically. This work details the bioelectrochemistry of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase of the electron transport chain of tuber mitochondria. The characterization of the electrochemistry of this enzyme is investigated in carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube/tetrabutyl ammonium bromide-modified Nafion ® modified glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Increasing concentrations of cytochrome c result in a catalytic response from the active enzyme in the nanotube sandwich. The experiments show that the enzyme followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a K m for the immobilized enzyme of 2.97 (±0.11) × 10 −6 M and a V max of 6.31 (±0.82) × 10 −3 μmol min −1 at the electrode, but the K m and V max values decreased compared to the free enzyme in solution, which is expected for immobilized redox proteins. This is the first evidence of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase bioelectrocatalysis.

  15. Ferric reductase genes involved in high-affinity iron uptake are differentially regulated in yeast and hyphae of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Rose E; Mason, Robert P; Woodacre, Alexandra; Cashmore, Annette M

    2011-09-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans possesses a reductive iron uptake system which is active in iron-restricted conditions. The sequestration of iron by this mechanism initially requires the reduction of free iron to the soluble ferrous form, which is catalysed by ferric reductase proteins. Reduced iron is then taken up into the cell by a complex of a multicopper oxidase protein and an iron transport protein. Multicopper oxidase proteins require copper to function and so reductive iron and copper uptake are inextricably linked. It has previously been established that Fre10 is the major cell surface ferric reductase in C. albicans and that transcription of FRE10 is regulated in response to iron levels. We demonstrate here that Fre10 is also a cupric reductase and that Fre7 also makes a significant contribution to cell surface ferric and cupric reductase activity. It is also shown, for the first time, that transcription of FRE10 and FRE7 is lower in hyphae compared to yeast and that this leads to a corresponding decrease in cell surface ferric, but not cupric, reductase activity. This demonstrates that the regulation of two virulence determinants, the reductive iron uptake system and the morphological form of C. albicans, are linked. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunasekaran Baskaran,1 Shamala Salvamani,1 Siti Aqlima Ahmad,1 Noor Azmi Shaharuddin,1 Parveen Devi Pattiram,2 Mohd Yunus Shukor1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl, 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and a-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, Basella alba, phytochemical, GC-MS/MS, RP-HPLC, hypercholesterolemia

  17. Cdna cloning and expression analyses of the isoflavone reductase-like gene of dendrobium officinale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Xu, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The full length of the isoflavone reductase-like gene (IRL) cDNA of Dendrobium officinale was cloned by using reverse transcription (RT) PCR combined with cDNA library, the IRL function was identified by Bioinformatics and prokaryotic expression analyses, and the IRL expression levels in the organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages were determined by using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the full length of the cDNA of D. officinale IRL, DoIRL, was 1238 bp (accession no. KJ661023). Its open reading frame (ORF) was 930 bp which encoded 309 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa, the 5 untranslated region (UTR) was 61 bp and the 3 UTR containing a poly (A) tail was 247 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of DoIRL, DoIRL, was forecast to contain a NAD(P)H-binding motif (GGTGYIG) in the N-terminal region, two conserved N-glycosylation sites, a conserved nitrogen metabolite repression regulator (NmrA) domain and a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER) domain, to hold the nearest phylogenetic relationship with the PCBER of Striga asiatica, and to share both 73% identity with the isoflavone reductases-like (IRLs) of Cucumis sativus and Striga asiatica. In Escherichia coli 'BL21' cells, the DoIRL cDNA expression produced a protein band holding the predicted molecular mass of 34 kDa. DoIRL expressed in all organs and tissues of D. officinale plants with different ages at comparatively low levels, and the expression level in the leaves of the two-year-old plants was the highest. (author)

  18. Mechanistic studies with solubilized rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase: Elucidation of the kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.A.; Brandt, M.; Greway, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    A solubilized preparation of steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat liver has been used in studies focused toward an understanding of the kinetic mechanism associated with enzyme catalysis. From the results of analyses with product and dead-end inhibitors, a preferentially ordered binding of substrates and release of products from the surface of the enzyme is proposed. The observations from these experiments were identical with those using the steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity associated with rat liver microsomes. The primary isotope effects on steady-state kinetic parameters when [4S-2H]NADPH was used also were consistent with an ordered kinetic mechanism. Normal isotope effects were observed for all three kinetic parameters (Vm/Km for both testosterone and NADPH and Vm) at all substrate concentrations used experimentally. Upon extrapolation to infinite concentration of testosterone, the isotope effect on Vm/Km for NADPH approached unity, indicating that the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate is the first substrate binding to and the second product released from the enzyme. The isotope effects on Vm/Km for testosterone at infinite concentration of cofactor and on Vm were 3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4, respectively. Data from the pH profiles of these three steady-state parameters and the inhibition constants (1/Ki) of competitive inhibitors versus both substrates indicate that the binding of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate involves coordination of its anionic 2'-phosphate to a protonated enzyme-associated base with an apparent pK near 8.0. From these results, relative limits have been placed on several of the internal rate constants used to describe the ordered mechanism of the rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase

  19. Cancer cell death induced by phosphine gold(I) compounds targeting thioredoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Valentina; Fernandes, Aristi Potamitou; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Dani, Barbara; Sorrentino, Francesca; Tisato, Francesco; Björnstedt, Mikael; Bindoli, Alberto; Sturaro, Alberto; Rella, Rocco; Marzano, Cristina

    2010-01-15

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx), and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), plays a central role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis and signaling pathways. TrxR, overexpressed in many tumor cells and contributing to drug resistance, has emerged as a new target for anticancer drugs. Gold complexes have been validated as potent TrxR inhibitors in vitro in the nanomolar range. In order to obtain potent and selective TrxR inhibitors, we have synthesized a series of linear, 'auranofin-like' gold(I) complexes all containing the [Au(PEt(3))](+) synthon and the ligands: Cl(-), Br(-), cyanate, thiocyanate, ethylxanthate, diethyldithiocarbamate and thiourea. Phosphine gold(I) complexes efficiently inhibited cytosolic and mitochondrial TrxR at concentrations that did not affect the two related oxidoreductases glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The inhibitory effect of the redox proteins was also observed intracellularly in cancer cells pretreated with gold(I) complexes. Gold(I) compounds were found to induce antiproliferative effects towards several human cancer cells some of which endowed with cisplatin or multidrug resistance. In addition, they were able to activate caspase-3 and induce apoptosis observed as nucleosome formation and sub-G1 cell accumulation. The complexes with thiocyanate and xanthate ligands were particularly effective in inhibiting thioredoxin reductase and inducing apoptosis. Pharmacodynamic studies in human ovarian cancer cells allowed for the correlation of intracellular drug accumulation with TrxR inhibition that leads to the induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.

  20. The catalytic cycle of nitrous oxide reductase - The enzyme that catalyzes the last step of denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Cíntia; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    The reduction of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide requires a catalyst to overcome the large activation energy barrier of this reaction. Its biological decomposition to the inert dinitrogen can be accomplished by denitrifiers through nitrous oxide reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the last step of the denitrification, a pathway of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrous oxide reductase is a multicopper enzyme containing a mixed valence CuA center that can accept electrons from small electron shuttle proteins, triggering electron flow to the catalytic sulfide-bridged tetranuclear copper "CuZ center". This enzyme has been isolated with its catalytic center in two forms, CuZ*(4Cu1S) and CuZ(4Cu2S), proven to be spectroscopic and structurally different. In the last decades, it has been a challenge to characterize the properties of this complex enzyme, due to the different oxidation states observed for each of its centers and the heterogeneity of its preparations. The substrate binding site in those two "CuZ center" forms and which is the active form of the enzyme is still a matter of debate. However, in the last years the application of different spectroscopies, together with theoretical calculations have been useful in answering these questions and in identifying intermediate species of the catalytic cycle. An overview of the spectroscopic, kinetics and structural properties of the two forms of the catalytic "CuZ center" is given here, together with the current knowledge on nitrous oxide reduction mechanism by nitrous oxide reductase and its intermediate species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct antioxidant properties of bilirubin andbiliverdin. Is there a role for biliverdin reductase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eJansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and signaling events are involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and represent a major contribution to vascular regulation. Molecular signaling is highly dependent on reactive oxygen species. But depending on the amount of ROS production it might have toxic or protective effects. Despite a large number of negative outcomes in large clinical trials (e.g. HOPE, HOPE-TOO, antioxidant molecules and agents are important players to influence the critical balance between production and elimination of RONS. However, chronic systemic antioxidant therapy lacks clinical efficacy, probably by interfering with important physiological redox signaling pathways. Therefore, it may be a much more promising attempt to induce intrinsic antioxidant pathways in order to increase the antioxidants not systemically but at the place of oxidative stress and complications. Among others, heme oxygenase (HO has been shown to be important for attenuating the overall production of ROS in a broad range of disease states through its ability to degrade heme and to produce carbon monoxide (CO, biliverdin/bilirubin, and the release of free iron with subsequent ferritin induction. With the present review we would like to highlight the important antioxidant role of the heme oxygenase system and especially discuss the contribution of the biliverdin, bilirubin and biliverdin reductase to these beneficial effects. The bilierdin reductase was reported to confer an antioxidant redox amplification cycle by which low, physiological bilirubin concentrations confer potent antioxidant protection via recycling of biliverdin from oxidized bilirubin by the biliverdin reductase, linking this sink for oxidants to the NADPH pool. To date the existence and role of this antioxidant redox cycle is still under debate and we present and discuss the pros and cons as well as our own findings on this topic.

  2. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. uses a reductase with specificity for dihydrolipoamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Abhipsa; Krishnan, Chandraraj

    2016-02-01

    Leucobacter sp. belongs to the metal stressed community and possesses higher tolerance to metals including chromium and can detoxify toxic hexavalent chromium by reduction to less toxic trivalent chromium. But, the mechanism of reduction of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. has not been studied. Understanding the enzyme catalyzing reduction of chromium is important to improve the species for application in bioremediation. Hence, a soluble reductase catalyzing the reduction of hexavalent chromium was purified from a Leucobacter sp. and characterized. The pure chromate reductase was obtained from the cell-free extract through hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration column chromatographic methods. It was a monomeric enzyme and showed similar molecular weights in both gel filtration (∼68 KDa) and SDS-PAGE (64 KDa). It reduced Cr(VI) using both NADH and NADPH as the electron donor, but exhibited higher activity with NADH. The optimal activity was found at pH 5.5 and 30 °C. The K(m) and V(max) for Cr(VI) reduction with NADH were 46.57 μM and 0.37 μmol min(-1) (mg protein) (-1), respectively. The activity was inhibited by p-hydroxy mercury benzoate, Ag(2+) and Hg(2+) indicating the role of thiol groups in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric analysis of the purified enzyme showed the absence of bound flavin in the enzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and LC/MS analysis of trypsin digested purified enzyme showed similarity to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. The purified enzyme had dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity with dihydrolipoamide as the substrate, which suggested that Leucobacter sp. uses reductase with multiple substrate specificity for reduction of Cr(VI) detoxification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Evidence that the intra-amoebal Legionella drancourtii acquired a sterol reductase gene from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Pierre-Edouard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-living amoebae serve as a natural reservoir for some bacteria that have evolved into «amoeba-resistant» bacteria. Among these, some are strictly intra-amoebal, such as Candidatus "Protochlamydia amoebophila" (Candidatus "P. amoebophila", whose genomic sequence is available. We sequenced the genome of Legionella drancourtii (L. drancourtii, another recently described intra-amoebal bacterium. By comparing these two genomes with those of their closely related species, we were able to study the genetic characteristics specific to their amoebal lifestyle. Findings We identified a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene common to these two bacteria and absent in their relatives. This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyses the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes, and is probably functional within L. drancourtii since it is transcribed. The phylogenetic analysis of this protein suggests that it was acquired horizontally by a few bacteria from viridiplantae. This gene was also found in the Acanthamoeba polyphaga Mimivirus genome, a virus that grows in amoebae and possesses the largest viral genome known to date. Conclusion L. drancourtii acquired a sterol delta-7 reductase-encoding gene of viridiplantae origin. The most parsimonious hypothesis is that this gene was initially acquired by a Chlamydiales ancestor parasite of plants. Subsequently, its descendents transmitted this gene in amoebae to other intra-amoebal microorganisms, including L. drancourtii and Coxiella burnetii. The role of the sterol delta-7 reductase in prokaryotes is as yet unknown but we speculate that it is involved in host cholesterol parasitism.

  4. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eForlani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L. for δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in E. coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to use in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. Based on the structure, it was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human and bacterial enzymes.

  5. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  6. X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegan, Scott D.; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A.; Mesecar, Andrew D. (IdRS); (Purdue); (Colorado); (UIC)

    2011-09-06

    Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identified as the third melatonin receptor (MT3) through in cellulo and in vitro inhibition of QR2 by traditional MT3 ligands, and through recent X-ray structures of human QR2 (hQR2) in complex with melatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Several MT3 specific ligands have been developed that exhibit both potent in cellulo inhibition of hQR2 nanomolar, affinity for MT3. The potency of these ligands suggest their use as molecular probes for hQR2. However, no definitive correlation between traditionally obtained MT3 ligand affinity and hQR2 inhibition exists limiting our understanding of how these ligands are accommodated in the hQR2 active site. To obtain a clearer relationship between the structures of developed MT3 ligands and their inhibitory properties, in cellulo and in vitro IC{sub 50} values were determined for a representative set of MT3 ligands (MCA-NAT, 2-I-MCANAT, prazosin, S26695, S32797, and S29434). Furthermore, X-ray structures for each of these ligands in complex with hQR2 were determined allowing for a structural evaluation of the binding modes of these ligands in relation to the potency of MT3 ligands.

  7. Auranofin inactivates Trichomonas vaginalis thioredoxin reductase and is effective against trichomonads in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Melissa; Yun, Jeong-Fil; Zhou, Bianhua; Le, Christine; Kehoe, Katelin; Le, Ryan; Hill, Ryan; Jongeward, Gregg; Debnath, Anjan; Zhang, Liangfang; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars; Land, Kirkwood M; Wrischnik, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common, non-viral, sexually transmitted infection in the world, but only two closely related nitro drugs are approved for its treatment. New antimicrobials against trichomoniasis remain an urgent need. Several organic gold compounds were tested for activity against T. vaginalis thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cell-free systems as well as for activity against different trichomonads in vitro and in a murine infection model. The organic gold(I) compounds auranofin and chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) inhibited TrxR in a concentration-dependent manner in assays with recombinant purified reductase and in cytoplasmic extracts of T. vaginalis transfected with a haemagglutinin epitope-tagged form of the reductase. Auranofin potently suppressed the growth of three independent clinical T. vaginalis isolates as well as several strains of another trichomonad (Tritrichomonas foetus) in a 24 h-assay, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.7-2.5 µM and minimum lethal concentrations of 2-6 µM. The drug also compromised the ability of the parasite to overcome oxidant stress, supporting the notion that auranofin acts, in part, by inactivating TrxR-dependent antioxidant defences. Chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) was 10-fold less effective against T. vaginalis in vitro than auranofin. Oral administration of auranofin for 4 days cleared the parasites in a murine model of vaginal T. foetus infection without displaying any apparent adverse effects. The approved human drug auranofin may be a promising agent as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis in cases when standard nitro drug therapies have failed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Active Compound in Medicinal Forest Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Rahmania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, hypercholesterolemia is one of the causes. Three medicinal forest plants are potential natural resources to be developed as cholesterol-reducing herbal product, but scientific informations on their mechanism is still limited. The objective of this research is to explore the potency of the leaf of Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia, Jabon (Antocephalus macrophyllus, and Mindi (Melia azedarach as inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR, a key enzyme in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Samples were macerated in ethanol 96% and the filtrate was partitioned using n-hexane and chloroform to obtain the ethanolic flavonoid extract. The effect of each extracts on the HMG-CoA reductase activity were analyzed using HMGR assay kit. At concentration of 10 ppm the G.ulmifolia ethanolic extract showed the highest inhibitory activity as well as pravastatin control inhibitor.  The phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 11.00, 34.83, and 13.67 mg gallic acid AE/g dried leaves, respectively. The flavonoid content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 0.22, 0.64, and 0.78 mg QE/g dried leaves, respectively. Interestingly, G.ulmifolia extract the lowest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed that all samples contain quercetin at similiar small concentrations (6.7%, 6.6%, and 7.0% for G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach, respectively. This indicating other active compounds may play some roles in this inhibitory action on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Further identification using LC-MS/MS showed that G.ulmifolia flavonoid extract contained an unidetified coumpound with molecural weight of 380.0723 Da.  

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase homozygous mutation in a young boy with cerebellar infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Spalice

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Posterior circulation vascular occlusive disease in children is a rare and uncommonly reported event. Among the numerous risk factors, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutation is considered to be a common genetic cause of thrombosis in adults and children. Recently, a link between the MTHFR mutation and cerebrovascular disorders was reported in children. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is a great improvement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, making the in vivo anatomical and pathological study of the brain and its fibers possible. In our patient cerebellar infarction was associated with MTHFR mutation and, in a standard neurological examination, DTI revealed normal white matter tracts.

  10. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  11. Genetic variation of Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase genes (AFAR) in human tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praml, Christian; Schulz, Wolfgang; Claas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    AFAR genes play a key role in the detoxification of the carcinogen Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In the rat, Afar1 induction can prevent AFB(1)-induced liver cancer. It has been proposed that AFAR enzymes can metabolise endogenous diketones and dialdehydes that may be cytotoxic and/or genotoxic. Furth...... many aldo-keto reductases. This polarity change may have an effect on the proposed substrate binding amino acids nearby (Met(47), Tyr(48), Asp(50)). Further population analyses and functional studies of the nine variants detected may show if these variants are disease-related....

  12. Allosteric control of internal electron transfer in cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Kroneck, Peter M H; Zumft, Walter G

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase is a bifunctional multiheme enzyme catalyzing the one-electron reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide and the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the internal electron transfer process in the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme have...... been studied and found to be dominated by pronounced interactions between the c and the d1 hemes. The interactions are expressed both in dramatic changes in the internal electron-transfer rates between these sites and in marked cooperativity in their electron affinity. The results constitute a prime...... example of intraprotein control of the electron-transfer rates by allosteric interactions....

  13. Design of Deinococcus radiodurans thioredoxin reductase with altered thioredoxin specificity using computational alanine mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Obiero, Josiah; Sanders, David AR

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the X-ray crystal structure of the complex between Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase (EC TrxR) and its substrate thioredoxin (Trx) was used as a guide to design a Deinococcus radiodurans TrxR (DR TrxR) mutant with altered Trx specificity. Previous studies have shown that TrxRs have higher affinity for cognate Trxs (same species) than that for Trxs from different species. Computational alanine scanning mutagenesis and visual inspection of the EC TrxR–Trx interface suggested...

  14. Quantum chemical study of the mechanism of action of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerfield, David, II; Davis, Charles H.; Wymore, Troy; Stafford, Darrel W.; Pedersen, Lee G.

    Possible model, but simplistic, mechanisms for the action of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) are investigated with quantum mechanical methods (B3LYP/6-311G**). The geometries of proposed model intermediates in the mechanisms are energy optimized. Finally, the energetics of the proposed (pseudo-enzymatic) pathways are compared. We find that the several pathways are all energetically feasible. These results will be useful for designing quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical method (QM/MM) studies of the enzymatic pathway once three-dimensional structural data are determined and available for VKOR.

  15. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase induces the UPR pathway in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Louise Cathrine Braun; Hansen, Nadia Jin Storm; Pilon, Marc

    -requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1), and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6). Using a transgenic GFP reporter strain of the model organism C. elegans, we have recently identified that inhibition of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR) with Fluvastatin and knock down of HMG-CoAR using RNA interference (RNAi) both...... including farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) which are necessary for posttranslational prenylation of several small G proteins. C. elegans are cholesterol auxotrophs, which enable us to investigate the isoprenoid branch and its role in UPR induction. We found...

  16. Aldose reductase inhibitors from the leaves of Myrciaria dubia (H. B. & K.) McVaugh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kuroiwa, E; Tachibana, Y; Kawanishi, K; Ayala, F; Moriyasu, M

    2004-11-01

    Ellagic acid (1) and its two derivatives, 4-O-methylellagic acid (2) and 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid (3) were isolated as inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR) from Myrciaria dubia (H. B. & K.) McVaugh. Compound 2 was the first isolated from the nature. Compound 3 showed the strongest inhibition against human recombinant AR (HRAR) and rat lens AR (RLAR). Inhibitory activity of compound 3 against HRAR (IC50 value = 4.1 x 10(-8) M) was 60 times more than that of quercetin (2.5 x 10(-6) M). The type of inhibition against HRAR was uncompetitive.

  17. Molecular Diagnosis of 5α-Reductase Type II Deficiency in Brazilian Siblings with 46,XY Disorder of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricilda Palandi de Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The steroid 5α-reductase type II enzyme catalyzes the conversion of testosterone (T to dihydrotestosterone (DHT, and its deficiency leads to undervirilization in 46,XY individuals, due to an impairment of this conversion in genital tissues. Molecular analysis in the steroid 5α-reductase type II gene (SRD5A2 was performed in two 46,XY female siblings. SRD5A2 gene sequencing revealed that the patients were homozygous for p.Gln126Arg missense mutation, which results from the CGA > CAA nucleotide substitution. The molecular result confirmed clinical diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD for the older sister and directed the investigation to other family members. Studies on SRD5A2 protein structure showed severe changes at NADPH binding region indicating that structural modeling analysis can be useful to evaluate the deleterious role of a mutation as causing 5α-reductase type II enzyme deficiency.

  18. Expression, purification and molecular structure modeling of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Xiaojian; Liu, Qing; Ai, Chenbing; Mo, Hongyu; Zeng, Jia

    2009-07-01

    The thioredoxin system consists of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and NADPH, which plays several key roles in maintaining the redox environment of the cell. In Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, thioredoxin system may play important functions in the activity regulation of periplasmic proteins and energy metabolism. Here, we cloned thioredoxin (trx) and thioredoxin reductase (trxR) genes from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and expressed the genes in Escherichia coli. His-Trx and His-TrxR were purified to homogeneity with one-step Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Site-directed mutagenesis results confirmed that Cys33, Cys36 of thioredoxin, and Cys142, Cys145 of thioredoxin reductase were active-site residues.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-­quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%. PMID:19478454

  20. Influence of rete testis fluid deprivation on the kinetic parameters of goat epididymal 5 alpha-reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Lubis, A M; Braun, W F; Youngquist, R S; Ganjam, V K

    1990-01-01

    A surgical technique to cannulate the rete testis of the goat was utilized to examine the effects of rete testis fluid (RTF) deprivation on the enzymatic activity of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase. Kinetic techniques were used to determine whether the regional enzymatic effect of RTF deprivation is to decrease the apparent number of 5 alpha-reductase active sites or the catalytic activity of each active site within the epididymal epithelium. Paired comparisons of (Vmax)app and (Km)app values between control and RTF-deprived epididymides indicated that RTF deprivation affected the value of (Vmax)app with no apparent change in the values of (Km)app in caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal regions. We conclude that RTF deprivation in the goat epididymis for 7 days results in a decreased number of apparent 5 alpha-reductase active sites within the epididymal epithelium.

  1. Inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase toxin, edema factor, from Bacillus anthracis by a series of 18 mono- and bis-(M)ANT-substituted nucleoside 5'-triphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Hesham; Dove, Stefan; Geduhn, Jens; König, Burkhard; Shen, Yuequan; Tang, Wei-Jen; Seifert, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax disease and exerts its deleterious effects by the release of three exotoxins, i.e. lethal factor, protective antigen and edema factor (EF), a highly active calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase (AC). Conventional antibiotic treatment is ineffective against either toxaemia or antibiotic-resistant strains. Thus, more effective drugs for anthrax treatment are needed. Our previous studies showed that EF is differentially inhibited by various purine and pyrimidine nucleotides modified with N-methylanthraniloyl (MANT)- or anthraniloyl (ANT) groups at the 2'(3')-O-ribosyl position, with the unique preference for the base cytosine (Taha et al., Mol Pharmacol 75:693 (2009)). MANT-CTP was the most potent EF inhibitor (K (i), 100 nM) among 16 compounds studied. Here, we examined the interaction of EF with a series of 18 2',3'-O-mono- and bis-(M)ANT-substituted nucleotides, recently shown to be very potent inhibitors of the AC toxin from Bordetella pertussis, CyaA (Geduhn et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:104 (2011)). We analysed purified EF and EF mutants in radiometric AC assays and in fluorescence spectroscopy studies and conducted molecular modelling studies. Bis-MANT nucleotides inhibited EF competitively. Propyl-ANT-ATP was the most potent EF inhibitor (K (i), 80 nM). In contrast to the observations made for CyaA, introduction of a second (M)ANT-group decreased rather than increased inhibitor potency at EF. Activation of EF by calmodulin resulted in effective fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from tryptophan and tyrosine residues located in the vicinity of the catalytic site to bis-MANT-ATP, but FRET to bis-MANT-CTP was only small. Mutations N583Q, K353A and K353R differentially altered the inhibitory potencies of bis-MANT-ATP and bis-MANT-CTP. The nucleotide binding site of EF accommodates bulky bis-(M)ANT-substituted purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, but the fit is suboptimal compared to CyaA. These data provide a basis

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Feng; Miyakawa, Takuya; Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    The purification and crystallization of 3-quinuclidinone reductase from A. tumefaciens allowed the collection of a diffraction data set to 1.72 Å resolution. (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful chiral building block for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and can be produced from 3-quinuclidinone by asymmetric reduction. A novel 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtQR) catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol with NADH as a cofactor. Recombinant AtQR was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized with NADH using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Crystals were obtained using a reservoir solution containing PEG 3350 as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.72 Å resolution on beamline BL-5A at the Photon Factory. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 62.0, b = 126.4, c = 62.0 Å, β = 110.5°, and was suggested to contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit (V M = 2.08 Å 3 Da −1 )

  3. Ebselen: A thioredoxin reductase-dependent catalyst for α-tocopherol quinone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianguo; Zhong Liangwei; Zhao Rong; Holmgren, Arne

    2005-01-01

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH, is a powerful protein disulfide reductase system with a broad substrate specificity. Recently the selenazol drug ebselen was shown to be a substrate for both mammalian TrxR and Trx. We examined if α-tocopherol quinone (TQ), a product of α-tocopherol oxidation, is reduced by ebselen in the presence of TrxR, since TQ was not a substrate for the enzyme itself. Ebselen reduction of TQ in the presence of TrxR was caused by ebselen selenol, generated from fast reduction of ebselen by the enzyme. TQ has no intrinsic antioxidant activity, while the product of reduction of TQ, α-tocopherolhydroquinone (TQH 2 ), is a potent antioxidant. The thioredoxin system dependence of ebselen to catalyze reduction of other oxidized species, such as hydrogen peroxide, dehydroascorbate, and peroxynitrite, is discussed. The ability of ebselen to reduce TQ via the thioredoxin system is a novel mechanism to explain the effects of the drug as an antioxidant in vivo

  4. The Inhibitory Effect of Prunella vulgaris L. on Aldose Reductase and Protein Glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Mei Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the aldose reductase (AR enzyme inhibitory ability of Prunella vulgaris L. extract, six compounds were isolated and tested for their effects. The components were subjected to in vitro bioassays to investigate their inhibitory assays using rat lens aldose reductase (rAR and human recombinant AR (rhAR. Among them, caffeic acid ethylene ester showed the potent inhibition, with the IC50 values of rAR and rhAR at 3.2±0.55 μM and 12.58±0.32 μM, respectively. In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/concentration of substrate, this compound showed noncompetitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, it inhibited galactitol formation in a rat lens incubated with a high concentration of galactose. Also it has antioxidative as well as advanced glycation end products (AGEs inhibitory effects. As a result, this compound could be offered as a leading compound for further study as a new natural products drug for diabetic complications.

  5. Synthesis of organic nitrates of luteolin as a novel class of potent aldose reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Qin; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Peng, Sheng-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Qing

    2013-07-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the design of drugs that prevent and treat diabetic complications. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received significant attentions as potent therapeutic drugs. Based on combination principles, three series of luteolin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their AR inhibitory activity and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing capacity in vitro. Eighteen compounds were found to be potent ARIs with IC50 values ranging from (0.099±0.008) μM to (2.833±0.102) μM. O(7)-Nitrooxyethyl-O(3'),O(4')-ethylidene luteolin (La1) showed the most potent AR inhibitory activity [IC50=(0.099±0.008) μM]. All organic nitrate derivatives released low concentrations of NO in the presence of l-cysteine. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that introduction of an NO donor, protection of the catechol structure, and the ether chain of a 2-carbon spacer as a coupling chain on the luteolin scaffold all help increase the AR inhibitory activity of the resulting compound. This class of NO-donor luteolin derivatives as efficient ARIs offer a new concept for the development and design of new drug for preventive and therapeutic drugs for diabetic complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A QM/MM–Based Computational Investigation on the Catalytic Mechanism of Saccharopine Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Gauld

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharopine reductase from Magnaporthe grisea, an NADPH-containing enzyme in the α-aminoadipate pathway, catalyses the formation of saccharopine, a precursor to L-lysine, from the substrates glutamate and α-aminoadipate-δ-semialdehyde. Its catalytic mechanism has been investigated using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM ONIOM-based approaches. In particular, the overall catalytic pathway has been elucidated and the effects of electron correlation and the anisotropic polar protein environment have been examined via the use of the ONIOM(HF/6-31G(d:AMBER94 and ONIOM(MP2/6-31G(d//HF/6-31G(d:AMBER94 methods within the mechanical embedding formulism and ONIOM(MP2/6-31G(d//HF/6-31G(d:AMBER94 and ONIOM(MP2/6-311G(d,p//HF/6-31G(d:AMBER94 within the electronic embedding formulism. The results of the present study suggest that saccharopine reductase utilises a substrate-assisted catalytic pathway in which acid/base groups within the cosubstrates themselves facilitate the mechanistically required proton transfers. Thus, the enzyme appears to act most likely by binding the three required reactant molecules glutamate, α-aminoadipate-δ-semialdehyde and NADPH in a manner and polar environment conducive to reaction.

  7. 15N studies on the in-vivo assay of nitrate reductase in leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    1981-01-01

    The reduction of nitrate and nitrite in the leaf disks of seven di- and two mono-cotyledonous species under the in-vivo assay conditions of nitrate reductase was studied using N-15 labeled substrates. The significant reduction of both nitrate and nitrite into ammonia and amino acids was detected in the atmosphere of air. In the atmosphere of N 2 gas, anaerobic incubation enhanced the accumulation of nitrite, but the subsequent reduction to the basic nitrogen compounds was from 40 to 180 % of the aerobic rate. The present examination indicated that the in-vivo assay of nitrate reductase under aerobic condition may give greatly underestimated results due to nitrite reduction, and that the exclusion of oxygen from the in-vivo assay mixture is desirable. The addition of n- propanol may be desirable for the assay under aerobic condition. Significant difference was not observed in the reduction of nitrate supplied as sodium and potassium salts on the nitrite formation and on the incorporation of nitrate-N into basic fractions. The N-15 experiment on the dark assimilation of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia into amino acids in wheat leaves showed that these three nitrogen sources were assimilated through the same route, and that the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase pathway was the main route. By anaerobic treatment, the incorporation of nitrogen into alanine and serine was relatively high. (Kako, I.)

  8. Resonance Raman spectra of the copper-sulfur chromophores in Achromobacter cycloclastes nitrite reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, D M; Moog, R S; Liu, M Y; Payne, W J; LeGall, J

    1988-10-15

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy at ambient temperature and 77 K has been used to probe the structures of the copper sites in Achromobacter cycloclastes nitrite reductase. This enzyme contains three copper ions per protein molecule and has two principal electronic absorption bands with lambda max values of 458 and 585 nm. Comparisons between the resonance Raman spectra of nitrite reductase and blue copper proteins establish that both the 458 and 585 nm bands are associated with Cu(II)-S(Cys) chromophores. A histidine ligand probably is also present. Different sets of vibrational frequencies are observed with 457.9 nm (ambient) or 476.1 nm (77 K) excitation as compared with 590 nm (ambient) or 593 nm (77 K) excitation. Excitation profiles indicate that the 458 and 585 nm absorption bands are associated with separate [Cu(II)-S(Cys)N(His)] sites or with inequivalent and uncoupled cysteine ligands in the same site. The former possibility is considered to be more likely.

  9. The role of extended Fe4S4 cluster ligands in mediating sulfite reductase hemoprotein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Marisa R; McGarry, Lauren; Pennington, Joseph M; Krzystek, J; Elizabeth Stroupe, M

    2018-05-28

    The siroheme-containing subunit from the multimeric hemoflavoprotein NADPH-dependent sulfite reductase (SiR/SiRHP) catalyzes the six electron-reduction of SO 3 2- to S 2- . Siroheme is an iron-containing isobacteriochlorin that is found in sulfite and homologous siroheme-containing nitrite reductases. Siroheme does not work alone but is covalently coupled to a Fe 4 S 4 cluster through one of the cluster's ligands. One long-standing hypothesis predicted from this observation is that the environment of one iron-containing cofactor influences the properties of the other. We tested this hypothesis by identifying three amino acids (F437, M444, and T477) that interact with the Fe 4 S 4 cluster and probing the effect of altering them to alanine on the function and structure of the resulting enzymes by use of activity assays, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and EPR spectroscopy. We showed that F437 and M444 gate access for electron transfer to the siroheme-cluster assembly and the direct hydrogen bond between T477 and one of the cluster sulfides is important for determining the geometry of the siroheme active site. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Bee Venom Promotes Hair Growth in Association with Inhibiting 5α-Reductase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seeun; Erdogan, Sedef; Hwang, Dahyun; Hwang, Seonwook; Han, Eun Hye; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia is an important issue that can occur in people of all ages. Recent studies show that bee venom can be used to treat certain diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, and multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of bee venom on alopecia, which was measured by applying bee venom (0.001, 0.005, 0.01%) or minoxidil (2%) as a positive control to the dorsal skin of female C57BL/6 mice for 19 d. Growth factors responsible for hair growth were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis using mice skins and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Bee venom promoted hair growth and inhibited transition from the anagen to catagen phase. In both anagen phase mice and dexamethasone-induced catagen phase mice, hair growth was increased dose dependently compared with controls. Bee venom inhibited the expression of SRD5A2, which encodes a type II 5α-reductase that plays a major role in the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, bee venom stimulated proliferation of hDPCs and several growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and 7) in bee venom-treated hDPCs dose dependently compared with the control group. In conclusion, bee venom is a potentially potent 5α-reductase inhibitor and hair growth promoter.

  11. Protective Role of Aldose Reductase Deletion in an Animal Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Fu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a common disease occurred in premature babies. Both vascular abnormality and neural dysfunction of the retina were reported, and oxidative stress was involved. Previously, it has been showed that deficiency of aldose reductase (AR, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyol pathway, lowered oxidative stress. Here, the effect of AR deletion on neonatal retinal injury was investigated by using a mouse model of ROP (oxygen-induced retinopathy, OIR. Seven-day-old pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air. The vascular changes and neuronal/glial responses were examined and compared between wild-type and AR-deficient OIR mice. Significantly reduced vaso-obliterated area, blood vessel leakage, and early revascularization were observed in AR-deficient OIR mice. Moreover, reduced amacrine cells and less distorted strata were observed in AR-deficient OIR mice. Less astrocytic immunoreactivity and reduced Müller cell gliosis were also observed in AR-deficient mice. After OIR, nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity and poly (ADP-ribose (PAR translocation, which are two oxidative stress markers, were decreased in AR-deficient mice. Significant decrease in VEGF, pho-Erk1/2, pho-Akt, and pho-I?B expression was found in AR-deficient OIR retinae. Thus, these observations suggest that the deficiency of aldose reductase may protect the retina in the OIR model.

  12. The Drosophila carbonyl reductase sniffer prevents oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Jose A; Ulschmid, Julia K; Gruenewald, Christoph; Moehle, Christoph; Kretzschmar, Doris; Becker, Katja; Schneuwly, Stephan

    2004-05-04

    A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a common underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Creutzfeld-Jakob and Parkinson's diseases. Despite the increasing number of reports finding a causal relation between oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, little is known about the genetic elements that confer protection against the deleterious effects of oxidation in neurons. We have isolated and characterized the Drosophila melanogaster gene sniffer, whose function is essential for preventing age-related neurodegeneration. In addition, we demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct cause of neurodegeneration in the Drosophila central nervous system and that reduction of sniffer activity leads to neuronal cell death. The overexpression of the gene confers neuronal protection against oxygen-induced apoptosis, increases resistance of flies to experimental normobaric hyperoxia, and improves general locomotor fitness. Sniffer belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes and exhibits carbonyl reductase activity. This is the first in vivo evidence of the direct and important implication of this enzyme as a neuroprotective agent in the cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the alkanesulfonate FMN reductase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Benlian; Bertrand, Adam; Boles, William H.; Ellis, Holly R.; Mallett, T. Conn

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the native and SeMet FMN reductase protein of the E. coli alkanesulfonate monooxygenase two-component enzyme system is reported. The alkanesulfonate FMN reductase (SsuE) from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reduction of FMN by NADPH to provide reduced flavin for the monooxygenase (SsuD) enzyme. The vapor-diffusion technique yielded single crystals that grow as hexagonal rods and diffract to 2.9 Å resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation. The protein crystallizes in the primitive hexagonal space group P622. The SsuE protein lacks any cysteine or methionine residues owing to the role of the SsuE enzyme in the acquisition of sulfur during sulfate starvation. Therefore, substitution of two leucine residues (Leu114 and Leu165) to methionine was performed to obtain selenomethionine-containing SsuE for MAD phasing. The selenomethionine derivative of SsuE has been expressed and purified and crystals of the protein have been obtained with and without bound FMN. These preliminary studies should lead to the structure solution of SsuE. It is anticipated that this new protein structure will provide detailed structural information on specific active-site regions of the protein and insight into the mechanism of flavin reduction and transfer of reduced flavin

  14. Structure and biocatalytic scope of thermophilic flavin-dependent halogenase and flavin reductase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Latham, Jonathan; Dunstan, Mark S; Brandenburger, Eileen; Klemstein, Ulrike; Leys, David; Karthikeyan, Chinnan; Greaney, Michael F; Shepherd, Sarah A; Micklefield, Jason

    2016-10-04

    Flavin-dependent halogenase (Fl-Hal) enzymes have been shown to halogenate a range of synthetic as well as natural aromatic compounds. The exquisite regioselectively of Fl-Hal enzymes can provide halogenated building blocks which are inaccessible using standard halogenation chemistries. Consequently, Fl-Hal are potentially useful biocatalysts for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other valuable products, which are derived from haloaromatic precursors. However, the application of Fl-Hal enzymes, in vitro, has been hampered by their poor catalytic activity and lack of stability. To overcome these issues, we identified a thermophilic tryptophan halogenase (Th-Hal), which has significantly improved catalytic activity and stability, compared with other Fl-Hal characterised to date. When used in combination with a thermostable flavin reductase, Th-Hal can efficiently halogenate a number of aromatic substrates. X-ray crystal structures of Th-Hal, and the reductase partner (Th-Fre), provide insights into the factors that contribute to enzyme stability, which could guide the discovery and engineering of more robust and productive halogenase biocatalysts.

  15. Thermophilic enzymes and their applications in biocatalysis: a robust aldo-keto reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willies, Simon; Isupov, Misha; Littlechild, Jennifer

    2010-09-01

    Extremophiles are providing a good source of novel robust enzymes for use in biocatalysis for the synthesis of new drugs. This is particularly true for the enzymes from thermophilic organisms which are more robust than their mesophilic counterparts to the conditions required for industrial bio-processes. This paper describes a new aldo-keto reductase enzyme from a thermophilic eubacteria, Thermotoga maritima which can be used for the production of primary alcohols. The enzyme has been cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli and has been purified and subjected to full biochemical characterization. The aldo-keto reductase can be used for production of primary alcohols using substrates including benzaldehyde, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrobenzaldehyde and para-anisaldehyde. It is stable up to 80 degrees C, retaining over 60% activity for 5 hours at this temperature. The enzyme at pH 6.5 showed a preference for the forward, carbonyl reduction. The enzyme showed moderate stability with organic solvents, and retained 70% activity in 20% (v/v) isopropanol or DMSO. These properties are favourable for its potential industrial applications.

  16. Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice.

  17. Acrolein-Induced Dyslipidemia and Acute Phase Response Independenly of HMG-CoA Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Prough, Russell A.; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Haberzettl, Petra; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    Scope Aldehydes are ubiquitous natural constituents of foods, water and beverages. Dietary intake represents the greatest source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. Oral acrolein induces dyslipidemia acutely and chronically increases atherosclerosis in mice, yet the mechanisms are unknown. Because lipid synthesis and trafficking are largely under hepatic control, we examined hepatic genes in murine models of acute and chronic oral acrolein exposure. Methods and results Changes in hepatic gene expression were examined using a Steroltalk microarray. Acute acrolein feeding modified plasma and hepatic proteins and increased plasma triglycerides within 15 min. By 6h, acrolein altered hepatic gene expression including Insig1, Insig2 and Hmgcr genes and stimulated an acute phase response (APR) with up-regulation of serum amyloid A genes (Saa) and systemic hypoalbuminemia. To test if decreased HMG-CoA reductase activity could modify acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or the APR, mice were pretreated with simvastatin. Statin treatment, however, did not alter acrolein-induced dyslipidemia or hypoalbuminemia associated with an APR. Few hepatic genes were dysregulated by chronic acrolein feeding in apoE-null mice. These studies confirmed that acute acrolein exposure altered expression of hepatic genes involved with lipid synthesis and trafficking and APR, and thus, indicated a hepatic locus of acrolein-induced dyslipidemia and APR that was independent of HMG CoA-reductase. Conclusion Dietary intake of acrolein could contribute to cardiovascular disease risk by disturbing hepatic function. PMID:21812109

  18. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consequence of absence of nitrate reductase activity on photosynthesis in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saux, C.; Lemoine, Y.; Marion-Poll, A.; Valadier, M.H.; Deng, M.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorate-resistant Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (cv Viviani) mutants were found to be deficient in the nitrate reductase apoprotein (NR - nia). Because they could not grow with nitrate as sole nitrogen source, they were cultivated as graftings on wild-type Nicotiana tabacum plants. The grafts of mutant plants were chlorotic compared to the grafts of wild type. Mutant leaves did not accumulate nitrogen but contained less malate and more glutamine than wild leaves. They exhibited a slight increase of the proportion of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complexes and a lowering of the efficiency of energy transfer between these complexes and the active centers. After a 3 second 14 CO 2 pulse, the total 14 C incorporation of the mutant leaves was approximately 20 5 of that of the control. The 14 C was essentially recovered in ribulose bisphosphate in these plants. It was consistent with a decline of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity observed in the mutant. After a 3 second 14 CO 2 pulse followed by a 60 second chase with normal CO 2 , 14 C was mainly accumulated in starch which was labeled more in the mutant than in the wild type. These results confirm the observation that in the nitrate reductase deficient leaves, chloroplasts were loaded with large starch inclusions preceding disorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus

  20. Consequence of absence of nitrate reductase activity on photosynthesis in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saux, C.; Lemoine, Y.; Marion-Poll, A.; Valadier, M.H.; Deng, M.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    Chlorate-resistant Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (cv Viviani) mutants were found to be deficient in the nitrate reductase apoprotein (NR/sup -/ nia). Because they could not grow with nitrate as sole nitrogen source, they were cultivated as graftings on wild-type Nicotiana tabacum plants. The grafts of mutant plants were chlorotic compared to the grafts of wild type. Mutant leaves did not accumulate nitrogen but contained less malate and more glutamine than wild leaves. They exhibited a slight increase of the proportion of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complexes and a lowering of the efficiency of energy transfer between these complexes and the active centers. After a 3 second /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse, the total /sup 14/C incorporation of the mutant leaves was approximately 20/sup 5/ of that of the control. The /sup 14/C was essentially recovered in ribulose bisphosphate in these plants. It was consistent with a decline of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity observed in the mutant. After a 3 second /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse followed by a 60 second chase with normal CO/sub 2/, /sup 14/C was mainly accumulated in starch which was labeled more in the mutant than in the wild type. These results confirm the observation that in the nitrate reductase deficient leaves, chloroplasts were loaded with large starch inclusions preceding disorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus.