WorldWideScience

Sample records for anthers

  1. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  2. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F1) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 5.0 mg L-1 KIN and 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  3. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  4. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  5. Anther Ontogeny and Microsporogenesis in Helianthus annuus L. (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anther ontogeny and microsporogenesis were analysed in Helianthus annuus L. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and plasmodial tapetum. Endothecial cells show no fibrous thickening. Tapetum is amoeboid type with binucleate cells. Epidermal layer remains intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer, endothecium and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are triporate, suboblate and angulaperturate.

  6. Anther culture studies in W. Murcott mandarin genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKA KAÇAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining haploid plants is one of the important tool that shorten the plant breeding process. Anther culture is one of the method used for obtaining haploid plants. Anther culture studies are carried out for several plant species. In the present study, flowers at different sizes of W. Murcott mandarin were collected at the blooming period. Stage of mononuclear microspore of anthers was determined according to method of acetocarmine. Mononuclear microspore stage of anthers was observed in flowers 4-5 mm in diameter. Anther culture experiments were carried out with 4-5 mm in diameter anthers. In this study, temperature pre-treatment was performed at 4˚C and 25˚C for two days. Surface sterilization was performed in flowers and anthers were cultured in nutrient medium N6. Anther culture assays were performed with the three different concentrations of TDZ (0 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.1 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.5 mg l-1 TDZ. Half of anthers were cultured in dark condition while the other half in 16 hours light, 8 hours dark climate room conditions. Anthers containing mononuclear microspore stage were cultured and, changes occurring in the anther explants were discussed in the article.

  7. Expression and localization of calreticulin in tobacco anthers and pollen tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, M.C.; Feron, R.; Navazio, L.; Mariani, P.; Pierson, E.S.; Wolters-Arts, A.M.C.; Knuiman, B.; Mariani, C.; Derksen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The developmental expression pattern and localization of calreticulin were studied in Nicotiana tabacum L. anthers, pollen and pollen tubes. High transcript and protein levels were detected throughout anther development. Immunolocalization of calreticulin in the anthers showed particular dense label

  8. The role of initial cells in maize anther morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawe, R K; Freeling, M

    1992-12-01

    The near absence of cell movement in plants makes clonal analysis a particularly informative method for reconstructing the early events of organ formation. We traced the patterns of cell division during maize anther development by inducing sector boundaries that preceded the earliest events of anther initiation. In doing this, we were able to estimate the smallest number of cells that are fated to form an anther, characteristic cell division patterns that occur during anther morphogenesis, and the relationship between the pre-existing symmetry of the initial cells and the final symmetry of the mature anther. Four general conclusions are made: (1) anthers are initiated from small groups of 12 or fewer cells in each of two floral meristematic layers; (2) the early growth of the anther is more like a shoot than a glume or leaf; (3) cell ancestry does not dictate basic structure and (4) the orientation of initial cells predicts the orientation of the four pollen-containing microsporangia, which define the axes of symmetry on the mature anther. The final point is discussed with other data, and an explanation involving a 'structural template' is invoked. The idea is that the orientation of initial cells within the floral meristem establishes an architectural pattern into which anther cells are recruited without regard to their cellular lineages. The structural template hypothesis may prove to be generally applicable to problems of pattern formation in plants. PMID:1295730

  9. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-09-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4-7 and 8-12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  10. Using Anther Culture Method for Flax Breeding Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Miķelsone, Andra; Grauda, Dace; Stramkale, Veneranda; Ornicāns, Reinis; Rashal, Isaak

    2015-01-01

    Flax breeding is a long and complicated process based on hybridization and following selection of the best plants. Because of possible occasional cross-pollination the development of genetically stable homozygous lines could last more than 15 years. For more rapid creating of initial material for flax breeding anther culture methods for producing doubled haploid (DH) lines could be used successfully. The goal of this study was to develop the best anther culture protocol for producing DH lines...

  11. Using silicon to enhance rice anther culture efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBaoshen; CHENCuixia; YINLiqing; ZHANGJianjun

    1997-01-01

    Silicon is one of essential elements for rice growth. Deficiency of silicon in plants would affect the physiological metabolism of rice.Considering the important role of silicon to rice and no silicon being used in ordinary anther culture medium, we added absorbable silicon at different concentrations into either or both in-duction media (IM), differentiation media(DM) to study the effect of silicon on anther culture efficiency.

  12. Is there 'anther-anther interference' within a flower? Evidences from one-by-one stamen movement in an insect-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ming-Xun; Bu, Zhao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing anthers has received little attention and few experimental tests to date. Here, using one-by-one stamen movement in the generalist-pollinated Parnassia palustris, we test this hypothesis by manipulation experiments in two years. Under natural conditions, the five fertile stamens in P. palustris flowers elongate their filaments individually, and anthers dehisce successively one-by-one. More importantly, the anther-dehisced stamen bends out of the floral center by filament deflexion before the next stamen's anther dehiscence. Experimental manipulations show that flowers with dehisced anther remaining at the floral center experience shorter (1/3-1/2 less) visit durations by pollen-collecting insects (mainly hoverflies and wasps) because these 'hungry' insects are discouraged by the scant and non-fresh pollen in the dehisced anther. Furthermore, the dehisced anther blocks the dehiscing anther's access to floral visitors, resulting in a nearly one third decrease in their contact frequency. As a result, pollen removal of the dehiscing anther decreases dramatically. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence that anther-anther interference is possible in a flower, and that the selection to reduce such interferences can be a strong force in floral evolution. We also propose that some other floral traits, usually interpreted as pollen dispensing mechanisms, may function, at least partially, as mechanisms to promote pollen dispersal by reducing interferences between

  13. Cell-cell interactions during patterning of the Arabidopsis anther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Dickinson, Hugh G

    2010-04-01

    Key steps in the evolution of the angiosperm anther include the patterning of the concentrically organized microsporangium and the incorporation of four such microsporangia into a leaf-like structure. Mutant studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are leading to an increasingly accurate picture of (i) the cell lineages culminating in the different cell types present in the microsporangium (the microsporocytes, the tapetum, and the middle and endothecial layers), and (ii) some of the genes responsible for specifying their fates. However, the processes that confer polarity on the developing anther and position the microsporangia within it remain unclear. Certainly, data from a range of experimental strategies suggest that hormones play a central role in establishing polarity and the patterning of the anther initial, and may be responsible for locating the microsporangia. But the fact that microsporangia were originally positioned externally suggests that their development is likely to be autonomous, perhaps with the reproductive cells generating signals controlling the growth and division of the investing anther epidermis. These possibilities are discussed in the context of the expression of genes which initiate and maintain male and female reproductive development, and in the perspective of our current views of anther evolution. PMID:20298223

  14. Prediction of anther-expressed gene resulation in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JiFeng; YANG JingJin; WANG Guan; YU QingBo; YANG ZhongNan

    2008-01-01

    Anther development in Arabidopsis, a popular model plant for plant biology and genetics, is controlled by a complex gene network. Despite the extensive use of this genus for genetic research, little is known about its regulatory network. In this paper, the direct transcriptional regulatory relationships between genes expressed in Arabidopsis anther development were predicted with an integrated bioinformatic method that combines mining of microarray data with promoter analysis. A total of 7710 transcription factor-gene pairs were obtained. The 80 direct regulatory relationships demonstrating the highest con-fidence were screened from the initial 7710 pairs; three of the 80 were validated by previous experi-ments. The results indicate that our predicted results were reliable. The regulatory relationships re-vealed by this research and described in this paper may facilitate further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of anther development. The bioinformatic method used in this work can also be applied to the prediction of gene regulatory relationships in other organisms.

  15. Anther and pollen development: A conserved developmental pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Fernández; Talle, Behzad; Wilson, Zoe A

    2015-11-01

    Pollen development is a critical step in plant development that is needed for successful breeding and seed formation. Manipulation of male fertility has proved a useful trait for hybrid breeding and increased crop yield. However, although there is a good understanding developing of the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen anther development in model species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about the equivalent processes in important crops. Nevertheless the onset of increased genomic information and genetic tools is facilitating translation of information from the models to crops, such as barley and wheat; this will enable increased understanding and manipulation of these pathways for agricultural improvement. PMID:26310290

  16. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica; Kobiljski Boris; Hristov Nikola

    2007-01-01

    Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33%) and callus yield (119%), while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively). Seven genotypes (50%) had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers o...

  17. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  18. Attempts to induce haploids in anther cultures of sugar, fodder and wild species of beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, aimed at obtaining beet haploids from anthers, the effect of mineral media, potato and sugar beet extract and p-fluorophenylalanine (PFP in combination with growth substances was tested. Nutrient-starved plants as anther-donors, anther-starvation, cold treatment and photoperiod were also analysed. On all mineral media the anthers produced callus and roots; however, the percentage depended on the combination of growth substances used. The best medium for differentiation was that of Linsmaier and Skoog with 25 µM zeatin or 6-(3-methyl-2-butenylaminopurine with 5 µM naphthalene-l-acetic acid (25.5%. The addition of PFP caused an increase in the percentage of anther differentiation (41.6%. Besides callus and roots on one of the anthers (in ca. 140000 tested, vegetative buds were formed from which numerous plants were obtained (2n. Plant and anther nutrient starvation did not improve the anther response to differentiation, nor did it induce haploid development, similarly as cold treatment of inflorescences or isolated anthers. The anthers of wild species showed lower ability to differentiate than those of sugar or fodder beets. Cytological analyses showed formation of multicellular structures until ca. the 12-th day of anther culture; afterwards, they degenerated.

  19. Cucumber mosaic virus resistant mutant from tobacco's anthers treated with γ ray through anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower buds of Nicotiana tabacum cv. K326, NC89 and 8611, in which the microspore is in the phase of single nucleus and the nucleus is on the side, were irradiated with 60Co γ-ray. Plant lets from anther culture were transplanted and inoculated with poisonous fluid of CMV. The results showed that there was an orientation relation between the variation of disease resistance of plants of NC89, 8611 and the dose of 60Co γ-ray. The variation of leaves of plants was analogous to symptom of CMV when the dose was equal to or more than 4, which caused difficulty for selection. When dose was less than 2krad, there was no difference in disease resistance between the plants induced from irradiation of 60Co γ-ray and the control. However, when dose was equal to 2krad, the difference of disease resistance was at the level of significance. CMV-resistant mutants were selected from the population of haploid plant of NC89 and 8611 induced by 2.0 krad of 60Co γ ray

  20. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  1. Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Callus induction and plant regeneration from anther culture of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthers of five mutant lines of rice derived from the variety ICTA VIRGINIA and five derived from the variety PRECOZICTA as well as the two parental varieties (both varieties indica) containing uninucleate pollen grains, were cultured on a N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The proportion of anthers that produced calli varied from 0% for the mutant lines 881 and 940 to 1.9% for the parental variety Precozicta. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin and plantlets developed in 2-5 weeks. A total of 153 green plantlets were obtained. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Anther culture in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2003-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been defined as the developmental process producing a perfect embryo from a single cell, which achieves bipolar at as a stage as occurs in zygotic embryogenesis. The main achievement of these examination was to establish in vitro effective technology for haploid and diploid plant regenerants; induction of embryogenesis from microspores in pepper anther culture as well as micropropagation in vitro of pepper regenerants. Induction of somatic embryogenesis from anth...

  4. Orchid mating: the anther steps onto the stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In a bisexual flower, the male and female organ of which have a space separation, individing into the pistil and stamen. Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollinati...

  5. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A T; Longhi-Wagner, H M; Scatena, V L

    2010-05-01

    Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae), Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae), Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae). The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the following characters: tetrasporangiate anthers; monocotyledonous-type anther wall development, endothecium showing annular thickenings, secretory tapetum; successive microsporogenesis; isobilateral tetrads; spheroidal, tricellular, monoporate pollen grains with annulus and operculum. Nevertheless, the exine patterns of the species studied are distinct. Olyra humilis and Sucrea monophylla (Bambusoideae) show a granulose pattern, whereas in the other species, it is insular. In addition, Axonopus aureus and Paspalum polyphyllum (Panicoideae) have a compactly insular spinule pattern, while Chloris elata and Eragrostis solida (Chloridoideae) show a sparsely insular spinule pattern. The exine ornamentation may be considered an important feature at the infrafamiliar level. PMID:20552147

  6. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  7. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  8. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  9. M8-An effective medium for anther culture of indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEIChuansheng; ZHANGJinyu; WuGuangnan

    1992-01-01

    A new dedifferentiation medium (MS) was developed, which greatly improved the efficiency of anther culture of indica rive. The percentage of green plantlets for anthers inoculated on M8 medium was 40% higher than that on N6 medium in 6 cultivars and it was 2.6%, on average, on M8 medium in more than 20 cultivars and lines,

  10. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  11. Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Cotton Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-dong; ZHU Yun-guo; WANG Xiao-ling; ZHU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-quan; XIE Hai-yan; WANG Xue-de

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell, including superoxide (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of ROS production and scavenging in anthers of the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) cotton,CMS line, maintainer, and hybrid F1 anthers, were employed for studying the relationship between CMS and metabolism of ROS, by comparing ROS changes in the sterile and fertile anthers at different developmental stages. The results showed that during the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous cell division stage), anthers of CMS line had higher contents of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA than those of maintainer or hybrid F1. Simultaneously, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in scavenging ROS were measured in the anthers of the CMS line,indicating that an increase of ROS in anthers of abortion preliminary stage had an inducible effect on the antioxidant enzymes. But during the abortion peak of CMS anther (pollen mother cell meiosis stage), on the one hand, contents of O2-·,H2O2, and MDA were extraordinarily high in CMS anthers, on the other hand, the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were excessively low, which disrupted the balance between the production and elimination of ROS and led to pollen mother cells apoptosis at this stage. In the following two stages (uninucleate microspore stage and mature pollen stage), the contents of O2-· and H2O2 in the aborted anthers were approximated to contents in the fertile anthers of the maintainer and hybrid F1. However, MDA contents were continuously raised and enzymic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were consistently decreased in sterile anthers, which indicated that ROS still had harmful effects on the anthers after the apoptosis of the male cells. Excessive accumulation of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA and significant reduction of ROS

  12. Is There ‘Anther-Anther Interference’ within a Flower? Evidences from One-by-One Stamen Movement in an Insect-Pollinated Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xun Ren; Zhao-Jun Bu

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing a...

  13. The MADS box transcription factor ZmMADS2 is required for anther and pollen maturation in maize and accumulates in apoptotic bodies during anther dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Daniela N; Bantin, Jörg; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    The maize (Zea mays) late pollen gene ZmMADS2 belongs to the MIKC type of MADS box transcription factor genes. Here, we report that ZmMADS2, which forms a homodimer in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is required for anther dehiscence and pollen maturation. Development of anthers and pollen was arrested at 1 d before dehiscence in transgenic plants expressing the ZmMADS2-cDNA in antisense orientation. Temporal and spatial expression analyses showed high amounts of ZmMADS2 transcripts in endothecium and connective tissues of the anther at 1 d before dehiscence and in mature pollen after dehiscence. Transient transformation of maize and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen with the luciferase reporter gene under the control of different ZmMADS2 promoter deletion constructs demonstrated the functionality and tissue specificity of the promoter. Transgenic maize plants expressing a ZmMADS2-green fluorescent protein fusion protein under control of the ZmMADS2 promoter were used to monitor protein localization during anther maturation and pollen tube growth. High amounts of the fusion protein accumulate in degenerating nuclei of endothecial and connective cells of the anther. A possible function of ZmMADS2 during anther dehiscence and pollen maturation and during pollen tube growth is discussed. PMID:15001699

  14. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  15. Radiation effect in anther cultures of rice variety Krispo-38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of rice variety Krispo-38 were irradiated with 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy and sown in the greenhouse. Anthers from plants of each treatment containing uninucleate pollen grains were collected and cultured on an N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The pollen grains were induced to develop calli. The proportion of anthers that produced calli varied from 0.8% for the 400 Gy treatment to 3.3% for the control. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin. The proportion of calli that produced green plants varied from 1.9% for the 300 Gy treatment to 10.5% for the 200 Gy one. Plants developed in 2-5 weeks, 101 plants were obtained. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  16. Comparative metabolomic analysis of wild type and mads3 mutant rice anthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guorun Qu; Sheng Quan; Palash Mondol; Jie Xu; Dabing Zhang; Jianxin Shi

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) MADS3 transcription factor regulates the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during late anther development, and one MADS3 mutant, mads3-4, has defective anther wal s, aborted microspores and complete male sterility. Here, we report the untargeted metabolomic analysis of both wild type and mads3-4 mature anthers. Mutation of MADS3 led to an unbalanced redox status and caused oxidative stress that damages lipid, protein, and DNA. To cope with oxidative stress in mads3-4 anthers, soluble sugars were mobilized and carbohydrate metabolism was shifted to amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism to provide substrates for the biosynthesis of antioxidant proteins and the repair of DNA. Mutation of MADS3 also affected other aspects of rice anther development such as secondary metabolites associated with cuticle, cellwal , and auxin metabolism. Many of the discovered metabolic changes in mads3-4 anthers were corroborated with changes of expression levels of correspond-ing metabolic pathway genes. Altogether, this comparative metabolomic analysis indicated that MADS3 gene affects rice anther development far beyond the ROS homeostasis regulation.

  17. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  18. Tribenuron-Methyl Induces Male Sterility through Anther-Specific Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase Leading to Autophagic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lun; Jing, Xue; Chen, Li; Liu, Yingjun; Su, Yanan; Liu, Tingting; Gao, Changbin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2015-12-01

    Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely used for hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report greater TM accumulation and subsequent stronger ALS inhibition and BCAA starvation in anthers than in leaves and stems after TM application. Constitutive or anther-specific expression of csr1-1D (a CSR1 mutant) eliminated anther-selective ALS inhibition and reversed the TM-induced male sterile phenotype in both rapeseed and Arabidopsis. The results of TM daub-stem experiments, combined with the observations of little TM accumulation in anthers and reversion of TM-induced male sterility by targeted expression of the TM metabolism gene Bel in either the mesophyll or phloem, suggested that foliar-sprayed TM was polar-transported to anthers mainly through the mesophyll and phloem. Microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that autophagy, a bulk degradation process induced during cell death, was elevated in TM-induced male sterile anthers and by anther-specific knockdown of ALS. Moreover, TM-induced pollen abortion was significantly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. These data suggested that TM was polar-transported to anthers, resulting in BCAA starvation via anther-specific ALS inhibition and, ultimately, autophagic cell death in anthers. PMID:26362932

  19. Effectiveness of androgenesis induced in anther culture of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Spasenoski, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of obtained androgenic plants de pends highly on the genotype; there fore the low rate of haploid recovery limits the utility of anther culture in pepper breeding. In the present study the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vivo anther culture of 19 pep per genotypes was investigated and established. The aim of this study was establishment of effective in vitro technology for study of haploid and diploid plant regenerants; induction of embryogenesis in pepper anth...

  20. Callus Production and Plant Regeneration from Anther Culture of Some Turkish Barley Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    SAVAŞKAN, Çigdem

    1999-01-01

    Anther culture of four different barley cultivars ( Hordeum vulgareL. cvs. Anadolu, Cumhuriyet-50, Obruk-86 and Tokak-157/37) currently cultivated in Turkey has been investigated. Two different culture media (BAC3 and FHG) were used and the effect of a 21-day cold pretreatment was studied. Androgenesis on BAC3 medium was evaluated statistically in all genotypes and the percentage of anther response and the frequency of calli production were found significantly different (P

  1. Anther Culture of Pepper: Morphological Characteristics of Fruits of Androgenetic Pepper Lines (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2012-01-01

    The presented study describes the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vitro pepper anther culture. The aim of this study was the establishment of effective technology for induction of embryogenesis in pepper anther culture; development of the embryos into plantlets; successful adaptation and acclimatization of plantlets from sterile to greenhouse conditions, and the breeding process of obtained androgenetic pepper lines in the plastic tunnel conditions. From 19 pepper genotypes under ...

  2. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  3. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Marcus Vinicius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  4. Effect of medium osmotic potential on callus induction and shoot regeneration in flax anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yurong; Dribnenki, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Development of an efficient and cost-effective doubled haploid production system in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the prerequisite for the application of doubled haploid technology in a practical breeding program. Pre-culture of anthers on a medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days before transfer to the same medium containing 6% sucrose for a total of 28 days culture period significantly increased shoot regeneration for all four genotypes evaluated. Moreover, pre-culture of anthers on medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days was sufficient to dramatically reduce the frequency of shoot regeneration from somatic tissues and thereby to increase the frequency of microspore-derived plants in flax anther culture. Furthermore, replacing 15% sucrose with 6% sucrose and 9% polyethylene glycol (PEG), or 3% sucrose and 12% PEG, in pre-culture medium did not significantly affect callus induction and shoot regeneration. The results indicate that sucrose may act as carbon/energy source as well as an osmotic regulator in flax anther culture. Sucrose as an osmotic regulator may be replaced by a non-metabolizable osmoticum: PEG. The implication of this study in flax anther culture and breeding is discussed. PMID:15235814

  5. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

  6. Tapetal cell fate, lineage and proliferation in the Arabidopsis anther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Dickinson, Hugh G

    2010-07-01

    The four microsporangia of the flowering plant anther develop from archesporial cells in the L2 of the primordium. Within each microsporangium, developing microsporocytes are surrounded by concentric monolayers of tapetal, middle layer and endothecial cells. How this intricate array of tissues, each containing relatively few cells, is established in an organ possessing no formal meristems is poorly understood. We describe here the pivotal role of the LRR receptor kinase EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES 1 (EMS1) in forming the monolayer of tapetal nurse cells in Arabidopsis. Unusually for plants, tapetal cells are specified very early in development, and are subsequently stimulated to proliferate by a receptor-like kinase (RLK) complex that includes EMS1. Mutations in members of this EMS1 signalling complex and its putative ligand result in male-sterile plants in which tapetal initials fail to proliferate. Surprisingly, these cells continue to develop, isolated at the locular periphery. Mutant and wild-type microsporangia expand at similar rates and the 'tapetal' space at the periphery of mutant locules becomes occupied by microsporocytes. However, induction of late expression of EMS1 in the few tapetal initials in ems1 plants results in their proliferation to generate a functional tapetum, and this proliferation suppresses microsporocyte number. Our experiments also show that integrity of the tapetal monolayer is crucial for the maintenance of the polarity of divisions within it. This unexpected autonomy of the tapetal 'lineage' is discussed in the context of tissue development in complex plant organs, where constancy in size, shape and cell number is crucial. PMID:20570940

  7. Low dose gamma ray effect on inhancer of anther culture response in some spring wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, the response of anther culture in three wheat genotypes (Tajan, Atila, R-12) after a treatment with a low dose of gamma ray was studied. Spikes of these genotypes were irradiated in doses of 2, 3 Gy, then cultured in the modified P4 medium, containing 200 mgl-1 Glutamine, 15% Ficol, 2 mgl-1 2,4-D, and 0.5 mgl-1 Kinitin. It was found that there is a significant difference between the genotypes, and also between the irradiated treatment levels and the non-irradiated treatment. All of the genotypes showed a low response to the anther culture meaning a decrease in the response with irradiation. 90% of Calli of Atila, 67% of R-12 and 46% of Tajan in control treatment produced plants. But the Calli of irradiated anthers did not produced any plant (green or albino). Generally by the gamma irradiation, we observed a low response in the Calli and plant let production

  8. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported. PMID:26619882

  9. Combined effect of induced mutations and media for improving genetic architecture of brassica through anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and media effect on the anther culture response of two brassica napus varieties (i.e. Pak cheen and Salam) were studied. It was observed that low doses of gamma radiation (100-250 rads) enhanced the anther callusing response of the varieties on both of the cultured media. Different genotypic response was observed in case of plant regeneration. In variety Salam Plant lets were regenerated from the calli treated up to the dose of 750 rads. However, in case of variety Pak-cheen the calli could not be differentiated beyond 100 rads. (author)

  10. Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of γ-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of γ-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

  11. Induction of plants from anthers of Beta vulgaris cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Rogozińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth substances, saccharose and yeast extract on the differentiation of monogerm sugar beet and polygerm fodder beet anthers is studied. Callus and roots were found to form on the anthers. After subculture, callus derived from a well determined combination of growth substances differentiated into buds, from which plantlets were obtained in unlimited numbers. After rooting, they were transfermed to the soil where they continued to grow. This suggests the possibility of an adaptation of this method in vegetative propagation of beets.

  12. Induced mutations and Anther culture for sesame improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two Sri Lankan sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars MI 2 and MI 3 and of UCR82-203 NS which has indehiscent capsules were treated with gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and diethyl sulphate. Selections were made in segregating populations for improved yield components and morphological characters. Radiation sensitivity studies indicated that the seeds of MI 3 variety were more resistant to irradiation than MI 2. The M1 plants also showed varietal differences in growth reduction. Fifty percent growth reduction for plant height in MI 2 was in the range of 500 - 600 Gy and that for MI 3 was 750 - 1000 Gy. Promising mutants after screening in preliminary trials were tested for yield and adaptability in multilocational trials in different agro-climatic zones. A wide variation and increased mean values of yield and components were recorded in selected mutants in the preliminary trials. Two mutants, MB 29 and MB 33, consistently outyielded the recommended cultivar MI 3 in regional trials. The mutant MB 13 was also promising. MB 29 and MB 29w have a brittle seed coat easy for decortication. A number of mutants with improved characters have been isolated, characterized and included in the cross-breeding programmes. Mutants MB 29 and MB 33 recorded better germination than MI 2 under high osmotic pressure and should be tested for tolerance to drought at early growth phases. The shoot/root ratio was lease in MB 29, MB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synchronous flowering period recorded in MB 29 and C 10 is important in reducing shattering losses and escaping from drought at flowering stage, Two mutants which have lost the undesirable effects associated with the indehiscent character in UCR82-203 NS were later found to have lost the indehiscent character too, suggesting that the undesirable effects of the indehiscent (id id) locus are pleiotropic. Anther culture studies were undertaken with the objective of using doubled haploids for sesame improvement. 25 refs

  13. AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of several pathways affecting Arabidopsis anther development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that AtMYB103 has an important role in tapetum development,callose dissolution,and exine formation in A.thaliana anthers.Here,we further characterized its function in anther development by expression pattern analysis,transmission electron microscopy observation of the knockout mutant,and microarray analysis of downstream genes.A total of 818 genes differentially expressed between ms188 and the wild-type were identified by global expression profiling analysis.Functional classification showed that loss-of-function of AtMYB103 impairs cell wall modification,lipid metabolic pathways,and signal transduction throughout anther development.RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that transcription factors acting downstream of AtMYB103 (At1g06280 and At1g02040) were expressed in the tapetum and microspores at later stages,suggesting that they might have important roles in microsporogenesis.These results indicated that AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of Arabidopsis anther development.

  14. Regulation of Arabidopsis Early Anther Development by Putative Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules and Transcriptional Regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jin Sun; Carey LH Hord; Chang-Bin Chen; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    Anther development in flowering plants involves the formation of several cell types, including the tapetal and pollen mother cells. The use of genetic and molecular tools has led to the identification and characterization of genes that are critical for normal cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis early anther development. We review here several recent studies on these genes, including the demonstration that the putative receptor protein kinases BAM1 and BAM2 together play essential roles in the control of early cell division and differentiation. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that BAM1/2 may form a positive-negative feedback regulatory loop with a previously identified key regulator, SPOROCYTELESS (also called NOZZLE),to control the balance between sporogenous and somatic cell types in the anther. Furthermore, we summarize the isolation and functional analysis of the DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) gene in promoting proper tapetal cell differentiation. Our finding that DYT1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the bHLH family, as well as relevant expression analyses, strongly supports a model that DYT1 serves as a critical link between upstream factors and downstream target genes that are critical for normal tapetum development and function. These studies, together with other recently published works, indicate that cell-cell communication and transcriptional control are key processes essential for cell fate specification in anther development.

  15. History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the routes of pathogen introduction contributes greatly to efforts to protect against future disease emergence. Here, we investigated the history of the invasion in North America by the fungal pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, which causes the anther smut disease on the white ca

  16. Mutant in tobacco anther culture induced by 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tobacco anthers at uninucleate eccentric stage were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays for the purpose of inducing desirable mutants. The results showed that the induction frequency of plantlets increased following 1kR of 60Co γ-rays treatment. However, the time of plantlet induction was delayed and the percentage of responding anthers as well as the number of plantlets induced per anther significantly decreased after 3kR of 60Co γ-ray radiation which was considered as a semilethal exposure. The plantlet numbers induced per anther were extremely low following 6kR of 60Co γ-ray radiation. A white flower mutant appeared in the induced progenies. The tobacco leaf quality of this mutant were significantly improved as compared with its parental line. The mutant line has been tested and proved to have commercial value though the resistance to the black shank of tobacco slightly decreased as compared with the parental line

  17. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae. PMID:26789333

  18. Effect of the genotype and gamma irradiation on the anther cultures of a 10x10 diallel cross of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther culture responsiveness, irradiation effect and reciprocal effect were evaluated on ten genotypes (V1-V10) and a 101x0 diallel cross. Gamma irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied to seeds of parents and F1 cross from which the donor plants were grown. Non-irradiated donor plants were also used for comparison. Anthers were plated on potato-2 callus induction medium and calli formed were transferred to MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), indolacetic acid (1.0 mg/L), kinetin (1.0 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and solidified with agar (0.7%). Genotypes showed big differences for callus induction, plant regeneration and anther culturability rate. The most responsive materials were V2, V10 and V5 with 76.0, 27.4 and 10.8 green plants per 100 anthers respectively. No irradiation effect was found for the parents nor the F1 crosses on the pooled data. Mean anther culture response of specific genotypes showed that irradiation significantly increased anther culturability rate of V3 from 0.1 to 27.6 green plants per 100 anthers. No reciprocal effect was observed. (author)

  19. The pea END1 promoter drives anther-specific gene expression in different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, María D; Beltrán, José-Pío; Cañas, Luis A

    2004-10-01

    END1 was isolated by an immunosubtractive approach intended to identify specific proteins present in the different pea (Pisum sativum L.) floral organs and the genes encoding them. Following this strategy we obtained a monoclonal antibody (mAbA1) that specifically recognized a 26-kDa protein (END1) only detected in anther tissues. Northern blot assays showed that END1 is expressed specifically in the anther. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization assays corroborated the specific expression of END1 in the epidermis, connective, endothecium and middle layer cells during the different stages of anther development. END1 is the first anther-specific gene isolated from pea. The absence of a practicable pea transformation method together with the fact that no END1 homologue gene exists in Arabidopsis prevented us from carrying out END1 functional studies. However, we designed functional studies with the END1 promoter in different dicot species, as the specific spatial and temporal expression pattern of END1 suggested, among other things, the possibility of using its promoter region for biotechnological applications. Using different constructs to drive the uidA (beta-glucuronidase) gene controlled by the 2.7-kb isolated promoter sequence we have proven that the END1 promoter is fully functional in the anthers of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) plants. The presence in the -330-bp region of the promoter sequence of three putative CArG boxes also suggests that END1 could be a target gene of MADS-box proteins and that, subsequently, it would be activated by genes controlling floral organ identity. PMID:15221384

  20. The enhancement of anther culture efficiency in Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Metzg. (Sinsk.) using low doses of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected buds of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Metzg. (Sinsk) cvs Ariana and Primor were treated with various doses of γ-irradiation. When the anthers were removed and cultured, it was shown that low doses of γ-irradiation greatly enhanced anther culture efficiency in both cultivars. When microspore culture techniques were used, however, embryogenesis was reduced by irradiation in all treatments. Some of the resulting embryoids developed directly into plantlets, whereas others developed abnormally and produced secondary embryoids. Plants were regenerated from both anther embryoids and secondary embryoids and, following diploidization, seed was obtained from these plants. (author)

  1. Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer factor 4 (AHP4) negatively regulates secondary wall thickening of the anther endothecium during flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwang Wook; Oh, Seung-Ick; Kim, Yun Young; Yoo, Kyoung Shin; Cui, Mei Hua; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2008-04-30

    Cytokinins are essential hormones in plant development. Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs) are mediators in a multistep phosphorelay pathway for cytokinin signaling. The exact role of AHP4 has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated young flower-specific expression of AHP4, and compared AHP4-overexpressing (Ox) trangenic Arabidopsis lines and an ahp4 knock-out line. AHP4-Ox plants had reduced fertility due to a lack of secondary cell wall thickening in the anther endothecium and inhibition of IRREGURAR XYLEMs (IRXs) expression in young flowers. Conversely, ahp4 anthers had more lignified anther walls than the wild type, and increased IRXs expression. Our study indicates that AHP4 negatively regulates thickening of the secondary cell wall of the anther endothecium, and provides new insight into the role of cytokinins in formation of secondary cell walls via the action of AHP4. PMID:18413999

  2. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-d-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum

    OpenAIRE

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of thre...

  3. An anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene D5 related to rice pollen development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was shown in a previous analysis that D5 gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was an anther-specific gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein. In this study, D5 gene was found specifically expressed in tapetum cells as well as in the peripheral cells of the vascular bundle of rice anthers by RNA in situ hybridization. In order to study its function, D5 was transformed into rice in both sense and antisense directions driven by a rice Actin 1 promoter. It has been observed that the pollen grains from the antisense D5 transgenic rice plants are abnormal, indicating that D5 plays a critical role in rice pollen development.

  4. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  5. An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Elinor P.; Wilkins, Christopher; Demidchik, Vadim; Davies, Julia M; Glover, Beverley J.

    2010-01-01

    FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development ...

  6. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  7. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  8. The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin-Ju; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. Conclusions The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid. PMID:22649529

  9. Characterization of a novel anther-specific gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein in petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Y Z; Sun, J; Huang, X; Peng, H; Liu, G F; Hu, H R

    2014-01-01

    In Petunia x hybrida 'Fantasy Red', a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene referred to as PhLRR, was identified in a flower bud cDNA library. The open reading frame sequence of PhLRR was 1251 bp, encoding a putative 46.2-kDa protein of 416 amino acids. The PhLRR protein showed high similarity to members of polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs), contained 11 conserved LRR domains, and was an extracellular localization protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PhLRR belonged to the same PGIPs subfamily as SHY, indicating that PhLRR may be involved in the development of pollen-like SHY. Expression analysis revealed that PhLRR was abundantly expressed during early stages of flower bud and anther development, while it was not detected in any other examined organs, such as sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves, or open flowers. Furthermore, many cis-acting elements (such as AGAAA and GTGA) related to anther-specific gene expression were identified in the PhLRR gene promoter region, indicating that the promoter is also anther-specific. These results suggested that PhLRR is a novel anther-specific gene that may be essential for the early development of anthers. PMID:25501199

  10. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter OsABCG15 is Required for Anther Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Xiao Niu; Fu-Rong He; Ming He; Ding Ren; Le-Tian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Plant male reproductive development is a complex biological process,but the underlying mechanism is not well understood.Here,we characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterile mutant.Based on mapbased cloning and sequence analysis,we identified a 1,459-bp deletion in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene,OsABCG15,causing abnormal anthers and male sterility.Therefore,we named this mutant osabcg15.Expression analysis showed that OsABCG15 is expressed specifically in developmental anthers from stage 8 (meiosis Ⅱ stage) to stage 10 (late microspore stage).Two genes CYP704B2 and WDA1,involved in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids for the establishment of the anther cuticle and pollen exine,were downregulated in osabcg15 mutant,suggesting that OsABCG15 may play a key function in the processes related to sporopollenin biosynthesis or sporopollenin transfer from tapetal cells to anther locules.Consistently,histological analysis showed that osabcg15 mutants developed obvious abnormality in postmeiotic tapetum degeneration,leading to rapid degredation of young microspores.The results suggest that OsABCG15 plays a critical role in exine formation and pollen development,similar to the homologous gene of AtABCG26 in Arabidopsis.This work is helpful to understand the regulatory network in rice anther development.

  11. Stimulation effects of γ-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of γ-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of γ-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of γ-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of γ-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  12. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids with...... consistent with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an...

  13. Study of in vitro anther culture in selected genotypes of genus Capsicum

    OpenAIRE

    OLSZEWSKA, Dorota; Kisiala, Anna; NIKLAS-NOWAK, Aleksandra; NOWACZYK, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of anther incubation time on CP induction medium (12, 14, and 16 days) and 2 concentrations of kinetin in R1 regeneration medium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/L) on the effectiveness of androgenesis was investigated in 17 genotypes of Capsicum grown in Poland. Plant material consisted of breeding lines and intraspecific hybrids of C. annuum; the species of C. frutescens, C. chinense, and C. baccatum var. pendulum; interspecific hybrids F1 (C. frutescens × C. chinense) and F1 (C. frutesc...

  14. Pollen—embryogenesis and chromosomal variability in anther culture of Brassica hirta Moench (Sinapis alba L)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAJAJYPS; DMOHAPTRA

    1990-01-01

    The anther cultures of Brassica hirta underwent pollenembryogenesis and callusing,which showed a wide range of chromosome numbers varying from 9 (n=12) to a highly polyploid.For embryogenesis,pretreatment of floral buds in 0.4 M sucrose solution for 72 hrs at 4℃ was superior to freshly cultured anthers.Culture temperature of 30℃ for 14 days before maintenance of cultures at 25℃ was significantly beneficial for embryo yield in comparison to cultures continuously incubated at 25℃.Dark treatment during culture was more effective for pollen-embryo yield.

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation and other factors on the induction of calli and regeneration of greed plants in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of calli and regeneration of green plantlets in anther culture of rice variety, Taipei 309, were greatly affected by gamma irradiation and other factors. Callus formation from the anthers of mid-uninucleate stage pre-incubated at 7 degree C for 5 days were 0.4 and 0.6 times higher than those of the anthers of late uninucleate stage and non-treated control. However, the number of calli with green plantlets and the number of regenerated green plantlets per 100 anthers cultured were 3.1 and 4.1 times higher for the calli from the anthers at late-uninucleate stage than those from the anthers at mid-uninucleate stage; the calli with green plantlets increased with the time of anther incubation (35 days, 7.7%; 45 days, 10.6%; 55 days, 16.7%). However, the ability was lost for all calli 65 days after incubation. The highest ability of green plant regeneration for the calli transferred by 35 days after incubation and differentiated green plantlets at about 25th day after transfer to regeneration medium, which reached 443.6 plants per 100-anthers cultured and was much higher than that of the calli transferred and differentiated green plantlets later. 20 Gy of gamma irradiation at the time when about 5% anthers produced calli by 35 days after incubation has a great positive effects on induction of calli, differentiation and regeneration of green plantlets. The number of callus formation, calli with green plantlets and green plantlets regenerated per 100-anthers cultured were 0.5, 22 and 306 times higher than those of non-irradiated control respectively

  16. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  17. The S-ribonuclease gene of Petunia hybrida is expressed in nonstylar tissue, including immature anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K R; Sims, T L

    1994-09-01

    To determine the ability of isolated S-locus promoter sequences to direct organ-specific gene expression, we used microprojectile bombardment to introduce chimeric S-allele/beta-glucuronidase genes into different tissues of Petunia hybrida for transient expression. Histochemical staining showed that S-locus/beta-glucuronidase fusions were expressed in pistil, ovary, and petal tissue. No expression of the chimeric genes was detected in leaves or in mature pollen, either by histochemical staining or by fluorescence assays. RNA blot hybridization confirmed that low levels of S-locus mRNA accumulate in petals and ovaries in vivo. Analysis of the expression pattern of S-locus promoter deletions showed that sequences in the immediate vicinity of the TATA box were sufficient to confer qualitatively correct organ-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase. To further investigate the potential for S-ribonuclease expression in pollen, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify RNA accumulated in developing anthers. These assays demonstrated that mRNA for the S-ribonuclease accumulates to low levels in developing anthers several days prior to corolla opening and pollen anthesis. We discuss these results in light of current models of self-incompatibility. PMID:7972517

  18. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  19. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  20. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  2. Molecular characterization of three anther tissue culture varieties of tobaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. using RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Azucena Fernández B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPO analysis was used to characterize two new Flue Cured and one black tobacco type varieties derived from in vitro anther tissue culture technique. RAPOs are proposed as an appropriate complement of the morphoagronomic characteristics evaluations to fulfil international seed registration standards established for the identification of tobacco varieties. The identification of three tobacco varieties and their parents was carried out using the RAPO analysis with 64 random primers. Polymorphic products, 214 in number, were amplified only from 14 primers. Statistical analysis realized with the NTSYS program version 1.2 using the Jaccard similarity coefficient. The visual inspection revealed that five primers allowed the separation of the varieties in two groups, according to the type of tobacco: the Flue Cured and Black; while a group of nine primers separates each variety and establish its genetic relationship with their parents. The results obtained show that this technique is appropiated to establish genetic differences between tobacco varieties.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  4. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  5. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-06-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall. PMID:22438078

  6. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  7. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ildephonse Habarugira; Theo Hendriks; Marie-Christine Quillet; Jean-Louis Hilbert; Caroline Rambaud

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores...

  8. Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue,; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

    2012-01-01

    Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number o...

  9. Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska-Krause, I; Mankowska, G; Lukaszewicz, M; Szopa, J

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. Anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than somatic cell cultures. However, regenerants derived from anther cells showed valuable breeding features, including increased resistance to fungal wilt. The age of the donor plants and the season they grew in had a noticeable effect on their anther callusing and subsequent plant regeneration. Low temperature had a negative effect and dark pre-treatment a positive effect on callusing and plant regeneration. Different media were most effective for callus induction, shoot induction and rooting. For callus induction two carbon sources (2.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) were most effective; for shoots, only sucrose at lower concentration (2%) was effective. Rooting was most efficient in 1% sucrose and reduced (50%) mineral concentration in the medium. It was found that the length of in vitro cultivation significantly increases the ploidy and affects such features as regenerant morphological characteristics, petal colour, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum-induced fungal wilt. The established plant regeneration system provides a basis for the creation of transgenic flax. PMID:12827441

  10. Molecular characterization of OsPRP1 from rice, which is expressed preferentially in anthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaohuai; MAO Aijun; WANG Rong; WANG Tai; SONG Yanru; TONG Zhe

    2003-01-01

    A proline-rich protein-encoding cDNA encoded by a rice gene, OsPRP1, was isolated by PCR-mediated RNA subtraction hybridization strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced protein consists of 224 amino acids with the highest level of proline residue (14.29%). Following the putative signal peptide, OsPRP1 contains two structural domains, of which the N-terminal domain lacks Pro-rich repetitive sequences, and the C-terminal domain has two repetitive proline-rich sequences of 18 amino acid residues with PEPK motifs. Southern blot and sequence analysis show that OsPRP1 exists as four copies in rice genome and is localized in rice chromosome 10. RT-PCR experiments reveal that OsPRP1 is expressed preferentially in spikelets and buds with lower levels in roots and leaves. In situ hybridization indicates that OsPRP1 transcripts are present at high levels in pollen mother cells (PMCs), meiotic PMCs, tapetal cells and vascular bundle cells of flower organs. The expression of OsPRP1 in anthers has temporal specificity. The transcripts are accumulated at high levels in PMCs, at the highest levels in meiotic PMCs and at undetectable levels in uninucleate pollen. In buds the transcripts are only detected in the epidermal cells of coleoptiles and leaf primordial.

  11. Floral Transcriptomes in Woodland Strawberry Uncover Developing Receptacle and Anther Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Matthews, Benjamin F; Slovin, Janet; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2014-05-14

    Flowers are reproductive organs and precursors to fruits and seeds. While the basic tenets of the ABCE model of flower development are conserved in angiosperms, different flowering plants exhibit different and sometimes unique characteristics. A distinct feature of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) flowers is the development of several hundreds of individual apocarpous (unfused) carpels. These individual carpels are arranged in a spiral pattern on the subtending stem tip, the receptacle. Therefore, the receptacle is an integral part of the strawberry flower and is of significant agronomic importance, being the precursor to strawberry fruit. Taking advantage of next-generation sequencing and laser capture microdissection, we generated different tissue- and stage-transcriptomic profiling of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) flower development. Using pairwise comparisons and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we identified modules of coexpressed genes and hub genes of tissue-specific networks. Of particular importance is the discovery of a developing receptacle-specific module exhibiting similar molecular features to those of young floral meristems. The strawberry homologs of a number of meristem regulators, including LOST MERISTEM and WUSCHEL, are identified as hub genes operating in the developing receptacle network. Furthermore, almost 25% of the F-box genes in the genome are transiently induced in developing anthers at the meiosis stage, indicating active protein degradation. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying strawberry's unique reproductive developmental processes. This extensive floral transcriptome data set is publicly available and can be readily queried at the project Web site, serving as an important genomic resource for the plant biology research community. PMID:24828307

  12. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  13. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

  14. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  15. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  16. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  17. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  18. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  19. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  20. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order t

  1. Effects of field plot size on variation in white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug for host plant resistance evaluations in Arkansas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 investigated whether field plot size affects incidence of white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug (TPB) ((Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)) in host plant resistance (HPR) evaluations. The three cotton lines evaluated in the trial included a su...

  2. An Observe of "Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro"%《辣椒花药离体培养》评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素文; 黄亚杰; 肖瑜; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reading the existing relative documents about pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) in vitro anther culture, this paper summarizes and comments a newly published article "Anther Culture in Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro" on the Acta Physiol Plant in 2011 from the effects of several main factors on pepper anther culture, plant regeneration ploidy identification and plant chromosome doubling ect. The authors think this article has briefly introduced the present status of pepper in vitro anther culture abroad, and the existing problems, which is of certain reference value.%在阅读已有辣椒花药离体培养相关文献的基础上,从影响辣椒花药培养的几个主要因素、再生植株倍性鉴定及植株染色体加倍等方面,总结并评述了最近国外发表的一篇文章《辣椒花药离体培养》,认为该文章概括了目前国外辣椒花药离体培养的现状及存在的问题,具有一定参考价值.

  3. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  4. An Atropa belladonna hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase gene is differentially expressed in the root pericycle and anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Yun, D J; Chen, X Y; Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1999-05-01

    The AbH6H gene for hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase (H6H), which converts hyoscyamine to scopolamine, was isolated from Atropa belladonna. This plant also possesses a related sequence, Ab psiH6H, which appears to be a non-functional pseudo-gene. AbH6H RNA was detected in cultured root, native root and anther, but not in stem, leaf, pistil, petal, and sepal tissues. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and promoter::GUS transgene analysis showed that AbH6H is expressed specifically in root pericycle cells, and in tapetum and pollen mother cells. A 671 bp 5'-upstream region from AbH6H was sufficient for pericycle-specific expression in hairy roots of A. belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger, which both produce scopolamine, but cell-specific regulation was severely compromised in tobacco hairy roots, which do not produce scopolamine. PMID:10394953

  5. Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednamar Gabriela Palú

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução desses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta, buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1 e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1; para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 e cinetina (4 mg.L-1.The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aimed to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce

  6. Reversible and Irreversible Drought-Induced Changes in the Anther Proteome of Rice(Oryza sativa L.)Genotypes IR64 and Moroberekan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xiang Liu; John Bennett

    2011-01-01

    Crop yield is most sensitive to water deficit during the reproductive stage.For rice,the most sensitive yield component is spikelet fertility and the most sensitive stage is immediately before heading.Here,we examined the effect of drought on the anther proteome of two rice genotypes:Moroberekan and IR64.Water was withheld for 3 d before heading(3DBH)in well watered controls for 5 d until the flag leaf relative water content(RWC)had declined to 45-50%.Plants were then re-watered and heading occurred 2-3 d later,representing a delay of 4-5 d relative to controls.The anther proteins were separated at 3 DBH,at the end of the stress period,and at heading in stressed/re-watered plants and controls by two-dimensional(2-D)gel electrophoresis,and 93 protein spots were affected reproducibly in abundance by drought during the experiment across two rice genotypes.After drought stress,upon re-watering,expressions of 24 protein spots were irreversible in both genotypes,60 protein spots were irreversible in IR64 but reversible in Moroberekan,only nine protein spots were irreversible in Moroberekan while reversible in IR64.Among them,there were 14 newly drought-induced protein spots in IR64;none of them was reversible on re-watering.However,there were 13 newly drought-induced protein spots in Moroberekan,10 of them were reversible on re-watering,including six drought-induced protein spots that were not reversed in IR64.Taken together,our proteomics data reveal that drought-tolerant genotype Moroberekan possessed better recovery capability following drought and re-watering at the anther proteome level than the drought-sensitive genotype IR64.The disruptions of drought to rice anther development and pollen cell functions are also discussed in the paper.

  7. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  8. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  9. [Morphogenetic effects of the interaction of floral mutations petal-sepal and anther in petal in Papaver somniferum l].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaeva, P G

    2001-01-01

    The morphogenetic effects of the interaction of the floral mutations petal-sepal and anther in petal in Papaver somniferum L. with a monocarpic shoot were studied. During analysis of the mutations controlled by the genes ptsp and Ant, no plants of the double-mutant class were found in the second generation, in which microsporangia form on the corolla sepal structures. The ratio of phenotypic classes obtained in the experiment corresponds to that inheritance, when the genetic control of mutant characters is realized by nonallele nonlinked genes Ant and ptsp upon epistatic interaction of these genes. These data were confirmed by analysis of the genotypes of F2 plants from the phenotypic class petal-sepal, which include plants that carry both mutant genes Ant and ptsp. The results obtained suggest that the gene Ant, which controls the formation of microsporangia in the corolla metameres, is not expressed in the presence of a mutation of the gene ptsp; i.e., microsporangia are not formed in tissues with photosynthesizing cells. It is evident that the development of microsporangia is determined by the level of a product of the gene Ptsp. The role of flavonols (quercetin), inhibitors of photosynthesis, as a mechanism of regulation of activity of the genes controlling morphogenesis of the corolla elements and differentiation of microsporangia, is discussed. PMID:11605406

  10. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios.The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination

  11. The Callus Induction of Asparagus“Champion” Anther Culture%芦笋“冠军”花药培养愈伤组织的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳存; 李书华; 李霞; 李芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study asparagus“champion” anther culture technique. [Method] Using the F1 hybrid asparagus variety“champion” as the test material, callus induction in tissue culture process and effects of growth regulator on callus differentiation were studied. [Result] The results showed that using 0. 1% mercuric chloride sterilization 5 min, inoculated on the MS solid medium by adding NAA0. 8 mg/L + 6-BA 2. 0 mg/L of darkness first 10 days, and then light culture, anther callus induction rate reached about 16. 5%. [Conclusion] The asparagus“champion” anther culture technical system is established, which will lay a foundation for carrying out asparagus all male breeding.%[目的]研究芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术。[方法]以杂交一代品种“冠军”为试验材料,研究花药组培过程中影响愈伤组织诱导的因素及生长调节剂对愈伤分化成苗的影响。[结果]采用0.1%升汞灭菌5 min,再接种在添加NAA 0.8 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L的 MS固体培养基上先暗培养10 d,再光照培养,花药愈伤组织诱导率较高,达16.5%左右。[结论]建立了芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术体系,为开展芦笋全雄育种奠定基础。

  12. Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Tonet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica. O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais, com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual.An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica. The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a completely randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms, with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

  13. Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yockteng Roxana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of

  14. Fine Division of Rice Anther Development by Cytological Morphology%水稻花药发育的细胞形态学精细分期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵节

    2011-01-01

    A cytological and morphological study was conducted on the anther of a hybrid rice (Oryza Sativa L. indica) strain, Chuan You 9527. To study the growth procedures of pollen and anther wall, their development processes from stamen primordia initiation to pollen maturation were observed and divided into stages. Rice spikelets ranging from approx. 1.0 millimeter to approx. 10.0 millimeter were chosen; loading films of anthers were prepared by using the techniques of paraffin section, and they were observed and then photographed with digital camera system for optical microscopy ( Nikon DS-Ril-U2). The results showed that the whole development process of anther could be divided into thirteen fine stages, based on the significant alterations in the morphological characteristics of cells and tissues. The thirteen stages are archesporial cell stage, bi-parietal stage, tri-parietal stage, pollen mother cell forming stage ( the above four stages together are known as microsporocyte forming stage), early pollen mother cell meiosis stage, mid pollen mother cell meiosis stage, pollen mother cell dyad stage, pollen mother cell tetrad stage (the above four stages are known collectively as microsporocyte meiosis stage), early microspore stage, mid microspore stage, late microspore stage, bi-cellular pollen stage, and mature pollen stage.%本研究通过观察籼型杂交水稻"川优9527"'的花粉和药室壁的发育,对幼穗花药从雄蕊原基形成至花粉成熟的全过程进行了分期.选用不同发育时期的水稻幼穗(长度约1.0~10.0 mm),以石蜡切片技术分别制作其花药装片,置于光学显微镜(Nikon DS-Ri1-U2)下观察并拍照.根据细胞及组织形态特征的显著变化,将花药的发育进程精细划分为:孢原细胞期、二层药室壁期、三层药室壁期、花粉母细胞形成期(以上4期对应小孢子母细胞形成期)、花粉母细胞减数分裂初期、花粉母细胞减数分裂中期、花粉母细胞二分体时

  15. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch.) L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel.) L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira; Merielem Saldanha Martins; Mariane Paludette Dorneles; Cesar Carvalho de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulatio...

  16. Advances in Genes Related to Tapetum Development and Microsporocyte Meiosis in Anther%花药绒毡层发育和花粉母细胞减数分裂相关基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟华; 邱博; 罗红兵

    2015-01-01

    Male sterility in plant is common phenomenon in nature,which is one of important ways for heterosis utiliza-tion.There exists vital relevance between pollen fertility and both anther layers development and meiosis during the process of anther development.This paper introduced the gene regulatory expression network of anther development from aspects of tapetal development and meiosis of pollen mother cells in order to further investigate and utilize the male sterility.%植物雄性不育是自然界普遍存在的现象,也是利用杂种优势的重要途径之一.在花药发育过程中,花粉囊壁发育和减数分裂与花粉的育性有重要关系.主要从绒毡层发育和花粉母细胞减数分裂两个方面对近些年来植物花药发育基因调控网络进行综述,以期进一步了解和利用雄性不育性.

  17. Study on Effect of Iron in Anther Media of Early Japonica Rice in Cold Region%寒地早粳花培培养基中铁的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰民; 黄晓群; 王瑞英; 刘传雪; 关世武

    2008-01-01

    In this study, through vitro culturing anthers of 7 F1 progenies of early Japonica rice in cold region on medium with different Fe2+ contents, it was found that Fe2+ content generated greater impacts on the induction rate and green plantlet differentiation. The result demonstrated that if Fe2+ increased from 32 to 40 mg/kg, the induction rate of early Japonica rice anther culture in N6 culture media was more then 1.4 times higher than that in N6 culture media containing 5.6 mg/kg Fe2+. In this concentration range, the induction rate increased with the increase of Fe2+ content, while if the concentration was over this concentration range, the induction rate decreased with the increase of Fe2+, showing single peak distribution. When the Fe2+ was 40 mg/kg in differentiation medium, the differentiation rate decreased dramatically. The green plantlet differentiations of callus which were induced on culture media containing 32-40 mg/kg Fe2+ were different, when they were cultured on MS culture media, and 85.7% materials could increase green plantlet productivity to about 7.8%. Therefore, increasing Fe2+in induction media properly could increase anther culture efficiency of early Japonica rice in cold region.

  18. 植物生长调节剂TDZ在草莓花药培养中的应用%Application of Plant Growth Regulator TDZ in Strawberry Anther Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬东; 张丽; 马洪爱; 陈晓军; 宋玉霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂TDE在草莓花药培养中的应用.[方法]采用不同浓度TDZ与NAA植物生长素进行组合,观察其对草莓愈伤组织诱导及其分化的影响.[结果]Ms+TDZ 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L适用于草莓愈伤组织的分化,分化率高达75%,但TDZ时草莓愈伤组织的诱导无显著作用.[结论]该研究结果为草莓通过花药培养途径进行规模生产提供了参考.%[ Objective] The aim was to investigate the application of plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in strawberry anther culture.[ Method ] Different combinations of TDZ and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) auxine with different concentrations were used for induction culture, and then its effect on callus induction and plant regeneration were observed. [ Result] The combination of 1.0 mg/L TDZ + 0.5 mg/L NAA was effective to accelerating the differentiation and regeneration of strawberries, and the differentiation ratio was as high as 75%. However, TDZ showed insignificant effect on strawberries anther induction. [ Conclusion] This research had provided reference for large-scale production of strawberry through anther culture.

  19. Rozwój warstw ściennych i otwieranie się pylnika u kilku dzikich gatunków ziemniaka (Solarium chacoense Bitt., S. phureja Juz. et Buk., 5. giberulosum Juz. et Buk., S. Commersonii Dun. [The development of the parietal layers and dehiscence of the anthers at some wild potato species (Solanum chacoense Bitt., S. phureja Juz. et Buk., S. giberulosum Juz. et Buk., and S. Commersonii Dun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hausbrandt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthers in these species like in whole genus Solanum are poricidal still some differences have been observed in structure of their anther walls. The fibrous cells associated with dehiscence restricted usually to the area around the pore may form a single layer or may form compact mass often irregular in thickness or it may be lacking at all. Besides the apical pore one can observe a lateral dehiscence. By desintegra-tion of cells a gap is forming in the wall separating the two anther chambers which causes breaking it down. Then stomium like cells in epidermis contribute to the lateral opening.

  20. QTL analysis of the rice seedling cold tolerance in a double haploid population derived from anther culture of a hybrid between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population,derived from anther culture of Fl hybrid between a typical indica cv.and a japonica cv.has been used to investigate the seedling cold tolerance (SCT) in growth cabinet.By dynamically analyzing every day's survival percentages of the parents and DH lines under 7-d cold plus 9-d normal temperature condition,the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SCT have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population.The results show that two parents had significant differences in SCT and the segregation of SCT in DH lines was basically a continuous distribution with most serious injury on the 6th d of the cold treatment.A total of 4 QTLs for SCT have been identified on chromosomes 1,2,3 and 4 respectively.The additive effects of qSCT-1,qSCT-2 and qSCT-3 have been contributed by the japonica cv JX17,but that of qSCT-4 has been contributed by the indica cv ZYQ8.The mechanism of SCT seems complicated since the above 4 QTLs detected at different stages during the treatment.Further study on the genotypes for these SCT QTLs in the DH lines shows transgressive segregation.It is demonstrated that the lines with stronger SCT over JXl7 have 3-4 loci for SCT.Integration of these QTLs into an appropriate variety may lead to a successful rice breeding program for cold tolerance.

  1. Chromosome Doubling Technique for Anther Culture of Winter Wheat%小麦花培苗染色体加倍技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 朱晋云; 李楠

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase chromosome doubling frequency for anther culture of winter wheat, the callus, roots of regenerative plants and tillering node were treated respectively with different concentration of colchicine. The result showed that there were 33.3%~61.5% setting percentage in the treated callus with 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion. After soaking roots of regenerative plants for 5 hours using 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion, the average setting percentage reached 37.5%. The setting percentage were over 50% in tillering node soaked for 5~10 hours using 0.04‰ colchicine soluion and 1‰dimethylsulfoxide.%为了提高冬小麦花培苗染色体加倍效率,分别用不同浓度的秋水仙碱对参试的冬小麦材料的花药愈伤组织、再生植株根系和花培苗分蘖节进行了加倍处理。结果表明,用0.02‰和0.05‰秋水仙碱浓度处理的愈伤组织再生植株结实率达33.3%~61.5%。用0.2%的秋水仙碱浸根处理5h,结实株率平均高达37.5%。用0.04%的秋水仙碱1%的二甲亚砜溶液浸泡分蘖节的时间应在5~10h之间较为适宜,结实株率平均可达50%以上。

  2. Applied and Establishment of Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis System for Anther Proteome of Lycium barbarum%枸杞花药蛋白质组双向电泳体系的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蕊; 岳思君; 韩璐; 杨霞; 石晶; 张自萍; 喻德跃

    2011-01-01

    采用改良TCA丙酮沉淀结合Tris-HCl法提取枸杞花药蛋白质,对蛋白质裂解液成分、IPG胶条的pH范围、上样量及染色方法进行了探索.结果表明:(1)采用17 cm胶条、400 μg的上样量、含有2 mol/L硫脲的裂解液,硝酸银染色,可得到重复性好、质量高的枸杞花药蛋白2-DE图谱,枸杞花药蛋白主要集中在pH 4~7范围.(2)采用该体系分析了‘宁杞1号’和‘宁杞5号’四分体时期花药蛋白,并利用PDQuest 8.0软件在pH 4~7的2DE图谱上检测到500多个蛋白点,其中差异表达量大于2倍的蛋白有25个.%Using the method of modified TCA-acetone combined with Tris-HCl, Lycium barbarum anther proteins were extracted. Composition of protein lysate,the pH range of IPG strip, sample loading quantity and staining methods were explored. The results showed that reproducible and high-quality 2-DE maps of anther protein can be obtained with 17 cm IPG strip,400 μg of sample loading quantity per strip,lysis buffer containing 2 mol/L thiourea and nitrate silver staining,and anther protein spots mainly distributed within the pH 4~7 range. Using this system, we studied metaphase anther proteins of ' Ningqi l'and 'Ningqi 2'. About 500 proteins were detected on 2-DE gels of pH 4~7 by PDQuest 8. 0 software. Among them,25 differently at least 2-fold expressed spots were found.

  3. Lipochemistry of the progamic stage of a self-incompatible species: Neutral lipids and fatty acids of the secretory stigma during its glandular activity, and of the solid style, the ovary and the anther in Forsythia intermedia Zab. (Heterostylic species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, C

    1977-01-01

    Chromatographic (thin-layer, gas column, column chromatography) analyses of neutral lipids and fatty acids of reproductive tissues of Forsythia intermedia Zab., a self-incompatible species, were performed with two objectives in mind: 1. To determine whether there is a qualitative evolution of the different classes of lipids and fatty acids that could be correlated with the three functional stages observed during previous histochemical and ultrastructural studies. The stigmatic exudate and intracellular accumulations consist mainly of neutral lipids. 2. To compare the lipid composition of the stigma (both "thrum" and "pin" forms) with that of the style, the ovary, and the anther, and to investigate the possible existence of a stigma-specific lipid compound. Stigmatic neutral lipids are found mostly in a glyceridic mixture probably containing hydrocarbons and terpenes. The fatty acids identified are between C:7 and C: 12, with the maximum unsaturated form being a C: 18. During the secretory process there is no great qualitative diference between the neutral lipids and fatty acids found in the stigmas of "thrum" and "pin" forms. Sterols are present in styles, ovaries, and anthers, but not in stigmas. They represent the only difference in the lipid composition of these various floral structures. PMID:24420636

  4. 新型叶用芥菜细胞质雄性不育系0912A的花药发育特征%Anther development of 0912A as a novel cytoplasmic male sterile line of leaf mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹瑞昌; 万正杰; 徐跃进; 杨文杰; 傅廷栋

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the spatial-temporal patterns and other characteristics of anther abortion in 0912A as a leaf mustard cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer line 0912B,cytological observations of anther development were made by means of paraffin sections. The results showed that the abortion of male sterile line was diverse. The abortion mainly occurred at the differentiation stage of arches-porial cell, which lacked the formation of pollen sacs. Part of anther abortion occurred at the period from pollen mother cell to the mono-nuclear microspore: some pollen mother cells gathered and disintegrated gradually after vacuolization; some pollen mother cells disintegrated due to the hypertrophy of tapetal layer cells in the radial direction; some pollen mother cells could develop to tetrad, then disintegrated; part of the pollen mother cells could develop to the mono-nucleus microspores, however the mono-nucleus microspores broke when they were highly vacuolated. The stamens of 0912A were also found to degenerate as abortive filaments.%采用石蜡切片方法,对叶用芥菜细胞质雄性不育系0912A及其保持系0912B的花药发育过程进行细胞学观察,以确定其花药败育的时期、方式和特点.结果表明:0912A不育系的败育形式多样,主要有花药发育受阻于孢原细胞分化期,无花粉囊的形成;部分花药在花粉母细胞期至单核小孢子期出现发育异常:有的花粉母细胞液泡化后浓缩解体,还有的花粉母细胞因绒毡层细胞径向肥大或液泡化而受挤压解体;有的花粉母细胞虽能进行减数分裂,但发育到四分体时期或单核时期细胞解体,花粉败育.同时对0912A的花器官形态进行观察,发现其雄蕊退化为细丝状,败育彻底.

  5. 不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of Different Culture Factors on Callus Induction of Watermelon Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎春; 刘君璞; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 孙德玺

    2015-01-01

    研究不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响,探讨适宜西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法。以HJ001(杂交种)、西农8号、大果黑美人为试验材料,分别研究取材时期、低温预处理时间、高温预培养时间、植物生长调节剂、附加物、基因型对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导率的影响。结果表明:HJ001经4℃低温处理2、3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率分别达到18.33%、15.67%,差异不显著。HJ001经高温预培养1、2、3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率最高达到14.33%,且3个处理间无显著差异,其余2个品种有效愈伤组织诱导率较低,但表现相同趋势。 HJ001和西农8号2个品种,NAA的诱导效果均较2,4-D好。在培养基上添加谷氨酰胺(Gln)70 mg/L和酸水解酪蛋白(CH)500 mg/L, HJ001有效愈伤组织诱导率较高,分别达到20.33%和19.00%。露地种植,晴天6:00—8:00采集的花蕾花粉活力较高,其中HJ001花蕾纵径2~4 mm、横径3~4 mm,萼片紧贴花瓣,花瓣闭合,呈深绿色,花药颜色呈淡黄色至黄绿色,且此时多为小孢子单核靠边期,不同品种间稍有差异。因此,在露地栽培条件下,晴天6:00—8:00,取单核靠边期花蕾,低温处理2~3 d,接种在 MS +NAA 1.0 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L+CH 500 mg/L ( Gln 70 mg/L )培养基上高温预培养1~3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率最高,此种方法为西瓜品种HJ001花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法,而西农8号、大果黑美人花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法还要进一步探讨。%The article studied the affection of different factors on induction of watermelon anther callus and explored the best way of watermelon anther callus induction. HJ001( hybrid ) , Xinong No. 8 and Daguoheimeiren were selected as materials in the experiment. The influence of different treatments on valid and invalid callus induction rate of watermelon anther, including the time of low temperature pre-treatment and high temperature pre

  6. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  7. 低温诱导下苹果花药差异表达基因分析%Differentially expressed gene analysis of apple (Malus domestica) anther under low temperature induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧珍; 邓舒; 张春芬; 肖蓉; 王卉; 孟玉平; 曹秋芬

    2016-01-01

    低温处理是苹果花药培养诱导胚状体形成的关键步骤,花药中的小孢子在经过一定时间的低温诱导后才能获得胚性潜能。本文通过转录组测序的方法对低温处理前和低温处理30 d的苹果花药进行研究,分析低温诱导条件下花药中的差异表达基因。结果表明:转录组测序共得到10.90 Gb的Clean Data。基因表达分析结果显示,共有4105个基因发生差异表达,包括表达上调基因1849个,表达下调基因2256个。注释到GO、COG、KEGG、Swiss-Prot和nr数据库的差异表达基因分别有3325个、1504个、733个、2993个和3758个。差异表达基因主要富集在与糖类代谢和激素信号转导有关的过程中,其中在淀粉和蔗糖代谢、植物激素信号转导这两个代谢通路中富集的差异表达基因最多。筛选出的差异表达基因中控制蔗糖合成、细胞分裂素、脱落酸和油菜素内酯信号转导的相关基因表达量上调,控制淀粉合成、生长素信号转导的相关基因表达量下调。差异表达基因的荧光定量PCR结果显示测序结果和实际结果变化趋势完全一致。由此可见,苹果花药经低温诱导后,影响蔗糖、淀粉生物合成和生长素、细胞分裂素、脱落酸、赤霉素和油菜素内酯信号转导相关基因的表达变化是影响小孢子获得胚性潜能的关键。%Low temperature treatment is the key step in the induction of the formation of embryoid during apple anther culture, and pollen in anthers can acquire the embryogenic potential after a certain period of low tem-perature induction. In this study, the research on the two group apple anther that one was treated by 30 days low temperature and the other untreated were carried out by the method of RNA-Seq, and the DEG (differentially expressed genes) in the process of embryoid formation was analyzed. The results showed that: A total of 10.90 Gb clean data was generated using the

  8. Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Bobrowski

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concentrações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido, com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos.Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41

  9. Morphological Studies on the Development of Anther of Three Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines and Their Maintainer Lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.%大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药发育的细胞学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书强; 刘俊英; 崔辉梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The development of anther microspore of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp. pekinensis were studied.[Method]The development of anther of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis were observed from the perspective of cytology.【Result]Microspore abortion of three Ogura CMS lines (OBY, OBK, OD5) have occurred in mononuclear microspore early, and anthers have aborted entirely before blossom.[Conclusion] Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines formed vacuoles is earlier than their maintainer lines. Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines has been degenerating at microsporocyte meiosis stage, and tapetum cell of their maintainer lines degenerated naturally, providing nutrients and space for microsporogenesis.%[目的]研究3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药小抱子发育过程.[方法]对3对大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育进行细胞学观察.[结果]3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系(OBY,OBK,OD5)的小孢子败育均发生在单核早期,在开花前完全败育.[结论]不育系绒毡层液泡化早于保持系,花粉母细胞减数分裂时不育系绒毡层细胞已开始退化,而保持系(BY,BK,D5)绒毡层自然解体,供给小孢子发育所需的营养物质和发育空间.

  10. Dwarfing Genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b Are Associated with Both Type I FHB Susceptibility and Low Anther Extrusion in Two Bread Wheat Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Singh, Pawan K; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lillemo, Morten; Duveiller, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are associated with Type I susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat; but the underlying mechanism has not been well delineated. Anther extrusion (AE) has also been related to Type I resistance for initial FHB infection, where high AE renders FHB resistance. In this study, two doubled haploid populations were used to investigate the impact of the two dwarfing genes on FHB resistance and AE, and to elucidate the role of AE in Rht-mediated FHB susceptibility. Both populations were derived by crossing the FHB susceptible cultivar 'Ocoroni F86' (Rht-B1a/Rht-D1b) with an FHB resistant variety (Rht-B1b/Rht-D1a), which was 'TRAP#1/BOW//Taigu derivative' in one population (the TO population) and 'Ivan/Soru#2' in the other (the IO population). Field experiments were carried out from 2010 to 2012 in El Batán, Mexico, where spray inoculation was adopted and FHB index, plant height (PH), and AE were evaluated, with the latter two traits showing always significantly negative correlations with FHB severity. The populations were genotyped with the DArTseq GBS platform, the two dwarfing genes and a few SSRs for QTL analysis, and the results indicated that Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b collectively accounted for 0-41% of FHB susceptibility and 13-23% of reduced AE. It was also observed that three out of the four AE QTL in the TO population and four out of the five AE QTL in the IO population were associated with FHB resistance. Collectively, our results demonstrated the effects of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b on Type I FHB susceptibility and reducing AE, and proposed that their impacts on Type I FHB susceptibility may partly be explained by their effects on reducing AE. The implication of the relationship between the two dwarfing genes and AE for hybrid wheat breeding was also discussed. PMID:27606928

  11. In Vitro ANTHER CULTURE OF RICE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Mejoramiento de Arroz y Maíz del CIFA "Las Torres", en Sevilla, España, auspiciado por un proyecto de investigación, comenzó a desarrollarse un programa de obtención de variedades, que incluía en sus objetivos la utilización del cultivo de anteras de híbridos. Para ello se evaluaron diferentes medios para la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas verdes así como anteras de híbridos F1, provenientes de 15 cruzamientos. Los resultados mostraron que los más altos porcentajes de callos y plantas verdes como proceso continuo fueron obtenidos con los medios N6m y MS respectivamente. La mejor respuesta a la formación de callos fue obtenida por el cruce Puntal/Thaibonnet y regeneración de plantas verdes Doñana/V7876 y Lemont/Newbonnet.

  12. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  13. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Ms2 Near-isogenic Lines of Wheat Reveals Genes Differentially Expressed in Spikelets and Anthers%通过小麦Ms2近等基因系的抑制缩减杂交分析揭示小穗和花药中差异表达基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政值; 马正强; 刘大钧

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms2 in wheat has been widely used in recurrent selection and variety improvement. Identification of genes associated with the male sterility in Ms2-carrying wheat will help us understand how Ms2 functions. Using a pair of isogenic lines of Ms2, subtractive hybridization was conducted with cDNA from bulked spikelets at meiophase of sterile plants as the tester and cDNA from the same tissues of fertile plants as the driver. Two major bands at 270 bp and 450 bp were obtained by suppression PCR (polymerase chain reaction) of the subtractive cDNA. A total of 882 recombinants from PCR product cloning were isolated for reverse Northern analysis. The results demonstrated that up to 90%of the inserts in the library were up-regulated in the sterile spikelets. Twenty-one unique inserts from this library were sequenced. Similarity search showed that eighteen of them were homologous to ESTs (expression sequence tags) derived from spike or anther tissues at meiophase. The chromosome locations of nine of the ESTs were determined using C.S. (Chinese spring)nulli-tetrasomic lines, one of which was assigned to chromosome group 4 that includes chromosome 4Dwhere Ms2 is located. In addition, four additional ESTs could also be assigned to this group according to their homology to BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes)or PAC (P1 artificial chromosomes) of rice chromosome 3. The expression patterns of eight of the inserts examined displayed increased expression in spikelets and anthers of the sterile plants.%以Ms2近等基因系处于减数分裂期的可育小穗cDNA作为驱动因子(driver),以同一时期的不育小穗cDNA作为测验因子(tester)进行缩减杂交(SSH),将扩增后的缩减杂交产物进行克隆,构建了一个包含882个重组克隆的SSH文库.分别以可育小穗和不育小穗的cDNA为探针与SSH文库克隆进行反式Northern杂交,结果显示接近90%的克隆在不育小穗中呈上调表达.对文库中21个克

  14. Infection of the Anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum in Populations of Silene dioica: Variation in Floral Morphology, Patterns of Spore Deposition and Pathogen-Pollinator Mediated Selection%麦瓶草种群中的花药黑粉菌感染:花的形态学变异、菌孢子散布式样及病原菌-传媒调节性选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登义; Ulla CARLSSON

    2002-01-01

    The anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum (Brandenburger and Schvinn) G. Deml. And Oberw.) causes a systemic infection of its host Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., resulting in sterility and production of teliospores (dispersal propagules) in flowers. These spores are transmitted to healthy plants mainly by flower visitors. The behavioral responses of flower visitors to a variation in floral characters, are not only likely to affect rates of pollen export/import, but also the rate of spore deposition and probability of disease. In a transplantation experiment, using plants from four different populations, we tested for correlation between variation in female floral morphology and patterns of spore and pollen deposition, and a resulting risk of disease. The source populations in this experiment were located on four islands in Skeppsvik archipelago in northern Sweden, and represented a gradient of disease incidence from completely healthy (Island 1), low incidence (Island 2) to high incidences (Islands 3 and 4) of disease. Fifty plants from each population were transplanted to the center of the population on Island 4. There were significant differences among the transplants in floral characters, I.e. Corolla size, style length and ovule number. Plants from the non-diseased population had larger flowers and longer styles than plants from the highly diseased populations. Numbers of pollen grains and spores deposited on flowers were strongly and positively correlated. We found that plants originating from the non-diseased population captured approximately 4 times more pollen and 9 times more spores per flower than the individuals from the resident population (Island 4, population 4). The incidences of disease among plants from the four populations differed significantly, and was 37%, 20%, 18% and 0 for populations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. In a survey of ten populations we found a significant negative correlation between the mean style length (positively

  15. Responses of different genotypes on development of callus from anther cultures of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uninuclear microspores of 20 different genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were cultivated on three different induction media. Callus formation rates ranged from 1-66% (on average 13% in 1984 and 35% in 1985). The highest percentage of callus formation (66.2) was from F1 of Yugoslavia X Top, cultivated on inductive Murashige and Skoog agar medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid and 10% potato extract. (author)

  16. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chiu Pang; Tanya Scharaschkin; Su, Yvonne C. F.; Richard M K Saunders

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The ph...

  17. Influence of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and proline and polyamines content in carrot rosettes obtained from anther culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szafrańska, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Górecka, K.; Górecky, R.; Martincová, Olga; Janas, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2011), s. 851-859. ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Copper ions * Carrot culture * Lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  18. "Obtaining haploids in anther culture of pepper (C. annuum L.) and their inclusion in the breeding process"

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of research in this project was directed towards examining the regenerative potential of several different genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum L., especially the ability for androgenesis and creation of haploid and diploid pepper fund. The subject of research was to expand knowledge about androgenesis in pepper and to examine the morphogenesis and the role of plant growth regulators (especially auxins and cytokinins) on the development of regenerants under in vitro conditions.

  19. Primary Investigation in Anther Culture of Welsh Onion%大葱花药培养研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洁; 张国进; 周联东; 刘喜存; 郭玉霞

    2010-01-01

    探索了大葱花药处于单核晚期的形态指标,并以B5为基本培养基,分别添加2,4-D(2.0~3.0 mg/L)、6-BA(0.5 mg/L)、谷胱甘肽(800 mg/L)等,对大葱花药进行了离体培养.结果表明:32℃热击处理有利于大葱花药诱导愈伤组织;培养集中添加6%浓度的蔗糖,有助于大葱愈伤组织的培养;大葱愈伤组织诱导率较低,且不易分化.

  20. 芦笋花药离体培养技术研究%Anther Culture of Asparagus officinalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新江; 建德锋; 陈刚

    2010-01-01

    [目的]提高芦笋的产量.[方法]以不同阶段的芦笋花蕾为外植体,筛选花粉的最佳生长阶段(即最佳材料),研究不同浓度激素配比对芦笋芽分化及生根的影响.[结果]以花粉处于单核期的花蕾为最佳试材,芽分化的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+KT 0.1 mg/L+ NAA 0.20 mg/L.[结论]该试验结果为芦笋的快速繁殖奠定了基础.

  1. The impact of Cu treatment on phenolic and polyamine levels in plant material regenerated from embryos obtained in anther culture of carrot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Górecka, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Eder, Josef; Szafrańska, K.; Górecki, R.; Janas, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2007), s. 54-61. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : carrot culture * copper ions * embryo regeneration Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 1.669, year: 2007

  2. An anther- and petal-specific gene SlMF1 is a multicopy gene with homologous sequences on sex chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matsunaga, S.; Lebel-Hardenack, S.; Kejnovský, Eduard; Vyskot, Boris; Grant, Sarah R.; Kawano, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2005), s. 395-401. ISSN 1341-7568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/05/2097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : dioecious plant * male flower * sex chromosomes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.081, year: 2005

  3. Ontogenia dos estratos parietais da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae) Ontogeny of the anther parietal layers of Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    BITTENCOURT JR, NELSON S.; Jorge Ernesto de A Mariath

    1997-01-01

    A ontogenia do tapete e dos demais estratos parietais, bem como o desenvolvimento do estômio e deiscência da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima, foram presentemente estudados. O padrão de formação da parede do androsporângio é do tipo Dicotiledôneo. A camada parietal primária, a camada esporogênica e o tapete interno derivam-se diretamente do meristema fundamental. O tecido esporogênico, em cada androsporângio, visto em secção transversal, organiza-se numa fileira celular em forma de ferradura. O...

  4. THE RESTRAINT OF BROWNING IN ANTHER OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS%抑制油葵花药培养褐变的研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦员; 侯建华; 于海峰

    2008-01-01

    以油葵的花药为外植体,在附加不同浓度激素的MS培养基中添加Vc(抗坏血酸)、AC(活性碳)、PVP(聚乙烯吡咯烷酮)对油葵花药愈伤组织进行抑制褐变处理.结果表明,AC在抑制褐变的同时也抑制了愈伤组织的生长,300 mg/l Vc及0.1%PVP均可有效抑制褐变,其中0.1%PVP抑制褐变的效果优于300 mg/IVc.

  5. Identification of miRNAs with potential roles in regulation of anther development and male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, I.; Dalmay, T.; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, OCT 28 (2015), s. 878. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : 7B-1 mutation * Solanum lycopersicum * Male-sterility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2014

  6. Microsporogenesis and Male Gametophyte Development of Euphorbar pulcherrima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhao; Wang Wei-wei; Li Chun-miao; Lv Xue; Wang Li-juan

    2012-01-01

    The microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development of Euphorbia pulcherrima were studied with paraffin section method. The results showed that the anther of Euphorbia pulcherrima had four chambers. The development of anther wall was dicotyledonous type; its wall consisted of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The mature male gametophyte development experienced seven major stages as the followings: archesporial cells, aporgenous cells, microspore mother cells, tetrads of microspores (tetrahedral), uninucleate microspores, 2-uncleate pollens and 2-celled pollen stage. The anther wall varied with the pollen development: the epidermis of anther ruptures at the anther mature stage; the middle layer disappears at tetrad stage; the endothelium became fibrous layer at the anther mature stage; the tapetum (glandular) was the most development at the microspore mother cells stage and disappeared at anther mature stage. The abnormal anther development was observed simultaneously.

  7. Inquiring for a chance to obtain strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) dihaploids

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Ciupka; Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt; Izabela Wyszomirska

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of dihaploid development from tetrahaploid anthers in strawberry has been tested in culture. From the total number of 4635 anthers taken from 57 tetrahaploid plants (secondary cycle of anther culture) and 4042 anthers from 7 octoploid varieties - 119 plants were obtained. The success depended on the growing conditions of donor plants (field conditions appeared better) and plant genotypes (tetrahaploids previously regenerated in vitro were better donors). The majority of plants...

  8. Developmental and Cytochemical Features of Male Reproductive Organ in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers.

    OpenAIRE

    Aslıhan ÇETİNBAŞ; ÜNAL, Meral

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the development of male reproductive organ was analysed in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam.) Pers., endemic to Turkey. Androecium is composed of 20 stamens which are attached at the base of the filaments. The anther wall formation follows the dicotyledonous type. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped, and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are dorsifix and tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of an epidermis, endothe...

  9. Isoenzymecs Study on Anther of Male Sterile Lines in Sweet Pepper%甜椒雄性不育两用系AB91不育株与可育株花药同工酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运朝; 范妍芹; 郭锋; 刘云; 严立斌

    2007-01-01

    通过聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法(PAGE)对甜椒核雄性不育两用系AB91不育株与可育株的花药过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和酯酶(EST)同工酶谱带的分析,以及对其超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)同工酶活性的分析结果表明,这几种同工酶的活性和谱带均与不育性有一定的关系,具体表现为POD、CAT、EST在不育株谱带数少,而可育株谱带数多;POD、SOD的活性不育株高于可育株,而CAT、EST的活性则是可育株高于不育株.

  10. 红莲型水稻细胞质雄性不育花药蛋白质组学初步分析%Preliminary Proteomics Analysis of the Total Proteins of HL Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Rice Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文李; 刘盖; 张再君; 陶钧; 万翠香; 李绍清; 朱英国

    2006-01-01

    采用固相pH梯度-SDS PAGE双向电泳对红莲型细胞质雄性不育水稻的不育系(YTA)和保持系(YTB)单核期花粉总蛋白质进行了分离,通过银染显色,获得了分辨率和重复性较好的双向电泳图谱.Image Master 2DV5.0软件可识别约1800个蛋白质点,其中差异表达的蛋白质点数为85.将其中16个差异点采用基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱(matrix assisted laser desorption/ionizaton time offlight mass spectrometry,MALDI-TOF-MS)进行了肽质指纹图分析,通过采用Mascot软件对MSDB数据库查询,其中9个蛋白质点得到了鉴定.YTA相对于YTB有部分参与碳代谢和淀粉合成的酶缺失或表达量降低,这些蛋白质分别是ADP-葡萄糖磷酸转移酶(AGPase),UDP-葡萄糖醛酸脱羧酶,乙酰辅酶A合成酶和二氢硫辛酸脱氢酶等.其中AGPase是参与淀粉合成的蛋白,与花粉发育密切相关.乙酰辅酶A合成酶和二氢硫辛酸脱氢酶是细胞内合成乙酰辅酶A的重要酶,而乙酰辅酶A是进入TCA循环的重要底物,乙酰辅酶A的缺乏可以导致TCA循环不能顺利进行,从而不能提供小孢子发育所需要的大量能量.YTA相对于YTB部分参与碳水化合物代谢的重要酶缺失或表达量降低,有可能导致因线粒体提供的能量不足,淀粉合成受阻,因而花粉不能正常发育.

  11. Inquiring for a chance to obtain strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. dihaploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ciupka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of dihaploid development from tetrahaploid anthers in strawberry has been tested in culture. From the total number of 4635 anthers taken from 57 tetrahaploid plants (secondary cycle of anther culture and 4042 anthers from 7 octoploid varieties - 119 plants were obtained. The success depended on the growing conditions of donor plants (field conditions appeared better and plant genotypes (tetrahaploids previously regenerated in vitro were better donors. The majority of plants regenerated from tetrahaploid anther callus (54.6% were mixoploids. The remaining plants were polyploids from 2n=4x=28 to 2n=8x=56. Only 3 mixoploid individuals had lower than 2n=4x=28 number of chromosomes. Plants regenerated from anther callus were capable of developing seeds and fruits. Seed germination was rather low and fruit yield varied. Still, it was possible to select a group of 12 plants, possibly of somaclonal origin, fit for further breeding.

  12. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  13. Doubled haploid production in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Bohus; Zácková, Zuzana; Samaj, Jozef; Pretová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There is a requirement of haploid and double haploid material and homozygous lines for cell culture studies and breeding in flax. Anther culture is currently the most successful method producing doubled haploid lines in flax. Recently, ovary culture was also described as a good source of doubled haploids. In this review we focus on tissue and plants regeneration using anther culture, and cultivation of ovaries containing unfertilized ovules. The effect of genotype, physiological status of donor plants, donor material pre-treatment and cultivation conditions for flax anthers and ovaries is discussed here. The process of plant regeneration from anther and ovary derived calli is also in the focus of this review. Attention is paid to the ploidy level of regenerated tissue and to the use of molecular markers for determining of gametic origin of flax plants derived from anther and ovary cultures. Finally, some future prospects on the use of doubled haploids in flax biotechnology are outlined here. PMID:19233256

  14. Poor correlation between the removal or deposition of pollen grains and frequency of pollinator contact with sex organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryota L.; Morinaga, Shin-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Pollinators deposit pollen grains on stigmas and remove pollen grains from anthers. The mechanics of these transfers can now be quantified with the use of high-speed video. We videoed hawkmoths, carpenter bees, and swallowtail butterflies pollinating Clerodendrum trichotomum. The number of grains deposited on stigmas did not vary significantly with the number of times pollinators contacted stigmas. In contrast, pollen removal from the anthers increased significantly with the number of contacts to anthers. Pollen removal varied among the three types of pollinators. Also, the three types carried pollen on different parts of their bodies. In hawkmoths and carpenter bees, a large number of contacted body part with anthers differed significantly from the body part that attached a large number of pollen grains. Our results indicate that a large number of contacts by pollinators does not increase either the male or female reproductive success of plants compared to a small number of contacts during a visit.

  15. Pollen development and multi-nucleate microspores of Populus bolleana Lauche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-hai; KANG Xiang-yang; WANG Shang-de; LI Dai-li; CHEN Hong-wei

    2008-01-01

    Populus bolleana is a variety of P. alba, commonly used in poplar breeding programs in China. Developmental biology that involves staminate flowers, microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis ofP bolleana is essential for Populus improvement in cross breeding for better characteristics in sexual reproduction. Flower morphology and pollen development were described and illustrated using anatomical, sectioning and stain-clearing techniques. The results show that microsporocytes undergo a regular meioticprocess, but some multi-nucleate microspores occur at the microspore stage. It takes five days for microsporocytes to develop to mature pollen by forcing flower branches under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, an important relationship was found between stages of meiosis and anther colors. Microspore tetrads formed when the anther color turned yellow, whereas, when the pollen matured, the anther was red and the tapetum degenerated completely. When mature pollen grains are formed, flower buds develop into male eatkins. In the end, filament elongated and pollen grains were released from dehisced anthers.

  16. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... m going to do anther injection of dye material so everyone can see better, and we’re ... have is made out of metal and graft material, and in this case Gor- Tex. The first ...

  17. The breeding of a wheat mutant pollen-derived variety Chuanfu No.5 and the related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the treatment of 150 Gy 60Co-γ irradiation to the dry F1 (Mianyang 88-334 x 8811525) hybrid seeds and the donor plants chosen from MF2, wheat anther culture was made based on MW14 and modified MS media and the pure diploid lines of MH1 derived from anther pollen were obtained. In 1996, the new mutant line 6086 and its sibling lines, 6086 and 6087, were selected and bred successfully. In 2002, the mutant pollen-derived line 6086 was denominated as Chuanfu No.5 by Sichuan Crop Variety Identification Committee and became the first mutant variety via anther culture of wheat in Sichuan. The success of Chuanfu No.5 shown that combining radiation induction and anther technique could shorten the breeding period and increase the efficiency of breeding of wheat

  18. Sample information: 2118 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2118 3 C Mutant Elicitor Oryza sativa (rice) Nipponbare 6 month-old suspension culture ... derived f ... rom anther culture ... 0 Pollen callus(OSMPK2) 6m cul Susp cul m mock tre ...

  19. Sample information: 2118 [RED

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2118 4 T Mutant Elicitor Oryza sativa (rice) Nipponbare 6 month-old suspension culture ... derived f ... rom anther culture ... 0 Pollen callus(OSMPK2) 6m cul Susp cul m OSMPK2 m ...

  20. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  1. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now is do an angiographic run or an injection of contrast, and you’ll see that. If ... to see, I’m going to do anther injection of dye material so everyone can see better, ...

  2. Tetrapogon cenchriformis and Parapholis strigosa, (Poaceae, Two New Reports from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetrapogon cenchriformis and Parapholis strigosa (Poaceae are reported for the first time in Pakistan. Tetrapogon cenchriformis is characterized by spatheolate inflorescence, oval elliptic seeds and large stomatal complex, while Parapholis strigosa has long anthers and straight spikes. Anthers are larger in P. strigosa than in Parapholis incurva (L. C.E. Hubb. These two new reported species showed marked difference from the other species of Parapholis and Tetrapogon treated in flora of Pakistan.

  3. Rice improvement involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plant lets in comparison with the control

  4. The effect of pollen origin and pollen load on the stigmas in the female reproductive success of Dalechampia species

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Andrew MR

    2014-01-01

    In Dalechampia blossoms, anther-stigma distance (ASD) can influence self-pollination rates; blossoms with small anther-stigma distance values will experience more self-pollination. Self-pollination will cause the exposure of deleterious alleles then natural selection will purge from the popualtion. Additionally, when the small ASD can result in more pollen on the stigmas, it may increase pollen competition and thereby reduce inbreeding depression in offspring as more superior pollen will achi...

  5. Optimization of controlled pollination in avocado (persea americana Mill., Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Avocado has a singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy breeding system that promotes outcrossing. In this work different steps have been optimized to improve controlled pollinations in avocado in order to perform basic studies of reproductive biology and directed crosses in breeding programs. The results show that, in order to achieve successful fruit set, male flowers should be collected when all the anthers have dehisced and the pollen transferred by direct contact of the anthers with the...

  6. Clonal analysis of the cell lineages in the male flower of maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawe, R.K.; Freeling, M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The cell lineages in the male flower of maize were characterized using X-rays and transposable elements to produce clonal sectors differing in anthocyanin pigmentation. Less than 50% of the somatic tassel mutations (caused by reversion of unstable color mutations) that were visible on the anther wall were sexually transmitted by the male gametes, unless the sectors were larger than half the tassel circumference. This result is explained by showing that: (a) both the outer (LI) and inner (LII) lineages of the shoot apical meristem form a cell layer in the bilayered anther wall, and that anther pigmentation can be derived from either cell layer; and that (b) the male germ cells are derived almost exclusively from the LII. Therefore, while reversion events in either the LI or LII are visible on the anther, only the LII events are heritable. Reversion events that occur prior to the organization of the shoot apical meristem however, produce large (usually more than one-half tassel) sectors that include both the outer and inner lineages. In contrast to the high level of cell layer invasion previously reported during leaf development, during anther development less than 10(-3) cells in the LI invade the LII to form male gametes. The strong correlation between cell lineage and cell fate in the maize anther has implications for studies on plant evolution and the genetic improvement of cereals by DNA transformation.

  7. Clonal analysis of the cell lineages in the male flower of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell lineages in the male flower of maize were characterized using X-rays and transposable elements to produce clonal sectors differing in anthocyanin pigmentation. Less than 50% of the somatic tassel mutations (caused by reversion of unstable color mutations) that were visible on the anther wall were sexually transmitted by the male gametes, unless the sectors were larger than half the tassel circumference. This result is explained by showing that: (a) both the outer (LI) and inner (LII) lineages of the shoot apical meristem form a cell layer in the bilayered anther wall, and that anther pigmentation can be derived from either cell layer; and that (b) the male germ cells are derived almost exclusively from the LII. Therefore, while reversion events in either the LI or LII are visible on the anther, only the LII events are heritable. Reversion events that occur prior to the organization of the shoot apical meristem however, produce large (usually more than one-half tassel) sectors that include both the outer and inner lineages. In contrast to the high level of cell layer invasion previously reported during leaf development, during anther development less than 10(-3) cells in the LI invade the LII to form male gametes. The strong correlation between cell lineage and cell fate in the maize anther has implications for studies on plant evolution and the genetic improvement of cereals by DNA transformation

  8. Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASES1 and 2 Are Essential for Tapetum Development and Microspore MaturationW⃞ 111111111111111111111111 100000000000000000000001 100001111000000001000001 100010000100000010100001 100100000010000010100001 101000000001000100010001 101000000001000100010001 101000000001001111111001 101000000001001000001001 100100000010001000001001 100010000100010000000101 100001111000010000000101 100000000000000000000001 111111111111111111111111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colcombet, Jean; Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Ros-Palau, Roc; Vera, Carlos E.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2005-01-01

    Among the >200 members of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase family in Arabidopsis thaliana, only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, we report a critical function in anther development for the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE1 (SERK1) and SERK2 genes. Both SERK1 and SERK2 are expressed widely in locules until stage 6 anthers and are more concentrated in the tapetal cell layer later. Whereas serk1 and serk2 single insertion mutants did not show developmental phenotypes, serk1 serk2 double mutants were not able to produce seeds because of a lack of pollen development in mutant anthers. In young buds, double mutant anthers developed normally, but serk1 serk2 microsporangia produced more sporogenous cells that were unable to develop beyond meiosis. Furthermore, serk1 serk2 double mutants developed only three cell layers surrounding the sporogenous cell mass, whereas wild-type anthers developed four cell layers. Further confocal microscopic and molecular analyses showed that serk1 serk2 double mutant anthers lack development of the tapetal cell layer, which accounts for the microspore abortion and male sterility. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the SERK1 and SERK2 receptor kinases function redundantly as an important control point for sporophytic development controlling male gametophyte production. PMID:16284306

  9. Arabidopsis SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASES1 and 2 are essential for tapetum development and microspore maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colcombet, Jean; Boisson-Dernier, Aurélien; Ros-Palau, Roc; Vera, Carlos E; Schroeder, Julian I

    2005-12-01

    Among the >200 members of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase family in Arabidopsis thaliana, only a few have been functionally characterized. Here, we report a critical function in anther development for the SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE1 (SERK1) and SERK2 genes. Both SERK1 and SERK2 are expressed widely in locules until stage 6 anthers and are more concentrated in the tapetal cell layer later. Whereas serk1 and serk2 single insertion mutants did not show developmental phenotypes, serk1 serk2 double mutants were not able to produce seeds because of a lack of pollen development in mutant anthers. In young buds, double mutant anthers developed normally, but serk1 serk2 microsporangia produced more sporogenous cells that were unable to develop beyond meiosis. Furthermore, serk1 serk2 double mutants developed only three cell layers surrounding the sporogenous cell mass, whereas wild-type anthers developed four cell layers. Further confocal microscopic and molecular analyses showed that serk1 serk2 double mutant anthers lack development of the tapetal cell layer, which accounts for the microspore abortion and male sterility. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the SERK1 and SERK2 receptor kinases function redundantly as an important control point for sporophytic development controlling male gametophyte production. PMID:16284306

  10. Cell-specific regulation of a Brassica napus CMS-associated gene by a nuclear restorer with related effects on a floral homeotic gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddy, Rachel; Mahé, Laetitia; Brown, Gregory G

    2005-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited defect in pollen production specified by novel mitochondrial genes. It can be suppressed by nuclear restorer (Rf) genes which normally downregulate expression of a CMS-associated novel mitochondrial gene. Two forms of Brassica napus CMS, nap and pol, are associated with related chimeric genes, orf222 and orf224, respectively. We show that in pol and nap CMS, anther locule development is asynchronous and asymmetric, that one or more locules within each anther may fail to develop entirely and that CMS anthers display polarity in locule development. We show, by in situ hybridization, that orf222 transcripts accumulate in sterile anthers prior to development of morphological differences between CMS and restored stamens, and remain preferentially localized to microsporangia. In fertility-restored anthers, however, orf222 transcript levels remain low throughout development. Some sporogenous and meiotic cells differentiate within CMS anthers and form functional pollen despite retaining high orf222 transcript levels, suggesting that the effect of orf222 expression in blocking pollen development is limited to an early and specific stage. Transcripts of other mitochondrial genes, exemplified by atp6 and cob, and of the nuclear-encoded ATP synthase gamma subunit, accumulate preferentially in the microsporangia of both sterile and fertile anthers. Thus nuclear fertility restoration reduces orf222 transcript levels in a gene and tissue-specific manner. We observe differences between CMS and fertile plants in the timing and patterning of APETALA3 promoter activity that suggest a possible basis for the developmental abnormalities of CMS flowers. PMID:15659093

  11. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  12. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  13. Flowering, nectar secretion, pollen shed and insect foraging on Aquilegia vulgaris L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on blooming biology, nectar secretion, pollen production and insect visitation of Aquilegia vulgaris L. was carried out in 2009 and 2011 in Lublin. The peak of flower opening during the day was between 5.00 and 7.00 (GMT +2. The flowers are protandrous with the female phase beginning approx. on the 3rd day of anthesis. The dynamics of nectar secretion and pollen shed from anthers (progressing from the central part of the androecium outwards support the reproductive system. The amount of nectar accumulated in the spurs increased from the bud stage and was the highest in the phase with approx. ¾ of dehisced anthers, usually on the 3rd day of flower life. Then, towards the end of anthesis, the amount of secreted and accumulated nectar decreased. The number of anthers developed per flower varied from 41 to 61 (mean = 49.1. The mass of pollen per 100 anthers averaged 6.7 mg. Pollen production per flower (mean = 3.28 mg slightly varied between years and was mainly correlated with the number of developed anthers. Estimated pollen yield was 1.69 g per m2 and sugar yield 1.22 g per m2. Species from the genus Bombus were the main flower visitors, with B. terrestris being the most frequent forager.

  14. Developmental and Cytochemical Features of Male Reproductive Organ in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam. Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the development of male reproductive organ was analysed in Crataegus tanacetifolia (Lam. Pers., endemic to Turkey. Androecium is composed of 20 stamens which are attached at the base of the filaments. The anther wall formation follows the dicotyledonous type. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped, and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are dorsifix and tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of an epidermis, endothecium, two or three rows of middle layers and secretory tapetum. Endothecial cells show fibrous thickening. Tapetum is characterized by enlarged secretory types with binucleate cells, which presented an intense reaction with regard to proteins, insoluble polysaccharides and lipids. Features of chromatin condensation and nucleus disorders identified with the application of DAPI (4´,6-diaminido-2-phenylindole point out programmed cell death. Epidermal and endothecial layers remain intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division, tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are tricolparatae, tectate and sphaeroidea. Exine is made up of lipoidal substances and proteins, but the intine includes insoluble polysaccharides. Further, cytoplasm of pollen grains are rich in proteins, lipids and insoluble polysaccharides.

  15. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae, a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Swanepoel

    Full Text Available Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1 succulent stems with woody remains; 2 pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3 monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4 dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5 pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  16. Fluid dynamics of hydrophilous pollination in Ruppia (widgeon grass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuri, Naga; Bunker, Daniel; Pell, Susan; Fischer, Ian; Singh, Pushpendra

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the physics underlying the mechanisms of two-dimensional aquatic pollen dispersal, known as hydrophily, that have evolved in several genera of aquatic plants, including Halodule, Halophila, Lepilaena, and Ruppia. We selected Ruppia, which grows in the wetlands of the New Jersey/New York metropolitan area, for this study. Our experiments show that the pollen grains from an anther suddenly disperse and form a monolayer when they come in contact with a water surface. This is a crucial first step in the formation of floating porous pollen structures called ``pollen rafts,'' which often contain pollen grains from several anthers. The formation of porous pollen rafts increases the probability of pollination by increasing the two-dimensional reach of the pollen from each individual anther. The work was supported by National Science Foundation.

  17. Pollen Morphology and Sucrose Giving on Stigma Relation with Incopability of Sweetpotato [Ipomoea Batatas (L.) L.

    OpenAIRE

    Febri Adi Susanto; Eko Sri Sulasmi; St. A. Rahayuningsih

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to increase the success rate of self-pollination in sweetpotato through sucrose treatment on stigma and pollen nuclei check. Various concentration of sucrose was applied on the stigma. Prior to the crosses, the stigma was excised and lubricated with sucrose. Pedicel was lubricated with 100 ppm of 2,4 D in lanolin. The result showed that the stigma of both varieties was longer than the anther. Papua Solosa showed 94,7% anther dehiscence and 70, 25% pollen viability; whereas...

  18. Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte of B. rossica Fedtsch. et Flerov

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; DU Jinghong; HU Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    There were four microsporanges in the mature anther of B. rossica Fedtsc. et Flerov. The development of the anther wall belonged to dicotyledonous type. The tapetum cell was dichotypic. Simultaneous cytocinesis in the microspore mother cells formed tetrad by reduction division and the array of microspore tetrads was different. There were tetrahedron type and bilateral symmetry type. The male gametophyte was 2-cell. The mature pollen was global and tricolporate. All those results were investigated under both light microscope (LM) and electron microscope (EM).

  19. [Differentiation of haploid and diploid rape plants at the cytological and morphological levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, A I

    2013-01-01

    Some cytological and morphological characteristics of haploid and dihaploid plants of winter rape obtained via anther culture were studied. It was shown that in haploid plants the number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells and the size of the stomata guard cells themselves were much smaller, and the number of stomata per unit area was greater than in doubled haploids and diploids. Haploids were also characterized by a smaller size of petals and anthers, and in general, a smaller flower compared to dihaploids and diploids. PMID:23745361

  20. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    M. W. Borys; Ma F. Soria Alatorre; A. B. Salazar

    2014-01-01

    The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K.) Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé) and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston) was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width) of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season). The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selecti...

  1. Floral reward presentation favored the expression of male function in the pollen-only flower Melastoma malabathricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Shi CHEN; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Animal-pollinated plant species modulate the presentation of pollinator rewards to maximize reproductive success.In plants providing pollen as the only reward for pollinators,it is usually difficult to unravel the dual roles of reward presentation and the realization of male and female functions (pollen removal and deposition).Exploiting the two types of anther in the androecia of Melastoma malabathricum L.,we examined whether the removal of pollen for reward is regulated primarily to favor male function or female function.Pollen removal by carpenter bees from the feeding and pollination anthers,as well as pollen deposition on the stigmas,were quantified during anthesis of M.malabathricum.There was no significant difference in pollen removal rates from the feeding and pollination anthers of M.malabathricum between the onset of anthesis and flower wilting.The stigmatic pollen loads exceeded the ovule number after three sonication bouts,and female function was satisfied earlier than male function.The results support the hypothesis that the presentation of pollination reward in this species is regulated primarily to favor the expression of male function,rather than female function,in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis.A cooperative relationship between the feeding and pollination anthers was demonstrated in heterantherous flowers,which optimizes the balance in investments between pollinator rewards and "functional pollen" for gene transfer.

  2. Pollen waste and unrelated traits in a fig-fig wasp symbiosis : a new behaviour suggesting a host shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaloud, G; Bossu-Dupriez, N; Chevolot, M; Lasbleiz, C

    2005-01-01

    In a fig-fig wasp symbiosis, we have discovered that male fig pollinators (Alfonsiella fimbriata Waterston) bite into the dehiscent anthers of Ficus natalensis leprieuri Miq., thus scattering the pollen grains throughout the syconium. Female pollinators are the only ones to transfer pollen to conspe

  3. The oligolectic bee Osmia brevis sonicates Penstemon flowers for pollen: a newly documented behavior for the Megachilidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers with poricidally dehiscent anthers are avidly visited and often solely pollinated by diverse bees capable of buzzing the flowers to harvest their pollen. Sonication results from shivering of the thoracic flight muscles. Honey bees (Apis) and the 4000+ species of Megachilidae are enigmatic ...

  4. Foraging behaviour of the bee Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Nabiralno vedenje čebele vrste Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae):

    OpenAIRE

    GOGALA, Andrej; Surina, Boštjan

    2011-01-01

    With observations and photography, the collecting of Onosma (Boraginaceae) pollen and nectar by Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 bees was studied. Pollen is collected by shaking the anther cone using the legs, an alternative method to the buzzing in this oligolectic bee species.

  5. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  6. Reproductive Development of the Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger L.): The Role of Plant Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Salopek Sondi, Branka

    2011-01-01

    Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.), a native perennial of southeastern Europe, is characterized by an interesting phenomenon in the world of flowering plants: after fertilization perianth becomes green, photosyntheticaly active, and persists during fruit development. Removal of the reproductive organs (anthers and carpels) affects the elongation and vascular anatomy of flower stalk, prevents complete perianth greening, and promotes perianth senescence. Endogenous plant hormones ...

  7. TRL1 gene expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) floral organs after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the expression patterns of a novel RAD16-like TRL1 (tomato RAD16-like 1) gene in the floral organs of tomato during anther meiosis and mature flower stages. The data on the induction of the TRL1 expression as a result of γ-irradiation is discussed. (authors)

  8. Differential transcript abundance and genotypic variation of four putative allergen-encoding gene families in melting peach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, Y.; Chen, L.; Xie, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, B.; Lu, M.; Wu, S.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Ree, van R.; Gao, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the temporal and spatial transcript expression of the panel of 18 putative isoallergens from four gene families (Pru p 1–4) in the peach fruit, anther and leaf of two melting cultivars, to gain insight into their expression profiles and to identify the key family members. Genotypic varia

  9. Floral Biology of Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. I: The Formation of Microspores and Development of Male Gametes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus jujube Mill is an economically important fruit tree, cultivated on marginal lands on a commercial scale, especially in China. In order to elucidate the microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis formation in Chinese jujube, a cultivar named ‘Lizao’ was employed for microscopy analysis. The results are showed that ‘Lizao’ was four ventricles in each anther and the anther wall was 4 to 5 layers. Its primary anther wall consisted of the epidermis, 1-2 layers endothecium, middle and glandular tapetum layers. The development of the anther wall conformed to the basic type. The meiosis in the microspore mother cells were belonged to a simultaneous type and most of the microspores were arranged in a tetrahedron shape in the tetrads. In the later May, the shape of pollen was a triangular germination vale with three germinal furrow and the mature pollen was of 2-cell type. Floral emergence and development lasted for 1 months-from later April to later May. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the Z. jujube ‘Lizao’, suggesting that microsporogensis development may not be factors in the low seed production in the Z. jujube. This study provides the basis for understanding the biological mechanism regulating sexual reproduction, thus expanding the prospects for Z. jujube breeding programs and for further molecular and genetic studies of this species.

  10. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  11. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  12. QTL Information Table: 220 [Q-TARO

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sisted introgression of quantitative trait loci associated with plant regeneration ability in anther culture of Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mol Cells 14, 24-28. ... ... Milyang 23 Gihobyeo RZ400 pha Kwon, Y.S., Kim, K.M., Kim, D.H., Eun, M.Y., and Sohn, J.K. (2002). Marker-as

  13. The Arabidopsis male-sterile mutant dde2-2 is defective in the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE gene encoding one of the key enzymes of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Malek, Bernadette; van der Graaff, Eric; Schneitz, Kay; Keller, Beat

    2002-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. mutant delayed-dehiscence2-2 (dde2-2) was identified in an En1/Spm1 transposon-induced mutant population screened for plants showing defects in fertility. The dde2-2 mutant allele is defective in the anther dehiscence process and filament elongation and thus e...

  14. Pollen germination in vitro of Mexican Crataegus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Borys

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The germination of pollen in vitro of 42 selections of Crataegus belonging to the cultivated group (C. pubescens (H.B.K. Steud. = C. mexicana Moc. et Sessé and wild group (probably C. nelsoni Eggleston was evaluated. The anthers size (length and width of each selection was also determined. Both attributes were determined by using undehisced anthers of flowers of the spring flowering period (dry season. The percent of germinated pollen varied from 82.4 to 94.2%, depending upon the selection; both groups of selections gave similar values of germination. The 45.83% of selections of the wild group gave from 88 to 90% of germinated pollen. The selections of cultivated group have been characterized by a wide range of pollen germination. The anther size - length and width - depended upon the selection. The plants of the cultivated group showed a larger size more frequently than those of the wild group. No correlation was found between pollen germination and anthers dimensions. The results were discussed in relation to productivity of fruits trees of the Mexican representatives included in the germplasm collection.

  15. Sporogenesis and development of gametophytes in an endangered plant, Tetracentron sinense Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaohong; Xie, Dan; Cao, Lingling

    2012-01-01

    The sporogenesis and development of gametophytes in Tetracentron sinense Oliv. were studied with light microscopy. The anther has four microsporangia; its primary anther wall consists of an epidermis, an endothecium, one or two middle layers and one glandular tapetum. Simultaneous cytokinesis follows meiosis, forming a tetrahedral tetrad. Mature pollen grains are two-celled at the time of anther dehiscence. Its ovule is anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate; the development of the female gametophyte is of the monosporic 8-nucleate Polygonum type. Significantly, some striking features were first found in T. sinense: (1) anther dehiscence occurs soon after the endothecium fibrously thickens and the intersporangial septum degenerates; (2) tapetum degeneration is retarded, persisting up to the stage of two-celled pollen grain; (3) a few cellular events such as the vacuolization and the contraction and deformation of the pollen mother cell (PMC) and microspore are not normal at the PMC, dyad and tetrad stages. The abnormalities during male reproduction might be one of important factors resulting in the poor natural regeneration of T. sinense. PMID:23558997

  16. The manifold characters of orbicules: structural diversity, systematic significance, and vectors for allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinckier, S.; Cadot, P.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the anthers of flowering plants, gymnosperms, and seed ferns, tiny (¡1 mm) granules might occur on the radial and innermost tangential wall of secretory tapetum cells. These sporopollenin granules develop simultaneously with the pollen exine and are called orbicules or Ubisch bodies. The present

  17. Cryptic diversity in the Antherospora vaillantii complex on Muscari species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Marcin; Lutz, Matthias; Chater, Arthur O

    2013-07-01

    The anther smut fungi in the ustilaginomycetous genus Antherospora (Floromycetaceae, Urocystidales) that infect monocots, are currently placed in nine species. Against the background of the generally observed high host specificity in smut fungi, the broad host range reported for some of the species suggests much higher diversity. Antherospora vaillantii s. lato includes anther smuts on different Muscari species. In this study, specimens of anther smuts on Muscari armeniacum, M. botryoides, M. comosum, and M. tenuiflorum were analysed by rDNA sequences and morphology to determine whether they represented one polyphagous or several host specific species. The molecular phylogeny revealed three distinct lineages that were correlated with host plants, yet had only slight morphological differences. These lineages are assigned to three cryptic species: Antherospora hortensis sp. nov. on Muscari armeniacum, A. muscari-botryoidis comb. nov. (syn. Ustilago muscari-botryoidis) on M. botryoides, and A. vaillantii s. str. on M. comosum and M. tenuiflorum. All species on Muscari form a monophyletic group within Antherospora, and the phylogenetic relations within this group coincide well with the subgeneric classification of the respective host species. This indicates a common ancestry of Muscari anther smuts and co-evolution as a driver of their diversification. PMID:23898408

  18. Zyzyura, a new genus of Eupatorieae (Asteraceae from Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Genus, Zyzyura is named to accommodate Fleischmannia mayana Pruski that has an eximbricate involucre, a high-conical receptacle, a corolla with a slender base closely investing the style and with a broadly campanulate limb, enlarged elongate cells in the carpopodium, short and broad distally protruding cells in the corolla lobes, and broad rounded anther appendages.

  19. Abundant type III lipid transfer proteins in Arabidopsis tapetum are secreted to the locule and become a constituent of the pollen exine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-11-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small secretory proteins in plants with defined lipid-binding structures for possible lipid exocytosis. Special groups of LTPs unique to the anther tapetum are abundant, but their functions are unclear. We studied a special group of LTPs, type III LTPs, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their transcripts were restricted to the anther tapetum, with levels peaking at the developmental stage of maximal pollen-wall exine synthesis. We constructed an LTP-Green Fluorescent Protein (LTP-GFP) plasmid, transformed it into wild-type plants, and monitored LTP-GFP in developing anthers with confocal laser scanning microscopy. LTP-GFP appeared in the tapetum and was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum-trans-Golgi network machinery into the locule. It then moved to the microspore surface and remained as a component of exine. Immuno-transmission electron microscopy of native LTP in anthers confirmed the LTP-GFP observations. The in vivo association of LTP-GFP and exine in anthers was not observed with non-type III or structurally modified type III LTPs or in transformed exine-defective mutant plants. RNA interference knockdown of individual type III LTPs produced no observable mutant phenotypes. RNA interference knockdown of two type III LTPs produced microscopy-observable morphologic changes in the intine underneath the exine (presumably as a consequence of changes in the exine not observed by transmission electron microscopy) and pollen susceptible to dehydration damage. Overall, we reveal a novel transfer pathway of LTPs in which LTPs bound or nonbound to exine precursors are secreted from the tapetum to become microspore exine constituents; this pathway explains the need for plentiful LTPs to incorporate into the abundant exine. PMID:24096413

  20. Down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused semi-male sterility, resulting in reduction of grain yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Song, Qian; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Chunchao; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    OsSPX1, a rice SPX domain gene, involved in the phosphate (Pi)-sensing mechanism plays an essential role in the Pi-signalling network through interaction with OsPHR2. In this study, we focused on the potential function of OsSPX1 during rice reproductive phase. Based on investigation of OsSPX1 antisense and sense transgenic rice lines in the paddy fields, we discovered that the down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused reduction of seed-setting rate and filled grain number. Through examination of anthers and pollens of the transgenic and wild-type plants by microscopy, we found that the antisense of OsSPX1 gene led to semi-male sterility, with lacking of mature pollen grains and phenotypes with a disordered surface of anthers and pollens. We further conducted rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis to elucidate the possible molecular mechanism underlying why the down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused deficiencies in anthers and pollens and lower seed-setting rate in rice. The down-regulation of OsSPX1 significantly affected expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar transport, anther development, cell cycle, etc. These genes may be related to pollen fertility and male gametophyte development. Our study demonstrated that down-regulation of OsSPX1 disrupted rice normal anther and pollen development by affecting carbohydrate metabolism and sugar transport, leading to semi-male sterility, and ultimately resulted in low seed-setting rate and grain yield. PMID:26806409

  1. 多花野牡丹幼苗动态生命表%Dynamic life table of seedling of Melastoma a f fine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊; 杨利平

    2011-01-01

    多花野牡丹(Melastomaaffine)为两性花、异型雄蕊类型,为探究异型雄蕊生物学功能差异对幼苗适合度的影响,本试验采用动态生命表方法,研究7种授粉方式对多花野牡丹结实及幼苗的动态生命过程.结果表明:种子的出苗率与千粒重无密切关系.自然授粉萌发率(92.5%)和出苗率(88.0%)最高,紫红色花药授粉在萌发率、出苗率和出苗高峰期都高于或早于黄色花药.在幼苗存活率指标上,黄色花药高于紫色花药.幼苗的综合适合度顺序为:自然传粉>同株异花紫红色花药授粉>异株黄色花药授粉>黄色花药自花授粉>异株紫红色花药授粉>同株异花黄色花药授粉>紫红色花药自花授粉.白花、异花的异型雄蕊花粉对后代的影响不同,自然混合花粉授粉表现出强烈的多父本效应.%Melastoma a f fine is bisexual flower and heteranthery. To explore the effect of differentiation of biological function on seedlings fitness, this paper discusses the dynamic life course of seeds and seedlings of seven kinds of pollination way of M. a f fine with dynamic life table method. The result showed that the emergence percentage had no close relation with 1 000-grain weight. Natural pollination yielded the highest germination rate (92. 5%) and the emergence percentage (88. 0%). The germination rate, emergence percentage, and emergence peak of purple anther were higher or earlier than that of yellow anther, but the rate of seedling survival of purple anther was lower than that of yellow anther. The general adaptability of seedlings followed the sequence: natural pollination>cross-pollinaton of purple anther in one plant>cross-pollination of yellow anther of different plants>self-pollination of yellow anther>cross-pollination of purple anther of different plants>cross-pollination of yellow anther of one plant>self-pollination of purple anther. In conclusion, the pollens of heteranthery of self

  2. Characterization of a caleosin expressed during olive (Olea europaea L. pollen ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-García María

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive tree is an oil-storing species, with pollen being the second most active site in storage lipid biosynthesis. Caleosins are proteins involved in storage lipid mobilization during seed germination. Despite the existence of different lipidic structures in the anther, there are no data regarding the presence of caleosins in this organ to date. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a caleosin expressed in the olive anther over different key stages of pollen ontogeny, as a first approach to unravel its biological function in reproduction. Results A 30 kDa caleosin was identified in the anther tissues by Western blot analysis. Using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic immunolocalization methods, the protein was first localized in the tapetal cells at the free microspore stage. Caleosins were released to the anther locule and further deposited onto the sculptures of the pollen exine. As anthers developed, tapetal cells showed the presence of structures constituted by caleosin-containing lipid droplets closely packed and enclosed by ER-derived cisternae and vesicles. After tapetal cells lost their integrity, the caleosin-containing remnants of the tapetum filled the cavities of the mature pollen exine, forming the pollen coat. In developing microspores, this caleosin was initially detected on the exine sculptures. During pollen maturation, caleosin levels progressively increased in the vegetative cell, concurrently with the number of oil bodies. The olive pollen caleosin was able to bind calcium in vitro. Moreover, PEGylation experiments supported the structural conformation model suggested for caleosins from seed oil bodies. Conclusions In the olive anther, a caleosin is expressed in both the tapetal and germ line cells, with its synthesis independently regulated. The pollen oil body-associated caleosin is synthesized by the vegetative cell, whereas the protein located on the pollen exine and

  3. Androecium ontogeny in Normania triphylla (Lowe Lowe (Solaneae Solanaceae

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    Carrizo García, Carolina

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The androecium ontogeny in Normania triphylla (Lowe Lowe is described. The most peculiar features (e.g. early definition of zygomorphy, sinuous anthers, dorsal connectival appendages in the anthers, and lateral dehiscence line with an apical curve are analyzed and discussed, as well as the differences between the androecium of Normania Lowe and Solanum L. The remarkable singularity of the androecium in Normania is emphasized.Se describe la ontogenia del androceo en Normania triphylla (Lowe Lowe, estudiando la formación y el establecimiento de características de esta especie, como la temprana zigomorfia. las anteras sinuosas con apéndices conectivos dorsales y línea de dehiscencia lateral con una curva apical. Se discuten algunos caracteres, en particular el origen de la zigomorfia, los principales eventos del desarrollo y las diferencias entre Normania Lowe y Solanum L. Se valora la notable singularidad del androceo en Normania.

  4. A leader intron and 115-bp promoter region necessary for expression of the carnation S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene in the pollen of transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Hi; Park, Ky Young

    2004-12-17

    The expression of CSDC9 encoding S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is developmentally and spatially regulated in carnation. To examine the regulation of the SAMDC gene, we analyzed the spatial expression of CSDC9 with a 5'-flanking beta-glucuronidase fusion in transgenic tobacco plants. GUS was strongly expressed in flower, pollen, stem and vein of cotyledons. Expression in both anther and stigma was under developmental control; analysis of a series of mutants with deletions of the 5'-flanking region demonstrated differential activation in petal, anther, stigma and pollen grains. All the major cis-regulatory elements required for pollen-specific transcription were located in the upstream region between -273 and -158. This region contains four putative elements related to gibberellin induction (pyrimidine boxes, TTTTTTCC and CCTTTT) and pollen-specific expression (GTGA and AGAAA). In addition, the first 5'-leader intron was necessary for tissue-specific expression. PMID:15589825

  5. Cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdon, Csanad; Svab, Zora; Feng, Yaping; Kumar, Dibyendu; Maliga, Pal

    2016-03-22

    We report cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria through a graft junction. Mitochondrial movement was discovered in an experiment designed to select for chloroplast transfer fromNicotiana sylvestrisintoNicotiana tabacumcells. The alloplasmicN. tabacumline we used carriesNicotiana undulatacytoplasmic genomes, and its flowers are male sterile due to the foreign mitochondrial genome. Thus, rare mitochondrial DNA transfer fromN. sylvestristoN. tabacumcould be recognized by restoration of fertile flower anatomy. Analyses of the mitochondrial genomes revealed extensive recombination, tentatively linking male sterility toorf293, a mitochondrial gene causing homeotic conversion of anthers into petals. Demonstrating cell-to-cell movement of mitochondria reconstructs the evolutionary process of horizontal mitochondrial DNA transfer and enables modification of the mitochondrial genome by DNA transmitted from a sexually incompatible species. Conversion of anthers into petals is a visual marker that can be useful for mitochondrial transformation. PMID:26951647

  6. [Observations on the germinability in vitro of pollen from Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggio Morucchio, G; Cornara, L; Dellachà, E

    1989-08-01

    Pollen grains from samples of Camellia japonica living in soil (A) and in greenhouse (B) were collected daily from just-opened anthers. The pollen was sown in various liquid media and incubated at 28 C. Higher germinative ability of A in comparison with B was observed and related to the relative humidity which is higher in soil than in greenhouse. This phenomenon recurs even if the composition of the culture medium is changed. However the composition of the medium greatly influences the percentage of germination of both A and B notwithstanding the environmental conditions. The pollen collected from anthers dehiscing in the first day of the anthesis has a high germinative ability which suddenly decreases in the ripe pollen of the following days. PMID:2803733

  7. Molecular Control of Male Reproductive Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xin Guo; Yao-Guang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Anther development and male fertility are essential biological processes for flowering plants and are important for crop seed production.Genetic manipulation of male fertility/sterility is critical for crop hybrid breeding.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterility phenotypes,including genic male sterility,hybrid male sterility,and cytoplasmic male sterility,are generally caused by mutations of fertility-related genes,by incompatible interactions between divergent allelic or non-allelic genes,or by genetic incompatibilities between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Here,we review the recent advances in the molecular basis of anther development and male fertility-sterility conversion in specific genetic backgrounds,and the interactions with certain environmental factors.The highlighted findings in this review have significant implications in both basic studies and rice genetic improvement.

  8. High-temperature injury and auxin biosynthesis in microsporogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eHigashitani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant reproductive development is more sensitive than vegetative growth to many environmental stresses. With global warming, in particular, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. We recently demonstrated that high temperature causes cell-proliferation arrest and represses auxin signaling in a tissue-specific manner of the anther cells of barley and Arabidopsis. These phenomena were accompanied by comprehensive alterations in transcription including repression of cell-proliferation related genes and YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes. Moreover, application of auxin completely improved the transcriptional alterations, the production of normal pollen grains, and seed setting rate under increasing temperatures. These denote that auxin, which has been used widely as potent and selective herbicides, is useful for the promotion of plant fertility and maintenance of crop yields under the global warming conditions.

  9. A Study on Ethnic Capital and the Transformation of Chinese Migrant Communities in the United States%族裔资本与美国华人移民社区的转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 林闽钢

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop the concept of the “ethnic capital”. Based on the theory of social capital and the enclave economy, the anthers argue that ethnic capital is not a thing but involves interactive processes of financial capital, human capital, and social capital within an identifiable ethnic community, the anthers use case studies of centenary Chinatowns and emerging middle-class immigrant Chinese communities in New York and Los Angeles to illustrate how ethnic capital affects community building and transformation, which in turn influence the social mobility of immigrants. The paper speculates on how developments in contemporary ethnic enclaves challenge the conventional notion of assimilation and contribute to understanding of community dynamics.

  10. Ecua, a new genus op Apocynaceae from Malesia

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Whilst examining the specimens of Apocynaceae in Herbarium Bogoriense I came upon two unknown specimens which appeared to be species of Parsonsia. On further examination they turned out to belong to a new genus related to Parsonsia but differing from it in the stamens which are included within the corolla tube and the shape of the corolla, filaments and anthers. This is the second new genus recently discovered in Malesia, the first being Baharuia D.J. Middleton described from plants collected...

  11. The Pollination of Trimenia moorei (Trimeniaceae): Floral Volatiles, Insect/Wind Pollen Vectors and Stigmatic Self‐incompatibility in a Basal Angiosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Peter; SAGE, TAMMY; WESTON, PETER; Azuma, Hiroshi; LAM, MATHEW; Thien, Leonard B.; Bruhl,Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Trimenia moorei (Oliv.) Philipson is an andromonoecious liane with >0·40 of the total flower buds maturing as bisexual flowers. Male and bisexual flowers are strongly scented with pollen, anther sacs and receptacle scars testing positively for volatile emissions. Scent analyses detect over 20 components. The major fatty acid derivative is 8‐heptadecene, and 2‐phenylethanol dominates the benzenoids. While hover‐flies in the genera Melangyna and Triglyphus contact the stigma with their probosce...

  12. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore...

  13. The oligolectic bee Osmia brevis sonicates Penstemon flowers for pollen: a newly documented behavior for the Megachilidae

    OpenAIRE

    Cane, James

    2014-01-01

    Flowers with poricidally dehiscent anthers are typically nectarless but are avidly visited and often solely pollinated by bees that sonicate the flowers to harvest pollen. Sonication results from shivering the thoracic flight muscles. Honey bees (Apis) and the 4,000+ species of Megachilidae are enigmatic in their seeming inability to sonicate flowers. The oligolectic megachilid bee Osmia brevis was found audibly sonicating two of its beardtongue pollen hosts, Penstemon radicosus and P. cyanan...

  14. Chromatin dynamics in pollen mother cells underpin a common scenario at the somatic-to-reproductive fate transition of both the male and female lineages in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    She, Wenjing; Baroux, Célia

    2015-01-01

    Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMC) committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition toward the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMC differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organ...

  15. Reproductive biology of Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gębura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke (Commelinaceae is an annual plant endemic to central Texas in the United States and Durango in northern Mexico. T. anomala has zygomorphic flowers with three different petals, androecium consists of six various stamens and gynoecium consists of three carpels. Furthermore in T. anomala’s flowers there are many staminal hairs (Faden 2006. Its semi-succulent, grass-like leaves emerge in late fall and remain green throughout the cold months. It grows rapidly in early spring and blooms mid-spring (from March to May. A few weeks later the fruits (capsules with four seeds usually appear. This entire cycle is usually completed by summer, when the plant has often turned yellow and limp. We studied T. anomala due to the occurrence of two types of strikingly different stamens occur in one flower. According to available literature, one type of the stamens (the upper one with smaller anthers produces sterile pollen grains which do not participate in fertilization but only attract insects. The other type, i.e. the lower stamens with bigger anthers can form abundant pollen grains used for pollination (Simpson et al. 1986. Our aim was to investigate type of pollination of T. anomala. Using many microscopic methods we were able to analyze and compare the morphology of two types of anthers and staminal hairs in T. anomala’s flowers. We also investigated this species in terms of development of its gametophytes. An embryo sac develops according to the type of Polygonum. Pollen grains develop during different ways depending on the chemical composition of each anther. We identified that the insects of Thysanoptera which preys on the withered flowers T. anomala could be responsible for pollination of this species under greenhouse condition.

  16. Early diagnosis of fertility of the dihaploid from the phenotype of the ancestral haploid in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of haploidization, ans subsequent dihaploidization, was applied for the production of isogenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) lines. Under the conditions of the experiment, a total of 22 months elapsed from the seeding of the anthers of the original haploid cultivar (Kabak-Koulak Porroion 14/a) to the production of G2 dihaploid seeds. Foliage and inflorescence characters of the haploid and G1 dihaploid plants were used for the early diagnosis of fertility of the G2 dihaploid plants. (author)

  17. Developmental and environmental regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase-beta-glucuronidase gene fusion in transgenic tobacco plants.

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X W; Dron, M; J. Schmid; Dixon, R. A.; Lamb, C J

    1989-01-01

    A 1.1-kilobase promoter fragment of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) gene PAL2 was translationally fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transferred to tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated leaf disk transformation. The distribution of beta-glucuronidase activity in these transgenic plants is very similar to that of endogenous PAL2 transcripts in bean, with very high levels in petals; marked accumulation in anthers, stigmas, roots, ...

  18. Molecular phenotypes associated with anomalous stamen development in Alternanthera philoxeroides

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu eZhu; Chengchuan eZhou; Ji eYang

    2015-01-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides is a perennial amphibious weed native to South America but has now spread to diverse parts of the world. A. philoxeroides reproduces both sexually and asexually in its native range, but propagates solely through vegetative means in its introduced range. Traits associated with sexual reproduction become degraded for sexual dysfunction, with flowers possessing either pistillate stamens or male-sterile anthers. Degradations of sexual characters for loss of sexuality c...

  19. Flowering in British Lemna: A rare, cyclic or simply overlooked phenomenon?

    OpenAIRE

    Bramley, Jon

    1997-01-01

    It is largely presumed that reproduction in British Lemna, as in other British Lemnaceae, is almost entirely asexual, with new daughter fronds being produced from the side pouches of older mother fronds. Sexual reproduction is considered to be a rather rare event or even absent and because of this rarity the sexual features of Lemna, such as anthers and fruit, are often considered to be of little taxonomic value. It was with some surprise, therefore, that widespread flowering was observed in ...

  20. Reproductive biology of Stomatium bolusiae (Aizoaceae: Ruschioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Zietsman

    2013-01-01

    Flowers of Stomatium bolusiae are self-incompatible. The species exhibits crepuscular and nocturnal anthesis, exploiting two different pollination mechanisms. The structure of the hermaphroditic flower appears not to favour cross-pollination. The stigmata are never exposed to pollinating agents, which gain access to the floral rewards by forcing their way between the anthers. Clogging of the stigmatic surfaces by self-pollen is common. Nocturnal anthesis, concomitant with the nocturnal releas...

  1. Hermaphroditism in the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marina Cuco

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 and GT 1, were analyzed under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, aiming to observe hermaphroditism rates. Results showed 71.49% hermaphrodite flowers, 29.83% of which exhibited incompletely developed, residual anthers. The scanning electron microscope analysis did not detect differences in anther epidermis of male and bisexual flowers of RRIM 600 and RRIM 527. In GT 1 clone (sterile male, the anther epidermis was already weak at the beginning of floral development and completely wrinkled at the end of maturation. Consequently, the anthers were empty by this stage.Flores de três clones de Hevea brasiliensis, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 e GT 1, foram analisadas, sob lupa e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a fim de se observar as taxas de ocorrência de hermafroditismo. Os resultados mostraram um total de 71,49% de flores hermafroditas, sendo que destas 29,83% apresentaram anteras residuais, não completamente desenvolvidas. As análises ao microscópio de varredura não mostraram diferença ao nível de epiderme de anteras em flores masculinas e hermafroditas de RRIM 527 e RRIM 600. No clone GT 1 (macho estéril a epiderme das anteras mostrou-se frouxa já no início do desenvolvimento floral e completamente enrugada ao final da maturação, demonstrando que as anteras estão vazias neste estádio.

  2. Embryogenesis in Oak species. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Gomez-Garay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: A review on the propagation methods of four Quercus species, namely Q. suber, Q. robur, Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, through somatic embryogenesis and anther embryogenesis are presented.Area of study: The study comprises both Mediterranean and Atlantic oak species located in Spain.Material and Methods: Somatic embryogenesis was induced on immature zygotic embryos of diverse oak species, permitting the multiplication of half-sib families. Induction of haploid embryos and doubled haploids was assayed in both Q. suber and Q. ilex by temperature stress treatments of anthers containing late vacuolated microspores. The haploid origin of the anther embryos has been evaluated by quantitative nuclear DNA analysis through flow cytometry and by DNA microsatellite markers. Genetic transformation of cork oak has also been performed by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors. Proteomic analysis has been conducted to screen the diverse protein profiles followed by in vitro derived embryos during their development.Research highlights: Successful plant regeneration from both somatic and haploid embryos has been achieved. In the particular case of cork oak, doubled-haploid plants were obtained. Plantlets regenerated from selected parent trees through somatic embryogenesis were acclimated in the greenhouse and in the nursery, and were planted in an experimental plot in the field. Preliminary evaluation of the cork quality of the plants showed a good heritability correlation with the parent trees. This article revises the work of and is dedicated to Dr. M.A. Bueno, who devoted much of her professional life to the research on Biotechnology and Genetics of forest species, leading the Laboratory of Forest Biotechnology at the Spanish Institute of Agronomic Research (INIA.Key words: anther embryogenesis; microspore; pollen; Quercus canariensis; Quercus ilex; Quercus robur; Quercus suber; somatic embryogenesis. 

  3. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Lunau; Sabine Konzmann; Jessica Bossems; Doerte Harpke

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flo...

  4. Floral biology and a pollinator effectiveness test of the diurnal floral visitors of Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae) in the understory of Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Biologia floral e teste da efetividade de polinização dos visitantes florais diurnos de Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae) no sub-bosque da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Thaysa Nogueira de Moura; Antonio Carlos Webber; Liliane Noemia Melo Torres

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examined the floral biology, per-visit effectiveness, frequency of visits and relative abundance of the diurnal floral visitor taxa of T. undulata (Apocynaceae) at two populations located in the primary forest and in a disturbed area connected to the continuous forest. Its hermaphrodite flowers show a long and narrow floral tube and introrse anthers form a cone around the apex of the style head where the pollen is deposited. The stigmatic head has three functional regions, in...

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Maintenance in JA-CMS Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) an...

  6. The classical Ubisch bodies carry a sporophytically produced structural protein (RAFTIN) that is essential for pollen development

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aiming; Xia, Qun; Xie, Wenshuang; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2003-01-01

    Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes nutrients into the anther locule where the microspores reside and develop. Orbicules (Ubisch bodies), studied in various plants since their disc...

  7. Recent advances in understanding of meiosis initiation and the apomictic pathway in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chung-Ju R.; Tseng, Ching-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis, a specialized cell division to produce haploid cells, marks the transition from a sporophytic to a gametophytic generation in the life cycle of plants. In angiosperms, meiosis takes place in sporogenous cells that develop de novo from somatic cells in anthers or ovules. A successful transition from the mitotic cycle to the meiotic program in sporogenous cells is crucial for sexual reproduction. By contrast, when meiosis is bypassed or a mitosis-like division occurs to produce unreduc...

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyong Mei; Touming Liu; Zhiwei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm ...

  9. Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for ''male dimorphism'' (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state

  10. Artificial pollination in acung (Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R.)

    OpenAIRE

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on artificial pollination, both self and cross pollinations, of Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R. planted in a house yard in Bogor. It was observed that no fruit set was resulted from self pollination. On the other hand cross pollination successfully produced numerous fruits. It was suggested that phenomena was due to protogenic character rather than self incompatibility mechanism of the species. The stigmas mature 1-2 days earlier than the anthers (pollen she...

  11. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae), a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sreekala; A.G. Pandurangan; R. Ramasubbu; S.K. Kulloli

    2011-01-01

    The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, ho...

  12. Variation in reward quality and pollinator attraction: the consumer does not always get it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David E; Haber, Ariela I; LeCroy, Kathryn A; Lee, De'Ashia E; Link, Rosabeth I

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all bees rely on pollen as the sole protein source for the development of their larvae. The central importance of pollen for the bee life cycle should exert strong selection on their ability to locate the most rewarding sources of pollen. Despite this importance, very few studies have examined the influence of intraspecific variation in pollen rewards on the foraging decisions of bees. Previous studies have demonstrated that inbreeding reduces viability and hence protein content in Mimulus guttatus (seep monkeyflower) pollen and that bees strongly discriminate against inbred in favour of outbred plants. We examined whether variation in pollen viability could explain this preference using a series of choice tests with living plants, artificial plants and olfactometer tests using the bumble bee Bombus impatiens. We found that B. impatiens preferred to visit artificial plants provisioned with fertile anthers over those provisioned with sterile anthers. They also preferred fertile anthers when provided only olfactory cues. These bumble bees were unable to discriminate among live plants from subpopulations differing dramatically in pollen viability, however. They preferred outbred plants even when those plants were from subpopulations with pollen viability as low as the inbred populations. Their preference for outbred plants was evident even when only olfactory cues were available. Our data showed that bumble bees are able to differentiate between anthers that provide higher rewards when cues are isolated from the rest of the flower. When confronted with cues from the entire flower, their choices are independent of the quality of the pollen reward, suggesting that they are responding more strongly to cues unassociated with rewards than to those correlated with rewards. If so, this suggests that a sensory bias or some level of deception may be involved with advertisement to pollinators in M. guttatus. PMID:25858692

  13. SYNTHESIS AND BIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY TRIAZOLOQUINAZOLINE AND TRIAZINOQUINAZOLINE DERIVATIVES BEARING SULFA MERAZINE MOIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohammed Abdalla Hussein

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to synthesis and biochemical evaluation of some novel of anti-inflammatory triazoloquinazolines and triazinoquinazolines. When compound 2 was reacted with sulfa merazine the thioureido derivative 3 was obtained. By anther method, when sulfa merazine was stirred with carbondisulphide and solution of sodium hydroxide and dimethyl sulphate in dimetylsulphoxide the methyl{4-[(4-methylpyrimido-2-yl)sulfamyl]phenyl} dithiocarbamate 2' was obtained. Stirring of compound 2...

  14. A New Heterophyllous Spermacoce Species (Rubiaceae) from the Marungu Highlands, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Dessein, S.; Robbrecht, E; Smets, E.

    2006-01-01

    Spermacoce heteromorpha Dessein (Rubiaceae, Spermacoceae) is newly described and illustrated. It grows on the Marungu highlands of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R. Congo) at altitudes of 1800 to 1900 m. The species resembles the Tanzanian Spermacoce taylorii Verdcourt, from which it mainly differs in having terminal inflorescences, only slightly exserted anthers, and densely pubescent stems. Moreover, Spermacoce heteromorpha features marked heterophylly, with long leaves at the plan...

  15. The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Brassinosteroids represent a class of plant hormones with high-growth promoting activity. They are found at low levels in pollen, anthers, seeds, leaves, stems, roots, flowers, grain, and young vegetative tissues throughout the plant kingdom. Brassinosteroids are a family of about 60 phytosteroids. The article gives a comprehensive survey on the hitherto known brassinosteroids isolated from plants. The chemical characteristic of brassinosteroids is also presented.

  16. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    OpenAIRE

    Qidi Zhu; Yulong Song; Gaisheng Zhang; Lan Ju; Jiao Zhang; Yongang Yu; Na Niu; Junwei Wang; Shoucai Ma

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther tra...

  17. Colima (Tigridieae: Iridaceae), a new genus from western Mexico and a new species: Colima tuitensis from Jalisco

    OpenAIRE

    Aarón Rodríguez; Luis Ortiz Catedral

    2003-01-01

    Based on cytological, palynological, and DNA evidence, we propose the elevation of Nemastylis subgenus Colima to the generic status to include Nemastylis convoluta. The new genus is characterized by its united filaments, free anthers with longitudinal dehiscence, style divided into three branches with six arms at right angles, apical stigmatic surface, absence of nectaries, lack of mucro between the style arms and bisulcate pollen grains. A preliminary study based on morphological variation a...

  18. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wesołwska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  19. Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Leaf Surface Defenses to Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Heather C.; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions wit...

  20. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Giełwanowska; Anna Bochenek; Ewa Szczuka

    2012-01-01

    Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, ...

  1. ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTATION IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.: GENETIC BASIS AND ROLE UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Tereshchenko O.Yu.; E.I. Gordeeva; V.S. Arbuzova; E.K. Khlestkina

    2012-01-01

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites of plants. They have a wide range of biological activity such as antioxidant, photoprotection, osmoregulation, heavy metal ions chelation, antimicrobial and antifungal activities, which help plants to survive under different stress conditions. Bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) can have purple pigmentation provided by anthocyanin compounds in different organs, such as grain pericarp, coleoptile, culm, leaf blades, leaf sheaths, glumes and anthers. However, the...

  2. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flo...

  3. SYSTEMATIC STUDIES IN SOME IPOMOEA LINN. SPECIES USING POLLEN AND FLOWER MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunde R. OLADUNJOYE; Adeniyi A. JAYEOLA

    2012-01-01

    The current study was conducted in search of constant morpho-anatomical characters to aid the identification and classification of commonly encountered Ipomoea species in south west Nigeria. Flower and pollen morphology as important repository of constant characters formed the focus of the investigation. Whole flowers were dissected to expose the carpel and stamens for study. For pollen study, after soaking in de-ionized water, the anthers were collected and crushed, stained and placed on a g...

  4. Is the quantity of orbicules released by Dactylis glomerataand Cynosurus echinatus(Poaceae) big enough to play an allergenic role?

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis, Augusto M.; Baptista, Filipa; Coutinho, A. Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Orbicule characteristics of Dactylis glomerataand Cynosurus echinatus(Poaceae) were investigated using light (LM), scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on SEM micrographs, the number of orbicules per 100 µm2 of the locule wall surface was determined in both dehisced and undehisced anthers and was further compared statistically. A total of 100 pollen grains were examined using SEM in search for orbicules attached to the pollen exine. Orbicules were not foun...

  5. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I.; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the numb...

  6. Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

  7. Potential Autonomous Selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a Specialized Hummingbird Pollinated Species with Variable Expression of Herkogamy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Sheng Chen; Silvana Martén-Rodriguez; Qing-Jun Li; Charles B.Fenster

    2009-01-01

    Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate vadable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation In levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) In a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma-anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands).

  8. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  9. Developmental variation and the evolution of distyly in Hedyotis caerulea (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Dennis A; Krebs, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The development of distyly is thought to arise from differential growth patterns in the pin and thrum morphs. However, few detailed studies exist on the early floral development of distylous flowers, and fewer still look at variation in these traits among populations. Buds at multiple stages of development were collected from five populations of Hedyotis caerulea to quantify how pins and thrums diverge with respect to the initiation, rate, and termination of growth between the stamens and stigmas. The growth rate of anthers varied little spatially across five populations and temporally in both pins and thrums, although thrum anthers grew faster than pin anthers. Dimorphy in stigma height was more complex. Pin stigmas first grew at a faster rate than those of thrums, and late in bud development, growth of thrum styles slowed. These rate changes varied among populations, and they differed from the congeneric H. salzmanii. Similar differences between morphs are known in other heterostylous species, and such variation in growth pattern among related species has been used to infer independent evolution of distylous systems. PMID:24010041

  10. The role of stamens in ethylene production in Ipomoea nil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethylene production inhibits filament and corolla growth during young stages in flower development, and it promotes corolla unfolding and senescence in Ipomoea nil. Initial studies with the in vitro application of gibberellic acid (GA3), demonstrated that decreased filament growth occurred when the anthers remained attached to the filaments during the young stages in development. The removal of the anthers from intact plants did not enhance filament growth until the synthesis of wound ethylene was inhibited by applied aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or cobalt chloride. It was hypothesized that the anthers were source tissues and that the filaments were transport vectors for the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to regulate growth events in the various floral organs. To test this hypothesis, endogenous IAA and ACC and ethylene production were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or gas chromatography. The transport of 14C-IAA and 14C-ACC through filament segments and filaments within intact flower buds also was examined during flower development

  11. Pollen Morphology and Sucrose Giving on Stigma Relation with Incopability of Sweetpotato [Ipomoea Batatas (L. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Adi Susanto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to increase the success rate of self-pollination in sweetpotato through sucrose treatment on stigma and pollen nuclei check. Various concentration of sucrose was applied on the stigma. Prior to the crosses, the stigma was excised and lubricated with sucrose. Pedicel was lubricated with 100 ppm of 2,4 D in lanolin. The result showed that the stigma of both varieties was longer than the anther. Papua Solosa showed 94,7% anther dehiscence and 70, 25% pollen viability; whereas MSU 03028-10 showed 87, 3% anther dehiscence and 87, 84% pollen viability. Both of these varieties showed receptive stigma. Sucrose level in compatible pollination was lower than in incompatible pollination. Sugar in 50 ppm concentration can increase the formation of fruit in self-pollination of Papua Solosa varieties from 0% to 70%; 0% to 60% in self-pollination of MSU 03028-10; and 10% to 90% of Papua Solosa>

  12. Production of doubled haploids in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of doubled haploids in banana was achieved through anther culture of diploid banana Musa balbisiana var. Bichikala (BB). Calli were induced by culturing anthers onto MS or N6 based medium. MS medium comprised Morel vitamin and supplemented either with 2.5 1mg-12,4-D and 1.0 1mg-1kinetin (MS1) or with 1.0 1mg-1BA, 0.4 IAA 1mg-1and 500 1mg-1caesin hydrolysate (MS2) while N6 medium contained basic salts and added with 1.0 1mg-1BA, 0.4 IAA 1mg-1and 500 1mg-1caesin hydrolysate. Some of these calli produced embryoids within a span of 8-10 weeks upon transfer to MS medium fortified with 0.5 1mg-1BA and 0.4 1mg-1IAA. These calli/embryoids subsequently developed into shoots when sub-cultured on the same medium but with reduced concentration of IAA (0.1 mg-l). No plants were produced from calli originated from 2,4- D and kinetin supplemented MS medium (MS1). Roots were produced in MS medium devoid of growth regulators. A total of 39 plants were regenerated from anther-derived calli/embryoids. Six of these plants were tested for ploidy level and all of them showed diploid number of chromosome. Regenerated plants were acclimatized and transferred to the field for further study. (author)

  13. Genetic stability developed for β-carotene synthesis in BR29 rice line using dihaploid homozygosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Datta

    Full Text Available Obtaining transgenic crop lines with stable levels of carotenoids is highly desirable. We addressed this issue by employing the anther culture technique to develop dihaploid lines containing genes involved in β-carotene metabolism. First, we used Agrobacterium- mediated transformation to develop primary transgenic plants containing the β-carotene biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (psy and phytoene desaturase (crtI, which were engineered for expression and accumulation in the endosperm. Transgenic plants were recovered by selecting for the expression of the phosphomannose isomerase (pmi gene. Dihaploid plants in addition to haploid and tetraploid plant were generated from anther cultures of these primary transgenic plants. In addition to anatomical features of stomata, pollen of different ploidy-plants, molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration of the genes in the anther culture-derived dihaploid plants, and the yellow color of the polished seeds indicated the accumulation of carotenoids in the endosperm. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the carotenoid extract further confirmed the levels of β-carotene accumulation in the endosperms of the transgenic dihaploid rice seeds.

  14. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  15. Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

  16. Structural Analysis of Reproductive Development in Staminate Flowers of Laurus nobilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYTÜRK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Male (staminat flower development, being separated in 8 phases, was investigated in Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae through the usage of histological sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Flower development starts when apical meristem differentiates, followed by the conversion of this structure to floral meristem. Initial development phases comprise incidents similar to the ones of the female flower. 4 tepals and 8-10 stamens primordia develop through floral meristem in turn. In early stages of the development, sexual dimorphism occurs when the carpel primordium arrests. Filaments carry 2 nectaries in stamens which arise in 3 whorls. Anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, 2 or 3 middle layers and a single-layered glandular tapetum. Anthers are bisporangiate. Meiotic division is regular in pollen mother cells, and pollen grains do not contain aperture. Beside the pollen scattered individually within the pollen sacs, groups which contain some pollen tied to each other are rarely observed, as well. Pollen grains seldom germinate within microsporangium. Anthers are opened with 2 valves which widen from the base through the top. Accumulation of polysaccharides, lipids and proteins were identified by histochemical methods in stamens. These organic substances are greater within and around the vascular bundle compared to other tissues.

  17. Flowering, pollen production and insect visitation in two Aconitum species (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Antoń

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology, diurnal dynamics of blooming, insect visitation and pollen production in Aconitum lycoctonum L. and Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux were investigated in 2012–2013 in the Lublin area, SE Poland. Flowering of A. lycoctonum occurred in June/July, whereas A. carmichaelii bloomed in September/October. Both Aconitum species differed in terms of the diurnal pattern of flowering. The flowers of A. lycoctonum started opening at 5.00, whereas those of A. carmichaelii started blooming at 8.00 (GMT+2h. The species differed in the number of anthers per flower, the size of anthers, and the mass of pollen produced in anthers. As a result, the flowers of A. lycoctonum produced less pollen (mean = 1.0 mg per 10 flowers than the flowers of A. carmichaelii (mean = 8.2 mg per 10 flowers. The estimated pollen yield was 0.2 g per m2 for A. lycoctonum and 1.6 g per m2 for A. carmichaelii. The flowers of both Aconitum species were foraged exclusively by bumblebees with the predominance of the long-tongued Bombus hortorum. Nectar was a more attractive floral reward than pollen. The propagation of Aconitum lycoctonum and A. carmichaelii in ornamental gardens may support the conservation of bumblebees whose populations are steadily declining.

  18. Comparative pollination role of stamens and breeding system in three species of Commelina (Commelinaceae in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Oziegbe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated pollination mechanisms and breeding systems in five Commelina variants: two subspecies of Commelina diffusa (C. diffusa subsp. aquatica and C. diffusa subsp. montana, each having two staminodes; two variants of C. erecta (with three staminodes; and C. lagosensis (also with three staminodes. In all three species, the staminodes have six lobes but only two fertile lateral lobes. We collected field samples and cultivated new plants from stem cuttings. When the plants flowered, we evaluated floral morphology, floral biology and breeding systems, creating eight separate experimental treatments, involving spontaneous and hand pollination, as well as varying degrees of emasculation of the flowers. Although the pollen from the lateral and central anthers was capable of siring seeds, the staminode pollen rarely set seeds. Commelina diffusa subsp. aquatica presented very low percent pollen stainability in all three of its stamens and produced no seeds in any of the pollination treatments. In all three species, the stigma was often directed toward the central anther during coiling of the style. Our results show that C. diffusa subsp. aquatica is sterile and that, in the other Commelina variants studied, pollination occurs mainly through autogamy via the lateral and central anthers.

  19. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  20. Cytological observations on microspore degeneration in cytoplasmic male sterility induced by gamma-irradiation in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiotic behaviours and the abnormalities of microsporogenesis were investigated in the complete sterile plants from four kinds of γ-line, which are the progenies of the male sterile mutants induced by γ-irradiations from H-2002, and these sterile plants were compared with those of H-19 MS with S cytoplasms in spontaneous origin. In the meiosis, there was no chromosomal abnormality showing the association of nine bivalents and the regular distribution of chromosomes irrespective of the source of cytoplasms. After the liberation of quartets, the conspicuous deformity of tapetal cells occurred in the complete sterile plants throughout all kinds of γ-line and H-19 MS. The modified type of anther tapeta was newly found in several plants from γ-114. The tapetal cells surrounding anther cavity enlarged vadially without the formation of tapetal plasmodium in this type. It is suggested that the different mechanism on pollen sterility has something to do with the cytoplasmic types which are responsible for the expression of complete sterile plants. The starch reaction in the middle layer and the endothecium of the anther also correlated with the type of tapetal abnormality. (Kobatake, H.)

  1. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in pollen of Zea mays L. grown under enhanced UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on the development of the male gametophyte was studied in Zea mays L. cv. LG12 grown in a growth chamber under PAR light supplemented with UV-B radiation and compared with a second set of plants grown under PAR light. Pollen samples collected from both groups of plants were cultured on germination medium and it was found that UV-B had no effect on pollen germination. Total pollen protein content was not affected but UV-B absorbing pigments increased. Some ultrastructural alterations were observed in pollen and pollen tubes, in particular large amounts of electron dense deposits were seen throughout the cytoplasm and in association with the pollen wall. In mature spikes of UV-B treated plants, anthers retained numerous pollen grains in their loculi while anthers of control plants were almost empty. UV-B treatment delayed flowering by 2±3 d. These results show that UV-B treatment of maize plants interferes with flowering, pollen ultrastructure and anther maturation even though pollen germination is unaffected. The significant increase of UV-B absorbing pigments in pollen grains could represent a defence mechanism that enables plants to complete their reproductive cycle. (author)

  2. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis. PMID:25817071

  3. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  4. Flower Organs Morphology and Structure of Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹花器官的形态与结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立方; 郭起荣; 王青; 冯云; 牟少华

    2012-01-01

    A systematic anatomic study was conducted on morphology and structure of inflorescences, spikelets, florets, stamens, pistils of Phyllostachys edulis from a typical flowering area. This study updated and supplemented comprehensive statistical data of the flower organs, and for the first time found that there are four locules in an anther which is basifixed. The systematic descriptions are as follows: P. edulis is fake inflorescences and spicate inflorescences ( indefinite inflorescence) , average length ot the inflorescences is 8.01 cm, there are 2-7 gradually auxetic scaly bracts; 4-13 spathes, there is one spikelet in each spathe; An inflorescence has about 10 fake spikelets on average, the spikelet is 3.76 cm long on average, and has 1-3 glumes and 1-6 florets, the average length betwen rachises is 0.48 cm. Average length of florets is 2. 6 cm,a floret has 2-3 shells and 3 lodicules, 2-3 stamens whose average length is 4. 34 cm. The anther has four chambers and is basifixed, its average length is 1.26 cm, the average number of pollens in an anther is 15 807, the average diameter of the pollen is 61.00 μm, it is about globular under a scanning electron microscope, the ornamentation cf its outer wall is granulated smally, it has a round germinal aperture which has a circle around, the outer diameter of the germinal aperture is 8.69 μm, the inner 4.52 μm, filaments are 2. 98 cm long on average, they stretch out 1. 59 cm when opening widely. There is a pistil, an ovary with a chamber; a reversal ovule; the average length of styles is 1. 19 cm, the stigma is 1.70 cm long on average, and exposes length of 0.95 cm when it opens widely. The duration from the appearing anther to the pollen falling out of the anther is about 1 -2 h.

  5. Effects of Low Temperature Stress during Flowering Stage on Flowering and Seed Setting of Rice in Panxi Region, Sichuan Province%开花期低温胁迫对四川攀西稻区水稻开花结实的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣萍; 马均; 蔡光泽; 孙永健

    2012-01-01

    以3种籼稻品种和3种粳稻品种为试验材料,利用人工气候室在开花期进行低温胁迫处理,研究了低温胁迫对攀西稻区籼、粳稻开花和结实及两者间关系的影响.结果表明,开花期低温胁迫下籼稻和粳稻的开花习性、花药和花粉特性和结实表现不同.常规粳稻开花对低温有较强的耐冷性.低温胁迫下籼稻品种(组合)花药体积、花药开裂率、可育花粉率、柱头着花粉数和柱头花粉萌发率较对照降低幅度均比粳稻品种(组合)大;籼稻品种(组合)各产量构成因素较对照降低幅度比粳稻品种(组合)大.相关分析表明,结实与水稻花药和花粉主要性状有密切关系.开花期低温胁迫影响花药和花粉发育成熟,使花药不能正常开裂、散粉不足,可育花粉率和柱头花粉萌发率降低,直接影响受精结实,成为结实率降低的主要原因之一.%An experiment was conducted in growth chamber with low temperature treatments during flowering stage using three indica and three japonica rice varieties (combinations) to study the effects of low temperature stress on flowering and setting. The results showed that there were different responses and characteristics of flowering, anther, pollen, setting, and their relationship between indica and japonica to low temperature stress during flowering stage. The conventional japonica rice had high cold tolerance to low temperature. In comparison with control, the reduction range of the anther volume, anther dehiscence rate, pollen fertility rate, pollen number on stigma and germination rate of pollen on stigma of indica rice varieties (combinations) under low temperature stress was larger than that of japonica rice varieties (combinations). Under low temperature stress during flowering stage, the reduction range of yield components of indica rice varieties (combinations) was greater than that of japonica rice varieties (combinations). The correlation analysis showed

  6. Sex expression and breeding strategy in Commelina benghalensis L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veenu Kaul; Awtar Kishen Koul

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of experiments conducted to unravel the patterns of sex expression and reproductive output in a fascinating species with high variation in sexuality. Commelina benghalensis L., an andromonoecious rainy season weed, bears male and bisexual flowers in axillary spathes of all the plants investigated. Bisexual flowers are of two types; chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL). The former are borne on subaerial and the latter on subterranean shoots, in addition to those on aerial spathes. Three populations of the species, designated JU1, JU2 and JU3, were scanned for three consecutive years from 1996 to 1998, and the number and distribution of male, CH and CL flowers per plant were found to vary. The mere number of CH/CL flowers per plant is by itself not an accurate measure of mixed mating. It is necessary to confirm that CH flowers actually outcross and, if they do so, to what extent. Comparison of the pollen/ovule (P/O) ratio and percentage pollen germination on the stigmas of the CH and CL flowers have been used as indices of the pollination system. Confirmation of this was sought from the fruit and seed sets obtained after manual pollination of emasculated flowers with self- and cross-pollen. Results so obtained were compared with those of natural pollination. In the majority of CH flowers, the male and female reproductive phases (i.e. anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity) overlap, providing for self-pollination. However, two exceptions to this general behaviour were found in some plants of all the three populations. In some CH flowers, the female phase matures prior to anther dehiscence while in others, the anthers are sterile. Such plants, designated as variants 1 and 2, respectively, facilitate cross-pollination. While the CL flowers contribute to the production of selfed progeny, the variants of CH ones permit formation of outcrossed progeny, indicating a mixed mating strategy in C. benghalensis.

  7. A Novel Kinesin-Like Protein with a Calmodulin-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Narasimhulu, S. B.; Reddy, A. S. N.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse developmental processes in plants through the action of calmodulin. A cDNA expression library from developing anthers of tobacco was screened with S-35-labeled calmodulin to isolate cDNAs encoding calmodulin-binding proteins. Among several clones isolated, a kinesin-like gene (TCK1) that encodes a calmodulin-binding kinesin-like protein was obtained. The TCK1 cDNA encodes a protein with 1265 amino acid residues. Its structural features are very similar to those of known kinesin heavy chains and kinesin-like proteins from plants and animals, with one distinct exception. Unlike other known kinesin-like proteins, TCK1 contains a calmodulin-binding domain which distinguishes it from all other known kinesin genes. Escherichia coli-expressed TCK1 binds calmodulin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In addition to the presence of a calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminal, it also has a leucine zipper motif in the stalk region. The amino acid sequence at the carboxyl terminal of TCK1 has striking homology with the mechanochemical motor domain of kinesins. The motor domain has ATPase activity that is stimulated by microtubules. Southern blot analysis revealed that TCK1 is coded by a single gene. Expression studies indicated that TCKI is expressed in all of the tissues tested. Its expression is highest in the stigma and anther, especially during the early stages of anther development. Our results suggest that Ca(2+)/calmodulin may play an important role in the function of this microtubule-associated motor protein and may be involved in the regulation of microtubule-based intracellular transport.

  8. Callus culture and gamma rays treatment used for inducing new breeding material in wheat (Tr. Aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occuring somaclonal variation has been combined with gamma-ray (137Cs) treatment to increase the frequency of new forms of wheat differing from the initial lines. Two winter wheat genotypes 8-61 and 148-133-14 were used in the present study. Donor plants were grown under field conditions. Immature embryos were excised from the sterilized kernels and plated on MS basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2.4-D for induction and proliferation of the callus. The following treatments were applied: 1). Control (a natural occuring somaclonal variation). 2). 60 Gy gamma-ray treatment on mature seeds. 3). 6.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on immature seeds. 4). 2 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus 14 days after embryo plating. 5). 0.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus at the end of each plating. The best callusogenesis and regeneration were observed with genotype 8-61 given the treatment 5 followed by control. The genotype 148-133-14 showed a different response. The highest regeneration was obtained in the control followed by the treatments 2 and 5. In order to provide a faster stabilization of the genetic diversity among the regenerated plants, they were used as donors for anther culture. The anthers with microspores at the mid- to late uninucleate stages were excised and planted on potato-2 medium. Callus and embryoids induced from the cultured anthers were transferred to a 190-2 regeneration medium. All regenerants were studied cytologically and the haploids were treated with 0.055 colhicine 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Doubled haploid lines were produced as a result of this experiment. Statistical analysis of the newly released lines showed evidence of differences in plant height, spike shape and other agronomic features. (author)

  9. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidi Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility.

  10. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  11. Patterns of pollen removal and deposition in Polemonium brandegeei (Polemoniaceae): the role of floral visitors, floral design and sexual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbaba, M W; Worley, A C

    2014-11-01

    The arrangement, colour, shape and size of floral parts (collectively floral design) have evolved primarily to promote mating success via animal-mediated pollen transfer. Although numerous studies have examined variation in pollinator assemblages, relatively few have examined patterns of pollen removal and deposition in the presence of fluctuating pollinators and ineffective floral visitors; therefore, net pollen removal and deposition by entire visitor assemblages are unclear. We studied the timing (diurnal or nocturnal) and effects of floral traits on pollen removal and deposition under a dynamic visitor assemblage of Polemonium brandegeei. We quantified pollen grains remaining in anthers (pollen removal) and deposited on stigmas (pollen deposition) of plants visited during either the day (07:30-20:00 h) or night (20:30-07:30 h) in natural populations over two flowering seasons. Pollen removal and deposition occurred both diurnally and nocturnally during our study. Increased diurnal removal and deposition coincided with peak floral visitations in 2006. This increase in pollen removal and deposition may reflect increased visits by pollen consumers, effective hawkmoth pollinators and increased self-pollen deposition due to hot, dry weather. Nonlinear effects of style length significantly affected pollen removal, with less pollen remaining in flowers with intermediate style lengths. Pollen deposition was more complex, with herkogamy and anther height affecting deposition. Further, close proximity of stigmas and anthers increased the potential for sexual interference between pollen removal and deposition. Overall, flower visitations and pollen removal and deposition varied between years and populations, but sex organ placement consistently influenced the removal and deposition of pollen. PMID:24850527

  12. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed. PMID:27124278

  13. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qidi; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  14. Transcriptome de novo assembly and analysis of differentially expressed genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jiao-Jiao; Jia, Xue-Fang; Jia, Si-Qi

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait producing abnormal pollen during anther development. To identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying mechanisms, cabbage anthers at different developmental stages were cytologically examined and the transcriptomes were analyzed in CMS line and its maintainer line using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Microscopy showed that anther development in the CMS line was abnormal in the tetrad stage and failed to produce fertile pollen. We obtained 55,663,594 and 54,801,384 raw transcriptome reads from the sterile and maintainer lines, respectively, and assembled these reads into 68,851 unigenes with an average size of 1028 bp. By using the fragments assigned per kilobase of target per million mapped reads (FPKM) method, 5592 differentially expressed genes were identified, consisting of 3403 up- and 2089 down-regulated genes. Furthermore, there were 1011 and 45 genes specifically expressed in the maintainer or sterile line, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways were performed to map and analyze the candidate genes that may be involved in male sterility. Expression of eighteen genes was examined using qRT-PCR and their expression patterns were found to be same as the sequencing data. A clear cytological difference exists between the sterile and maintainer lines. The differentially expressed genes are associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolisms, or encode transcription factors, heat shock proteins and other stress proteins. Identification of these candidate genes provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying CMS in cabbage. PMID:27116370

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15624-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cDNA, clone SSI572. 371 e-109 2 ( EV091499 ) 0187972 Brassica napus Apical meristem Brassica n... 307 e-108... 2 ( EV093579 ) 0191580 Brassica napus Apical meristem Brassica n... 307 e-108 2 ( EV108674 ) 0113986 Bras...sica napus Senescent leaves Brassica ... 307 e-108 2 ( EV184652 ) 0159491 Brassica ...napus Etiolated seedlings (pSPOR... 307 e-108 2 ( EV149194 ) 0138506 Brassica napus Early anther Brassica na...pu... 307 e-108 2 ( EV131158 ) 0163511 Brassica napus Flower Brassica napus cDNA... 307 e-108 2 ( EV110136 ) 0115448 Brassica

  16. Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret; Wright, Jonathan; Cocker, Jonathan; Smith, Matthew; Badakshi, Farah; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Gilmartin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    •Heteromorphic flower development in Primula is controlled by the S locus. The S locus genes, which control anther position, pistil length and pollen size in pin and thrum flowers, have not yet been characterized. We have integrated S-linked genes, marker sequences and mutant phenotypes to create a map of the P. vulgaris S locus region that will facilitate the identification of key S locus genes. We have generated, sequenced and annotated BAC sequences spanning the S locus, and identified its...

  17. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  18. Noteworthy Record of Musonycteris harrisoni and Tlacuatzin canescens Pollinating a Columnar Cactus in West-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I. Iniguez-Davalos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report Musonycteris harrisoni (Phyllostomidae and Tlacuatzin canescens (Didelphidae feeding of flowers during the blooming period (March and April 2004 of Stenocereus queretaroensis, an endemic cactus showing nocturnal anthesis and chiropterophilic syndrome. Visits were considered legitimate because both mammals made contact with the stigma and anthers, although their visits were highly infrequent compared with the principal pollinator Leptonycteris curasoae. These mammals are usually associated with pristine tropical forests, although our study site showed high habitat fragmentation and extensive agriculture. It is likely that both mammals feed regularly on nectar of cacti in pristine tropical forests thus acting actively as pollinators.

  19. Analysis of Unbalanced Magnetic Pull in Wound Rotor Induction Machines using Finite Element Analysis – Transient, Motoring and Generating Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorrell, David G.; Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    eccentricity. The operating conditions are varied so that transient, motoring and doubly-fed induction generator modes are studied. This allows greater understanding of the radial forces involved. Wound rotor induction machines exhibit higher unbalanced magnetic pull than cage induction machines so this is an......There has been much literature on unbalanced magnetic pull in various types of electrical machine. This can lead to bearing wear and additional vibrations in the machine. In this paper a wound rotor induction is studied. Finite element analysis studies are conducted when the rotor has 10 % rotor...

  20. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hao Shi; Cheng Zhang; Xiao-Feng Xu; Jun Zhu; Que Zhou; Li-Juan Ma; Jin Niu; Zhong-Nan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expre...

  1. Obtaining a new variety of rape by biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High-frequency induction of pollen embryoids and plantlets of rape was obtained by stepped float anther culture. In addition, somatic embryoids and plantlets were induced with a high frequency from several species by cell suspension culture. The erucic acid (EA) content of embryoids was analysed by a micro-analysis technique and a semi-micro-analysis of glucosinolates (GS) content in culture was used. A new variety 'H86-166' with low EA and low GS content was selected by these techniques. It gave a yield of 3169 kg/ha and has been released for commercial production on about 1000 ha in Yunnan Province. (author)

  2. Tobacco floral homeotic gene Nfbp6 is specifically expressed during pollen and ovule development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢灿; 张劲松; 陈受宜

    1999-01-01

    Nfbp6 was a floral homeotic gene isolated from tobacco. It showed high homology with other class C genes. Using in situ hybridization technique, the expression of Nfbp6 was investigated in various stages of flower development. The results showed that Nfbp6 was expressed at low level during the initiation period of stamen and carpel primordia. In the later stage of flower bud development, the transcription level of Nfbp6 gene increased especially during the formation of pollen and ovule. The Nfbp6 gene expression was also observed in the transmitting tissue of style, stomium and circular cell clusters of the anther.

  3. Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo I Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en inglés: New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture. Resumen: En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA, se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la  Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y  de alto rendimiento agrícola. Palabras clave: Arroz; Mejoramiento genético; Cultivo in Vitro de anteras Summary: Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were

  4. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  5. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. Artificial pollination in acung (Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on artificial pollination, both self and cross pollinations, of Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R. planted in a house yard in Bogor. It was observed that no fruit set was resulted from self pollination. On the other hand cross pollination successfully produced numerous fruits. It was suggested that phenomena was due to protogenic character rather than self incompatibility mechanism of the species. The stigmas mature 1-2 days earlier than the anthers (pollen shedding. Such a case was also reported earlier by other authors in A. titanium Becc.

  7. Pollination biology of an invasive weed Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae) in Guangdong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaocheng Jia; Xinliang Li; Yang Dan; Guohui Lu; Yingqiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    During May to July, 2006 and April to May, 2007, we studied pollination biology in Ipomoea cairica, an invasive weed in Guangdong Province, China. Ipomoea cairica is a perennial creeping or climbing herbaceous vine, blooming all year round in Guangdong. The flowers gathered in cymes, with a purple or bluish purple bell-formed corolla. The petals unfolded at about 4:30–5:20 and closed at 17:40, lasting for about 12 hours. The proximity of the stigma and anthers during flowering period facilita...

  8. Clematis austrogansuensis, a new species of Ranunculaceae from Gansu%甘南铁线莲, 甘肃毛茛科一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采; 李良千

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Ranunculaceae, Clematis austrogansuensis W. T. Wang & L. Q. Li, is described from southern Gansu Province. In the genus Clematis,it is related to C. shensiensis W. T. Wang,from which it differs in its hornotinous branchlets only spasely puberulous on nodes, leaflets only near base sparsely puberulous, I-flowered cymes, and anthers with obtuse apexes.%该文描述了自甘肃南部发现的毛茛科铁线莲属的一新种,甘南铁线莲.

  9. Pflanzliche Zellkulturtechniken als Züchtungsschritt am Beispiel Raps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Franz

    1980-06-01

    A supplementation of classical plant breeding is now necessary due to the limitations imposed by available genetic variability and the slowness of the method. Therefore, cell culture techniques could play an important role in the future. Using rape seed, in which plants derived from anther culture and in vitro mutagenesis are already field tested, it has been shown that, in this case, somatic genetics is very close to becoming a practical method. For most of the other crop plants, in particular the cereals, no such unconventional breeding techniques have yet been satisfactorily established for commercial use.

  10. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  11. Screening and Analysis of Proteins Interacting with TaPDK from Physiological Male Sterility Induced by CHA in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-yu; ZHANG Gai-sheng; ZHAO Xin-liang; YANG Shu-ling

    2013-01-01

    To further research the regulatory network of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (designated as TaPDK) in physiological male-sterility (PHYMS) of wheat induced by chemical hybridizing agent (CHA) SQ-1, an anther cDNA library was constructed, and the proteins interacting with TaPDK were screened via yeast two-hybrid technique. Subsequently, a few candidate proteins in nucleotide expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Yeast-two hybrid screening was performed by mating yeast strain Y2HGold containing BD-TaPDK bait plasmid with yeast strain Y187 including anther cDNA library plasmid. Diploid yeast cells were plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Ade/-His/-Leu/-Trp) (QDO), and further were incubated on QDO medium containing AbA and X-α-Gal. The interactions between TaPDK and the proteins obtained from positive colonies were further confirmed by co-transformation validation. After plasmids DNA were extracted from blue colonies and sequenced, the sequences results were analyzed by bioinformatic methods. Finally, 24 colonies were obtained, including eight genes, namely non-specific lipid-transfer protein precursor (TanLTP), polyubiquitin (TaPUbi), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (TaPCNA), CBS domain containing protein (TaCBS), actin, guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta subunit, chalcone synthase, and three new genes with unknown function. The results of quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression levels of TanLTP, TaPUbi, and TaPCNA were obviously up-regulated in PHYMS anther, and TaCBS expression was only increased at the tricellular stage in PHYMS anther compared with in fertile lines. Whereas, the expression of TaPDK was obviously down-regulated in PHYMS lines. Collectively, these datas indicated that the majority of candidate proteins might be related to pollen abortion in PHYMS lines, which further suggested that TaPDK plays multiple roles in pollen development, besides participating in

  12. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding ribosomal protein S4 from Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A cDNA clone, pS4, has been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from rice anthers of about 1.0 mm in length. DNA sequence analysis and database search show that the cDNA encodes a protein which is highly homologous to eukaryotic 80S ribosomal protein subunit 4 (S4). Northern hybridization indicates that this gene expresses in all tissues analyzed although the expression level varies and it cannot be induced by mechanical wounding in leaves. Southern blot analysis demonstrates that this rice S4 gene is from a multigene family.

  13. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  14. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. PMID:26031622

  15. Activation analysis of a few flowers of Liliiflorae plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flowers of Liliiflorae plants (Lycoris radiata Herb., Lilium longiflorum Thunb. and Crinum asiaticum L.) were divided into leaf, peduncle, bract, perianth, filament, anther, ovary, style, stigma etc. and the distribution of elements in each part was determined. The analytical results revealed that (1) almost all elements were distributed with different concentration according to a part of the flowers, (2) abnormal distribution of cobalt and nickel to genital organ was noticed in Lilium longiflorum Thunb., and (3) high content of cadmium to genital organ and low content of calcium in each part were observed on Crinum asiaticum L. (author)

  16. Tissue culture-mediated biotechnological intervention in pomegranate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Soumendra K; Chand, Pradeep K

    2011-05-01

    The past 30 years have witnessed a series of systematic biotechnological advances made in pomegranate. These encompass optimization and establishment of in vitro culture techniques including micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, synthetic seed production, plant regeneration via callus-mediated shoot organogenesis, adventitious shoot regeneration, anther culture, tetraploid induction and genetic transformation. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account on the tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions made in pomegranate aimed at complementing conventional programmes for improvement of this nutraceutically important fruit crop. PMID:21161233

  17. Mediation of flowering by a calmodulin-dependent proteinkinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (MCK1) appeared important in regulating flowering in tobacco. The expression of modified MCK1 that lacks the C-terminal including calmodulin-binding domain upsets the flowering developmental program, leading to the abortion of flower primordia initiated on the main axis of the plant and, as well, caused the prolongation of the vegetative phase in axillary buds. The abortion process of flowers began first in the developing anthers and subsequently the entire flower senesces. In axillary buds the prolonged vegetative phase was characterized by atypical elongated, narrow, twisted leaves. These results suggested a role for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homologs in mediating flowering.

  18. Notes on the genus Ficinia (Cyperaceae: morphological variation within the section Bracteosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Arnold

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Generic limits of Ficinia are reviewed. Morphological variation within the section Bracteosae Pfeiff. of Ficinia Schrad. (Cyperaceae is examined and discussed. Diagnostic characters previously in use in classification are reviewed together with a number of new characters. These have enabled the limits of many existing taxa to be refined, and have provided the basis for the establishment of a number of new taxa recently described. Characters examined include: underground organs, leaf sheaths and ligules, leaf blades, inflorescence structure, prophylls, styles, anthers, achenes, gynophores and inflorescence axes.

  19. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn; Alisa Nakkaew; Tanate Panrat; Arunrut Vanichanon; Amornrat Phongdara

    2016-01-01

    A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. T...

  20. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  1. Intrafloral differentiation of stamens in heterantherous fowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Lei GU; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Flowers that have heteromorphic stamens (heterantherous flowers) have intrigued many researchers ever since the phenomenon was discovered in the 19th century. The morphological differentiation in androecia has been suggested as a reflection of "labor division" in pollination in which one type of stamens attracts pollina-tors and satisfies their demand for pollen as food and the other satisfies the plant's need for safe gamete dispersal. The extent and patterns of stamen differentiation differ notably among taxa with heterantherous flowers. Seven species with heteromorphic stamens in three genera were sampled from Leguminosae and Melastomataceae, and the morphological difference of androecia, pollen content, pollen histochemistry and viability, pollen micro-morphology, as well as the main pollinators were examined and compared. Pollen number differs significantly between stamen sets of the same flower in most species investigated, and a correlation of pollen number and anther size was substantiated. Higher pollen viabilities were found in the long (pollinating) stamens of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. and S. bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Dimorphic pollen exine ornamentation is reported here for the first time in Fordiophytonfaberi Stapf. The height of stigma and anther tips of the long stamens in natural conditions was proved to be highly correlated, supporting the hypothesis that they contact similar areas of the pollinator's body.

  2. POLA REPRODUKSI PADA SALAK BALI (SA/ACCA ZA/ACCA VAR. AMBOINENSIS (BECC. MOGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENIEK KRISWIYANTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproduction patterns of Balinese snake skin fruits (Salak Bali has been conducted by identifying the availability of pollens on anthers of male and hermaphrodite flowers, the viability of pollens in the pistillum and the present of embryo(s in the ovulum. Flower samples were collected from Sibetan and Muncan Villages, Karangasem regency. Sample preparations and identifications were conducted in "Stuktur dan Perkembangan Tumbuhan Laboratory" Department of Bilogy, FMIPA Udayana University. The results showed that the pollen has a single apperture, unisulcus, minuta, oblat sferoidal type. The length of polar axis was 15-24 jam (P and equatorial diameter of 16-24 |im (E. Therefore, the P/E index was 0.99-1.0. The pollen viability before and after anthesis of hermaphrodite flowers was low (71.4% and 50.6% respectively, with very low pollen tube germinations (0.08% of before and 0.48% after anthesis. Similarly, on the anthers of male flowers, the viability of pollens before anthesis was low (75.7% with pollen germination of 0.18%, and event lower in after anthesis flowers (28.8% with 0.29% pollen tube germination. Squashed stigma before and after anthesis and 2 days after flowers were opened showed that there was no germination occurred. Therefore, there was no germination in the pistillum, but the embryo developed before flower anthesis, indicates that the reproduction pattern of Salak Bali occurred without fertilizations (agamospermy.

  3. Molecular phenotypes associated with anomalous stamen development in Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera philoxeroides is a perennial amphibious weed native to South America but has now spread to diverse parts of the world. A. philoxeroides reproduces both sexually and asexually in its native range, but propagates solely through vegetative means in its introduced range. Traits associated with sexual reproduction become degraded for sexual dysfunction, with flowers possessing either pistillate stamens or male-sterile anthers. Degradations of sexual characters for loss of sexuality commonly take place in clonal plants. The underlying molecular-genetic processes remain largely unknown. We compared the gene expression profiles of abnormal stamens with that of normal stamens by RNA-Seq analysis, and identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between abnormal and normal stamens. In accordance with flower morphology, the expression of B-class MADS-box genes (ApAP3, ApTM6 and ApPI was markedly reduced in pistillate stamens. However, most of the genes involved in meiosis were expressed normally in stamens with male-sterile anthers. In addition to verifying the expression patterns of genes previously known to be related to stamen and pollen grain development, we also identified previously unknown molecular phenotypes associated with sexual dysfunction in A. philoxeroides, that is helpful for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underpinning various male-sterile phenotypes and the molecular processes underlying the transition from sexuality to asexuality in clonal plants.

  4. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  5. A gain-of-function mutation of transcriptional factor PTL results in curly leaves, dwarfism and male sterility by affecting auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Qin, Genji; Chen, Zhangliang; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2008-02-01

    GT factors are plant-specific trihelix DNA-binding transcription factors, which are involved in light responses and other developmental processes in plant. We identified a gain-of-function mutant of a GT-2 factor gene, PETAL LOSS (PTL), which displayed pleiotropic phenotypes including dwarfism, curly leaves, retarded growth and male sterility. We found that constitutive and ectopic over-expression of PTL driven by the CaMV 35S promoter could not recapitulate the phenotypes of the 35S enhancer-driven mutant ptl-D, and was lethal in some of the transgenic plants at the cotyledon developmental stage, suggesting that accurate temporal and spatial expression of PTL is essential for its proper functional implementation during plant development. Further analysis showed that ptl-D was defective in auxin action and that the alteration of auxin distribution corresponded to the curly leaf phenotype. The fact that degeneration of septum cells and subsequent breakage along the stomium was not observed in ptl-D anthers suggests that defective anther dehiscence was the cause for male sterility. Identification and characterization of the gain-of-function mutant ptl-D will improve our understanding of the diverse functions of GT factors during plant development. PMID:18080804

  6. Expression Pattern of Class B Gene PAP3 in Flower Development of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Class B gene APETALA3 (AP3 plays a key role in the development of petals and stamens. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PAP3 gene (genbank accession number: HM104635 in the buds of cytoplasmic male sterility line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C at four developmental stages and analyzed the possible association between Class B genes and cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR as well as RNA in situ hybridization showed increased expression of PAP3 at late phase of anther development and its higher expression in restorer line compared with sterility line indicating PAP3’s role at late developmental stage of anther and suppressed expression in sterility line. RNA in situ hybridization showed Class B gene features: high abundance in stamen and petal; lower expression in pistil; no expression in sepal. Results of transient expression in onion epidermal cells also showed PAP3 localized in the nucleus, which is consistent with the expression pattern of transcription factors of MADS-box gene family.

  7. Dissecting the mechanism of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum chilense flower colour formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M; Qu, H; Gao, L; Chen, L; Sebastian, R S J; Zhao, L

    2015-01-01

    Flowers are the defining feature of angiosperms, and function as indispensable organs for sexual reproduction. Flower colour typically plays an important role in attracting pollinators, and can show considerable variation, even between closely related species. For example, domesticated tomato (S. lycopersicum) has orange/yellow flowers, while the wild relative S. chilense (accession LA2405) has bright yellow flowers. In this study, the mechanism of flower colour formation in these two species was compared by evaluating the accumulation of carotenoids, assessing the expression genes related to carotenoid biosynthetic pathways and observing chromoplast ultrastructure. In S. chilense petals, genes associated with the lutein branch of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, phytoene desaturase (PDS), ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LCY-B), β-ring hydroxylase (CRTR-B) and ε-ring hydroxylase (CRTR-E), were highly expressed, and this was correlated with high levels of lutein accumulation. In contrast, PDS, ZDS and CYC-B from the neoxanthin biosynthetic branch were highly expressed in S. lycopersicum anthers, leading to increased β-carotene accumulation and hence an orange/yellow colour. Changes in the size, amount and electron density of plastoglobules in chromoplasts provided further evidence of carotenoid accumulation and flower colour formation. Taken together, these results reveal the biochemical basis of differences in carotenoid pigment accumulation and colour between petals and anthers in tomato. PMID:24750468

  8. Use of intergeneric cross for production of doubled haploid wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of conventional breeding or hybridisation is to bring about homozygosity, for which 6 to 7 years may be required. Wheat and maize crosses have proved to be more efficient in DH lines production than anther culture methods, because of its lower genetic specificity. Doubled haploid technique facilitates the development of homozygous plants within one generation. The system is developed through haploid production, followed by chromosome doubling, to produce homozygous plants in a single generation. For doubled haploid production method wheat and maize crossing system is better than anther culture and ovule culture because maize pollens are highly responsive and produce stable progeny population. Wheat is being used as female parent and maize as a male parent for the production of doubled haploid. Moreover, Silver Nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) in tiller culture media can improve the frequency of haploid embryo production in this crossing system. Our result showed that DH production through wheat and maize crossing system was proved to be time saving (2 years) as compared to other conventional breeding methods (6 years). (author)

  9. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding. PMID:16172897

  10. [Studies on sexual organs and embryological development morphology of Pterocypsela formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Long; Ma, Xue-ni; Huang, Heng-yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the embryological characters of Pterocypsela formosana (Asteraceae) were investigated with the traditional paraffin section methods. The anther has 4 sporangiates, the anther wall development follows the dicotyledonous type and comprises of an epidermis, endothelium, a middle layer and a single-layered tapetum, the tapetum belongs to glandular type. Meiosis of the microspore mother cells is of the simultaneous type, for the formation of mostly tetrahedral tetrad, the mature pollen grains are 2 celled. The ovary is bicarpellate, unilocular, one ovule and basal placenta, the ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellate, inverted campylotropous and with developed endothelium, archesporial cell of megaspore differentiates immediately below the nucellar epidermis and functions as megasporocyte after development and belongs to tenuinucellate ovule type. The megasporocyte undergoes meitotic to form a liner tetrad, only one chalazal megaspore becomes the functional megaspore which forms female gametophyte including 7-celled and 8-nucleated after three successive mitosis, the female gametophyte is of the Polygonum type. Two polar nuclei melt into a secondary nuclei before fertilization, the chalazal antipodal cells are ephemeral and degenerate shortly after forming. Fertilization is porogamous and belongs to premitotic type of syngamy. The division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than the zygote, the endosperm is of the nuclear type with the presence of haustoria, and the embryogeny belongs to asterad type chicory variant. The developed suspensor on early stage has important significance to the embryo development. PMID:26080544

  11. The Earliest Normal Flower from Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Shaolin Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The early evolution of angiosperms has been a focus of intensive research for more than a century. The Yixian Formation in western Liaoning yields one of the earliest angiosperm macrofloras. Despite multitudes of angiosperm fossils uncovered, Including Archaefructus and Sinocarpus, no bona fide normal flower has been dated to 125 Ma (mega-annum) or older. Here we report Callianthus dilae gen. at sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous) in western Liaoning, China as the earliest normal flower known to date. The flower demonstrates a typical floral organization, including tepals, androecium, and gynoecium. The tepals are spatulata with parallel veins. The stamens have a slender filament, a globular anther, bristles at the anther apex, and in situ round-triangular pollen grains. The gynoecium is composed of two stylate carpels enclosed in a fleshy envelope, and develops into a "hip" when mature. Since the well-accepted history of angiosperms is not much longer than 125 Me, Callianthus together with Chaoyangia, Archaefructus and Sinocarpus from the Yixian Formation demonstrate a surprisingly high diversity of angiosperms, implying a history of angiosperms much longer than currently accepted.

  12. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  13. Encyclia inopinata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) a new species from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi-Verde, Carlos L.; Carnevali, German; Romero-González, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Encyclia from Mexico, Encyclia inopinata, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to Encyclia diota but it can be distinguished by its usually more robust plants with 2–3 leaves per pseudobulb and its flowers with longer and narrower sepals (1.8±0.1 × 0.63±0.03 cm in Encyclia inopinata versus 1.48 ±0.14 × 0.65±0.06 cm in Encyclia diota) and petals (1.7±0.05 × 0.59±0.05 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 1.36 ±0.19 × 0.81±0.13 cm in Encyclia diota), and the labellum with narrower lateral lobes (0.18±0.02 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 0.41±0.10 cm in Encyclia diota). Other characters that differentiate these two species are the coriaceous sepals, pink callus, and white anther of Encyclia inopinata (versus fleshy-leathery sepals, white callus, and yellow anther of Encyclia diota). The new species can be found in deciduous forests along the Pacific slope of Oaxaca state, near of the border with Guerrero state, at about 1200 m. It blooms between March and July. PMID:26884708

  14. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J.; Traverso, José Á.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen–pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed. PMID:27066025

  15. Encyclia inopinata (Orchidaceae, Laeliinae) a new species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi-Verde, Carlos L; Carnevali, German; Romero-González, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Encyclia from Mexico, Encyclia inopinata, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to Encyclia diota but it can be distinguished by its usually more robust plants with 2-3 leaves per pseudobulb and its flowers with longer and narrower sepals (1.8±0.1 × 0.63±0.03 cm in Encyclia inopinata versus 1.48 ±0.14 × 0.65±0.06 cm in Encyclia diota) and petals (1.7±0.05 × 0.59±0.05 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 1.36 ±0.19 × 0.81±0.13 cm in Encyclia diota), and the labellum with narrower lateral lobes (0.18±0.02 cm in Encyclia inopinata vs. 0.41±0.10 cm in Encyclia diota). Other characters that differentiate these two species are the coriaceous sepals, pink callus, and white anther of Encyclia inopinata (versus fleshy-leathery sepals, white callus, and yellow anther of Encyclia diota). The new species can be found in deciduous forests along the Pacific slope of Oaxaca state, near of the border with Guerrero state, at about 1200 m. It blooms between March and July. PMID:26884708

  16. Production of Haploid Tissues and SNP Analysis of the Genome in Musa acuminata cv.'Matti'(AA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid and doubled haploid plants are of considerable value in genetic studies, genomics and plant breeding, allowing characterization and exploitation of genes where only one allele is present. Inbred banana lines have not been developed and with very few haploids or homozygotes reported, we aimed to develop new materials for genetic and genomic studies and to see if protocols could be improved using a range of genetic material not previously investigated. Anther culture was carried out using four Musa acuminata (AA) cultivars grown in homestead cultivation in Kerala, southern India. Protocols based on using modified MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA (0.1 mg 1-1 each) were used. Embryogenic callus was regenerated from 4% of anthers of cv. Matti. The callus produced somatic embryosthat developed small leaves but haploid plant regeneration was not achieved. Regenerated leaf tissues had a haploid set of chromosome complements. The haploid tissuesprovided a source of DNA which may be suitable for whole genome shotgun approaches to re-sequencing, where the high levels of heterozygosity in Musa would impair assembly. (author)

  17. The classical Ubisch bodies carry a sporophytically produced structural protein (RAFTIN) that is essential for pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiming; Xia, Qun; Xie, Wenshuang; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2003-11-25

    Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes nutrients into the anther locule where the microspores reside and develop. Orbicules (Ubisch bodies), studied in various plants since their discovery approximately 140 years ago, are a hallmark of the secretory tapetum. Their significance to tapetal or pollen development has not been established. We have identified in wheat and rice an anther-specific single-copy gene (per haploid genome equivalent) whose suppression in rice by RNA interference nearly eliminated the seed set. The flowers in the transgenics were normal for female functions, but the pollen collapsed and became less viable. Further characterization of the gene product, named RAFTIN, in wheat has shown that it is present in pro-orbicule bodies and it is accumulated in Ubisch bodies. Furthermore, it is targeted to microspore exine. Although the carboxyl portion of RAFTINs shares short, dispersed amino acid sequences (BURP domain) in common with a variety of proteins of disparate biological contexts, the occurrence RAFTIN per se is limited to cereals; neither the Arabidopsis genome nor the vast collection of ESTs suggests any obvious dicot homologs. Furthermore, our results show that RAFTIN is essential for the late phase of pollen development in cereals. PMID:14612572

  18. Reproduction in Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum, Ericaceae): A Rare Case of Insect Wing Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Allison, Suzanne E; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2015-08-01

    Although many angiosperms are serviced by flying pollinators, reports of wings as pollen vectors are rare. Flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum) is visited by diverse insects, yet previous observations suggested that only butterfly wings may transfer pollen to stigmas. We used an experimental approach to determine whether butterfly wings are the primary vehicle of pollination in flame azalea. Over two seasons of observations, only butterflies (Papilio glaucus and Speyeria cybele) contacted both anthers and stigmas, yet because of differences in wing-flapping behavior, P. glaucus transferred pollen most efficiently. In contrast, bee species specialized either on pollen or nectar but did not contact both anthers and stigmas. A field experiment revealed that flowers excluding butterflies experienced almost complete fruit failure, whereas fruit set in open flowers did not differ from those that were hand pollinated. Additionally, butterflies had 56-fold more azalea pollen on their wings than bodies, while azalea stigmas bore both pollen and wing scales. These results suggest that plants with many visitors contacting reproductive organs may still specialize on a single guild of visitors for pollination and that wing-borne pollen transfer is a key mode of flame azalea pollination. PMID:26655157

  19. The biological effect of gamma radiation on in vitro culture in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological effects of gamma radiation on different types of rice before or during in vitro culture, combined treatments of 137Cs γ-rays and NaN3 on mature embryo culture, and irradiation on growth of calli derived from anther in rice were studied. The dose-effects relations of callus induction rate and callus growth rate could be fitted according to the multi-target and single-hit model. Effect of somatic cultures of different types in rice was different. Increase in plant regeneration capacity was found with 100, 150 Gy gamma rays. Decrease of callus induction rate, callus growth rate and callus differentiation rate (especially in the 1st culture) were observed in combined treatments of γ-rays and NaN3. However, mutagenic effects of treatments with γ-rays were much higher than those of combined treatment of γ-rays and NaN3 in the 2nd and the 3rd culture. Combined treatments of 137Cs γ-rays with 200 Gy and 2 mmol NaN3 were suitable for explant in rice before culture. To irradiate the calli derived from anther in rice with 30 Gy gamma rays can rise plant regeneration capacity during continuing culture

  20. Preliminary studies on male sterile mutant after exogenous DNA introduced into wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable sterile line--D-type sterile line was obtained after exogenous λDNA introduced into wheat line 814527. There were obvious characters in flower structure of the sterile line. The number of ovaries increased and that of anthers declined, and the sum was not always equal to four. Polygynous flower were located in the middle of panicles, while there were no polygynous ones on the top and the base of panicles. The main ovary was in the center of the flower, and the accessory ovaries surrounded to main ovary. The ovaries did not develop synchronously, main ovary developed earlier and accessory ones slower. The volume of main ovary was bigger than the accessory ones. Anthers of the sterile line with abnormal shapes were obsolescent at early stage, and had no living pollen. It showed that the sterile line was a cytoplasmic male sterile one, and the acceptor line 814527 could be its maintainer. The hybrid of the sterile line and Lumai 14 had some heterosis in traits such as panicle length, spikelet number per panicle and grain number per panicle, and its yield per plant was 11.6% higher than that of Lumai 14

  1. Flowering, pollen characteristics and insect foraging on Campanula bononiensis (Campanulaceae, a protected species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the floral biology and pollen quantity and quality of Campanula bononiensis L. (Campanulaceae, a protected species in Poland. Observations and measurements were made during the years 2007–2009 in natural phytocoenoses from the Festuco-Brometea class situated within the Lublin area, SE Poland. A considerable decrease (approx. 87% in population density was observed. Significant variations both in the amount of pollen (18.5%–34.8% of pollen in the total anther dry weight, i.e. 0.5–1.5 mg per 10 anthers and in pollen viability (38.8–97.0% were noted. Both a low amount of pollen and low pollen viability may reduce the reproductive success of individuals. The most frequent visiting insects were bees (Apoidea, including solitary bees 45.7%, honeybees 20.4%, and bumblebees 11.4%. Dipterans, coleopterans (weevils, lepidopterans and ants were also recorded, implying a strong impact of C. bononiensis on insect biodiversity within grasslands.

  2. Immunolocalization of Arabinogalactan Proteins and Pectins in Floral Buds of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) During Sex Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ben PENG; Cheng ZOU; Hua-Qin GONG; Shu-Nong BAI; Zhi-Hong XU; Yi-Qin LI

    2005-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins were detected in the floral buds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during its sex determination using the following monoclonal antibodies: MAC 207 (recognizes AGP epitopes); JIM 8 (recognizes a subset ofAGP epitopes); and JIM 5 and JIM 7 (epitopes of pectins esterified to various degrees). In the stem apex meristem (SAM) of the cucumber, epitopes of MAC 207, JIM 7, and JIM 5 were localized in the cells from second to third peripheral layers when the sex organ primodium began to differentiate; epitopes of MAC 207 and JIM 5 were also detected in the ragged edge cells. A very dense labeling signal with MAC 207 was observed in the carpel and pistil primodium. The AGP epitopes recognized by JIM 8 were localized in the anther of the male flower and the anther-like portion of the stagnant stamen of the female flower. This suggests that the AGPs and pectins in the SAM of the cucumber are closely associated with the differentiation of the SAM, from meristematic cells to floral primodium. The subset of AGPs recognized by JIM 8 may play an important role in stamen formation.

  3. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  4. Biologia floral de uma população de Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae do Sul do Brasil Floral biology of a population of Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Terada

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi investigado o padrão reprodutivo de uma população de Mirabilis jalapa cultivada na Região Sul do território brasileiro. A abertura das flores de M. jalapa ocorreu no início da tarde, às 17 h, e o fechamento foi na manhã seguinte a partir das 4h30min até as 6 h. A abertura das anteras ocorreu a partir das 19h30min até as 20h30min. Foi observada a presença de grãos de pólen na superfície do estigma das flores cujas anteras estavam no mesmo nível, ou num nível superior ao do estigma. A ausência de grãos de pólen no estigma foi verificada nas flores cujas anteras estavam num nível abaixo do da posição do estigma, bem como no estigma de flores previamente emasculadas. Somente uma mariposa foi observada, durante todo o período dos experimentos, visitando e provavelmente polinizando flores de M. jalapa. A autopolinização foi o modo predominante de reprodução na população de M. jalapa cultivada no jardim da Universidade Estadual de MaringáThe reproductive pattern of a cultivated population of Mirabilis jalapa in the Southern region of Brazil was investigated. Flowers of M. jalapa opened for one night, in the early evening at 17h00 and closed early the next morning from 4h30 to 6h00. Anther dehiscence occurred from about 19h30 to 20h30. The presence of pollen grains on the stigma surface was recorded in flowers in which the anther lay at the same level as the stigma or higher. Absence of pollen grains was observed in flowers in which the anther was below the stigma and in previously emasculated flowers. One moth was reported to be the only visitor and possible pollinator of M. jalapa flowers throughout the experimental period. Self-pollination was the predominant mode of reproduction in the M. jalapa population cultured in the garden of the State University of Maringá

  5. Morphological markers for microspore developmental stage in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Moraes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of maize in anther culture has been limited because only few genotypes presented a high androgenetic potential. Obtaining the proper stage of microspore development at culture initiation is one of the most crucial factors for success in the androgenesis. For Brazilian maize genotypes there are no studies reporting a correlation between cytological features and morphological parameters. In this study, morphological parameters were recorded and associated with cytological specific stages of the the microsporogenesis in two Brazilian maize genotypes that were sowed in different places (field and growing chamber. For both genotypes, the plants of the growing chamber presented a delay in development. Spikelets length and anther length/spikelet length ratio are not good parameters since they can be greatly influenced by the environment. The anther length was the more reliable parameter to correlate with a specific developmental stage. Nevertheless, variations between genotypes and environment were detected.A utilização do milho (Zea mays na cultura de anteras é limitada devido ao baixo número de genótipos com alto potencial androgenético. A obtenção de micrósporos no estádio de desenvolvimento apropriado no início da cultura é um dos fatores cruciais para o sucesso do processo androgenético. Em genótipos brasileiros de milho não existem estudos relatando a correlação entre características citológicas e parâmetros morfológicos. Neste estudo, parâmetros morfológicos foram avaliados e associados com estádios específicos da microsporogênese em dois genótipos brasileiros de milho os quais foram semeados em diferentes locais (campo e câmara de crescimento. Para ambos os genótipos, as plantas crescidas na câmara de crescimento apresentaram atraso no desenvolvimento. O comprimento da espigueta e a razão comprimento da antera/comprimento da espigueta não são bons parâmetros uma vez que podem ser muito influenciados

  6. Study on Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male Gametophytes in Galinsona parviflora Car.%牛膝菊大、小孢子发生和雌、雄配子体的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡铁锋

    2012-01-01

    通过石蜡切片技术对牛膝菊大小孢子发生和雌雄配子体发育过程进行研究,结果表明,牛膝菊花药4室,花药壁发育为简化型。由表皮、药室内壁和绒毡层组成。绒毡层于小孢子四分体时期开始变形,其细胞原生质体向药室中移动为变形绒毡层。小孢子孢原为多细胞,小孢子母细胞减数分裂产生四面体型的小孢子四分体。四分体胞质分裂为连续型,偶见同时型。成熟花粉2-细胞型。子房1室,每室1个倒生胚珠,具单珠被,薄珠心。大孢子母细胞减数分裂形成的4个大孢子呈直线形排列,其中合点端的大孢子为功能大孢子,蓼型胚囊。%This paper studies the megasporogensis,microsporogenisis and development of female and male ga- metophyte by paraffin wax of the meiosis of megaspore and microspore mother cells and the developmental processes of Galinsona parviflora Cav. 1 The results indicates that the anther has four chambers. The develop- ment of anther wall is primitive type which is composed of epidermis, endothecium and amoeboid tapetum. The tapetum begins to vary at the stage of tetrad with the cytoplasm moving into the anther cell. The cytokinesis of microspore mother cell in meiosis is simultaneous and continuous, and the tetrad are tetrahedral. The mature pollen grain is 2-celled. The ovary has 1 locule and there is l anatropous ovule in each locule. The ovule is unitegmic and tenuinucellatae. The megaspore mother cells are developed cal cell which undergoes meitotic division and forms a linear tetrad. The directly by a hypodermal archcspori- embryo sac is of Polygonum type.

  7. Application of the comet assay in studies of programmed cell death (PCD in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD in plants is an intensively investigated process. One of the main characteristics of PCD in both animal and plant organisms is the non-random, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA, usually analysed using total DNA gel electrophoresis or TUNEL method. In this paper we present application of the "comet assay" (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis for detection of nDNA degradation in studies of PCD during plant life cycle. We analyzed three types of tissue: anther tapetum, endosperm and mesophyll which were prepared in different ways to obtain a suspension of viable cells (without cell walls. The comet assay gives a possibility of examination of the nDNA degradation in individual cell. This method is significant for studies of the plant tissue differentiation and senescence especially in the cases when it is not possible to isolate large number of cells at the same developmental stage.

  8. Effects of silicon on seed setting rate of rice intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-C; Zhang, L; Wang, J; Wang, D; Wang, T-X; Duan, C-X

    2015-01-01

    The present study found semi-sterility in rice intersubspecific hybrids of 'Taichung 65' x 'Guangluai 4' and 'Ludao' x 'Qiuguang'. Embryo sac fertility was evaluated using the overall staining transparent method. The results showed that the embryo sac contained a normal egg cell, normal synergid cells, polar nuclei cells, and antipodal cells, indicating that semi-sterility was caused mainly by pollen semi-sterility. In the pot experiment, the effects of silicon on the seed-setting rate of the two intersubspecific hybrids were examined. The results showed that the rate of anther dehiscence, number of pollen per stigma of Fl plants, potential of pollen grain germination, and fertility of the spikelet were significantly improved by the utilization of silicon fertilizer. PMID:26345976

  9. WBC27, an Adenosine Tri-phosphate-binding Cassette Protein, Controls Pollen Wall Formation and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Yi Zhang; Wei Wang; Xiao-Lei Liu; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; De Ye

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, the exine components are derived from tapetum. Despite its importance to sexual plant reproduction, little is known about the translocation of exine materials from tapetum to developing microspores. Here we report functional characterization of the arabidopsis WBC27 gene. WBC27 encodes an adenosine tri-phosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is expressed preferentially in tapetum. Mutation of WBC27 disrupted the exine formation. The wbc27 mutant microspores began to degenerate once released from tetrads and most of the microspores collapsed at the uninucleate stage. Only a small number of wbc27-1 microspores could develop into tricellular pollen grains. These survival pollen grains lacked exine and germinated in the anther before anthesis. All of these results suggest that the ABC transporter, WBC27 plays important roles in the formation of arabidopsis exine, possibly by translocation of lipidic precursors of sporopollenin from tapetum to developing microspores.

  10. Use of induced mutations and tissue culture in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) improvement programme in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Rice Research Institute began to use tissue culture techniques for the genetic improvement of rice. Subsequently, in 1998, the Institute, in co-operation with the applied Research Centre for Nuclear Energy Development, started a programme of improvement by mutation using radiations with different LET. In the same year, the Centre started applying molecular biology to rice improvement. The tissue culture techniques included the culture of anthers and somatic tissue, recovery of interspecific hybrid embryos and the culture of protoplasts. Work in molecular biology has focused on the isolation and purification of total DNA and subsequent restriction analysis. The preliminary results of using these technologies in the Cuban rice improvement programme are described. (author). 7 refs, 6 tabs

  11. Critic’s Choice Essay: Take time to watch, not just smell the wildflowers!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria M. Caddell

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Although plant-pollinator interactions between orchids and bees in the tropics may seem more interesting than those closer tohome, Oklahoma is full of fascinating plantpollinator interactions and mechanisms. The most important pollination agents inOklahoma are wind and insects. Wind is particularly effective where many plants of the same species grow close together.Prairie grasses, and dominant trees of our forests and woodlands, e.g. post oak and blackjack oak, are wind-pollinated. Thereare few things more beautiful than anthers dangling from a grass spikelet along with feathery stigmas that trap wind-bornepollen! In spring, male flowers of oaks are borne on pendulous catkins, releasing pollen that catches on stigmas of tiny femaleflowers held close to the branch.

  12. Genetic analysis of rice allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A double haploid population derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used in this study. The inhibited effect of water-soluble extract of 123 DH pure lines leaves on the lettuce roots growth was investigated, and the QTLs analysis of rice allelopathy was carried out. Totally, four QTLs related to rice allelopathy were detected, and they were on chromosomes 3, 9, 10 and 12, respectively. The LOD scores were 3.40, 2.68. 2.75 and 3.08, respectively. Among them, additive effects of the QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 10 were 1.65 and 1.43, on chromosomes 9 and 12 were ?1.44 and ?1.58, respectively. Allelopathy characteristics of another three common rice varieties were also studied.

  13. Observations on Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of the Male and Female Gametophytes of Arundinaria simonii f.heterophylla%异叶苦竹大小孢子及雌雄配子体的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林树燕; 丁雨龙

    2013-01-01

    Embryological characters of Arundinaria simonii f.heterophylla were reported in this article.The anthers were tetrasporangiate in which the cytokinesis of microsporocyte in meiosis was successive type and the produced microspore tetrads were bilaterally symmetrical.The cells of tapetum layer with dense cytoplasm were secretory type,and they began to degenerate during meiosis division.The mature pollen was trinucleate.The single ovule with parietal placenta was anatropous,double integument and tenuinucellatae.The development of the embryo sac was polygonum type.Generally the florets close to the base of spikelets bloomed earlier than others,and development of both stamens and pistils within a spikelet was synchronized.

  14. Character and stability of male-sterile Platycodon grandiflorum%桔梗不育特性及育性稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自刚; 呼天明; 汪玉琳; 王新军; 杨亚丽; 张雁; 何军; 雷燕妮

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the response of male-sterile plant of Platycodon grandiflorum to illumination length, temperature, soil type, cultivated site and the fertile performance. The TTC dyeing, the I2-KI dyeing and the artificial pollination were used to determine the ovule viability, the pollen viability and seeds setting, respectively. The sterile anther was atrophic and its colour was brown, pollen in sterile anther was abortive, the stamen was smaller than viable stamen. While seeds setting of sterile flowers was tantamount and the sterile corolla was bigger than fertile flower. Amount of mi crospores with crashing male-sterile anther was immovability, and amount of microspores with halfway male-sterile anther was slightly increase under lower temperature. There was the few influence of planted site, soil type and illumination on the fertile performance. The cross breed result showed that the maintain genes was with Shangluo platycodon and the restorer genes was with Zibo platycodon. The fertile perform- ance of crashing male-sterile plant was steady under different environment and it was administrated by genes in nucleolus and cytoplasm, rovide a foundation for breeding of male-sterile line and heterosis utilization of Platycodon grandiflorum.%采用盆栽法、遮光处理法和人工杂交法研究了桔梗(Platyoodon grandiflorum)雄性不育单株不育性对光照、温度的反应,主要营养元素施用量、不同纬度地区栽培对育性的影响,以及雄性不育性的遗传规律。结果表明,与可育花相比,不育花雄蕊短小、花药干瘪萎缩、花粉败育;雌蕊发育正常,而花冠略大,结实特性与可育花相似。较低温度对彻底败育单株育性无明显影响,但可使微粉单株花粉量有一定增加;而不同地域栽培、不同土壤肥力、光照对桔梗不育性无明显影响;桔梗不育材料与商洛桔梗、淄博桔梗杂交结果表明,商洛栽

  15. Scalar multi-wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, A I; Sushkov, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    In 1921 Bach and Weyl derived the method of superposition to construct new axially symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity. In this paper we extend the Bach-Weyl approach to non-vacuum configurations with massless scalar fields. Considering a phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy, we construct a multi-wormhole solution describing an axially symmetric superposition of $N$ wormholes. The solution found is static, everywhere regular and has no event horizons. These features drastically tell the multi-wormhole configuration from other axially symmetric vacuum solutions which inevitably contain gravitationally inert singular structures, such as `struts' and `membranes', that keep the two bodies apart making a stable configuration. However, the multi-wormholes are static without any singular struts. Instead, the stationarity of the multi-wormhole configuration is provided by the phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy. Anther unusual property is that the multi-wormhole spaceti...

  16. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  17. Effect of development stage on QTLs mapping for relative dry weight of rice under low-P stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Interaction between genotype and environment is an important factor affecting quantitative trait. Studying the development stages′ influence on the detection of QTL for relative dry weight of rice associated with low phosphorus (P) stress could ascertain the appropriate value stage according to the difference of QTL location for the same trait. A total of 127 DH lines derived from anther culture of the F1 hybrid of ZYQ8 (Indica) / JX17 (Japonica) were selected as materials. The DH lines and their parents were planted randomly in 30 L plastic containers with four replications.Seedlings were collected 10 d after planted for determining root length(RL) and root surface area (RSA), and 30 d after planted for total dryweight (TDW) and root traits. Two P levels of 1 mol L-1(Low P) and 10 mol L-1 (Adequate P) were employed. QTLs were determined by interval mapping analysis with Mapmarker/QTL 1.1.

  18. Detection of chitinolytic enzymes with different substrate specificity in tissues of intact sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.): chitinases in sundew tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libantová, Jana; Kämäräinen, Terttu; Moravcíková, Jana; Matusíková, Ildikó; Salaj, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant expressing a wide range of chitinolytic enzymes playing role in many different processes. In this study the intact plants were analyzed for the presence of chitinase transcripts and chitinolytic activities in different organs. In situ hybridization with chitnase fragment as a probe has revealed the presence of chitinases in the mesophyll cells of leaves and vascular elements of stems of healthy, non-stressed plants. More pronounced expression was observed in cortex and stele cells of roots as well as in ovules and anthers of reproductive organs. Similarly, higher chitinase enzyme activity was typical for flowers and roots suggesting a more specific role of chitinases in these tissues. In addition to endochitinases of different substrate specificities, chitobiosidases contributed to overall chitinolytic activity of tissue extracts. The activity of chitobiosidases was again typical for flowers and roots, while their role in plant physiology remains to be elucidated. PMID:18437530

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11379-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E4333_B12_C23ZS Wheat meiotic anther cDNA libra... 48 6e-09 4 ( EA150796 ) Sequence 15111 from patent...ts) S2: 15 (30.2 bits) dna update 2008.11.24 Homology vs DNA Query= Contig-U11379-1 (Contig-U11379-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Co...1386 ) EST416239 potato stolon, Cornell University Solan... 46 2e-11 4 ( AJ703741 ) Zantedeschia...e search space used: 168149737667520 X1: 11 (21.8 bits) S2: 22 (44.1 bits) protein update 2009. 6.29 Homology vs Protein Query= Co... pseudomallei 1710b... 95 7e-18 CP001025_2043( CP001025 |pid:none) Burkholderia ambifaria

  20. Department of Radiobiology - foreword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program of the Department of Radiobiology of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is performed by two laboratories: 1/Laboratory of Neutron Therapy and Applied in Radiobiology Therapy and Agriculture. 2/ Laboratory of Radiation and Environmental Mutagenesis. The aim of the first mentioned Laboratory is to determine the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of fast 5.6 MeV neutrons with regard to regime of fractionation. Our goal is to reduce the number of fraction of neutron therapy what makes possible increasing the total dose. The second mentioned Laboratory engages in research on the mutagenesis in rape-seed in vitro regeneration of dihaploids and pollen grains. The object is to find how much fast neutrons, X and γ-rays irradiations stimulate the dihaploide production and to determine their reaction in flower buds microspores and anther cultures. (author)

  1. Two new species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) used as cobra-bite antidotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat CHAVEERACH; Runglawan SUDMOON; Tawatchai TANEE; Piya MOKKAMUL; Nison SATTAYASAI; Jintana SATTAYASAI

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Curcuma, C. sattayasaii A. Chaveerach & R. Sudmoon and C. zedoaroides A. Chaveerach & T. Tanee with rhizomes traditionally used for many decades as cobra-bite antidotes are described and illustrated. Curcuma sattayasaii is similar to C. longa L., but differs in rhizome horizontally branching on ground;coma bracts pinkish-white or pinkish-pale green;corolla pale yellow with orange tip;labellum pale orange with an orange central band;anther crest very short, broadly ovate, wider than long. Curcuma zedoaroides is similar to C. zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, but differs in rhizome branching pattern;the protruding secondary rhizomes curved down;blades oblong to oblong-lanceolate;peduncle glabrous;fertile and coma bracts glabrous;corolla lobes pale yellow to white, lateral lobe ovate, dorsal lobe broadly ovate. The new taxa have been found in a village of Khon Kaen Province, Northeastern Thailand.

  2. Micromorphology and ultrastructure of the floral nectaries of Viola odorata L. (Violaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wiśniewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Viola odorata two inferior anthers have connective appendages (nectaries projecting into the corolla spur. Nectaries are approx. 4 mm long, elongate, with the top of the nectary bending to the lateral wall of the spur. In the top part and in the abaxial surface of middle part of the nectary all cells have papillae. Nectar is secreted through the modified stomata distributed mainly in the top of nectary The nectary consists of single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma and subnectary parenchyma. Features of the nectary parenchyma cells, like dense cytoplasm containing numerous mitochondria and large nuclei, are connected with high metabolic cell activity. The vascularization includes both phloem and xylem. A slight amount of starch in the nectary cells, the profusion of plasmodesmata connecting secretory cells and the presence of vascular bundles suggest that sugars secreted in the nectar were delivered by the phloem sap.

  3. Doubled haploids in the mutation breeding of selected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubled haploids have recently become a promising way of significantly shortening the breeding cycle in some important crops. This system is fully compatible with other biotechnological approaches such as mutation or gene manipulation techniques. It has already been demonstrated that anther or microspore cultures can be treated mutagenically with radiation or chemical agents, inducing variability in the haploid stage. Such mutagenized populations of haploid cells open the possibility for rapid selection under in vitro conditions. Some problems related to the production of haploids in cereals and rapeseed, such as the efficiency of embryoid formation and the frequency of green plant regeneration modified by genetic and environmental factors, are presented. The potential uses of doubled haploid systems in mutation breeding and gene transfer technology are also discussed. (author). 97 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Phytoene Desaturase cDNA from Stigma of Crocus sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jie(白洁); Xu Ying; Tang Lin; Zeng Yu; Feng Yun; Wang Shenghua; Chen Fang

    2004-01-01

    Phytoene desaturase (PDS) has recently been identified as an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. A cDNA clone encoding phytoene desaturase gene is isolated from stigma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) using RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis shows 83% similarity to Narcissus pseudonarcissus, 79% to Zea mays, 78% to Arabidopsis thaliana, 77% to Lycopersicon esculentum. A new full-length cDNA is obtained by 5'-RACE and 3' -RACE techniques. The cDNA is 2149bp long with an open reading frame of 1697bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 565 amino acids. Southern analysis shows that the PDS gene is a single copy in saffron. Northern blot analysis shows higher expression level of PDS gene in stigma and anther than in leaves and stem.

  5. Changes in abundance of an abscisic acid-responsive, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein transcript during pollen embryogenesis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T L; Crawford, R L

    1996-12-01

    A clone for an embryoid-abundant, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein (EcMt) gene has been isolated from a wheat pollen embryoid cDNA library. The transcript of this gene was only expressed in embryogenic microspores, pollen embryoids, and developing zygotic embryos of wheat. Accumulation of the EcMt mRNA showed a direct and positive correlation with an increase of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA) in developing pollen embryoids. Treating cultures with an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridone, suppressed not only ABA accumulation but also the appearance of the EcMt gene transcript and the ability of microspores to form embryoids. These results suggest that the EcMt gene may act as a molecular marker for pollen embryogenesis because ABA biosynthesis is accompanied by the increased expression of the EcMt transcript that coincides with the differentiation of pollen embryoids in wheat anther cultures. PMID:8980534

  6. What's the 'buzz' about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Paul A; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Many plant species have evolved floral characteristics that restrict pollen access. Some of these species are visited by insects, principally bees, which make use of vibrations to extract pollen from anthers. Buzz-pollination, as this phenomenon is generally known, is a widespread method of fertilization for thousands of species in both natural and agricultural systems. Despite its prevalence in pollination systems, the ecological and evolutionary conditions that favour the evolution of buzz-pollination are poorly known. We briefly summarize the biology of buzz-pollination and review recent studies on plant and pollinator characteristics that affect pollen removal. We suggest that buzz-pollination evolves as the result of an escalation in the competition between plants and pollen-consuming floral visitors (including pollen thieves and true pollinators) to control the rate of pollen removal from flowers. PMID:23751734

  7. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.;

    2014-01-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered...... pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some...... transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different...

  8. Desenvolvimento de populações duplo-haplóides de cevada cervejeira associadas à atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases Development of doubled-haploids populations in malting barley associated to activity of enzymes (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Endres Georg-Kraemer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Populações duplo-haplóides apresentam especial vantagem para análises genéticas, uma vez que a informação que elas oferecem pode ser maximizada, devido ao fato que todos os locos encontram-se em homozigose. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de duas populações duplo-haplóides (DHs de cevada (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. segregantes para a atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases, através da técnica de cultura de anteras. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos com cultivares contrastantes para esta característica. As cultivares parentais selecionadas foram 'MN 698' e 'CEV 97047', para o desenvolvimento da população "malte verde" (MV, e 'Embrapa 127' e 'CEV 96025' para o desenvolvimento da população "malte seco" (MS. Foram cultivadas 10.734 anteras da população MS e 4.139 anteras da população MV. A população MV produziu 50% mais plântulas verdes quando comparada à população MS, refletindo a importância do genótipo na resposta à cultura de anteras e na regeneração. A maioria das plantas adultas duplo-haplóides foi obtida através da duplicação espontânea in vitro do genoma haplóide, ocorrendo em 66% das plantas da população MS e 76% das plantas da população MV. Também foram observadas, em menor frequência, plantas haplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides. Através da técnica de cultura de anteras, foram desenvolvidas 204 linhagens duplo-haplóides, das quais 72 linhagens são da população "malte seco" e 132 linhagens são da população "malte verde". Este material constitui um importante germoplasma para o melhoramento genético da cevada.Doubled haploid populations offer special advantages in genetic analyses, since the information they provide may be maximized due to the fact that all loci are homozygous. The aim of this study was to develop two barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp.vulgare L. doubled-haploid (DHs populations segregating to (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases activity, utilizing the anther

  9. Morphological evaluation of Anchusa species (Boraginaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nasrolahi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anchusa Boraginaceae( includes weedy species in different habitats and cultivations and is composed of four species in Iran. Species delimitation is mainly based on features as zygomorphic or actinomorphic flowers, straight corolla tube and nutlet shape. In this project, morphological features of different accessions of Anchusa species were evaluated. Totally, 33 qualitative and quantitative morphological characters of 12 populations of four species were studied. Statistical analyses were done by SPSS ver. 19.0 Diagnostic value of different features in species delimitation was studied in order to provide an efficient identification key. Results indicated that adopted features were of taxonomic importance. Factor analysis revealed that two main factors had most effects. These factors were location of filaments, calyx length, middle leaf shape, location of anthers, shape of tube of corolla, length of corolla, and diameter of hair tubercles. A new identification key based on obtained results was provided. This was the first morphometric study of Anchusa species in Iran.

  10. Emerging Roles for Non-Coding RNAs in Male Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Rodriguez-Enriquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sexual reproduction systems in flowering plants is essential to humankind, with crop fertility vitally important for food security. Here, we review rapidly emerging new evidence for the key importance of non-coding RNAs in male reproductive development in flowering plants. From the commitment of somatic cells to initiating reproductive development through to meiosis and the development of pollen—containing the male gametes (sperm cells—in the anther, there is now overwhelming data for a diversity of non-coding RNAs and emerging evidence for crucial roles for them in regulating cellular events at these developmental stages. A particularly exciting development has been the association of one example of cytoplasmic male sterility, which has become an unparalleled breeding tool for producing new crop hybrids, with a non-coding RNA locus.

  11. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  12. Immunohistochemical locali- zation of Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent kinase in tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The existence of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaM kinase, CaMK) in tobacco is verified immuno- logically and its distribution in different tissues of tobacco is studied. It has been demonstrated that CaMK is mainly distributed in early developing anthers, developing ovules and embryos, lateral root primordium, apical meristem and leaf primordium of buds and mesophyll cells and developing vascular bundles of leaves. There is enormous CaM kinase distributed in leaf epidermis fair cells and guard cells of stomas too. Little kinase is found in mature stem or root cells. The distribution properties of CaM kinase in tobacco are consistent with those of CaM, suggesting that there exists the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway mediated by CaM kinase in tobacco and it plays an important role in the plant growth and development.

  13. Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

  14. Induced Abnormality In Mir- and Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph; Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Levinski, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Chernova, Lola; Ivanova, Irene; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with normal wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen grains however, contain only one nucleus, while normal viable pollen is trinucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was identified - a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1200 ppb). Ground studies conducted exposing "Super-dwarf" wheat to ethylene at just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  15. Gibberellic Acid: A Key Phytohormone for Spikelet Fertility in Rice Grain Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) has essential signaling functions in multiple processes during plant development. In the "Green Revolution", breeders developed high-yield rice cultivars that exhibited both semi-dwarfism and altered GA responses, thus improving grain production. Most studies of GA have concentrated on germination and cell elongation, but GA also has a pivotal role in floral organ development, particularly in stamen/anther formation. In rice, GA signaling plays an important role in spikelet fertility; however, the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms of GA in male fertility remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the network of GA signaling and its connection with spikelet fertility, which is tightly associated with grain productivity in cereal crops. PMID:27223278

  16. Techniques of radiation induced haploid breeding of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the treatment of different doses of 60Co γ-ray irradiation to F1 hybrid seeds and donor plants from M1F1 or M2F2, wheat anther culture was made based on the media of MW14 and modified MS. A series of studies on the applied doses of radiation induction, low temperature treatment on donor spikes and calli, variable temperature induced incubation and yield of pollen callus and calli giving green plant lets, pollen plant lets control over summertime and pollen plant let transplantation were carried out in order to increase the efficiency of obtaining double haploid-pure diploid plant lets of wheat with stable heredity and propagation. Theses plant lets could be used directly in rapid breeding

  17. Transfer and Detection of barstar Gene to Maize Inbred Line 18-599 (White) by Particle Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qing-quan; ZHANG Ying; RONG Ting-zhao; DONG Shu-ting; ZUO Zhen-peng

    2007-01-01

    In China, the purity of maize hybrid strain is discomforting to the development of seed industrialization. Finding a new method for reproduction of maize hybrid strain is necessary. In this study, using particle bombardment, barstar gene was transferred into maize inbred line 18-599 (White), which is an antiviral and high quality maize inbred line. By molecular detection of the anther of transgenic maize, two plants transferred with barstar gene were gained in this study, which are two restorer lines. The two plants showed normal male spike, and lively microspores. But the capacity of the two restorer lines should be studied in the future. The aim of this study is to find a new method of reproduction of maize hybrid strain using engineering restorer lines and engineering sterility lines by gene engineering technology.

  18. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  19. Peptide hormones CHAL, CLL1, and CLL2 are important for stamen develop-ment in Arabidopsis%胞外多肽激素基因CHAL/CLL1/CLL2在拟南芥雄蕊发育过程中发挥重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何卓娜; 王双双; 马红; 常芳

    2016-01-01

    细胞-细胞间通讯是雄蕊正常发育过程所必需的,然而目前对于参与此过程的信号分子却鲜有报道。前期报道CHAL/CLL1/CLL2胞外多肽激素在拟南芥气孔发育过程中发挥重要作用,但是chal cll1 cll2三突变体同时表现出植株育性异常的表型。然而,这三个基因在植物雄蕊发育过程中的表达和具体功能并未见深入研究。本研究发现CHAL/CLL1/CLL2这三个基因在拟南芥花丝及5-9期花药的绒毡层和生殖细胞中高表达。同时,对三个基因功能缺失突变体的雄性育性情况进行分析后发现:单基因突变植株未表现出明显的育性异常,但双突(chal cll1和chal cll2)和三突(chal cll1 cll2)植株育性逐级下降,尤其是三突表现出一系列雄蕊异常的表型:花丝短小、花药绒毡层发育异常、部分花粉败育,且花粉萌发率亦较野生型有显著降低。进一步研究发现, chal cll1 cll2三突变体中雄蕊发育途径中关键基因BAM1、EMS1、TPD1、bHLH089、TSM1、MS1和AMS的表达水平发生显著变化。以上结果一致表明CHAL/CLL1/CLL2基因在拟南芥雄蕊发育过程中发挥重要作用。%Cell-cell communication is important for normal anther development and male fertility, but little is known about signals important for this process. The polypeptide hormones CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 are redundantly required for normal stomata cell development in Arabidopsis, but the chal cll1 cll2 triple mutants exhibited re-duced fertility. However, the function of the CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 genes in the regulation of Arabidopsis fertility has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 genes were highly expressed in anther filaments, tapetal cells, and male reproductive cells at anther stage 5–9. Single mutants of the CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 genes did not show obvious fertility defects, but the double (chal cll1 and chal cll2) and triple mu-tants (chal cll1 cll2) showed incremental

  20. Aggressive displacement of Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees from flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae by territorial male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Ollerton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea and Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees in Tanzania both utilise the flowers of male plants of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae as a source of nectar. The sunbirds set up territories defending this nectar resource. Observations of interactions between the sunbirds and the carpenter bees show that the bees are aggressively displaced from flowers when spotted by the birds. Only the bees can be considered as legitimate pollinators as the birds do not contact the anthers of the male flowers and were never seen visiting nectarless female flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica. Such territory defence may have implications for the frequency of movement and composition of pollen being transferred from male to female flowers which warrants further research.

  1. BIOLOGI REPRODUKSI BUNGA Cassine koordersii Kostermans (Celastraceae KOLEKSI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

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    D. Ardhianto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on flower biology of Cassine koordersii Kostermans was carried out in the Bogor Botanic Garden on April — November 2002. The plant produces flowers in umbel inflorescences that open sequentially, starting from the lowest branch of the inflorescence. There is no spatial separation between the anther and the stigma, and the dispersal of highly viable pollen takes place within the period of stigma receptivity. The flowers also show some characters of entomophily. Visitor insects are flies (ordo Diptera, family Syrphidae and Tachinidae and ants (ordo Hymenoptera, family Formicidae. In general, the morphological and phenological characteristics of the flower allow self pollination to occur successfully. Floral assessment using Cruden's Outcrossing Index showed that the flower is self-compatible.

  2. Development of In Vitro Systems for Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) - Final Report for 1992 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B.V.

    2003-01-16

    Our project began on July 1, 1992, with the objective of developing systems that could be used in biotechnological approaches to switchgrass improvement. Within six months after initiation of the project, we had worked out protocols in which plants could be regenerated from callus cultures through both organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Documentation for both modes of regeneration was provided in our progress reports and in publications. One thousand regenerated plants were established in the field during the first year. We found that Alamo (lowland type) was much more amenable to in vitro culture, and plants could be regenerated much more easily than from Cave-in-Rock (upland type). During the first three years of the project, we studied the influence of genotype, culture medium components, explant type, etc., on regeneration. As mentioned, we found that the lowland cultivars Alamo and Kanlow were much easier to regenerate than upland cultivars, such as Trailblazer, Blackwell, and Cave-in-Rock. For callus induction, we initially used mature caryopses, young leaf tissue, and portions of seedlings. We were successful in inducing callus and regenerating plants from all explants. Two other systems developed during the 4th to 6th year period of the project included multiple shoot formation initiated from germinated seedlings and regenerable suspension cultures. The latter were initiated from embryogenic calluses produced from in vitro developed inflorescences. An important factor for producing multiple shoots was the presence of thidiazuron in the medium. The shoots could be easily rooted and numerous plantlets produced. The last 3 to 4 years of the project focused on anther and microspore culture experiments to produce haploid plants and on genetic transformation. Although thousands of putative haploid plants were produced from a few anthers, they were very weak and difficult to keep alive. Chromosome counts revealed the gametic number in cells where it was

  3. The promoter of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a-5 gene of Chrysanthemum morifolium (CmCCD4a-5) drives petal-specific transcription of a conjugated gene in the developing flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ayano; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-15

    Carotenoids comprise one of the major groups of pigments in flowers. Because carotenoids are physiologically indispensable pigments for all photosynthetic plants, their catabolism must be discretely regulated in photosynthetic organs and non-photosynthetic organs such as petals or fruits. In the chrysanthemum, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a (CmCCD4a), which is dominantly expressed in petals, cleaves carotenoid, leading to a white flower. CmCCD4a-5 was recently identified as a new member of the CmCCD4a family, but its detailed expression profile in plant tissues has not yet been established. In this study, we sequenced a 1094-bp region upstream of CmCCD4a-5 and assessed its petal-specific promoter activity. To evaluate the activity of this gene, we constructed two types of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that possessed, respectively, a fusion gene of a 1090-bp or 505-bp segment of the upstream region plus the β-d-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (1090bUR::GUS and 505bUR::GUS). GUS activity in the 505bUR::GUS strain was observed mainly in the anthers/pollen in flower buds, whereas GUS activity of the 1090bUR::GUS strain was observed in immature petals of the flower buds. Among the cis-acting elements located between positions -505 and -1090, no elements that have previously been reported to enhance the expression in petals or to suppress it in anthers/pollen were detected by PLACE analysis, indicating the existence of unknown cis-element(s). A semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CmCCD4a-5 transcription was prominent in petals but was undetectable in roots, stems and leaves. PMID:23643306

  4. Development of a methodology for the propagation of 'Calcutta 4' (AA) and plantain genotypes from embryogenic cell suspensions and its interface with mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bananas and plantains represent a major staple food for many millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. In Cuba, this crop constitutes a high priority of the national food program because of its capacity of producing fruit all year round, high demand and diversity of use, however, Black Sigatoka disease, caused by the leaf pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis, and pests and stress climatic conditions, has resulted in significant yield losses in this culture, which increases the production costs considerably. Somatic embryogenesis combined with mutation induction into in vitro culture mutations has not been studied in depth probably due to the low plant regeneration percentage of different Musa genotypes. Taking into consideration, the previous information following research objects are being developed: to develop a new methodology for developing somatic embryogenesis in different cultivar AAB, and cv. 'Calcutta 4', to develop a methodology for mutation induction with irradiations gamma rays to embryogenic cell suspensions and study anther culture of diploid cultivars. The genetic stability of plants obtained via embryogenesis through embryogenic cell suspensions showed the possibility to use the new methodology for developing somatic embryogenesis in different cultivar. From the results obtained for each cultivar, it is recommended to irradiate cv. 'Calcutta 4' at 50 Gy and cv. 'CEMSA 3/4' at 80 Gy. Irradiations with gamma rays to embryogenic cell suspensions resulted in a shorter stature in regenerated plants. Besides, plants of French plantain type were obtained from cultivar CEMSA 3/4. In Calcutta 4 the irradiation effect caused colour changes in plant pseudo-stems, and also deformed leaves were shown, but did not cause changes in the cultivar susceptibility to Black Sigatoka disease. In anther culture of diploid, callus induced from the state of uninuclate development was higher in relation to the other states studied and the regeneration plants are in

  5. Early embryo achievement through isolated microspore culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cvs. ‘Monreal Rosso’ and ‘Nules’

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    Benedetta eChiancone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microspore embryogenesis is a method of achieving complete homozygosity from plants. It is particularly useful for woody species, like Citrus, characterized by long juvenility, a high degree of heterozygosity and often self-incompatibility. Anther culture is currently the method of choice for microspore embryogenesis in many crops. However, isolated microspore culture is a better way to investigate the processes at the cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels as it avoids the influence of somatic anther tissue. To exploit the potential of this technique, it is important to separate the key factors affecting the process and, among them, culture medium composition and particularly the plant growth regulators and their concentration, as they can greatly enhance regeneration efficiency. To our knowledge, the ability of meta-Topolin, a naturally occurring aromatic cytokinin, to induce gametic embryogenesis in isolated microspores of Citrus has never been investigated. In this study, the effect of two concentrations of meta-Topolin instead of benzyladenine or zeatin in the culture medium was investigated in isolated microspore culture of two genotypes of Citrus. After eleven months of isolated microspore culture, for both genotypes and for all the four tested media, the microspore reprogramming and their sporophytic development was observed by the presence of multinucleated calli and microspore-derived embryos at different stages. Microsatellite analysis of parental and embryo samples was performed to determine the embryo alleles constitution of early embryos produced in all tested media, confirming their origin from microspores.To our knowledge, this is the first successful report of Citrus microspore embryogenesis with isolated microspore culture in Citrus, and in particular in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan, cvs. ‘Monreal Rosso’ and ‘Nules’.

  6. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

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    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  7. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation. PMID:24477333

  8. Annual Variation in Flowering Phenology, Pollination, Mating System, and Pollen Yield in Two Natural Populations of Schima wallichii (DC. Korth

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    Vinod Prasad Khanduri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Schima wallichii is a highly valuable tree of tropical forest in north-east Himalaya region that grows naturally in a wide range of altitudes between 750 and 2400 m asl with varying environments. Flowering phenology of tropical tree species at population level is generally ignored and therefore a detailed knowledge of flowering and fruiting patterns of important multipurpose tree species is critical to the successful management of forest genetic resources. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted at two different altitudes (i.e., 750 m and 900 m asl in the tropical semideciduous forest of north-east Himalaya. The floral phenology including flowering synchrony in the populations, anthesis, anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity, pollinators visitation frequency, and mating system including index of self-incompatibility were worked out in Schima wallichii according to the ear-marked standard methods given by various scientists for each parameter. Results. The flowering period in Schima wallichii varied from 33 to 42 days with mean synchrony of 0.54 to 0.68 between the populations. The stigma was receptive up to 2.5 days only and showed slightly protandrous type of dichogamy. Average pollen production ranged between 6.90 × 107 pollen per tree in 2007 and 15.49 × 108 pollen per tree in 2011. A three-year masting cycle was noticed in this species. The frequency of visitation of honey bees was fairly high (5.2 ± 1.12 visits/flower/hour as compared to other pollinators. The hand pollination revealed maximum fruit (74.2 ± 5.72% and seed (70.8 ± 7.46% settings. Conclusions. The variation in flowering phenology and pollen yield individually and annually along with temporal separation in anther dehiscence and pollinator’s visitation cause pollen limited reproduction, which ultimately influences the reproductive success in Schima wallichii.

  9. Characterization of a new male sterility-related gene Camf1 in Capsicum annum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang Ming; Hao, Xue Feng; Chen, Guo Ju; Cao, Bi Hao; Chen, Qing Hua; Liu, Shao Qun; Lei, Jian Jun

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of screening novel genes related to the male sterility in chili pepper for studying the molecular mechanism of plant male sterility, the gene differential expression analysis was performed by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annum L., and a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments were detected in fertile or sterility material. Camf1, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in fertile line flower buds was further investigated. The Camf1 has 1,854 bp in length with no introns containing a 1,707-bp open reading frame (ORF). The deduced amino acid sequence of Camf1 shares higher similarity to some members from a glyoxal oxidase-related protein family, and has a glyoxal oxidase conserved domain at the N-terminus and a domain of unknown function (DUF1929) at C-terminal end. Expression analysis showed that Camf1 expressed only in stage 3-7 flower buds of male fertile of C. annum L. 114AB, and no detection in all organs of male sterility. The peak of expression level of Camf1 appeared at stage 4 flower buds of fertile line. Furthermore, expression analysis of different organs revealed that Camf1 expressed only in anthers of male fertile material and there were no expression in sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves and open flowers. These results suggested that Camf1 was an anther-specific gene and might be essential for the fertility of C. annum L. PMID:21559833

  10. The Simultaneous Repression of CCR and CAD, Two Enzymes of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway, Results in Sterility and Dwarfism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanne Thévenin; Brigitte Pollet; Bruno Letarnec; Luc Saulnier; Lionel Gissot; Alessandra Maia-Grondard; Catherine Lapierre; Lise Jouanina

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase(CCR)and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)catalyze the last steps of monolignol biosynthesis.In Arabidopsis,one CCR gene(CCR1,At1g15950)and two CAD genes(CAD C At3g19450 and CAD D At4g34230)are involved in this pathway.A triple cad c cad d ccr1 mutant,named ccc,was obtained.This mutant displays a severe dwarf phenotype and male sterility.The lignin content in ccc mature stems is reduced to 50% of the wild-type level.In addition,stem lignin structure is severely affected,as shown by the dramatic enrichment in resistant inter-unit bonds and incorporation into the polymer of monolignol precursors such as coniferaldehyde,sinapaldehyde,and ferulic acid.Male sterility is due to the lack of lignification in the anther endothecium,which causes the failure of anther dehiscence and of pollen release.The ccc hypolignified stems accumulate higher amounts of flavonol glycosides,sinapoyl malate and feruloyl malate,which suggests a redirection of the phenolic pathway.Therefore,the absence of CAD and CCR,key enzymes of the monolignol pathway,has more severe consequences on the phenotype than the individual absence of each of them.Induction of another CCR(CCR2,At1g80820)and another CAD(CAD1,At4g39330)does not compensate the absence of the main CCR and CAD activities.This lack of CCR and CAD activities not only impacts lignification,but also severely affects the development of the plants.These consequences must be carefully considered when trying to reduce the lignin content of plants in order to facilitate the lignocellulose-to-bioethanol conversion process.

  11. Reproductive studies in ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. stockes; Rubiaceae: pollen development and morphology

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    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out the reproductive studies on Brazilian accessions of ipecac, Psychotria ipecacuanha. It presented heterostyly, with brevistylous and longistylous flowers. The pollen development was observed from the sections of the anthers embedded in resin. Anther development was normal as usually observed in dicotyledones, displaying four layers: outer epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and inner tapetum. The pollen was bicellular and filled with starch at the microspore stage. Pollen morphology was studied using SEM, which showed pollen polymorphism within and between the two floral morphs. Five types of pollen with reticulate or perforate exine were identified. The characteristics showed that the sexual process was as important as the vegetative propagation for the reproduction of this species.Foram realizados estudos reprodutivos em acessos brasileiros de poaia, Psychotria ipecacuanha. Poaia apresenta heterostilia, com flores brevistilas e longistilas. O desenvolvimento do pólen foi estudado em cortes de anteras embebidas em resina. O desenvolvimento da antera seguiu o padrão normal para as dicotiledôneas, a qual apresentou quatro camadas: epiderme, endotécio, camada média, e tapete, a mais interna. O pólen apresentou-se bicelular e preenchido com amido no estágio de micrósporo. A morfologia do pólen foi estudada utilizando-se MEV. Foi observado polimorfismo polínico dentro e entre as duas formas florais. Foram identificados cinco tipos de grãos de pólen, com exina reticulada ou perfurada. Em seu hábitat natural, sabe-se que essa espécie apresenta propagação por multiplicação vegetativa, mas as características estudadas demonstraram que o mecanismo sexuado é tão importante para a reprodução dessa espécie quanto à propagação vegetativa.

  12. Pollination and floral biology of Adonis vernalis L. (Ranunculaceae – a case study of threatened species

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    Bożena Denisow

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the knowledge of pollination systems of rare and threatened species is one of the principles for development of optimal conservation and management strategies, the data about their pollination requirements are scarce or incomplete. Different problems are listed (xerothermic habitat disappearance, overgrowing of patches, plant biology i.e., slow plant growth, problems with seed germination among the possible causes of Adonis vernalis being threatened, but until now no consideration was given to the flowering biology and pollination. The observations of flowering biology of A. vernalis (Ranunculaceae, a clonal species, were conducted in an out-of-compact-range population, in the Lublin Upland, Poland (51°18'55" N, 22°38'21" E, in 2011–2013. The reproductive potential of A. vernalis is related to the population age structure, pollination syndrome, and breeding system. The flowers exhibit incomplete protogyny. The dichogamy function is supported by different (biological, morphological mechanisms. Stigma receptivity occurred about one day before anthers started shedding self-pollen, and pollen viability was increasing gradually during the flower life-span (66.3% in distal anthers vs. 77.3% in proximal. The decrease in pollen production and in pollen viability coincided with the lowest degree of seed set, irrespective of the pollination treatment. Pollen vectors are necessary for efficient pollination, as the proportion of pistils setting fruits after open pollination (41–82.1% was significantly higher compared to spontaneous self-pollination (only 5.5–12.3%. The pollination requirements together with pollen/ovule ratio (P/O = 501 indicate a facultative xenogamous breeding system in A. vernalis. Therefore, in the conditions of the global lack of pollinators, improper pollination may weaken the population by leading to a decrease in the proportion of recombinants, and in addition to other factors, may accelerate extinction of small A

  13. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

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    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  14. Rapid pyramiding of low phytic acid mutation and ferritin gene for improvement of mineral nutritional quality of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional quality is an important component of the rice grain. Development of low phytic acid (lpa) crops, in which the PA phosphorus (Pi) content is significantly reduced in grains, has recently been considered as a potential way to increase bioavailability of Zn2+ and Fe3+ in the rice grain. Another potential approach to improve nutritional quality is to express ferritin gene from legume crops to increase iron content in rice grain. We have isolated a low phytic acid rice mutant (lpa- XS110-1) and obtained transgenic rice expressing the ferritin gene from pea. Two transgenic lines (Fer34 and Fer65) had iron content about five times that of the parent XS110 (Ye et al 2007). To pyramid the low phytic acid mutation and ferritin gene into one line, two crosses were made between Fer34 and lpa-XS110-1 and between Fer65/ lpa-XS110-1. The F1 anthers were subjected to anther culture to obtain stable homozygous plants. A total of 43 doubled haploid (DH) lines were obtained from the Fer34/ lpa-XS110-1 cross, and 86 DH lines from Fer65/ lpa-XS110-1. For individual trait, both low phytic acid and the Ferritin gene (indirectly assayed with Gus) were inherited as a single locus. In combination, four recombinant traits were obtained, i.e high inorganic pi (lpa)/Gus+, lpa/Gus-, low inorganic pi/Gus+, and low inorganic pi/Gus-, the ratio of each recombinant was in accordance with the ratio of 1: 1: 1; 1, , indicating that lpa and Fer gene were not linked, and segregated as a single locus. The results suggest doubled haploid production is a rapid approach to pyramid useful genes from different origin for rice improvement. This study was jointly supported by funds from IAEA (12229), the Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province. (author)

  15. 卷丹小孢子母细胞减数分裂染色体行为的研究%Chromosom Behavior of Pollen Mother Cell in Meiosis Process for Lilium lancifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 贾桂霞

    2013-01-01

    对引种于陕西汉中地区的三倍体卷丹的小孢子母细胞减数分裂进程、花粉生活力和可育性进行了分析.结果显示:减数分裂时期与花蕾、花药长度及花药壁颜色呈现出一定的相关性,处于减数分裂时期的卷丹花蕾长度在2.5 ~3.2 cm之间,花药长度在1.4~1.8 cm之间;从细线期到成熟花粉粒,花药壁的颜色呈现出淡绿色-淡黄绿色-黄绿色-橘黄色的变化趋势,花药内容物颜色也从透明逐渐变为粘稠的橘红色.减数分裂终变期染色体构型以三价体为主,平均构型为:11.6Ⅲ+2Ⅱ+1.1Ⅰ,可判断该种源地卷丹为同源三倍体.减数分裂中出现染色体不均等分裂、染色体落后、染色体桥及微核现象,同时观察到成熟花粉粒大小差异较大,极轴与赤道轴秉积在839.465 ~3327.907μm2范围内,趋于正态分布,为三倍体卷丹花粉的高度不育提供了细胞学证据.以卷丹为母本与大花卷丹进行杂交,得到一定数量的种子,其中有胚率达到了43.0%,成苗率为67.4%,说明三倍体卷丹在百合育种中具有一定的价值.%The meiosis process of pollen mother cell, the pollen grains vitality of Lilium lancifolium from Hanzhong district,Shanxi province,was observed. The results showed that the length of buds and anthers, and the color of the anther wall were related to the stage of the meiosis process. The length of buds and anther which were in the meiosis process were between 2. 5 and 3.2 cm /1.4 and 1.8 cm,respectively. The main chromosome configurations were trivalent in diakinesis stage, and the average configuration was 11.6Ⅲ+2Ⅱ+1.1Ⅰ , which showed that the L. lancifolium was used in this experiment was autotriploid. The asymmetric division, chromosome lag, chromosome bridge, and micronucleus were present in distinct meiosis stages, which provided the cytological evidence for the low fertility of pollen grain. The prospect of application of tripolid L. lancifolium

  16. Advances in physiological mechanisms of spikelet fertility in rice at flowering stage under high temperature stress%水稻花期高温胁迫影响颖花育性生理机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁天; 唐茂艳; 王强; 陈雷; 李炜; 陈畅; Farooq Shah; 梁天锋

    2012-01-01

    The local short and extremely high temperature resulted due to rise in global warming is expected to have a tremendous impact on growth and physiological metabolisms of rice, and periodic episodes of heat stress are predicted to occur more frequently in the near future. Flowering stage is the most sensitive stage to high temperature, and very easily led to develop sterility of spikelet. Significant difference in response to temperature stress exists among rice genotypes. When rice flowers at cooler time of day, it has higher pollen activity, larger anther, longer dehiscence length and pores of anther basal, which are important phenotypic indices for high temperature tolerance. The expression of heat shock protein, enhancing antioxidant activity of anther, keeping stability of structural proteins, enzymes and membranes are important physiological mechanisms for strengthening thermo tolerance of stigma and its pollens. At present, many researchers have studied the fertilization and seed setting characteristics of rice spikelet which was affected by high temperature stress, and the morphological characteristics and physiological mechanism of rice tolerance to high temperature, while the strategies and methods to mitigate heat stress in rice are still very poor, therefore, these should be further explored and studied on the basis of previous researches.%全球气候变暖产生的局部短期极端高温,会对水稻形成高温胁迫,影响水稻的各种生理代谢过程,其出现频率有增加趋势.高温胁迫对水稻的影响主要是在开花期,极易导致严重的颖花不育.水稻耐高温胁迫能力存在基因型间的差异.在当天温度较低的时段开花,花粉活性高,花药长,花药基部开裂长度较长、开裂孔较大,是水稻耐高温胁迫的重要表型指标.热激蛋白的表达,提高花药的抗氧化能力,以及维持结构蛋白、酶和细胞膜的稳定性是增强柱头及柱头上花粉粒耐高温胁迫的重要生理

  17. 温敏型核雄性不育系番茄T4育性的研究%Studies on Fertility of Thermo-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Tomato,Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.—T4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先裕; 于分弟; 梁聪耀; 李良劭; 黄维娜; 杜永臣; 刘政国; 曾东; 潘立凡

    2011-01-01

    以温敏型核雄性不育系番茄T4及对照First为试材,通过调查花粉发芽率、自交结实率、果实种子数以及采用Tricine-SDS-PAGE电泳方法分析叶片及花药蛋白质的变化,研究T4的育性转化,并分析其在可育和不育条件下花粉发芽率、自交结实率、果实种子数、叶片及花药蛋白质的差异.结果表明:28℃/18℃(昼/夜)处理的T4花粉发芽率、自交结实率最高,果实种子数最多,与对照First差异不显著,表明此时T4恢复部分育性;28℃/24℃和28℃/12℃处理的T4花粉发芽率、自交结实率和果实种子数与对照差异均达到极显著水平,表现为不育.不同温度处理的T4花药蛋白质与叶片蛋白质差异均达到显著水平;28℃/24℃和28℃/12℃处理的T4叶片蛋白质与对照差异显著,但28 ℃/18℃处理的差异不明显.%Taking thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. T4 and the control First as experimental materials, this paper investigated pollen germination rate,self-breeding rate and fruit seed number, analyzed the protein changes in leaf and anther by Tricine-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to comprehend fertile conversion of T4. The paper also analyzed the pollen germination rate, self-breeding rate and fruit seed number, protein differences in leaf and anther under fertility and sterility conditions. The results showed that pollen germination rate, self-breeding rate and fruit seed number of T4 were the highest with 28 ^C/IS V, ( day/night ) treatment. There was no significant difference compared with the control First. It indicated that T4 had restored partial fertility. But, with 28 t/24 °C and 28 t/12 X. Treatments the pollen germination rate, self-breeding rate and fruit seed number of T4 had significant differences with the control First, and T4 expressed as sterile line. There were significant differences in leaf protein and anther protein of T4 under different temperature treatments

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of an Image Analysis System for Determining Viability of Pollen Grains in Temperate Rice Implementación y Evaluación de un Sistema de Análisis de Imagen para determinar la Viabilidad de Granos de Polen en Arroz Templado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ortega B

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical and climatic factors limit the production of temperate rice (Oryza sativa L. in Chile. Large thermal fluctuations of air and water temperatures affect the viability of pollen, causing high levels of spikelet sterility (”blanking”, resulting in reduced yields per hectare. Counting viable pollen grains, at the time of anthesis, may allow determining, ahead, whether there will be yield losses by spikelet sterility; besides, knowing the potential pollen viability serves as a powerful tool for material selection in breeding programs, and for determining which management factors may influence ”blanking”. If performed manually, counting total and viable pollen grains can be extremely tedious, producing highly variable results. The present work had for objectives to develop and evaluate a system, based on imagery analysis, for counting total and viable pollen in rice anthers. At the time of anthesis, three panicles were collected from plot treatments of two field experiments in which the effects of different management factors (variety, water height, N rate, and spatial arrangement on spikelet sterility were evaluated. Two spikelets and four anthers were sampled from each panicle; pollen grains were extracted from anthers and photographed. Manual and digital counts were made on the images to determine total and viable pollen. Digital count was performed with the software SigmaScan Pro, setting some parameters on the imagery before counting. Precision and accuracy of the digital method were estimated. The results indicated that the digital pollen count showed a very good precision and accuracy and could be used to estimate pollen viability, and as a response variable to compare management treatments.La producción de arroz (Oryza sativa L. en Chile está limitada principalmente por factores geográficos y climáticos. Las grandes variaciones de temperatura del agua y del aire afectan la viabilidad del polen, causando altos niveles de

  19. Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice

  20. Biologia floral e sistema de polinização de Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Pernambuco Floral biology and pollination system of Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in an Atlantic Forest remnant in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Lúcia de S. Bezerra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A deiscência de anteras através de pequenos poros apicais é uma característica encontrada em várias espécies da família Solanaceae, especialmente no gênero Solanum, característica esta que restringe a polinização a um grupo de abelhas fêmeas capazes de vibrar as anteras para retirada do pólen. A fenologia, biologia floral e a polinização de Solanum stramonifolium foram estudadas entre os meses de agosto/1999 a dezembro/2000 em populações naturais ocorrentes no Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, um dos poucos remanescentes de Mata Atlântica localizada em Recife, Pernambuco (8°7'30"S e 34°52'30"W. Solanum stramonifolium é um arbusto com flores dispostas em inflorescências racemosas, apresentando corola branca e cinco estames de um amarelo intenso, com anteras poricidas dispostas ao redor do gineceu. A antese ocorre nas primeiras horas do dia, havendo reflexão de luz ultravioleta e presença de áreas de concentração de emissão de odor por toda a corola e na região apical das anteras. Solanum stramonifolium tem padrão de floração contínuo e apresenta flores hermafroditas (62% e funcionalmente masculinas (38%, o que caracteriza a espécie como andromonóica.Treze espécies de abelhas foram observadas visitando as flores de S. stramonifolium (nove polinizadores e quatro pilhadores. A constante e grande produção de flores faz com que Solamun stramonifolium mantenha sua guilda de polinizadores e garanta assim a sua reprodução, sendo, ao mesmo tempo, uma importante fonte de recursos para a manutenção destas abelhas.The anthers deiscense through two small apical pores is a feature found in many species of Solanaceae, especially in the genus Solanum. This feature restricts pollination to a group of female bees which are able to vibrate the anthers (buzz pollination. The phenology, floral biology and pollination of Solanum stramonifolium were studied between August/1999 and December/2000 in natural populations occurring

  1. 几类小麦雄性不育系育性敏感期的可溶性蛋白质变化研究%Research on Soluble Protein Changes in Several Types of Wheat Male Sterile Line during the Fertility-sensitive Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宏伟; 马翎健

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study the soluble protein changes in several types of wheat male sterile line during the fertility-sensitive period. [Method] Two K-types wheat male sterile lines, the maintainer line and the YS type temperature sensitive male sterile line were selected as the research objects, their soluble protein contents of the penultimate leaf and anther were studied in the process of pollen development. [Result] Protein content in the male sterile line anther tended to increase from meiosis to uninucleate stage, declined from uninucleale stage to tri-nucleate stage, and the descent rate was the fastest between uninucleate stage and binucleate stage among all stages. The protein content of maintainer line from uninucleate stage to trinucleate stage declined slower than that of the male sterile line, the soluble protein content of the male sterile line was significantly lower than that of the maintainer lines during the entire period. Soluble protein content of anther had more change than that of leaves of sterile line and maintainer line during the whole growth period. Protein content had no significant difference between the male sterile line and YS type temperature sensitive male sterile line. Solubte protein content of the male sterile line was found decreasing significantly. [Conclusion] Protein synthesis blocked or more protein degradation will lead to physiological metabolism disorders, and the development of pollen will be hindered.%[目的]研究几种小麦雄性不育系育性敏感期的可溶性蛋白质含量变化.[方法]以2种K型小麦雄性不育系及保持系和YS型温敏不育系为材料,对花粉发育过程中倒二叶和花药中可溶性蛋白质含量进行研究.[结果]不育系花药中蛋白质含量从减数分裂期至单核期呈上升趋势,而单核期至三核期呈下降趋势,且单核期至二核期下降速率最快;保持系在单核期至三核期蛋白质含量下降较不育系缓慢,整个时期可溶性蛋白

  2. Structure of staminate flowers, microsporogenesis, and microgametogenesis in Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis (Balanophoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Ana María

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the microgametogenesis and microsporogenesis of the male flowers of the holoparasitic Helosis cayennensis (Sw. Spreng. var. cayennensis using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The unisexual flowers are embedded in a dense mass of uniseriate trichomes (filariae. Male flowers have a tubular 3-lobed perianth, with bilayered and non vascularized tepals. The androecium consists of three stamens with filaments and thecae connated into a synandrium. It has adnate a free central pistillode without megagametophyte. Staminal filaments, fused at their base to the perianth tube and distally free along a short section, have a single vascular bundle. The distal portion of the synandrium is formed by nine pollen sacs: six outer sacs are located laterally to each filament and three longer inner sacs. The anther wall consists of the epidermis, two parietal layers (that collapse at anther maturity, and an uninucleate secretory tapetum. There is no endothecium. During microsporogenesis, the stem cells produce tetrads of microspores by meiosis. The cytokinesis is simultaneous, forming tetrahedrally arranged tetrads. When pollen grains are in the tricellular state, the synandrium emerges from the mass of filariae, and anthers dehiscence occurs apically through longitudinal slits. In conclusion, despite the extreme reduction of flowers, the anatomic characteristics and gametophyte development of staminate flowers of H. cayennensis are perfectly normal and functional. They are thus highly similar to other genera of the holoparasitic subfamily Helosidoideae. Sterile parts of flowers and inflorescence maintain the same distinctive and aberrant features of the plant vegetative parts.Se analizó la estructura de las flores masculinas de Helosis cayennensis (Sw. Spreng. var. cayennensis con microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y se estudió la microesporogénesis y la microgametogénesis. Las flores funcionalmente unisexuales se encuentran

  3. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae em mata de galeria Reproductive biology of Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae in gallery forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Peres Coelho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae é o gênero com mais espécies heterostílicas dentre as Angiospermas. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a biologia floral, fenologia, o sistema reprodutivo e os polinizadores de Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. As inflorescências são capitadas terminais, com brácteas vermelhas e flores amarelas apresentando dois morfos distintos: brevistiladas e longistiladas, caracterizadas por flores hermafroditas com diferentes comprimentos de estiletes e posicionamento oposto das anteras (hercogamia recíproca. Encontrou-se diferenças no tamanho das anteras, dos grãos de pólen e da superfície estigmática entre os morfotipos. Polinizações controladas mostraram que os morfotipos apresentam auto-incompatibilidade e intramorfo-incompatibilidade ao nível do estigma e do estilete. Os visitantes são pequenas vespas, abelhas, borboletas e beija-flores, que visitam as flores com maior freqüência no início da manhã. De acordo com a freqüência e eficiência no comportamento de transportar os grãos de pólen entre os morfos florais, o principal polinizador foi o beija-flor Thalurania furcata. O néctar é produzido em pequena quantidade (máximo de 8µl e durante a abertura das flores, que ocorre entre 5 e 7h. A espécie forma agrupamentos devido à existência de reprodução vegetativa.Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae is the genus with the most heterostylous species in the angiosperms. The objective of this study is to describe floral biology, phenology, reproductive system, and pollinators of Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. The terminal inflorescences are capitate with red bracts and yellow flowers, and presented two different morphs: pin and thrum, characterized by hermaphroditic flowers with different lengths of styles and opposed position of the anthers (reciprocal herkogamy. Dimorphism was also observed in the size of anthers, pollen grains and stigmatic surfaces. Controlled pollination revealed self

  4. Flower morpho-anatomy in Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae Morfo-anatomía de la flor de Epiphyllum phyllanthus (Cactaceae

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    Odair José Garcia de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution was to analyze the morpho-anatomical floral structure of Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L. Haw., a widely distributed species across South America, occurring in humid forests as an epiphyte. Flowers and flower buds were collected in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, fixed, processed, and analyzed under light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The flower is sessile and epigynous with a well-developed hypanthium. All flower whorls have uniseriate epidermis. Secretory cavities containing mucilage and calcium oxalate crystals occur throughout the floral parenchymatous tissue. The androecium has many stamens with tetrasporangiate and bithecal anthers. The wall of the young anther is formed by epidermis, endothecium, a middle layer, and binucleate secretory tapetum that eventually becomes uninucleate. The gynoecium is syncarpous with 9-10 carpels, pluriovulate, and with parietal placentation. The ovary has inverted vascular bundles in a similar pattern as in Pereskia. The nectariferous region occurs on the inner surface of the hypanthium. The stigma has 9-10 lobes with a secretory epidermis. The ovules are circinotropous, bitegmic, crassinucelate, and have long funiculus as in many other Cactaceae.El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la morfo-anatomía de la flor de Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L. Haw, especie con distribución amplia en los bosques húmedos de América del Sur como epífita. Se recolectaron flores y botones en Maringá, PR, Brasil, fijados, procesados y analizados con microscopio de luz y con microscopio electrónico de barrido. La flor es sésil, epígina con hipanto desarrollado. Todos los verticilos florales presentan epidermis simple. Cavidades secretoras con mucilago y cristales de oxalato de calcio se encuentran en todo el tejido parenquimático de la flor. El androceo posee muchos estambres, con anteras bitecas y tetraesporangiadas. La pared de la antera joven está formada por epidermis

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  6. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  7. Effect of N fertilizer application on apex development of different tiller positions at different spike development stages%氮肥施用时期对小麦不同茎蘖位顶端发育的调控效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李存东; 曹卫星; 张月辰; 严美春

    2001-01-01

    氮素营养是影响小麦顶端发育的重要因子。本研究表明,分别于护颖原基分化期、雌雄蕊原基分化期和药隔分化期施用氮肥,尽管均未影响到主茎叶原基数,以及主茎(MS)和T1、T2分蘖(主茎第1、2分蘖)的总小穗数,但是明显加快了主茎的出叶速率,减少了各主要茎蘖(MS、T1、T2、T3)不孕小穗数。此外,护颖和雌雄蕊原基分化期施用氮肥,能够促进上述主要茎蘖小花原基的分化,增加其总小花数;而护颖至药隔分化期施用氮肥则明显促进了MS、T1、T2和T3的小花结实。研究结果为高产小麦栽培调控和生长模拟提供了依据。%Nitrogen nutrition is one of the important factors which impactapex development in wheat. It was found that the treatments of applying nitrogen fertilizer at glum (N1), pistil(N2) and anther (N3) differentiation stages, respectively, had no effect on the leaf primordium number on main stem (MS ) and spikelet numbers on MS, T1 and T2 (the first and second tillers on MS). Compared with N0 (no N fertilizer applied in spring), the treatments of N1, N2 an d N3 enhanced the rate of leaf emergence on MS and lessened the infertile spikelets on MS, T1, T2 and T3. The treatments of N1 and N2 improved the floret primordium differentiation, which resulted in more florets on MS, T1, T2 and T3. Also, applying N fertilizer from grum to anther differentiation stage could enhance evidently the grain setting rate of florets on MS, T1, T2 and T3. The results will help the cultural regulation and growth simulation in high-yielding wheat .

  8. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

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    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  9. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Canarian Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii (Solanaceae

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    Anderson, Gregory J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The endemic and rare Solanum vespertilio and S. lidii from the Canary Islands are notable in being andromonoecious, self compatible, highly heterandrous (with short >reward= anthers and one very long >pollination= anther, and bearing strongly zygomorphic corollas. Solanum vespertilio flowers are also tetramerous, and some display enantiostyly. Given their island distribution, uncommon for solanums, and many distinctive reproductive features, the phylogenetic position is of interest. With new molecular data from the chloroplast trnT-F region and the nuclear granule-bound starch synthase gene (GBSSI or waxy, we confirm the hypothesis that these two species are phylogenetically associated with Solanum lineages from Africa, rather than with previously suggested Mexican species. The phylogeny facilitates understanding the evolution of the unique suite of reproductive characteristics in these island endemics.Las endémicas y raras especies Solanum vespertilio y S. lidii de las Islas Canarias son notables por ser andromonoicas, autocompatibles, altamente heterándricas (con anteras cortas para recompensa y una muy larga para polinización y por tener corolas fuertemente zigomórficas. Las flores de Solanum vespertilio son, además, tetrámeras y muestran enantiostilia. Dada su distribución insular, poco común para Solanum, y sus distintivas características reproductivas, su posición filogenética es de interés. Con nuevos datos moleculares de la región trnT-F del ADN del cloroplasto y del gen nuclear de la enzima almidón sintasa unida al gránulo (GBSSI o waxy, confirmamos la hipótesis de que estas dos especies están filogenéticamente asociadas con los linajes geográficamente próximos de Solanum africanos, más que con especies mexicanas previamente sugeridas. La filogenia facilita la comprensión de la evolución del conjunto singular de características reproductivas de estas especies endémicas de islas.

  10. Meiotic observations of the pollen mother cells of Dimocarpus longan%龙眼花粉母细胞减数分裂观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽琴; 谢江辉; 李伟才; 王一承; 魏永赞; 石胜友

    2011-01-01

    The developed smearing method was adopted to observe the meiosis process of pollen mother cell(PMC)of Shixia longan(Dimocarpus longan Lour.cv.Shixia)in this article.The results showed that:(1).The meiosis process of longan pollen mother cells were closely correlated with the bud size and the anther color,and the difference in the stages of meiosis existed in the same bud and anther.(2).There were a series of abnormal phenomena in meiotic division of pollen mother cells such as chromosome fragments,lagging chromosomes,chromosome bridges,asynchronization of chromosomes segregation,micronucleus,deviant tetra and so on.The reason of abnormal phenomena in meiosis of pollen mother cells was analyzed on cytogenetics levels.This research aimed to provide scientific evidence for cytogenetics and breeding of longan varieties.%以龙眼石硖品种为材料,采用改良涂片法对花粉母细胞减数分裂过程进行了系统观察。结果表明,(1)龙眼减数分裂进程与花蕾大小,花药颜色有密切关系,在同一花蕾甚至同一花药中表现不同步性。(2)龙眼减数分裂染色体行为存在染色体片段、落后染色体、染色体桥、分裂不同步、微核及多分体等异常现象,从细胞遗传学水平上分析了龙眼花粉母细胞减数分裂异常的原因。为龙眼细胞遗传学的深入研究和品种改良提供了科学依据。

  11. Observation on Microstructure of Male Abortion in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜雄性败育的显微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福青; 李敏; 曲咏梅

    2001-01-01

    通过对核质互作型雄性不育系169A和核雄性不育两用系88_3的细胞形态解剖学观察表明,两个不育系在开花时雄性细胞均表现100%的败育,花药的表皮细胞均具有生活力,但败育形式、时期、特点各异。169A败育发生于孢原细胞前后,以孢原细胞退化,或转变成薄壁细胞为主要特点。88_3败育从小孢子母细胞至二核花粉粒皆有发生,高峰期在四分体前后(约占80%),小孢子母细胞不能进入减数分裂和不能完成减数分裂及小孢子不能正常发育是败育的主要形式,但败育特点均是败育一旦发生便是急剧而彻底的解体或凝集成一团。%The morphological anatomical characters of the anthers from nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction male sterile line 169A and genic male sterile line 88-3 were observed. The results showed that the epidermal cells of the anther had viability,while the male sex cell of the two sterile lines appeared 100% abortion at blooming date, however,their abortion form,duration and characters were different.The abortion of 169A occurred before to behind of the sporogonia,whose important characterization was that the sporogonia degenerated or transformed into the parenchyma cells. The abortion of 88-3 ocurred from the microspore mother cells to pollen grains of two-nucleus,while the high peak stage of abortion(80%) occurred before and after the tetrad phase. The main abortion forms of 88-3 were that the microspore mother cells were not able to enter meiosis process and to finish meiosis,and the microspores were not able to develop normally.The same abortion character of the two male sterile lines was that the microspore mother cells and microspores sharply and thoroughly disintegrated or aggregated when abortion occurred.

  12. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003 Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

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    Samyra Ramos Chaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self

  13. Sistema de reprodução de Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC Reproduction system of Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC

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    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available R. dichotoma (Lam. DC. é um arbusto que ocorre na região central do Brasil em ambientes úmidos, brejosos, formando nestes locais grandes populações. O período de floração desta espécie é longo de 6-8 meses. Neste estudo realizado no município de Tanabi (São Paulo, o pico de floração ocorreu no mês de abril. Semelhante ao observado em outras Melastomataceae de anteras tubulares e deiscência poricida, R. dichotoma é polinizada por abelhas vibradoras. Este estudo constatou que esta espécie é autocompatível com 59% de sucesso obtido nas autopolinizações manuais (n=90 e não foi observada a presença de agamospernmia (n=85. A polinização cruzada (xenogamia foi predominante, sendo que 66% das flores polinizadas desenvolveram frutos (n=92. Surpreendentemente, apesar desta espécie apresentar anteras poricidas constatou-se a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea em 33% das flores (n=92.R. dichotoma (Lam.. DC. is a shrub native of Central Brazil, occurring in large population in wet, marsh like environment. The present study was carried out at the municipality of Tanabi (São Paulo State. The flowering season of this species is long lasting ca. 6-8 months, but April is the month when most individuals are in flower. Similar to other Melastomataceae species possessing tubular and poricidal anthers, R. dichotoma is pollinated by buzz bees. The species, as indicated in this study, is self-compatible, 59% of success resulted from artificial self-pollination (n=90. Agamospermy did not occur (n=85. Cross pollination (xenogamy proved to be predominant: 66% fruits was obtained from cross-pollinated flowers (n=92. Although the present species has poricidal anthers, surprisingly spontaneous sef-pollination was observed 33% of success (n=92.

  14. Morfo-anatomia da flor de Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees (Lauraceae Morphology and anatomy of the flower of Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees (Lauraceae

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    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A flor de Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees foi estudada morfo-anatomicamente de plantas de floresta secundária de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, uma região crítica com menos de 1% de cobertura vegetal. O estudo também consistiu de observações sobre antese e insetos visitadores de flores dessa espécie. A antese é diurna e a flor pode ser visitada por insetos pertencentes às ordens Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera e Hemiptera. As tépalas têm epiderme simples e mesofilo parenquimático homogêneo. Os nectários são globosos, parenquimáticos, com predominância de tecido vascular floemático. As anteras são tetrasporangiadas e sua estrutura revela epiderme, endotécio, duas ou três camadas médias e tapete secretor. O gineceu possui estigma com papilas uni ou bicelulares, ovário de parede estruturalmente simples e óvulo anátropo bitegumentado. As flores femininas têm anteras estéreis e as masculinas pistilódio, o que caracteriza a espécie tipicamente como dióica.The morphology and anatomy of the flower of Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees (Lauraceae are studied in the secondary forest of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil, a critical region with less than 1% of its area covered by forests. The study also consists of observations about anthesis and pollination of the species. The anthesis is diurnal and the flower may be visited by insects belonging to the Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera orders. The tepals have simple epidermis and homogeneous parenchymatous mesophyll. The nectaries are globose, parenchymatous and the terminal branches closest to the nectary consist principally of phloem. The anthers have four pollen sacs, endothecium, two or three middle layers and secretory tapetum. The gynoecium has stigma with uni or bicellular epidermic papillae, simple ovary wall and anatropous ovule with two integuments. The female flowers have sterile anthers and the male flowers have pistilode, which

  15. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  16. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

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    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  17. Marker-assisted selection for the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ar in a backcross population

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    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A doubled-haploid (DH population, obtained by anther culture of F1 plants from a cross between a highlysusceptible rice cultivar Lijiangxintuanheigu and the resistant somaclone (SC09, of the cultivar Araguaia, was used to identifyRAPD markers linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-ar. The 86 DH plants, inoculated with the race IB-9 of Magnaportheoryzae, segregated in 1:1 ratio of resistant and susceptible plants. Of the 67 primers used 31 produced DNA profiles thatdifferentiated resistant and susceptible bulks as well as the parental cultivars. The resistance gene was found linked to theprimer OPS162072 (‘AGGGGGTTCC’ at a distance of 3.6 cM. The selection efficiency of this primer was assessed in a BC3 F1population derived from another cross between a susceptible cultivar IAC 201 and SC09. The marker OPS16 showedefficiency of 86.9%, when six resistant and two susceptible plants were considered as negatives in RAPD analysis.

  18. Characterization of the flower morphology of three Duboisia species

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    Hiltrop, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropane alkaloid scopolamine, an important precursor of active pharmaceutical ingredients due to its anticholinergic properties, can be extracted from leaf material of Duboisia R. Br., a member of the Solanaceae family. Robust and high-yielding Duboisia plants are a major requirement in cultivation because of challenges such as climatic changes and the rising demand of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, breeding activities are carried out to improve Duboisia plants with regard to leaf and scopolamine yield maximization as well as a higher tolerance to environmental conditions. Molecular genetic analysis of highly conserved plastid sequences was used to prove the identity of the species Duboisia hopwoodii, D. myoporoides and D. leichhardtii. To evaluate different breeding options various flower characteristics have been analyzed by means of stereo microscopy for the three species. For D. hopwoodii and D. leichhardtii, all characteristics occur stably with nearly no variation. In contrast, the number of flower organs such as petals and anthers varied for D. myoporoides.

  19. Functional decoupling between flowers and leaves in the Ameroglossum pernambucense complex can facilitate local adaptation across a pollinator and climatic heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, A M; Galetto, L; Machado, I C S

    2016-03-01

    Decoupling between floral and leaf traits is expected in plants with specialized pollination systems to assure a precise flower-pollinator fit, irrespective of leaf variation associated with environmental heterogeneity (functional modularity). Nonetheless, developmental interactions among floral traits also decouple flowers from leaves regardless of selection pressures (developmental modularity). We tested functional modularity in the hummingbird-pollinated flowers of the Ameroglossum pernambucense complex while controlling for developmental modularity. Using two functional traits responsible for flower-pollinator fit [floral tube length (TL) and anther-nectary distance (AN)], one floral trait not linked to pollination [sepal length (SL), control for developmental modularity] and one leaf trait [leaf length (LL)], we found evidence of flower functional modularity. Covariation between TL and AN was ca. two-fold higher than the covariation of either of these traits with sepal and leaf lengths, and variations in TL and AN, important for a precise flower-pollinator fit, were smaller than SL and LL variations. Furthermore, we show that previously reported among-population variation of flowers associated with local pollinator phenotypes was independent from SL and LL variations. These results suggest that TL and AN are functionally linked to fit pollinators and sufficiently decoupled from developmentally related floral traits (SL) and vegetative traits (LL). These results support previous evidences of population differentiation due to local adaptation in the A. pernambucense complex and shed light on the role of flower-leaf decoupling for local adaptation in species distributed across biotic and abiotic heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:26663030

  20. Pollination of Greenhouse Tomatoes by the Mexican bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Carlos Hernan Vergara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican native bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus Say was evaluated as a potential pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.. The experiments were performed at San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, from June to December 2004 in two 1 000 m2 greenhouses planted with tomatoes of the cultivar Mallory (Hazera ®. For the experiments, we used two colonies of Bombus ephippiatus, reared in the laboratory from queens captured in the field. Four treatments were applied to 20 study plants: pollination by bumble bees, manual pollination, pollination by mechanical vibration and no pollination (bagged flowers, no vibration. We measured percentage of flowers visited by bumble bees, number of seeds per fruit, maturing time, sugar content, fruit weight and fruit shape. All available flowers were visited by bumblebees, as measured by the degree of anther cone bruising. The number of seeds per fruit was higher for bumble bee-pollinated plants as compared with plants pollinated mechanically or not pollinated and was not significantly different between hand-pollinated and bumble bee-pollinated plants. Maturation time was significantly longer and sugar content, fresh weight and seed count were significantly higher for bumblebee pollinated flowers than for flowers pollinated manually or with no supplemental pollination, but did not differ with flowers pollinated mechanically.

  1. Comparison of Bee Pollinators of Coffee in Organic and Conventional Farms

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    Rebecca H.N. Karanja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kenyan Coffea arabica L. is globally recognised for its high quality and it is used to blend other coffees in the world market. No previous studies in Kenya have identified pollinators of coffee and this necessitated the study. Coffea arabica was thought to be self-pollinated but recent studies have given an indication that it is amphicarpic thus needing pollinator services. This is especially for the self sterile flowers while in self fertile flowers pollination success rate is enhanced. This study assessed the diversity of bee pollinators of coffee in organic and conventional farming system in Kiambu Kenya. Sampling of bees found to evidently carry pollen and interact with anthers was done and these bees were recorded. Sixty three bee species were sampled with organic farm having 60 species and conventional farm 24 species. Bee abundance and diversity between organic and conventional farms differed significantly (t = -2.1227, df = 61, p<0.05. Andrena (sp possibly a new species was collected. Findings from this study revealed that wild bees other than Apis mellifera are important pollinators of coffee. The wild bees were few in numbers and ways of enhancing their populations should be devised.

  2. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase OsCIPK23 functions in pollination and drought stress responses in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Droughtis very harmful to grain yield due to its adverse effect on reproduction,especially on pollination proeess in rice.However,the molecular basis of such an effect still remains largely unknown.Here,wereport the role of amember of CBL(Calcineurin B-Like)Interacting Protein Kinase(CIPK)family,OsCIPK23,in pollination and stress responses in dee.Molecular analyses revealed that it is mainly expressed in pistil and anther but up-regulated by pollination,as well as by treatments of various abiotic stresses and phytohormones.RNA interference-mediated suppression of OsCIPK23 expression significantly reduced seed set and conferred a hypersensitive response to drought stress,indicating its possible roles in pollination and drought stress.In consistent,overexpression of OsCIPK23 induced the expression of seVeral drought tolerance related genes.Taken together,these results indicate that OsCIPK23 is a multistress induced gene and likely mediatesa signaling pathway commonly shared by both pollination and drought stress responses in rice.

  3. An Examination of the Function of Male Flowers in an Andromonoecious Shrub Capparis spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Dun-Yan Tan

    2009-01-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  4. Studies of the in vitro selection of novel disease resistant plants and mutagenesis of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera cv Primor which had been regenerated from secondary embryoids were found to be more susceptible to Leptosphaeria maculans than those grown from seed, but were generally more resistant to Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro selection of secondary embryoids on medium containing toxic filtrates of A. brassicicola did not result in significantly higher levels of resistance to the pathogen, and in the case of L. maculans, the plants were found to be more susceptible after the selection steps. When tissues were challenged with pycnidiospores of L. maculans it was possible to define growth conditions in which differential reactions correlated with in vivo responses. Studies on in vitro mutagenesis revealed that low doses of gamma rays enhanced the production of anther embryoids, although, whereas both gamma and X-rays reduced the regeneration capacity of treated tissues, irradiation with UV did not. Increased resistance to A. brassicicola was detected in doubled haploid plants following a seed treatment with EMS and from microspore culture following UV irradiation. In vitro studies of Helianthus annuus and Macrophomina phaseolina, and Zea mays and Fusarium moniliforme are also reported. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Aechmea pectinata: a hummingbird-dependent bromeliad with inconspicuous flowers from the rainforest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Maria Bernadete Ferreira; Sazima, Marlies

    2003-11-01

    The pollination biology of Aechmea pectinata (Bromeliaceae) was studied in a submontane rainforest in south-eastern Brazil. This species has a mainly clumped distribution and its aggregated individuals are likely to be clones. From October to January, during the flowering period, the distal third of its leaves becomes red. The inflorescence produces 1-15 flowers per day over a period of 20-25 d. The flowers are inconspicuous, greenish-white coloured, tubular shaped with a narrow opening, and the stigma is situated just above the anthers. Anthesis begins at 0400 h and flowers last for about 13 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occur between 0600 and 1000 h, and decrease throughout the day. Aechmea pectinata is self-incompatible and therefore pollinator-dependent. Hummingbirds are its main pollinators (about 90 % of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the morning. There is a positive correlation between the number of hummingbird visits per inflorescence and the production of nectar, suggesting that the availability of this resource is important in attracting and maintaining visitors. The arrangement of the floral structures favours pollen deposition on the bill of the hummingbirds. Flowers in clumps promote hummingbird territoriality, and a consequence is self-pollination in a broader sense (geitonogamy) as individuals in assemblages are genetically close. However, trap-lining and intruding hummingbirds promote cross-pollination. These observations suggest that successful fruit set of A. pectinata depends on both the spatial distribution of its individuals and the interactions among hummingbirds. PMID:14573525

  6. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

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    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  7. An evaluation of the sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis L. (Clusiaceae, based on reproductive features

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    Sasithorn Pangsuban

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis was evaluated regarding the basic structural specialization and reproductive characters under natural conditions. The species is gynodioecious with females (trees producing pistillate flowers, but hermaphrodites (trees producing perfect flowers co-occurred in the study site.Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between pure female and hermaphroditic flowers. Hermaphrodites have relatively long-filament flowers and produce abundant fertile pollen grains, whereas the females produce pollenless anthers. They also differ significantly in reproductive characters. Hermaphrodite flowers have more flowers per inflorescence than female flowers, but they gradually drop off before fruit setting. In contrast, female trees had relatively greater ovules per flower, larger fruits and more seeds per fruit than hermaphrodite trees. Moreover, average seed number from female trees was at least 1.7 times higher than that of the hermaphrodite trees. Interestingly, the fruit diameter of hermaphrodites was positively correlated to the number of seeds, whereas it was unrelated in females.

  8. Nujiangia (Orchidaceae: Orchideae): A new genus from the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua JIN; De-Zhu LI; Xiao-Guo XIANG; Yang-Jun LAI; Xiao-Chun SHI

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic “wildcard” taxon,Habenaria griffithii,were inferred from molecular data and morphological evidence.Morphologically,H.griffithii is quite “isolated” in Habenaria; instead,it is close to Gennaria,Diphylax,Peristylus,and Platanthera.It can be distinguished from these four genera by its slender staminodes conspicuously longer than the anther,rostellum having two relatively long arms,lip and lateral sepals connate in the basal part,and a transverse cushion-shaped stigma.An analysis of combined plastid and nuclear data (rbcL,matK,and internal transcribed spacer) using Bayesian and parsimony methods revealed that H.griffithii is closest to Gennaria,a monotypic genus restricted to the western Mediterranean and Canary Islands.On this basis,a new genus,Nujiangia,is tentatively proposed to accommodate this taxon.In addition to the taxonomic treatment of this genus,the delimitation of many related genera in Orchideae is discussed.

  9. [Cloning and expression analysis of a LIM-domain protein gene from cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Hou, Lei; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

    2003-02-01

    LIM-domain protein plays an important role in various cellular processes, including construction of cytoskeleton, transcription control and signal transduction. Based on cotton fiber EST database and contig analysis, the coding region of a cotton LIM-domain protein gene (GhLIM1) was obtained by RT-PCR from 4DPA (day post anthesis) ovule with fiber. The cloned fragment of 848 bp contains an open reading frame of 570 bp, coding for a polypeptide of 189 amino acids. It was demonstrated that the deduced GhLIM1 protein was highly homologous to the LIM-domain protein of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis thaliana. Two intact LIM-domains, with the conserved sequence of a double zinc-finger structure (C-X2-C-X17-19-H-X2-C-X2-C-X2-C-X16-24-C-X2-H), were found in the GhLIM1 protein. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis showed that GhLIM1 gene expressed in root, shoot tip, hypocotyls, bud, leaf, anther, ovule and fiber (4DPA, 12DPA, 18DPA). However it was preferentially expressed in the shoot tip, fiber and ovule. It was proposed that the express of GhLIM1 gene is related to cotton fiber development. PMID:12776607

  10. Three-dimensional reciprocity of floral morphs in wild flax (Linum suffruticosum): a new twist on heterostyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Arroyo, Juan; Edwards, Mary E; Vargas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Here, we studied the floral morphology and pollination of the distylous plant Linum suffruticosum (Linaceae) in southern Spain. We observed a previously unreported form of distyly that involved twisting and bending of styles and stamens during floral development to achieve three-dimensional reciprocity of anthers and stigmas in the long-styled (pin) and short-styled (thrum) morphs. This developmental pattern causes pin pollen to be placed on the underside of pollinating Usia flies (Bombyliidae), and thrum pollen to be placed on the top of the thorax and abdomen. The pin stigmas contact the flies on the dorsum, apparently picking up predominantly thrum pollen, and the thrum stigmas contact the flies on the ventral surface, apparently picking up predominantly pin pollen. This form of heterostyly would appear on morphological grounds to be far more efficient in dispersing pollen between compatible morphs than the typical pin-thrum system. If so, this plant fits Darwin's prediction of efficient pollen flow between heterostylous morphs more closely than anything Darwin himself reported. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that this form of heterostyly evolved in a lineage that already had typical heterostyly. The analyses also indicate that there have been several independent origins of heterostyly in Linum and at least one reversal to stylar monomorphism. PMID:16866960

  11. An effective approach for identification of in vivo protein-DNA binding sites from paired-end ChIP-Seq data

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    Wilson Zoe A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq, which combines chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with high-throughput massively parallel sequencing, is increasingly being used for identification of protein-DNA interactions in vivo in the genome. However, to maximize the effectiveness of data analysis of such sequences requires the development of new algorithms that are able to accurately predict DNA-protein binding sites. Results Here, we present SIPeS (Site Identification from Paired-end Sequencing, a novel algorithm for precise identification of binding sites from short reads generated by paired-end solexa ChIP-Seq technology. In this paper we used ChIP-Seq data from the Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS, which is expressed within the anther during pollen development, the results show that SIPeS has better resolution for binding site identification compared to two existing ChIP-Seq peak detection algorithms, Cisgenome and MACS. Conclusions When compared to Cisgenome and MACS, SIPeS shows better resolution for binding site discovery. Moreover, SIPeS is designed to calculate the mappable genome length accurately with the fragment length based on the paired-end reads. Dynamic baselines are also employed to effectively discriminate closely adjacent binding sites, for effective binding sites discovery, which is of particular value when working with high-density genomes.

  12. Trichomes control flower bud shape by linking together young petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiafu; Walford, Sally-Anne; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Llewellyn, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widespread in plants and develop from surface cells on different tissues(1). They have many forms and functions, from defensive spines to physical barriers that trap layers of air to insulate against desiccation, but there is growing evidence that trichomes can also have developmental roles in regulating flower structure(2,3). We report here that the trichomes on petals of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are essential for correct flower bud shape through a mechanical entanglement of the trichomes on adjacent petals that anchor the edges to counter the opposing force generated by asymmetric expansion of overlapping petals. Silencing a master regulator of petal trichomes, GhMYB-MIXTA-Like10 (GhMYBML10), by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed petal trichome growth and resulted in flower buds forming into abnormal corkscrew shapes that exposed developing anthers and stigmas to desiccation damage. Artificially gluing petal edges together could partially restore correct bud shape and fertility. Such petal 'Velcro' is present in other Malvaceae and perhaps more broadly in other plant families, although it is not ubiquitous. This mechanism for physical association between separate organs to regulate flower shape and function is different from the usual organ shape control(4) exerted through cell-to-cell communication and differential cell expansion within floral tissues(5,6). PMID:27322517

  13. Identification and characterization of Argonaute gene family and meiosis-enriched Argonaute during sporogenesis in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuxin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins play a key role in regulation of gene expression through smal RNA‐directed RNA cleavage and translational repression, and are essential for multiple developmental processes. In the present study, 17 AGO genes of maize (Zea mays L., ZmAGOs) were identified using a Hidden Markov Model and validated by rapid amplifica-tion of cDNA ends assay. Subsequently, quantitative PCR revealed that expressions of these genes were higher in reproductive than in vegetative tissues. AGOs presented five temporal and spatial expression patterns, which were likely modulated by DNA methylation, 50‐untranslated exons and microRNA‐mediated feedback loops. Intriguingly, ZmAGO18b was highly expressed in tassels during meiosis. Furthermore, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence showed that ZmA- GO18b was enriched in the tapetum and germ cel s in meiotic anthers. We hypothesized that ZmAGOs are highly expressed in reproductive tissues, and that ZmAGO18b is a tapetum and germ cel‐specific member of the AGO family in maize.

  14. Characterization of Putative cis-Regulatory Elements in Genes Preferentially Expressed in Arabidopsis Male Meiocytes

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    Junhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is essential for plant reproduction because it is the process during which homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, and meiotic recombination occur. The meiotic transcriptome is difficult to investigate because of the size of meiocytes and the confines of anther lobes. The recent development of isolation techniques has enabled the characterization of transcriptional profiles in male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Gene expression in male meiocytes shows unique features. The direct interaction of transcription factors (TFs with DNA regulatory sequences forms the basis for the specificity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identified putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs associated with male meiocyte-expressed genes using in silico tools. The upstream regions (1 kb of the top 50 genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis meiocytes possessed conserved motifs. These motifs are putative binding sites of TFs, some of which share common functions, such as roles in cell division. In combination with cell-type-specific analysis, our findings could be a substantial aid for the identification and experimental verification of the protein-DNA interactions for the specific TFs that drive gene expression in meiocytes.

  15. Introduction of diploids from haploid rice plants by x-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rice, diploid plants can be obtained by vegetative propagation of haploid plants although frequency of occurrence is very low. Thus, a study was carried out to generate information on the expression pattern of diploid plants induced by x-ray irradiation of haploids. Irradiation at 4 and 6 kRs of x-ray at 200 R/min dose rate of anther culture-induced haploids of Japanese cultivars, Norin 8 and Nipponbare, resulted to 'double haploids'. Based on spikelet sterility and grain size, doubled haploid plants were clasified into three types: DH-1 (normally sized fertile spikelets); DH-2 (normally sized sterile spikelets); and DH-3 (small but fertile spikelets) with frequencies of occurrence at 63.9, 8.3 and 26.8 percent, respectively. Most of the 'double-haploid' plants with partly sterile spikelets seemed to be either sectorial or mericlinal chimeras with respect to chromosome number. Self progenies of both DH-1 were of DH-1 type

  16. Spatio Temporal Expression Pattern of an Insecticidal Gene (cry2A in Transgenic Cotton Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah BAKHSH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of transgenic plants with stable, high-level transgene expression is important for the success of crop improvement programs based on genetic engineering. The present study was conducted to evaluate genomic integration and spatio temporal expression of an insecticidal gene (cry2A in pre-existing transgenic lines of cotton. Genomic integration of cry2A was evaluated using various molecular approaches. The expression levels of cry2A were determined at vegetative and reproductive stages of cotton at regular intervals. These lines showed a stable integration of insecticidal gene in advance lines of transgenic cotton whereas gene expression was found variable with at various growth stages as well as in different plant parts throughout the season. The leaves of transgenic cotton were found to have maximum expression of cry2A gene followed by squares, bolls, anthers and petals. The protein level in fruiting part was less as compared to other parts showing inconsistency in gene expression. It was concluded that for culturing of transgenic crops, strategies should be developed to ensure the foreign genes expression efficient, consistent and in a predictable manner.

  17. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae: Evidence linking development and environmental responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liping; Yin, Yue; You, Chenjiang; Pan, Qianli; Xu, Duo; Jin, Taijie; Zhang, Bailong; Ma, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcription factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of representative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther-defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, pathogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study. PMID:26472270

  18. A pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei Min; Chen, Xiao Ya; Xu, Zhi Hong; Xue, Hong Wei

    2002-09-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues from Brassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3 encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities with each other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2 and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 was expressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls. Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' technique using primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven by Bjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein, epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with different expression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family. PMID:12296384

  19. Structural and functional characteristics of two novel members of pathogensis-related multigene family of class 10 from yellow lupine+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Luiza; Femiak, Iwona; Kasperska, Alina; Figlerowicz, Marek; Sikorski, Michał M

    2007-01-01

    PR-10 proteins (pathogensis-related), ubiquitous within the plant kingdom, are usually encoded by multigene families. To date we have identified 10 homologous pr-10 genes in a yellow lupine cDNA library. Here, the structure and expression of two newly identified yellow lupine pr-10 genes (LlYpr10-2b and LlYpr10-2f) are presented. Many potential regulatory sites were found in both gene promoters including common ones as well as those unique for each gene. However, promoter deletion analysis in transgenic tobacco plants revealed similar patterns of reporter gene (gus) expression. Shortened fragments of both gene promoters studied caused high GUS activity in leaves (along vascular bundles), stamen stigma, anthers and pollen grains. When conjugated with longer LlYpr-10.2 promoter fragments, GUS was additionally present in petal edges. Only a long fragment of the LlYpr10-2b gene promoter caused GUS expression in the stem. In yellow lupine the pr-10.2 genes are present in all studied organs, but their level of expression depends on the stage of development and is affected by wounding, oxidative stress and salicylic acid treatment. Silencing of the Llpr-10.2b gene in 4-week-old yellow lupine plants did not lead to any visible symptoms, which suggests that the function of the silenced gene is supplemented by its close homologues, still present in the studied plants. PMID:18080022

  20. Potential sites of bioactive gibberellin production during reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianhong; Mitchum, Melissa G; Barnaby, Neel; Ayele, Belay T; Ogawa, Mikihiro; Nam, Edward; Lai, Wei-Chu; Hanada, Atsushi; Alonso, Jose M; Ecker, Joseph R; Swain, Stephen M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2008-02-01

    Gibberellin 3-oxidase (GA3ox) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of bioactive gibberellins (GAs). We examined the expression patterns of all four GA3ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by promoter-beta-glucuronidase gene fusions and by quantitative RT-PCR and defined their physiological roles by characterizing single, double, and triple mutants. In developing flowers, GA3ox genes are only expressed in stamen filaments, anthers, and flower receptacles. Mutant plants that lack both GA3ox1 and GA3ox3 functions displayed stamen and petal defects, indicating that these two genes are important for GA production in the flower. Our data suggest that de novo synthesis of active GAs is necessary for stamen development in early flowers and that bioactive GAs made in the stamens and/or flower receptacles are transported to petals to promote their growth. In developing siliques, GA3ox1 is mainly expressed in the replums, funiculi, and the silique receptacles, whereas the other GA3ox genes are only expressed in developing seeds. Active GAs appear to be transported from the seed endosperm to the surrounding maternal tissues where they promote growth. The immediate upregulation of GA3ox1 and GA3ox4 after anthesis suggests that pollination and/or fertilization is a prerequisite for de novo GA biosynthesis in fruit, which in turn promotes initial elongation of the silique. PMID:18310462

  1. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene in flower organs of Forsythia x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, C; Cadic, A; Duron, M; Renou, J P; Simoneau, P

    1997-10-01

    The expression, during flower development, of the gene encoding the anthocyanin pathway key enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) was investigated in floral organs of Forsythia x intermedia cv. 'Spring Glory'. Full-length DFR and partial chalcone synthase (CHS) cDNAs, the gene of interest and a flavonoid pathway control gene respectively, were obtained from petal RNA by reverse transcription PCR. Whereas for CHS northern blot analysis enabled the study of its expression pattern, competitive PCR assays were necessary to quantify DFR mRNA levels in wild-type plants and in petals of 2 transgenic clones containing a CaMV 35S promoter-driven DFR gene of Antirrhinum majus. Results indicated a peak of CHS and DFR transcript levels in petals at the very early stages of anthesis, and different expression patterns in anthers and sepals. In comparison to wild-type plants, transformants showed a more intense anthocyanin pigmentation of some vegetative organs, and a dramatic increase in DFR transcript concentration and enzymatic activity in petals. However, petals of transformed plants did not accumulate any anthocyanins. These results indicate that other genes and/or regulatory factors should be considered responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in Forsythia petals. PMID:9349254

  2. Activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) suggests conserved protein-protein and protein-promoter interactions between the anciently diverged monocots and eudicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Paula; Uimari, Anne; Mehto, Merja; Albert, Victor A; Laitinen, Roosa A E; Teeri, Teemu H

    2003-12-01

    We have identified an R2R3-type MYB factor, GMYB10, from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) that shares high sequence homology to and is phylogenetically grouped together with the previously characterized regulators of anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and Arabidopsis. GMYB10 is able to induce anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), especially in vegetative parts and anthers. In G. hybrida, GMYB10 is involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in leaves, floral stems, and flowers. In flowers, its expression is restricted to petal epidermal cell layers in correlation with the anthocyanin accumulation pattern. We have shown, using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay, that GMYB10 interacts with the previously isolated bHLH factor GMYC1. Particle bombardment analysis was used to show that GMYB10 is required for activation of a late anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoter, PGDFR2. cis-Analysis of the target PGDFR2 revealed a sequence element with a key role in activation by GMYB10/GMYC1. This element shares high homology with the anthocyanin regulatory elements characterized in maize (Zea mays) anthocyanin promoters, suggesting that the regulatory mechanisms involved in activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis have been conserved for over 125 million years not only at the level of transcriptional regulators but also at the level of the biosynthetic gene promoters. PMID:14605235

  3. Patterns of ROS Accumulation in the Stigmas of Angiosperms and Visions into Their Multi-Functionality in Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Adoración; Rejón, Juan D; Hiscock, Simon J; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the stigma of several plant species has been investigated. Four developmental stages (unopened flower buds, recently opened flowers, dehiscent anthers, and flowers after fertilization) were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using the ROS-specific probe DCFH2-DA. In all plants scrutinized, the presence of ROS in the stigmas was detected at higher levels during those developmental phases considered "receptive" to pollen interaction. In addition, these molecules were also present at early (unopened flower) or later (post-fertilization) stages, by following differential patterns depending on the different species. The biological significance of the presence ROS may differ between these stages, including defense functions, signaling and senescence. Pollen-stigma signaling is likely involved in the different mechanisms of self-incompatibility in these plants. The study also register a general decrease in the presence of ROS in the stigmas upon pollination, when NO is supposedly produced in an active manner by pollen grains. Finally, the distribution of ROS in primitive Angiosperms of the genus Magnolia was determined. The production of such chemical species in these plants was several orders of magnitude higher than in the remaining species evoking a massive displacement toward the defense function. This might indicate that signaling functions of ROS/NO in the stigma evolved later, as fine tune likely involved in specialized interactions like self-incompatibility. PMID:27547207

  4. Use of repellents for honeybees (Apis mellifera L. in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis Deg crop and in confined beef cattle feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nicodemo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Apis mellifera in places such as candy and soft drink factories, restaurants, and ice-cream shops has been a concern to many people. In the yellow passion-fruit crop, Apis mellifera is able to collect all anther pollen but has no active role in pollination. Honeybees also visit animal feeders with chopped sugar cane, preventing the cattle from eating. This work studied the effect of natural and synthetic substances as Apis mellifera repellents in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit crop and in confined beef cattle feeders. There was a repellent effect in vitro with the following substances in decreasing order: tobacco, rue, garlic, parsley, and century plant extracts; average effect was twenty-five minutes. For the yellow passion-fruit, garlic extracts and 2-heptanone were equally efficient with a two and a half hour repellent action. Garlic and citronella extracts were efficient in repelling Apis mellifera from confined beef cattle feeder for six hours. Garlic repellent action was higher than citronella.

  5. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Iridaceae are described from the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Escarpments.  Ixia amethystina. a member of section Dichone, is endemic to the edge of the Roggeveld Escarpment. It shares an unusual, inclined spike that is nodding in bud with  I. trifolia but is distinguished by its blackish purple (not yellow anthers, narrower leaves 1.5-2.0 mm wide, medium-textured corm tunics that form a distinct neck at the base of the stem, and short style branches 2.0-2.5 mm long.Moraea marginata. another Roggeveld endemic, is a member of section Polvanthes and florally similar to M. fistulosa and M. monticola but differs in its linear, channelled leaves 5-7 mm wide, with unusual, thickened margins. Romulea singularis. from the edge of the Kobee River Valley in the Bokkeveld Mountains, is a member of section  Ciliatae. It is unique in the genus in its narrowly funnel-shaped, mauve to purple flowers with slender perianth tube 10-11 mm long, and unusually long filaments, 8-9 mm long, inserted in the lower half of the tube.

  6. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid

  7. Detection of Epigenetic Modifications During Microspore Embryogenesis: Analysis of DNA Methylation Patterns Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of 5-deoxy-cytidines of DNA constitutes a prominent epigenetic modification of the chromatin fiber which is locked in a transcriptionally inactive conformation. Changes in global DNA methylation are involved in many plant developmental processes during proliferation and differentiation events. The analysis of the changes of global DNA methylation distribution patterns during microspore embryogenesis induction and progression will inform on the regulatory mechanisms of the process, helping in the design of protocols to improve its efficiency in different species. To investigate the DNA methylation dynamics during microspore embryogenesis in the different cell types present in the cultures, the analysis of spatial and temporal pattern of nuclear distribution of 5-methyl-deoxy-cytidine (5mdC) constitutes a potent approach. The immunolocalization of 5mdC on sections and subsequent confocal laser microscopy analysis have been developed for in situ cellular analysis of a variety of plant samples, including embryogenic microspore and anther cultures. Quantification of 5mdC immunofluorescence intensity by image analysis software also permits to estimate differences in global DNA methylation levels among different cell types during development. PMID:26619883

  8. Ectopic expression of TAPETUM DETERMINANT1 affects ovule development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wijeratne, Asela J; Tang, Chong; Zhang, Tianyu; Fenelon, Rebecca E; Owen, Heather A; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved to extensively employ leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), the largest family of RLKs, to control growth, development, and defense. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1 (EMS1) LRR-RLK and its potential small protein ligand TAPETUM DETERMINANT1 (TPD1) are specifically required for anther cell differentiation; however, TPD1 and EMS1 orthologs also control megaspore mother cell proliferation in rice and maize ovules. Here, the molecular function of TPD1 was demonstrated during ovule development in Arabidopsis using a gain-of-function approach. In ovules, the EMS1 gene was primarily expressed in nucellus epidermis and chalaza, whereas the expression of TPD1 was weakly restricted to the distal end of integuments. Ectopic expression of TPD1 caused pleiotropic defects in ovule and seed development. RNA sequencing analysis showed that ectopic expression of TPD1 altered expression of auxin signaling genes and core cell-cycle genes during ovule development. Moreover, ectopic expression of TPD1 not only affected auxin response but also enhanced expression of cyclin genes CYCD3;3 and CYCA2;3 in ovules. Thus, these results provide insight into the molecular mechanism by which TPD1-EMS1 signaling controls plant development possibly via regulation of auxin signaling and cell-cycle genes. PMID:26685185

  9. Haploidization of vegetable plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid plants have been widely introduced into vegetable crops breeding programmes, also in Poland. They can be produced by means of androgenesis in brassicas and pepper, gynogenesis in onion and beetroot, or induced parthenogenesis in vegetables belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Androgenesis in brassicas can be induced using both anther and microspore cultures. Efficiency of this process, provided the optimal medium composition, depends on conditions for culture initiation (thermal shock is necessary). Around 40% of developing androgenic plants of white cabbage and Brussels sprouts are diploids and after their self-pollination doubled-haploid lines can instantly be produced. Gynogenic development of haploid cells constituting the embryo sac in onion can be induced by a flower bud culture method. Firstly an induction medium is used, followed by a regeneration medium. Almost 90% of obtained plants are haploids and therefore the use of antimitotic agents is necessary in order to double their chromosome number. Induced parthogenesis is being applied in cucumber. Pollen previously exposed to ionising radiation is used for pollination, which causes the development of embryos being subsequently plated on a medium in order to develop haploid plants. Efficiency of the processes leading to the production of haploid plants in every species depends to a high degree on the genotype and growth conditions of donor plants. (author)

  10. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M1, especially with low exposure

  11. Coupled model of physical and biological processes affecting maize pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R.; Westgate, M.; Riese, J.; Falk, M.; Takle, E.

    2003-04-01

    Controversy over the use of genetically modified (GM) crops has led to increased interest in evaluating and controlling the potential for inadvertent outcrossing in open-pollinated crops such as maize. In response to this problem we have developed a Lagrangian model of pollen dispersion as a component of a coupled end-to-end (anther to ear) physical-biological model of maize pollination. The Lagrangian method is adopted because of its generality and flexibility: first, the method readily accommodates flow fields of arbitrary complexity; second, each element of the material being transported can be identified by its source, time of release, or other properties of interest. The latter allows pollen viability to be estimated as a function of such factors as travel time, temperature, and relative humidity, so that the physical effects of airflow and turbulence on pollen dispersion can be considered together with the biological aspects of pollen release and viability. Predicted dispersion of pollen compares well both to observations and to results from a simpler Gaussian plume model. Ability of the Lagrangian model to handle complex air flows is demonstrated by application to pollen dispersion in the vicinity of an agricultural shelter belt. We also show results indicating that pollen viability can be quantified by an "aging function" that accounts for temperature, humidity, and time of exposure.

  12. Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene inBacillus natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuang; Luo Chao-chao; Wu Cai-xia; Gao Xue-jun

    2015-01-01

    Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred intoBacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombinedBacillus nattoas feed additive.

  13. Flowering biology and structure of floral nectaries in Galanthus nivalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Poland Galanthus nivalis L. is partially protected. The flowers of this species are one of the first sources of nectar and pollen for insects from February to April. The aim of this study was to present the flowering biology as well as the topography, anatomical, and ultrastructural features of the floral nectary. The flower lifespan, the breeding system, and the mass of pollen and nectar produced by the flowers were determined. Examination of the nectary structure was performed using light, fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The flower of G. nivalis lives for about 30 days. The stamens and pistils mature simultaneously and during this time nectar is secreted. The anthers of one flower produced the large amount of pollen (4 mg. The breeding system of G. nivalis was found to be characterized by partial self-compatibility, outcrossing, and xenogamy. The nectary is located at the top of the inferior ovary. The nectary epidermal cells are characterized by striated cuticular ornamentation. Initially, the secreted nectar formed vesicle-like protuberances under the cuticle. The epidermal and parenchymal cells contain numerous plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, ER cisterns, and vesicles fused with the plasmalemma, which indicates granulocrine nectar secretion.

  14. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  15. Sex differential nectar secretion in protandrous Alstroemeria aurea (Alstroemeriaceae): is production altered by pollen removal and receipt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, M; Basilio, A

    1998-02-01

    We examined diurnal and nocturnal nectar secretion across sexual stages in protandrous Alstroemeria aurea, a bumble bee-pollinated herb with long-lived flowers native to the southern Andes. We found the following patterns: (1) most nectar was produced diurnally and (2) three times more sugar was secreted during the male than female phase, not only because the male phase lasted longer but also because the rate of nectar production was higher. This 3:1 ratio in nectar production matched the ratio of the minimum number of bumble bee visits required on average to saturate male (pollen removal) vs. female (seed set) functions. Standing crop of nectar, on the other hand, did not differ greatly between male- and female- stage flowers left open to visitors, because the high-production male-phase flowers were visited more frequently than female- phase flowers. In an experiment concurrent with the repeated nectar sampling of individual flowers over their life-span, we removed pollen from anthers or deposited pollen on stigmas by hand. Neither treatment, designed to mimic effects of visits by Alstroemeria's native bumble bee pollinator, affected nectar production. The absence of plasticity in nectar secretion in relation to pollination events may reflect a low cost of nectar production, or may result from developmental constraints related to the evolution of the synchronous protandry that characterizes A. aurea. PMID:21684907

  16. Genetic analysis and mapping of rice (Oryza sativa L.)male-sterile (OsMS-L) mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haisheng; HUANG Chaofeng; LUO Da; YUANG Zheng; LIU Jianhua; ZHANG Dabing; CHU Huangwei; LI Hui; WANG Hongmei; WEI Jiali; LI Na; DING Shuyan; HUANG Hai; MA Hong

    2005-01-01

    A rice male-sterile mutant OsMS-L of japonica cultivar 9522 background, was obtained in M4 population treated with 60Co γ-Ray. Genetic analysis indicated that the male-sterile phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene. Results of tissue section showed that at microspore stage, OsMS-L tapetum was retarded. Then tapetal cells expanded and microspores degenerated. No matured pollens were observed in OsMS-L anther locus. To map OsMS-L locus, an F2 population was constructed from the cross between the OsMS-L (japonica) and LongTeFu B(indica). Firstly, the OsMS-L locus was roughly mapped between two SSR markers, RM109 and RM7562 on chromosome 2. And then eleven polymorphic markers were developed for further fine fine-mapping. At last the OsMS-L locus was mapped between the two InDel markers, Lhs10 and Lhs6 with genetic distance of 0.4 cM, respectively. The region was delimited to 133 kb. All these results were useful for further cloning and functional analysis of OsMS-L.

  17. A duplicated coxI gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in an alloplasmic Brassica juncea line derived from somatic hybridization with Diplotaxis catholica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aruna Pathania; Rajesh Kumar; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; K. K. Dwivedi; P. B. Kirti; P. Prakash; V. L. Chopra; S. R. Bhat

    2007-08-01

    A cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of Brassica juncea was derived by repeated backcrossing of the somatic hybrid (Diplotaxis catholica + B. juncea) to B. juncea. The new CMS line is comparable to euplasmic lines for almost all characters, except for flowers which bear slender, needle-like anthers with aborted pollen. Detailed Southern analysis revealed two copies of coxI gene in the CMS line. One copy, coxI-1 is similar to the coxI gene of B. juncea, whereas the second copy, coxI-2 is present in a novel rearranged region. Northern analysis with eight mitochondrial gene probes showed altered transcript pattern only for the coxI gene. Two transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb, respectively, were detected in the CMS line. The novel 2.4 kb transcript was present in floral bud tissue but absent in the leaf tissue. In plants where male sterility broke down under high temperature during the later part of the growing season, the 2.4 kb coxI transcript was absent, which suggested its association with the CMS. The two coxI genes from the CMS line showed two amino acid changes in the coding region. The novel coxI gene showed unique repeats in the 5′ region suggesting recombination of mitochondrial genomes of the two species. The possible role of the duplicated coxI gene in causing male sterility is discussed.

  18. Homeotic-like modification of stamens to petals is associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression in cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura Brassica juncea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gargi Meur; K. Gaikwad; S. R. Bhat; S. Prakash; P. B. Kirti

    2006-08-01

    We have previously reported correction of severe leaf chlorosis in the cytoplasmic male sterile Ogura (also called Ogu) Brassica juncea line carrying Ogura cytoplasm by plastid substitution via protoplast fusion. Two cybrids obtained from the fusion experiment, Og1 and Og2, were green and carried the plastid genome of B. juncea cv. RLM198. While Og1 displayed normal flower morphology comparable to that of its euplasmic B. juncea counterpart except for sterile anthers, Og2 retained homeotic-like floral modification of stamens to petal-like structures and several other floral deformities observed in the chlorotic (Ogu) B. juncea cv. RLM198 (or OgRLM). With respect to the mitochondrial genome, Og1 showed 81% genetic similarity to the fertile cultivar RLM while Og2 showed 93% similarity to OgRLM. In spite of recombination and rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes in the cybrids, expression patterns of 10 out of 11 mitochondrial genes were similar in all the three CMS lines; the only exception was atp6, whose expression was altered. While Og1 showed normal atp6 transcript similar to that in RLM, in Og2 and OgRLM weak expression of a longer transcript was detected. These results suggest that the homeotic-like changes in floral patterning leading to petaloid stamens in Og2 and OgRLM may be associated with aberrant mitochondrial gene expression.

  19. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae, a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sreekala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, honeybees, flies and butterflies are the major pollinators of Impatiens cuspidata. Pollen grains are oval, having an average diameter of 28.24μm. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Best pollen germination along with 1636μm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium. Stigma was more receptive (up to 80% on the first day of flower opening. It chiefly reproduced by means of cross pollination, where the fruit set was only 40%, but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced fruit set up to 80%. The plant is an obligate out-crosser and self incompatible, as confirmed by various hand pollination experiments. Seed germination in natural and controlled conditions was only 20%. Its dependence on a specialized habitat, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction, low percentage of seed germination and other abiotic factors could be reasons for its limited distribution and endemism.

  20. 中国外来入侵植物的学名考证%Nomenclatural Notes on Alien Invasive Vascular Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小玲; 马金双

    2011-01-01

    基于中国外来入侵植物的相关报道和文献,发现-些入侵植物的学名使用比较混乱,-个物种存在两个或两个以上的名称.依据最新植物志资料,对国内30种外来入侵植物学名进行了考证,包括中名、基名(若存在)、异名、原产地以及在中国的分布等.%Based on literatures of invasive plants, the scientific names of thirty alien invasive plants in China are reviewed here, since more than one name were used for one species by different anthers. The data from the floras updated were employed to compile the scientific name for each species. The vernacular name, basionym (if present),synonym (s) for each species, along with their distributions in China were provided.

  1. Pollination ecology and floral function of Brown’s peony (Paeonia brownii in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Vance

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown’s peony, Paeonia brownii (Paeoniaceae, is one of only two peony species native to the Western Hemisphere, yet its pollination ecology and breeding system have never been documented. Using flowering individuals of an endemic colony in the Blue Mountains of Oregon, U.S., we investigated the peony’s pollination system and floral function. We also examined pollen/carpel interactions through experimental pollinations aided by fluorescence microscopy. Paeonia brownii appears to be self compatible and mostly protogynous with floral traits of a generalist pollination system. The flowers appear to attract insects by producing abundant floral nectar secreted from lobes of a perigynous disc throughout their 9-15-days of anthesis. The most common pollen vectors were wasp queens (Vespidae, the large flower fly Criorhina caudata (Syrphidae, and females of Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae, all of which foraged exclusively for nectar. Whether collected from foraging wasps and flies, anthers, or stigmas, about half the pollen grains appeared fertile. The number of ovules per carpel was about 19. Seed set (seeds/ovule of naturally pollinated flowers was about 20% with about 4 viable seeds per follicle. The number of fertile pollen grains transferred to the stigma under natural conditions was highly variable but generally low, which may have contributed in part to the low rate of seed set. This study raises further questions about the role of pollen sterility, floral nectar and vespid wasps in shaping a pollinator system that is unusual in Paeonia.

  2. The roles of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs in the PDH bypass of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ming

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs, EC 1.2.1, which oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids, have been classified into more than 20 families. In mammals, Family 2 ALDHs detoxify acetaldehyde. It has been hypothesized that plant Family 2 ALDHs oxidize acetaldehyde generated via ethanolic fermentation, producing acetate for acetyl-CoA biosynthesis via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS, similar to the yeast pathway termed the "pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH bypass". Evidence for this pathway in plants has been obtained from pollen. Results To test for the presence of the PDH bypass in the sporophytic tissue of plants, Arabidopsis plants homozygous for mutant alleles of all three Family 2 ALDH genes were fed with 14C-ethanol along with wild type controls. Comparisons of the incorporation rates of 14C-ethanol into fatty acids in mutants and wild type controls provided direct evidence for the presence of the PDH bypass in sporophytic tissue. Among the three Family 2 ALDHs, one of the two mitochondrial ALDHs (ALDH2B4 appears to be the primary contributor to this pathway. Surprisingly, single, double and triple ALDH mutants of Arabidopsis did not exhibit detectable phenotypes, even though a Family 2 ALDH gene is required for normal anther development in maize. Conclusion The PDH bypass is active in sporophytic tissue of plants. Blocking this pathway via triple ALDH mutants does not uncover obvious visible phenotypes.

  3. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  4. Reproductive development of Krapfia weberbaueri(Ranunculaceae under controlled conditions of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Roca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Krapfia weberbaueriStandl. & J. F. Macbr. is an endemic species from Peru, categorized as vulnerable, and distributed in the departments of Ancash, Huanuco, Junin and San Martin. This work reports the reproductive development of the species under controlled conditions of light and temperature (12 hours light/12 hours darkness, 12 °C during light hrs and 8 °C during dark hrs. Entire plants at reproductive stage were collected at Cordillera Blanca (Ancash, where it is found forming patches, at an elevation of 4200 to 4800 m. The species has large and showy flowers, which from anthesis to the onset of senescence remain responsive, however at a greater extent in the mature flower, stage at which the dehiscence of stamens and release of pollen grains reaches 100%. This period lasts a total of 13 days. Nectar production begins when the flower matures and continues until the total senescence of petals. The viability of the pollen grains varied from 78 to 97% and success in achene production was 38-62%. It may be noted that pollination is favored by the final position of anthers over the stigmas, nectar production, moderate presence and movement of mites and aphids, and the pendulous position of the flower.

  5. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy · hr-1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  6. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumi, Masakazu [Plant Biotechnology Inst., Ibaraki Agricultural Center, Iwama, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy {center_dot} hr{sup -}1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  7. The use of a memorandum of understanding to enhance inter-agency security arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper centres on the mutual benefits that can be derived from entering into agreements with other agencies. With regard to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and its policy, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is a signed or unsigned written record of understanding or agreement, other than a contract between the RCMP and any other participant, whereby the participants describe arrangements to provide or receive services or assistance or engage in joint activities. In view of the incredible speed of technological developments and the high cost associated with these new developments, no country can expect to possess all of the information relating to a particular area. Each country possesses special skills, abilities and expertise that may not be available in anther country. Countries should build upon the existing expertise and, wherever practical, share and use these resources for their mutual benefit. The RCMP Legal Service reviews all MOUs to ensure that they conform to legal principles. There are also ministerial directives which offer guidance to the RCMP when establishing agreements or MOUs. (author)

  8. Efficiency of Buzzing Bees in Fruit Set and Seed Set of Solanum violaceum in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. M. U. M. Wanigasekara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant-pollinator interactions are often considered as tightly coevolved, mutualistic relationships. The present study aimed at determining the flower visiting bees of the vegetable crop, Solanum violaceum, and the efficiency of buzz pollination by bees on fruit and seed production in Sri Lanka. Seven bee species: Hoplonomia westwoodi, Amegilla comberi, Patellapis kaluterae, Xylocopa tenuiscapa, Apis dorsata, Trigona iridipennis, and Ceratina hieroglyphica visited the flowers of S. violaceum, and the first four species were buzzing bees. Buzzing bees were the first to visit Solanum flowers and were followed by nonbuzzing bees. Handling time of H. westwoodi and P. kaluterae varied with the availability of pollen in anthers that deplete with the age of flower and stayed longer at new flowers than at old flowers. Handling time of the larger buzzing bee, H. westwoodi, was higher than that of the smaller P. kaluterae. The fruit set, seed set, and seed germinability in flowers visited by buzzing bees were significantly higher than those of the flowers bagged to exclude pollinators.

  9. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  10. Premature Tapetum Degeneration: a Major Cause of Abortive Pollen Development in Photoperiod Sensitive Genic Male Sterility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinlian Shi; Sha Zhao; Jialing Yao

    2009-01-01

    Photoperiod-sensitive genic male-sterile (PSGMS) rice (Oryza sativa L.), a natural mutant found in the rice cultivar Nongken 58, is very useful for the development of hybrid rice cultivars. Despite its widespread use in breeding programs, the initial stage of the abortive development of PSGMS rice and the possible cytological mechanisms of pollen abortion have not been determined. In the present study, a systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of PSGMS rice with its normal fertile counterpart is conducted. The results show that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice first occurs before the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage, and continues during the entire process of pollen development until pollen degradation. The abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of the tapetum. Although tapetum degeneration in PSGMS rice initiates already at the PMC stage, it proceeds slowly and does not complete until the breakdown of the pollen. Such cytological observations were supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, which detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD), indicating that the premature tapetum degeneration is in the process of PCD.

  11. Effect of the Antisense BcMF12 Driven by the BcA9 Promoter on Gene Silencing in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The study analyzed the silencing of BcMF12 gene regulated by BcA9 promoter in the transgenic pakchoi and confirmed the effect of antisense BcMF12 gene on the pollen development. A conserved BcMF12 gene fragment was amplified from the cDNA of flower buds in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and was fused to the anther specific BcA9 promoter. The plant antisense expression vector was constructed and then introduced into pakchoi via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic plants were screened by antibiotics and molecular analysis. PCR and Southern blot revealed that the antisense BcMF12-GUS fusion gene regulated by BcA9 promoter was integrated into transgenic plants. Northern blot suggested that the expression of BcMF12 gene was down-regulated significantly. The pollen germination rate of transgenic plants with antisense BcMF12 gene decreased as compared with that of the control plants. The expression of the gene BcMF12 related to the pollen development was inhibited by the antisense BcMF12 driven by BcA9 promoter, which consequently affected the pollen development in pakchoi.

  12. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  13. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Isolation and characterization of a rice MADS box gene belonging to the AGL2 gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H G; An, G

    1997-02-28

    The MADS box genes that encode regulatory proteins play important roles in both the formation of flower meristem and the determination of floral organ identity. We have characterized a flower-specific cDNA that belongs to the AGL2 gene family from rice, designated OsMADS5. The cDNA displays the structure of a typical plant MADS box gene, which consists of a MADS domain, K domain, a short I region between the MADS and K domain, and the C-terminal region downstream of the K domain. The gene was classified as a member of the AGL2 gene family from sequence homology analysis. The OsMADS5 protein is the most similar to OsMADS1 of rice (72% identity). In spatial and temporal RNA blot analyses, the OsMADS5 gene was expressed preferentially in anthers and weakly in carpels. During flower development, the gene was more highly expressed in the early floral stage than in the late. To study the functions of the gene, the cDNA clone was expressed ectopically using the CaMV 35S promoter in a heterologous tobacco plant system. Transgenic plants of OsMADS5 exhibited the phenotype of weak dwarfism and early flowering. These results indicate that OsMADS5 is structurally related to the AGL2 family and may be involved in controlling flowering time. PMID:9085264

  15. Differential expression of two MADS box genes in wild-type and mutant petunia flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenent, G C; Busscher, M; Franken, J; Mol, J N; van Tunen, A J

    1992-08-01

    We isolated and characterized two flower-specific genes from petunia. The protein products of these genes, designated floral binding protein 1 (FBP1) and 2 (FBP2), are putative transcription factors with the MADS box DNA binding domain. RNA gel blot analysis showed that the fbp1 gene is exclusively expressed in petals and stamen of petunia flowers. In contrast, the FBP1 protein was only detectable in petals and not in stamens, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of the fbp1 gene in these tissues. The fbp2 gene is expressed in petals, stamen, carpels, and at a very low level in sepals but not in vegetative tissues. We analyzed the spatial expression of these fbp genes in floral organs of two homeotic flower mutants. In the blind mutant, whose flower limbs are transformed into antheroid structures on top of normal tubes, identical expression levels of both genes were observed in the antheroid structures as in normal anthers. In the homeotic mutant green petals, the petals are replaced by sepaloid organs in which the expression of fbp1 is strongly reduced but not completely abolished. Our results suggest a regulation of the fbp1 gene expression by the green petals (gp) gene. Expression of the fbp2 gene was not affected in the green petals mutant. In contrast to the proposed models describing floral morphogenesis, our data indicated that homeotic genes can be functional in one whorl only. PMID:1356537

  16. Breeding for Male-Sterility Line with G. barbadense Nuclear Background and Cytological Observation of Its Microsporogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-quan; WANG Xue-de; ZHU Yun-guo; ZHU Wei; JIANG Pei-dong

    2007-01-01

    To study the feasibility of utilizing the heterosis of interspecific (Gossypium barbadense × G. hirsutum) hybrid cotton based on cytoplasmic male-sterility system, a G. barbadense male-sterility line HaiA with G. harknessii cytoplasm and its maintainer HaiB were developed by replacing nuclear genome from G. hirsutum to G. barbadense in a backcross breeding program. Its male cell abortion was observed using a light microscope through a paraffin slice for H.E staining technique.The results showed that the abortion characteristics in HaiA were not significantly changed at the cytological level,although G. hirsutum nuclear genome of sterile line was replaced by G. barbadense nuclear genome, and its abortion mainly took place at the stage of the microspore mother cell meiosis. HaiA sterility was very stable because of its early abortion and no-pollens in anthers. Hybrids between HaiA and G. hirsutum restorers were high in pollen viability, boll setting rate, boll weight and lint percentage which contributed to high yield heterosis. It is suggested that HaiA is of great value in the application of cotton interspecific hybrid seed production.

  17. Cytological study and PCD assay on pollen development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice with its normal fertility counterpart was conducted.The results showed that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice occurred first no later than the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage and continued during the entire process of pollen development till pollen degradation.This abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of tapetum.Although tapetum degeneration in the PSGMS rice initiated as early as at the PMC stage,it proceeded slowly and did not complete until the breakdown of the pollen,in sharp contrast to the rapid disintegration of the tapetal layer during the late microspore to the bicellular pollen stage in the fertile rice.Such cytological observation was supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT2 mediated dU TP Nick End Labeling)assay that detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD),indicating that the tapetum degeneration occurs in the process of PCD.

  18. Chromatin dynamics in Pollen Mother Cells underpin a common scenario at the somatic-to-reproductive fate transition of both the male and female lineages in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing eShe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMCs committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition towards the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMCs differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organization. This is characterized by significant increase in nuclear volume, chromatin decondensation, reduction in heterochromatin, eviction of linker histones and the H2AZ histone variant. These structural alterations are accompanied by dramatic, quantitative changes in histone modifications levels compared to that of surrounding somatic cells that do not share a sporogenic fate. All these changes are highly reminiscent of those we have formerly described in female megaspore mother cells (MMCs. This indicates that chromatin reprogramming is a common underlying scenario in the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition in both male and female lineages.

  19. Embryological Studies on Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lili; Wu Jian; Chen Linjiao; Wang Rui; Tian Huiqiao

    2006-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis Roem) blooms but has no seeds.Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.Its anther wall is composed of four layers of cells,and its tapetum is of the secretory type.The cytokinesis of microspore mother cells is of the successive type,and the tetrad is tetrahedral.During meiosis of microspore mother cells,some chromosomes lagged,and several micronuclei were found in tetrads.Only 27.7% of the pollen grains contained full cytoplasm,and 1.3% of them germinated in culture medium.No pollen grain,however,could germinate on the stigma.The ovary is trilocular with axile placenta,and the ovules are bitegmic,tenuinucellate,and anatropous.Its embryo sac is of the polygonum type.Most embryo sacs degenerated,and only about 4.5% of the ovules contained a normal embryo sac with an egg cell,two synergids,three antipodal,and a central cell containing two polar nuclei.One reason for the sterility of Chinese narcissus is the abnormality of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis,in which only a few functional pollen grains and embryo sacs are produced.The other reason is that the pollen grains cannot germinate on the stigma.

  20. Pollination ecology of the invasive tree tobacco Nicotiana glauca: comparisons across native and non-native ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Ollerton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with pollinators are thought to play a significant role in determining whether plant species become invasive, and ecologically generalised species are predicted to be more likely to invade than more specialised species. Using published and unpublished data we assessed the floral biology and pollination ecology of the South American native Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae which has become a significant invasive of semi-arid parts of the world. In regions where specialised bird pollinators are available, for example hummingbirds in California and sunbirds in South Africa and Israel, N. glauca interacts with these local pollinators and sets seed by both out-crossing and selfing. In areas where there are no such birds, such as the Canary Islands and Greece, abundant viable seed is set by selfing, facilitated by the shorter stigma-anther distance compared to plants in native populations. Surprisingly, in these areas without pollinating birds, the considerable nectar resources are only rarely exploited by other flower visitors such as bees or butterflies, either legitimately or by nectar robbing. We conclude that Nicotiana glauca is a successful invasive species outside of its native range, despite its functionally specialised hummingbird pollination system, because it has evolved to become more frequently self pollinating in areas where it is introduced. Its invasion success is not predictable from what is known of its interactions with pollinators in its home range.

  1. High specialisation in the pollination system of Mandevilla tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan) Woodson (Apocynaceae) drives the effectiveness of butterflies as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, L D A; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-09-01

    Butterfly pollination in the tropics is considered somewhat effective or solely effective in a few plant species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Mandevilla tenuifolia (Apocynaceae), which has floral attributes associated with psychophily, has strategies adapted to pollination by butterflies, restricting other floral visitors and making these insects act as efficient pollinators. We analysed the floral and reproductive biology of M. tenuifolia, as well as the frequency and efficiency of its flower visitors. M. tenuifolia is an herb whose flowers have strong herkogamy and secondary pollen presentation on the style head, which corresponds to 60.4% of pollen on the anthers. Flower longevity and the long period of receptivity of the stigmatic region associated with the large amount of pollen removed in the first visits suggest that flowers remain functionally female during part of anthesis. Butterflies, mainly of the families Nymphalidae and Pieridae, are the only pollinators of M. tenuifolia. Despite being self-compatible, M. tenuifolia depends on biotic vectors for fruit production. A non-significant difference in fruit set between controlled treatments and natural conditions suggests that the pollinators are efficient. The inclination resulting from the landing of butterflies on flowers, together with flower morphology, guiding the insect proboscis inside the floral tube, as well as the frequency and efficiency of butterfly visits, are evidence of the close relationship between butterflies and M. tenuifolia, and also of the efficiency of these insects as pollinators. PMID:24628969

  2. Evolution and protein interactions of AP2 proteins in Brassicaceae:Evidence linking development and environmental responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liping Zeng; Yue Yin; Chenjiang You; Qianli Pan; Duo Xu; Taijie Jin; Bailong Zhang; and Hong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved a large number of transcrip-tion factors (TF), which are enriched among duplicate genes, highlighting their roles in complex regulatory networks. The APETALA2/EREBP-like genes constitute a large plant TF family and participate in development and stress responses. To probe the conservation and divergence of AP2/EREBP genes, we analyzed the duplication patterns of this family in Brassicaceae and identified interacting proteins of represen-tative Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP proteins. We found that many AP2/EREBP duplicates generated early in Brassicaceae history were quickly lost, but many others were retained in all tested Brassicaceae species, suggesting early functional divergence followed by persistent conservation. In addition, the sequences of the AP2 domain and exon numbers were highly conserved in rosids. Furthermore, we used 16 A. thaliana AP2/EREBP proteins as baits in yeast screens and identified 1,970 potential AP2/EREBP-interacting proteins, with a small subset of interactions verified in planta. Many AP2 genes also exhibit reduced expression in an anther- defective mutant, providing a possible link to developmental regulation. The putative AP2-interacting proteins participate in many functions in development and stress responses, including photomorphogenesis, flower development, path-ogenesis, drought and cold responses, abscisic acid and auxin signaling. Our results present the AP2/EREBP evolution patterns in Brassicaceae, and support a proposed interaction network of AP2/EREBP proteins and their putative interacting proteins for further study.

  3. Comparison of pollination and defensive buzzes in bumblebees indicates species-specific and context-dependent vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Paul A.; Cox, Darryl A.; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Bees produce vibrations in many contexts, including for defense and while foraging. Buzz pollination is a unique foraging behavior in which bees vibrate the anthers of flowers to eject pollen which is then collected and used as food. The relationships between buzzing properties and pollen release are well understood, but it is less clear to what extent buzzing vibrations vary among species, even though such information is crucial to understanding the functional relationships between bees and buzz-pollinated plants. Our goals in this study were (1) to examine whether pollination buzzes differ from those produced during defense, (2) to evaluate the similarity of buzzes between different species of bumblebees ( Bombus spp.), and (3) to determine if body size affects the expression of buzzing properties. We found that relative peak amplitude, peak frequency, and duration were significantly different between species, but only relative peak amplitude differed between pollination and defensive buzzes. There were significant interactions between species and buzz type for peak frequency and duration, revealing that species differed in their patterns of expression in these buzz properties depending on the context. The only parameter affected by body size was duration, with larger bees producing shorter buzzes. Our findings suggest that although pollination and defensive buzzes differ in some properties, variability in buzz structure also exhibits a marked species-specific component. Species differences in pollination buzzes may have important implications for foraging preferences in bumblebees, especially if bees select flowers best matched to release pollen for their specific buzzing characteristics.

  4. A Mitochondrial Magnesium Transporter Functions in Arabidopsis Pollen Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le-Gong Li; Lubomir N.Sokolov; Yong-Hua Yang; Dong-Ping Li; Julie Ting; Girdhar K.Pandy; Sheng Luan

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium is an abundant divalent cation in plant cells and plays a critical role in many physiological processes.We have previously described the jdentification of a 10-member Arabidopsis gene family encoding putative magnesium transport(MGT)proteins.Here,we report that a member of the MGT family,AtMGT5, functions as a dual-functional Mg-transporter that operates in a concentration-dependent manner, namely it serves as a Mg-importer at micromolar levels and facilitates the efflux in the millimolar range.The AtMGT5 protein is localized in the mitochondria,suggesting that AtMGT5 mediates Mg-trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondria.The AtMGT5 gene was exclusively expressed in anthers at early stages of flower development.Examination of two independent T-DNA insertional mutants of AtMGT5 gene demonstrated that AtMG7-5 played an essential role for pollen development and male fertility.This study suggests a critical role for Mg2+ transport between cytosol and mitochondria in male gametogenesis in plants.

  5. Nuclear bodies domain changes with microspore reprogramming to embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Seguí-Simarro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the presence of nuclear bodies and particularly Cajal bodies during representative stages of gametophytic and haploid embryogenic development in isolated microspore and anther cultures of a model system (Brassica napus cv. Topas and a recalcitrant species (Capsicum annuum L. var. Yolo Wonder B. The nuclear bodies domain is involved on several important roles on nuclear metabolism, and Cajal bodies are specifically involved on the storage and maturation of both snRNPs and snoRNPs, as well as other splicing factors, necessary for mRNA and pre-rRNA processing, but not directly on the transcription. In this study, immunofluorescence and immunogold labelling with anti-trimethylguanosine antibodies against the specific cap of snRNAs, ultrastructural and cytochemical analysis were performed on cryoprocessed samples at confocal and electron microscopy respectively. Results showed that Cajal bodies increase during the early stages of microspore embryogenic development (young pro-embryos, compared to microspore and pollen development. Our results suggest that Cajal bodies may have a role in the transcriptionally active, proliferative stages that characterise early microspore embryogenic development.

  6. The contribution of mating system variation to reproductive isolation in two closely related Centaurium species (Gentianaceae) with a generalized flower morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, Rein; Vanden Broeck, An; Mergeay, Joachim; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2014-05-01

    In closely related plant species that display strong similarities in phenology and pollinator communities, differences in breeding system and associated shifts in floral traits may have important effects on the magnitude and direction of heterospecific pollen flow and hybridization. Here, we quantified the strength of several pre- and postzygotic barriers acting between the facultatively outcrossing Centaurium erythraea and the predominantly selfing C. littorale via a suite of experiments, and estimated the frequency of hybridization in the field using molecular markers. The reproductive barriers primarily responsible for preventing hybridization were essentially prezygotic and these acted asymmetrically. Due to differences in floral display, pollen production, and pollen transfer rates, heterospecific pollen flow occurred predominantly from C. erythraea to C. littorale. In C. littorale, on the other hand, close anther-stigma positioning and resulting higher capacity for autonomous selfing functioned as an efficient barrier to counterbalance the higher risk for hybrid mating. In both species the action of all reproductive barriers resulted in a small opportunity for hybrid establishment, which was confirmed by the occurrence of only ∼1% putative hybrids in the field. Our findings confirm that differences in breeding system affect heterospecific pollen transfer patterns and that autonomous selfing may efficiently prevent hybridization. PMID:24372301

  7. Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, T J; Galetto, L; Silva, W R

    2014-09-01

    The mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus was studied as a model to link flower phenology and nectar secretion strategy to pollinator behaviour and the reproductive consequences for the plant. The bright-coloured flowers presented diurnal anthesis, opened asynchronously throughout the rainy season and produced copious dilute nectar as the main reward for pollinators. Most nectar was secreted just after flower opening, with little sugar replenishment after experimental removals. During the second day of anthesis in bagged flowers, the flowers quickly reabsorbed the offered nectar. Low values of nectar standing crop recorded in open flowers can be linked with high visitation rates by bird pollinators. Eight hummingbirds and two passerines were observed as potential pollinators. The most frequent flower visitors were the hummingbirds Eupetomena macroura and Colibri serrirostris, which actively defended flowering mistletoes. The spatial separation between anthers, stigma and nectar chamber promotes pollen deposition on flapping wings of hovering hummingbirds that usually probe many flowers per visit. Seed set did not differ between hand-, self- and cross-pollinated flowers, but these treatments set significantly more seeds than flowers naturally exposed to flower visitors. We suggest that the limitation observed in the reproductive success of this plant is not related to pollinator scarcity, but probably to the extreme frequency of visitation by territorial hummingbirds. We conclude that the costs and benefits of plant reproduction depend on the interaction strength between flowers and pollinators, and the assessment of nectar secretion dynamics, pollinator behaviour and plant breeding system allows clarification of the complexity of such associations. PMID:24641568

  8. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis Flowers[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginglinger, Jean-François; Boachon, Benoit; Höfer, René; Paetz, Christian; Köllner, Tobias G.; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphael; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ullmann, Pascaline; Beran, Franziska; Claudel, Patricia; Verstappen, Francel; Fischer, Marc J.C.; Karst, Francis; Bouwmeester, Harro; Miesch, Michel; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ehlting, Jürgen; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simultaneously expressed at anthesis, mainly in upper anther filaments and in petals. Upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the TPS enzymes colocalize in vesicular structures associated with the plastid surface, whereas the P450 proteins were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in N. benthamiana, the TPS enzymes formed two different enantiomers of linalool: (−)-(R)-linalool for TPS10 and (+)-(S)-linalool for TPS14. Both P450 enzymes metabolize the two linalool enantiomers to form different but overlapping sets of hydroxylated or epoxidized products. These oxygenated products are not emitted into the floral headspace, but accumulate in floral tissues as further converted or conjugated metabolites. This work reveals complex linalool metabolism in Arabidopsis flowers, the ecological role of which remains to be determined. PMID:24285789

  9. Biotechnology-assisted breeding techniques implementation for rice improvement in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatment was highly effective in reducing plant height and growth duration in the parent variety EEA-404. Important variation was also observed in grain and leaf pubescence and in grain shape. Several M4 lines with desirable plant type and grain shape were selected for yield testing. Aggregated sheath spot (ASS) - Rhizoctonia oryzae sativae - disease pressure on M3 and M4 lines from INIA Tacuari was not sufficient to allow selection for this character. However, important variability in resistance to the physiological disorder Straighthead was observed among the lines. The regeneration percentage obtained with the methodology of anther culture facilitated application of this technique in a larger number of crosses. Some of the doubled haploid (DH) lines from resistant/susceptible crosses showed good yield potential and milling quality, and low incidence of stem diseases. Sequential Bulked Typing may provide an alternative to individual typing for a large number of markers, improving DNA pooling techniques based on phenotypic evaluations of quantitative traits. (author)

  10. QTL Mapping of Low Temperature on Germination rate of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; LOU Qiao-jun; SUN Zong-xiu; XING Yong-zhong; YU Xin-qiao; LUO Li-jun

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the low temperature on germination capacity (LTG) a double haploid rice (DH) population with 198 lines derived from anther culture of F1 hybrid with indica line Zhenshan 97B and a perennial japonica line AAV002863 was used to construct a linkage map with 140 SSR markers. The germination rate in Zhenshan 97B and AAV002863 was 79.7% and 30.1%, while in DH population it ranged from 0 to 100% at 15℃ after 6 days. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling low temperature germinability were identified on chromosomes 3 and 10. The percentage of observed phenotypic variance attributed to qLTG-3 and qLTG-10 was 12.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Allele from Zhenshan 97B increased the LTG at qLTG-3 region, while allele from AAV002863 increased the LTG at qLTG-10 region. One pair of epistatic interaction was detected between loci on chromosomes 3 and 10. The main-effect of QTL on chromosome 10 was also involved in epistatic interaction.

  11. NAD+ Accumulation during Pollen Maturation in Arabidopsis Regulating Onset of Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-nosuke Hashida; Hideyuki Takahashi; Kentaro Takahara; Maki Kawai-Yamada; Kazuyoshi Kitazaki; Kazuhiro Shoji; Fumiyuki Goto

    2013-01-01

    Although the nicotinamide nucleotides NAD(H) and NADP(H) are essential for various metabolic reactions that play major roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis,the significance of NAD biosynthesis is not well understood.Here,we investigated the dynamics of pollen nicotinamide nucleotides in response to imbibition,a representative germination cue.Metabolic analysis with capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that excess amount of NAD+ is accumulated in freshly harvested dry pollen,whereas it dramatically decreased immediately after contact with water.Importantly,excess of NAD+ impaired pollen tube growth.Moreover,NAD+ accumulation was retained after pollen was imbibed in the presence of NAD+-consuming reaction inhibitors and pollen germination was greatly retarded.Pollen deficient in the nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT) gene,encoding a key enzyme in NAD biosynthesis,and a lack of NAD+ accumulation in the gametophyte,showed precocious pollen tube germination inside the anther Iocule and vigorous tube growth under high-humidity conditions.Hence,the accumulation of excess NAD+ is not essential for pollen germination,but instead participates in regulating the timing of germination onset.These results indicate that NAD+ accumulation acts to negatively regulate germination and a decrease in NAD+ plays an important role in metabolic state transition.

  12. QTL analysis of rice low temperature germinability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A double haploid population, derived from anther culture of F1 hybrid between a typical indica and a japonica (ZYQ8/JX17), has been used to investigate the low temperature germinability (LTG) at 15C. The low temperature germinability of two parents was significantly different.In 6-11 d, the germination percentage of ZYQ8 was higher than that of JX17. In 12-16 d, the germination percentage of JX17 was higher than that of ZYQ8. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of every day for low temperature germinability have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population. In 8-11 d, qLTG-9 was identiffed in C397B-RZ617B on chromosome 9, the additive effect was positive, showing that the allele from JX17 could increase low temperature germinability. In 12-16 d, qLTG4 was mapped between RG908 and CT563 on chromosome 4,the additive effect was negative, showing that the allele from ZYQ8 could increase low temperature germinability. These two QTLs were detected at different stages, showing the complexity of the mechanism of iow temperature germinability.

  13. CLAVATA 1-type receptors in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazak, Ora; Hardtke, Christian S

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental aspect of plant development is the coordination of growth through endogenous signals and its integration with environmental inputs. Similar to animals, plants frequently use cell surface-localized receptors to monitor such stimuli, for instance through plasma membrane-integral receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Compared to other organisms, plants possess a large number of RLKs (more than 600 in Arabidopsis thaliana), which implies that ligand-receptor-mediated molecular mechanisms regulate a wide range of processes during plant development. Here, we focus on A. thaliana RLKs of the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) type, which orchestrate key steps during plant development, including the regulation of meristem maintenance, anther development, vascular tissue formation, and root system architecture. These receptors are regulated by small signalling peptides that belong to the family of CLE (CLV3 / EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION) ligands. We discuss different aspects of plant development that are regulated by these receptors in light of their molecular mechanism of action. As so often, the intensive research on this group of plant RLKs has raised many intriguing questions, which remain to be answered. PMID:27340234

  14. Mutation of a family 8 glycosyltransferase gene alters cell wall carbohydrate composition and causes a humidity-sensitive semi-sterile dwarf phenotype in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Nga T; Long, Debbie; Kiang, Sophie; Coupland, George; Shoue, Douglas A; Carpita, Nicholas C; Kavanagh, Tony A

    2003-11-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains about 400 genes coding for glycosyltransferases, many of which are predicted to be involved in the synthesis and remodelling of cell wall components. We describe the isolation of a transposon-tagged mutant, parvus, which under low humidity conditions exhibits a severely dwarfed growth phenotype and failure of anther dehiscence resulting in semi-sterility. All aspects of the mutant phenotype were partially rescued by growth under high-humidity conditions, but not by the application of growth hormones or jasmonic acid. The mutation is caused by insertion of a maize Dissociation (Ds) element in a gene coding for a putative Golgi-localized glycosyltransferase belonging to family 8. Members of this family, originally identified on the basis of similarity to bacterial lipooligosaccharide glycosyltransferases, include enzymes known to be involved in the synthesis of bacterial and plant cell walls. Cell-wall carbohydrate analyses of the parvus mutant indicated reduced levels of rhamnogalacturonan I branching and alterations in the abundance of some xyloglucan linkages that may, however, be indirect consequences of the mutation. PMID:15010604

  15. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueju Zhao

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB, a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI, FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05. Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.

  16. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  17. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  18. A Pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues fromBrassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities witheach other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 wasexpressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls.Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' techniqueusing primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven byBjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein,epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with differentexpression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family.

  19. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10-5 recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  20. Monitoring homologous recombination in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhuanying; Tang Li [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Li Meiru [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Chen Lei; Xu Jie [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Wu Goujiang [South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Hongqing, E-mail: hqli@scnu.edu.cn [Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Biotechnology for Plant Development, College of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-10

    Here we describe a system to assay homologous recombination during the complete life cycle of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice plants were transformed with two copies of non-functional GUS reporter overlap fragments as recombination substrate. Recombination was observed in all plant organs examined, from the seed stage until the flowering stage of somatic plant development. Embryogenic cells exhibited the highest recombination ability with an average of 3 x 10{sup -5} recombination events per genome, which is about 10-fold of that observed in root cells, and two orders of that observed in leaf cells. Histological analysis revealed that recombination events occurred in diverse cell types, but preferentially in cells with small size. Examples of this included embryogenic cells in callus, phloem cells in the leaf vein, and cells located in the root apical meristem. Steady state RNA analysis revealed that the expression levels of rice Rad51 homologs are positively correlated with increased recombination rates in embryogenic calli, roots and anthers. Finally, radiation treatment of plantlets from distinct recombination lines increased the recombination frequency to different extents. These results showed that homologous recombination frequency can be effectively measured in rice using a transgene reporter assay. This system will facilitate the study of DNA damage signaling and homologous recombination in rice, a model monocot.

  1. Induced abnormality in Mir- and earth grown super dwarf wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Pdolsky, I.; Chernova, L.

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet ``Greenhouse'' exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of `Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing `Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  2. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  3. Adventitious root formation in rice requires OsGNOM1 and is mediated by the OsPINs family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiping Liu; Jirong Wang; Lu Wang; Xiaofei Wang; Yanhong Xue; Ping Wu; Huixia Shou

    2009-01-01

    The fibrous root system in cereals comprises primarily adventitious roots (ARs), which play important roles in nu-trient and water uptake. Current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying AR development is still limited. We report here the isolation of four rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutants, from different genetic backgrounds, all of which were defective in AR formation. These mutants exhibited reduced numbers of lateral roots (LRs) and partial loss of gravitropism. The mutants also displayed enhanced sensitivity to N-1-napbthylphthalamic acid, an inhibitor of polar auxin transport (PAT), indicating that the mutations affected auxin transport. Positional cloning using one of the four mutants revealed that it was caused by loss-of-function of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor (OsGNOM1). RT-PCR and analysis of promoter::GUS transgenic plants showed that OsGNOM1 is expressed in AR primordia, vascular tissues, LRs, root tips, leaves, anthers and lemma veins, with a distribution pattern similar to that of auxin. In addition, the expressions of OsPIN2, OsPINSb and OsPIN9 were altered in the mu-tants. Taken together, these findings indicate that OsGNOM1 affects the formation of ARs through regulating PAT.

  4. Critical Roles of Vacuolar Invertase in Floral Organ Development and Male and Female Fertilities Are Revealed through Characterization of GhVIN1-RNAi Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Seed number and quality are key traits determining plant fitness and crop yield and rely on combined competence in male and female fertilities. Sucrose metabolism is central to reproductive success. It remains elusive, though, how individual sucrose metabolic enzymes may regulate the complex reproductive processes. Here, by silencing vacuolar invertase (VIN) genes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) reproductive organs, we revealed diverse roles that VIN plays in multiple reproductive processes. A set of phenotypic and genetic studies showed significant reductions of viable seeds in GhVIN1-RNAi plants, attributed to pollination failure and impaired male and female fertilities. The former was largely owing to the spatial mismatch between style and stamen and delayed pollen release from the anthers, whereas male defects came from poor pollen viability. The transgenic stamen exhibited altered expression of the genes responsible for starch metabolism and auxin and jasmonic acid signaling. Further analyses identified the reduction of GhVIN expression in the seed coat as the major cause for the reduced female fertility, which appeared to disrupt the expression of some key genes involved in trehalose and auxin metabolism and signaling, leading to programmed cell death or growth repression in the filial tissues. Together, the data provide an unprecedented example of how VIN is required to synchronize style and stamen development and the formation of male and female fertilities for seed development in a crop species, cotton. PMID:26969720

  5. Are differences in breeding mechanisms and fertility among populations contributing to rarity in Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C L; Caddy, H A R

    2006-12-01

    Plant breeding systems are seldom studied across the breadth of a species' range. For many systems, this precludes an informed assessment of the evolutionary biology of a species, particularly of the factors that shape fecundity. Grevillea rhizomatosa is a threatened species of shrub known only from a 7 × 8 km area and c. 2000 plants in northern New South Wales, Australia. The species reproduces asexually from rhizomatous suckers, and fruit are only produced in a few populations. Over two flowering seasons, we investigated the extent of sexual reproduction and the mechanisms of infertility in five populations that span the range of the species. Seed were produced in three of the five populations. The breeding system varied among populations from obligate outcrossing to facultative outcrossing to fully sterile. Fruit to flower ratios were below 0.13 in the fertile populations but within the range found in other species of Grevillea. Pollinator limitation was not linked to infertility. Stigmatic opening and receptivity were functional in all populations. Interpopulation crosses using fertile pollen failed to recover fertility in an infertile population. A breakdown in female and male fertility mechanisms was found including a fault in the mechanical release of pollen from anthers, wild-fires. PMID:21642125

  6. Prokaryotic expression of soluble Arabidopsis protein AtERF1 and preparation of its polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AtERF1 encodes a member of the ERF subfamily B-3 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family.It has been demonstrated almost every member of the B3 subgroup of AP2/ERF genes is involved in defense responses in Arabidopsis.Codon usage within a gene is a critical determinant of achievable protein expression level in E.coli. Gene optimization,therefore,is an effective method for synthetic genes with the aim of enhancing soluble expression,particular in heterologous hosts.In this paper,the AtERF1 protein of Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in Escherichia coli using its optimized DNA sequence for E.coli. and yielded high level of soluble AtERF-1 protein in recombinant E.coli. The AtERF1 protein was used as an antigen to immune rabbits and obtains high titer antibodies.The immunological specificity of the polyclonal antibodies to AtERF1 was confirmed by Western blot assay.The prepared antibody in this work would facilitate the further functional investigation of AtERF1 in biochemical levels in Arabidopsis anther development.

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Flag-leaf Ligule Length in Rice and Alignment with ZmLG1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dali Zeng; Jiang Hu; Guojun Dong; Jian Liu; Longjun Zeng; Guangheng Zhang; Longbiao Guo; Yihua Zhou; Qian Qian

    2009-01-01

    A doubled haploid (DH) population,which consists of 120 lines dedved from anther culture of a typical Indica and japonica hybrid 'CJ06'/'TN1',was used in this study.Ligule lengths of flag leaf were investigated for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using the DH population.Five QTLs (qLL-2,qLL-4,qLL-6,qLL-10 and qLL-12) controlling the ligule length (LL) were detected on chromosomes 2,4,6,10 and 12,with the variances explained 11.4%,13.6%,27.8%,22.1% and 11.0%,respectively.Using four known genes of ZmGL1,ZmGL2,ZmGL3 and ZmGL4 in maize from the MaizeGDB,their homologs in rice were aligned and integrated into the existing simple sequence repeats linkage map by in silico mapping.A ZmLG1 homolog gene,OsLG1 encoding a squamosa promoter binding protein,was located between the markers RM255 and RM280,which is just identical to the interval of qLL-4 on the long arm of chromosome 4.The results are beneficial to dissection of the ligule molecular mechanism and the study of cereal evolution.

  8. Effect of pollen irradiation on hybridization of wheat and Eltrigia intermedia and their embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikes of Eltrigia intermedia were radiated with 5-100 Gy γ-ray during anthesis, and then their pollens were collected to pollinate to the common wheat 'J-11' and 'Chinese Spring'. The effects of pollen irradiation on the seed setting, embryo development, embryo culture and plantlet rate were studied. The results showed that low dose (5-9 Gy) of irradiation enhanced the seed setting for Chinese spring x E. intermedia, but no such effect for J-11xE. intermedia. Irradiation with all doses damaged embryo development, percentage of seeds with embryos; rate of immature hybrid embryos developing into plantlets decreases with the increased doses. Percentage of seeds with abnormal embryos increased significantly with the doses. 12.9%-14.5% of embryos could develop into plants in 30 Gy treatment, which seldom occur to wheat. Embryos in 50 Gy-100 Gy treatment were affected so serious that even none of them could develop into plants in vitro culture. It may be an effective approach to obtaining more mutants and enhancing induced mutation breeding by using combination of pollen irradiation, immature embryo rescue and anther culture of the resultant progenies. (authors)

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qilu; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Li, Ying; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1) is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2 (-), H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding. PMID:26379693

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of a membrane-enriched fraction from flag leaves reveals responses to chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilu eSong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The induction of wheat male fertile lines by using the chemical hybridizing agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1 is an effective approach in the utilization of heterosis; however, the molecular basis of male fertility remains unknown. Wheat flag leaves are the initial receptors of CHA-SQ-1 and their membrane structure plays a vital role in response to CHA-SQ-1 stress. To investigate the response of wheat flag leaves to CHA-SQ-1 stress, we compared their quantitative proteomic profiles in the absence and presence of CHA-SQ-1. Our results indicated that wheat flag leaves suffered oxidative stress during CHA-SQ-1 treatments. Leaf O2-, H2O2, and malonaldehyde levels were significantly increased within 10 h after CHA-SQ-1 treatment, while the activities of major antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase were significantly reduced. Proteome profiles of membrane-enriched fraction showed a change in the abundance of a battery of membrane proteins involved in multiple biological processes. These variable proteins mainly impaired photosynthesis, ATP synthesis protein mechanisms and were involved in the response to stress. These results provide an explanation of the relationships between membrane proteomes and anther abortion and the practical application of CHA for hybrid breeding.

  11. Floral Morphogenesis of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var.flore-minore Maxim. (Ranunculaceae) with Special Emphasis on Androecium Developmental Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li CHANG; Yi REN; An-Min LU

    2005-01-01

    The floral morphogenesis and androecium developmental sequence of Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. var. flore-minore Maxim. were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM)and by means of histological methods in order to expand our knowledge of the morphogenesis and development of the floral organs of the Ranunculaceae. The initiation of the floral elements is a centripetal spiral and the direction of the spiral is clockwise or anti-clockwise. However, the development of the androecium is highly unusual: in a longitudinal series of four stamens, the second stamen develops first from the inner to outer, then the third one, the fourth one and the first one in turn. The microsporogenesis and anther maturation follows the same developmental sequence. The tepals are different from the bracts and the stamens in both shape and size in the early developmental stage, but there is no difference between the stamens and carpels in the early developmental stage. Therefore, we established a spatio-temporal process of the floral morphogenesis of4. rivularis var.flore-minore and offer another meaning of the floral diversity patterns attributed to the level of the genus.

  12. Preliminary study of mutagenic effects of heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study mutagenic effects of different heavy ions irradiation on maize inbred lines, corn seeds were irradiated with 12C6+ and 36Ar18+ ions. The experimental results showed that the germination rate and planting percent of maize seeds irradiated were different as dosage increasing of heavy ion irradiation in disparate maize inbred lines. The wettish seeds had higher sensibility to heavy ion irradiation. The leaf type of the plant happened visible changes in M1 generation, such as leaves broadening, crimpling, curling up and having yellow strip etc. The plant height, spike position, spike number per plant, anther color of staminate, grain texture, spike row, grain weight and resistance had changes in M2 generation. Among them occurred some beneficial mutations. Some beneficia1 mutations could be stably inherited in M3 generation. After irradiated by ion beams the growing period of maize was changed, and different beneficial mutations were produced. From the above we can see that heavy ions irradiation is a high performance means for improvement germplasm of maize. (authors)

  13. Study of biological effects of heavy ion irradiation on maize inbred lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study biological effects of heavy ion irradiation on maize inbred lines, the agronomic traits and photosynthetic rates were investigated from M1 to M3 of maize seeds irradiated with 12C6+ and 36Ar18+ ions. The results showed that the germination rate and planting percent of maize seeds irradiated were decrease as dosage increasing of heavy ion irradiation. Different physiological status of seeds had disparate sensibility to heavy ion irradiation and the suitable dosage of 12C6+ ion irradiation was 20-25 Gy for dry maize seeds. The leaf type of the plant happened visible changes in M1 generation. The plant height, spike position, spike number per plant, anther color of staminate, grain texture, spike row, grain weight and resistance had changes in M2 generation. Among them occurred some beneficial mutations that include degrading of plant height and spike position height, multi-spike at same position in the plant, increasing of pike row and grain change of grain texture from powder seed to hard seed, resistance to rust disease and red leaf disease and so on. The frequency of beneficial mutation was 7.0%-17.9%. Those beneficial mutations could be stably inherited and mutant plants with high photosynthetic efficiency emerged in M3 generation. The study above showed that heavy ion irradiation is a high performance means for improvement germplasm of maize. (authors)

  14. The characteristics variation of the flowers of capparis spinosa l. during the extended flowering process and the influence of the rate of seed-setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reproductive characteristics of Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) were examined at the Turpan Eremophytes Botanical Garden in Xinjiang, China. The flowering period was approximately five months long (from May to mid-October of 2011), during which time, two main and overlap flowering peaks emerged. Several significant differences between the two peaks were found: the number of flowers and duration of the flowering period for male flowers were identical in both peaks, but differed for perfect flowers(contain stamens and pistil); the filaments of both long and short stamens in male and perfect flowers in the first peak were longer than those in the second, whereas anther length showed the opposite trend; the frequency of fruit set and size in the first peak was respectively higher and larger than the second; and the seeds produced in the first peak were smaller and lighter than the second. These results provide that the continuously blooming C. spinosa and the variation in the proportion of male and perfect flowers have played a positive role in ensuring a continuous supply of pollen and controlling the investment of fruit. (author)

  15. 'Gornooriahovska Kapia F1' - A new hybrid pepper variety based on radiation induced male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The female parent line 'Zlaten medal ms-8' was obtained by Daskalov as a gamma rays induced mutant of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Dry seeds of the initial variety 'Zlaten medal' were irradiated with 135 Gy gamma rays and after screening of a large M2 population (57,000 plants) 3 male sterile mutants were obtained. After an allelic test the genes responsible for male sterility were denoted as ms-6, ms-7, and ms-8. After many years of testing various male sterility sources the gene ms-8 proved to be the most suitable for hybrid seed production because it determines 100% male sterility, independent of the climatic condition or the genotype. The mutation causes the highest reduction of anthers, which allows easy distinction between male sterile and fertile flowers. The development of the mutant male sterile line Zlaten medal ms-8 is a good example of how mutation techniques can be very useful for adding or changing only one trait without altering the basic genotype

  16. Bidirectional flower color and shape changes allow a second opportunity for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Pat; Stanley, Dara A; Steijven, Karin; Matthews, Iain M; Nuttman, Clive V

    2009-06-01

    Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by pollination or visitation. By retaining color-changed flowers, plants benefit from larger floral displays but also indicate at close range which flowers are still rewarding (and still unpollinated), so that visitors forage more efficiently. However, the legume Desmodium setigerum shows a unique ability, if inadequately pollinated, to reverse its flowers' color and shape changes. Single visits by bees mechanically depress the keel and expose stigma and anthers (termed "tripping"); visits also initiate a rapid color change from lilac to white and turquoise and a slower morphological change, the upper petal folding downwards over the reproductive parts. But flowers receiving insufficient pollen can partially reopen, re-exposing the stigma, with a further color change to deeper turquoise and/or lilac. Thus, most flowers achieve pollination from one bee visit, but those with inadequate pollen receipt can reverse their signals, earning a "second chance" by eliciting attention from other potential pollinators. PMID:19409788

  17. UV-B component of sunlight causes measurable damage in field-grown maize (Zea mays L.): developmental and cellular heterogeneity of damage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet radiation has diverse morphogenetic and damaging effects on plants. The end point of damage is reduced plant growth, but in the short term UV radiation damages specific cellular components. We measured cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in maize DNA from plants grown in natural solar radiation. Green maize tissues had detectable DNA damage, roots had less damage, and anthers had much more damage than green leaves. This heterogeneity in damage levels may reflect differences in dose received or in damage repair. The architecture of green tissues had no measurable effects on DNA damage levels, as leaf sheath and leaf blade were equivalent. We observed a slight increase in damage levels in plants sampled at the end of the day, but there was no accumulation of damage over the growing season. We measured photoreactivation, and found substantial levels of this light-dependent repair in both the epidermis and inner cell layers of leaves, and in all organelles that contain DNA – the nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria. We conclude that maize has efficient mechanisms for photo repair of daily UV-induced DNA damage that prevent accumulation

  18. Description of two new species of the genus Fimbristylis Vahl. (Cyperaceae from Velliangiri Hills, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murugesan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new species of the genus Fimbristylis Vahl. (Cyperaceae viz. Fimbristylis matthewii and F. velliangiriensis from Velliangiri Hills in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats area of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India. F. matthewii is close to F. uliginosa Steud. but differs by the presence of glabrous culms, much thickened culm-base by imbricating old leaf-sheaths, inflorescence terminal and subterminal or pseudolateral; involucral bracts 3-5; spikelets 2-9 (10 together, 15-30 flowered; glumes aristate; arista 0.6-1.2 mm long, sparsely scaberulous on the upper half of upper surface, and on nerves of the keels; nuts sparsely and minutely tuberculate. F. velliangiriensis is close to F. insignis Thw. but differs by the presence of leaves involute, acute at apex; spikelets 0.4-0.8 cm long; involucral bracts 3-5, rarely 8, equal to or longer than spikelets; glumes minutely scaberulous on upper surface, and aristate at apex; anthers with 2-8 ciliate hairy at tip; filaments broadly winged, often with a reddish gland at base; style winged; nut obovoid.

  19. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  20. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2012-01-09

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance. © 2012 Ling et al.