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Sample records for anthers

  1. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  2. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  3. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  4. Anther Ontogeny and Microsporogenesis in Helianthus annuus L. (Compositae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anther ontogeny and microsporogenesis were analysed in Helianthus annuus L. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and plasmodial tapetum. Endothecial cells show no fibrous thickening. Tapetum is amoeboid type with binucleate cells. Epidermal layer remains intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer, endothecium and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are triporate, suboblate and angulaperturate.

  5. Anther culture studies in W. Murcott mandarin genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKA KAÇAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining haploid plants is one of the important tool that shorten the plant breeding process. Anther culture is one of the method used for obtaining haploid plants. Anther culture studies are carried out for several plant species. In the present study, flowers at different sizes of W. Murcott mandarin were collected at the blooming period. Stage of mononuclear microspore of anthers was determined according to method of acetocarmine. Mononuclear microspore stage of anthers was observed in flowers 4-5 mm in diameter. Anther culture experiments were carried out with 4-5 mm in diameter anthers. In this study, temperature pre-treatment was performed at 4˚C and 25˚C for two days. Surface sterilization was performed in flowers and anthers were cultured in nutrient medium N6. Anther culture assays were performed with the three different concentrations of TDZ (0 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.1 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.5 mg l-1 TDZ. Half of anthers were cultured in dark condition while the other half in 16 hours light, 8 hours dark climate room conditions. Anthers containing mononuclear microspore stage were cultured and, changes occurring in the anther explants were discussed in the article.

  6. Expression and localization of calreticulin in tobacco anthers and pollen tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, M.C.; Feron, R.; Navazio, L.; Mariani, P.; Pierson, E.S.; Wolters-Arts, A.M.C.; Knuiman, B.; Mariani, C.; Derksen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The developmental expression pattern and localization of calreticulin were studied in Nicotiana tabacum L. anthers, pollen and pollen tubes. High transcript and protein levels were detected throughout anther development. Immunolocalization of calreticulin in the anthers showed particular dense label

  7. The final split: the regulation of anther dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Zoe A; Song, Jie; Taylor, Benjamin; Yang, Caiyun

    2011-03-01

    Controlling male fertility is an important goal for plant reproduction and selective breeding. Hybrid vigour results in superior growth rates and increased yields of hybrids compared with inbred lines; however, hybrid generation is costly and time consuming. A better understanding of anther development and pollen release will provide effective mechanisms for the control of male fertility and for hybrid generation. Male sterility is associated not only with the lack of viable pollen, but also with the failure of pollen release. In such instances a failure of anther dehiscence has the advantage that viable pollen is produced, which can be used for subsequent rescue of fertility. Anther dehiscence is a multistage process involving localized cellular differentiation and degeneration, combined with changes to the structure and water status of the anther to facilitate complete opening and pollen release. After microspore release the anther endothecium undergoes expansion and deposition of ligno-cellulosic secondary thickening. The septum separating the two locules is then enzymatically lysed and undergoes a programmed cell death-like breakdown. The stomium subsequently splits as a consequence of the stresses associated with pollen swelling and anther dehydration. The physical constraints imposed by the thickening in the endothecium limit expansion, placing additional stress on the anther, so as it dehydrates it opens and the pollen is released. Jasmonic acid has been shown to be a critical signal for dehiscence, although other hormones, particularly auxin, are also involved. The key regulators and physical constraints of anther dehiscence are discussed.

  8. Ustilago maydis reprograms cell proliferation in maize anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Kelliher, Timothy; Nguyen, Linda; Walbot, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize (Zea mays), one of the world's most important cereal crops. Infection by this smut fungus triggers tumor formation in aerial plant parts within which the fungus sporulates. Using confocal microscopy to track U. maydis infection on corn anthers for 7 days post-injection, we found that U. maydis is located on the epidermis during the first 2 days, and has reached all anther lobe cell types by 3 days post-injection. Fungal infection alters cell-fate specification events, cell division patterns, host cell expansion and host cell senescence, depending on the developmental stage and cell type. Fungal effects on tassel and plant growth were also quantified. Transcriptome profiling using a dual organism microarray identified thousands of anther genes affected by fungal infection at 3 days post-injection during the cell-fate specification and rapid cell proliferation phases of anther development. In total, 4147 (17%) of anther-expressed genes were altered by infection, 2018 fungal genes were expressed in anthers, and 206 fungal secretome genes may be anther-specific. The results confirm that U. maydis deploys distinct genes to cause disease in specific maize organs, and suggest mechanisms by which the host plant is manipulated to generate a tumor.

  9. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-09-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4-7 and 8-12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  10. Using silicon to enhance rice anther culture efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUBaoshen; CHENCuixia; YINLiqing; ZHANGJianjun

    1997-01-01

    Silicon is one of essential elements for rice growth. Deficiency of silicon in plants would affect the physiological metabolism of rice.Considering the important role of silicon to rice and no silicon being used in ordinary anther culture medium, we added absorbable silicon at different concentrations into either or both in-duction media (IM), differentiation media(DM) to study the effect of silicon on anther culture efficiency.

  11. Using Anther Culture Method for Flax Breeding Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Miķelsone, Andra; Grauda, Dace; Stramkale, Veneranda; Ornicāns, Reinis; Rashal, Isaak

    2015-01-01

    Flax breeding is a long and complicated process based on hybridization and following selection of the best plants. Because of possible occasional cross-pollination the development of genetically stable homozygous lines could last more than 15 years. For more rapid creating of initial material for flax breeding anther culture methods for producing doubled haploid (DH) lines could be used successfully. The goal of this study was to develop the best anther culture protocol for producing DH lines...

  12. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Galli; Judith Viégas; Eliane Augustin; Marcia Ines Eckert; João Baptista da Silva

    1998-01-01

    Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, st...

  13. Is there 'anther-anther interference' within a flower? Evidences from one-by-one stamen movement in an insect-pollinated plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ming-Xun; Bu, Zhao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing anthers has received little attention and few experimental tests to date. Here, using one-by-one stamen movement in the generalist-pollinated Parnassia palustris, we test this hypothesis by manipulation experiments in two years. Under natural conditions, the five fertile stamens in P. palustris flowers elongate their filaments individually, and anthers dehisce successively one-by-one. More importantly, the anther-dehisced stamen bends out of the floral center by filament deflexion before the next stamen's anther dehiscence. Experimental manipulations show that flowers with dehisced anther remaining at the floral center experience shorter (1/3-1/2 less) visit durations by pollen-collecting insects (mainly hoverflies and wasps) because these 'hungry' insects are discouraged by the scant and non-fresh pollen in the dehisced anther. Furthermore, the dehisced anther blocks the dehiscing anther's access to floral visitors, resulting in a nearly one third decrease in their contact frequency. As a result, pollen removal of the dehiscing anther decreases dramatically. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence that anther-anther interference is possible in a flower, and that the selection to reduce such interferences can be a strong force in floral evolution. We also propose that some other floral traits, usually interpreted as pollen dispensing mechanisms, may function, at least partially, as mechanisms to promote pollen dispersal by reducing interferences between

  14. Prediction of anther-expressed gene resulation in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JiFeng; YANG JingJin; WANG Guan; YU QingBo; YANG ZhongNan

    2008-01-01

    Anther development in Arabidopsis, a popular model plant for plant biology and genetics, is controlled by a complex gene network. Despite the extensive use of this genus for genetic research, little is known about its regulatory network. In this paper, the direct transcriptional regulatory relationships between genes expressed in Arabidopsis anther development were predicted with an integrated bioinformatic method that combines mining of microarray data with promoter analysis. A total of 7710 transcription factor-gene pairs were obtained. The 80 direct regulatory relationships demonstrating the highest con-fidence were screened from the initial 7710 pairs; three of the 80 were validated by previous experi-ments. The results indicate that our predicted results were reliable. The regulatory relationships re-vealed by this research and described in this paper may facilitate further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of anther development. The bioinformatic method used in this work can also be applied to the prediction of gene regulatory relationships in other organisms.

  15. Anther and pollen development: A conserved developmental pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Fernández; Talle, Behzad; Wilson, Zoe A

    2015-11-01

    Pollen development is a critical step in plant development that is needed for successful breeding and seed formation. Manipulation of male fertility has proved a useful trait for hybrid breeding and increased crop yield. However, although there is a good understanding developing of the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen anther development in model species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about the equivalent processes in important crops. Nevertheless the onset of increased genomic information and genetic tools is facilitating translation of information from the models to crops, such as barley and wheat; this will enable increased understanding and manipulation of these pathways for agricultural improvement. PMID:26310290

  16. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica; Kobiljski Boris; Hristov Nikola

    2007-01-01

    Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33%) and callus yield (119%), while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively). Seven genotypes (50%) had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers o...

  17. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  18. Attempts to induce haploids in anther cultures of sugar, fodder and wild species of beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, aimed at obtaining beet haploids from anthers, the effect of mineral media, potato and sugar beet extract and p-fluorophenylalanine (PFP in combination with growth substances was tested. Nutrient-starved plants as anther-donors, anther-starvation, cold treatment and photoperiod were also analysed. On all mineral media the anthers produced callus and roots; however, the percentage depended on the combination of growth substances used. The best medium for differentiation was that of Linsmaier and Skoog with 25 µM zeatin or 6-(3-methyl-2-butenylaminopurine with 5 µM naphthalene-l-acetic acid (25.5%. The addition of PFP caused an increase in the percentage of anther differentiation (41.6%. Besides callus and roots on one of the anthers (in ca. 140000 tested, vegetative buds were formed from which numerous plants were obtained (2n. Plant and anther nutrient starvation did not improve the anther response to differentiation, nor did it induce haploid development, similarly as cold treatment of inflorescences or isolated anthers. The anthers of wild species showed lower ability to differentiate than those of sugar or fodder beets. Cytological analyses showed formation of multicellular structures until ca. the 12-th day of anther culture; afterwards, they degenerated.

  19. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  20. Orchid mating: the anther steps onto the stigma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In a bisexual flower, the male and female organ of which have a space separation, individing into the pistil and stamen. Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollinati...

  1. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  2. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  3. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  4. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  5. M8-An effective medium for anther culture of indica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEIChuansheng; ZHANGJinyu; WuGuangnan

    1992-01-01

    A new dedifferentiation medium (MS) was developed, which greatly improved the efficiency of anther culture of indica rive. The percentage of green plantlets for anthers inoculated on M8 medium was 40% higher than that on N6 medium in 6 cultivars and it was 2.6%, on average, on M8 medium in more than 20 cultivars and lines,

  6. Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Cotton Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-dong; ZHU Yun-guo; WANG Xiao-ling; ZHU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-quan; XIE Hai-yan; WANG Xue-de

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell, including superoxide (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of ROS production and scavenging in anthers of the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) cotton,CMS line, maintainer, and hybrid F1 anthers, were employed for studying the relationship between CMS and metabolism of ROS, by comparing ROS changes in the sterile and fertile anthers at different developmental stages. The results showed that during the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous cell division stage), anthers of CMS line had higher contents of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA than those of maintainer or hybrid F1. Simultaneously, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in scavenging ROS were measured in the anthers of the CMS line,indicating that an increase of ROS in anthers of abortion preliminary stage had an inducible effect on the antioxidant enzymes. But during the abortion peak of CMS anther (pollen mother cell meiosis stage), on the one hand, contents of O2-·,H2O2, and MDA were extraordinarily high in CMS anthers, on the other hand, the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were excessively low, which disrupted the balance between the production and elimination of ROS and led to pollen mother cells apoptosis at this stage. In the following two stages (uninucleate microspore stage and mature pollen stage), the contents of O2-· and H2O2 in the aborted anthers were approximated to contents in the fertile anthers of the maintainer and hybrid F1. However, MDA contents were continuously raised and enzymic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were consistently decreased in sterile anthers, which indicated that ROS still had harmful effects on the anthers after the apoptosis of the male cells. Excessive accumulation of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA and significant reduction of ROS

  7. Is There ‘Anther-Anther Interference’ within a Flower? Evidences from One-by-One Stamen Movement in an Insect-Pollinated Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xun Ren; Zhao-Jun Bu

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing a...

  8. Haploid Origin of Cork Oak Anther Embryos Detected by Enzyme and RAPD Gene Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno; Agundez; Gomez; Carrascosa; Manzanera

    2000-05-01

    In vitro-induced cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from anther cultures proved to be of haploid origin both by enzyme and RAPD gene marker analysis. The problem considered was to ascertain if embryo cultures originated either from a single haploid cell, from a microspore, or from multiple haploid cells. Therefore, a heterozygotic gene was searched for in the parent tree. The gene coding for shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH1) proved to be heterozygous in the parental tree, and subsequently, these allozymes were screened for the embryos induced in anther cultures from the same tree. Only haploid embryos were found, confirming the microspore origin. Different genotypes were not identified inside each anther by isozyme analysis, probably because of selective pressure for one embryo early in development, but both parental SKDH1 alleles were found in the embryos of different anthers. The banding patterns detected by RAPD markers permitted the identification of multiple microspore origins inside each anther.

  9. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  10. A novel mechanism controls anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG DingKang; SUN GuiFang; WANG LiFang; ZHAI ShuHua; CEN XiaoJiang

    2009-01-01

    a School of Information Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China The phenomena of anther opening and closing in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch)Hand.-Mazz were described in detail, and the effects of ecological factors on those phenomena related to anther opening, closing and the fly-pollination mechanism were discussed. Anthers of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensls open in the morning and close in the evening every day during an over 20 days' pe-riod of anthesis. Light was detected as the main factor controlling this daily anther opening and closing.Anther opening can be reversed in response to rain and re-opens when rain stops. Relative humidity (RH) has a slight effect on anther opening and closing. Flower spans can be prolonged under labora-tory conditions. This novel behavior of anther is likely to be a mechanism to enhance the male fitness in this species, of which has no inherited structure to protect pollen from the perianth.

  11. Comparative metabolomic analysis of wild type and mads3 mutant rice anthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guorun Qu; Sheng Quan; Palash Mondol; Jie Xu; Dabing Zhang; Jianxin Shi

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) MADS3 transcription factor regulates the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during late anther development, and one MADS3 mutant, mads3-4, has defective anther wal s, aborted microspores and complete male sterility. Here, we report the untargeted metabolomic analysis of both wild type and mads3-4 mature anthers. Mutation of MADS3 led to an unbalanced redox status and caused oxidative stress that damages lipid, protein, and DNA. To cope with oxidative stress in mads3-4 anthers, soluble sugars were mobilized and carbohydrate metabolism was shifted to amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism to provide substrates for the biosynthesis of antioxidant proteins and the repair of DNA. Mutation of MADS3 also affected other aspects of rice anther development such as secondary metabolites associated with cuticle, cellwal , and auxin metabolism. Many of the discovered metabolic changes in mads3-4 anthers were corroborated with changes of expression levels of correspond-ing metabolic pathway genes. Altogether, this comparative metabolomic analysis indicated that MADS3 gene affects rice anther development far beyond the ROS homeostasis regulation.

  12. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  13. Tribenuron-Methyl Induces Male Sterility through Anther-Specific Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase Leading to Autophagic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lun; Jing, Xue; Chen, Li; Liu, Yingjun; Su, Yanan; Liu, Tingting; Gao, Changbin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2015-12-01

    Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely used for hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report greater TM accumulation and subsequent stronger ALS inhibition and BCAA starvation in anthers than in leaves and stems after TM application. Constitutive or anther-specific expression of csr1-1D (a CSR1 mutant) eliminated anther-selective ALS inhibition and reversed the TM-induced male sterile phenotype in both rapeseed and Arabidopsis. The results of TM daub-stem experiments, combined with the observations of little TM accumulation in anthers and reversion of TM-induced male sterility by targeted expression of the TM metabolism gene Bel in either the mesophyll or phloem, suggested that foliar-sprayed TM was polar-transported to anthers mainly through the mesophyll and phloem. Microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that autophagy, a bulk degradation process induced during cell death, was elevated in TM-induced male sterile anthers and by anther-specific knockdown of ALS. Moreover, TM-induced pollen abortion was significantly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. These data suggested that TM was polar-transported to anthers, resulting in BCAA starvation via anther-specific ALS inhibition and, ultimately, autophagic cell death in anthers. PMID:26362932

  14. Analysis of the Maize dicer-like1 Mutant, fuzzy tassel, Implicates MicroRNAs in Anther Maturation and Dehiscence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterling Field

    Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in plants requires development of haploid gametophytes from somatic tissues. Pollen is the male gametophyte and develops within the stamen; defects in the somatic tissues of the stamen and in the male gametophyte itself can result in male sterility. The maize fuzzy tassel (fzt mutant has a mutation in dicer-like1 (dcl1, which encodes a key enzyme required for microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. Many miRNAs are reduced in fzt, and fzt mutants exhibit a broad range of developmental defects, including male sterility. To gain further insight into the roles of miRNAs in maize stamen development, we conducted a detailed analysis of the male sterility defects in fzt mutants. Early development was normal in fzt mutant anthers, however fzt anthers arrested in late stages of anther maturation and did not dehisce. A minority of locules in fzt anthers also exhibited anther wall defects. At maturity, very little pollen in fzt anthers was viable or able to germinate. Normal pollen is tricellular at maturity; pollen from fzt anthers included a mixture of unicellular, bicellular, and tricellular pollen. Pollen from normal anthers is loaded with starch before dehiscence, however pollen from fzt anthers failed to accumulate starch. Our results indicate an absolute requirement for miRNAs in the final stages of anther and pollen maturation in maize. Anther wall defects also suggest that miRNAs have key roles earlier in anther development. We discuss candidate miRNAs and pathways that might underlie fzt anther defects, and also note that male sterility in fzt resembles water deficit-induced male sterility, highlighting a possible link between development and stress responses in plants.

  15. Expression pattern of the coparyl diphosphate synthase gene in developing rice anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ari; Nemoto, Keisuke; Chono, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamagishi, Junko; Maekawa, Masahiko; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2004-08-01

    Rice anthers contain high concentrations of gibberellins A(4) and A(7). To understand their physiological roles, we examined the site of their biosynthesis by analyzing the expression pattern of a gene (OsCPS) encoding coparyl diphosphate synthase in developing rice flowers. Expression was apparent in the anthers 1-2 days before flowering, and CPS mRNA accumulated in the maturing pollen.

  16. Cell biological analyses of anther morphogenesis and pollen viability in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang; Zhang, Zaibao; Jin, Yue; Ma, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Major advances have been made in recent years in our understanding of anther development through a combination of genetic studies, cell biological technologies, biochemical analysis, microarray and high-throughput sequencing-based approaches. In this chapter, we summarize the widely used protocols for pollen viability staining; the investigation of anther morphogenesis by light microscopy of semi-thin sections; TUNEL assay for programmed tapetum cell death; and laser microdissection procedures to obtain specialized cells or cell layers for carrying out transcriptomics.

  17. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Marcus Vinicius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  18. Effect of medium osmotic potential on callus induction and shoot regeneration in flax anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yurong; Dribnenki, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Development of an efficient and cost-effective doubled haploid production system in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the prerequisite for the application of doubled haploid technology in a practical breeding program. Pre-culture of anthers on a medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days before transfer to the same medium containing 6% sucrose for a total of 28 days culture period significantly increased shoot regeneration for all four genotypes evaluated. Moreover, pre-culture of anthers on medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days was sufficient to dramatically reduce the frequency of shoot regeneration from somatic tissues and thereby to increase the frequency of microspore-derived plants in flax anther culture. Furthermore, replacing 15% sucrose with 6% sucrose and 9% polyethylene glycol (PEG), or 3% sucrose and 12% PEG, in pre-culture medium did not significantly affect callus induction and shoot regeneration. The results indicate that sucrose may act as carbon/energy source as well as an osmotic regulator in flax anther culture. Sucrose as an osmotic regulator may be replaced by a non-metabolizable osmoticum: PEG. The implication of this study in flax anther culture and breeding is discussed. PMID:15235814

  19. Defining reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of anther development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanxiao; Tu, Ping; Wang, Kun; Gao, Feng; Yang, Weilong; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is one of the most accurate and widely used methods for gene expression analysis. However, the choice of reference genes for normalization is critical for accurate quantification of gene expression. As development of genomics, mining large-scale datasets such as microarray and RNA-sequencing data becomes a new approach for exploitation of new reference genes. In this study, we analyzed an RNA-sequencing dataset of rice anther and 167 microarray datasets involving different tissues and developing stages of rice anthers and pollens. We selected 12 candidate genes and other 5 reference genes, including ACT1, eEF-1α, GAPDH, Exp2, and CCDC72 used in previous studies, and evaluated their expression in eight tissues and different developmental stages of anthers in rice variety 9311 and Yuetai. UPF3, eIF4A-3, GAPDH, and PPP6 were identified as the most suitable reference genes for qPCR analysis of anther development in rice. The new candidate reference genes showed more stable expression than the traditionally used reference genes. These results provide a set of reliable reference genes for studies in rice anther developmental process. PMID:24492537

  20. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

  1. Production of haploids from anther culture of banana [Musa balbisiana (BB)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assani, A; Bakry, F; Kerbellec, F; Haïcour, R; Wenzel, G; Foroughi-Wehr, B

    2003-02-01

    We report here, for the first time, the production of haploid plants of banana Musa balbisiana (BB). Callus was induced from anthers in which the majority of the microspores were at the uninucleate stage. The frequency of callus induction was 77%. Callus proliferation usually preceded embryo formation. About 8% of the anthers developed androgenic embryos. Of the 147 plantlets obtained, 41 were haploids (n=x=11). The frequency of haploid production depended on genotypes used: 18 haploid plants were produced from genotype Pisang klutuk, 12 from Pisang batu, seven from Pisang klutuk wulung and four from Tani. The frequency of regeneration was 1.1%, which was based on the total number of anthers cultured. Diploid plants (2n=2x=22) were also observed in the regenerated plants. The haploid banana plants that were developed will be important material for the improvement of banana through breeding programmes.

  2. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported.

  3. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported. PMID:26619882

  4. In vitro Accumulation of Polyphenols in Tea Callus Derived from Anther

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevala, Naga Pavan Kumar; Chevala, Naga Thirumalesh; Dhanakodi, Kirubakaran; Nadendla, Rama Rao; Nagarathna, Chandrashekara Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tea is an economic important crop with high medicinal value due to rich polyphenols content. In the present research we studied the accumulation of polyphenols of in vitro regenerated callus from anthers. Objective: Callus induction of tea anthers and in vitro accumulation of phenolic compounds from the anther-derived callus. Materials and Methods: Standardization of callus induction for tea anthers. In vitro generated callus was screened for in vivo accumulation of catechins and its isomers were screened by FC reagent staining technique. The methanol extract of dry and green callus obtained were estimated qualitatively by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)–alternative total reflection (ATR) and quantitatively by HPLC method. Results: Anthers inoculated on half strength MS media fortified with 2,4-dichloro acetic acid (2 mg/L), Kn (1 mg/L), and BAP (1 mg/L) induced callus under photoperiod of 9:15 h light. The in vivo histochemical studies revealed the accumulation of polyphenols in the callus. The in vitro generated fresh and dry callus were used for extraction and screened for accumulated polyphenols [galic acid, (+)-catechin (C), (−)-epicatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, (−)-gallocatechins, (−)-epicatechin gallate] were estimated qualitatively by FTIR–ATR method and quantitatively by HPLC method. Conclusion: The FC staining technique used here helps in localization of polyphenol compounds accumulation in the tissues by instant microscopic studies. The study have scope in large-scale isolation of various medicinally important flavonol by using anther culture. Abbreviations used: HPLC: high pressure liquid chromatography; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; 2,4-D: 2,4-dichloro acetic acid; BAP: N6-benzyl amino purine; kn: kinetin

  5. Characterization and mapping of a new male sterility mutant of anther advanced dehiscence (t) in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zhang; Yunfeng Li; Jian Zhang; Fucheng Shen; Yuanxin Huang; Zhiwei Wu

    2008-01-01

    Anther dehiscence is very important for pollen maturation and release.The mutants of anther dehiscence in rice (Oryza sativa L.) arefew,and related research remains poor.A male sterility mutant of anther dehiscence in advance,add(t),has been found in Minghui 63 and its sterility is not sensitive to thermo-photo.To learn the character of sterilization and the function of the add(t) gene,the morphological and cytological studies on the anther and pollen,the ability of the pistil being fertilized,inheritance of the mutant,and mapping of add(t)gene have been conducted.The anther size is normal but the color is white in the mutant against the natural yellow in the wild-type.The pollen is malformed,unstained,and small in the KI-I2 solution.The anther dehiscence is in advance at the bicellular pollen stage.A crossing test indicated that the grain setting ratio of the add(t) is significantly lower than that of the CMS line 2085A.The ability of the pistil being fertilized is most probably decreased by the add(t) gene.The male sterility is controlled by a single recessive gene of add(t).This gene is mapped between the markers of R02004 (InDel) and RM300 (SSR) on chromosome 2,and the genetic distance from the add(t) gene to these markers is 0.78 cM and 4.66 cM,respectively.

  6. Combined effect of induced mutations and media for improving genetic architecture of brassica through anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation and media effect on the anther culture response of two brassica napus varieties (i.e. Pak cheen and Salam) were studied. It was observed that low doses of gamma radiation (100-250 rads) enhanced the anther callusing response of the varieties on both of the cultured media. Different genotypic response was observed in case of plant regeneration. In variety Salam Plant lets were regenerated from the calli treated up to the dose of 750 rads. However, in case of variety Pak-cheen the calli could not be differentiated beyond 100 rads. (author)

  7. Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of γ-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of γ-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

  8. Regulation of Arabidopsis Early Anther Development by Putative Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules and Transcriptional Regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jin Sun; Carey LH Hord; Chang-Bin Chen; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    Anther development in flowering plants involves the formation of several cell types, including the tapetal and pollen mother cells. The use of genetic and molecular tools has led to the identification and characterization of genes that are critical for normal cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis early anther development. We review here several recent studies on these genes, including the demonstration that the putative receptor protein kinases BAM1 and BAM2 together play essential roles in the control of early cell division and differentiation. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that BAM1/2 may form a positive-negative feedback regulatory loop with a previously identified key regulator, SPOROCYTELESS (also called NOZZLE),to control the balance between sporogenous and somatic cell types in the anther. Furthermore, we summarize the isolation and functional analysis of the DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) gene in promoting proper tapetal cell differentiation. Our finding that DYT1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the bHLH family, as well as relevant expression analyses, strongly supports a model that DYT1 serves as a critical link between upstream factors and downstream target genes that are critical for normal tapetum development and function. These studies, together with other recently published works, indicate that cell-cell communication and transcriptional control are key processes essential for cell fate specification in anther development.

  9. AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of several pathways affecting Arabidopsis anther development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that AtMYB103 has an important role in tapetum development,callose dissolution,and exine formation in A.thaliana anthers.Here,we further characterized its function in anther development by expression pattern analysis,transmission electron microscopy observation of the knockout mutant,and microarray analysis of downstream genes.A total of 818 genes differentially expressed between ms188 and the wild-type were identified by global expression profiling analysis.Functional classification showed that loss-of-function of AtMYB103 impairs cell wall modification,lipid metabolic pathways,and signal transduction throughout anther development.RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that transcription factors acting downstream of AtMYB103 (At1g06280 and At1g02040) were expressed in the tapetum and microspores at later stages,suggesting that they might have important roles in microsporogenesis.These results indicated that AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of Arabidopsis anther development.

  10. History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the routes of pathogen introduction contributes greatly to efforts to protect against future disease emergence. Here, we investigated the history of the invasion in North America by the fungal pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, which causes the anther smut disease on the white ca

  11. Effect of the genotype and gamma irradiation on the anther cultures of a 10x10 diallel cross of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther culture responsiveness, irradiation effect and reciprocal effect were evaluated on ten genotypes (V1-V10) and a 101x0 diallel cross. Gamma irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied to seeds of parents and F1 cross from which the donor plants were grown. Non-irradiated donor plants were also used for comparison. Anthers were plated on potato-2 callus induction medium and calli formed were transferred to MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), indolacetic acid (1.0 mg/L), kinetin (1.0 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and solidified with agar (0.7%). Genotypes showed big differences for callus induction, plant regeneration and anther culturability rate. The most responsive materials were V2, V10 and V5 with 76.0, 27.4 and 10.8 green plants per 100 anthers respectively. No irradiation effect was found for the parents nor the F1 crosses on the pooled data. Mean anther culture response of specific genotypes showed that irradiation significantly increased anther culturability rate of V3 from 0.1 to 27.6 green plants per 100 anthers. No reciprocal effect was observed. (author)

  12. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae. PMID:26789333

  13. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae.

  14. Anther Culture of Chinese Radish ( Raphanus sativus L. var. Longinnatus Bailey): Response of Different Genotypes to the Embryogenesis and the Traits of Regenerated Plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aims were to ① conduct anther culture of Chinese radish varieties; ② observe the development of embryos from anther culture; ③ study the response of different genotypes to embryogenesis in anther culture; ④ observe the morphology of regenerated plantlets; ⑤ analyze the ploidy level of regenerated plantlets arising from the anther culture process. [ Method]Anthers of 15 genotypes with diverse genetic backgrounds of Chinese radish have been cultured in vitro and induced to undergo embryogenesis and plant formation. [Result] Of 15 genotypes evaluated, four produced embryos. The genotype was the main factor to influence the embryogenesis. The morphology and the ploidy of the regenerated plantlets were observed, and the anther-derived plantlets included a mix of haploids, diploids and hexaploids. Of the plants that regenerated from anther embryos 60% were diploid. [ Conclusion] The plantlets had the high ability to double spontaneously.

  15. Regulatory Role of a Receptor-Like Kinase in Specifying Anther Cell Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Qian, Xiaoling; Chen, Mingjiao; Fei, Qili; Meyers, Blake C; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    In flowering plants, sequential formation of anther cell types is a highly ordered process that is essential for successful meiosis and sexual reproduction. Differentiation of meristematic cells and cell-cell communication are proposed to coordinate anther development. Among the proposed mechanisms of cell fate specification are cell surface-localized Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) and their putative ligands. Here, we present the genetic and biochemical evidence that a rice (Oryza sativa) LRR-RLK, MSP1 (MULTIPLE SPOROCYTE1), interacts with its ligand OsTDL1A (TPD1-like 1A), specifying the cell identity of anther wall layers and microsporocytes. An in vitro assay indicates that the 21-amino acid peptide of OsTDL1A has a physical interaction with the LRR domain of MSP1. The ostdl1a msp1 double mutant showed the defect in lacking middle layers and tapetal cells and having an increased number of microsporocytes similar to the ostdl1a or msp1 single mutant, indicating the same pathway of OsTDL1A-MSP1 in regulating anther development. Genome-wide expression profiles showed the altered expression of genes encoding transcription factors, particularly basic helix-loop-helix and basic leucine zipper domain transcription factors in ostdl1a and msp1 Among these reduced expressed genes, one putatively encodes a TGA (TGACGTCA cis-element-binding protein) factor OsTGA10, and another one encodes a plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxin OsGrx_I1. OsTGA10 was shown to interact with OsGrx_I1, suggesting that OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling specifies anther cell fate directly or indirectly affecting redox status. Collectively, these data point to a central role of the OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling pathway in specifying somatic cell identity and suppressing overproliferation of archesporial cells in rice. PMID:27208278

  16. Regulatory Role of a Receptor-Like Kinase in Specifying Anther Cell Identity1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Qian, Xiaoling; Chen, Mingjiao

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, sequential formation of anther cell types is a highly ordered process that is essential for successful meiosis and sexual reproduction. Differentiation of meristematic cells and cell-cell communication are proposed to coordinate anther development. Among the proposed mechanisms of cell fate specification are cell surface-localized Leu-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) and their putative ligands. Here, we present the genetic and biochemical evidence that a rice (Oryza sativa) LRR-RLK, MSP1 (MULTIPLE SPOROCYTE1), interacts with its ligand OsTDL1A (TPD1-like 1A), specifying the cell identity of anther wall layers and microsporocytes. An in vitro assay indicates that the 21-amino acid peptide of OsTDL1A has a physical interaction with the LRR domain of MSP1. The ostdl1a msp1 double mutant showed the defect in lacking middle layers and tapetal cells and having an increased number of microsporocytes similar to the ostdl1a or msp1 single mutant, indicating the same pathway of OsTDL1A-MSP1 in regulating anther development. Genome-wide expression profiles showed the altered expression of genes encoding transcription factors, particularly basic helix-loop-helix and basic leucine zipper domain transcription factors in ostdl1a and msp1. Among these reduced expressed genes, one putatively encodes a TGA (TGACGTCA cis-element-binding protein) factor OsTGA10, and another one encodes a plant-specific CC-type glutaredoxin OsGrx_I1. OsTGA10 was shown to interact with OsGrx_I1, suggesting that OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling specifies anther cell fate directly or indirectly affecting redox status. Collectively, these data point to a central role of the OsTDL1A-MSP1 signaling pathway in specifying somatic cell identity and suppressing overproliferation of archesporial cells in rice. PMID:27208278

  17. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids...... with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent...... with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an attempt...

  18. Map-Based Cloning of Genes Important for Maize Anther Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Y.; Walbot, V.; Nan, G.

    2012-12-01

    Map-Based cloning for maize mutant MS13 . Scientists still do not understand what decides the fate of a cell in plants. Many maize genes are important for anther development and when they are disrupted, the anthers do not shed pollen, i.e. male sterile. Since the maize genome has been fully sequenced, we conduct map-based cloning using a bulk segregant analysis strategy. Using PCR (polymerase chain reaction), we look for biomarkers that are linked to our gene of interest, Male Sterile 13 (MS13). Recombinations occur more often if the biomarkers are further away from the gene, therefore we can estimate where the gene is and design more PCR primers to get closer to our gene. Genetic and molecular analysis will help distinguish the role of key genes in setting cell fates before meiosis and for being in charge of the switch from mitosis to meiosis.

  19. An anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene D5 related to rice pollen development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It was shown in a previous analysis that D5 gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was an anther-specific gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein. In this study, D5 gene was found specifically expressed in tapetum cells as well as in the peripheral cells of the vascular bundle of rice anthers by RNA in situ hybridization. In order to study its function, D5 was transformed into rice in both sense and antisense directions driven by a rice Actin 1 promoter. It has been observed that the pollen grains from the antisense D5 transgenic rice plants are abnormal, indicating that D5 plays a critical role in rice pollen development.

  20. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  1. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  2. The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin-Ju; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. Conclusions The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid. PMID:22649529

  3. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  4. Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication.

  5. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter OsABCG15 is Required for Anther Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Xiao Niu; Fu-Rong He; Ming He; Ding Ren; Le-Tian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Plant male reproductive development is a complex biological process,but the underlying mechanism is not well understood.Here,we characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterile mutant.Based on mapbased cloning and sequence analysis,we identified a 1,459-bp deletion in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene,OsABCG15,causing abnormal anthers and male sterility.Therefore,we named this mutant osabcg15.Expression analysis showed that OsABCG15 is expressed specifically in developmental anthers from stage 8 (meiosis Ⅱ stage) to stage 10 (late microspore stage).Two genes CYP704B2 and WDA1,involved in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids for the establishment of the anther cuticle and pollen exine,were downregulated in osabcg15 mutant,suggesting that OsABCG15 may play a key function in the processes related to sporopollenin biosynthesis or sporopollenin transfer from tapetal cells to anther locules.Consistently,histological analysis showed that osabcg15 mutants developed obvious abnormality in postmeiotic tapetum degeneration,leading to rapid degredation of young microspores.The results suggest that OsABCG15 plays a critical role in exine formation and pollen development,similar to the homologous gene of AtABCG26 in Arabidopsis.This work is helpful to understand the regulatory network in rice anther development.

  6. Proteome analysis of the wild and YX-1 male sterile mutant anthers of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zheng

    Full Text Available Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE gels were detected. A number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered in YX-1 compared with WT were identified by mass spectrometry and the NCBInr and Viridiplantae EST databases. Proteins down-regulated in YX-1 anthers include ascorbate peroxidase (APX, putative glutamine synthetase (GS, ATP synthase subunits, chalcone synthase (CHS, CHS-like, putative callose synthase catalytic subunit, cysteine protease, 5B protein, enoyl-ACP reductase, 14-3-3 protein and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3. Meanwhile, activities of APX and GS, RNA expression levels of apx and atp synthase beta subunit were low in YX-1 anthers which correlated with the expression of male sterility. In addition, several carbohydrate metabolism-related and photosynthesis-related enzymes were also present at lower levels in the mutant anthers. In contrast, 26S proteasome regulatory subunits, cysteine protease inhibitor, putative S-phase Kinase association Protein 1(SKP1, and aspartic protease, were expressed at higher levels in YX-1 anthers relative to WT anthers. Regulation of wolfberry pollen development involves a complex network of differentially expressed genes. The present study lays the foundation for future investigations of gene function linked with wolfberry pollen development and male sterility.

  7. A summary and discussion on rice anther culture techniques%水稻花药培养技术的总结与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季彪俊; 陈启锋; 黄群策; 李维明

    2001-01-01

    Rice anther culture techniques including major physical-chemical factors affecting culture capacity, utilization of genetic characters of anther culture progeny and the key of application of anther culture techniques tobreeding are reviewed. Meanwhile the points which need to be further researched on anther culture techniquesand their application to genetics and breeding are put forward, and the prospects of rice anther culture are discussed.%总结了水稻花药培养(花培)技术中影响培养力的主要理化因素、花培后代遗传特性的利用、花培技术育种应用的关键,分析提出花培技术和遗传育种应用需要深入研究的问题,并对水稻花培的发展作了初步的探讨.

  8. Pollen—embryogenesis and chromosomal variability in anther culture of Brassica hirta Moench (Sinapis alba L)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAJAJYPS; DMOHAPTRA

    1990-01-01

    The anther cultures of Brassica hirta underwent pollenembryogenesis and callusing,which showed a wide range of chromosome numbers varying from 9 (n=12) to a highly polyploid.For embryogenesis,pretreatment of floral buds in 0.4 M sucrose solution for 72 hrs at 4℃ was superior to freshly cultured anthers.Culture temperature of 30℃ for 14 days before maintenance of cultures at 25℃ was significantly beneficial for embryo yield in comparison to cultures continuously incubated at 25℃.Dark treatment during culture was more effective for pollen-embryo yield.

  9. Identification of small RNAs in late developmental stage of rice anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Tomoaki; Kaneko, Fumi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Makino, Amane; Mae, Tadahiko; Endo, Makoto; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Watanabe, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Small RNAs including microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are known as repressors of gene expression. There are many plant proteins involved in small RNA-mediated gene silencing, such as Dicer ribonucleases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. However, most of these proteins have been reported to be absent in the late developmental stage of the plant male gamete, pollen. In order to clarify the existence of the small RNAs during maturation of pollen, we cloned and sequenced small RNAs from rice anthers including tricellular pollen. From fifty six candidates of small RNAs, we identified two known miRNAs (miR166 and miR167), eight potential miRNAs, and ten putative heterochromatic siRNAs (hc-siRNAs). RNA gel blot analyses clearly showed that miR166 and miR167 were accumulated in the uninuclear pollen stage of anther development and remained until the tricellular pollen stage. Our cloning and RNA gel blot analyses of small RNAs led us to propose a possible function of small RNA-mediated gene regulation for the development of male gametes in rice.

  10. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  11. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  12. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chun-Chiu; Scharaschkin, Tanya; Su, Yvonne C F; Saunders, Richard M K

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The phenology and pollination ecology of the Australian endemic species Pseuduvaria mulgraveana are studied in detail, including evaluations of floral scent chemistry, pollen viability, and floral visitors. Results showed that the flowers are pollinated by small diurnal nitidulid beetles and are protogynous. Pollen from both hermaphroditic and staminate flowers are shown to be equally viable. The structurally hermaphroditic flowers are nevertheless functionally pistillate as anther dehiscence is delayed until after petal abscission and hence after the departure of pollinators. This mechanism to achieve functional unisexuality of flowers has not previously been reported in angiosperms. It is known that protogyny is widespread amongst early-divergent angiosperms, including the Annonaceae, and is effective in preventing autogamy. Delayed anther dehiscence represents a further elaboration of this, and is effective in preventing geitonogamy since very few sexually mature flowers occur simultaneously in an individual. We highlight the necessity for field-based empirical interpretations of functional floral sex expression prior to evaluations of evolutionary processes.

  13. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  14. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  15. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  18. Sugar and auxin signaling pathways respond to high-temperature stress during anther development as revealed by transcript profiling analysis in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ling; Li, Yaoyao; Hu, Qin; Zhu, Longfu; Gao, Wenhui; Wu, Yuanlong; Ding, Yuanhao; Liu, Shiming; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-03-01

    Male reproduction in flowering plants is highly sensitive to high temperature (HT). To investigate molecular mechanisms of the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) anthers to HT, a relatively complete comparative transcriptome analysis was performed during anther development of cotton lines 84021 and H05 under normal temperature and HT conditions. In total, 4,599 differentially expressed genes were screened; the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to epigenetic modifications, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant hormone signaling. Detailed studies showed that the deficiency in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase1 and the inhibition of methyltransferases contributed to genome-wide hypomethylation in H05, and the increased expression of histone constitution genes contributed to DNA stability in 84021. Furthermore, HT induced the expression of casein kinasei (GhCKI) in H05, coupled with the suppression of starch synthase activity, decreases in glucose level during anther development, and increases in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in late-stage anthers. The same changes also were observed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GhCKI overexpression lines. These results suggest that GhCKI, sugar, and auxin may be key regulators of the anther response to HT stress. Moreover, phytochrome-interacting factor genes (PIFs), which are involved in linking sugar and auxin and are regulated by sugar, might positively regulate IAA biosynthesis in the cotton anther response to HT. Additionally, exogenous IAA application revealed that high background IAA may be a disadvantage for late-stage cotton anthers during HT stress. Overall, the linking of HT, sugar, PIFs, and IAA, together with our previously reported data on GhCKI, may provide dynamic coordination of plant anther responses to HT stress.

  19. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  20. Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae) in different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Nuran; Dane, Feruzan

    2012-12-01

    In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother cells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte were compared with the results of this study.

  1. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ildephonse Habarugira; Theo Hendriks; Marie-Christine Quillet; Jean-Louis Hilbert; Caroline Rambaud

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores...

  2. GAMYB controls different sets of genes and is differentially regulated by microRNA in aleurone cells and anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Aya, Koichiro; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Shimada, Yukihisa; Nakazono, Mikio; Watanabe, Ryosuke; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Gomi, Kenji; Shimada, Asako; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    GAMYB is a component of gibberellin (GA) signaling in cereal aleurone cells, and has an important role in flower development. However, it is unclear how GAMYB function is regulated. We examined the involvement of a microRNA, miR159, in the regulation of GAMYB expression in cereal aleurone cells and flower development. In aleurone cells, no miR159 expression was observed with or without GA treatment, suggesting that miR159 is not involved in the regulation of GAMYB and GAMYB-like genes in this tissue. miR159 was expressed in tissues other than aleurone, and miR159 over-expressors showed similar but more severe phenotypes than the gamyb mutant. GAMYB and GAMYB-like genes are co-expressed with miR159 in anthers, and the mRNA levels for GAMYB and GAMYB-like genes are negatively correlated with miR159 levels during anther development. Thus, OsGAMYB and OsGAMYB-like genes are regulated by miR159 in flowers. A microarray analysis revealed that OsGAMYB and its upstream regulator SLR1 are involved in the regulation of almost all GA-mediated gene expression in rice aleurone cells. Moreover, different sets of genes are regulated by GAMYB in aleurone cells and anthers. GAMYB binds directly to promoter regions of its target genes in anthers as well as aleurone cells. Based on these observations, we suggest that the regulation of GAMYB expression and GAMYB function are different in aleurone cells and flowers in rice.

  3. Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijia Yang; Zhijing Luo; Wanqi Liang; Dabing Zhang; Di Wu; Jianxin Shi; Yi He; Franck Pinot; Bernard Grausem; Changsong Yin; Lu Zhu; Mingjiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Anther cuticle and pol en exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pol en grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pol en exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pol en exine occurs. Consis-tently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatical y reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pol en exine formation. Col ectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants.

  4. Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska-Krause, I; Mankowska, G; Lukaszewicz, M; Szopa, J

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. Anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than somatic cell cultures. However, regenerants derived from anther cells showed valuable breeding features, including increased resistance to fungal wilt. The age of the donor plants and the season they grew in had a noticeable effect on their anther callusing and subsequent plant regeneration. Low temperature had a negative effect and dark pre-treatment a positive effect on callusing and plant regeneration. Different media were most effective for callus induction, shoot induction and rooting. For callus induction two carbon sources (2.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) were most effective; for shoots, only sucrose at lower concentration (2%) was effective. Rooting was most efficient in 1% sucrose and reduced (50%) mineral concentration in the medium. It was found that the length of in vitro cultivation significantly increases the ploidy and affects such features as regenerant morphological characteristics, petal colour, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum-induced fungal wilt. The established plant regeneration system provides a basis for the creation of transgenic flax. PMID:12827441

  5. Molecular characterization of OsPRP1 from rice, which is expressed preferentially in anthers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaohuai; MAO Aijun; WANG Rong; WANG Tai; SONG Yanru; TONG Zhe

    2003-01-01

    A proline-rich protein-encoding cDNA encoded by a rice gene, OsPRP1, was isolated by PCR-mediated RNA subtraction hybridization strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced protein consists of 224 amino acids with the highest level of proline residue (14.29%). Following the putative signal peptide, OsPRP1 contains two structural domains, of which the N-terminal domain lacks Pro-rich repetitive sequences, and the C-terminal domain has two repetitive proline-rich sequences of 18 amino acid residues with PEPK motifs. Southern blot and sequence analysis show that OsPRP1 exists as four copies in rice genome and is localized in rice chromosome 10. RT-PCR experiments reveal that OsPRP1 is expressed preferentially in spikelets and buds with lower levels in roots and leaves. In situ hybridization indicates that OsPRP1 transcripts are present at high levels in pollen mother cells (PMCs), meiotic PMCs, tapetal cells and vascular bundle cells of flower organs. The expression of OsPRP1 in anthers has temporal specificity. The transcripts are accumulated at high levels in PMCs, at the highest levels in meiotic PMCs and at undetectable levels in uninucleate pollen. In buds the transcripts are only detected in the epidermal cells of coleoptiles and leaf primordial.

  6. Within-host competitive exclusion among species of the anther smut pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraud Tatiana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host individuals represent an arena in which pathogens compete for resources and transmission opportunities, with major implications for the evolution of virulence and the structure of populations. Studies to date have focused on competitive interactions within pathogen species, and the level of antagonism tends to increase with the genetic distance between competitors. Anther-smut fungi, in the genus Microbotryum, have emerged as a tractable model for within-host competition. Here, using two pathogen species that are frequently found in sympatry, we investigated whether the antagonism seen among genotypes of the same species cascades up to influence competition among pathogen species. Results Sequential inoculation of hosts showed that a resident infection most often excludes a challenging pathogen genotype, which is consistent with prior studies. However, the challenging pathogen was significantly more likely to invade the already-infected host if the resident infection was a conspecific genotype compared to challenges involving a closely related species. Moreover, when inter-specific co-infection occurred, the pathogens were highly segregated within the host, in contrast to intra-specific co-infection. Conclusion We show evidence that competitive exclusion during infection can be greater among closely related pathogen species than among genotypes within species. This pattern follows from prior studies demonstrating that genetic distance and antagonistic interactions are positively correlated in Microbotryum. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a likely mechanism of direct competitive interference, and has been shown in some fungi to be effective both within and across species boundaries. For systems where related pathogen species frequently co-occur in the same host populations, these competitive dynamics may substantially impact the spatial segregation of pathogen species.

  7. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  8. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  9. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization.

  10. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  11. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  12. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  13. Microsatellite marker analysis of an anther-derived potato family: skewed segregation and gene-centromere mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chani, Eduard; Ashkenazi, Varda; Hillel, Jossi; Veilleux, Richard E

    2002-04-01

    Segregation patterns of polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were investigated in monoploid potato families derived from anther culture. A total of 14 primers developed from the sequences in the database, as well as from a genomic library of potato, was used. Distorted segregation was observed for seven (50%) polymorphic loci among monoploids derived from an interspecific hybrid. Similar distortion was observed for only one of five loci that could be contrasted between the two monoploid families. Segregation distortion was less common in the sexually derived backcross population between the interspecific hybrid and either of its parents. One locus could be putatively linked to a lethal allele because it showed distorted segregation in both monoploid families, a group of 70 heterozygous diploids derived from unreduced gametes through anther culture, and a backcross population. These diploids were used to map the polymorphic SSR markers with respect to the centromeres using half-tetrad analysis. The majority of the SSR loci mapped more than 33 cM from the centromere, suggesting the occurrence of a single crossover per chromosome arm. PMID:11962620

  14. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  15. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  16. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  17. Effects of field plot size on variation in white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug for host plant resistance evaluations in Arkansas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 investigated whether field plot size affects incidence of white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug (TPB) ((Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)) in host plant resistance (HPR) evaluations. The three cotton lines evaluated in the trial included a su...

  18. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order t

  19. An Observe of "Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro"%《辣椒花药离体培养》评述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素文; 黄亚杰; 肖瑜; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reading the existing relative documents about pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) in vitro anther culture, this paper summarizes and comments a newly published article "Anther Culture in Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro" on the Acta Physiol Plant in 2011 from the effects of several main factors on pepper anther culture, plant regeneration ploidy identification and plant chromosome doubling ect. The authors think this article has briefly introduced the present status of pepper in vitro anther culture abroad, and the existing problems, which is of certain reference value.%在阅读已有辣椒花药离体培养相关文献的基础上,从影响辣椒花药培养的几个主要因素、再生植株倍性鉴定及植株染色体加倍等方面,总结并评述了最近国外发表的一篇文章《辣椒花药离体培养》,认为该文章概括了目前国外辣椒花药离体培养的现状及存在的问题,具有一定参考价值.

  20. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  1. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  2. A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava.

  3. Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednamar Gabriela Palú

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução desses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta, buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1 e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1; para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 e cinetina (4 mg.L-1.The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aimed to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce

  4. Anther Development and Pollen Germination of Jackfruit%菠萝蜜花药发育及花粉萌发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铀; 叶春海; 丰锋; 夏春华

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the anther development and pollen germination conditions are the essential elements for a good harvest and high quality of jackfruit. Using paraffin sections and in vitro culture method, the anther development and pollen germination of jackfruit were observed. The results showed that there are four pollen sacs in the jackfruit anther, and there are two types of cytokinesis in the meiotic, namely the continuous type and the simultaneous type, which formed tetrads arranged to be equally bifacial or tetrahedral. Moreover, a great many of tannin was observed to be accumulated in the mature anther epidermal cells. The mixed solution of 160 g · L-1 sucrose and 0.25 g · L- 1 boric acid had an obvious catalytic effect on the jackfruit' s pollen germination, while CaCl2 exerted almost no effect.%研究花药发育过程和花粉萌发条件是菠萝蜜稳产优质的基础.采用石蜡切片和离体培养的方法,对菠萝蜜花药的发育和花粉萌发进行了研究,结果表明:菠萝蜜的花药有4个花粉囊;减数分裂的胞质分裂有连续型和同时型两种形式,形成了等双面体排列和四面体排列的四分体;成熟花药的表皮细胞积累有大量的单宁.160 g·L(-1)的蔗糖和0.25g·L(-1)的硼酸混合溶液对菠萝蜜花粉萌发具有明显的促进作用,CaC12对菠萝蜜花粉萌发作用不明显.

  5. Reversible and Irreversible Drought-Induced Changes in the Anther Proteome of Rice(Oryza sativa L.)Genotypes IR64 and Moroberekan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xiang Liu; John Bennett

    2011-01-01

    Crop yield is most sensitive to water deficit during the reproductive stage.For rice,the most sensitive yield component is spikelet fertility and the most sensitive stage is immediately before heading.Here,we examined the effect of drought on the anther proteome of two rice genotypes:Moroberekan and IR64.Water was withheld for 3 d before heading(3DBH)in well watered controls for 5 d until the flag leaf relative water content(RWC)had declined to 45-50%.Plants were then re-watered and heading occurred 2-3 d later,representing a delay of 4-5 d relative to controls.The anther proteins were separated at 3 DBH,at the end of the stress period,and at heading in stressed/re-watered plants and controls by two-dimensional(2-D)gel electrophoresis,and 93 protein spots were affected reproducibly in abundance by drought during the experiment across two rice genotypes.After drought stress,upon re-watering,expressions of 24 protein spots were irreversible in both genotypes,60 protein spots were irreversible in IR64 but reversible in Moroberekan,only nine protein spots were irreversible in Moroberekan while reversible in IR64.Among them,there were 14 newly drought-induced protein spots in IR64;none of them was reversible on re-watering.However,there were 13 newly drought-induced protein spots in Moroberekan,10 of them were reversible on re-watering,including six drought-induced protein spots that were not reversed in IR64.Taken together,our proteomics data reveal that drought-tolerant genotype Moroberekan possessed better recovery capability following drought and re-watering at the anther proteome level than the drought-sensitive genotype IR64.The disruptions of drought to rice anther development and pollen cell functions are also discussed in the paper.

  6. 芦笋花药愈伤组织诱导技术研究%Preliminary Study on Anther Culture Callus Inducement of Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元国; 李芳; 包艳存

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对芦笋花药愈伤组织诱导培养技术进行详细研究.[方法]以MS为基本培养基,附加外源激素对二倍体花药愈伤组织诱导技术进行研究.[结果]二倍体芦笋花蕾长度为1.5~2.0 mm时,其诱导效果最好;采用5%高糖浓度可显著抑制花药体细胞分裂和提高花粉愈伤组织诱导率;同一品种不同植株花药愈伤组织诱导率差异显著;适合于二倍体花药愈伤组织诱导的激素配比是1.0 mg/LNAA+ 1.0 mg/L BA.[结论]为芦笋的品种改良与选育奠定了基础.%To study anther culture callus inducement of asparagus in detail. [Method] The diploid anther callus inducement was studied by MS as basic medium with exogenous hormone. [ Result] The length of the diploid bud was 1. 5 - 2. 0 mm which induced result best; The high sugar density of 5% can repress the anther somatic cell division remarkably and improved the inducement rate of pollens callus; The callus inducement rate of the same plant with different species differed greatly; The suitable hormone proportion of diploid anther callus was 1.0 mg/L NAA + 1.0 mg/L BA. [ Conclusion] The study will lay a foundation for improvement and breeding of asparagus.

  7. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  8. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  9. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  10. The parthenocarpic fruit (pat) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) sets seedless fruits and has aberrant anther and ovule development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, A; Taddei, A R; Soressi, G P

    1998-01-01

    Among the different sources of genetic parthenocarpy described in tomato, the mutation referred to as parthenocarpic fruit (pat) is of particular interest because of its strong expressivity and because it confers earlier ripening, higher fruit set and enhanced fruit quality. As a pleiotropic effect, pat flowers have aberrantly developing androecia and reduced male and female fertility. In this work we extend the early description of the pat phenotype by investigating the expression of parthenocarpy in three different environments and by using light and scanning electron microscopy to analyse the development of male and female floral organs. The degree of parthenocarpy was high in the three experimental environments and was characterised by a precocious initiation of ovary growth to pre-anthesis floral stages. Aberrations in anther development were evident at flower bud stages and resulted in shorter, irregular and teratoid organs. Ectopic production of carpel-like structures bearing external ovules was evident in the most severely altered androecia. Analysis of ovule development revealed that a fraction of pat ovules becomes aberrant from very early stages, having defective integument growth. Meiosis was irregular in aberrant ovules and megaspore or gamete production was severely hampered. The described pat syndrome suggests that parthenocarpy in this mutant could be a secondary effect of a gene controlling, at early stages, organ identity and development. PMID:9389668

  11. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios.The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination

  12. Control of Anther Cell Differentiation by the Small Protein Ligand TPD1 and Its Receptor EMS1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; Linstroth, Lisa; Tillman, Zachary; Otegui, Marisa S; Owen, Heather A; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental feature of sexual reproduction in plants and animals is the specification of reproductive cells that conduct meiosis to form gametes, and the associated somatic cells that provide nutrition and developmental cues to ensure successful gamete production. The anther, which is the male reproductive organ in seed plants, produces reproductive microsporocytes (pollen mother cells) and surrounding somatic cells. The microsporocytes yield pollen via meiosis, and the somatic cells, particularly the tapetum, are required for the normal development of pollen. It is not known how the reproductive cells affect the differentiation of these somatic cells, and vice versa. Here, we use molecular genetics, cell biological, and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) is a small secreted cysteine-rich protein ligand that interacts with the LRR (Leucine-Rich Repeat) domain of the EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) receptor kinase at two sites. Analyses of the expressions and localizations of TPD1 and EMS1, ectopic expression of TPD1, experimental missorting of TPD1, and ablation of microsporocytes yielded results suggesting that the precursors of microsporocyte/microsporocyte-derived TPD1 and pre-tapetal-cell-localized EMS1 initially promote the periclinal division of secondary parietal cells and then determine one of the two daughter cells as a functional tapetal cell. Our results also indicate that tapetal cells suppress microsporocyte proliferation. Collectively, our findings show that tapetal cell differentiation requires reproductive-cell-secreted TPD1, illuminating a novel mechanism whereby signals from reproductive cells determine somatic cell fate in plant sexual reproduction. PMID:27537183

  13. The Callus Induction of Asparagus“Champion” Anther Culture%芦笋“冠军”花药培养愈伤组织的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳存; 李书华; 李霞; 李芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study asparagus“champion” anther culture technique. [Method] Using the F1 hybrid asparagus variety“champion” as the test material, callus induction in tissue culture process and effects of growth regulator on callus differentiation were studied. [Result] The results showed that using 0. 1% mercuric chloride sterilization 5 min, inoculated on the MS solid medium by adding NAA0. 8 mg/L + 6-BA 2. 0 mg/L of darkness first 10 days, and then light culture, anther callus induction rate reached about 16. 5%. [Conclusion] The asparagus“champion” anther culture technical system is established, which will lay a foundation for carrying out asparagus all male breeding.%[目的]研究芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术。[方法]以杂交一代品种“冠军”为试验材料,研究花药组培过程中影响愈伤组织诱导的因素及生长调节剂对愈伤分化成苗的影响。[结果]采用0.1%升汞灭菌5 min,再接种在添加NAA 0.8 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L的 MS固体培养基上先暗培养10 d,再光照培养,花药愈伤组织诱导率较高,达16.5%左右。[结论]建立了芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术体系,为开展芦笋全雄育种奠定基础。

  14. Cytology Studies on Anther Development of Male Sterile Materials 'Ms2008076' in Cabbage%甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076花药发育的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆林; 任雪松; 李成琼

    2011-01-01

    对甘蓝雄性不育材料Ms2008076的花药发育过程进行了石蜡切片和显微观察.结果表明:Ms2008076花药败育主要发生在花粉母细胞时期,表现为绒毡层细胞发育异常,花粉母细胞迅速退化以至解体,花药败育.%Microscopic observations on anther development process of male sterile materials ‘Ms2008076' in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. ) showed that ‘Ms2008076' anther development was hindered at the stage of pollen mother cell differentiation. The main characteristic is that the tapetal cells developed abnormally and pollen mother cell de-gradated rapidly to disintegrate with the ultimate result that the anthers were abortive absolutely.

  15. Trace concentrations of imazethapyr (IM) affect floral organs development and reproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: IM-induced inhibition of key genes regulating anther and pollen biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Li, Yali; Sun, Chongchong; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Bai, Xiaocui; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how herbicides affect plant reproduction and growth is critical to develop herbicide toxicity model and refine herbicide risk assessment. Although our knowledge of herbicides toxicity mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level in plant vegetative phase has increased substantially in the last decades, few studies have addressed the herbicide toxicity problematic on plant reproduction. Here, we determined the long-term (4-8 weeks) effect of a chiral herbicide, imazethapyr (IM), which has been increasingly used in plant crops, on floral organ development and reproduction in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. More specifically, we followed the effect of two IM enantiomers (R- and S-IM) on floral organ structure, seed production, pollen viability and the transcription of key genes involved in anther and pollen development. The results showed that IM strongly inhibited the transcripts of genes regulating A. thaliana tapetum development (DYT1: DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM 1), tapetal differentiation and function (TDF1: TAPETAL DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION1), and pollen wall formation and developments (AMS: ABORTED MICROSPORES, MYB103: MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 103, MS1: MALE STERILITY 1, MS2: MALE STERILITY 2). Since DYT1 positively regulates 33 genes involved in cell-wall modification (such as, TDF1, AMS, MYB103, MS1, MS2) that can catalyze the breakdown of polysaccharides to facilitate anther dehiscence, the consistent decrease in the transcription of these genes after IM exposure should hamper anther opening as observed under scanning electron microscopy. The toxicity of IM on anther opening further lead to a decrease in pollen production and pollen viability. Furthermore, long-term IM exposure increased the number of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) in the DNA of A. thaliana and also altered the DNA of A. thaliana offspring grown in IM-free soils. Toxicity of IM on floral organs development and reproduction was generally higher in the presence of the R

  16. Structure, Ultrastructure of the Anther, Pollen Microsporogenesis and Morphology of Pollen Grains of Two Populations of Lygeum spartum L. in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Abdeddaim-Boughanmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Lygeum spartum L. represented by a single species occupies several regions of the Mediterranean basin. This plant plays an important ecological role in the fight against desertification and economic development in the manufacture of paper pulp. Approach: However, the cytogenetic studies in mitosis in this species revealed the existence of two ploidy levels: 2n = 40 among the population grows in the coastal region of Oran in the semi-arid climate and 2n = 16 in the high plateaus characterized by an arid climate. Results: The study of the anther, pollen grains and the meiotic division conducted on these two populations of Lygeum spartum L. growing in the two regions has confirmed these data in that the microscopic observations were used to determine the ultrastructure of the anther, the shape and size of pollen grains which morphometric data (L/W showed significant difference between the two populations. The microsporogenesis was followed on the mother cells of pollen grains in order to understand the formation of tetrads, then the enumeration of chromosomes was carried out in diakinesis (n = 20 for the coastal population of Oran and metaphase I (n = 8 for the population of the high plateaus. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results were consistent with what has been observed in mitosis, which suggested that the Lygeum spartum L. may submit two cytotypes to adapt to different geographical and climatic environments.

  17. Fine Division of Rice Anther Development by Cytological Morphology%水稻花药发育的细胞形态学精细分期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵节

    2011-01-01

    A cytological and morphological study was conducted on the anther of a hybrid rice (Oryza Sativa L. indica) strain, Chuan You 9527. To study the growth procedures of pollen and anther wall, their development processes from stamen primordia initiation to pollen maturation were observed and divided into stages. Rice spikelets ranging from approx. 1.0 millimeter to approx. 10.0 millimeter were chosen; loading films of anthers were prepared by using the techniques of paraffin section, and they were observed and then photographed with digital camera system for optical microscopy ( Nikon DS-Ril-U2). The results showed that the whole development process of anther could be divided into thirteen fine stages, based on the significant alterations in the morphological characteristics of cells and tissues. The thirteen stages are archesporial cell stage, bi-parietal stage, tri-parietal stage, pollen mother cell forming stage ( the above four stages together are known as microsporocyte forming stage), early pollen mother cell meiosis stage, mid pollen mother cell meiosis stage, pollen mother cell dyad stage, pollen mother cell tetrad stage (the above four stages are known collectively as microsporocyte meiosis stage), early microspore stage, mid microspore stage, late microspore stage, bi-cellular pollen stage, and mature pollen stage.%本研究通过观察籼型杂交水稻"川优9527"'的花粉和药室壁的发育,对幼穗花药从雄蕊原基形成至花粉成熟的全过程进行了分期.选用不同发育时期的水稻幼穗(长度约1.0~10.0 mm),以石蜡切片技术分别制作其花药装片,置于光学显微镜(Nikon DS-Ri1-U2)下观察并拍照.根据细胞及组织形态特征的显著变化,将花药的发育进程精细划分为:孢原细胞期、二层药室壁期、三层药室壁期、花粉母细胞形成期(以上4期对应小孢子母细胞形成期)、花粉母细胞减数分裂初期、花粉母细胞减数分裂中期、花粉母细胞二分体时

  18. Study on Influencing Factors of Rice Anther Tissue Culture%水稻花药培养的影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文东; 李修平; 李智媛

    2013-01-01

    为更好地研究水稻单倍体育种和转基因技术,加速水稻育种进程,以10份寒地水稻品种为试验材料,采用单因素试验方法,研究培养基的琼脂浓度、激素配比、马铃薯水提取液附加物添加及培养方式等因素对水稻花药培养愈伤组织诱导率的影响,优化寒地水稻品种花药组织培养条件。结果表明:10个品种花药组织培养,愈伤组织诱导率差异明显;在琼脂浓度为0.75%左右时,愈伤组织的诱导率达到最高;培养基中激素配比为KT(2 mg·L-1)+IAA(1 mg·L-1)时诱导效果最佳;培养方式研究中,在双态培养方式下花药愈伤组织诱导率最好,其次为液态培养,再次为固态培养;培养基中添加马铃薯水提取液各处理间差异不显著。%In order to study rice haploid breeding and transgenic technology better and to accelerate the process of rice breeding ,taking 10 rice varieties in cold region as experimental materials ,single factor experiment was a-dopt to study the effect of agar concentration ,hormone conbination ,potatoes water extract ,culture method and other factors on callus induction rate of rice anther culture ,anther tissue culture conditions of rice varieties in cold region was optimized .The results showed that 10 varieties of anther was cultured and the difference of an-ther callus induction rate was obvious .Agar concentration was about 0 .75% ,the callus induction rate reached the highest .When the hormone combination was KT (2 mg·L-1 )+ IAA (1 mg·L-1 ) ,induction effect was the best .The callus induction rate of double layer’s medium culture was the best followed by liquid culture ,again for solid culture .Potatoes water extract addition showed there was no significant difference in different treat-ments .

  19. Callus induction from anthers of Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei%豫杂一号泡桐花药愈伤组织的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同丽; 牛苏燕; 邓敏捷; 范国强

    2012-01-01

    Callus induction from anthers of Paulownia tomentosa X Paulownia fortune was studied in this paper. The results showed that it was an ideal disinfection way to soak explants in 70% alcohol for 30 s first and then in 0. 1% HgCl2 for 60 s. The rate of callus induction at 4 X, temperature for 7 days can reached the highest. The 3% sucrose concentration was suitable for the induction, and the rate of induction reached 58.76%. The best medium to induce calli from anthers is MS medium + 30 g · L-1 sucrose + 2 mg · L-1NAA + 3 mg · L-1 6-BA.%以豫杂一号泡桐花药为材料,开展了其花药愈伤组织诱导的研究.结果表明,外植体的消毒方式以体积分数70%乙醇处理30 s后再用体积分数0.1% HgCl2消毒60 s最为理想;4℃预处理有利于花药愈伤组织的诱导,以低温处理7d的花药愈伤组织诱导率为最高;30g·L-1蔗糖质量浓度诱导花药愈伤组织的效果较好.诱导率达58.76%;诱导愈伤组织以MS培养基附加30 g·L-1蔗糖+2 mg·L-1 NAA+3 mg·L-16-BA为最佳.

  20. Ontogenia dos estratos parietais da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae Ontogeny of the anther parietal layers of Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S Bittencourt Jr

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A ontogenia do tapete e dos demais estratos parietais, bem como o desenvolvimento do estômio e deiscência da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima, foram presentemente estudados. O padrão de formação da parede do androsporângio é do tipo Dicotiledôneo. A camada parietal primária, a camada esporogênica e o tapete interno derivam-se diretamente do meristema fundamental. O tecido esporogênico, em cada androsporângio, visto em secção transversal, organiza-se numa fileira celular em forma de ferradura. O tapete é do tipo secretor e possui origem dual. O tapete interno diferencia-se precocemente em relação ao tapete externo. As duas camadas tapetais são discretamente dimórficas, mas tal dimorfismo é perdido no fim do estádio meiótico do esporângio. O dimorfismo tapetai e a precoce diferenciação do tapete interno são interpretados como expressão de um lapso ontogenético entre as duas camadas. Nas regiões dorso-laterais das tecas desenvolve-se um endotécio multiestratificado com espessamentos anelados ou helicoidais nas paredes celulares. A deiscência é precedida pela degeneração dos tecidos placentóides e ruptura dos septos interesporangiais. Apenas as células epidérmicas dos dois lados do sítio de ruptura do estômio (células estomiais estão envolvidas com a ruptura do mesmo.The ontogeny of the tapetum and parietal layers, as well as the stomium development and the dehiscence of the anther of Tabebuia pulcherima was studied. The anther wall formation follows the Dicotyledoneous type. The primary parietal layer, the sporogenous tissue, and the inner tapetum are differentiated directly from the ground meristem. The sporogenous tissue, as seeing in a transverse section, is organized in one cellular strip with a horseshoe outline. The tapetum is secretory and shows a distinct dual origin. The inner tapetai layer differentiates earlier than the outher. The two tapetai layers are moderately dimorphic. However, even such a

  1. Advances in Genes Related to Tapetum Development and Microsporocyte Meiosis in Anther%花药绒毡层发育和花粉母细胞减数分裂相关基因研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟华; 邱博; 罗红兵

    2015-01-01

    Male sterility in plant is common phenomenon in nature,which is one of important ways for heterosis utiliza-tion.There exists vital relevance between pollen fertility and both anther layers development and meiosis during the process of anther development.This paper introduced the gene regulatory expression network of anther development from aspects of tapetal development and meiosis of pollen mother cells in order to further investigate and utilize the male sterility.%植物雄性不育是自然界普遍存在的现象,也是利用杂种优势的重要途径之一.在花药发育过程中,花粉囊壁发育和减数分裂与花粉的育性有重要关系.主要从绒毡层发育和花粉母细胞减数分裂两个方面对近些年来植物花药发育基因调控网络进行综述,以期进一步了解和利用雄性不育性.

  2. Study on Effect of Iron in Anther Media of Early Japonica Rice in Cold Region%寒地早粳花培培养基中铁的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰民; 黄晓群; 王瑞英; 刘传雪; 关世武

    2008-01-01

    In this study, through vitro culturing anthers of 7 F1 progenies of early Japonica rice in cold region on medium with different Fe2+ contents, it was found that Fe2+ content generated greater impacts on the induction rate and green plantlet differentiation. The result demonstrated that if Fe2+ increased from 32 to 40 mg/kg, the induction rate of early Japonica rice anther culture in N6 culture media was more then 1.4 times higher than that in N6 culture media containing 5.6 mg/kg Fe2+. In this concentration range, the induction rate increased with the increase of Fe2+ content, while if the concentration was over this concentration range, the induction rate decreased with the increase of Fe2+, showing single peak distribution. When the Fe2+ was 40 mg/kg in differentiation medium, the differentiation rate decreased dramatically. The green plantlet differentiations of callus which were induced on culture media containing 32-40 mg/kg Fe2+ were different, when they were cultured on MS culture media, and 85.7% materials could increase green plantlet productivity to about 7.8%. Therefore, increasing Fe2+in induction media properly could increase anther culture efficiency of early Japonica rice in cold region.

  3. 植物生长调节剂TDZ在草莓花药培养中的应用%Application of Plant Growth Regulator TDZ in Strawberry Anther Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬东; 张丽; 马洪爱; 陈晓军; 宋玉霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂TDE在草莓花药培养中的应用.[方法]采用不同浓度TDZ与NAA植物生长素进行组合,观察其对草莓愈伤组织诱导及其分化的影响.[结果]Ms+TDZ 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L适用于草莓愈伤组织的分化,分化率高达75%,但TDZ时草莓愈伤组织的诱导无显著作用.[结论]该研究结果为草莓通过花药培养途径进行规模生产提供了参考.%[ Objective] The aim was to investigate the application of plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in strawberry anther culture.[ Method ] Different combinations of TDZ and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) auxine with different concentrations were used for induction culture, and then its effect on callus induction and plant regeneration were observed. [ Result] The combination of 1.0 mg/L TDZ + 0.5 mg/L NAA was effective to accelerating the differentiation and regeneration of strawberries, and the differentiation ratio was as high as 75%. However, TDZ showed insignificant effect on strawberries anther induction. [ Conclusion] This research had provided reference for large-scale production of strawberry through anther culture.

  4. Rozwój warstw ściennych i otwieranie się pylnika u kilku dzikich gatunków ziemniaka (Solarium chacoense Bitt., S. phureja Juz. et Buk., 5. giberulosum Juz. et Buk., S. Commersonii Dun. [The development of the parietal layers and dehiscence of the anthers at some wild potato species (Solanum chacoense Bitt., S. phureja Juz. et Buk., S. giberulosum Juz. et Buk., and S. Commersonii Dun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hausbrandt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The anthers in these species like in whole genus Solanum are poricidal still some differences have been observed in structure of their anther walls. The fibrous cells associated with dehiscence restricted usually to the area around the pore may form a single layer or may form compact mass often irregular in thickness or it may be lacking at all. Besides the apical pore one can observe a lateral dehiscence. By desintegra-tion of cells a gap is forming in the wall separating the two anther chambers which causes breaking it down. Then stomium like cells in epidermis contribute to the lateral opening.

  5. Chromosome Doubling Technique for Anther Culture of Winter Wheat%小麦花培苗染色体加倍技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽萍; 朱晋云; 李楠

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase chromosome doubling frequency for anther culture of winter wheat, the callus, roots of regenerative plants and tillering node were treated respectively with different concentration of colchicine. The result showed that there were 33.3%~61.5% setting percentage in the treated callus with 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion. After soaking roots of regenerative plants for 5 hours using 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion, the average setting percentage reached 37.5%. The setting percentage were over 50% in tillering node soaked for 5~10 hours using 0.04‰ colchicine soluion and 1‰dimethylsulfoxide.%为了提高冬小麦花培苗染色体加倍效率,分别用不同浓度的秋水仙碱对参试的冬小麦材料的花药愈伤组织、再生植株根系和花培苗分蘖节进行了加倍处理。结果表明,用0.02‰和0.05‰秋水仙碱浓度处理的愈伤组织再生植株结实率达33.3%~61.5%。用0.2%的秋水仙碱浸根处理5h,结实株率平均高达37.5%。用0.04%的秋水仙碱1%的二甲亚砜溶液浸泡分蘖节的时间应在5~10h之间较为适宜,结实株率平均可达50%以上。

  6. QTL analysis of the rice seedling cold tolerance in a double haploid population derived from anther culture of a hybrid between indica and japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population,derived from anther culture of Fl hybrid between a typical indica cv.and a japonica cv.has been used to investigate the seedling cold tolerance (SCT) in growth cabinet.By dynamically analyzing every day's survival percentages of the parents and DH lines under 7-d cold plus 9-d normal temperature condition,the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SCT have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population.The results show that two parents had significant differences in SCT and the segregation of SCT in DH lines was basically a continuous distribution with most serious injury on the 6th d of the cold treatment.A total of 4 QTLs for SCT have been identified on chromosomes 1,2,3 and 4 respectively.The additive effects of qSCT-1,qSCT-2 and qSCT-3 have been contributed by the japonica cv JX17,but that of qSCT-4 has been contributed by the indica cv ZYQ8.The mechanism of SCT seems complicated since the above 4 QTLs detected at different stages during the treatment.Further study on the genotypes for these SCT QTLs in the DH lines shows transgressive segregation.It is demonstrated that the lines with stronger SCT over JXl7 have 3-4 loci for SCT.Integration of these QTLs into an appropriate variety may lead to a successful rice breeding program for cold tolerance.

  7. Applied and Establishment of Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis System for Anther Proteome of Lycium barbarum%枸杞花药蛋白质组双向电泳体系的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蕊; 岳思君; 韩璐; 杨霞; 石晶; 张自萍; 喻德跃

    2011-01-01

    采用改良TCA丙酮沉淀结合Tris-HCl法提取枸杞花药蛋白质,对蛋白质裂解液成分、IPG胶条的pH范围、上样量及染色方法进行了探索.结果表明:(1)采用17 cm胶条、400 μg的上样量、含有2 mol/L硫脲的裂解液,硝酸银染色,可得到重复性好、质量高的枸杞花药蛋白2-DE图谱,枸杞花药蛋白主要集中在pH 4~7范围.(2)采用该体系分析了‘宁杞1号’和‘宁杞5号’四分体时期花药蛋白,并利用PDQuest 8.0软件在pH 4~7的2DE图谱上检测到500多个蛋白点,其中差异表达量大于2倍的蛋白有25个.%Using the method of modified TCA-acetone combined with Tris-HCl, Lycium barbarum anther proteins were extracted. Composition of protein lysate,the pH range of IPG strip, sample loading quantity and staining methods were explored. The results showed that reproducible and high-quality 2-DE maps of anther protein can be obtained with 17 cm IPG strip,400 μg of sample loading quantity per strip,lysis buffer containing 2 mol/L thiourea and nitrate silver staining,and anther protein spots mainly distributed within the pH 4~7 range. Using this system, we studied metaphase anther proteins of ' Ningqi l'and 'Ningqi 2'. About 500 proteins were detected on 2-DE gels of pH 4~7 by PDQuest 8. 0 software. Among them,25 differently at least 2-fold expressed spots were found.

  8. 不结球白菜雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育的细胞学观察%Cytological Observation of Anther Development between the Male Sterile Line and Its Maintainer Line in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红芳; 侯瑞贤; 李晓锋; 朱玉英; 侯喜林

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)雄性不育系及其保持系为试验材料,选择不同发育阶段的花蕾,取其花药,制成石蜡切片和超薄切片,经染色后在电子显微镜下观察.结果表明,不结球白菜雄性不育系与保持系的花药发育有明显的不同:不育系花药发育受阻于花粉母细胞分化期,形成1~3个药室,并形成正常的四分体小孢子,此时细胞组织逐步解体,形成空腔花药;最后向内皱缩;保持系花粉母细胞能形成正常的四分体,进而形成小孢子,最终形成充满正常花粉粒的花药.%Buds selected at different developmental stages of a new germplasm sterile male of non-heading Chinese cabbage and its maintainer lines were studied. Anthers were collected,made into paraffin sections, stained, and observed by electron microscopy. Results show that non-heading Chinese cabbage sterile male lines and maintainer lines exhibited quite different anther development. Male sterile lines in relation to anther development were inhibited at the stage of archesporial cell, produced only 1 -3 anther sacs, and formed normal sporogenous cells. The cells gradually disintegrated,formated cavity,and finally shrunk inward. The maintainer archesporial cells formed normal anther sacs, formed sporogenous cell, and ultimately formed anthers with normal pollen.

  9. Comparison of Anther Yield and Pollen Viability between Different Efficient Pollination Trees to Apple%不同品系苹果高效授粉树花药产出率及花粉生活力比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董彦; 韩甜甜; 吴曼; 沈向

    2012-01-01

    The anther yield and pollen viability of different new bred crabapple lines were compared in this paper. The results showed that the efficient lines 1379, 1681, 5309, 7098, 7538, 7551, 7560, 7653, 7654, 7660 and 7672 had higher anther yield and pollen viability with the blooming period similar to Red Fuji apple tree and long duration, so they were better for pollination to apple.%以新选育的苹果高效授粉树不同品系为试材,研究各品系的花药产出率及花粉活力,结果表明,苹果高效授粉树优系1379、1681、5309、7098、7538、7551、7560、7653、7654、7660及7672花药产出率大,花粉生活力高,花期与红富士苹果相近、持续时间长,可满足苹果授粉需要.

  10. 新型叶用芥菜细胞质雄性不育系0912A的花药发育特征%Anther development of 0912A as a novel cytoplasmic male sterile line of leaf mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹瑞昌; 万正杰; 徐跃进; 杨文杰; 傅廷栋

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the spatial-temporal patterns and other characteristics of anther abortion in 0912A as a leaf mustard cytoplasmic male sterile line and its maintainer line 0912B,cytological observations of anther development were made by means of paraffin sections. The results showed that the abortion of male sterile line was diverse. The abortion mainly occurred at the differentiation stage of arches-porial cell, which lacked the formation of pollen sacs. Part of anther abortion occurred at the period from pollen mother cell to the mono-nuclear microspore: some pollen mother cells gathered and disintegrated gradually after vacuolization; some pollen mother cells disintegrated due to the hypertrophy of tapetal layer cells in the radial direction; some pollen mother cells could develop to tetrad, then disintegrated; part of the pollen mother cells could develop to the mono-nucleus microspores, however the mono-nucleus microspores broke when they were highly vacuolated. The stamens of 0912A were also found to degenerate as abortive filaments.%采用石蜡切片方法,对叶用芥菜细胞质雄性不育系0912A及其保持系0912B的花药发育过程进行细胞学观察,以确定其花药败育的时期、方式和特点.结果表明:0912A不育系的败育形式多样,主要有花药发育受阻于孢原细胞分化期,无花粉囊的形成;部分花药在花粉母细胞期至单核小孢子期出现发育异常:有的花粉母细胞液泡化后浓缩解体,还有的花粉母细胞因绒毡层细胞径向肥大或液泡化而受挤压解体;有的花粉母细胞虽能进行减数分裂,但发育到四分体时期或单核时期细胞解体,花粉败育.同时对0912A的花器官形态进行观察,发现其雄蕊退化为细丝状,败育彻底.

  11. 湖北麦冬花药愈伤组织诱导及再生植株的获得%Callus induction and plant regeneration of Liriope spicata var. prolifera anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周群; 周健丘; 王小刚; 王菁菁; 李敬文; 陈家春

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the technique of the callus induction from anther and plant regeneration of medicinal plants Liriope spicata var. prolifera. Method: Callus was induced from anther of L. spicata var. prolifera on a MS medium supplemented with different hormones. The squash methods combined with a microscope were used to analyze chromosomes of regenerated plantlets.regenerated plantlets originated from somatic cells. At the same time, the effects of pretreatment of low temperature at 4 ℃ on the callus induction were studied and discussed. Conclusion: This paper sets up the method of tissue culture of anther somatic-cells and intermediate propagation of L. spicata var. prolifera.%目的:探讨药用植物湖北麦冬花药愈伤组织诱导和植株再生条件.方法:以湖北麦冬花药为外植体,采用MS培养基,附加不同的植物激素进行实验.常规压片法结合显微镜进行再生植株染色体的计数分析.结果:MS+2,4-D 1.0 mg·L~(-1)+KT 2.0 mg·L~(-1)诱导愈伤组织效果最好,愈伤组织诱导率可达41.07%.MS+6-BA 1.5~2.0 mg·L~(-1)+NAA0.1~0.3mg·L~(-1)适于不定芽的诱导,不定芽转入附加NAA 0.1~0.3 mg·L~(-1)的1/2 MS的生根培养基上,生根后获得完整的再生植株,再生植株为体细胞起源.同时,讨论了4℃低温预处理对愈伤组织诱导的影响.结论:建立了湖北麦冬花药体细胞组织培养体系和快速繁殖途径.

  12. 辣椒花药培养影响因素的研究%Research on Factors Influencing Anther Culture of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚明霞; 何铁光; 董文斌; 赵坤; 王益奎; 王日升; 康德贤

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the disinfection effect on six flower buds of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and studied the effects of different genotypes and inoculation amounts on anther culture. The results showed that, the disinfection method used in this study got good effect, and three genotypes were free of contamination, in addition, among the other three, the highest contamination rate was 23.08%. Embryoids could be induced from three genotypes, and the embryoid forming rates were 1.18%-1.38%, however embryoids could not be induced from hot pepper type with small fruits. Callus could be induced from all the six genotypes with callus forming rates of 17.65%-69.44%. Inoculation amount affected the callus induction but had no significant influence on embryoid forming, and as the inoculation amount increased, the callus forming rate was increased by 0.77%-13.67%. In callus subculture, inoculation amount had different effects on callus growth because the difference of genotypes, and neither embryiod nor adventitious bud were differentiated from the calluses of all six genotypes during subculturing for the first time.%以6种基因型辣椒的花蕾为材料,比较了不同基因型辣椒花蕾的消毒效果,辣椒基因型及花药接种量对花药培养的影响。研究结果表明,本试验的消毒方法获得了较好的消毒效果,3个基因型材料均未受污染,其他最高的污染率为23.08%;50%的基因型能诱导出胚状体,出胚率1.18%~1.38%,小果型的辣椒不能诱导出胚状体;所有基因型均能诱导出愈伤组织,出愈率17.65%~69.44%;花药接种量对花药愈伤组织诱导有影响,增大接种量,出愈率上升0.77%~13.67%,但对胚状体诱导影响不明显;在愈伤组织的继代培养中,接种量对其生长的影响因基因型不同而不同,所有基因型的愈伤组织在第一次继代培养中均不能分化出胚状体或不定芽。

  13. Breeding Report of A New Spring Wheat Line 200706 Obtained by Anther Culture%花培春小麦新品系200706选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 杨随庄; 叶春雷; 欧巧明; 陈玉梁; 罗俊杰; 陈琛

    2015-01-01

    春小麦新品系200706为对矮败小麦轮选群体材料进行花药培养,获得加倍单倍体(DH)纯系材料,再经系谱选育而成。在2011—2012年甘肃省水地春小麦(东片)区域试验中,2 a 10点(次)折合平均产量5386.80 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇春23号增产3.12%,居14个参试品种(系)第3位。该品种株高84.0 cm,穗长8.6 cm,千粒重44.32 g,容重780.1 g/L,生育期106 d。籽粒含粗蛋白141.8 g/kg、湿面筋304 g/kg,沉淀值41.2 mL。经鉴定,苗期对混合菌表现感病,成株期对条中32号表现感病,但严重度和普遍率较低;对条中33号、 CH42、 HY8、水4、水5及混合菌表现免疫。适宜在甘肃中部沿黄灌区、高寒阴湿区和二阴地区及周边生态类型相似地区种植。%200706 is a newly bred spring wheat line by pedigree selection and developed from double haploid (DH) pure lines obtained by culturing the anthers of dwarf abortion wheat population. The average yield is 5 386.8 kg/hm 2, which is 3.12%higher than that of the check Longchun 23 in the regional test and production test in the period 2011—2013 in eastern water land of Gansu. The result shows that the plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, bulk density and growth period are 84.0 cm, 8.6 cm, 44.32 g, 780.1 g/L and 106 d, respectively. As to quality characters of the variety, the seed crude protein, wet gluten and sedimentation value are 141.8 g/kg, 304 g/kg, and 41.2 mL, respectively. The identification of stripe rust resistance by inoculating of Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici showed 200706 susceptible slightly to mixture races during the seeding stage, susceptible slightly to CY 32, immune to CH 42, CY 33, HY 8, Shui 4, Shui 5 and mixture races at the adult stage. It is suitable to be grown in Central Gansu, including Irrigation Districts Along Yellow River, cold and humid region, semi-arid region of this area and areas under similar ecological conditions.

  14. 不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of Different Culture Factors on Callus Induction of Watermelon Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎春; 刘君璞; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 孙德玺

    2015-01-01

    研究不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响,探讨适宜西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法。以HJ001(杂交种)、西农8号、大果黑美人为试验材料,分别研究取材时期、低温预处理时间、高温预培养时间、植物生长调节剂、附加物、基因型对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导率的影响。结果表明:HJ001经4℃低温处理2、3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率分别达到18.33%、15.67%,差异不显著。HJ001经高温预培养1、2、3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率最高达到14.33%,且3个处理间无显著差异,其余2个品种有效愈伤组织诱导率较低,但表现相同趋势。 HJ001和西农8号2个品种,NAA的诱导效果均较2,4-D好。在培养基上添加谷氨酰胺(Gln)70 mg/L和酸水解酪蛋白(CH)500 mg/L, HJ001有效愈伤组织诱导率较高,分别达到20.33%和19.00%。露地种植,晴天6:00—8:00采集的花蕾花粉活力较高,其中HJ001花蕾纵径2~4 mm、横径3~4 mm,萼片紧贴花瓣,花瓣闭合,呈深绿色,花药颜色呈淡黄色至黄绿色,且此时多为小孢子单核靠边期,不同品种间稍有差异。因此,在露地栽培条件下,晴天6:00—8:00,取单核靠边期花蕾,低温处理2~3 d,接种在 MS +NAA 1.0 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+KT 1.0 mg/L+CH 500 mg/L ( Gln 70 mg/L )培养基上高温预培养1~3 d,有效愈伤组织诱导率最高,此种方法为西瓜品种HJ001花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法,而西农8号、大果黑美人花药愈伤组织诱导的最佳方法还要进一步探讨。%The article studied the affection of different factors on induction of watermelon anther callus and explored the best way of watermelon anther callus induction. HJ001( hybrid ) , Xinong No. 8 and Daguoheimeiren were selected as materials in the experiment. The influence of different treatments on valid and invalid callus induction rate of watermelon anther, including the time of low temperature pre-treatment and high temperature pre

  15. 大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”细胞学观察%Cytology Observation of Anther for Genic Male Sterility of AB Line Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明; 郑鹏婧; 张欣; 毕高熵

    2012-01-01

    以大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”为材料,对其可育与不育株的花器结构进行比较,并进行细胞学观察来明确该雄性不育类型的败育时期及败育原因.结果表明,大白菜细胞核雄性不育甲型“两用系”可育株的萼片长、花瓣长、花瓣宽、雄蕊长和雌蕊长都极显著高于不育株对应部位;不育植株和可育植株花蕾大小与花发育时期相对应;不育花蕾在2.5 mm后就已经败育,败育时期可能发生在减数分裂后期到四分体时期,该时期绒毡层细胞液膨大、呈现液泡化,将四分体挤压到药室的中间,致使四分体大量发育异常,小孢子得不到营养,不能形成正常的小孢子,导致小孢子完全解体,在开花前败育.%In this experiment, the materials are genic male sterility of AB Line Chinese cabbage. Comparisons between sterile flower and fertile flower on flower organic structure in Chinese cabbage, and cytology observation of anther, to find out the stage and reason of abortion. The results showed that: the sepal length, petal length, petal width, the stamens length of fertile plants and sterile plants in Chinese cabbage are very obviously different; development of anther was observed by using acid carmine staining and paraffin section method, stertility has been aborted after 2. 5 mm, abortion may occur during after meiosis stage to tetrad stage, tapetal cells showed vacuolation and crushed tetrad into central parts during this period. A large number of tetrads become abnormal, microspore development can not enough space and nutrition. Finally, microspores completely resolved and cause abortion before flowering.

  16. 低温诱导下苹果花药差异表达基因分析%Differentially expressed gene analysis of apple (Malus domestica) anther under low temperature induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧珍; 邓舒; 张春芬; 肖蓉; 王卉; 孟玉平; 曹秋芬

    2016-01-01

    低温处理是苹果花药培养诱导胚状体形成的关键步骤,花药中的小孢子在经过一定时间的低温诱导后才能获得胚性潜能。本文通过转录组测序的方法对低温处理前和低温处理30 d的苹果花药进行研究,分析低温诱导条件下花药中的差异表达基因。结果表明:转录组测序共得到10.90 Gb的Clean Data。基因表达分析结果显示,共有4105个基因发生差异表达,包括表达上调基因1849个,表达下调基因2256个。注释到GO、COG、KEGG、Swiss-Prot和nr数据库的差异表达基因分别有3325个、1504个、733个、2993个和3758个。差异表达基因主要富集在与糖类代谢和激素信号转导有关的过程中,其中在淀粉和蔗糖代谢、植物激素信号转导这两个代谢通路中富集的差异表达基因最多。筛选出的差异表达基因中控制蔗糖合成、细胞分裂素、脱落酸和油菜素内酯信号转导的相关基因表达量上调,控制淀粉合成、生长素信号转导的相关基因表达量下调。差异表达基因的荧光定量PCR结果显示测序结果和实际结果变化趋势完全一致。由此可见,苹果花药经低温诱导后,影响蔗糖、淀粉生物合成和生长素、细胞分裂素、脱落酸、赤霉素和油菜素内酯信号转导相关基因的表达变化是影响小孢子获得胚性潜能的关键。%Low temperature treatment is the key step in the induction of the formation of embryoid during apple anther culture, and pollen in anthers can acquire the embryogenic potential after a certain period of low tem-perature induction. In this study, the research on the two group apple anther that one was treated by 30 days low temperature and the other untreated were carried out by the method of RNA-Seq, and the DEG (differentially expressed genes) in the process of embryoid formation was analyzed. The results showed that: A total of 10.90 Gb clean data was generated using the

  17. Starch distribution in anthers, microspores and pollen grains in Aechmea recurvata (Klotzsch. L.B.Sm., Dyckia racinae L.B.Sm. and Tillandsia aeranthos (Loisel. L.B.Sm. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Santos de Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description of the starch distribution in the anthers, microspores and pollen grains of Aechmea recurvata, Dyckia racinae and Tillandsia aeranthos. Flowers at different stages of development were processed according to plant microtechniques for observation by light microscope. Ten stages of embryological development were used as references for the comparative analysis of starch distribution and dynamics. The structural data showed a greater starch accumulation in the parietal layers and connective of D. racinae. It was observed that in the species studied, starch began to accumulate in microspore mother cell stage. The pollen grains in D. racinae and in T. aeranthos present two amylogenesis-amylolysis cycles, while A. recurvata presents only one. One amylogenesis-amylolysis cycle occurs in the parietal layers and/or connective tissue in all three species. The pollen grains in the three species are dispersed without starch and are characterized as the starchless type. Starch dynamics presents a close relation to the development of sporangia, microspores and pollen grains. It is believed that differences in the starch distribution and accumulation are related to the abiotic factors where the species are found.

  18. Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Bobrowski

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concentrações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido, com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos.Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41

  19. Morphological Studies on the Development of Anther of Three Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines and Their Maintainer Lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.%大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药发育的细胞学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书强; 刘俊英; 崔辉梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The development of anther microspore of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp. pekinensis were studied.[Method]The development of anther of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis were observed from the perspective of cytology.【Result]Microspore abortion of three Ogura CMS lines (OBY, OBK, OD5) have occurred in mononuclear microspore early, and anthers have aborted entirely before blossom.[Conclusion] Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines formed vacuoles is earlier than their maintainer lines. Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines has been degenerating at microsporocyte meiosis stage, and tapetum cell of their maintainer lines degenerated naturally, providing nutrients and space for microsporogenesis.%[目的]研究3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药小抱子发育过程.[方法]对3对大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育进行细胞学观察.[结果]3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系(OBY,OBK,OD5)的小孢子败育均发生在单核早期,在开花前完全败育.[结论]不育系绒毡层液泡化早于保持系,花粉母细胞减数分裂时不育系绒毡层细胞已开始退化,而保持系(BY,BK,D5)绒毡层自然解体,供给小孢子发育所需的营养物质和发育空间.

  20. Dwarfing Genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b Are Associated with Both Type I FHB Susceptibility and Low Anther Extrusion in Two Bread Wheat Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Singh, Pawan K; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Singh, Sukhwinder; Lillemo, Morten; Duveiller, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are associated with Type I susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat; but the underlying mechanism has not been well delineated. Anther extrusion (AE) has also been related to Type I resistance for initial FHB infection, where high AE renders FHB resistance. In this study, two doubled haploid populations were used to investigate the impact of the two dwarfing genes on FHB resistance and AE, and to elucidate the role of AE in Rht-mediated FHB susceptibility. Both populations were derived by crossing the FHB susceptible cultivar 'Ocoroni F86' (Rht-B1a/Rht-D1b) with an FHB resistant variety (Rht-B1b/Rht-D1a), which was 'TRAP#1/BOW//Taigu derivative' in one population (the TO population) and 'Ivan/Soru#2' in the other (the IO population). Field experiments were carried out from 2010 to 2012 in El Batán, Mexico, where spray inoculation was adopted and FHB index, plant height (PH), and AE were evaluated, with the latter two traits showing always significantly negative correlations with FHB severity. The populations were genotyped with the DArTseq GBS platform, the two dwarfing genes and a few SSRs for QTL analysis, and the results indicated that Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b collectively accounted for 0-41% of FHB susceptibility and 13-23% of reduced AE. It was also observed that three out of the four AE QTL in the TO population and four out of the five AE QTL in the IO population were associated with FHB resistance. Collectively, our results demonstrated the effects of Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b on Type I FHB susceptibility and reducing AE, and proposed that their impacts on Type I FHB susceptibility may partly be explained by their effects on reducing AE. The implication of the relationship between the two dwarfing genes and AE for hybrid wheat breeding was also discussed. PMID:27606928

  1. In Vitro ANTHER CULTURE OF RICE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Mejoramiento de Arroz y Maíz del CIFA "Las Torres", en Sevilla, España, auspiciado por un proyecto de investigación, comenzó a desarrollarse un programa de obtención de variedades, que incluía en sus objetivos la utilización del cultivo de anteras de híbridos. Para ello se evaluaron diferentes medios para la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas verdes así como anteras de híbridos F1, provenientes de 15 cruzamientos. Los resultados mostraron que los más altos porcentajes de callos y plantas verdes como proceso continuo fueron obtenidos con los medios N6m y MS respectivamente. La mejor respuesta a la formación de callos fue obtenida por el cruce Puntal/Thaibonnet y regeneración de plantas verdes Doñana/V7876 y Lemont/Newbonnet.

  2. Analyzing Maize Anther Development Using Transposons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the summer, we tackled two projects in studying more about transposons (moving/jumping genes) such as Mutator genes in corn for this project, and how the plants switch from the stages of mitosis to meiosis without a germ line. We use a transgenic corn line containing RescueMu (an artificial Mutator containing a plasmid in it), so we can keep track of the insertion events. This is a long term project so we haven't come to any final conclusions or results with tracking what happens in Mutator transposition during different stages of corn development but our process shows to work so we continue with what we've been doing.

  3. Replacing Xylene withn-heptane for Paraffin Section ofArabidopsis thaliana Anther%正庚烷代替二甲苯在拟南芥花药石蜡切片中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂磊; 张丽瑶

    2016-01-01

    二甲苯是应用最广的一种透明剂,常用于石蜡切片中的脱蜡和透明,但由于其对人体危害大,广大科研工作者一直在探寻更加安全的二甲苯代替物。以不同时期的拟南芥花药为试材,脱蜡和透明均由正庚烷代替二甲苯完成,其余步骤与常规石蜡切片相同。结果显示,正庚烷透明力强而迅速,既能与乙醇、封藏树胶混合,又能溶解石蜡,可作为合适的透明剂和脱蜡剂;组织经正庚烷处理后物理性质良好,浸蜡充分,切片时软硬适中,容易连续切片,而且厚薄均匀,摊片时能在42℃水中自然展开,平整而无皱褶;经甲苯胺蓝染色,细胞着色好,核质分明,结构清晰,组织形态保持完好,与二甲苯作透明剂的切片效果无明显区别。因此,正庚烷可以作为一种新的、相对安全有效的二甲苯替代物,应用于植物组织切片中。%Xylene is widely used as clearing agent for dewaxing and clearing in paraffin section. However,due to its severe harm to human health,researchers have been seeking adequate substitutes. In this study,Arabidopsis thaliana anthers in various periods were processed with n-heptane replacing xylene as a novel clearing and deparaffinizing agent in paraffin section,and the rest of steps were the same as the conventional paraffin section. The results showed that n-heptane with strong and rapid transparency was able to be mixed with ethanol and gum and dissolve paraffin,thus could be utilized as clearing and dewaxing agent. The tissues processed with n-heptane was in fine physic-chemical property and saturated with paraffin;due to the proper hardness of the section,continuously slicing was easy and slice thickness was uniform,moreover,the section was expanded naturally in the water of 42℃ and was flat and no folds. In addition,the cells stained with toluidine blue were in fine quality of staining,and had a clear definition of the

  4. Breeding Report of A New Spring Wheat Variety Longchun 31 Obtained by Anther Culture%花培春小麦新品种陇春31号选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜; 杨随庄; 叶春雷; 陈玉梁; 欧巧明; 罗俊杰; 王红梅

    2014-01-01

    Longchun 31 was a new spring wheat variety bred by pedigree selection and developed from double haploid(DH) pure lines obtained by culturing the anthers of hybrids of Taigu nuclear sterile wheat . The average yield of Longchun 31 was 4 792.80 kg/hm2 and 0.55% higher than of the check Longchun 23 in the regional test and production test during the period from 2009 to 2011 conducted in eastern water land of Gansu. The plant height,spike length,1 000-grain weight,test weight and growth period of Longchun 31 were 94.3~102 .0 cm,8.5~9.5 cm,31.28~51.00 g,762.96~797.42 g/L and 102~107 d,respectively . As to quality characters of the variety,the seed crude protein,wet gluten,lysine content and sedimentation value were 148.0 g/kg,276.5 g/kg,4.49 g/kg and 56.8 mL,respectively. Identification of stripe rust resistance by inoculating of Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici showed Longchun 31 susceptible slightly to mixture races during the seeding stage,high resistant to CY32,CY33,immune to Hy 8,Shui 4,Shui 7 and mixture during the adult stage;the results of molecular characteration indicated that Longchun 31 carried durable resistance gene Yr18/Lr34 which distribution frequency was low in improved wheat varieties bred in China . It is suitable to cultivate in Central Gansu, including irrigation areas along the Yellow River,cold and humid region,semi-arid region of this area and areas under similar ecological conditions.%春小麦新品种陇春31号是对太谷核不育小麦杂种材料进行花药培养,获得加倍单倍体(DH)纯系材料,再经系谱选育而成。在2009-2011年甘肃省水地春小麦(东片)区域试验中,2 a 10点(次)折合平均产量4792.80 kg/hm2,较对照品种陇春23号减产0.55%,居14个参试品种(系)第2位。该品种株高94.3~102.0 cm,生育期102~107 d。穗长8.5~9.5 cm,千粒重31.28~51.00 g,容重762.96~797.42 g/L。籽粒含粗蛋白148.0 g/kg,湿面筋276.5 g/kg,赖氨酸4.49 g

  5. 利用花药相关基因及启动子创制雄性不育种质研究进展%Research Progress on Production of Male Sterile Germplasm by Genetic Engineering with Anther Developmental Genes or Specific Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓杰; 房卫平; 谢德意; 周小玲; 赵元明; 赵付安; 唐中杰; 李付广

    2011-01-01

    Heterosis is the effective way of increasing crop yield and improving quality,and diverse germplasm of crop male sterility and fertility restoration is one of the key factors in heterosis utilization. This paper reviews the recent research results of the cloning and fuctional verification of anther development genes,and the progress of creating crop male sterile and their corresponding fertility restorer germplasm by genetic transformation engeering with the key genes associated with anther development. It also discusses the technical strategy and reseach priorities of creating plant male sterile lines,and corresponding fertility restore and maintain lines by the plant trans-genic technology,as well as the current status and perspective of creating "three lines" in heterosis utilization in practice by plant genetic engineering.%杂种优势利用是大幅度提高作物产量、改良作物品质的有效途径,而作物雄性不育及优良的育性恢复种质是利用杂种优势的关键因素.为此,综述了近年来有关花药发育重要基因克隆和功能验证研究方面的重要成果,以及运用植物遗传转化工程创制植物雄性不育种质的进展.同时讨论了利用转基因技术创制作物雄性不育系、恢复系和保持系的技术策略,并对利用植物遗传转化技术创制植物杂种优势利用中“三系”种质的现状进行了分析和展望.

  6. 草甘膦诱导抗草甘膦棉花花药中激素和游离氨基酸含量的变化%Changes of Phytohormone and Free Amino Acid Contents in Glyphosate-Resistant Transgenic Cotton Anthers Induced by Glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘吉焘; 狄佳春; 陈旭升

    2014-01-01

    转基因抗草甘膦棉花喷施草甘膦可引起花药败育,但关于草甘膦诱导抗草甘膦棉花花药败育过程中的生化变化尚未见报道。本文以转基因抗草甘膦棉花新品系N95为试验材料,用0.2%草甘膦喷洒棉株为处理,以不喷为对照。试验结果表明:(1)草甘膦处理的植株其花粉活力很低,平均只有3%;而未经处理的植株花粉活力则平均高达86%,两者差异达极显著水平,显示抗草甘膦棉花喷施草甘膦后,可导致其花粉雄性不育。(2)分期取样,测定花粉4个发育时期内源激素含量,结果显示处理株花药中生长素含量始终低于对照,平均只有对照株中的43.8%~64.3%;脱落酸的含量始终高于对照,平均为对照株含量的1.33~1.87倍;玉米素的含量始终低于对照,平均只有对照株的39.6%~57.1%;赤霉素含量也始终低于对照,平均只有对照株的50.5%~64.9%。(3)处理株与对照株花药中氨基酸含量的检测结果发现:苯丙氨酸极显著低于对照,赖氨酸、组氨酸、缬氨酸和蛋氨酸的含量显著低于对照,谷氨酸含量则显著高于对照。根据以上研究结果推断:花药中生长素的降低、脱落酸的增加、细胞分裂素及赤霉素含量的不足是导致花药败育的基本生化因子。另外,苯丙氨酸含量极显著偏低,赖氨酸、组氨酸、缬氨酸的含量显著偏低以及谷氨酸含量显著偏高,也与棉花花药的败育存在不同程度的关联。%Glyphosate-resistant transgenic cotton can be induced anther abortion when sprayed by glyphosate, but the changes of phytohormone and amino acid contents in the process of anther abortion has not been reported. In this paper, a transgenic glyphosate resistant strain of N95 was used as test material, with 0.2%glyphosate spraying plants for the treatment, no spraying for the control. The test results had been obtained as follows. Firstly, the pollen

  7. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  8. The cytological observation of pollen and anther development in the cabbage 88-3 male-sterile line%大白菜雄性不育系88-3花药和花粉发育的细胞形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福青; 王翠兰; 宋再华

    2001-01-01

    When the sterile plant of male-sterile meanline of cabbage 88-3 flowering,there is no pollen grain in the anther.Abort occurs from the stage of microspore mothercell to binuclear pollen grain and its peak happens around the final stage Ⅱ of meiosis.Male-abort includes such three forms as following microspore mothercell cantt reach or finish the meiosis stage;microspore cant develop normally.A sudden complete disintegration or coagulating into a ball is the common character of abort.Male-sterility mainly results from the abnormality of mesospore,tapetum tissue and vascular bundle.%大白菜雄性不育两用系88-3的不育株,其开花时花药内无花粉粒;败育从小孢子母细胞至二核花粉粒皆有发生,高峰期在末期Ⅱ前后;小孢子母细胞不能进入减数分裂和小孢子母细胞不能完成减数分裂及小孢子不能正常发育是雄性败育的主要形式;败育一旦发生便是急剧而彻底地解体或凝聚成一团是败育的共同点;中层组织、绒毡层组织及药隔维管束异常均是雄性败育的因素。

  9. Studies on Anther Development of 4x Sexual Polyploidization Male Sterile Lines in Non-heading Chinese Cabbage%有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育花药发育的解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟程; 田鑫; 张蜀宁; 张文华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]对有性多倍化雄性不育系花药的败育时期和方式进行研究,为雄性不育基础研究提供理论依据.[方法]以同源四倍体白菜为母本,以秋水仙素诱导筛选出含2n配子较高的二倍体为父本杂交获得四倍体不育系及其保持系为材料,采用常规石蜡切片法对其花药进行解剖学研究,观察其花药的败育时期.[结果]退化的雄蕊可分为4种类型,均败育于孢原细胞分化期,始终处在孢原细胞期,无绒毡层与花粉母细胞的分化,不形成药室,属孢子体败育型.[结论]有性多倍化白菜四倍体雄性不育的4种类型都是孢子体败育型.%[Objective]Cytological investigation on microsporogenesis of male sterility of sexual polyploidizationmale sterile lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were studied to provide theoretical basis for the male sterility. [Method]Anther anatomical structure and development were observed using a light microscope through paraffin slices on the production of Ax CMS by sexual polyploidization and its maintainer line in Chinese cabbage. Abortion stage of 4x CMS was observed. [Jiesult] There were four types in the degraded stamens. The abortion of stamen occurred at the stage of archesporial cell differentiation,at which there was no differentiation of fibrous layer,tapetum and microspore mother cell. It belonged to non-sporange cytoplasmic male sterility. [Conclusion]Four types of the 4x sexual polyploidization CMS lines in non-heading Chinese cabbage were sporophyte abortion.

  10. Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Analysis of Ms2 Near-isogenic Lines of Wheat Reveals Genes Differentially Expressed in Spikelets and Anthers%通过小麦Ms2近等基因系的抑制缩减杂交分析揭示小穗和花药中差异表达基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政值; 马正强; 刘大钧

    2005-01-01

    The dominant male sterility gene Ms2 in wheat has been widely used in recurrent selection and variety improvement. Identification of genes associated with the male sterility in Ms2-carrying wheat will help us understand how Ms2 functions. Using a pair of isogenic lines of Ms2, subtractive hybridization was conducted with cDNA from bulked spikelets at meiophase of sterile plants as the tester and cDNA from the same tissues of fertile plants as the driver. Two major bands at 270 bp and 450 bp were obtained by suppression PCR (polymerase chain reaction) of the subtractive cDNA. A total of 882 recombinants from PCR product cloning were isolated for reverse Northern analysis. The results demonstrated that up to 90%of the inserts in the library were up-regulated in the sterile spikelets. Twenty-one unique inserts from this library were sequenced. Similarity search showed that eighteen of them were homologous to ESTs (expression sequence tags) derived from spike or anther tissues at meiophase. The chromosome locations of nine of the ESTs were determined using C.S. (Chinese spring)nulli-tetrasomic lines, one of which was assigned to chromosome group 4 that includes chromosome 4Dwhere Ms2 is located. In addition, four additional ESTs could also be assigned to this group according to their homology to BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes)or PAC (P1 artificial chromosomes) of rice chromosome 3. The expression patterns of eight of the inserts examined displayed increased expression in spikelets and anthers of the sterile plants.%以Ms2近等基因系处于减数分裂期的可育小穗cDNA作为驱动因子(driver),以同一时期的不育小穗cDNA作为测验因子(tester)进行缩减杂交(SSH),将扩增后的缩减杂交产物进行克隆,构建了一个包含882个重组克隆的SSH文库.分别以可育小穗和不育小穗的cDNA为探针与SSH文库克隆进行反式Northern杂交,结果显示接近90%的克隆在不育小穗中呈上调表达.对文库中21个克

  11. Infection of the Anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum in Populations of Silene dioica: Variation in Floral Morphology, Patterns of Spore Deposition and Pathogen-Pollinator Mediated Selection%麦瓶草种群中的花药黑粉菌感染:花的形态学变异、菌孢子散布式样及病原菌-传媒调节性选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登义; Ulla CARLSSON

    2002-01-01

    The anther-smut Microbotryum violaceum (Brandenburger and Schvinn) G. Deml. And Oberw.) causes a systemic infection of its host Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., resulting in sterility and production of teliospores (dispersal propagules) in flowers. These spores are transmitted to healthy plants mainly by flower visitors. The behavioral responses of flower visitors to a variation in floral characters, are not only likely to affect rates of pollen export/import, but also the rate of spore deposition and probability of disease. In a transplantation experiment, using plants from four different populations, we tested for correlation between variation in female floral morphology and patterns of spore and pollen deposition, and a resulting risk of disease. The source populations in this experiment were located on four islands in Skeppsvik archipelago in northern Sweden, and represented a gradient of disease incidence from completely healthy (Island 1), low incidence (Island 2) to high incidences (Islands 3 and 4) of disease. Fifty plants from each population were transplanted to the center of the population on Island 4. There were significant differences among the transplants in floral characters, I.e. Corolla size, style length and ovule number. Plants from the non-diseased population had larger flowers and longer styles than plants from the highly diseased populations. Numbers of pollen grains and spores deposited on flowers were strongly and positively correlated. We found that plants originating from the non-diseased population captured approximately 4 times more pollen and 9 times more spores per flower than the individuals from the resident population (Island 4, population 4). The incidences of disease among plants from the four populations differed significantly, and was 37%, 20%, 18% and 0 for populations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. In a survey of ten populations we found a significant negative correlation between the mean style length (positively

  12. Responses of different genotypes on development of callus from anther cultures of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uninuclear microspores of 20 different genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were cultivated on three different induction media. Callus formation rates ranged from 1-66% (on average 13% in 1984 and 35% in 1985). The highest percentage of callus formation (66.2) was from F1 of Yugoslavia X Top, cultivated on inductive Murashige and Skoog agar medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid and 10% potato extract. (author)

  13. A mediterranean japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar improvement through anther culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Serrat, X.; Cardona, M.; Gil, J; Brito, A. M.; Moysset Agustí, Lluïsa; Nogués Mestres, Salvador; Lalanne, E.

    2014-01-01

    Certified seed producers systematically select and propagate registered varieties year after year in order to maintain their uniformity and the original registered cultivar traits. However, natural mutations, spontaneous breeding between varieties and alien grain contamination can introduce undesir- able variability. NRVC 980385 is a temperate japonica rice cultivar (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) first regis- tered in Spain in 2002. In 2005 certification tests detected a plot differing from the...

  14. Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chiu Pang; Tanya Scharaschkin; Su, Yvonne C. F.; Richard M K Saunders

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The ph...

  15. 芦笋花药离体培养技术研究%Anther Culture of Asparagus officinalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新江; 建德锋; 陈刚

    2010-01-01

    [目的]提高芦笋的产量.[方法]以不同阶段的芦笋花蕾为外植体,筛选花粉的最佳生长阶段(即最佳材料),研究不同浓度激素配比对芦笋芽分化及生根的影响.[结果]以花粉处于单核期的花蕾为最佳试材,芽分化的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+KT 0.1 mg/L+ NAA 0.20 mg/L.[结论]该试验结果为芦笋的快速繁殖奠定了基础.

  16. TamiR159 directed wheat TaGAMYB cleavage and its involvement in anther development and heat response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis and rice, miR159-regulated GAMYB-like family transcription factors function in flower development and gibberellin (GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells. In this study, the involvement of miR159 in the regulation of its putative target TaGAMYB and its relationship to wheat development were investigated. First, we demonstrated that cleavage of TaGAMYB1 and TaGAMYB2 was directed by miR159 using 5'-RACE and a transient expression system. Second, we overexpressed TamiR159, TaGAMYB1 and mTaGAMYB1 (impaired in the miR159 binding site in transgenic rice, revealing that the accumulation in rice of mature miR159 derived from the precursor of wheat resulted in delayed heading time and male sterility. In addition, the number of tillers and primary branches in rice overexpressing mTaGAMYB1 increased relative to the wild type. Our previous study reported that TamiR159 was downregulated after two hours of heat stress treatment in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Most notably, the TamiR159 overexpression rice lines were more sensitive to heat stress relative to the wild type, indicating that the downregulation of TamiR159 in wheat after heat stress might participate in a heat stress-related signaling pathway, in turn contributing to heat stress tolerance.

  17. Primary Investigation in Anther Culture of Welsh Onion%大葱花药培养研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文洁; 张国进; 周联东; 刘喜存; 郭玉霞

    2010-01-01

    探索了大葱花药处于单核晚期的形态指标,并以B5为基本培养基,分别添加2,4-D(2.0~3.0 mg/L)、6-BA(0.5 mg/L)、谷胱甘肽(800 mg/L)等,对大葱花药进行了离体培养.结果表明:32℃热击处理有利于大葱花药诱导愈伤组织;培养集中添加6%浓度的蔗糖,有助于大葱愈伤组织的培养;大葱愈伤组织诱导率较低,且不易分化.

  18. OsJAR1 is required for JA-regulated floret opening and anther dehiscence in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Chen, Y.; Charnikhova, T.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Heijmans, J.; Hoogenboom, A.; Agalou, A.; Michel, C.; Morel, J.B.; Dreni, L.; Kater, M.M.; Bouwmeester, H.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonates are important phytohormones regulating reproductive development. We used two recessive rice Tos17 alleles of OsJAR1, osjar1-2 and osjar1-3, to study the biological function of jasmonates in rice anthesis. The florets of both osjar1 alleles stayed open during anthesis because the lodicules

  19. Primary research on anther culture of india restorer lines%水稻籼型恢复系花药培养初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄翠红; 彭圣法; 杨瑰丽; 刘永柱; 郭涛; 王慧

    2014-01-01

    通过对6个不同籼型恢复系水稻进行花药培养研究,先后分析了激素配比、有机附加物、不同基因型、杂交组合等因素对花药培养力的影响.结果表明,B3处理中激素配比(2,4-D∶NAA∶KT∶6-BA=2∶1∶0∶0)较为适用于R8166的花药培养,而B2处理中激素配比(2,4-D∶NAA∶KT∶6-BA=2∶1∶0∶0.5)则较适用于航恢173;添加有机添加物能在一定程度改善花药培养的愈伤诱导率,却降低其后续分化的能力.进一步研究表明,基因型是影响花药培养力的最重要的内在因素,籼稻的花药培养力较低,其中泰丰占的花药培养力最高;杂交组合R1和R2的愈伤诱导率均比R8166有所提高,但后续分化则表现较差.通过试验逐步筛选出适合籼型恢复系水稻花药培养的优良培养条件,为实现利用花药培养加快育种进程奠定基础.

  20. QTL analysis of rice (O. Sativa L.) root vitality in a double halpoid population derived from anther culture of an indica/japonica cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The functions of rice roots are absorption of water and nutrition, synthesis of amino acid and homone, and transportation of these substrates to overground parts. Rice root vitality is very important to the development of overground parts and yield. So far, many studies on the relationship between physiology condition and the root vitality, and their influence on the yield have been undertaken, and some QTLs for root growth characteristics, such as root length and root thick, have been identified. But the genetic base of the root vitality is still not clear.

  1. Ontogenia dos estratos parietais da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae) Ontogeny of the anther parietal layers of Tabebuia pulcherrima Sandw. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    BITTENCOURT JR, NELSON S.; Jorge Ernesto de A Mariath

    1997-01-01

    A ontogenia do tapete e dos demais estratos parietais, bem como o desenvolvimento do estômio e deiscência da antera de Tabebuia pulcherrima, foram presentemente estudados. O padrão de formação da parede do androsporângio é do tipo Dicotiledôneo. A camada parietal primária, a camada esporogênica e o tapete interno derivam-se diretamente do meristema fundamental. O tecido esporogênico, em cada androsporângio, visto em secção transversal, organiza-se numa fileira celular em forma de ferradura. O...

  2. Identification and Functional Analysis of microRNAs Involved in the Anther Development in Cotton Genic Male Sterile Line Yu98-8A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line. Sequencing revealed 1588 and 1536 known microRNAs and 347 and 351 novel miRNAs from male sterile and male fertile libraries, respectively. MicroRNA expression profiles revealed that 49 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed. Bioinformatic and degradome analysis indicated the regulatory complexity of microRNAs during flower induction and development. Further RT-qPCR and physiological analysis indicated that, among the different Kyoto Encyclopedia Gene and Genomes pathways, indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid signaling transduction pathways may play pivotal regulatory functions in male sterility.

  3. 小麦花药培养中白苗的发生和调控措施%Albinism Occurrence and Synthetic Control Measure in Wheat Anther Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景琦; 王成社; 邹淑芳

    2002-01-01

    本文综述了小麦花药培养中花粉植株白化现象的主要研究结果和新近进展,讨论了花粉白苗发生的机理,结合作者的实验结果,提出了控制小麦花粉白苗发生的综合措施.

  4. THE RESTRAINT OF BROWNING IN ANTHER OF HELIANTHUS ANNUUS%抑制油葵花药培养褐变的研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦员; 侯建华; 于海峰

    2008-01-01

    以油葵的花药为外植体,在附加不同浓度激素的MS培养基中添加Vc(抗坏血酸)、AC(活性碳)、PVP(聚乙烯吡咯烷酮)对油葵花药愈伤组织进行抑制褐变处理.结果表明,AC在抑制褐变的同时也抑制了愈伤组织的生长,300 mg/l Vc及0.1%PVP均可有效抑制褐变,其中0.1%PVP抑制褐变的效果优于300 mg/IVc.

  5. Microsporogenesis and Male Gametophyte Development of Euphorbar pulcherrima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhao; Wang Wei-wei; Li Chun-miao; Lv Xue; Wang Li-juan

    2012-01-01

    The microsporogenesis and male gametophyte development of Euphorbia pulcherrima were studied with paraffin section method. The results showed that the anther of Euphorbia pulcherrima had four chambers. The development of anther wall was dicotyledonous type; its wall consisted of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The mature male gametophyte development experienced seven major stages as the followings: archesporial cells, aporgenous cells, microspore mother cells, tetrads of microspores (tetrahedral), uninucleate microspores, 2-uncleate pollens and 2-celled pollen stage. The anther wall varied with the pollen development: the epidermis of anther ruptures at the anther mature stage; the middle layer disappears at tetrad stage; the endothelium became fibrous layer at the anther mature stage; the tapetum (glandular) was the most development at the microspore mother cells stage and disappeared at anther mature stage. The abnormal anther development was observed simultaneously.

  6. Isoenzymecs Study on Anther of Male Sterile Lines in Sweet Pepper%甜椒雄性不育两用系AB91不育株与可育株花药同工酶分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运朝; 范妍芹; 郭锋; 刘云; 严立斌

    2007-01-01

    通过聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳法(PAGE)对甜椒核雄性不育两用系AB91不育株与可育株的花药过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和酯酶(EST)同工酶谱带的分析,以及对其超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)同工酶活性的分析结果表明,这几种同工酶的活性和谱带均与不育性有一定的关系,具体表现为POD、CAT、EST在不育株谱带数少,而可育株谱带数多;POD、SOD的活性不育株高于可育株,而CAT、EST的活性则是可育株高于不育株.

  7. Cytomorphological Research on Anther Development of Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line in Cabbage%甘蓝胞质雄性不育系花药发育的细胞形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 程斐; 张恩盈; 孙宗法; 杨万花

    2007-01-01

    以甘蓝胞质雄性不育系96-A及其保持系96-B为试材,石蜡切片法显微观察结果表明:甘蓝胞质雄性不育系96-A败育的主要时期在减数分裂后的四分体时期至单核小孢子时期.败育发生后,急剧而彻底地解体或凝聚成一团.

  8. 红莲型水稻细胞质雄性不育花药蛋白质组学初步分析%Preliminary Proteomics Analysis of the Total Proteins of HL Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Rice Anther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文李; 刘盖; 张再君; 陶钧; 万翠香; 李绍清; 朱英国

    2006-01-01

    采用固相pH梯度-SDS PAGE双向电泳对红莲型细胞质雄性不育水稻的不育系(YTA)和保持系(YTB)单核期花粉总蛋白质进行了分离,通过银染显色,获得了分辨率和重复性较好的双向电泳图谱.Image Master 2DV5.0软件可识别约1800个蛋白质点,其中差异表达的蛋白质点数为85.将其中16个差异点采用基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱(matrix assisted laser desorption/ionizaton time offlight mass spectrometry,MALDI-TOF-MS)进行了肽质指纹图分析,通过采用Mascot软件对MSDB数据库查询,其中9个蛋白质点得到了鉴定.YTA相对于YTB有部分参与碳代谢和淀粉合成的酶缺失或表达量降低,这些蛋白质分别是ADP-葡萄糖磷酸转移酶(AGPase),UDP-葡萄糖醛酸脱羧酶,乙酰辅酶A合成酶和二氢硫辛酸脱氢酶等.其中AGPase是参与淀粉合成的蛋白,与花粉发育密切相关.乙酰辅酶A合成酶和二氢硫辛酸脱氢酶是细胞内合成乙酰辅酶A的重要酶,而乙酰辅酶A是进入TCA循环的重要底物,乙酰辅酶A的缺乏可以导致TCA循环不能顺利进行,从而不能提供小孢子发育所需要的大量能量.YTA相对于YTB部分参与碳水化合物代谢的重要酶缺失或表达量降低,有可能导致因线粒体提供的能量不足,淀粉合成受阻,因而花粉不能正常发育.

  9. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  10. Doubled haploid production in Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Bohus; Zácková, Zuzana; Samaj, Jozef; Pretová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    There is a requirement of haploid and double haploid material and homozygous lines for cell culture studies and breeding in flax. Anther culture is currently the most successful method producing doubled haploid lines in flax. Recently, ovary culture was also described as a good source of doubled haploids. In this review we focus on tissue and plants regeneration using anther culture, and cultivation of ovaries containing unfertilized ovules. The effect of genotype, physiological status of donor plants, donor material pre-treatment and cultivation conditions for flax anthers and ovaries is discussed here. The process of plant regeneration from anther and ovary derived calli is also in the focus of this review. Attention is paid to the ploidy level of regenerated tissue and to the use of molecular markers for determining of gametic origin of flax plants derived from anther and ovary cultures. Finally, some future prospects on the use of doubled haploids in flax biotechnology are outlined here. PMID:19233256

  11. Regulatory networks in pollen development under cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Dev Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress modifies anthers’ metabolic pathways to induce pollen sterility. Cold-tolerant plants, unlike the susceptible ones, produce high proportion of viable pollen. Anthers in susceptible plants, when exposed to cold stress, increase abscisic acid (ABA metabolism and reduce ABA catabolism. Increased ABA negatively regulates expression of tapetum cell wall bound invertase and monosaccharide transport genes resulting in distorted carbohydrate pool in anther. Cold-stress also reduces endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs, GA4 and GA7, in susceptible anthers by repression of the GA biosynthesis genes. Here we discuss recent findings on mechanisms of cold susceptibility in anthers which determine pollen sterility. We also discuss differences in regulatory pathways between cold-stressed anthers of susceptible and tolerant plants that decide pollen sterility or viability.

  12. Role of Ubisch bodies secreted by tapetum in Ca2+ transprot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of Ca2+ in the anthers of wheat was observed using cytochemical method of potassium antimonite. At the later tetrad stage, Ubisch bodies carrying Ca2+ were observed on the inner surface of tapetum, in anther locule and on pollen surface. The Ubisch bodies contacted with pollen, and Ca2+ began to accumulate on pollen surface. At the uninucleate pollen stage, abundant Ubisch bodies were distributed in anther locule, and the amount of Ca2+ on pollen surface increased. At the mature pollen stage a large amount of Ca2+ ions were localized on the inner surface of tapetum, the surface of pollen and Ubisch bodies. In the pollen wall, Ca2+ precipitates arranged in radial lines. These results demonstrated that Ubisch bodies were involved in Ca2+ transport from anther wall to pollen surface at some developmental stages of anther.

  13. Floret-specific differences in gene expression and support for the hypothesis that tapetal degeneration of Zea mays L. Occurs via programmed cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The maize (Zea mays) spikelet consists of two florets, each of which contains three developmentally synchronized anthers. Morphologically, the anthers in the upper and lower florets proceed through apparently similar developmental programs. To test for global differences in gene expression and to identify genes that are coordinately regulated during maize anther development, RNA samples isolated from upper and lower floret anthers at six developmental stages were hybridized to eDNA rnicroarrays. Approximately 9% of the tested genes exhibited statistically significant differences in expression between anthers in the upper and lower florets. This finding indicates that several basic biological processes are differentially regulated between upper and lower floret anthers, including metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction. Genes that are coordinately regulated across anther development were identified v/a cluster analysis.Analysis of these results identified stage-specific, early in development, late in development and bi-phasic expression profiles. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that four genes whose homologs in other plant species are involved in programmed cell death are up-regulated just prior to the time the tapetum begins to visibly degenerate (i.e., the mid-microspore stage). This finding supports the hypothesis that developmentally normal tapetal degeneration occurs via programmed cell death.

  14. Poor correlation between the removal or deposition of pollen grains and frequency of pollinator contact with sex organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ryota L.; Morinaga, Shin-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    Pollinators deposit pollen grains on stigmas and remove pollen grains from anthers. The mechanics of these transfers can now be quantified with the use of high-speed video. We videoed hawkmoths, carpenter bees, and swallowtail butterflies pollinating Clerodendrum trichotomum. The number of grains deposited on stigmas did not vary significantly with the number of times pollinators contacted stigmas. In contrast, pollen removal from the anthers increased significantly with the number of contacts to anthers. Pollen removal varied among the three types of pollinators. Also, the three types carried pollen on different parts of their bodies. In hawkmoths and carpenter bees, a large number of contacted body part with anthers differed significantly from the body part that attached a large number of pollen grains. Our results indicate that a large number of contacts by pollinators does not increase either the male or female reproductive success of plants compared to a small number of contacts during a visit.

  15. Pollen development and multi-nucleate microspores of Populus bolleana Lauche

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-hai; KANG Xiang-yang; WANG Shang-de; LI Dai-li; CHEN Hong-wei

    2008-01-01

    Populus bolleana is a variety of P. alba, commonly used in poplar breeding programs in China. Developmental biology that involves staminate flowers, microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis ofP bolleana is essential for Populus improvement in cross breeding for better characteristics in sexual reproduction. Flower morphology and pollen development were described and illustrated using anatomical, sectioning and stain-clearing techniques. The results show that microsporocytes undergo a regular meioticprocess, but some multi-nucleate microspores occur at the microspore stage. It takes five days for microsporocytes to develop to mature pollen by forcing flower branches under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, an important relationship was found between stages of meiosis and anther colors. Microspore tetrads formed when the anther color turned yellow, whereas, when the pollen matured, the anther was red and the tapetum degenerated completely. When mature pollen grains are formed, flower buds develop into male eatkins. In the end, filament elongated and pollen grains were released from dehisced anthers.

  16. The breeding of a wheat mutant pollen-derived variety Chuanfu No.5 and the related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the treatment of 150 Gy 60Co-γ irradiation to the dry F1 (Mianyang 88-334 x 8811525) hybrid seeds and the donor plants chosen from MF2, wheat anther culture was made based on MW14 and modified MS media and the pure diploid lines of MH1 derived from anther pollen were obtained. In 1996, the new mutant line 6086 and its sibling lines, 6086 and 6087, were selected and bred successfully. In 2002, the mutant pollen-derived line 6086 was denominated as Chuanfu No.5 by Sichuan Crop Variety Identification Committee and became the first mutant variety via anther culture of wheat in Sichuan. The success of Chuanfu No.5 shown that combining radiation induction and anther technique could shorten the breeding period and increase the efficiency of breeding of wheat

  17. Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... m going to do anther injection of dye material so everyone can see better, and we’re ... have is made out of metal and graft material, and in this case Gor- Tex. The first ...

  18. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supriya Sharma; Verma Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there.

  19. Tetrapogon cenchriformis and Parapholis strigosa, (Poaceae, Two New Reports from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tetrapogon cenchriformis and Parapholis strigosa (Poaceae are reported for the first time in Pakistan. Tetrapogon cenchriformis is characterized by spatheolate inflorescence, oval elliptic seeds and large stomatal complex, while Parapholis strigosa has long anthers and straight spikes. Anthers are larger in P. strigosa than in Parapholis incurva (L. C.E. Hubb. These two new reported species showed marked difference from the other species of Parapholis and Tetrapogon treated in flora of Pakistan.

  20. The effect of pollen origin and pollen load on the stigmas in the female reproductive success of Dalechampia species

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Andrew MR

    2014-01-01

    In Dalechampia blossoms, anther-stigma distance (ASD) can influence self-pollination rates; blossoms with small anther-stigma distance values will experience more self-pollination. Self-pollination will cause the exposure of deleterious alleles then natural selection will purge from the popualtion. Additionally, when the small ASD can result in more pollen on the stigmas, it may increase pollen competition and thereby reduce inbreeding depression in offspring as more superior pollen will achi...

  1. Rice improvement involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plant lets in comparison with the control

  2. Optimization of controlled pollination in avocado (persea americana Mill., Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Avocado has a singular synchronous protogynous dichogamy breeding system that promotes outcrossing. In this work different steps have been optimized to improve controlled pollinations in avocado in order to perform basic studies of reproductive biology and directed crosses in breeding programs. The results show that, in order to achieve successful fruit set, male flowers should be collected when all the anthers have dehisced and the pollen transferred by direct contact of the anthers with the...

  3. Cloning and characterisation of a putative pollen-specific polygalacturonase gene (CpPG1) differentially regulated during pollen development in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, F; Garrido, D; Jamilena, M; Rosales, R

    2014-03-01

    Studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. spp. pepo) pollen have been limited to the viability and morphology of the mature pollen grain. The enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) is involved in pollen development and pollination in many species. In this work, we study anther and pollen development of C. pepo and present the cloning and characterisation of a putative PG CpPG1 (Accession no. HQ232488) from pollen cDNA in C. pepo. The predicted protein for CpPG1 has 416 amino acids, with a high homology to other pollen PGs, such as P22 from Oenothera organensis (76%) and PGA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (73%). CpPG1 belongs to clade C, which comprises PGs expressed in pollen, and presents a 34 amino acid signal peptide for secretion towards the cell wall. DNA-blot analysis revealed that there are at least another two genes that code for PGs in C. pepo. The spatial and temporal accumulation of CpPG1 was studied by semi-quantitative- and qRT-PCR. In addition, mRNA was detected only in anthers, pollen and the rudimentary anthers of bisexual flowers (only present in some zucchini cultivars under certain environmental conditions that trigger anther development in the third whorl of female flowers). However, no expression was detected in cotyledons, stem or fruit. Furthermore, CpPG1 mRNA was accumulated throughout anther development, with the highest expression found in mature pollen. Similarly, exo-PG activity increased from immature anther stages to mature anthers and mature pollen. Overall, these data support the pollen specificity of this gene and suggest an involvement of CpPG1 in pollen development in C. pepo.

  4. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  5. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  6. Effects of Salinity on the Development of Hydroponically Grown Borage (Borago officinalis L. Male Gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh TORABI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effect of salinity on the development of anther in hydroponically-grown borage was studied. Plants grown on hydroponic media are rapidly and transiently stressed. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate the microscopic effects of salinity on the formation, development, and structure of anthers. Flowers, at different developmental stages, were removed, fixed in FAA, embedded in paraffin, and cut into 7-10 μm slices using a microtome. Staining was carried out with Hematoxylin-Eosine, and the developmental stages of the control and NaCl-treated plants were compared. In control plants young anther consisted of 4 pollen sacs. Anther wall development followed the typical dicotyledonous pattern and was composed of an epidermal layer, an endothecium layer, and the tapetum. Microspore tetrads were tetrahedral. Salinity caused certain abnormalities during pollen developmental processes, such as the destruction of the anther wall and both the degeneration and production of abnormal pollen grains. A decrease in plant fecundity, which involves aborting pollen, followed by a change in resource from reproductive activities to metabolic reactions is possibly a general response to the deleterious effects of salinity.

  7. Flowering, nectar secretion, pollen shed and insect foraging on Aquilegia vulgaris L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on blooming biology, nectar secretion, pollen production and insect visitation of Aquilegia vulgaris L. was carried out in 2009 and 2011 in Lublin. The peak of flower opening during the day was between 5.00 and 7.00 (GMT +2. The flowers are protandrous with the female phase beginning approx. on the 3rd day of anthesis. The dynamics of nectar secretion and pollen shed from anthers (progressing from the central part of the androecium outwards support the reproductive system. The amount of nectar accumulated in the spurs increased from the bud stage and was the highest in the phase with approx. ¾ of dehisced anthers, usually on the 3rd day of flower life. Then, towards the end of anthesis, the amount of secreted and accumulated nectar decreased. The number of anthers developed per flower varied from 41 to 61 (mean = 49.1. The mass of pollen per 100 anthers averaged 6.7 mg. Pollen production per flower (mean = 3.28 mg slightly varied between years and was mainly correlated with the number of developed anthers. Estimated pollen yield was 1.69 g per m2 and sugar yield 1.22 g per m2. Species from the genus Bombus were the main flower visitors, with B. terrestris being the most frequent forager.

  8. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae, a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Swanepoel

    Full Text Available Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1 succulent stems with woody remains; 2 pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3 monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4 dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5 pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  9. Genetic and cytological diversity in cherry tree accessions (Eugenia involucrata DC in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic and cytological diversity and stability of 35 cherry tree accessions collected in Rio Grande do Sul. We used 15 RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA molecular markers and performed cytological analysis and number count of anthers. Analyses of genetic diversity allowed the separation of accessions into four groups, resulting in an average of 8.93 bands per primer amplified, 7.89 polymorphic bands, 88.08% of polymorphism and 86% of genetic similarity. Cytological analyses of gametic cells allowed for the characterization of accessions as diploids with n=11. In these, the average of meiotic cells considered normal was 82.12%; average pollen viability was 92.44% and in vitro germination was 40.26%; the average number of anthers was 161.85 anthers/flowers. Therefore, the accessions evaluated showed high genetic similarity and cytological stability and can be used in commercial plantations or hybridizations.

  10. Fluid dynamics of hydrophilous pollination in Ruppia (widgeon grass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuri, Naga; Bunker, Daniel; Pell, Susan; Fischer, Ian; Singh, Pushpendra

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the physics underlying the mechanisms of two-dimensional aquatic pollen dispersal, known as hydrophily, that have evolved in several genera of aquatic plants, including Halodule, Halophila, Lepilaena, and Ruppia. We selected Ruppia, which grows in the wetlands of the New Jersey/New York metropolitan area, for this study. Our experiments show that the pollen grains from an anther suddenly disperse and form a monolayer when they come in contact with a water surface. This is a crucial first step in the formation of floating porous pollen structures called ``pollen rafts,'' which often contain pollen grains from several anthers. The formation of porous pollen rafts increases the probability of pollination by increasing the two-dimensional reach of the pollen from each individual anther. The work was supported by National Science Foundation.

  11. Microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte of B. rossica Fedtsch. et Flerov

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haiyan; DU Jinghong; HU Baozhong

    2007-01-01

    There were four microsporanges in the mature anther of B. rossica Fedtsc. et Flerov. The development of the anther wall belonged to dicotyledonous type. The tapetum cell was dichotypic. Simultaneous cytocinesis in the microspore mother cells formed tetrad by reduction division and the array of microspore tetrads was different. There were tetrahedron type and bilateral symmetry type. The male gametophyte was 2-cell. The mature pollen was global and tricolporate. All those results were investigated under both light microscope (LM) and electron microscope (EM).

  12. [Differentiation of haploid and diploid rape plants at the cytological and morphological levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, A I

    2013-01-01

    Some cytological and morphological characteristics of haploid and dihaploid plants of winter rape obtained via anther culture were studied. It was shown that in haploid plants the number of chloroplasts in stomata guard cells and the size of the stomata guard cells themselves were much smaller, and the number of stomata per unit area was greater than in doubled haploids and diploids. Haploids were also characterized by a smaller size of petals and anthers, and in general, a smaller flower compared to dihaploids and diploids. PMID:23745361

  13. Genetic evidence for the hybrid nature of somatic hybrids from Datura innoxia Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieder, O

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid nature of tetraploid somatic hybrids of two genetically different chlorophyll-deficient mutants from Datura innoxia Mill. was demonstrated with the aid of anther culture. Green and chlorophyll-deficient androgenetic lines could be regenerated from the pollen grains.

  14. Pollen waste and unrelated traits in a fig-fig wasp symbiosis : a new behaviour suggesting a host shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michaloud, G; Bossu-Dupriez, N; Chevolot, M; Lasbleiz, C

    2005-01-01

    In a fig-fig wasp symbiosis, we have discovered that male fig pollinators (Alfonsiella fimbriata Waterston) bite into the dehiscent anthers of Ficus natalensis leprieuri Miq., thus scattering the pollen grains throughout the syconium. Female pollinators are the only ones to transfer pollen to conspe

  15. Floral reward presentation favored the expression of male function in the pollen-only flower Melastoma malabathricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Shi CHEN; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Animal-pollinated plant species modulate the presentation of pollinator rewards to maximize reproductive success.In plants providing pollen as the only reward for pollinators,it is usually difficult to unravel the dual roles of reward presentation and the realization of male and female functions (pollen removal and deposition).Exploiting the two types of anther in the androecia of Melastoma malabathricum L.,we examined whether the removal of pollen for reward is regulated primarily to favor male function or female function.Pollen removal by carpenter bees from the feeding and pollination anthers,as well as pollen deposition on the stigmas,were quantified during anthesis of M.malabathricum.There was no significant difference in pollen removal rates from the feeding and pollination anthers of M.malabathricum between the onset of anthesis and flower wilting.The stigmatic pollen loads exceeded the ovule number after three sonication bouts,and female function was satisfied earlier than male function.The results support the hypothesis that the presentation of pollination reward in this species is regulated primarily to favor the expression of male function,rather than female function,in agreement with the pollen-donation hypothesis.A cooperative relationship between the feeding and pollination anthers was demonstrated in heterantherous flowers,which optimizes the balance in investments between pollinator rewards and "functional pollen" for gene transfer.

  16. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume. is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots in later April. Later, a protoderm, ground meristem and a procambium had differentiated in young anthers. Each young anther soon developed to four microsporangia. The anther wall layers developed completely by mid-May and consisted of one-cell-layered epidermis, one-cell-layered endothecium, two or three middle layers and one-cell-layered tapetum. The tapetum was of glandular type. Microspore mother cells underwent meiosis through simultaneous cytokinesis in later May and gave rise to tetrads of microspores, which were tetrahedrally arranged. Mature pollens contained two cells with three germ pores. Anthers were dehiscent and pollen grains shed by early June. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the C. molissma cv ‘yanshanzaofeng’, indicating that male gametes were fertile and thus was considered as pollenizers.

  17. Allium : CGN downloadable dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    By 2014-26-06 data on experiments was available for the following traits. / Anther color 50 observations on 50 accessions / Bolting tendency 93 observations on 93 accessions / Botrytis aclada 34 observations on 19 accessions / Botrytis squamosa 15 observations on 9 accessions / Bulb base shape 354 o

  18. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas. 1. Croton macradenis (sect. Podostachys, fam. Euphorbiacece), a new species from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Punt, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Croton, sect. Podostachys (C. macradenis) from French Guiana and Suriname is described. It has remarkable long glands. The distinctive characters of the species are the following: long, tubiform glands at the base of the leaves; male flowers with a hairy receptacle and 5-6 anthers ;

  19. Differential transcript abundance and genotypic variation of four putative allergen-encoding gene families in melting peach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, Y.; Chen, L.; Xie, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, B.; Lu, M.; Wu, S.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Ree, van R.; Gao, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We analysed the temporal and spatial transcript expression of the panel of 18 putative isoallergens from four gene families (Pru p 1–4) in the peach fruit, anther and leaf of two melting cultivars, to gain insight into their expression profiles and to identify the key family members. Genotypic varia

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase I protein is present in sporophytic and gametophytic cells and undergoes endocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwaaitaal, M.A.C.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Russinova, E.T.

    2005-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing AtSERK1 fused to yellow-fluorescent protein were generated. Fluorescence was detected predominantly at the cell periphery, most likely the plasma membrane, of cells in ovules, embryo sacs, anthers, and embryos and in seedlings. The AtSERK1 protein was detected

  1. Short-term high temperature growth conditions during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition irreversibly compromise cell wall invertase-mediated sucrose catalysis and microspore meiosis in grain sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) crop yield is significantly compromised by high temperature stress-induced male sterility, and is attributed to reduced cell wall invertase (CWI)-mediated sucrose hydrolysis in microspores and anthers leading to altered carbohydrate metabolism and starch def...

  2. The oligolectic bee Osmia brevis sonicates Penstemon flowers for pollen: a newly documented behavior for the Megachilidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers with poricidally dehiscent anthers are avidly visited and often solely pollinated by diverse bees capable of buzzing the flowers to harvest their pollen. Sonication results from shivering of the thoracic flight muscles. Honey bees (Apis) and the 4000+ species of Megachilidae are enigmatic ...

  3. Foraging behaviour of the bee Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): Nabiralno vedenje čebele vrste Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae):

    OpenAIRE

    GOGALA, Andrej; Surina, Boštjan

    2011-01-01

    With observations and photography, the collecting of Onosma (Boraginaceae) pollen and nectar by Osmia apicata Smith, 1853 bees was studied. Pollen is collected by shaking the anther cone using the legs, an alternative method to the buzzing in this oligolectic bee species.

  4. The Tapetum: cytology, function, biochemistry and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesse, M.; Pacini, E.; Willemse, M.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The anther tapetum, present in all land plants, is a highly specialized, transient tissue surrounding the (micro-)spores and/or pollen grains during their development.Any tapetum malfunction causes male sterility. The exact knowledge of tapetum form and function therefore is indispensable not only f

  5. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  6. Using Sweat Socks and Chromosomes to Illustrate Nuclear Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Claire R.

    1994-01-01

    Using socks with colored bands, a teacher makes mitosis and meiosis fun and meaningful for students. Asserts that during extension activities students used the aforementioned exercise as a springboard to better understand the phases of the cell cycle of Allium root tips, whitefish blastula, and Lillium anthers. (ZWH)

  7. Reproductive Development of the Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger L.): The Role of Plant Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Salopek Sondi, Branka

    2011-01-01

    Christmas rose (Helleborus niger L.), a native perennial of southeastern Europe, is characterized by an interesting phenomenon in the world of flowering plants: after fertilization perianth becomes green, photosyntheticaly active, and persists during fruit development. Removal of the reproductive organs (anthers and carpels) affects the elongation and vascular anatomy of flower stalk, prevents complete perianth greening, and promotes perianth senescence. Endogenous plant hormones ...

  8. Coevolution: puff pollination in tropical flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joan

    2014-07-21

    A new study shows that birds plucking anthers of the Melastome, Axinaea, demonstrate a novel bird pollination mechanism. Each stamen of Axinaea offers a nutrient-rich, berry-like food body that, when bitten, releases a puff of pollen allowing transfer to stigmas by wind or the pollen-dusted bird.

  9. TRL1 gene expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) floral organs after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the expression patterns of a novel RAD16-like TRL1 (tomato RAD16-like 1) gene in the floral organs of tomato during anther meiosis and mature flower stages. The data on the induction of the TRL1 expression as a result of γ-irradiation is discussed. (authors)

  10. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good condition

  11. Floral Biology of Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill. I: The Formation of Microspores and Development of Male Gametes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus jujube Mill is an economically important fruit tree, cultivated on marginal lands on a commercial scale, especially in China. In order to elucidate the microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis formation in Chinese jujube, a cultivar named ‘Lizao’ was employed for microscopy analysis. The results are showed that ‘Lizao’ was four ventricles in each anther and the anther wall was 4 to 5 layers. Its primary anther wall consisted of the epidermis, 1-2 layers endothecium, middle and glandular tapetum layers. The development of the anther wall conformed to the basic type. The meiosis in the microspore mother cells were belonged to a simultaneous type and most of the microspores were arranged in a tetrahedron shape in the tetrads. In the later May, the shape of pollen was a triangular germination vale with three germinal furrow and the mature pollen was of 2-cell type. Floral emergence and development lasted for 1 months-from later April to later May. Based our results, we did not find the abnormal male flower in the Z. jujube ‘Lizao’, suggesting that microsporogensis development may not be factors in the low seed production in the Z. jujube. This study provides the basis for understanding the biological mechanism regulating sexual reproduction, thus expanding the prospects for Z. jujube breeding programs and for further molecular and genetic studies of this species.

  12. The manifold characters of orbicules: structural diversity, systematic significance, and vectors for allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinckier, S.; Cadot, P.; Smets, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the anthers of flowering plants, gymnosperms, and seed ferns, tiny (¡1 mm) granules might occur on the radial and innermost tangential wall of secretory tapetum cells. These sporopollenin granules develop simultaneously with the pollen exine and are called orbicules or Ubisch bodies. The present

  13. Effects of specific expression of iaaL gene in tobacco tapetum on pollen embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪全; 卫志明; 许智宏

    1997-01-01

    The indoleacetic-acid-lysine synthetase (iaaL) gene from Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi was fused to tobacco tapetum-specific expression promoter TA29, and introduced into tobacco. The expression pattern of this chimeric gene was studied, and the endogenous indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in different organs were assayed. The results demonstrated that TA29 promoter was only able to direct the specific expression of iaaL gene in transgenic tobacco anther, and resulted in the decrease of endogenous IAA levels in transgenic tobacco anther. No significant phe-notype variation was observed among the transgenic plants at the whole plant level. However, the percentage of pollen embryogenesis was reduced to 11 % when anthers of the transgenic plants were cultured on the modified hormone-free Nistch H (NH) medium, while those of both CK1 and CK2 (see sec. 1.2.2) were more than 50% ; when the an-thers were cultured on NH medium supplemented with 0. 2 mg/L IAA, the percentage of pollen embryogenesis re-stor

  14. Abundant type III lipid transfer proteins in Arabidopsis tapetum are secreted to the locule and become a constituent of the pollen exine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-11-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small secretory proteins in plants with defined lipid-binding structures for possible lipid exocytosis. Special groups of LTPs unique to the anther tapetum are abundant, but their functions are unclear. We studied a special group of LTPs, type III LTPs, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Their transcripts were restricted to the anther tapetum, with levels peaking at the developmental stage of maximal pollen-wall exine synthesis. We constructed an LTP-Green Fluorescent Protein (LTP-GFP) plasmid, transformed it into wild-type plants, and monitored LTP-GFP in developing anthers with confocal laser scanning microscopy. LTP-GFP appeared in the tapetum and was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum-trans-Golgi network machinery into the locule. It then moved to the microspore surface and remained as a component of exine. Immuno-transmission electron microscopy of native LTP in anthers confirmed the LTP-GFP observations. The in vivo association of LTP-GFP and exine in anthers was not observed with non-type III or structurally modified type III LTPs or in transformed exine-defective mutant plants. RNA interference knockdown of individual type III LTPs produced no observable mutant phenotypes. RNA interference knockdown of two type III LTPs produced microscopy-observable morphologic changes in the intine underneath the exine (presumably as a consequence of changes in the exine not observed by transmission electron microscopy) and pollen susceptible to dehydration damage. Overall, we reveal a novel transfer pathway of LTPs in which LTPs bound or nonbound to exine precursors are secreted from the tapetum to become microspore exine constituents; this pathway explains the need for plentiful LTPs to incorporate into the abundant exine. PMID:24096413

  15. Down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused semi-male sterility, resulting in reduction of grain yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Song, Qian; Wei, Qiang; Wang, Chunchao; Zhang, Liwei; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    OsSPX1, a rice SPX domain gene, involved in the phosphate (Pi)-sensing mechanism plays an essential role in the Pi-signalling network through interaction with OsPHR2. In this study, we focused on the potential function of OsSPX1 during rice reproductive phase. Based on investigation of OsSPX1 antisense and sense transgenic rice lines in the paddy fields, we discovered that the down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused reduction of seed-setting rate and filled grain number. Through examination of anthers and pollens of the transgenic and wild-type plants by microscopy, we found that the antisense of OsSPX1 gene led to semi-male sterility, with lacking of mature pollen grains and phenotypes with a disordered surface of anthers and pollens. We further conducted rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis to elucidate the possible molecular mechanism underlying why the down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused deficiencies in anthers and pollens and lower seed-setting rate in rice. The down-regulation of OsSPX1 significantly affected expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and sugar transport, anther development, cell cycle, etc. These genes may be related to pollen fertility and male gametophyte development. Our study demonstrated that down-regulation of OsSPX1 disrupted rice normal anther and pollen development by affecting carbohydrate metabolism and sugar transport, leading to semi-male sterility, and ultimately resulted in low seed-setting rate and grain yield. PMID:26806409

  16. 多花野牡丹幼苗动态生命表%Dynamic life table of seedling of Melastoma a f fine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊; 杨利平

    2011-01-01

    多花野牡丹(Melastomaaffine)为两性花、异型雄蕊类型,为探究异型雄蕊生物学功能差异对幼苗适合度的影响,本试验采用动态生命表方法,研究7种授粉方式对多花野牡丹结实及幼苗的动态生命过程.结果表明:种子的出苗率与千粒重无密切关系.自然授粉萌发率(92.5%)和出苗率(88.0%)最高,紫红色花药授粉在萌发率、出苗率和出苗高峰期都高于或早于黄色花药.在幼苗存活率指标上,黄色花药高于紫色花药.幼苗的综合适合度顺序为:自然传粉>同株异花紫红色花药授粉>异株黄色花药授粉>黄色花药自花授粉>异株紫红色花药授粉>同株异花黄色花药授粉>紫红色花药自花授粉.白花、异花的异型雄蕊花粉对后代的影响不同,自然混合花粉授粉表现出强烈的多父本效应.%Melastoma a f fine is bisexual flower and heteranthery. To explore the effect of differentiation of biological function on seedlings fitness, this paper discusses the dynamic life course of seeds and seedlings of seven kinds of pollination way of M. a f fine with dynamic life table method. The result showed that the emergence percentage had no close relation with 1 000-grain weight. Natural pollination yielded the highest germination rate (92. 5%) and the emergence percentage (88. 0%). The germination rate, emergence percentage, and emergence peak of purple anther were higher or earlier than that of yellow anther, but the rate of seedling survival of purple anther was lower than that of yellow anther. The general adaptability of seedlings followed the sequence: natural pollination>cross-pollinaton of purple anther in one plant>cross-pollination of yellow anther of different plants>self-pollination of yellow anther>cross-pollination of purple anther of different plants>cross-pollination of yellow anther of one plant>self-pollination of purple anther. In conclusion, the pollens of heteranthery of self

  17. Characterization of a caleosin expressed during olive (Olea europaea L. pollen ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-García María

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive tree is an oil-storing species, with pollen being the second most active site in storage lipid biosynthesis. Caleosins are proteins involved in storage lipid mobilization during seed germination. Despite the existence of different lipidic structures in the anther, there are no data regarding the presence of caleosins in this organ to date. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a caleosin expressed in the olive anther over different key stages of pollen ontogeny, as a first approach to unravel its biological function in reproduction. Results A 30 kDa caleosin was identified in the anther tissues by Western blot analysis. Using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic immunolocalization methods, the protein was first localized in the tapetal cells at the free microspore stage. Caleosins were released to the anther locule and further deposited onto the sculptures of the pollen exine. As anthers developed, tapetal cells showed the presence of structures constituted by caleosin-containing lipid droplets closely packed and enclosed by ER-derived cisternae and vesicles. After tapetal cells lost their integrity, the caleosin-containing remnants of the tapetum filled the cavities of the mature pollen exine, forming the pollen coat. In developing microspores, this caleosin was initially detected on the exine sculptures. During pollen maturation, caleosin levels progressively increased in the vegetative cell, concurrently with the number of oil bodies. The olive pollen caleosin was able to bind calcium in vitro. Moreover, PEGylation experiments supported the structural conformation model suggested for caleosins from seed oil bodies. Conclusions In the olive anther, a caleosin is expressed in both the tapetal and germ line cells, with its synthesis independently regulated. The pollen oil body-associated caleosin is synthesized by the vegetative cell, whereas the protein located on the pollen exine and

  18. Androecium ontogeny in Normania triphylla (Lowe Lowe (Solaneae Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizo García, Carolina

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The androecium ontogeny in Normania triphylla (Lowe Lowe is described. The most peculiar features (e.g. early definition of zygomorphy, sinuous anthers, dorsal connectival appendages in the anthers, and lateral dehiscence line with an apical curve are analyzed and discussed, as well as the differences between the androecium of Normania Lowe and Solanum L. The remarkable singularity of the androecium in Normania is emphasized.Se describe la ontogenia del androceo en Normania triphylla (Lowe Lowe, estudiando la formación y el establecimiento de características de esta especie, como la temprana zigomorfia. las anteras sinuosas con apéndices conectivos dorsales y línea de dehiscencia lateral con una curva apical. Se discuten algunos caracteres, en particular el origen de la zigomorfia, los principales eventos del desarrollo y las diferencias entre Normania Lowe y Solanum L. Se valora la notable singularidad del androceo en Normania.

  19. Division of labour within flowers: heteranthery, a floral strategy to reconcile contrasting pollen fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Marín, M; Manson, J S; Thomson, J D; Barrett, S C H

    2009-04-01

    In many nectarless flowering plants, pollen serves as both the carrier of male gametes and as food for pollinators. This can generate an evolutionary conflict if the use of pollen as food by pollinators reduces the number of gametes available for cross-fertilization. Heteranthery, the production of two or more stamen types by individual flowers reduces this conflict by allowing different stamens to specialize in 'pollinating' and 'feeding' functions. We used experimental studies of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae) and theoretical models to investigate this 'division of labour' hypothesis. Flight cage experiments with pollinating bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) demonstrated that although feeding anthers are preferentially manipulated by bees, pollinating anthers export more pollen to other flowers. Evolutionary stability analysis of a model of pollination by pollen consumers indicated that heteranthery evolves when bees consume more pollen than should optimally be exchanged for visitation services, particularly when pollinators adjust their visitation according to the amount of pollen collected.

  20. An Arabidopsis aspartic protease functions as an anti-cell-death component in reproduction and embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaochun; Dietrich, Charles; Matsuno, Michiyo; Li, Guojing; Berg, Howard; Xia, Yiji

    2005-03-01

    The components and pathways that regulate and execute developmental cell death programmes in plants remain largely unknown. We have found that the PROMOTION OF CELL SURVIVAL 1 (PCS1) gene in Arabidopsis, which encodes an aspartic protease, has an important role in determining the fate of cells in embryonic development and in reproduction processes. The loss-of-function mutation of PCS1 causes degeneration of both male and female gametophytes and excessive cell death of developing embryos. Conversely, ectopic expression of PCS1 causes the septum and stomium cells that normally die in the anther wall to survive instead, leading to a failure in anther dehiscence and male sterility. PCS1 provides a new avenue for understanding the mechanisms of the programmed cell death processes that are associated with developmental pathways in plants and makes available a useful tool for engineering the male sterility trait for hybrid seed production.

  1. Molecular Control of Male Reproductive Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xin Guo; Yao-Guang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Anther development and male fertility are essential biological processes for flowering plants and are important for crop seed production.Genetic manipulation of male fertility/sterility is critical for crop hybrid breeding.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterility phenotypes,including genic male sterility,hybrid male sterility,and cytoplasmic male sterility,are generally caused by mutations of fertility-related genes,by incompatible interactions between divergent allelic or non-allelic genes,or by genetic incompatibilities between cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes.Here,we review the recent advances in the molecular basis of anther development and male fertility-sterility conversion in specific genetic backgrounds,and the interactions with certain environmental factors.The highlighted findings in this review have significant implications in both basic studies and rice genetic improvement.

  2. High-temperature injury and auxin biosynthesis in microsporogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eHigashitani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant reproductive development is more sensitive than vegetative growth to many environmental stresses. With global warming, in particular, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. We recently demonstrated that high temperature causes cell-proliferation arrest and represses auxin signaling in a tissue-specific manner of the anther cells of barley and Arabidopsis. These phenomena were accompanied by comprehensive alterations in transcription including repression of cell-proliferation related genes and YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes. Moreover, application of auxin completely improved the transcriptional alterations, the production of normal pollen grains, and seed setting rate under increasing temperatures. These denote that auxin, which has been used widely as potent and selective herbicides, is useful for the promotion of plant fertility and maintenance of crop yields under the global warming conditions.

  3. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A.J.;

    2014-01-01

    transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different...... developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain...... and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating....

  4. A Study on Ethnic Capital and the Transformation of Chinese Migrant Communities in the United States%族裔资本与美国华人移民社区的转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 林闽钢

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop the concept of the “ethnic capital”. Based on the theory of social capital and the enclave economy, the anthers argue that ethnic capital is not a thing but involves interactive processes of financial capital, human capital, and social capital within an identifiable ethnic community, the anthers use case studies of centenary Chinatowns and emerging middle-class immigrant Chinese communities in New York and Los Angeles to illustrate how ethnic capital affects community building and transformation, which in turn influence the social mobility of immigrants. The paper speculates on how developments in contemporary ethnic enclaves challenge the conventional notion of assimilation and contribute to understanding of community dynamics.

  5. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wesołwska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  6. The Pollination of Trimenia moorei (Trimeniaceae): Floral Volatiles, Insect/Wind Pollen Vectors and Stigmatic Self‐incompatibility in a Basal Angiosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Peter; SAGE, TAMMY; WESTON, PETER; Azuma, Hiroshi; LAM, MATHEW; Thien, Leonard B.; Bruhl,Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Trimenia moorei (Oliv.) Philipson is an andromonoecious liane with >0·40 of the total flower buds maturing as bisexual flowers. Male and bisexual flowers are strongly scented with pollen, anther sacs and receptacle scars testing positively for volatile emissions. Scent analyses detect over 20 components. The major fatty acid derivative is 8‐heptadecene, and 2‐phenylethanol dominates the benzenoids. While hover‐flies in the genera Melangyna and Triglyphus contact the stigma with their probosce...

  7. Chromatin dynamics in pollen mother cells underpin a common scenario at the somatic-to-reproductive fate transition of both the male and female lineages in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    She, Wenjing; Baroux, Célia

    2015-01-01

    Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMC) committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition toward the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMC differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organ...

  8. Colima (Tigridieae: Iridaceae), a new genus from western Mexico and a new species: Colima tuitensis from Jalisco

    OpenAIRE

    Aarón Rodríguez; Luis Ortiz Catedral

    2003-01-01

    Based on cytological, palynological, and DNA evidence, we propose the elevation of Nemastylis subgenus Colima to the generic status to include Nemastylis convoluta. The new genus is characterized by its united filaments, free anthers with longitudinal dehiscence, style divided into three branches with six arms at right angles, apical stigmatic surface, absence of nectaries, lack of mucro between the style arms and bisulcate pollen grains. A preliminary study based on morphological variation a...

  9. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flo...

  10. Artificial pollination in acung (Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R.)

    OpenAIRE

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on artificial pollination, both self and cross pollinations, of Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R. planted in a house yard in Bogor. It was observed that no fruit set was resulted from self pollination. On the other hand cross pollination successfully produced numerous fruits. It was suggested that phenomena was due to protogenic character rather than self incompatibility mechanism of the species. The stigmas mature 1-2 days earlier than the anthers (pollen she...

  11. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae), a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sreekala; A.G. Pandurangan; R. Ramasubbu; S.K. Kulloli

    2011-01-01

    The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, ho...

  12. The classical Ubisch bodies carry a sporophytically produced structural protein (RAFTIN) that is essential for pollen development

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aiming; Xia, Qun; Xie, Wenshuang; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2003-01-01

    Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes nutrients into the anther locule where the microspores reside and develop. Orbicules (Ubisch bodies), studied in various plants since their disc...

  13. Early diagnosis of fertility of the dihaploid from the phenotype of the ancestral haploid in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of haploidization, ans subsequent dihaploidization, was applied for the production of isogenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) lines. Under the conditions of the experiment, a total of 22 months elapsed from the seeding of the anthers of the original haploid cultivar (Kabak-Koulak Porroion 14/a) to the production of G2 dihaploid seeds. Foliage and inflorescence characters of the haploid and G1 dihaploid plants were used for the early diagnosis of fertility of the G2 dihaploid plants. (author)

  14. Molecular phenotypes associated with anomalous stamen development in Alternanthera philoxeroides

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu eZhu; Chengchuan eZhou; Ji eYang

    2015-01-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides is a perennial amphibious weed native to South America but has now spread to diverse parts of the world. A. philoxeroides reproduces both sexually and asexually in its native range, but propagates solely through vegetative means in its introduced range. Traits associated with sexual reproduction become degraded for sexual dysfunction, with flowers possessing either pistillate stamens or male-sterile anthers. Degradations of sexual characters for loss of sexuality c...

  15. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Lunau; Sabine Konzmann; Jessica Bossems; Doerte Harpke

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flo...

  16. Floral biology and a pollinator effectiveness test of the diurnal floral visitors of Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae) in the understory of Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Biologia floral e teste da efetividade de polinização dos visitantes florais diurnos de Tabernaemontana undulata Vahl. (Apocynaceae) no sub-bosque da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Thaysa Nogueira de Moura; Antonio Carlos Webber; Liliane Noemia Melo Torres

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examined the floral biology, per-visit effectiveness, frequency of visits and relative abundance of the diurnal floral visitor taxa of T. undulata (Apocynaceae) at two populations located in the primary forest and in a disturbed area connected to the continuous forest. Its hermaphrodite flowers show a long and narrow floral tube and introrse anthers form a cone around the apex of the style head where the pollen is deposited. The stigmatic head has three functional regions, in...

  17. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  18. Reproductive biology of Stomatium bolusiae (Aizoaceae: Ruschioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. Zietsman

    2013-01-01

    Flowers of Stomatium bolusiae are self-incompatible. The species exhibits crepuscular and nocturnal anthesis, exploiting two different pollination mechanisms. The structure of the hermaphroditic flower appears not to favour cross-pollination. The stigmata are never exposed to pollinating agents, which gain access to the floral rewards by forcing their way between the anthers. Clogging of the stigmatic surfaces by self-pollen is common. Nocturnal anthesis, concomitant with the nocturnal releas...

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility and Maintenance in JA-CMS Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Peng; Han, Jinfeng; Huang, Jinling

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is the failure to produce functional pollen, which is inherited maternally. And it is known that anther development is modulated through complicated interactions between nuclear and mitochondrial genes in sporophytic and gametophytic tissues. However, an unbiased transcriptome sequencing analysis of CMS in cotton is currently lacking in the literature. This study compared differentially expressed (DE) genes of floral buds at the sporogenous cells stage (SS) an...

  20. Optical and ultrastructural study of the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree (Carica papaya L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Márcia Silva Santos; Telma Nair Santana Pereira; Margarete Magalhães de Souza; Pedro Correa Damasceno Junior; Fabiane Rabelo da Costa; Beatriz Ferreira Ribeiro; Noil Gomes de Freitas; Messias Gonzaga Pereira

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the pollen grain development in hermaphrodite papaya tree. The flower buds were collected at different stages of the development and the anthers were treated chemically for observation under optical and electronic transmission microscopes. The pollen grain development followed the normal pattern described for the Angiosperms. The pollen grain development was described from meiocyte to the mature pollen grain. In the microsporogenesis, the microspore...

  1. The oligolectic bee Osmia brevis sonicates Penstemon flowers for pollen: a newly documented behavior for the Megachilidae

    OpenAIRE

    Cane, James

    2014-01-01

    Flowers with poricidally dehiscent anthers are typically nectarless but are avidly visited and often solely pollinated by bees that sonicate the flowers to harvest pollen. Sonication results from shivering the thoracic flight muscles. Honey bees (Apis) and the 4,000+ species of Megachilidae are enigmatic in their seeming inability to sonicate flowers. The oligolectic megachilid bee Osmia brevis was found audibly sonicating two of its beardtongue pollen hosts, Penstemon radicosus and P. cyanan...

  2. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1

    OpenAIRE

    Qidi Zhu; Yulong Song; Gaisheng Zhang; Lan Ju; Jiao Zhang; Yongang Yu; Na Niu; Junwei Wang; Shoucai Ma

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther tra...

  4. Reproductive biology of Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gębura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke (Commelinaceae is an annual plant endemic to central Texas in the United States and Durango in northern Mexico. T. anomala has zygomorphic flowers with three different petals, androecium consists of six various stamens and gynoecium consists of three carpels. Furthermore in T. anomala’s flowers there are many staminal hairs (Faden 2006. Its semi-succulent, grass-like leaves emerge in late fall and remain green throughout the cold months. It grows rapidly in early spring and blooms mid-spring (from March to May. A few weeks later the fruits (capsules with four seeds usually appear. This entire cycle is usually completed by summer, when the plant has often turned yellow and limp. We studied T. anomala due to the occurrence of two types of strikingly different stamens occur in one flower. According to available literature, one type of the stamens (the upper one with smaller anthers produces sterile pollen grains which do not participate in fertilization but only attract insects. The other type, i.e. the lower stamens with bigger anthers can form abundant pollen grains used for pollination (Simpson et al. 1986. Our aim was to investigate type of pollination of T. anomala. Using many microscopic methods we were able to analyze and compare the morphology of two types of anthers and staminal hairs in T. anomala’s flowers. We also investigated this species in terms of development of its gametophytes. An embryo sac develops according to the type of Polygonum. Pollen grains develop during different ways depending on the chemical composition of each anther. We identified that the insects of Thysanoptera which preys on the withered flowers T. anomala could be responsible for pollination of this species under greenhouse condition.

  5. Embryogenesis in Oak species. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Gomez-Garay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: A review on the propagation methods of four Quercus species, namely Q. suber, Q. robur, Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, through somatic embryogenesis and anther embryogenesis are presented.Area of study: The study comprises both Mediterranean and Atlantic oak species located in Spain.Material and Methods: Somatic embryogenesis was induced on immature zygotic embryos of diverse oak species, permitting the multiplication of half-sib families. Induction of haploid embryos and doubled haploids was assayed in both Q. suber and Q. ilex by temperature stress treatments of anthers containing late vacuolated microspores. The haploid origin of the anther embryos has been evaluated by quantitative nuclear DNA analysis through flow cytometry and by DNA microsatellite markers. Genetic transformation of cork oak has also been performed by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors. Proteomic analysis has been conducted to screen the diverse protein profiles followed by in vitro derived embryos during their development.Research highlights: Successful plant regeneration from both somatic and haploid embryos has been achieved. In the particular case of cork oak, doubled-haploid plants were obtained. Plantlets regenerated from selected parent trees through somatic embryogenesis were acclimated in the greenhouse and in the nursery, and were planted in an experimental plot in the field. Preliminary evaluation of the cork quality of the plants showed a good heritability correlation with the parent trees. This article revises the work of and is dedicated to Dr. M.A. Bueno, who devoted much of her professional life to the research on Biotechnology and Genetics of forest species, leading the Laboratory of Forest Biotechnology at the Spanish Institute of Agronomic Research (INIA.Key words: anther embryogenesis; microspore; pollen; Quercus canariensis; Quercus ilex; Quercus robur; Quercus suber; somatic embryogenesis. 

  6. A New Heterophyllous Spermacoce Species (Rubiaceae) from the Marungu Highlands, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Dessein, S.; Robbrecht, E; Smets, E.

    2006-01-01

    Spermacoce heteromorpha Dessein (Rubiaceae, Spermacoceae) is newly described and illustrated. It grows on the Marungu highlands of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R. Congo) at altitudes of 1800 to 1900 m. The species resembles the Tanzanian Spermacoce taylorii Verdcourt, from which it mainly differs in having terminal inflorescences, only slightly exserted anthers, and densely pubescent stems. Moreover, Spermacoce heteromorpha features marked heterophylly, with long leaves at the plan...

  7. The chemical characteristic and distribution of brassinosteroids in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Brassinosteroids represent a class of plant hormones with high-growth promoting activity. They are found at low levels in pollen, anthers, seeds, leaves, stems, roots, flowers, grain, and young vegetative tissues throughout the plant kingdom. Brassinosteroids are a family of about 60 phytosteroids. The article gives a comprehensive survey on the hitherto known brassinosteroids isolated from plants. The chemical characteristic of brassinosteroids is also presented.

  8. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis.

  9. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  10. Male Sterile Lines of Zinnia elegans and Their Cytological Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yao-mei; HU Qiu-shi; CHEN Tian-hua; BAO Man-zhu

    2008-01-01

    In order to find out a new pathway for utilizing heterosis of Zinnia elegans and accelerate breeding process, the mechanism of anther development of a male sterile line was explored. Backcross, sibmating, selfing of fertile plants and testcross with inbred lines were analyzed and identified in the field, and cytology was observed. Recessive nucleus male sterile line AH209AB capable of being a maintainer was obtained by successive backcrosses with male sterile plants and fertile F, plants as male parents. Cytological and anatomical studies indicated that: (1) The wall of normal anther was constituted of four layers of cells such as epidermis, powder chamber wall, middle level and tapetum cells. The process in meiosis of pollen mother cell in Zinnia elegans was normal and cytoplasm divided simultanously. Mature pollen grain was tricellular type. (2) The petal of male sterile plant degraded as a thread-like structure, the stamens were villiform in appearance and no pollens were formed. The result showed that the anther of male sterile plant no longer proceed to differentiate spore mother cell and the pollen sac after the formation of the tissue of sporogenous cells, there was no evident boundary between tapetum cell, middle lamella and inner wall of PMC, tapetal cells did not develop from the very beginning. So the abortion type was completely structural male sterility. The male sterile line belongs to non-sporange male sterile type and is of great use in F1 seeds production.

  11. Comparative pollination role of stamens and breeding system in three species of Commelina (Commelinaceae in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Oziegbe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated pollination mechanisms and breeding systems in five Commelina variants: two subspecies of Commelina diffusa (C. diffusa subsp. aquatica and C. diffusa subsp. montana, each having two staminodes; two variants of C. erecta (with three staminodes; and C. lagosensis (also with three staminodes. In all three species, the staminodes have six lobes but only two fertile lateral lobes. We collected field samples and cultivated new plants from stem cuttings. When the plants flowered, we evaluated floral morphology, floral biology and breeding systems, creating eight separate experimental treatments, involving spontaneous and hand pollination, as well as varying degrees of emasculation of the flowers. Although the pollen from the lateral and central anthers was capable of siring seeds, the staminode pollen rarely set seeds. Commelina diffusa subsp. aquatica presented very low percent pollen stainability in all three of its stamens and produced no seeds in any of the pollination treatments. In all three species, the stigma was often directed toward the central anther during coiling of the style. Our results show that C. diffusa subsp. aquatica is sterile and that, in the other Commelina variants studied, pollination occurs mainly through autogamy via the lateral and central anthers.

  12. Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Xia, M.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1998-01-01

    cDNA clones of chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) from tobacco (TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2) were isolated and characterized. The polypeptides encoded by TCCaMK-1 and TCCaMK-2 have 15 different amino acid substitutions, yet they both contain a total of 517 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner during anther development. Messenger RNA was detected when tobacco bud sizes were between 0.5 cm and 1.0 cm. The appearance of mRNA coincided with meiosis and became undetectable at later stages of anther development. The reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification assay using isoform-specific primers showed that both of the CCaMK mRNAs were expressed in anther with similar expression patterns. The CCaMK protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent substrate phosphorylation. Calmodulin isoforms (PCM1 and PCM6) had differential effects on the regulation of autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation of tobacco CCaMK, but not lily CCaMK. The evolutionary tree of plant serine/threonine protein kinases revealed that calmodulin-dependent kinases form one subgroup that is distinctly different from Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and other serine/threonine kinases in plants.

  13. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis. PMID:25817071

  14. Structural Analysis of Reproductive Development in Staminate Flowers of Laurus nobilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AYTÜRK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Male (staminat flower development, being separated in 8 phases, was investigated in Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae through the usage of histological sections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Flower development starts when apical meristem differentiates, followed by the conversion of this structure to floral meristem. Initial development phases comprise incidents similar to the ones of the female flower. 4 tepals and 8-10 stamens primordia develop through floral meristem in turn. In early stages of the development, sexual dimorphism occurs when the carpel primordium arrests. Filaments carry 2 nectaries in stamens which arise in 3 whorls. Anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, 2 or 3 middle layers and a single-layered glandular tapetum. Anthers are bisporangiate. Meiotic division is regular in pollen mother cells, and pollen grains do not contain aperture. Beside the pollen scattered individually within the pollen sacs, groups which contain some pollen tied to each other are rarely observed, as well. Pollen grains seldom germinate within microsporangium. Anthers are opened with 2 valves which widen from the base through the top. Accumulation of polysaccharides, lipids and proteins were identified by histochemical methods in stamens. These organic substances are greater within and around the vascular bundle compared to other tissues.

  15. Flowering, pollen production and insect visitation in two Aconitum species (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Antoń

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flowering phenology, diurnal dynamics of blooming, insect visitation and pollen production in Aconitum lycoctonum L. and Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux were investigated in 2012–2013 in the Lublin area, SE Poland. Flowering of A. lycoctonum occurred in June/July, whereas A. carmichaelii bloomed in September/October. Both Aconitum species differed in terms of the diurnal pattern of flowering. The flowers of A. lycoctonum started opening at 5.00, whereas those of A. carmichaelii started blooming at 8.00 (GMT+2h. The species differed in the number of anthers per flower, the size of anthers, and the mass of pollen produced in anthers. As a result, the flowers of A. lycoctonum produced less pollen (mean = 1.0 mg per 10 flowers than the flowers of A. carmichaelii (mean = 8.2 mg per 10 flowers. The estimated pollen yield was 0.2 g per m2 for A. lycoctonum and 1.6 g per m2 for A. carmichaelii. The flowers of both Aconitum species were foraged exclusively by bumblebees with the predominance of the long-tongued Bombus hortorum. Nectar was a more attractive floral reward than pollen. The propagation of Aconitum lycoctonum and A. carmichaelii in ornamental gardens may support the conservation of bumblebees whose populations are steadily declining.

  16. Pollen production in selected species of anemophilous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, structural features of flowers of the following allergenic plant species were analysed: Betula verrucosa, Secale cereale, Rumex acetosella, Plantago major and Artemisia vulgaris. Pollen production was established by calculating the number of pollen grains produced by the stamen, flower and inflorescence. The dates of occurrence and pollen grains concentration in the air of Lublin were determined. A positive correlation was found between the length of anthers and the number of pollen grains produced. The largest number of pollen grains per anther is produced by Secale cereale (22 360, whereas the smallest one by Plantago major (5 870. The other species produced intermediate numbers of pollen grains in the anther: Betula verrucosa - 11 160, Rumex acetosella - 10 850, Artemisia vulgaris - 9 580. The birch pollen season in Lublin lasts about a month, and pollen of this taxon reaches the highest airborne concentrations among the studied taxa. Low values of pollen concentrations are characteristic for rye and plantain, whereas slightly higher values are recorded for sorrel pollen. Mugwort pollen reaches high concentrations which are noted at the beginning of August.

  17. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  18. Morphological Structure and Transcriptome Comparison of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line in Brassica napus (SaNa-1A) Derived from Somatic Hybridization and Its Maintainer Line SaNa-1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kun; Liu, Qier; Wu, Xinyue; Jiang, Jinjin; Wu, Jian; Fang, Yujie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Youping

    2016-01-01

    SaNa-1A is a novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line in Brassica napus derived from progenies of somatic hybrids between B.napus and Sinapis alba, and SaNa-1B is the corresponding maintainer line. In this study, phenotypic differences of floral organs between CMS and the maintainer lines were observed. By microscope observation in different anther developmental stages of two lines, we found the anther development in SaNa-1A was abnormal since the tetrad stage, and microspore development was ceased during the uninucleate stage. Transcriptomic sequencing for floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were conducted to elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from S. alba. Clean tags obtained were assembled into 195,568 unigenes, and 7811 unigenes distributed in the metabolic and protein synthesis pathways were identified with significant expression differences between two libraries. We also observed that genes participating in carbon metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation–reduction system, pentatricopeptide repeat, and anther development were downregulated in the sterile line. Some of them are candidates for researches on the sterility mechanism in the CMS material, fertility restoration, and improvement of economic traits in the maintainer line. Further research on the tags with expressional specificity in the fertile line would be helpful to explore desirable agronomic traits from wild species of rapeseed. PMID:27656189

  19. Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

  20. Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

  1. Developmental variation and the evolution of distyly in Hedyotis caerulea (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Dennis A; Krebs, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The development of distyly is thought to arise from differential growth patterns in the pin and thrum morphs. However, few detailed studies exist on the early floral development of distylous flowers, and fewer still look at variation in these traits among populations. Buds at multiple stages of development were collected from five populations of Hedyotis caerulea to quantify how pins and thrums diverge with respect to the initiation, rate, and termination of growth between the stamens and stigmas. The growth rate of anthers varied little spatially across five populations and temporally in both pins and thrums, although thrum anthers grew faster than pin anthers. Dimorphy in stigma height was more complex. Pin stigmas first grew at a faster rate than those of thrums, and late in bud development, growth of thrum styles slowed. These rate changes varied among populations, and they differed from the congeneric H. salzmanii. Similar differences between morphs are known in other heterostylous species, and such variation in growth pattern among related species has been used to infer independent evolution of distylous systems. PMID:24010041

  2. Genetic stability developed for β-carotene synthesis in BR29 rice line using dihaploid homozygosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Datta

    Full Text Available Obtaining transgenic crop lines with stable levels of carotenoids is highly desirable. We addressed this issue by employing the anther culture technique to develop dihaploid lines containing genes involved in β-carotene metabolism. First, we used Agrobacterium- mediated transformation to develop primary transgenic plants containing the β-carotene biosynthetic genes, phytoene synthase (psy and phytoene desaturase (crtI, which were engineered for expression and accumulation in the endosperm. Transgenic plants were recovered by selecting for the expression of the phosphomannose isomerase (pmi gene. Dihaploid plants in addition to haploid and tetraploid plant were generated from anther cultures of these primary transgenic plants. In addition to anatomical features of stomata, pollen of different ploidy-plants, molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration of the genes in the anther culture-derived dihaploid plants, and the yellow color of the polished seeds indicated the accumulation of carotenoids in the endosperm. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the carotenoid extract further confirmed the levels of β-carotene accumulation in the endosperms of the transgenic dihaploid rice seeds.

  3. Potential Autonomous Selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a Specialized Hummingbird Pollinated Species with Variable Expression of Herkogamy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Sheng Chen; Silvana Martén-Rodriguez; Qing-Jun Li; Charles B.Fenster

    2009-01-01

    Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate vadable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation In levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) In a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma-anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands).

  4. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae. 2. The filiform-leaved I. capillaris complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Field study and associated examination of herbarium specimens of the filiform-leaved species of section Morphixia o f the South African genus Ixia L. have resulted in an increase in the number of species with this derived leaf type.  Ixia capillaris and  I. pauciflora have until now been the only species with such leaves and they have not been regarded as immediately related in past accounts of the genus. The two foliage leaves, typically less than 2 mm w ide, with a leathery to succulent texture, and lacking a raised central vein or margins, are specialized in the genus. Associated finely fibrous corm tunics, spikes of 1-3 flowers, and when present, short, thread-like lateral branches, usually bearing 1 or 2 flowers, provide supporting evidence that the group is monophyletic.  I. capillaris as interpreted until now. comprises four species, three of them new and described here, and the large-flowered I. pauciflora includes two species, one of these described here. While I. capillaris has a branched stem, radially symmetric flowers with a penanth tube (4—5—7(—8 mm long, tepals 11-15 mm long and thus substantially exceeding the tube, filaments typically exserted 1-2 mm. and anthers (3—4—5 mm long. I. exiliflora has a tube 8-10 mm long and ± as long as the tepals, included filaments, and anthers 3.5—4.0 mm long. The new  I. dieramoides also has included filaments but a perianth tube 13—18(—22 mm long and tepals 11-18 mm long. A third new species. I. reclinata has large flowers with a tube 13-15 mm long, tepals 16-21 mm long, and unilateral, decimate stamens with the filaments exserted 8-10 mm. and anthers 4-5 mm long. Typical  I. pauciflora has flowers with unilateral stamens and filaments exserted 2-6 mm from the flower and anthers prominently displayed, but specimens until now included in that species w ith short, included filaments 3-5 mm long and anthers half included in the tube, are here regarded as I. dieramoides. The I

  5. Flower Organs Morphology and Structure of Phyllostachys edulis%毛竹花器官的形态与结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立方; 郭起荣; 王青; 冯云; 牟少华

    2012-01-01

    A systematic anatomic study was conducted on morphology and structure of inflorescences, spikelets, florets, stamens, pistils of Phyllostachys edulis from a typical flowering area. This study updated and supplemented comprehensive statistical data of the flower organs, and for the first time found that there are four locules in an anther which is basifixed. The systematic descriptions are as follows: P. edulis is fake inflorescences and spicate inflorescences ( indefinite inflorescence) , average length ot the inflorescences is 8.01 cm, there are 2-7 gradually auxetic scaly bracts; 4-13 spathes, there is one spikelet in each spathe; An inflorescence has about 10 fake spikelets on average, the spikelet is 3.76 cm long on average, and has 1-3 glumes and 1-6 florets, the average length betwen rachises is 0.48 cm. Average length of florets is 2. 6 cm,a floret has 2-3 shells and 3 lodicules, 2-3 stamens whose average length is 4. 34 cm. The anther has four chambers and is basifixed, its average length is 1.26 cm, the average number of pollens in an anther is 15 807, the average diameter of the pollen is 61.00 μm, it is about globular under a scanning electron microscope, the ornamentation cf its outer wall is granulated smally, it has a round germinal aperture which has a circle around, the outer diameter of the germinal aperture is 8.69 μm, the inner 4.52 μm, filaments are 2. 98 cm long on average, they stretch out 1. 59 cm when opening widely. There is a pistil, an ovary with a chamber; a reversal ovule; the average length of styles is 1. 19 cm, the stigma is 1.70 cm long on average, and exposes length of 0.95 cm when it opens widely. The duration from the appearing anther to the pollen falling out of the anther is about 1 -2 h.

  6. Effects of Low Temperature Stress during Flowering Stage on Flowering and Seed Setting of Rice in Panxi Region, Sichuan Province%开花期低温胁迫对四川攀西稻区水稻开花结实的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣萍; 马均; 蔡光泽; 孙永健

    2012-01-01

    以3种籼稻品种和3种粳稻品种为试验材料,利用人工气候室在开花期进行低温胁迫处理,研究了低温胁迫对攀西稻区籼、粳稻开花和结实及两者间关系的影响.结果表明,开花期低温胁迫下籼稻和粳稻的开花习性、花药和花粉特性和结实表现不同.常规粳稻开花对低温有较强的耐冷性.低温胁迫下籼稻品种(组合)花药体积、花药开裂率、可育花粉率、柱头着花粉数和柱头花粉萌发率较对照降低幅度均比粳稻品种(组合)大;籼稻品种(组合)各产量构成因素较对照降低幅度比粳稻品种(组合)大.相关分析表明,结实与水稻花药和花粉主要性状有密切关系.开花期低温胁迫影响花药和花粉发育成熟,使花药不能正常开裂、散粉不足,可育花粉率和柱头花粉萌发率降低,直接影响受精结实,成为结实率降低的主要原因之一.%An experiment was conducted in growth chamber with low temperature treatments during flowering stage using three indica and three japonica rice varieties (combinations) to study the effects of low temperature stress on flowering and setting. The results showed that there were different responses and characteristics of flowering, anther, pollen, setting, and their relationship between indica and japonica to low temperature stress during flowering stage. The conventional japonica rice had high cold tolerance to low temperature. In comparison with control, the reduction range of the anther volume, anther dehiscence rate, pollen fertility rate, pollen number on stigma and germination rate of pollen on stigma of indica rice varieties (combinations) under low temperature stress was larger than that of japonica rice varieties (combinations). Under low temperature stress during flowering stage, the reduction range of yield components of indica rice varieties (combinations) was greater than that of japonica rice varieties (combinations). The correlation analysis showed

  7. Sex expression and breeding strategy in Commelina benghalensis L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veenu Kaul; Awtar Kishen Koul

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes the results of a series of experiments conducted to unravel the patterns of sex expression and reproductive output in a fascinating species with high variation in sexuality. Commelina benghalensis L., an andromonoecious rainy season weed, bears male and bisexual flowers in axillary spathes of all the plants investigated. Bisexual flowers are of two types; chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL). The former are borne on subaerial and the latter on subterranean shoots, in addition to those on aerial spathes. Three populations of the species, designated JU1, JU2 and JU3, were scanned for three consecutive years from 1996 to 1998, and the number and distribution of male, CH and CL flowers per plant were found to vary. The mere number of CH/CL flowers per plant is by itself not an accurate measure of mixed mating. It is necessary to confirm that CH flowers actually outcross and, if they do so, to what extent. Comparison of the pollen/ovule (P/O) ratio and percentage pollen germination on the stigmas of the CH and CL flowers have been used as indices of the pollination system. Confirmation of this was sought from the fruit and seed sets obtained after manual pollination of emasculated flowers with self- and cross-pollen. Results so obtained were compared with those of natural pollination. In the majority of CH flowers, the male and female reproductive phases (i.e. anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity) overlap, providing for self-pollination. However, two exceptions to this general behaviour were found in some plants of all the three populations. In some CH flowers, the female phase matures prior to anther dehiscence while in others, the anthers are sterile. Such plants, designated as variants 1 and 2, respectively, facilitate cross-pollination. While the CL flowers contribute to the production of selfed progeny, the variants of CH ones permit formation of outcrossed progeny, indicating a mixed mating strategy in C. benghalensis.

  8. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with semigamy in Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. through comparative microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart J McD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semigamy in cotton is a type of facultative apomixis controlled by an incompletely dominant autosomal gene (Se. During semigamy, the sperm and egg cells undergo cellular fusion, but the sperm and egg nucleus fail to fuse in the embryo sac, giving rise to diploid, haploid, or chimeric embryos composed of sectors of paternal and maternal origin. In this study we sought to identify differentially expressed genes related to the semigamy genotype by implementing a comparative microarray analysis of anthers and ovules between a non-semigametic Pima S-1 cotton and its doubled haploid natural isogenic mutant semigametic 57-4. Selected differentially expressed genes identified by the microarray results were then confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. Results The comparative analysis between isogenic 57-4 and Pima S-1 identified 284 genes in anthers and 1,864 genes in ovules as being differentially expressed in the semigametic genotype 57-4. Based on gene functions, 127 differentially expressed genes were common to both semigametic anthers and ovules, with 115 being consistently differentially expressed in both tissues. Nine of those genes were selected for qRT-PCR analysis, seven of which were confirmed. Furthermore, several well characterized metabolic pathways including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, and the biosynthesis of and response to plant hormones were shown to be affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic tissues. Conclusion As the first report using microarray analysis, several important metabolic pathways affected by differentially expressed genes in the semigametic cotton genotype have been identified and described in detail. While these genes are unlikely to be the semigamy gene itself, the effects associated with expression changes in those genes do mimic phenotypic traits observed in semigametic plants

  9. Androgenesis Induced in Nicotiana alata and the Effect of Gamma Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman EL-FIKI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata anthers cultured on different modified media based on MS, MT and N were used to obtain haploid plants through direct and indirect ways. The haploid plants resulting on MS medium ranged from 52% - 80%, on MT medium ranged from 32% - 52% and on N medium ranged from 28% - 44%. Accordingly, the best medium used for haploid induction was MS supplemented with 0.2 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN. On the other hand, MS medium supplemented with 0.4 mgl-l NAA + 0.5 mgl-l KIN or 1.0 mgl-l BAP + 0.5 mgl-l NAA were the best mediums for callus induction and plant regeneration, respectively. Morphologically, the leaf size, stem highest and diameter, flower size and diameter, anther length and number were about 67% of the diploid plants growth. Irradiated anthers with doses of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy caused reducing the number of haploid plants with increasing gamma radiation dose. For the haploid plants irradiated with same doses, the mortality percentage of bud survival was increasing with increasing gamma radiation dose. The irradiated callus with doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Gy was affected negatively on growth rate and morphology. Proline content in irradiated plantlets increased with increasing gamma radiation dose. As well, total soluble protein content was increased with gamma irradiation up to 10 Gy. However, the higher doses caused a severe decrease of total soluble proteins. The production of proline and total soluble proteins in haploid plants were 48.6% and 69.5%, respectively comparing with diploid plants.

  10. A Novel Kinesin-Like Protein with a Calmodulin-Binding Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; Takezawa, D.; Narasimhulu, S. B.; Reddy, A. S. N.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1996-01-01

    Calcium regulates diverse developmental processes in plants through the action of calmodulin. A cDNA expression library from developing anthers of tobacco was screened with S-35-labeled calmodulin to isolate cDNAs encoding calmodulin-binding proteins. Among several clones isolated, a kinesin-like gene (TCK1) that encodes a calmodulin-binding kinesin-like protein was obtained. The TCK1 cDNA encodes a protein with 1265 amino acid residues. Its structural features are very similar to those of known kinesin heavy chains and kinesin-like proteins from plants and animals, with one distinct exception. Unlike other known kinesin-like proteins, TCK1 contains a calmodulin-binding domain which distinguishes it from all other known kinesin genes. Escherichia coli-expressed TCK1 binds calmodulin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. In addition to the presence of a calmodulin-binding domain at the carboxyl terminal, it also has a leucine zipper motif in the stalk region. The amino acid sequence at the carboxyl terminal of TCK1 has striking homology with the mechanochemical motor domain of kinesins. The motor domain has ATPase activity that is stimulated by microtubules. Southern blot analysis revealed that TCK1 is coded by a single gene. Expression studies indicated that TCKI is expressed in all of the tissues tested. Its expression is highest in the stigma and anther, especially during the early stages of anther development. Our results suggest that Ca(2+)/calmodulin may play an important role in the function of this microtubule-associated motor protein and may be involved in the regulation of microtubule-based intracellular transport.

  11. Patterns of pollen removal and deposition in Polemonium brandegeei (Polemoniaceae): the role of floral visitors, floral design and sexual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbaba, M W; Worley, A C

    2014-11-01

    The arrangement, colour, shape and size of floral parts (collectively floral design) have evolved primarily to promote mating success via animal-mediated pollen transfer. Although numerous studies have examined variation in pollinator assemblages, relatively few have examined patterns of pollen removal and deposition in the presence of fluctuating pollinators and ineffective floral visitors; therefore, net pollen removal and deposition by entire visitor assemblages are unclear. We studied the timing (diurnal or nocturnal) and effects of floral traits on pollen removal and deposition under a dynamic visitor assemblage of Polemonium brandegeei. We quantified pollen grains remaining in anthers (pollen removal) and deposited on stigmas (pollen deposition) of plants visited during either the day (07:30-20:00 h) or night (20:30-07:30 h) in natural populations over two flowering seasons. Pollen removal and deposition occurred both diurnally and nocturnally during our study. Increased diurnal removal and deposition coincided with peak floral visitations in 2006. This increase in pollen removal and deposition may reflect increased visits by pollen consumers, effective hawkmoth pollinators and increased self-pollen deposition due to hot, dry weather. Nonlinear effects of style length significantly affected pollen removal, with less pollen remaining in flowers with intermediate style lengths. Pollen deposition was more complex, with herkogamy and anther height affecting deposition. Further, close proximity of stigmas and anthers increased the potential for sexual interference between pollen removal and deposition. Overall, flower visitations and pollen removal and deposition varied between years and populations, but sex organ placement consistently influenced the removal and deposition of pollen. PMID:24850527

  12. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed. PMID:27124278

  13. Callus culture and gamma rays treatment used for inducing new breeding material in wheat (Tr. Aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occuring somaclonal variation has been combined with gamma-ray (137Cs) treatment to increase the frequency of new forms of wheat differing from the initial lines. Two winter wheat genotypes 8-61 and 148-133-14 were used in the present study. Donor plants were grown under field conditions. Immature embryos were excised from the sterilized kernels and plated on MS basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2.4-D for induction and proliferation of the callus. The following treatments were applied: 1). Control (a natural occuring somaclonal variation). 2). 60 Gy gamma-ray treatment on mature seeds. 3). 6.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on immature seeds. 4). 2 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus 14 days after embryo plating. 5). 0.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus at the end of each plating. The best callusogenesis and regeneration were observed with genotype 8-61 given the treatment 5 followed by control. The genotype 148-133-14 showed a different response. The highest regeneration was obtained in the control followed by the treatments 2 and 5. In order to provide a faster stabilization of the genetic diversity among the regenerated plants, they were used as donors for anther culture. The anthers with microspores at the mid- to late uninucleate stages were excised and planted on potato-2 medium. Callus and embryoids induced from the cultured anthers were transferred to a 190-2 regeneration medium. All regenerants were studied cytologically and the haploids were treated with 0.055 colhicine 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Doubled haploid lines were produced as a result of this experiment. Statistical analysis of the newly released lines showed evidence of differences in plant height, spike shape and other agronomic features. (author)

  14. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qidi; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Gaisheng; Ju, Lan; Zhang, Jiao; Yu, Yongang; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating) species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility. PMID:25898130

  15. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lunau

    Full Text Available Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  16. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  17. The estimation of Adonis vernalis populations in chosen patches of Lublin Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of Adonis vernalis populations, their size and abundance in xerothermic communities of the Lublin Upland have decreased significantly in the last 40-50 years, which indicates that there is a real risk of species extinction in the studied area. The paper is an attempt to indicate the possible factors which influence the decrease of Adonis vernalis populations. Detailed studies were carried out in six sites differing habitat conditions, land use and the size of Adonis vernalis populations. Observations were made of the abundance of blooming and the number of anthers per flower. The ability for reproduction was estimated indirectly by the mass of pollen delivered and its biological value. The populations of Adonis vernalis differ in number of anthers per flower (94.4 - 131.5, on average, the mass of pollen delivered (0.83 mg - 3.18 mg per 100 anthers, on average, the biological value of pollen and the size of pollen grains. Generally, stronger populations were characterized by better quality and a higher quantity of pollen. Potential energy of pollen in flowers from Pliszczyn and Łabunie was 69-72%, compared to 36%-47% in the remaining populations. Grass burning did not cause a reduction of potential biological value of Adonis vernalis pollen. Xerothermic swards in Pliszczyn and Kąty regularly burnt developed strong, most abundant populations of Adonis vernalis with favorable pollen. The development of the shrub layer, if it is out of control, stands in the way of satisfactory reproduction of halophilous Adonis vernalis.

  18. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Wheat with Male Sterility Induced by the Chemical Hybridizing Agent SQ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidi Zhu

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one of the world's most important food crops, is a strictly autogamous (self-pollinating species with exclusively perfect flowers. Male sterility induced by chemical hybridizing agents has increasingly attracted attention as a tool for hybrid seed production in wheat; however, the molecular mechanisms of male sterility induced by the agent SQ-1 remain poorly understood due to limited whole transcriptome data. Therefore, a comparative analysis of wheat anther transcriptomes for male fertile wheat and SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. In all, 42,634,123 sequence reads were generated and were assembled into 82,356 high-quality unigenes with an average length of 724 bp. Of these, 1,088 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed in the fertile and sterile wheat anthers, including 643 up-regulated unigenes and 445 down-regulated unigenes. The differentially expressed unigenes with functional annotations were mapped onto 60 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. They were mainly involved in coding for the components of ribosomes, photosynthesis, respiration, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, RNA transport and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species metabolism, mRNA surveillance pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, protein export, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This study is the first to provide a systematic overview comparing wheat anther transcriptomes of male fertile wheat with those of SQ-1-induced male sterile wheat and is a valuable source of data for future research in SQ-1-induced wheat male sterility.

  19. Effect of extracts of the reproductive organs of brassica oleracea L. on morphogenesis in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. KIRAKOSJAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, cabbage is the most common vegetable. The reason is very tasty and chemical composition. It contains 2,6-5,7% sugar, 1,1-2,3% of the proteins, minerals phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iodine, etc. The most important problem of selection is still reducing the time to development new varieties.Broad prospects in the intensification of the selection process opens the application of modern techniques of applied genetics and applied biotechnology, combined with hybridization and selection. Great theoretical and practical interest, in particular, the use of haploidy. Method dihaploids allows significant acceleration of the process of selection of all cultivated plants.Work carried out on varieties and F1 hybrids of the genus Brassica: cabbage (B. oleracea L.: F1 hybrid Jubilei, line ET1 and AMF 3L. Plants - donors were grown in a greenhouse of the Breeding Timofeev-station of RSAU-MTAA during the year. Objects of our research were isolated anthers, microspores, ovaries and ovules of cabbage.Studied the effects of extracts derived from the reproductive organs of cabbage. As the solvent used: DMSO, acetone, alcohol and water. The extracts were added to a sterile medium. For cabbage we have optimized steps of obtaining regenerated plants by direct embryogenesis from microspores of isolated anthers. Found that the presence of hormones in MS medium at a concentration of NAA 1 mg / l, Dropp - 0.01 mg / l stimulated the process of direct embryogenesis. In these conditions the microspores in anther maintain their viability for a long growing in in vitro. The addition of DMSO-based extracts and acetone resulted in the induction of development of the ovaries and ovules. This was manifested in the growth of the ovaries and the formation of larger ovules. In variants with water and alcohol, this effect was not observed.

  20. 化学杀雄剂1号对棉花过氧化酶、蔗糖酶活性的研究%Effects of Chemical Hybridizing Agent No. 1 on the Activities of Peroxidase and Invertase in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 王邦俊; 李学刚

    2003-01-01

    采用0.1%的杀雄剂1号分3次处理初花期的棉花,诱导其产生雄性不育,对叶片和花药进行的过氧化物酶、蔗糖酶活性测定结果表明:处理棉株的叶片过氧化物酶活性与对照无明显差异,蔗糖酶活性不断下降且后期低于对照;处理后花药中过氧化物酶和蔗糖酶活性在前期均与对照相似,随后二者均逐渐高于对照.说明处理花药中过氧化物酶、蔗糖酶活性的升高影响着败育花粉的产生.%After treating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) with 0. 1% chemical hybridizingagent No. 1 (CHA No. 1) during florescencestage three times, the male sterility was inducedand the activities of peroxidase and invertase inleaves and anthers were continuously deter-mined. The results showed that the activity ofperoxidase in treated leaves had no distinctdifference from that of the control, while the ac-tivity of invertase decreased successively and waslower than that of the control at last. The activi-ties of the two enzymes in treated anthers weresimilar to those of the control in early stage, buttheir activities increased gradually which wereobviously higher than the control. Thus, it wasindicated that the increase of the activities ofperoxidase and invertase affected the emergenceof abortion pollen in treated anthers.

  1. Transcriptome de novo assembly and analysis of differentially expressed genes related to cytoplasmic male sterility in cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jiao-Jiao; Jia, Xue-Fang; Jia, Si-Qi

    2016-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait producing abnormal pollen during anther development. To identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in the sterility and to better understand the underlying mechanisms, cabbage anthers at different developmental stages were cytologically examined and the transcriptomes were analyzed in CMS line and its maintainer line using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Microscopy showed that anther development in the CMS line was abnormal in the tetrad stage and failed to produce fertile pollen. We obtained 55,663,594 and 54,801,384 raw transcriptome reads from the sterile and maintainer lines, respectively, and assembled these reads into 68,851 unigenes with an average size of 1028 bp. By using the fragments assigned per kilobase of target per million mapped reads (FPKM) method, 5592 differentially expressed genes were identified, consisting of 3403 up- and 2089 down-regulated genes. Furthermore, there were 1011 and 45 genes specifically expressed in the maintainer or sterile line, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and enrichment analysis of metabolic pathways were performed to map and analyze the candidate genes that may be involved in male sterility. Expression of eighteen genes was examined using qRT-PCR and their expression patterns were found to be same as the sequencing data. A clear cytological difference exists between the sterile and maintainer lines. The differentially expressed genes are associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolisms, or encode transcription factors, heat shock proteins and other stress proteins. Identification of these candidate genes provides a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying CMS in cabbage. PMID:27116370

  2. Decreased Pollen Viability and Thicken Pollen Intine in Antisense Silenced Brassica campestris Mutant of BcMF19

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-long; GAO Ming-hui; LIU Ying; CAO Jia-shu

    2014-01-01

    Brassica campestris male fertility 19 (BcMF19;GenBank accession number GQ902048.1), a gene that is specially expressed in tapetum cells and microspores during anther development in B. campestris ssp. chinensis, which is learned from the previous in situ hybridization study. In the present study, we constructed antisense-silenced plants of BcMF19 using B. campestris ssp. chinensis to validate this prediction. The morphology of the pistils, long anthers, and short anthers was signiifcantly affected in 35sbcmf19 compared with the control samples. 4´-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining revealed that two generative nuclei and one large vegetative nucleus were not affected in the mutant compared with control. Statistical analysis of Alexander’s staining results showed that 96% of the control pollen grains had vitality, whereas only 86% of the mutant pollen grains did. Under scanning electron microscopy, the mutant demonstrated numerous abnormal pollen grains and resembled dried persimmon. The frequency of normal pollen grains was approximately 18%. Under transmission electron microscopy, the pollen intine during the binucleate and mature pollen stages in 35sbcmf19 exhibited abnormal thickening, especially at the germinal furrows, compared with control. In vitro pollen germination test showed that the tips of the mutant pollen tubes transformed into globular alveoli and stopped growing compared with control. On the other hand, in vivo pollen germination test suggested that BcMF19 affected the pollen tube extension in the pistil. These ifndings indicate that BcMF19 is essential to the pollen development and pollen tube extension of B. campestris ssp. chinensis.

  3. Integration of genetic and physical maps of the Primula vulgaris S locus and localization by chromosome in situ hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret; Wright, Jonathan; Cocker, Jonathan; Smith, Matthew; Badakshi, Farah; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Gilmartin, Philip

    2015-01-01

    •Heteromorphic flower development in Primula is controlled by the S locus. The S locus genes, which control anther position, pistil length and pollen size in pin and thrum flowers, have not yet been characterized. We have integrated S-linked genes, marker sequences and mutant phenotypes to create a map of the P. vulgaris S locus region that will facilitate the identification of key S locus genes. We have generated, sequenced and annotated BAC sequences spanning the S locus, and identified its...

  4. Screening and Analysis of Proteins Interacting with TaPDK from Physiological Male Sterility Induced by CHA in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Long-yu; ZHANG Gai-sheng; ZHAO Xin-liang; YANG Shu-ling

    2013-01-01

    To further research the regulatory network of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (designated as TaPDK) in physiological male-sterility (PHYMS) of wheat induced by chemical hybridizing agent (CHA) SQ-1, an anther cDNA library was constructed, and the proteins interacting with TaPDK were screened via yeast two-hybrid technique. Subsequently, a few candidate proteins in nucleotide expression levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Yeast-two hybrid screening was performed by mating yeast strain Y2HGold containing BD-TaPDK bait plasmid with yeast strain Y187 including anther cDNA library plasmid. Diploid yeast cells were plated on synthetic dropout nutrient medium (SD/-Ade/-His/-Leu/-Trp) (QDO), and further were incubated on QDO medium containing AbA and X-α-Gal. The interactions between TaPDK and the proteins obtained from positive colonies were further confirmed by co-transformation validation. After plasmids DNA were extracted from blue colonies and sequenced, the sequences results were analyzed by bioinformatic methods. Finally, 24 colonies were obtained, including eight genes, namely non-specific lipid-transfer protein precursor (TanLTP), polyubiquitin (TaPUbi), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (TaPCNA), CBS domain containing protein (TaCBS), actin, guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta subunit, chalcone synthase, and three new genes with unknown function. The results of quantitative RT-PCR showed that the expression levels of TanLTP, TaPUbi, and TaPCNA were obviously up-regulated in PHYMS anther, and TaCBS expression was only increased at the tricellular stage in PHYMS anther compared with in fertile lines. Whereas, the expression of TaPDK was obviously down-regulated in PHYMS lines. Collectively, these datas indicated that the majority of candidate proteins might be related to pollen abortion in PHYMS lines, which further suggested that TaPDK plays multiple roles in pollen development, besides participating in

  5. Induced mutants from dihaploid potatoes after pollen mother cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźny, T; Schieder, O; Wenzel, G

    1980-05-01

    Microspore mother cells of dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants were mutagenically treated during the stage of meiosis. Mutagenesis was performed either by irradiation with x- or γ-rays or by the application of nitrosomethylurethane or methylnitronitrosoguanidine. Then, by use of the anther culture technique, 913 functional plants and 442 untreated control plants were regenerated. From the exposed plants seven distinct mutants could be isolated, predominantly chlorophyll deficient lines, while from the controls no clear-cut mutants arose. One mutant turned out to be photomorphogenetic in addition to having a chlorophyll defect. In addition to the production of mutants the treatments significantly increased the frequency of multicellular structure formation from microspores.

  6. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  7. Acquirement of a new male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiurui; LIU Ling; LIU Mengjun; ZHOU Junyi

    2007-01-01

    A male sterile germplasm of Chinese jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.),named 'male sterile No.1'(JMS1),was firstly identified from a natural population through studies of pollen amount and vitality and its anatomy.Its microspores got massed and then disaggregated after the tetrad stage during pollen development.Then its anthers became empty,or only pollen vestiges remained in the yellow buds.The pollen became abortive after the tetrad stage.Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tapetum at the tetrad stage were related to pollen abortion.In view of its moderate could be used as a worthwhile female parent in the cross breeding of Chinese jujube.

  8. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  9. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  10. Mediation of flowering by a calmodulin-dependent proteinkinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (MCK1) appeared important in regulating flowering in tobacco. The expression of modified MCK1 that lacks the C-terminal including calmodulin-binding domain upsets the flowering developmental program, leading to the abortion of flower primordia initiated on the main axis of the plant and, as well, caused the prolongation of the vegetative phase in axillary buds. The abortion process of flowers began first in the developing anthers and subsequently the entire flower senesces. In axillary buds the prolonged vegetative phase was characterized by atypical elongated, narrow, twisted leaves. These results suggested a role for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homologs in mediating flowering.

  11. Overexpression of AtTTP Affects ARF17 Expression and Leads to Male Sterility in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hao Shi; Cheng Zhang; Xiao-Feng Xu; Jun Zhu; Que Zhou; Li-Juan Ma; Jin Niu; Zhong-Nan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Callose synthesis is critical for the formation of the pollen wall pattern. CalS5 is thought to be the major synthethase for the callose wall. In the Arabidopsis anther, ARF17 regulates the expression of CalS5 and is the target of miR160. Plants expressing miR160-resistant ARF17 (35S:5mARF17 lines) with increased ARF17 mRNA levels display male sterility. Here we report a zinc finger family gene, AtTTP, which is involved in miR160 maturation and callose synthesis in Arabidopsis. AtTTP is expre...

  12. Artificial pollination in acung (Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on artificial pollination, both self and cross pollinations, of Amorphophallus decus-silvae Back. & v.A.v.R. planted in a house yard in Bogor. It was observed that no fruit set was resulted from self pollination. On the other hand cross pollination successfully produced numerous fruits. It was suggested that phenomena was due to protogenic character rather than self incompatibility mechanism of the species. The stigmas mature 1-2 days earlier than the anthers (pollen shedding. Such a case was also reported earlier by other authors in A. titanium Becc.

  13. Pollination biology of an invasive weed Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae) in Guangdong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaocheng Jia; Xinliang Li; Yang Dan; Guohui Lu; Yingqiang Wang

    2007-01-01

    During May to July, 2006 and April to May, 2007, we studied pollination biology in Ipomoea cairica, an invasive weed in Guangdong Province, China. Ipomoea cairica is a perennial creeping or climbing herbaceous vine, blooming all year round in Guangdong. The flowers gathered in cymes, with a purple or bluish purple bell-formed corolla. The petals unfolded at about 4:30–5:20 and closed at 17:40, lasting for about 12 hours. The proximity of the stigma and anthers during flowering period facilita...

  14. Space maintenance in a child dental care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, C J; Sorenson, H W; Mink, J R

    1975-04-01

    Five types of space maintainers were placed in 196 children participating in an extensive dental care program during a four-year study. Children with space maintainers were examined at six-month intervals. During the study, some sort of difficulty was encountered with 43% of the appliances inserted. The most common problem encountered was lost or missing appliances. Sixteen appliances had broken arch wires or loop wires; only ten broken bands were noted. Anther problem was distortion of arch wires. Suggestions are made for possible modifications in the space maintainers to reduce the incidence of problems.

  15. Tobacco floral homeotic gene Nfbp6 is specifically expressed during pollen and ovule development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢灿; 张劲松; 陈受宜

    1999-01-01

    Nfbp6 was a floral homeotic gene isolated from tobacco. It showed high homology with other class C genes. Using in situ hybridization technique, the expression of Nfbp6 was investigated in various stages of flower development. The results showed that Nfbp6 was expressed at low level during the initiation period of stamen and carpel primordia. In the later stage of flower bud development, the transcription level of Nfbp6 gene increased especially during the formation of pollen and ovule. The Nfbp6 gene expression was also observed in the transmitting tissue of style, stomium and circular cell clusters of the anther.

  16. Obtaining a new variety of rape by biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High-frequency induction of pollen embryoids and plantlets of rape was obtained by stepped float anther culture. In addition, somatic embryoids and plantlets were induced with a high frequency from several species by cell suspension culture. The erucic acid (EA) content of embryoids was analysed by a micro-analysis technique and a semi-micro-analysis of glucosinolates (GS) content in culture was used. A new variety 'H86-166' with low EA and low GS content was selected by these techniques. It gave a yield of 3169 kg/ha and has been released for commercial production on about 1000 ha in Yunnan Province. (author)

  17. Plant breeding by using radiation mutation - Selection of herbicide-resistant cell lines by using {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyo Yeon [Sunchun University, Sunchun (Korea); Seo, Yong Weon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In order to develop the herbicide resistant cell lines, micro calli derived from rice anther culture and mature seed of wheat cultivars were irradiated with gamma rays. 1) The callus was dedifferentiated by 7 or 21 day pretreatment at 7 deg. C in two rice cultivars, Ilpumbyeo ad Dongjinbyeo. 2) To check the optimum concentration of herbicide, three herbicides were tested with micro calli. 3) The optimum dose of gamma ray to seeds of wheat seemed to be from 100 to 150 Gy. 4) AFLP and RAPD technique were established to develope herbicide resistant molecular marker in rice. 34 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. Floral biology and reproductive mechanisms of the Ocimum canum Sims (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ocimum genus (Lamiaceae presents essential oils used in the pharmaceutical, perfume, cosmetics and culinary industries. The aim of this paper was to study the fl oral biology and breeding mechanisms of Ocimum canum Sims. in relation to improved plant breeding. Ocimum canum has inflorescences with white, protandrous and hermaphoditic flowers. The osmophores are located at the anthers and stigma. Anthesis occurs between 10:30 and 11:30 a.m. The main fl oral visitors were bees of the Apis and Augochloropsis genuses. Ocimum canum presents a breeding system with a predominance of outcrossing that possibly demonstrates the wide reproductive flexibility of this species.

  19. Calcium in pollen-pistil interaction in `Petunia hybrida Hor`. Pt. 1. Localization of Ca{sup 2+} ions in mature pollen grain using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, E.; Butowt, R. [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The localization of Ca{sup 2+} in the mature pollen grain and the flow of these ions the somatic tissues of the anther to the pollen grains has been studied using pyroantimonate and autoradiographic methods. In the pollen grain, Ca{sup 2+} ions have been localized in the sporoderm in the cytoplasmic vesicles of probably dictyosomal origin. Calcium ions were transported into the sporoderm together with the compounds of degenerating tapetum. The material of degenerating tapetum forms pollen coat surrounding the mature pollen grains. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs.

  20. Cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding ribosomal protein S4 from Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A cDNA clone, pS4, has been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from rice anthers of about 1.0 mm in length. DNA sequence analysis and database search show that the cDNA encodes a protein which is highly homologous to eukaryotic 80S ribosomal protein subunit 4 (S4). Northern hybridization indicates that this gene expresses in all tissues analyzed although the expression level varies and it cannot be induced by mechanical wounding in leaves. Southern blot analysis demonstrates that this rice S4 gene is from a multigene family.

  1. Microsporogenesis and the development of male gametophyte in Swertia bimaculata%獐牙菜小孢子发生及雄配子体发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衡宇; 龙华; 易婷婷; 李鹂

    2010-01-01

    Microsporogenesis and the development of male gametophyte in Swertia bimaculata were studied by the method of paraffin section for the first time in the present paper. The main results can be concluded as follows:Anthers are tetrasporangiate, the development of anther walls conforms to the basic type and comprises of epidermis, endothecium,two middle layers and tapetum at mature stage. The tapetum has dual origin and belongs to the Glandular type. The degenerating tapetum nuclei in the middle of anther locules are from the tapetum cells,which undergo mitosis,then intrude into the anther locules and degenerate in situ at the early stage. Two middle layers are ephemeral;endothecium and epidermis persists and develops to become fibrous-thickening. The cytokinesis of the microspore mother cell in meiosis is of the simultaneous type. Most of the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral and there are still a few other types,such as isobilateral,dilateral. Pollen grain is mainly 2-celled type when shed, occasionally 3-celled type,and it has three apertures.%用石蜡切片法对獐牙菜小孢子发生及雄配子体发育过程进行首次观察研究.主要结果如下:花药四室,药壁发育为基本型;绒毡层异型起源,属于腺质型绒毡层,药室内具有的退化绒毡层核是早期该层细胞有丝分裂凸入药室中央并原位退化形成的;中层细胞2层;药室内壁同表皮同时宿存,细胞柱状伸长,纤维状加厚.小孢子母细胞减数分裂为同时型,四分体排列方式主要为四面体形,少数为左右对称形和十字交叉形;成熟花粉多为2-缅胞类型,偶见3-细胞型,具三萌发孔.

  2. The genesis of microspore and the formation of male gametophyte in Swertia davidii Franch.%川东獐牙菜小孢子发生和雄配子体形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹂; 黄衡宇

    2006-01-01

    The present paper firstly reports the microsporogenesis and the formation of male gametophyte in Swertia davidii Franch..The main results showed that anther is tetrasporangiate.The development of anther walls conforms to the Basic type and comprises of epidermis, endothecium, three middle layers and tapetum at the mature stage. The tapetum cells have dual origin and belong to the glandular type. The degenerating tapetum nuclei in the middle of anther locules are from the tapetum cells, which undergo mitosis, then intrude into the anther locules and degenerate in situ at the early stage. Three middle layers are ephemeral. Endothecium degenerates shortly after differentiating; epidermis persists and develops to become histogram elongated and fibrous-thickening. The cytokinesis of the microspore mother cells in meiosis is of the Simultaneous type. Most of the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral and there are still a few other types, such as isobilateral, dilateral and "T"-shaped. Pollen grains are 2-celled when shed.%报道了川东獐牙菜(Swertia davidii Franch.)小孢子发生和雄配子体形成的过程.主要结果如下:花药四室,药壁发育为基本型;绒毡层异型起源,属于腺质型绒毡层,药室内具有的退化绒毡层核是早期该层细胞有丝分裂凸入药室中央并原位退化形成的;中层细胞3层;药室内壁退化;花药壁表皮宿存,细胞柱状伸长,纤维状加厚.小孢母细胞减数分裂为同时型,四分体排列方式主要为四面体形和左右对称型,少数为"T"形和十字交叉形;成熟花粉为2-细胞类型.

  3. Folding of Pollen Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Alben, Silas; Cerda, Enrique; Nelson, David; Dumais, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    At dehiscence, which occurs when the anther reaches maturity and opens, pollen grains dehydrate and their volume is reduced. The pollen wall deforms to accommodate the volume loss, and the deformation pathway depends on the initial turgid pollen grain geometry and the mechanical properties of the pollen wall. We demonstrate, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, that the design of the apertures (areas on the pollen wall where the stretching and the bending modulus are reduced) is critical for controlling the folding pattern, and ensures the pollen grain viability. An excellent fit to the experiments is obtained using a discretized version of the theory of thin elastic shells.

  4. Clematis austrogansuensis, a new species of Ranunculaceae from Gansu%甘南铁线莲, 甘肃毛茛科一新种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采; 李良千

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Ranunculaceae, Clematis austrogansuensis W. T. Wang & L. Q. Li, is described from southern Gansu Province. In the genus Clematis,it is related to C. shensiensis W. T. Wang,from which it differs in its hornotinous branchlets only spasely puberulous on nodes, leaflets only near base sparsely puberulous, I-flowered cymes, and anthers with obtuse apexes.%该文描述了自甘肃南部发现的毛茛科铁线莲属的一新种,甘南铁线莲.

  5. Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo I Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en inglés: New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture. Resumen: En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA, se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la  Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y  de alto rendimiento agrícola. Palabras clave: Arroz; Mejoramiento genético; Cultivo in Vitro de anteras Summary: Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were

  6. Pflanzliche Zellkulturtechniken als Züchtungsschritt am Beispiel Raps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Franz

    1980-06-01

    A supplementation of classical plant breeding is now necessary due to the limitations imposed by available genetic variability and the slowness of the method. Therefore, cell culture techniques could play an important role in the future. Using rape seed, in which plants derived from anther culture and in vitro mutagenesis are already field tested, it has been shown that, in this case, somatic genetics is very close to becoming a practical method. For most of the other crop plants, in particular the cereals, no such unconventional breeding techniques have yet been satisfactorily established for commercial use.

  7. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn; Alisa Nakkaew; Tanate Panrat; Arunrut Vanichanon; Amornrat Phongdara

    2016-01-01

    A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL) from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. T...

  8. Blooming biology and pollen abundance of Anemone japonica Houtt.= Anemone x hybrida hort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out between 2002 and 2003 and in 2005 in the Botanical Garden in Lublin. The blooming and the pollen flow of Anemone japonica Houtt. (=A. x hybrida hort were observed. The blooming of the perennial took place in the middle and end of summer. The number of flowers per inflorescence and the mass of pollen produced in anthers significantly depended on insolation conditions and were greater on sunny plots. Anemone japonica is characterized by the variability of many features which directly influence the amount of delivered pollen. The number of stamens varied from 175 to 507 per flower, the mass of pollen from 1.1mg to 4.9 mg per 100 anthers, the number of flowers from 25 to 118 per one inflorescence and from 355⋅m-2 to 2202⋅m-2. Therefore the pollen efficiency varied widely from 1.3g⋅m-2 to 27.7g⋅m-2 and reached 15.3 g ⋅ m-2 on average.

  9. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J.; Traverso, José Á.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen–pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed. PMID:27066025

  10. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supena, E D J; Suharsono, S; Jacobsen, E; Custers, J B M

    2006-02-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4 degrees C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers in double-layer medium system for 1 week at 9 degrees C and thereafter at 28 degrees C in continuous darkness. The medium contained Nitsch components and 2% maltose, with 1% activated charcoal in the solid under layer and 2.5 muM zeatin and 5 muM indole-3-acetic acid in the liquid upper layer. All the ten genotypes of hot pepper tested, responded to this protocol. The best genotypes produced four to seven plants per original flower bud. This protocol can be used as a potential tool for producing doubled haploid plants for hot pepper breeding. PMID:16172897

  11. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J; Traverso, José Á; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen-pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed.

  12. The Earliest Normal Flower from Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Shaolin Zheng

    2009-01-01

    The early evolution of angiosperms has been a focus of intensive research for more than a century. The Yixian Formation in western Liaoning yields one of the earliest angiosperm macrofloras. Despite multitudes of angiosperm fossils uncovered, Including Archaefructus and Sinocarpus, no bona fide normal flower has been dated to 125 Ma (mega-annum) or older. Here we report Callianthus dilae gen. at sp. nov. from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous) in western Liaoning, China as the earliest normal flower known to date. The flower demonstrates a typical floral organization, including tepals, androecium, and gynoecium. The tepals are spatulata with parallel veins. The stamens have a slender filament, a globular anther, bristles at the anther apex, and in situ round-triangular pollen grains. The gynoecium is composed of two stylate carpels enclosed in a fleshy envelope, and develops into a "hip" when mature. Since the well-accepted history of angiosperms is not much longer than 125 Me, Callianthus together with Chaoyangia, Archaefructus and Sinocarpus from the Yixian Formation demonstrate a surprisingly high diversity of angiosperms, implying a history of angiosperms much longer than currently accepted.

  13. Production of Haploid Tissues and SNP Analysis of the Genome in Musa acuminata cv.'Matti'(AA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid and doubled haploid plants are of considerable value in genetic studies, genomics and plant breeding, allowing characterization and exploitation of genes where only one allele is present. Inbred banana lines have not been developed and with very few haploids or homozygotes reported, we aimed to develop new materials for genetic and genomic studies and to see if protocols could be improved using a range of genetic material not previously investigated. Anther culture was carried out using four Musa acuminata (AA) cultivars grown in homestead cultivation in Kerala, southern India. Protocols based on using modified MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D and BA (0.1 mg 1-1 each) were used. Embryogenic callus was regenerated from 4% of anthers of cv. Matti. The callus produced somatic embryosthat developed small leaves but haploid plant regeneration was not achieved. Regenerated leaf tissues had a haploid set of chromosome complements. The haploid tissuesprovided a source of DNA which may be suitable for whole genome shotgun approaches to re-sequencing, where the high levels of heterozygosity in Musa would impair assembly. (author)

  14. Intrafloral differentiation of stamens in heterantherous fowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Lai LUO; Lei GU; Dian-Xiang ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Flowers that have heteromorphic stamens (heterantherous flowers) have intrigued many researchers ever since the phenomenon was discovered in the 19th century. The morphological differentiation in androecia has been suggested as a reflection of "labor division" in pollination in which one type of stamens attracts pollina-tors and satisfies their demand for pollen as food and the other satisfies the plant's need for safe gamete dispersal. The extent and patterns of stamen differentiation differ notably among taxa with heterantherous flowers. Seven species with heteromorphic stamens in three genera were sampled from Leguminosae and Melastomataceae, and the morphological difference of androecia, pollen content, pollen histochemistry and viability, pollen micro-morphology, as well as the main pollinators were examined and compared. Pollen number differs significantly between stamen sets of the same flower in most species investigated, and a correlation of pollen number and anther size was substantiated. Higher pollen viabilities were found in the long (pollinating) stamens of Senna alata (L.) Roxb. and S. bicapsularis (L.) Roxb. Dimorphic pollen exine ornamentation is reported here for the first time in Fordiophytonfaberi Stapf. The height of stigma and anther tips of the long stamens in natural conditions was proved to be highly correlated, supporting the hypothesis that they contact similar areas of the pollinator's body.

  15. Reproduction in Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum, Ericaceae): A Rare Case of Insect Wing Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Allison, Suzanne E; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2015-08-01

    Although many angiosperms are serviced by flying pollinators, reports of wings as pollen vectors are rare. Flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum) is visited by diverse insects, yet previous observations suggested that only butterfly wings may transfer pollen to stigmas. We used an experimental approach to determine whether butterfly wings are the primary vehicle of pollination in flame azalea. Over two seasons of observations, only butterflies (Papilio glaucus and Speyeria cybele) contacted both anthers and stigmas, yet because of differences in wing-flapping behavior, P. glaucus transferred pollen most efficiently. In contrast, bee species specialized either on pollen or nectar but did not contact both anthers and stigmas. A field experiment revealed that flowers excluding butterflies experienced almost complete fruit failure, whereas fruit set in open flowers did not differ from those that were hand pollinated. Additionally, butterflies had 56-fold more azalea pollen on their wings than bodies, while azalea stigmas bore both pollen and wing scales. These results suggest that plants with many visitors contacting reproductive organs may still specialize on a single guild of visitors for pollination and that wing-borne pollen transfer is a key mode of flame azalea pollination. PMID:26655157

  16. The classical Ubisch bodies carry a sporophytically produced structural protein (RAFTIN) that is essential for pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiming; Xia, Qun; Xie, Wenshuang; Datla, Raju; Selvaraj, Gopalan

    2003-11-25

    Pollen fecundity is crucial to crop productivity and also to biodiversity in general. Pollen development is supported by the tapetum, a metabolically active sporophytic nurse layer that devotes itself to this process. The tapetum in cereals and a vast majority of other plants is of the nonamoeboid type. Unable to reach out to microspores, it secretes nutrients into the anther locule where the microspores reside and develop. Orbicules (Ubisch bodies), studied in various plants since their discovery approximately 140 years ago, are a hallmark of the secretory tapetum. Their significance to tapetal or pollen development has not been established. We have identified in wheat and rice an anther-specific single-copy gene (per haploid genome equivalent) whose suppression in rice by RNA interference nearly eliminated the seed set. The flowers in the transgenics were normal for female functions, but the pollen collapsed and became less viable. Further characterization of the gene product, named RAFTIN, in wheat has shown that it is present in pro-orbicule bodies and it is accumulated in Ubisch bodies. Furthermore, it is targeted to microspore exine. Although the carboxyl portion of RAFTINs shares short, dispersed amino acid sequences (BURP domain) in common with a variety of proteins of disparate biological contexts, the occurrence RAFTIN per se is limited to cereals; neither the Arabidopsis genome nor the vast collection of ESTs suggests any obvious dicot homologs. Furthermore, our results show that RAFTIN is essential for the late phase of pollen development in cereals. PMID:14612572

  17. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  18. Molecular phenotypes associated with anomalous stamen development in Alternanthera philoxeroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eZhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera philoxeroides is a perennial amphibious weed native to South America but has now spread to diverse parts of the world. A. philoxeroides reproduces both sexually and asexually in its native range, but propagates solely through vegetative means in its introduced range. Traits associated with sexual reproduction become degraded for sexual dysfunction, with flowers possessing either pistillate stamens or male-sterile anthers. Degradations of sexual characters for loss of sexuality commonly take place in clonal plants. The underlying molecular-genetic processes remain largely unknown. We compared the gene expression profiles of abnormal stamens with that of normal stamens by RNA-Seq analysis, and identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between abnormal and normal stamens. In accordance with flower morphology, the expression of B-class MADS-box genes (ApAP3, ApTM6 and ApPI was markedly reduced in pistillate stamens. However, most of the genes involved in meiosis were expressed normally in stamens with male-sterile anthers. In addition to verifying the expression patterns of genes previously known to be related to stamen and pollen grain development, we also identified previously unknown molecular phenotypes associated with sexual dysfunction in A. philoxeroides, that is helpful for dissecting the molecular mechanisms underpinning various male-sterile phenotypes and the molecular processes underlying the transition from sexuality to asexuality in clonal plants.

  19. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  20. Aberrant Meiotic Prophase I Leads to Genic Male Sterility in the Novel TE5A Mutant of Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Wang, Shasha; Li, Keqi; Yuan, Rong; Gao, Hongfei; Luo, Junling; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents. We then analyzed the transcriptome differences between young floral buds of sterile plants and its near-isogenic fertile plants through RNA-Seq. A total of 3,841 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, some of which were associated with homologous chromosome behavior and cell cycle control during meiosis. Dynamic expression changes of selected candidate DEGs were then analyzed at different anther developmental stages. The present study not only demonstrated that the TE5A mutant had defects in meiotic prophase I via detailed cytological analysis, but also provided a global insight into GMS-associated DEGs and elucidated the mechanisms of GMS in TE5A through RNA-Seq. PMID:27670217

  1. Preliminary studies on male sterile mutant after exogenous DNA introduced into wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable sterile line--D-type sterile line was obtained after exogenous λDNA introduced into wheat line 814527. There were obvious characters in flower structure of the sterile line. The number of ovaries increased and that of anthers declined, and the sum was not always equal to four. Polygynous flower were located in the middle of panicles, while there were no polygynous ones on the top and the base of panicles. The main ovary was in the center of the flower, and the accessory ovaries surrounded to main ovary. The ovaries did not develop synchronously, main ovary developed earlier and accessory ones slower. The volume of main ovary was bigger than the accessory ones. Anthers of the sterile line with abnormal shapes were obsolescent at early stage, and had no living pollen. It showed that the sterile line was a cytoplasmic male sterile one, and the acceptor line 814527 could be its maintainer. The hybrid of the sterile line and Lumai 14 had some heterosis in traits such as panicle length, spikelet number per panicle and grain number per panicle, and its yield per plant was 11.6% higher than that of Lumai 14

  2. Novel genetic male sterility developed in (Capsicum annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and induced by HNO2 showing Mendelian inheritance and aborted at telophase of microspore mother cell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W; Ji, J-J; Li, C; Li, G-Q; Yin, C-C; Chai, W-G; Gong, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    A novel genetic male sterile germplasm was developed by successively crossing of (C. annuum x C. chinense) x C. pubescens and by chemical mutagenesis in pepper. The sterile anthers showed morphological abnormalities, but pistils developed normally with fine pollination capability. We investigated fertility segregation through sib-crossing of the same strains and test crossing by male sterile plants with 6 advanced inbred lines. The results showed that male fertility in the pepper was dominant in the F1 generation and segregated at a rate of 3:1 in the F2 generation, suggesting that monogenic male sterility was recessive and conformed to Mendelian inheritance. Cyto-anatomy analysis revealed that microspore abortion of sterile anthers occurred during telophase in the microspore mother cell stage when tapetal cells showed excessive vacuolation, resulting in occupation of the loculi. The microspore mother cells self-destructed and autolyzed with the tapetum so that meiosis in pollen mother cells could not proceed past the tetrad stage. PMID:25966098

  3. Biological Features of Flowering and Development of Male Gametophyte in Anthurium andreanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing-shu; Zhu Xiao-qing; Li Feng-lan; Guo Hui-hong; Li Zhi-dan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to follow each development stage of inflorescence in order to understand the biological feature of flowering and the development of male gametophyte in Anthurium andreanum "Arizona" and to try to find the optimum conditions for its pollination. The methods of dissection and paraffin section were adopted to examine the structural characteristics of anthurium's tiny floret and the development of the microspore. All the florets of the anthurium arrange on the rhachis helically subtended by a colorful bract. Each tiny floret has one gynoecium, four tepals and four stamina. The bract and the florets show different colors during the whole blooming period. The ovary is bicarpellary and has two locules, each of which has one anatropous ovule. The placenta is of a central placentation type. The stylar canal cells not only can produce the secretory mucilage but also can release their own cytoplasm caused by their self-disintegration before the pistil reaches its maturity. The wall of the anther is composed of four layers: epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. The tapetal cells and the middle layers' cells degenerated completely during meiosis of microsporocytes. The pollen grains were 2-celled at the time of anther dehiscence. Early morning, when the inflorescences stay at their fifth development stage, is the optimum opportunity for pistil to get pollen grains. The pollen-collection should be done at the end of the seventh stage.

  4. Immunolocalization of Arabinogalactan Proteins and Pectins in Floral Buds of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) During Sex Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ben PENG; Cheng ZOU; Hua-Qin GONG; Shu-Nong BAI; Zhi-Hong XU; Yi-Qin LI

    2005-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins were detected in the floral buds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during its sex determination using the following monoclonal antibodies: MAC 207 (recognizes AGP epitopes); JIM 8 (recognizes a subset ofAGP epitopes); and JIM 5 and JIM 7 (epitopes of pectins esterified to various degrees). In the stem apex meristem (SAM) of the cucumber, epitopes of MAC 207, JIM 7, and JIM 5 were localized in the cells from second to third peripheral layers when the sex organ primodium began to differentiate; epitopes of MAC 207 and JIM 5 were also detected in the ragged edge cells. A very dense labeling signal with MAC 207 was observed in the carpel and pistil primodium. The AGP epitopes recognized by JIM 8 were localized in the anther of the male flower and the anther-like portion of the stagnant stamen of the female flower. This suggests that the AGPs and pectins in the SAM of the cucumber are closely associated with the differentiation of the SAM, from meristematic cells to floral primodium. The subset of AGPs recognized by JIM 8 may play an important role in stamen formation.

  5. [Studies on sexual organs and embryological development morphology of Pterocypsela formosana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Long; Ma, Xue-ni; Huang, Heng-yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the embryological characters of Pterocypsela formosana (Asteraceae) were investigated with the traditional paraffin section methods. The anther has 4 sporangiates, the anther wall development follows the dicotyledonous type and comprises of an epidermis, endothelium, a middle layer and a single-layered tapetum, the tapetum belongs to glandular type. Meiosis of the microspore mother cells is of the simultaneous type, for the formation of mostly tetrahedral tetrad, the mature pollen grains are 2 celled. The ovary is bicarpellate, unilocular, one ovule and basal placenta, the ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellate, inverted campylotropous and with developed endothelium, archesporial cell of megaspore differentiates immediately below the nucellar epidermis and functions as megasporocyte after development and belongs to tenuinucellate ovule type. The megasporocyte undergoes meitotic to form a liner tetrad, only one chalazal megaspore becomes the functional megaspore which forms female gametophyte including 7-celled and 8-nucleated after three successive mitosis, the female gametophyte is of the Polygonum type. Two polar nuclei melt into a secondary nuclei before fertilization, the chalazal antipodal cells are ephemeral and degenerate shortly after forming. Fertilization is porogamous and belongs to premitotic type of syngamy. The division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than the zygote, the endosperm is of the nuclear type with the presence of haustoria, and the embryogeny belongs to asterad type chicory variant. The developed suspensor on early stage has important significance to the embryo development. PMID:26080544

  6. Flowering, pollen characteristics and insect foraging on Campanula bononiensis (Campanulaceae, a protected species in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the floral biology and pollen quantity and quality of Campanula bononiensis L. (Campanulaceae, a protected species in Poland. Observations and measurements were made during the years 2007–2009 in natural phytocoenoses from the Festuco-Brometea class situated within the Lublin area, SE Poland. A considerable decrease (approx. 87% in population density was observed. Significant variations both in the amount of pollen (18.5%–34.8% of pollen in the total anther dry weight, i.e. 0.5–1.5 mg per 10 anthers and in pollen viability (38.8–97.0% were noted. Both a low amount of pollen and low pollen viability may reduce the reproductive success of individuals. The most frequent visiting insects were bees (Apoidea, including solitary bees 45.7%, honeybees 20.4%, and bumblebees 11.4%. Dipterans, coleopterans (weevils, lepidopterans and ants were also recorded, implying a strong impact of C. bononiensis on insect biodiversity within grasslands.

  7. Analysis of a Partial Male-Sterile Mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Isolated from a Low-Energy Argon Ion Beam Mutagenized Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; BIAN Po; WU Yuejin; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    A screen for Arabidopsis fertility mutants, mutagenized by low-energy argon ion beam, yielded two partial male-sterile mutants tc243-1 and tc243-2 which have similar phenotypes. tc243-2 was investigated in detail. The segregation ratio of the mutant phenotypes in the M2 pools suggested that mutation behaved as single Mendelian recessive mutations, tc243 showed a series of mutant phenotypes, among which partial male-sterile was its striking mutant characteristic. Phenotype analysis indicates that there are four factors leading to male sterility, a. Floral organs normally develop inside the closed bud, but the anther filaments do not elongate sufficiently to position the locules above the stigma at anthesis, b. The anther locules do not dehisce at the time of flower opening (although limited dehiscence occurs later), c. Pollens of mutant plants develop into several types of pollens at the trinucleated stage, as determined by staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole), which shows a variable size, shape and number of nucleus. d. The viability of pollens is lower than that of the wild type on the germination test in vivo and vitro.

  8. Pectic arabinan side chains are essential for pollen cell wall integrity during pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Katarina; Kortstee, Anne; Toonen, Marcel A J; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Houbein, Rudolf; Mariani, Celestina; Ulvskov, Peter; Jorgensen, Bodil; Schols, Henk A; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2014-05-01

    Pectin is a complex polysaccharide and an integral part of the primary plant cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to cell wall mechanical strength and cell adhesion. To understand the structure-function relationships of pectin in the cell wall, a set of transgenic potato lines with altered pectin composition was analysed. The expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in pectin acetylation, degradation of the rhamnogalacturonan backbone and type and length of neutral side chains, arabinan and galactan in particular, has been altered. Upon crossing of different transgenic lines, some transgenes were not transmitted to the next generation when these lines were used as a pollen donor, suggesting male sterility. Viability of mature pollen was severely decreased in potato lines with reduced pectic arabinan, but not in lines with altered galactan side chains. Anthers and pollen of different developmental stages were microscopically examined to study the phenotype in more detail. Scanning electron microscopy of flowers showed collapsed pollen grains in mature anthers and in earlier stages cytoplasmic protrusions at the site of the of kin pore, eventually leading to bursting of the pollen grain and leaking of the cytoplasm. This phenomenon is only observed after the microspores are released and the tapetum starts to degenerate. Timing of the phenotype indicates a role for pectic arabinan side chains during remodelling of the cell wall when the pollen grain is maturing and dehydrating.

  9. POLA REPRODUKSI PADA SALAK BALI (SA/ACCA ZA/ACCA VAR. AMBOINENSIS (BECC. MOGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENIEK KRISWIYANTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproduction patterns of Balinese snake skin fruits (Salak Bali has been conducted by identifying the availability of pollens on anthers of male and hermaphrodite flowers, the viability of pollens in the pistillum and the present of embryo(s in the ovulum. Flower samples were collected from Sibetan and Muncan Villages, Karangasem regency. Sample preparations and identifications were conducted in "Stuktur dan Perkembangan Tumbuhan Laboratory" Department of Bilogy, FMIPA Udayana University. The results showed that the pollen has a single apperture, unisulcus, minuta, oblat sferoidal type. The length of polar axis was 15-24 jam (P and equatorial diameter of 16-24 |im (E. Therefore, the P/E index was 0.99-1.0. The pollen viability before and after anthesis of hermaphrodite flowers was low (71.4% and 50.6% respectively, with very low pollen tube germinations (0.08% of before and 0.48% after anthesis. Similarly, on the anthers of male flowers, the viability of pollens before anthesis was low (75.7% with pollen germination of 0.18%, and event lower in after anthesis flowers (28.8% with 0.29% pollen tube germination. Squashed stigma before and after anthesis and 2 days after flowers were opened showed that there was no germination occurred. Therefore, there was no germination in the pistillum, but the embryo developed before flower anthesis, indicates that the reproduction pattern of Salak Bali occurred without fertilizations (agamospermy.

  10. Floral and fruit morphology of some species in Garcinia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological studies of reproductive parts of some species in Garcinia revealed some differences and similarities. Flowers of these species are composed of both male and female flowers. Female flowers aresolitary and occur in single or occasionally in clusters (2-10 flowers developed at the terminal buds of young branches in case of mangosteen, but both terminal buds and axillary buds were found in the other species.Primary parts of the flowers in this genus comprised four sepals and four petals which were different in size and color. Many stamens, both filamentous and sessile anthers, are observed in both male and femaleflowers in different location. The number of anthers varied among the species ranging from 20 to 40 sets in phawa and approximately 135 sets in somkhag. The colors of fruits are species specific ranging from yellow(somkhag and ma-phut to red (phawa or deep purple (mangosteen and different in size, shape, rind characters and flavor. Three of six species produce no seed to few seeds (1-2. Viability of pollens ranges from 100% (cha-muang, phawa and ma-dun to 0% (mapood.

  11. Plant spacing and pollen quantity on yield and quality of squash seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Márcio S. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squash seeds yield and quality can be improved by proper population plant spacing and the pollen quantity, which influences the pollination quality and fertilization. Nine experiments were conducted as a factorial combination of three spacing between plants (0.8 x 0.3, 0.8 x 0.6 and 0.8 x 0.9 m, two quantities of pollen (50% of an anther and another entire one and natural insect pollination. Seed and fruit production parameters, and seed quality were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, five replications, with ten plants per plot was adopted. Larger plant spacing increased the average number of mature fruits and seed yield per plant. Seed yield was directly proportional to the amount of pollen used during pollination. Higher amounts of pollen resulted in higher seed yield per area, but the plant spacing did not affect this characteristic. Manual pollination, using a whole anther, did not differ from natural pollination in relation to seed yield and quality.

  12. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  13. Biologia floral de uma população de Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae do Sul do Brasil Floral biology of a population of Mirabilis jalapa L. (Nyctaginaceae from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Terada

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi investigado o padrão reprodutivo de uma população de Mirabilis jalapa cultivada na Região Sul do território brasileiro. A abertura das flores de M. jalapa ocorreu no início da tarde, às 17 h, e o fechamento foi na manhã seguinte a partir das 4h30min até as 6 h. A abertura das anteras ocorreu a partir das 19h30min até as 20h30min. Foi observada a presença de grãos de pólen na superfície do estigma das flores cujas anteras estavam no mesmo nível, ou num nível superior ao do estigma. A ausência de grãos de pólen no estigma foi verificada nas flores cujas anteras estavam num nível abaixo do da posição do estigma, bem como no estigma de flores previamente emasculadas. Somente uma mariposa foi observada, durante todo o período dos experimentos, visitando e provavelmente polinizando flores de M. jalapa. A autopolinização foi o modo predominante de reprodução na população de M. jalapa cultivada no jardim da Universidade Estadual de MaringáThe reproductive pattern of a cultivated population of Mirabilis jalapa in the Southern region of Brazil was investigated. Flowers of M. jalapa opened for one night, in the early evening at 17h00 and closed early the next morning from 4h30 to 6h00. Anther dehiscence occurred from about 19h30 to 20h30. The presence of pollen grains on the stigma surface was recorded in flowers in which the anther lay at the same level as the stigma or higher. Absence of pollen grains was observed in flowers in which the anther was below the stigma and in previously emasculated flowers. One moth was reported to be the only visitor and possible pollinator of M. jalapa flowers throughout the experimental period. Self-pollination was the predominant mode of reproduction in the M. jalapa population cultured in the garden of the State University of Maringá

  14. Morphological markers for microspore developmental stage in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Moraes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of maize in anther culture has been limited because only few genotypes presented a high androgenetic potential. Obtaining the proper stage of microspore development at culture initiation is one of the most crucial factors for success in the androgenesis. For Brazilian maize genotypes there are no studies reporting a correlation between cytological features and morphological parameters. In this study, morphological parameters were recorded and associated with cytological specific stages of the the microsporogenesis in two Brazilian maize genotypes that were sowed in different places (field and growing chamber. For both genotypes, the plants of the growing chamber presented a delay in development. Spikelets length and anther length/spikelet length ratio are not good parameters since they can be greatly influenced by the environment. The anther length was the more reliable parameter to correlate with a specific developmental stage. Nevertheless, variations between genotypes and environment were detected.A utilização do milho (Zea mays na cultura de anteras é limitada devido ao baixo número de genótipos com alto potencial androgenético. A obtenção de micrósporos no estádio de desenvolvimento apropriado no início da cultura é um dos fatores cruciais para o sucesso do processo androgenético. Em genótipos brasileiros de milho não existem estudos relatando a correlação entre características citológicas e parâmetros morfológicos. Neste estudo, parâmetros morfológicos foram avaliados e associados com estádios específicos da microsporogênese em dois genótipos brasileiros de milho os quais foram semeados em diferentes locais (campo e câmara de crescimento. Para ambos os genótipos, as plantas crescidas na câmara de crescimento apresentaram atraso no desenvolvimento. O comprimento da espigueta e a razão comprimento da antera/comprimento da espigueta não são bons parâmetros uma vez que podem ser muito influenciados

  15. Study on Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of Female and Male Gametophytes in Galinsona parviflora Car.%牛膝菊大、小孢子发生和雌、雄配子体的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡铁锋

    2012-01-01

    通过石蜡切片技术对牛膝菊大小孢子发生和雌雄配子体发育过程进行研究,结果表明,牛膝菊花药4室,花药壁发育为简化型。由表皮、药室内壁和绒毡层组成。绒毡层于小孢子四分体时期开始变形,其细胞原生质体向药室中移动为变形绒毡层。小孢子孢原为多细胞,小孢子母细胞减数分裂产生四面体型的小孢子四分体。四分体胞质分裂为连续型,偶见同时型。成熟花粉2-细胞型。子房1室,每室1个倒生胚珠,具单珠被,薄珠心。大孢子母细胞减数分裂形成的4个大孢子呈直线形排列,其中合点端的大孢子为功能大孢子,蓼型胚囊。%This paper studies the megasporogensis,microsporogenisis and development of female and male ga- metophyte by paraffin wax of the meiosis of megaspore and microspore mother cells and the developmental processes of Galinsona parviflora Cav. 1 The results indicates that the anther has four chambers. The develop- ment of anther wall is primitive type which is composed of epidermis, endothecium and amoeboid tapetum. The tapetum begins to vary at the stage of tetrad with the cytoplasm moving into the anther cell. The cytokinesis of microspore mother cell in meiosis is simultaneous and continuous, and the tetrad are tetrahedral. The mature pollen grain is 2-celled. The ovary has 1 locule and there is l anatropous ovule in each locule. The ovule is unitegmic and tenuinucellatae. The megaspore mother cells are developed cal cell which undergoes meitotic division and forms a linear tetrad. The directly by a hypodermal archcspori- embryo sac is of Polygonum type.

  16. Study on Floral and Pollen Characters of Tetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xin; CHEN Jian-guo; CHEN Dong-ling; SONG Zhao-jian; DAI Bing-cheng; CAI De-tian

    2009-01-01

    Polyploidization is the evolution trend of many crops, and the yield increased obviously after polyploidization. The polyploidization of rice often brings "gigas" of both vegetative organs and seeds. Howevere, in rice breeding, it is required for restoring lines to have not only big anthers but also abundant pollens. People often doubt that the enlargement of the floral organ may just be enlargement of cell size in polyploid rice. So, it is of significance to study characteristics of floral organs and pollens of several tetraploid rice varieties or lines. Floral organ and pollen characteristics of Sg99012 and HN2026 were studied comparatively by stages and different ploidy levels, with the materials 9311, HD9802S, and PA64S as the control. The results showed that chromosome doubling had much more influence on floral characteristics of every lines than seeding by stages, and the tetraploids of every lines displayed "gigas". In correlation analysis, spikelet length, spikelet width, and anther length had significant correlation; spikelet width and anther width had significant correlation, too. Both seeding by stages and chromosome doubling made the correlations of characters between every floral organ changed to some extent. Seeding by stages had little effect on pollen diameter and fertility of HN2026-4X and Sg99012-4X. But chromosome doubling increased pollen size of every lines remarkably, and also increased the pollen quantity of PMeS (polyploid meiosis stability) restoring line HN2026-4X and gene map restoring line 9311-4X remarkably, whereas only had little effect on that of sterile lines. Moreover, chromosome doubling changed pollen fertility and made the number of fertility pollen of 9311 reduced significantly, but the pollen fertility of HN2026 (PMeS restoring line) and PA64S (sterile line) almost had no change after chromosome doubling. The results showed that tetraploid restoring lines had advantage of abundant and big size pollens, and tetraploid sterile

  17. Effects of silicon on seed setting rate of rice intersubspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W-C; Zhang, L; Wang, J; Wang, D; Wang, T-X; Duan, C-X

    2015-01-01

    The present study found semi-sterility in rice intersubspecific hybrids of 'Taichung 65' x 'Guangluai 4' and 'Ludao' x 'Qiuguang'. Embryo sac fertility was evaluated using the overall staining transparent method. The results showed that the embryo sac contained a normal egg cell, normal synergid cells, polar nuclei cells, and antipodal cells, indicating that semi-sterility was caused mainly by pollen semi-sterility. In the pot experiment, the effects of silicon on the seed-setting rate of the two intersubspecific hybrids were examined. The results showed that the rate of anther dehiscence, number of pollen per stigma of Fl plants, potential of pollen grain germination, and fertility of the spikelet were significantly improved by the utilization of silicon fertilizer. PMID:26345976

  18. Immunohistochemical locali- zation of Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent kinase in tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The existence of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaM kinase, CaMK) in tobacco is verified immuno- logically and its distribution in different tissues of tobacco is studied. It has been demonstrated that CaMK is mainly distributed in early developing anthers, developing ovules and embryos, lateral root primordium, apical meristem and leaf primordium of buds and mesophyll cells and developing vascular bundles of leaves. There is enormous CaM kinase distributed in leaf epidermis fair cells and guard cells of stomas too. Little kinase is found in mature stem or root cells. The distribution properties of CaM kinase in tobacco are consistent with those of CaM, suggesting that there exists the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway mediated by CaM kinase in tobacco and it plays an important role in the plant growth and development.

  19. The Pollen Coat Proteome: At the Cutting Edge of Plant Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Rejón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tapetum is a single layer of secretory cells which encloses the anther locule and sustains pollen development and maturation. Upon apoptosis, the remnants of the tapetal cells, consisting mostly of lipids and proteins, fill the pits of the sculpted exine to form the bulk of the pollen coat. This extracellular matrix forms an impermeable barrier that protects the male gametophyte from water loss and UV light. It also aids pollen adhesion and hydration and retains small signaling compounds involved in pollen–stigma communication. In this study, we have updated the list of the pollen coat’s protein components and also discussed their functions in the context of sexual reproduction

  20. Two new species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) used as cobra-bite antidotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat CHAVEERACH; Runglawan SUDMOON; Tawatchai TANEE; Piya MOKKAMUL; Nison SATTAYASAI; Jintana SATTAYASAI

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Curcuma, C. sattayasaii A. Chaveerach & R. Sudmoon and C. zedoaroides A. Chaveerach & T. Tanee with rhizomes traditionally used for many decades as cobra-bite antidotes are described and illustrated. Curcuma sattayasaii is similar to C. longa L., but differs in rhizome horizontally branching on ground;coma bracts pinkish-white or pinkish-pale green;corolla pale yellow with orange tip;labellum pale orange with an orange central band;anther crest very short, broadly ovate, wider than long. Curcuma zedoaroides is similar to C. zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, but differs in rhizome branching pattern;the protruding secondary rhizomes curved down;blades oblong to oblong-lanceolate;peduncle glabrous;fertile and coma bracts glabrous;corolla lobes pale yellow to white, lateral lobe ovate, dorsal lobe broadly ovate. The new taxa have been found in a village of Khon Kaen Province, Northeastern Thailand.

  1. Micromorphology and ultrastructure of the floral nectaries of Viola odorata L. (Violaceae

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    Natalia Wiśniewska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Viola odorata two inferior anthers have connective appendages (nectaries projecting into the corolla spur. Nectaries are approx. 4 mm long, elongate, with the top of the nectary bending to the lateral wall of the spur. In the top part and in the abaxial surface of middle part of the nectary all cells have papillae. Nectar is secreted through the modified stomata distributed mainly in the top of nectary The nectary consists of single-layered epidermis, nectary parenchyma and subnectary parenchyma. Features of the nectary parenchyma cells, like dense cytoplasm containing numerous mitochondria and large nuclei, are connected with high metabolic cell activity. The vascularization includes both phloem and xylem. A slight amount of starch in the nectary cells, the profusion of plasmodesmata connecting secretory cells and the presence of vascular bundles suggest that sugars secreted in the nectar were delivered by the phloem sap.

  2. Gibberellic Acid: A Key Phytohormone for Spikelet Fertility in Rice Grain Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) has essential signaling functions in multiple processes during plant development. In the "Green Revolution", breeders developed high-yield rice cultivars that exhibited both semi-dwarfism and altered GA responses, thus improving grain production. Most studies of GA have concentrated on germination and cell elongation, but GA also has a pivotal role in floral organ development, particularly in stamen/anther formation. In rice, GA signaling plays an important role in spikelet fertility; however, the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms of GA in male fertility remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the network of GA signaling and its connection with spikelet fertility, which is tightly associated with grain productivity in cereal crops. PMID:27223278

  3. Detection of chitinolytic enzymes with different substrate specificity in tissues of intact sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.): chitinases in sundew tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libantová, Jana; Kämäräinen, Terttu; Moravcíková, Jana; Matusíková, Ildikó; Salaj, Jan

    2009-05-01

    The round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) is a carnivorous plant expressing a wide range of chitinolytic enzymes playing role in many different processes. In this study the intact plants were analyzed for the presence of chitinase transcripts and chitinolytic activities in different organs. In situ hybridization with chitnase fragment as a probe has revealed the presence of chitinases in the mesophyll cells of leaves and vascular elements of stems of healthy, non-stressed plants. More pronounced expression was observed in cortex and stele cells of roots as well as in ovules and anthers of reproductive organs. Similarly, higher chitinase enzyme activity was typical for flowers and roots suggesting a more specific role of chitinases in these tissues. In addition to endochitinases of different substrate specificities, chitobiosidases contributed to overall chitinolytic activity of tissue extracts. The activity of chitobiosidases was again typical for flowers and roots, while their role in plant physiology remains to be elucidated. PMID:18437530

  4. Application of the comet assay in studies of programmed cell death (PCD in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD in plants is an intensively investigated process. One of the main characteristics of PCD in both animal and plant organisms is the non-random, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA, usually analysed using total DNA gel electrophoresis or TUNEL method. In this paper we present application of the "comet assay" (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis for detection of nDNA degradation in studies of PCD during plant life cycle. We analyzed three types of tissue: anther tapetum, endosperm and mesophyll which were prepared in different ways to obtain a suspension of viable cells (without cell walls. The comet assay gives a possibility of examination of the nDNA degradation in individual cell. This method is significant for studies of the plant tissue differentiation and senescence especially in the cases when it is not possible to isolate large number of cells at the same developmental stage.

  5. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11379-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E4333_B12_C23ZS Wheat meiotic anther cDNA libra... 48 6e-09 4 ( EA150796 ) Sequence 15111 from patent...ts) S2: 15 (30.2 bits) dna update 2008.11.24 Homology vs DNA Query= Contig-U11379-1 (Contig-U11379-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Co...1386 ) EST416239 potato stolon, Cornell University Solan... 46 2e-11 4 ( AJ703741 ) Zantedeschia...e search space used: 168149737667520 X1: 11 (21.8 bits) S2: 22 (44.1 bits) protein update 2009. 6.29 Homology vs Protein Query= Co... pseudomallei 1710b... 95 7e-18 CP001025_2043( CP001025 |pid:none) Burkholderia ambifaria

  7. Doubled haploids in the mutation breeding of selected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubled haploids have recently become a promising way of significantly shortening the breeding cycle in some important crops. This system is fully compatible with other biotechnological approaches such as mutation or gene manipulation techniques. It has already been demonstrated that anther or microspore cultures can be treated mutagenically with radiation or chemical agents, inducing variability in the haploid stage. Such mutagenized populations of haploid cells open the possibility for rapid selection under in vitro conditions. Some problems related to the production of haploids in cereals and rapeseed, such as the efficiency of embryoid formation and the frequency of green plant regeneration modified by genetic and environmental factors, are presented. The potential uses of doubled haploid systems in mutation breeding and gene transfer technology are also discussed. (author). 97 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Desenvolvimento de populações duplo-haplóides de cevada cervejeira associadas à atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases Development of doubled-haploids populations in malting barley associated to activity of enzymes (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Endres Georg-Kraemer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Populações duplo-haplóides apresentam especial vantagem para análises genéticas, uma vez que a informação que elas oferecem pode ser maximizada, devido ao fato que todos os locos encontram-se em homozigose. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento de duas populações duplo-haplóides (DHs de cevada (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L. segregantes para a atividade das enzimas (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases, através da técnica de cultura de anteras. Foram realizados dois cruzamentos com cultivares contrastantes para esta característica. As cultivares parentais selecionadas foram 'MN 698' e 'CEV 97047', para o desenvolvimento da população "malte verde" (MV, e 'Embrapa 127' e 'CEV 96025' para o desenvolvimento da população "malte seco" (MS. Foram cultivadas 10.734 anteras da população MS e 4.139 anteras da população MV. A população MV produziu 50% mais plântulas verdes quando comparada à população MS, refletindo a importância do genótipo na resposta à cultura de anteras e na regeneração. A maioria das plantas adultas duplo-haplóides foi obtida através da duplicação espontânea in vitro do genoma haplóide, ocorrendo em 66% das plantas da população MS e 76% das plantas da população MV. Também foram observadas, em menor frequência, plantas haplóides, triplóides e tetraplóides. Através da técnica de cultura de anteras, foram desenvolvidas 204 linhagens duplo-haplóides, das quais 72 linhagens são da população "malte seco" e 132 linhagens são da população "malte verde". Este material constitui um importante germoplasma para o melhoramento genético da cevada.Doubled haploid populations offer special advantages in genetic analyses, since the information they provide may be maximized due to the fact that all loci are homozygous. The aim of this study was to develop two barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp.vulgare L. doubled-haploid (DHs populations segregating to (1-3, 1-4-β-glucanases activity, utilizing the anther

  9. Effect of development stage on QTLs mapping for relative dry weight of rice under low-P stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Interaction between genotype and environment is an important factor affecting quantitative trait. Studying the development stages′ influence on the detection of QTL for relative dry weight of rice associated with low phosphorus (P) stress could ascertain the appropriate value stage according to the difference of QTL location for the same trait. A total of 127 DH lines derived from anther culture of the F1 hybrid of ZYQ8 (Indica) / JX17 (Japonica) were selected as materials. The DH lines and their parents were planted randomly in 30 L plastic containers with four replications.Seedlings were collected 10 d after planted for determining root length(RL) and root surface area (RSA), and 30 d after planted for total dryweight (TDW) and root traits. Two P levels of 1 mol L-1(Low P) and 10 mol L-1 (Adequate P) were employed. QTLs were determined by interval mapping analysis with Mapmarker/QTL 1.1.

  10. Electron Microscopic Study on Male Sterile CMS96 and Maintainer Line in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 徐家炳; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 王永健; 方智远

    2012-01-01

    为了研究大白菜CMS96不育系花药败育机理,采用透射和扫描电镜,观察大白菜CMS96不育系和保持系的花药发育过程、花药和花粉表面结构.透射电镜结果表明,与保持系相比,在减数分裂期,大白菜CMS96不育系绒毡层与花药壁中层分开,不育系花粉母细胞皱缩,形状不规则,空隙较大,严重影响减数分裂正常进行;在单核小孢子时期,小孢子开始液泡化,直至成熟花粉期完全液泡化为空细胞,细胞壁严重萎缩,堆积在一起,最终花粉失去功能,导致败育.扫描电镜结果表明,大白菜CMS96不育系药室内的花粉畸形,花粉粒空瘪,表现为凹陷、扁平等形状,表面纹饰也呈多种不规则形状.花粉囊不开裂,没有花粉散出.初步认为,大白菜CMS96不育系花粉的败育从减数分裂开始到成熟花粉,伴随花粉发育整个过程.大白菜CMS96不育系药室内花粉粒虽具有花粉壁的结构,但扁平、空瘪,重叠堆积在药室壁上,失去了活力,无法散开.%Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques, anther and pollen development, surface of anther and pollen grains were studied in order to obtain differences between CMS96 and maintainer line in Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Pekinensis). Results of transmission electron microscopy showed middle layer and tapetum of CMS96 were separated during meiosis. And early pollen mother cells (PMC) of CMS96 were with irregular shape and many larger gaps. Thus meiosis of PMC was influenced seriously. During mononuclear stage, microspore began to be vacuolated and mature pollens were empty to be seriously in cell wall and piled together leading to pollen grain abortion. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed pollen grains of CMS96 in the anther were abnormal and empty with hollow and flat shape. Pollen veins were irregular. No grains were released because pollen sac closed. Preliminary results showed pollen grains abortion

  11. Gibberellic Acid: A Key Phytohormone for Spikelet Fertility in Rice Grain Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA) has essential signaling functions in multiple processes during plant development. In the “Green Revolution”, breeders developed high-yield rice cultivars that exhibited both semi-dwarfism and altered GA responses, thus improving grain production. Most studies of GA have concentrated on germination and cell elongation, but GA also has a pivotal role in floral organ development, particularly in stamen/anther formation. In rice, GA signaling plays an important role in spikelet fertility; however, the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms of GA in male fertility remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the network of GA signaling and its connection with spikelet fertility, which is tightly associated with grain productivity in cereal crops. PMID:27223278

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins 6 and 11 are required for stamen and pollen function in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Bella; Richter, Dganit; Markovich, Inbal; Zik, Moriyah

    2008-11-01

    Successful male reproductive function in plants is dependent on the correct development and functioning of stamens and pollen. AGP6 and AGP11 are two homologous Arabidopsis genes encoding cell wall-associated arabinogalactan glycoproteins (AGPs). Both genes were found to be specifically expressed in stamens, pollen grains and pollen tubes, suggesting that these genes may play a role in male organ development and function. RNAi lines with reduced AGP6 and AGP11 expression were generated. These, together with lines harboring point mutations in the coding region of AGP6, were used to show that loss of function in AGP6 and AGP11 led to reduced fertility, at least partly as a result of inhibition of pollen tube growth. Our results also suggest that AGP6 and AGP11 play an additional role in the release of pollen grains from the mature anther. Thus, our study demonstrates the involvement of specific AGPs in pollen tube growth and stamen function.

  13. Aggressive displacement of Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees from flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae by territorial male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Ollerton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Male Eastern Olive Sunbirds (Cyanomitra olivacea and Xylocopa nigrita carpenter bees in Tanzania both utilise the flowers of male plants of Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae as a source of nectar. The sunbirds set up territories defending this nectar resource. Observations of interactions between the sunbirds and the carpenter bees show that the bees are aggressively displaced from flowers when spotted by the birds. Only the bees can be considered as legitimate pollinators as the birds do not contact the anthers of the male flowers and were never seen visiting nectarless female flowers of Lagenaria sphaerica. Such territory defence may have implications for the frequency of movement and composition of pollen being transferred from male to female flowers which warrants further research.

  14. What's the 'buzz' about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Paul A; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Many plant species have evolved floral characteristics that restrict pollen access. Some of these species are visited by insects, principally bees, which make use of vibrations to extract pollen from anthers. Buzz-pollination, as this phenomenon is generally known, is a widespread method of fertilization for thousands of species in both natural and agricultural systems. Despite its prevalence in pollination systems, the ecological and evolutionary conditions that favour the evolution of buzz-pollination are poorly known. We briefly summarize the biology of buzz-pollination and review recent studies on plant and pollinator characteristics that affect pollen removal. We suggest that buzz-pollination evolves as the result of an escalation in the competition between plants and pollen-consuming floral visitors (including pollen thieves and true pollinators) to control the rate of pollen removal from flowers. PMID:23751734

  15. Emerging Roles for Non-Coding RNAs in Male Reproductive Development in Flowering Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Rodriguez-Enriquez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of sexual reproduction systems in flowering plants is essential to humankind, with crop fertility vitally important for food security. Here, we review rapidly emerging new evidence for the key importance of non-coding RNAs in male reproductive development in flowering plants. From the commitment of somatic cells to initiating reproductive development through to meiosis and the development of pollen—containing the male gametes (sperm cells—in the anther, there is now overwhelming data for a diversity of non-coding RNAs and emerging evidence for crucial roles for them in regulating cellular events at these developmental stages. A particularly exciting development has been the association of one example of cytoplasmic male sterility, which has become an unparalleled breeding tool for producing new crop hybrids, with a non-coding RNA locus.

  16. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies of microdissected reproductive tissues in apomictic and sexual Boechera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiteye Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pathway could trigger apomictic reproduction. The genus Boechera represents an interesting model system for understanding apomixis, having both sexual and apomictic genotypes at the diploid level. Quantitative qRT-PCR is the most extensively used method for validating genome-wide gene expression analyses, but in order to obtain reliable results, suitable reference genes are necessary. In this work we have evaluated six potential reference genes isolated from a 454 (FLX derived cDNA library of Boechera. RNA from live microdissected ovules and anthers at different developmental stages, as well as vegetative tissues of apomictic and sexual Boechera, were used to validate the candidates. Results Based on homologies with Arabidopsis, six genes were selected from a 454 cDNA library of Boechera: RPS18 (Ribosomal sub protein 18, Efalpha1 (Elongation factor 1 alpha, ACT 2 (Actin2, UBQ (polyubiquitin, PEX4 (Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and At1g09770.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana cell division cycle 5. Total RNA was extracted from 17 different tissues, qRT-PCRs were performed, and raw Ct values were analyzed for primer efficiencies and gene ratios. The geNorm and normFinder applications were used for selecting the most stable genes among all tissues and specific tissue groups (ovule, anthers and vegetative tissues in both apomictic and sexual plants separately. Our results show that BoechRPS18, BoechEfα1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ were the most stable genes. Based on geNorm, the combinations of BoechRPS18 and BoechEfα1 or BoechUBQ and BoechEfα1 were the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 and BoechACT2 or BoechUBQ and BoechACT2 performed best in the sexual plant. When subgroups of tissue samples were analyzed

  17. Evidence of programmed cell death during microsporogenesis in an interspecific Brachiaria (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae) hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzinatto, V A; Pagliarini, M S; Valle, C B

    2007-05-11

    Morphological changes have been investigated during plant programmed cell death (PCD) in the last few years due to the new interest in a possible apoptotic-like phenomenon existing in plants. Although PCD has been reported in several tissues and specialized cells in plants, there have been few reports of its occurrence during microsporogenesis. The present study reports a typical process of PCD during meiosis in an interspecific Brachiaria hybrid leading to male sterility. In this hybrid, some inflorescences initiated meiosis but it was arrested in zygotene/pachytene. From this stage, meiocytes underwent a severe alteration in shape showing substantial membrane blebbing; the cytoplasm became denser at the periphery; the cell nucleus entered a progressive stage of chromatin disintegration, and then the nucleolus disintegrated, and the cytoplasm condensed and shrunk. The oldest flowers of the raceme showed only the callose wall in the anthers showing obvious signs of complete sterility.

  18. Department of Radiobiology - foreword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program of the Department of Radiobiology of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is performed by two laboratories: 1/Laboratory of Neutron Therapy and Applied in Radiobiology Therapy and Agriculture. 2/ Laboratory of Radiation and Environmental Mutagenesis. The aim of the first mentioned Laboratory is to determine the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of fast 5.6 MeV neutrons with regard to regime of fractionation. Our goal is to reduce the number of fraction of neutron therapy what makes possible increasing the total dose. The second mentioned Laboratory engages in research on the mutagenesis in rape-seed in vitro regeneration of dihaploids and pollen grains. The object is to find how much fast neutrons, X and γ-rays irradiations stimulate the dihaploide production and to determine their reaction in flower buds microspores and anther cultures. (author)

  19. Transfer and Detection of barstar Gene to Maize Inbred Line 18-599 (White) by Particle Bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qing-quan; ZHANG Ying; RONG Ting-zhao; DONG Shu-ting; ZUO Zhen-peng

    2007-01-01

    In China, the purity of maize hybrid strain is discomforting to the development of seed industrialization. Finding a new method for reproduction of maize hybrid strain is necessary. In this study, using particle bombardment, barstar gene was transferred into maize inbred line 18-599 (White), which is an antiviral and high quality maize inbred line. By molecular detection of the anther of transgenic maize, two plants transferred with barstar gene were gained in this study, which are two restorer lines. The two plants showed normal male spike, and lively microspores. But the capacity of the two restorer lines should be studied in the future. The aim of this study is to find a new method of reproduction of maize hybrid strain using engineering restorer lines and engineering sterility lines by gene engineering technology.

  20. Techniques of radiation induced haploid breeding of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the treatment of different doses of 60Co γ-ray irradiation to F1 hybrid seeds and donor plants from M1F1 or M2F2, wheat anther culture was made based on the media of MW14 and modified MS. A series of studies on the applied doses of radiation induction, low temperature treatment on donor spikes and calli, variable temperature induced incubation and yield of pollen callus and calli giving green plant lets, pollen plant lets control over summertime and pollen plant let transplantation were carried out in order to increase the efficiency of obtaining double haploid-pure diploid plant lets of wheat with stable heredity and propagation. Theses plant lets could be used directly in rapid breeding

  1. Character and stability of male-sterile Platycodon grandiflorum%桔梗不育特性及育性稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘自刚; 呼天明; 汪玉琳; 王新军; 杨亚丽; 张雁; 何军; 雷燕妮

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the response of male-sterile plant of Platycodon grandiflorum to illumination length, temperature, soil type, cultivated site and the fertile performance. The TTC dyeing, the I2-KI dyeing and the artificial pollination were used to determine the ovule viability, the pollen viability and seeds setting, respectively. The sterile anther was atrophic and its colour was brown, pollen in sterile anther was abortive, the stamen was smaller than viable stamen. While seeds setting of sterile flowers was tantamount and the sterile corolla was bigger than fertile flower. Amount of mi crospores with crashing male-sterile anther was immovability, and amount of microspores with halfway male-sterile anther was slightly increase under lower temperature. There was the few influence of planted site, soil type and illumination on the fertile performance. The cross breed result showed that the maintain genes was with Shangluo platycodon and the restorer genes was with Zibo platycodon. The fertile perform- ance of crashing male-sterile plant was steady under different environment and it was administrated by genes in nucleolus and cytoplasm, rovide a foundation for breeding of male-sterile line and heterosis utilization of Platycodon grandiflorum.%采用盆栽法、遮光处理法和人工杂交法研究了桔梗(Platyoodon grandiflorum)雄性不育单株不育性对光照、温度的反应,主要营养元素施用量、不同纬度地区栽培对育性的影响,以及雄性不育性的遗传规律。结果表明,与可育花相比,不育花雄蕊短小、花药干瘪萎缩、花粉败育;雌蕊发育正常,而花冠略大,结实特性与可育花相似。较低温度对彻底败育单株育性无明显影响,但可使微粉单株花粉量有一定增加;而不同地域栽培、不同土壤肥力、光照对桔梗不育性无明显影响;桔梗不育材料与商洛桔梗、淄博桔梗杂交结果表明,商洛栽

  2. BIOLOGI REPRODUKSI BUNGA Cassine koordersii Kostermans (Celastraceae KOLEKSI KEBUN RAYA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ardhianto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on flower biology of Cassine koordersii Kostermans was carried out in the Bogor Botanic Garden on April — November 2002. The plant produces flowers in umbel inflorescences that open sequentially, starting from the lowest branch of the inflorescence. There is no spatial separation between the anther and the stigma, and the dispersal of highly viable pollen takes place within the period of stigma receptivity. The flowers also show some characters of entomophily. Visitor insects are flies (ordo Diptera, family Syrphidae and Tachinidae and ants (ordo Hymenoptera, family Formicidae. In general, the morphological and phenological characteristics of the flower allow self pollination to occur successfully. Floral assessment using Cruden's Outcrossing Index showed that the flower is self-compatible.

  3. Pollination in the Antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis forms chasmogamic and cleistogamic flowers. Their structure signals the possibility of both cross-pollination and self-pollination. In favorable conditions (natural or laboratory, flowers open creating a possibility for cross-pollination. The occurrence of cleistogamy in the investigated species may be conditioned by abiotic factors: low temperature, high air humidity, and strong wind. In closed flowers, a part of pollen grains reaches the stigma surface, and the rest remains inside the microsporangium. Pollen grains germinate on the stigma surface or inside the microsporangium. Often, two or more pollen tubes grow from a single pollen grain. Closed flowers and the direct contact between the style stigma and anther prove the preference for autogamy. Autogamy ensures the reproductive success of the investigated plant in the exceptionally harsh Antarctic environment.

  4. What's the 'buzz' about? The ecology and evolutionary significance of buzz-pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Paul A; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-08-01

    Many plant species have evolved floral characteristics that restrict pollen access. Some of these species are visited by insects, principally bees, which make use of vibrations to extract pollen from anthers. Buzz-pollination, as this phenomenon is generally known, is a widespread method of fertilization for thousands of species in both natural and agricultural systems. Despite its prevalence in pollination systems, the ecological and evolutionary conditions that favour the evolution of buzz-pollination are poorly known. We briefly summarize the biology of buzz-pollination and review recent studies on plant and pollinator characteristics that affect pollen removal. We suggest that buzz-pollination evolves as the result of an escalation in the competition between plants and pollen-consuming floral visitors (including pollen thieves and true pollinators) to control the rate of pollen removal from flowers.

  5. WBC27, an Adenosine Tri-phosphate-binding Cassette Protein, Controls Pollen Wall Formation and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Dou; Ke-Zhen Yang; Yi Zhang; Wei Wang; Xiao-Lei Liu; Li-Qun Chen; Xue-Qin Zhang; De Ye

    2011-01-01

    In flowering plants, the exine components are derived from tapetum. Despite its importance to sexual plant reproduction, little is known about the translocation of exine materials from tapetum to developing microspores. Here we report functional characterization of the arabidopsis WBC27 gene. WBC27 encodes an adenosine tri-phosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter and is expressed preferentially in tapetum. Mutation of WBC27 disrupted the exine formation. The wbc27 mutant microspores began to degenerate once released from tetrads and most of the microspores collapsed at the uninucleate stage. Only a small number of wbc27-1 microspores could develop into tricellular pollen grains. These survival pollen grains lacked exine and germinated in the anther before anthesis. All of these results suggest that the ABC transporter, WBC27 plays important roles in the formation of arabidopsis exine, possibly by translocation of lipidic precursors of sporopollenin from tapetum to developing microspores.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Phytoene Desaturase cDNA from Stigma of Crocus sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jie(白洁); Xu Ying; Tang Lin; Zeng Yu; Feng Yun; Wang Shenghua; Chen Fang

    2004-01-01

    Phytoene desaturase (PDS) has recently been identified as an important enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. A cDNA clone encoding phytoene desaturase gene is isolated from stigma of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) using RT-PCR technique. Sequence analysis shows 83% similarity to Narcissus pseudonarcissus, 79% to Zea mays, 78% to Arabidopsis thaliana, 77% to Lycopersicon esculentum. A new full-length cDNA is obtained by 5'-RACE and 3' -RACE techniques. The cDNA is 2149bp long with an open reading frame of 1697bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 565 amino acids. Southern analysis shows that the PDS gene is a single copy in saffron. Northern blot analysis shows higher expression level of PDS gene in stigma and anther than in leaves and stem.

  7. Observations on Megasporogenesis, Microsporogenesis and Development of the Male and Female Gametophytes of Arundinaria simonii f.heterophylla%异叶苦竹大小孢子及雌雄配子体的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林树燕; 丁雨龙

    2013-01-01

    Embryological characters of Arundinaria simonii f.heterophylla were reported in this article.The anthers were tetrasporangiate in which the cytokinesis of microsporocyte in meiosis was successive type and the produced microspore tetrads were bilaterally symmetrical.The cells of tapetum layer with dense cytoplasm were secretory type,and they began to degenerate during meiosis division.The mature pollen was trinucleate.The single ovule with parietal placenta was anatropous,double integument and tenuinucellatae.The development of the embryo sac was polygonum type.Generally the florets close to the base of spikelets bloomed earlier than others,and development of both stamens and pistils within a spikelet was synchronized.

  8. ON THE STANDARDIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE%论农业科技论文写作的规范化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳凤荣; 王广生; 田丛笑

    2001-01-01

    针对当前农业科技论文中常见问题,结合笔者工作实践及本刊要求,参照有关国际、国家标准和规范,论述了农业科技论文写作的规范化要求,以期为广大作者提供参考%In view of the problems in present agro-scientific essays, according to the writing principles and standard home and abroad, based on the directions of this journal and the anther's working experiences we discuss the writing principles and standard for academic writings in agricultural science. The author will be gradified if the paper is of some help to the writers of scientific writing in agricultural science and technology.

  9. A Genetic Pathway for Tapetum Development and Function in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhu; Yue Lou; Xiaofeng Xu; Zhong-Nan Yang

    2011-01-01

    In anther development,tapetal cells take part in complex processes,including endomitosis and apoptosis (programmed cell death).The tapetum provides many of the proteins,lipids,polysaccharides and other molecules necessary for pollen development.Several transcription factors,including DYT1,TDF1,AMS,MS188 and MS1,have been reported to be essential for tapetum development and function in Arabidopsis thaliana.Here,we present a detailed cytological analysis of knockout mutants for these genes,along with an in situ RNA hybridization experiment and double mutant analysis showing that these transcription factors form a genetic pathway in tapetum development.DYT1,TDF1 and AMS function in early tapetum development,while MS188 and MS1 are important for late tapetum development.The genetic pathway revealed in this work facilitates further investigation of the function and molecular mechanisms of tapetum development in Arabidopsis.

  10. Genetic analysis of morphological index and its related taxonomic traits for classification of indica/japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱前; 何平; 郑先武; 陈英; 朱立煌

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17 F1, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used in this study. Morphological index and its related taxonomic traits were investigated in 121 DH lines. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for morphological index and its related taxonomic traits were analyzed. Two major QTLs for leaf hairiness, three QTLs for length/width of grain, one QTL for color of hull when heading, one QTL for hairiness of hull, two QTLs for length of the first and second panicle internode, and one major QTL and two QTLs for phenol reaction were detected. Four QTLs for morphological index were also identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 4 and 6, respectively, three of which on chromosomes 1, 3 and 6, respectively, were found to be located in the same chromosome regions where some QTLs for the related taxonomic traits were located.

  11. SCFP, a novel fiber-specific promoter in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lei; LIU Hao; LI JiaBao; YANG Xia; XIAO YueHua; LUO Ming; SONG ShuiQing; YANG GuangWei; PEI Yan

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of GhSCFP which was isolated from cotton fiber cDNA library, a 1006 bp upstream fragment of the gene was cloned by chromosome walking and fused to GUSand GFP respectively. Histochemical GUS and GFP fluorescence analysis revealed that the expression of the report genes driven by the promoter sequence was detectable only in outer layer cells during the seed development in the transgentic tobaccos. In transgenic cotton, strong GUS activity was observed in spherical protrusions on 0 dps (days post anthesis) ovule surface, and in the 2-36 dpa fiber cells, while no GUS signals were detected in the root, leaves, stem, corolla, anther and stigma. Our data demon-strated that GhSCFP upstream sequence is a cotton fiber-specific promoter and this promoter will be useful in the molecular research on fiber cell development and in cotton fiber improvements by genetic modification.

  12. Peptide hormones CHAL, CLL1, and CLL2 are important for stamen develop-ment in Arabidopsis%胞外多肽激素基因CHAL/CLL1/CLL2在拟南芥雄蕊发育过程中发挥重要作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何卓娜; 王双双; 马红; 常芳

    2016-01-01

    细胞-细胞间通讯是雄蕊正常发育过程所必需的,然而目前对于参与此过程的信号分子却鲜有报道。前期报道CHAL/CLL1/CLL2胞外多肽激素在拟南芥气孔发育过程中发挥重要作用,但是chal cll1 cll2三突变体同时表现出植株育性异常的表型。然而,这三个基因在植物雄蕊发育过程中的表达和具体功能并未见深入研究。本研究发现CHAL/CLL1/CLL2这三个基因在拟南芥花丝及5-9期花药的绒毡层和生殖细胞中高表达。同时,对三个基因功能缺失突变体的雄性育性情况进行分析后发现:单基因突变植株未表现出明显的育性异常,但双突(chal cll1和chal cll2)和三突(chal cll1 cll2)植株育性逐级下降,尤其是三突表现出一系列雄蕊异常的表型:花丝短小、花药绒毡层发育异常、部分花粉败育,且花粉萌发率亦较野生型有显著降低。进一步研究发现, chal cll1 cll2三突变体中雄蕊发育途径中关键基因BAM1、EMS1、TPD1、bHLH089、TSM1、MS1和AMS的表达水平发生显著变化。以上结果一致表明CHAL/CLL1/CLL2基因在拟南芥雄蕊发育过程中发挥重要作用。%Cell-cell communication is important for normal anther development and male fertility, but little is known about signals important for this process. The polypeptide hormones CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 are redundantly required for normal stomata cell development in Arabidopsis, but the chal cll1 cll2 triple mutants exhibited re-duced fertility. However, the function of the CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 genes in the regulation of Arabidopsis fertility has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 genes were highly expressed in anther filaments, tapetal cells, and male reproductive cells at anther stage 5–9. Single mutants of the CHAL/CLL1/CLL2 genes did not show obvious fertility defects, but the double (chal cll1 and chal cll2) and triple mu-tants (chal cll1 cll2) showed incremental

  13. Morphological evaluation of Anchusa species (Boraginaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nasrolahi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anchusa Boraginaceae( includes weedy species in different habitats and cultivations and is composed of four species in Iran. Species delimitation is mainly based on features as zygomorphic or actinomorphic flowers, straight corolla tube and nutlet shape. In this project, morphological features of different accessions of Anchusa species were evaluated. Totally, 33 qualitative and quantitative morphological characters of 12 populations of four species were studied. Statistical analyses were done by SPSS ver. 19.0 Diagnostic value of different features in species delimitation was studied in order to provide an efficient identification key. Results indicated that adopted features were of taxonomic importance. Factor analysis revealed that two main factors had most effects. These factors were location of filaments, calyx length, middle leaf shape, location of anthers, shape of tube of corolla, length of corolla, and diameter of hair tubercles. A new identification key based on obtained results was provided. This was the first morphometric study of Anchusa species in Iran.

  14. Scalar multi-wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, A I; Sushkov, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    In 1921 Bach and Weyl derived the method of superposition to construct new axially symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity. In this paper we extend the Bach-Weyl approach to non-vacuum configurations with massless scalar fields. Considering a phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy, we construct a multi-wormhole solution describing an axially symmetric superposition of $N$ wormholes. The solution found is static, everywhere regular and has no event horizons. These features drastically tell the multi-wormhole configuration from other axially symmetric vacuum solutions which inevitably contain gravitationally inert singular structures, such as `struts' and `membranes', that keep the two bodies apart making a stable configuration. However, the multi-wormholes are static without any singular struts. Instead, the stationarity of the multi-wormhole configuration is provided by the phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy. Anther unusual property is that the multi-wormhole spaceti...

  15. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  16. Genetic analysis of rice allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A double haploid population derived from anther culture of ZYQ8/JX17, a typical indica and japonica hybrid, was used in this study. The inhibited effect of water-soluble extract of 123 DH pure lines leaves on the lettuce roots growth was investigated, and the QTLs analysis of rice allelopathy was carried out. Totally, four QTLs related to rice allelopathy were detected, and they were on chromosomes 3, 9, 10 and 12, respectively. The LOD scores were 3.40, 2.68. 2.75 and 3.08, respectively. Among them, additive effects of the QTLs on chromosomes 3 and 10 were 1.65 and 1.43, on chromosomes 9 and 12 were ?1.44 and ?1.58, respectively. Allelopathy characteristics of another three common rice varieties were also studied.

  17. Ectopic Expression of BnaC.CP20.1 Results in Premature Tapetal Programmed Cell Death in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liping; Zhou, Zhengfu; Tang, Shan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Shengqian; Qin, Maomao; Li, Bao; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-09-01

    Tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) is essential in pollen grain development, and cysteine proteases are ubiquitous enzymes participating in plant PCD. Although the major papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) have been investigated, the exact functions of many PLCPs are still poorly understood in PCD. Here, we identified a PLCP gene, BnaC.CP20.1, which was closely related to XP_013596648.1 from Brassica oleracea. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BnaC.CP20.1 expression was down-regulated in male-sterile lines in oilseed rape, suggesting a connection between this gene and male sterility. BnaC.CP20.1 is especially active in the tapetum and microspores in Brassica napus from the uninucleate stage until formation of mature pollen grains during anther development. On expression of BnaC.CP20.1 prior to the tetrad stage, BnA9::BnaC.CP20.1 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis thaliana showed a male-sterile phenotype with shortened siliques containing fewer or no seeds by self-crossing. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the reticulate exine was defective in aborted microspores. Callose degradation was delayed and microspores were not released from the tetrad in a timely fashion. Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that BnaC.CP20.1 ectopic expression led to premature tapetal PCD. Transmission electron microscopy analyses further demonstrated that the pollen abortion was due to the absence of tectum connections to the bacula in the transgenic anthers. These findings suggest that timely expression of BnaC.CP20.1 is necessary for tapetal degeneration and pollen wall formation. PMID:27388342

  18. Early embryo achievement through isolated microspore culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cvs. ‘Monreal Rosso’ and ‘Nules’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta eChiancone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microspore embryogenesis is a method of achieving complete homozygosity from plants. It is particularly useful for woody species, like Citrus, characterized by long juvenility, a high degree of heterozygosity and often self-incompatibility. Anther culture is currently the method of choice for microspore embryogenesis in many crops. However, isolated microspore culture is a better way to investigate the processes at the cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels as it avoids the influence of somatic anther tissue. To exploit the potential of this technique, it is important to separate the key factors affecting the process and, among them, culture medium composition and particularly the plant growth regulators and their concentration, as they can greatly enhance regeneration efficiency. To our knowledge, the ability of meta-Topolin, a naturally occurring aromatic cytokinin, to induce gametic embryogenesis in isolated microspores of Citrus has never been investigated. In this study, the effect of two concentrations of meta-Topolin instead of benzyladenine or zeatin in the culture medium was investigated in isolated microspore culture of two genotypes of Citrus. After eleven months of isolated microspore culture, for both genotypes and for all the four tested media, the microspore reprogramming and their sporophytic development was observed by the presence of multinucleated calli and microspore-derived embryos at different stages. Microsatellite analysis of parental and embryo samples was performed to determine the embryo alleles constitution of early embryos produced in all tested media, confirming their origin from microspores.To our knowledge, this is the first successful report of Citrus microspore embryogenesis with isolated microspore culture in Citrus, and in particular in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan, cvs. ‘Monreal Rosso’ and ‘Nules’.

  19. Reproductive studies in ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha (Brot. stockes; Rubiaceae: pollen development and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out the reproductive studies on Brazilian accessions of ipecac, Psychotria ipecacuanha. It presented heterostyly, with brevistylous and longistylous flowers. The pollen development was observed from the sections of the anthers embedded in resin. Anther development was normal as usually observed in dicotyledones, displaying four layers: outer epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and inner tapetum. The pollen was bicellular and filled with starch at the microspore stage. Pollen morphology was studied using SEM, which showed pollen polymorphism within and between the two floral morphs. Five types of pollen with reticulate or perforate exine were identified. The characteristics showed that the sexual process was as important as the vegetative propagation for the reproduction of this species.Foram realizados estudos reprodutivos em acessos brasileiros de poaia, Psychotria ipecacuanha. Poaia apresenta heterostilia, com flores brevistilas e longistilas. O desenvolvimento do pólen foi estudado em cortes de anteras embebidas em resina. O desenvolvimento da antera seguiu o padrão normal para as dicotiledôneas, a qual apresentou quatro camadas: epiderme, endotécio, camada média, e tapete, a mais interna. O pólen apresentou-se bicelular e preenchido com amido no estágio de micrósporo. A morfologia do pólen foi estudada utilizando-se MEV. Foi observado polimorfismo polínico dentro e entre as duas formas florais. Foram identificados cinco tipos de grãos de pólen, com exina reticulada ou perfurada. Em seu hábitat natural, sabe-se que essa espécie apresenta propagação por multiplicação vegetativa, mas as características estudadas demonstraram que o mecanismo sexuado é tão importante para a reprodução dessa espécie quanto à propagação vegetativa.

  20. Variability in bumblebee pollination buzzes affects the quantity of pollen released from flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Paul A; Bussière, Luc F; Souto-Vilaros, Daniel; Goulson, Dave; Mason, Andrew C; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-07-01

    Buzz-pollination is a plant strategy that promotes gamete transfer by requiring a pollinator, typically bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea), to vibrate a flower's anthers in order to extract pollen. Although buzz-pollination is widespread in angiosperms with over 20,000 species using it, little is known about the functional connection between natural variation in buzzing vibrations and the amount of pollen that can be extracted from anthers. We characterized variability in the vibrations produced by Bombus terrestris bumblebees while collecting pollen from Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae), a buzz-pollinated plant. We found substantial variation in several buzzing properties both within and among workers from a single colony. As expected, some of this variation was predicted by the physical attributes of individual bumblebees: heavier workers produced buzzes of greater amplitude. We then constructed artificial "pollination buzzes" that varied in three parameters (peak frequency, peak amplitude, and duration), and stimulated S. rostratum flowers with these synthetic buzzes to quantify the relationship between buzz properties and pollen removal. We found that greater amplitude and longer duration buzzes ejected substantially more pollen, while frequency had no directional effect and only a weak quadratic effect on the amount of pollen removed. These findings suggest that foraging bumblebees may improve pollen collection by increasing the duration or amplitude of their buzzes. Moreover, given that amplitude is positively correlated with mass, preferential foraging by heavier workers is likely to result in the largest pollen yields per bee, and this could have significant consequences for the success of a colony foraging on buzz-pollinated flowers.

  1. 大白菜雄性不育系MS200712的研究简报%Brief Report on Chinese Cabbage Male Sterile Line MS200712

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德双; 张凤兰; 余阳俊; 赵岫云; 于拴仓; 汪维红; 苏同兵; 卢桂香

    2014-01-01

    Creation and abortive mechanism of new male sterile lines are hot-topics on Chinese cabbage breeding.F1 hybrid crossing Brassica allohexaploid(AABBCC,n=27),which owns A,B and C chromosomes simultaneously,with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Jinchun’was obtained.Then the F1 as a male parent was crossed with Chinese cabbage variety of‘Yihe No. 5’.Thus male sterile MS200712 was founded due to multi-parents crossing.MS200712 owned yellow petal and light-yellow anther.The anthers were regressive,which were 100% male sterility.Stigma of MS200712 was normal and nectaries were vigor. Meanwhile 832172,male parent of‘Beijingnew No. 3’was crossed with MS200712,and male sterile MS20071208-916 was obtained.%以芸薹属异源六倍体AABBCC为母本,以大白菜品种金春为父本进行杂交,获得F1(AABBCC×AA);再以大白菜品种义和5号为母本,与F1进行杂交,在多亲本杂交后代中获得大白菜雄性不育系MS200712。该不育系花瓣为黄色,花药浅黄色、退化、败育彻底,柱头正常,蜜腺发达。同时,利用北京新3号的父本832172与雄性不育系MS200712进行回交,获得了转育的MS20071208-916不育系。

  2. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  3. Annual Variation in Flowering Phenology, Pollination, Mating System, and Pollen Yield in Two Natural Populations of Schima wallichii (DC. Korth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Prasad Khanduri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Schima wallichii is a highly valuable tree of tropical forest in north-east Himalaya region that grows naturally in a wide range of altitudes between 750 and 2400 m asl with varying environments. Flowering phenology of tropical tree species at population level is generally ignored and therefore a detailed knowledge of flowering and fruiting patterns of important multipurpose tree species is critical to the successful management of forest genetic resources. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted at two different altitudes (i.e., 750 m and 900 m asl in the tropical semideciduous forest of north-east Himalaya. The floral phenology including flowering synchrony in the populations, anthesis, anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity, pollinators visitation frequency, and mating system including index of self-incompatibility were worked out in Schima wallichii according to the ear-marked standard methods given by various scientists for each parameter. Results. The flowering period in Schima wallichii varied from 33 to 42 days with mean synchrony of 0.54 to 0.68 between the populations. The stigma was receptive up to 2.5 days only and showed slightly protandrous type of dichogamy. Average pollen production ranged between 6.90 × 107 pollen per tree in 2007 and 15.49 × 108 pollen per tree in 2011. A three-year masting cycle was noticed in this species. The frequency of visitation of honey bees was fairly high (5.2 ± 1.12 visits/flower/hour as compared to other pollinators. The hand pollination revealed maximum fruit (74.2 ± 5.72% and seed (70.8 ± 7.46% settings. Conclusions. The variation in flowering phenology and pollen yield individually and annually along with temporal separation in anther dehiscence and pollinator’s visitation cause pollen limited reproduction, which ultimately influences the reproductive success in Schima wallichii.

  4. Both morph- and species-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N; Thomson, James D; Conti, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating reproductive mechanisms. We quantify multiple reproductive barriers between the heterostylous Primula elatior (oxlip) and P. vulgaris (primrose), which readily hybridize when co-occurring, and test whether traits of heterostyly contribute to reproductive barriers in unique ways. We find that premating isolation is key for both species, while postmating isolation is considerable only for P. vulgaris; ecogeographic isolation is crucial for both species, while phenological, seed developmental, and hybrid sterility barriers are also important in P. vulgaris, implicating sympatrically higher gene flow into P. elatior. We document for the first time that, in addition to the aforementioned species-dependent asymmetries, morph-dependent asymmetries affect reproductive barriers between heterostylous species. Indeed, the interspecific decrease of reciprocity between high sexual organs of complementary floral morphs limits interspecific pollen transfer from anthers of short-styled flowers to stigmas of long-styled flowers, while higher reciprocity between low sexual organs favors introgression over isolation from anthers of long-styled flowers to stigmas of short-styled flowers. Finally, intramorph incompatibility persists across species boundaries, but is weakened in long-styled flowers of P. elatior, opening a possible backdoor to gene flow through intramorph pollen transfer between species. Therefore

  5. Nickel accumulation by Streptanthus polygaloides (Brassicaceae) reduces floral visitation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, George A; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Hyperaccumulation is the phenomenon whereby plants take up and sequester in high concentrations elements that generally are excluded from above-ground tissues. It largely is unknown whether the metals taken up by these plants are transferred to floral rewards (i.e., nectar and pollen) and, if so, whether floral visitation is affected. We grew Streptanthus polygaloides, a nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator, in short-term Ni supplemented soils and control soils to determine whether Ni is accumulated in floral rewards and whether floral visitation is affected by growth in Ni-rich soils. We found that while supplementation of soils with Ni did not alter floral morphology or reward quantity (i.e., anther size or nectar volume), Ni did accumulate in the nectar and pollen-filled anthers-providing the first demonstration that Ni is accumulated in pollinator rewards. Further, S. polygaloides grown in Ni-supplemented soils received fewer visits per flower per hour from both bees and flies (both naïve to Ni-rich floral resources in the study area) relative to plants grown in control soils, although the probability a plant was visited initially was unaffected by Ni treatment. Our findings show that while Ni-rich floral rewards decrease floral visitation, floral visitors are not completely deterred, so some floral visitors may collect and ingest potentially toxic resources from metal-hyperaccumulating plants. In addition to broadening our understanding of the effects of metal accumulation on ecological interactions in natural populations, these results have implications for the use of insect-pollinated plants in phytoremediation. PMID:24477333

  6. The epidermal cell structure of the secondary pollen presenter in Vangueria infausta (Rubiaceae: Vanguerieae) suggests a functional association with protruding onci in pollen grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilney, Patricia M; van Wyk, Abraham E; van der Merwe, Chris F

    2014-01-01

    Secondary pollen presentation is a well-known phenomenon in the Rubiaceae with particularly conspicuous pollen presenters occurring in the tribe Vanguerieae. These knob-like structures are formed by a modification of the upper portion of the style and stigma, together known as the stylar head complex. In the flower bud and shortly before anthesis, the anthers surrounding the stylar head complex dehisce and release pollen grains which adhere to the pollen presenter. The epidermal cells of the pollen presenter facing the anthers are radially elongated with a characteristic wall thickening encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell towards the distal end. These cells were studied in the pollen presenter of Vangueria infausta using electron and light microscopy in conjunction with histochemical tests and immunohistochemical methods. Other prominent thickenings of the cell wall were also observed on the distal and proximal walls. All these thickenings were found to be rich in pectin and possibly xyloglucan. The terms "thickenings of Igersheim" and "bands of Igersheim" are proposed to refer, respectively, to these wall structures in general and those encircling the anticlinal walls of each cell near the distal end. The epidermal cells have an intricate ultrastructure with an abundance of organelles, including smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and secretory vesicles. This indicates that these cells are likely to have an active physiological role. The pollen grains possess prominent protruding onci and observations were made on their structure and development. Walls of the protruding onci are also rich in pectin. Pectins are hydrophilic and known to be involved in the dehydration and rehydration of pollen grains. We hypothesise that the thickenings of Igersheim, as well as the protruding onci of the pollen grains, are functionally associated and part of the adaptive syndrome of secondary pollen presentation, at least in the Vanguerieae.

  7. Development of In Vitro Systems for Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) - Final Report for 1992 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B.V.

    2003-01-16

    Our project began on July 1, 1992, with the objective of developing systems that could be used in biotechnological approaches to switchgrass improvement. Within six months after initiation of the project, we had worked out protocols in which plants could be regenerated from callus cultures through both organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. Documentation for both modes of regeneration was provided in our progress reports and in publications. One thousand regenerated plants were established in the field during the first year. We found that Alamo (lowland type) was much more amenable to in vitro culture, and plants could be regenerated much more easily than from Cave-in-Rock (upland type). During the first three years of the project, we studied the influence of genotype, culture medium components, explant type, etc., on regeneration. As mentioned, we found that the lowland cultivars Alamo and Kanlow were much easier to regenerate than upland cultivars, such as Trailblazer, Blackwell, and Cave-in-Rock. For callus induction, we initially used mature caryopses, young leaf tissue, and portions of seedlings. We were successful in inducing callus and regenerating plants from all explants. Two other systems developed during the 4th to 6th year period of the project included multiple shoot formation initiated from germinated seedlings and regenerable suspension cultures. The latter were initiated from embryogenic calluses produced from in vitro developed inflorescences. An important factor for producing multiple shoots was the presence of thidiazuron in the medium. The shoots could be easily rooted and numerous plantlets produced. The last 3 to 4 years of the project focused on anther and microspore culture experiments to produce haploid plants and on genetic transformation. Although thousands of putative haploid plants were produced from a few anthers, they were very weak and difficult to keep alive. Chromosome counts revealed the gametic number in cells where it was

  8. The Simultaneous Repression of CCR and CAD, Two Enzymes of the Lignin Biosynthetic Pathway, Results in Sterility and Dwarfism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johanne Thévenin; Brigitte Pollet; Bruno Letarnec; Luc Saulnier; Lionel Gissot; Alessandra Maia-Grondard; Catherine Lapierre; Lise Jouanina

    2011-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase(CCR)and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase(CAD)catalyze the last steps of monolignol biosynthesis.In Arabidopsis,one CCR gene(CCR1,At1g15950)and two CAD genes(CAD C At3g19450 and CAD D At4g34230)are involved in this pathway.A triple cad c cad d ccr1 mutant,named ccc,was obtained.This mutant displays a severe dwarf phenotype and male sterility.The lignin content in ccc mature stems is reduced to 50% of the wild-type level.In addition,stem lignin structure is severely affected,as shown by the dramatic enrichment in resistant inter-unit bonds and incorporation into the polymer of monolignol precursors such as coniferaldehyde,sinapaldehyde,and ferulic acid.Male sterility is due to the lack of lignification in the anther endothecium,which causes the failure of anther dehiscence and of pollen release.The ccc hypolignified stems accumulate higher amounts of flavonol glycosides,sinapoyl malate and feruloyl malate,which suggests a redirection of the phenolic pathway.Therefore,the absence of CAD and CCR,key enzymes of the monolignol pathway,has more severe consequences on the phenotype than the individual absence of each of them.Induction of another CCR(CCR2,At1g80820)and another CAD(CAD1,At4g39330)does not compensate the absence of the main CCR and CAD activities.This lack of CCR and CAD activities not only impacts lignification,but also severely affects the development of the plants.These consequences must be carefully considered when trying to reduce the lignin content of plants in order to facilitate the lignocellulose-to-bioethanol conversion process.

  9. D-glufosinate as a male sterility agent for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Tim; Pline-Srnic, Wendy; Dale, Richard; Friend, Emma; Hollinshead, Tricia; Howe, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Viner, Russell; Greenland, Andy

    2011-04-01

    A chemical male sterility system based on anther-localized conversion of the inactive D-enantiomer of the herbicide, glufosinate (2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoate) to the phytotoxic L is described. Highly pure D-glufosinate was isolated in >98% enantiomeric excess from the racemate via fermentation with a strain of Escherichia coli expressing the PAT (L-glufosinate N-acetyl transferase) gene and purification of the unreacted D-enantiomer from the broth by ion exchange. A modified (F58K, M213S) form of the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) (EC 1.4.3.3) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was designed, tested in vitro and found to efficiently oxidize D-glufosinate to its 2-oxo derivative [2-oxo-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid]. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed to express this modified oxidase under control of the TAP1 tapetum-specific promoter. A number of the resultant transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility that persisted for two or more weeks immediately following foliar treatment with 75 or 200 g/ha of D-glufosinate without exhibiting obvious phytotoxic symptoms or any measurable decline in female fertility. Similarly, plants containing the same construct and, additionally, a PAT gene expressed from a plastocyanin promoter exhibited significantly reduced male fertility and no reduction in female fertility following foliar application of racemic glufosinate. Thus, foliar application of d-glufosinate either purified or as the commercial herbicide, combined with anther expression of a modified DAAO promises to provide a cost-effective conditional chemical male sterility system with the characteristics necessary for practical F₁ hybrid seed production.

  10. Molecular Mapping of D1, D2 and ms5 Revealed Linkage between the Cotyledon Color Locus D2 and the Male-Sterile Locus ms5 in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ott

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In soybean, genic male sterility can be utilized as a tool to develop hybrid seed. Several male-sterile, female-fertile mutants have been identified in soybean. The male-sterile, female-fertile ms5 mutant was selected after fast neutron irradiation. Male-sterility due to ms5 was associated with the “stay-green” cotyledon color mutation. The cotyledon color trait in soybean is controlled by two loci, D1 and D2. Association between cotyledon color and male-sterility can be instrumental in early phenotypic selection of sterility for hybrid seed production. The use of such selection methods saves time, money, and space, as fewer seeds need to be planted and screened for sterility. The objectives of this study were to compare anther development between male-fertile and male-sterile plants, to investigate the possible linkages among the Ms5, D1 and D2 loci, and to determine if any of the d1 or d2 mutations can be applied in hybrid seed production. The cytological analysis during anther development displayed optically clear, disintegrating microspores and enlarged, engorged pollen in the male-sterile, female-fertile ms5ms5 plants, a common characteristic of male-sterile mutants. The D1 locus was mapped to molecular linkage group (MLG D1a and was flanked by Satt408 and BARCSOYSSR_01_1622. The ms5 and D2 loci were mapped to MLG B1 with a genetic distance ~12.8 cM between them. These results suggest that use of the d2 mutant in the selection of male-sterile line may attenuate the cost hybrid seed production in soybean.

  11. Development of a methodology for the propagation of 'Calcutta 4' (AA) and plantain genotypes from embryogenic cell suspensions and its interface with mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bananas and plantains represent a major staple food for many millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. In Cuba, this crop constitutes a high priority of the national food program because of its capacity of producing fruit all year round, high demand and diversity of use, however, Black Sigatoka disease, caused by the leaf pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis, and pests and stress climatic conditions, has resulted in significant yield losses in this culture, which increases the production costs considerably. Somatic embryogenesis combined with mutation induction into in vitro culture mutations has not been studied in depth probably due to the low plant regeneration percentage of different Musa genotypes. Taking into consideration, the previous information following research objects are being developed: to develop a new methodology for developing somatic embryogenesis in different cultivar AAB, and cv. 'Calcutta 4', to develop a methodology for mutation induction with irradiations gamma rays to embryogenic cell suspensions and study anther culture of diploid cultivars. The genetic stability of plants obtained via embryogenesis through embryogenic cell suspensions showed the possibility to use the new methodology for developing somatic embryogenesis in different cultivar. From the results obtained for each cultivar, it is recommended to irradiate cv. 'Calcutta 4' at 50 Gy and cv. 'CEMSA 3/4' at 80 Gy. Irradiations with gamma rays to embryogenic cell suspensions resulted in a shorter stature in regenerated plants. Besides, plants of French plantain type were obtained from cultivar CEMSA 3/4. In Calcutta 4 the irradiation effect caused colour changes in plant pseudo-stems, and also deformed leaves were shown, but did not cause changes in the cultivar susceptibility to Black Sigatoka disease. In anther culture of diploid, callus induced from the state of uninuclate development was higher in relation to the other states studied and the regeneration plants are in

  12. Plantacyanin plays a role in reproduction in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Kim, Sun Tae; Lord, Elizabeth M

    2005-06-01

    Plantacyanins belong to the phytocyanin family of blue copper proteins. In the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome, only one gene encodes plantacyanin. The T-DNA-tagged mutant is a knockdown mutant that shows no visible phenotype. We used both promoter-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and immunolocalization to show that Arabidopsis plantacyanin is expressed most highly in the inflorescence and, specifically, in the transmitting tract of the pistil. Protein levels show a steep gradient in expression from the stigma into the style and ovary. Overexpression plants were generated using cauliflower mosaic virus 35S, and protein levels in the pistil were examined as well as the pollination process. Seed set in these plants is highly reduced mainly due to a lack of anther dehiscence, which is caused by degeneration of the endothecium. Callose deposits occur on the pollen walls in plants that overexpress plantacyanin, and a small percentage of these pollen grains germinate in the closed anthers. When wild-type pollen was used on the overexpression stigma, seed set was still decreased compared to the control pollinations. We detected an increase in plantacyanin levels in the overexpression pistil, including the transmitting tract. Guidance of the wild-type pollen tube on the overexpression stigma is disrupted as evidenced by the growth behavior of pollen tubes after they penetrate the papillar cell. Normally, pollen tubes travel down the papilla cell and into the style. Wild-type pollen tubes on the overexpression stigma made numerous turns around the papilla cell before growing toward the style. In some rare cases, pollen tubes circled up the papilla cell away from the style and were arrested there. We propose that when plantacyanin levels in the stigma are increased, pollen tube guidance into the style is disrupted.

  13. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  14. Rapid pyramiding of low phytic acid mutation and ferritin gene for improvement of mineral nutritional quality of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional quality is an important component of the rice grain. Development of low phytic acid (lpa) crops, in which the PA phosphorus (Pi) content is significantly reduced in grains, has recently been considered as a potential way to increase bioavailability of Zn2+ and Fe3+ in the rice grain. Another potential approach to improve nutritional quality is to express ferritin gene from legume crops to increase iron content in rice grain. We have isolated a low phytic acid rice mutant (lpa- XS110-1) and obtained transgenic rice expressing the ferritin gene from pea. Two transgenic lines (Fer34 and Fer65) had iron content about five times that of the parent XS110 (Ye et al 2007). To pyramid the low phytic acid mutation and ferritin gene into one line, two crosses were made between Fer34 and lpa-XS110-1 and between Fer65/ lpa-XS110-1. The F1 anthers were subjected to anther culture to obtain stable homozygous plants. A total of 43 doubled haploid (DH) lines were obtained from the Fer34/ lpa-XS110-1 cross, and 86 DH lines from Fer65/ lpa-XS110-1. For individual trait, both low phytic acid and the Ferritin gene (indirectly assayed with Gus) were inherited as a single locus. In combination, four recombinant traits were obtained, i.e high inorganic pi (lpa)/Gus+, lpa/Gus-, low inorganic pi/Gus+, and low inorganic pi/Gus-, the ratio of each recombinant was in accordance with the ratio of 1: 1: 1; 1, , indicating that lpa and Fer gene were not linked, and segregated as a single locus. The results suggest doubled haploid production is a rapid approach to pyramid useful genes from different origin for rice improvement. This study was jointly supported by funds from IAEA (12229), the Science and Technology Department of Zhejiang Province. (author)

  15. Diversidad de orbículas en Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R Lovisolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anteras de diez especies de Poaceae de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina fueron investigadas con microscopio electrónico de barrido y de transmisión. Las orbículas pueden ser definidas como corpúsculos de tamaño variable que muestran la misma electrodensidad, reacción a los colorantes, autofluorescencia y resistencia a la acetólisis que la exina del grano de polen. Las orbículas se encuentran revistiendo el interior del lóculo de la antera, a menudo adheridas a una membrana tapetal. En este estudio se identificaron cuatro tipos y cuatro subtipos diferentes de orbículas. Se concluye que los distintos tipos morfológicos de orbículas descriptos en este trabajo son representativos de cada una de las tribus estudiadas, por lo que se sugiere que la morfología de estos corpúsculos podría ser un carácter utilizado en estudios sistemáticos.Orbicules diversity in Poaceae. Anthers of ten species of Poaceae from the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina were investigated with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The orbicules can be defined as corpuscles of variable size that show the same electron-density, reaction to the dyes, autofluorescence and resistance to acetolysis as pollen exine does. The orbicules are randomly dispersed on the inner anther locule and they are often attached to a tapetal membrane. In this study, four different types and four subtypes of orbicules were identified. We conclude that the different orbicules types described in this work are representative of the studied tribes, and we suggest that the orbicules morphology may be a useful character in systematic studies.

  16. Improvement of Somatic Embryogenesis Induction Frequency via Subculture in Hevea%通过继代培养提高橡胶树体胚诱导频率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄天带; 戴雪梅; 周权男; 孙爱花; 华玉伟; 黄华孙

    2012-01-01

    Low induction frequency of somatic embryos and normal embryos was the main limiting factor for development of rubber anther culture. Results of histological sections showed that the anther callus growth period (50 days)was divided into two stages: the callus induction phase (0~30 days)and embryogenesis expression and callus proliferation stage (30-50 days). So 30 days old anther callus of rubber tree were used as the starting material for subculture in this study. An orthogonal design was arranged to optimize the subculture medium and explore the way of improving somatic embryogenesis frequency via subculture. The results showed that after a subculture in the optimal subculture medium, the number of embryos of subculture callus was 4.29 times that of the not subcultured, of which the number of normal embryos was 2.4 times that of the not subcultured. Four kinds of hormones were contained in the subculture medium, of which 6-BA showed a dominant effect, followed by KT. The optimized callus subculture medium was the modified MS medium with 6-BA 0.1 mg/L+ KT 0.3 mg/L+ 3,4-D 0.3 mg/L+ ABA 0.013 mg/L. Compared to the traditional anther regeneration system of the rubber tree, a procedure of callus subculture was added to the regeneration system and appropriate subculture medium formulations were screened. The addition of subculture procedure made anther regeneration system more in line with the actual development process of anther culture, improving embryo differentiation frequency, promoting the industrial development of somatic embryo seedling in rubber tree.%橡胶树体胚诱导频率低、正常胚状体比例低是影响橡胶树花药培养的重要限制因子.组织切片结果显示:50d的愈伤组织生长期实际上应划分为2个阶段:0~30 d为愈伤诱导阶段,30~50 d为胚性表达和愈伤增殖阶段,因此本试验以30 d的橡胶树花药愈伤组织为材料,通过继代培养基的正交筛选,探索通过继代培养提高橡胶树体胚

  17. Effects of Different Explants on Isolation and Regeneration of Protoplast in Rubber Tree%不同外植体对橡胶树原生质体分离和再生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴雪梅; 黄天带; 李季; 杨先锋; 黄华孙

    2014-01-01

    To seek a better approach for plant regeneration from protoplast culture, in this research, anthers and inner integuments of rubber tree, a cultivar of Reyan 7-33-97, were respectively used as initial explants for inducing calli to establish stable embryogenic cell suspensions by suspension culture. Isolating and culturing of protoplast from these two kind of suspension cells were further studied. Protoplast yields and viabilities from different initial explants, protoplast division and growth during feeder layer culture, and subsequently somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were statistically analyzed. Results showed that embryogenic cell suspen-sions derived from anthers and inner integuments enabled to yield 7.6í106 protoplasts per mL PCV and 12í106 protoplasts per ml PCV, with mean viabilities of 75.2%and 83.9%, respectively, which was under the inoculation conditions in enzyme solution containing 1.5% cellulase R-10, 0.15% pectolyase y-23 and 0.5% macerozyme R-10 for 12 h. Sustained mitotic divisions were both observed when the two kind of protoplasts were cultured on feeder layer, and 247 and 480 microcalli with the size 2 mm above were respectively formed from 5í105 anther-derived and inner integument-derived protoplasts after 45 d nursing culture, from which 56 and 18 embryos were respectively obtained after 60 d culture on medium for somatic embryo induction. Finally 4.7% embryos developed from anther-derived protoplast were regenerated to plantlets, whereas all embryos obtained from inner integument- derived protoplasts failed to plant regeneration. In conclusion, anther-derived embryonic cell suspension was the optimal material for isolating protoplast bearing regenerated capacity, providing basis and reference for further optimizing protoplast culture system and interspecific somatic hybridization in rubber tree.%为了探寻橡胶树原生质体培养再生植株的较佳途径,本研究以橡胶树热研7-33-97花药和内珠被为起始

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of an Image Analysis System for Determining Viability of Pollen Grains in Temperate Rice Implementación y Evaluación de un Sistema de Análisis de Imagen para determinar la Viabilidad de Granos de Polen en Arroz Templado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ortega B

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical and climatic factors limit the production of temperate rice (Oryza sativa L. in Chile. Large thermal fluctuations of air and water temperatures affect the viability of pollen, causing high levels of spikelet sterility (”blanking”, resulting in reduced yields per hectare. Counting viable pollen grains, at the time of anthesis, may allow determining, ahead, whether there will be yield losses by spikelet sterility; besides, knowing the potential pollen viability serves as a powerful tool for material selection in breeding programs, and for determining which management factors may influence ”blanking”. If performed manually, counting total and viable pollen grains can be extremely tedious, producing highly variable results. The present work had for objectives to develop and evaluate a system, based on imagery analysis, for counting total and viable pollen in rice anthers. At the time of anthesis, three panicles were collected from plot treatments of two field experiments in which the effects of different management factors (variety, water height, N rate, and spatial arrangement on spikelet sterility were evaluated. Two spikelets and four anthers were sampled from each panicle; pollen grains were extracted from anthers and photographed. Manual and digital counts were made on the images to determine total and viable pollen. Digital count was performed with the software SigmaScan Pro, setting some parameters on the imagery before counting. Precision and accuracy of the digital method were estimated. The results indicated that the digital pollen count showed a very good precision and accuracy and could be used to estimate pollen viability, and as a response variable to compare management treatments.La producción de arroz (Oryza sativa L. en Chile está limitada principalmente por factores geográficos y climáticos. Las grandes variaciones de temperatura del agua y del aire afectan la viabilidad del polen, causando altos niveles de

  19. Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice

  20. Structure of staminate flowers, microsporogenesis, and microgametogenesis in Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis (Balanophoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Ana María

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the microgametogenesis and microsporogenesis of the male flowers of the holoparasitic Helosis cayennensis (Sw. Spreng. var. cayennensis using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The unisexual flowers are embedded in a dense mass of uniseriate trichomes (filariae. Male flowers have a tubular 3-lobed perianth, with bilayered and non vascularized tepals. The androecium consists of three stamens with filaments and thecae connated into a synandrium. It has adnate a free central pistillode without megagametophyte. Staminal filaments, fused at their base to the perianth tube and distally free along a short section, have a single vascular bundle. The distal portion of the synandrium is formed by nine pollen sacs: six outer sacs are located laterally to each filament and three longer inner sacs. The anther wall consists of the epidermis, two parietal layers (that collapse at anther maturity, and an uninucleate secretory tapetum. There is no endothecium. During microsporogenesis, the stem cells produce tetrads of microspores by meiosis. The cytokinesis is simultaneous, forming tetrahedrally arranged tetrads. When pollen grains are in the tricellular state, the synandrium emerges from the mass of filariae, and anthers dehiscence occurs apically through longitudinal slits. In conclusion, despite the extreme reduction of flowers, the anatomic characteristics and gametophyte development of staminate flowers of H. cayennensis are perfectly normal and functional. They are thus highly similar to other genera of the holoparasitic subfamily Helosidoideae. Sterile parts of flowers and inflorescence maintain the same distinctive and aberrant features of the plant vegetative parts.Se analizó la estructura de las flores masculinas de Helosis cayennensis (Sw. Spreng. var. cayennensis con microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y se estudió la microesporogénesis y la microgametogénesis. Las flores funcionalmente unisexuales se encuentran

  1. Cloning and Expression of an Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile (OguCMS)-related MYB Transcription Factor in Brassica oleracea var.capitata%甘蓝胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)相关的MYB转录因子BoMYB1的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 康宗利; 刘海霞; 康俊根

    2012-01-01

    Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (OguCMS) is the most widely used male sterile type in cabbage breeding. MYB transcription factors play a key role in regulation of plant defense response and multiple development processes. In present experiment, a R2R3-MYB transcription factor which down regulated 10.3 times in cabbage (Brasska okracea var. capitata) OguCMS lines was cloned by SMART RACE strategy.The full-length cDNA of B0MYB1 was 1 141 bp, which contained a 196 bp long 5' untranslated region, a 246 bp long 3' untranslated region and a 699 bp long open reading frame (GenBank accession number: JN703995). It was localized in the nucleus by subcellular localization prediction. It was an anther preferentially expressed gene in cabbage, which reached its expression peak in the late development. It was induced by the regulation of plant hormones salicylic acid(SA) and jasmonate methyl (JA-ME), and consequently regulated the expression of anther development genes. The experimental results suggests that B0MYB1 may be one of the important genes which involved in OguCMS anther development.%萝卜胞质雄性不育(OguCMS)是目前甘蓝中应用较广的雄性不育类型,MYB转录因子具有调控植物防御应答反应和多个发育过程的作用.本实验以在甘蓝(Brassica oleracea var.capitata)OguCMS花药中下调10.3倍的EST序列为信息探针,结合电子克隆及RACE技术,得到一个与甘蓝OguCMS雄性不育相关的MYB转录因子全长cDNA,命名为BoMYB1(GenBank登录号:JN703995).经亚细胞定位预测,该基因定位于细胞核,全长1 141 bp,包含一个长度为196 bp的5’非翻译区、246 bp的3’非翻译区和一个699 bp的开放阅读框.该基因在花药中具表达优势,并在花药发育晚期出现表达高峰,受植物激素水杨酸(SA)和茉莉酸甲酯(JA-ME)的调控,诱导花药发育基因的表达.实验结果提示,BoMY B1可能是参与OguCMS花药发育的重要基因之一.

  2. 几类小麦雄性不育系育性敏感期的可溶性蛋白质变化研究%Research on Soluble Protein Changes in Several Types of Wheat Male Sterile Line during the Fertility-sensitive Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚宏伟; 马翎健

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study the soluble protein changes in several types of wheat male sterile line during the fertility-sensitive period. [Method] Two K-types wheat male sterile lines, the maintainer line and the YS type temperature sensitive male sterile line were selected as the research objects, their soluble protein contents of the penultimate leaf and anther were studied in the process of pollen development. [Result] Protein content in the male sterile line anther tended to increase from meiosis to uninucleate stage, declined from uninucleale stage to tri-nucleate stage, and the descent rate was the fastest between uninucleate stage and binucleate stage among all stages. The protein content of maintainer line from uninucleate stage to trinucleate stage declined slower than that of the male sterile line, the soluble protein content of the male sterile line was significantly lower than that of the maintainer lines during the entire period. Soluble protein content of anther had more change than that of leaves of sterile line and maintainer line during the whole growth period. Protein content had no significant difference between the male sterile line and YS type temperature sensitive male sterile line. Solubte protein content of the male sterile line was found decreasing significantly. [Conclusion] Protein synthesis blocked or more protein degradation will lead to physiological metabolism disorders, and the development of pollen will be hindered.%[目的]研究几种小麦雄性不育系育性敏感期的可溶性蛋白质含量变化.[方法]以2种K型小麦雄性不育系及保持系和YS型温敏不育系为材料,对花粉发育过程中倒二叶和花药中可溶性蛋白质含量进行研究.[结果]不育系花药中蛋白质含量从减数分裂期至单核期呈上升趋势,而单核期至三核期呈下降趋势,且单核期至二核期下降速率最快;保持系在单核期至三核期蛋白质含量下降较不育系缓慢,整个时期可溶性蛋白

  3. Biologia floral e sistema de polinização de Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae em remanescente de Mata Atlântica, Pernambuco Floral biology and pollination system of Solanum stramonifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae in an Atlantic Forest remnant in Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Lúcia de S. Bezerra

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A deiscência de anteras através de pequenos poros apicais é uma característica encontrada em várias espécies da família Solanaceae, especialmente no gênero Solanum, característica esta que restringe a polinização a um grupo de abelhas fêmeas capazes de vibrar as anteras para retirada do pólen. A fenologia, biologia floral e a polinização de Solanum stramonifolium foram estudadas entre os meses de agosto/1999 a dezembro/2000 em populações naturais ocorrentes no Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, um dos poucos remanescentes de Mata Atlântica localizada em Recife, Pernambuco (8°7'30"S e 34°52'30"W. Solanum stramonifolium é um arbusto com flores dispostas em inflorescências racemosas, apresentando corola branca e cinco estames de um amarelo intenso, com anteras poricidas dispostas ao redor do gineceu. A antese ocorre nas primeiras horas do dia, havendo reflexão de luz ultravioleta e presença de áreas de concentração de emissão de odor por toda a corola e na região apical das anteras. Solanum stramonifolium tem padrão de floração contínuo e apresenta flores hermafroditas (62% e funcionalmente masculinas (38%, o que caracteriza a espécie como andromonóica.Treze espécies de abelhas foram observadas visitando as flores de S. stramonifolium (nove polinizadores e quatro pilhadores. A constante e grande produção de flores faz com que Solamun stramonifolium mantenha sua guilda de polinizadores e garanta assim a sua reprodução, sendo, ao mesmo tempo, uma importante fonte de recursos para a manutenção destas abelhas.The anthers deiscense through two small apical pores is a feature found in many species of Solanaceae, especially in the genus Solanum. This feature restricts pollination to a group of female bees which are able to vibrate the anthers (buzz pollination. The phenology, floral biology and pollination of Solanum stramonifolium were studied between August/1999 and December/2000 in natural populations occurring

  4. Advances in physiological mechanisms of spikelet fertility in rice at flowering stage under high temperature stress%水稻花期高温胁迫影响颖花育性生理机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仁天; 唐茂艳; 王强; 陈雷; 李炜; 陈畅; Farooq Shah; 梁天锋

    2012-01-01

    The local short and extremely high temperature resulted due to rise in global warming is expected to have a tremendous impact on growth and physiological metabolisms of rice, and periodic episodes of heat stress are predicted to occur more frequently in the near future. Flowering stage is the most sensitive stage to high temperature, and very easily led to develop sterility of spikelet. Significant difference in response to temperature stress exists among rice genotypes. When rice flowers at cooler time of day, it has higher pollen activity, larger anther, longer dehiscence length and pores of anther basal, which are important phenotypic indices for high temperature tolerance. The expression of heat shock protein, enhancing antioxidant activity of anther, keeping stability of structural proteins, enzymes and membranes are important physiological mechanisms for strengthening thermo tolerance of stigma and its pollens. At present, many researchers have studied the fertilization and seed setting characteristics of rice spikelet which was affected by high temperature stress, and the morphological characteristics and physiological mechanism of rice tolerance to high temperature, while the strategies and methods to mitigate heat stress in rice are still very poor, therefore, these should be further explored and studied on the basis of previous researches.%全球气候变暖产生的局部短期极端高温,会对水稻形成高温胁迫,影响水稻的各种生理代谢过程,其出现频率有增加趋势.高温胁迫对水稻的影响主要是在开花期,极易导致严重的颖花不育.水稻耐高温胁迫能力存在基因型间的差异.在当天温度较低的时段开花,花粉活性高,花药长,花药基部开裂长度较长、开裂孔较大,是水稻耐高温胁迫的重要表型指标.热激蛋白的表达,提高花药的抗氧化能力,以及维持结构蛋白、酶和细胞膜的稳定性是增强柱头及柱头上花粉粒耐高温胁迫的重要生理

  5. 温敏型核雄性不育系番茄T4育性的研究%Studies on Fertility of Thermo-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Tomato,Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.—T4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先裕; 于分弟; 梁聪耀; 李良劭; 黄维娜; 杜永臣; 刘政国; 曾东; 潘立凡

    2011-01-01

    以温敏型核雄性不育系番茄T4及对照First为试材,通过调查花粉发芽率、自交结实率、果实种子数以及采用Tricine-SDS-PAGE电泳方法分析叶片及花药蛋白质的变化,研究T4的育性转化,并分析其在可育和不育条件下花粉发芽率、自交结实率、果实种子数、叶片及花药蛋白质的差异.结果表明:28℃/18℃(昼/夜)处理的T4花粉发芽率、自交结实率最高,果实种子数最多,与对照First差异不显著,表明此时T4恢复部分育性;28℃/24℃和28℃/12℃处理的T4花粉发芽率、自交结实率和果实种子数与对照差异均达到极显著水平,表现为不育.不同温度处理的T4花药蛋白质与叶片蛋白质差异均达到显著水平;28℃/24℃和28℃/12℃处理的T4叶片蛋白质与对照差异显著,但28 ℃/18℃处理的差异不明显.%Taking thermo-sensitive genie male-sterile tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. T4 and the control First as experimental materials, this paper investigated pollen germination rate,self-breeding rate and fruit seed number, analyzed the protein changes in leaf and anther by Tricine-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to comprehend fertile conversion of T4. The paper also analyzed the pollen germination rate, self-breeding rate and fruit seed number, protein differences in leaf and anther under fertility and sterility conditions. The results showed that pollen germination rate, self-breeding rate and fruit seed number of T4 were the highest with 28 ^C/IS V, ( day/night ) treatment. There was no significant difference compared with the control First. It indicated that T4 had restored partial fertility. But, with 28 t/24 °C and 28 t/12 X. Treatments the pollen germination rate, self-breeding rate and fruit seed number of T4 had significant differences with the control First, and T4 expressed as sterile line. There were significant differences in leaf protein and anther protein of T4 under different temperature treatments

  6. 卷丹小孢子母细胞减数分裂染色体行为的研究%Chromosom Behavior of Pollen Mother Cell in Meiosis Process for Lilium lancifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 贾桂霞

    2013-01-01

    对引种于陕西汉中地区的三倍体卷丹的小孢子母细胞减数分裂进程、花粉生活力和可育性进行了分析.结果显示:减数分裂时期与花蕾、花药长度及花药壁颜色呈现出一定的相关性,处于减数分裂时期的卷丹花蕾长度在2.5 ~3.2 cm之间,花药长度在1.4~1.8 cm之间;从细线期到成熟花粉粒,花药壁的颜色呈现出淡绿色-淡黄绿色-黄绿色-橘黄色的变化趋势,花药内容物颜色也从透明逐渐变为粘稠的橘红色.减数分裂终变期染色体构型以三价体为主,平均构型为:11.6Ⅲ+2Ⅱ+1.1Ⅰ,可判断该种源地卷丹为同源三倍体.减数分裂中出现染色体不均等分裂、染色体落后、染色体桥及微核现象,同时观察到成熟花粉粒大小差异较大,极轴与赤道轴秉积在839.465 ~3327.907μm2范围内,趋于正态分布,为三倍体卷丹花粉的高度不育提供了细胞学证据.以卷丹为母本与大花卷丹进行杂交,得到一定数量的种子,其中有胚率达到了43.0%,成苗率为67.4%,说明三倍体卷丹在百合育种中具有一定的价值.%The meiosis process of pollen mother cell, the pollen grains vitality of Lilium lancifolium from Hanzhong district,Shanxi province,was observed. The results showed that the length of buds and anthers, and the color of the anther wall were related to the stage of the meiosis process. The length of buds and anther which were in the meiosis process were between 2. 5 and 3.2 cm /1.4 and 1.8 cm,respectively. The main chromosome configurations were trivalent in diakinesis stage, and the average configuration was 11.6Ⅲ+2Ⅱ+1.1Ⅰ , which showed that the L. lancifolium was used in this experiment was autotriploid. The asymmetric division, chromosome lag, chromosome bridge, and micronucleus were present in distinct meiosis stages, which provided the cytological evidence for the low fertility of pollen grain. The prospect of application of tripolid L. lancifolium

  7. “金丝4号”枣大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育%Sporogenesis and gametophytes development in Ziziphus jujube Mill cv.‘jinsi No.4’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹锋; 袁德义; 段经华; 廖婷; 冯延芝; 高超

    2013-01-01

    为探明枣有性生殖过程中是否存在生殖障碍,以“金丝4号”枣为试材,采用石蜡切片技术,对其大小孢子发生及雌雄配子体发育过程进行了观察.结果表明:“金丝4号”枣花药为4室,花药壁4~5层,分别为表皮、1~2层药室内壁、中层和腺质绒毡层,花药壁的发育属于基本型;小孢子母细胞胞质分裂为同时型,四分体排列多为正四面体;花粉为三角形,具3个萌发孔,3沟,成熟花粉为2-细胞型;大孢子母细胞经减数分裂中期、后期、末期形成的四分体大孢子呈线型排列,合点端的功能大孢子经过3次有丝分裂,最后形成7细胞8核胚囊;倒生胚珠,双珠被,厚珠心,蓼型胚囊.%In order to test whether there was any obstacle of reproduction in the process of sexual reproduction,the microsporogenesis,megasporogensis and development of male and female gametophytes in Ziziphus jujube Mill cv ‘jinsi No.4’ were observed by paraffin section technique.The results show that each anther in Z.jujube Mill cv ‘jinsi No.4’ has four cells,anther wall is from four to five layers,which are the epidermis,1-2 layers of endothecium,middle layer and glandular tapetum layers,and the development of anther wall is of basic type.The meiosis in the microspore mother cells is belonged to simultaneous type,and the most of the tetrads are arranged in a regular tetrahedron shape.The shape of pollen is triangular with three germination pores and three furrows,and the ripened pollen is of 2-cell type.The megaspores in tetrad are in a linear arrangement,which form from megaspore mother cell through middle period,later period and end period of meiosis.After three times mitosis,the functional megaspore at chalazal end forms a embryo sac with seven cells and eight nucleus.The ovule is anatropous,two integuments,crassinucellate.The development of embryo sac is belong to Polygonum type.

  8. Flower bud differentiation and development of male and female gametophytes in Camellia oleifera%油茶花芽分化及雌雄配子体发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁德义; 邹锋; 谭晓风; 何春燕; 袁军; 范晓明

    2011-01-01

    Cytological observation on the development of female and male cells of Camellia oleifera ‘Xianglin No. 1’was carried out by the method of paraffin sectioning, and the correlation between flower bud differentiation and its external morphology was analyzed. The results show that: (1) The development of flower bud differentiation could be divided into 6 stages: pre-differentiation, sepal formation, petal formation, stamen and pistil formation, ovary and anther formation, and stamen and pistil maturation; (2) ‘XL No. 1’ had four ventricles in each anther; the development of the anther wall belonged to the basic type; glandular tapetum; the meiosis in the microspore mother cells belonged to the simultaneous type and the microspores were arranged in a tetrahedron shape in the tetrads; pollen matured in seven to nine days before blooming; The ripened pollen was of 2-cell type; (3) The ovule was anatropous ovule, nucellus thin, with a double integument; the megasporocyte underwent meiotic division, giving rise to two dyad cells,only the megaspore at chalazal end had biological function, forming 7 nuclear and 8 embryo sacs that underwent 3 mitosis as the onion-type embryo sac. (4) During the process of development, not only the formation of androecium and gynoecium had stable corresponding relations, but aslo they all corresponded with the external morphology. According to the corresponding relations in time sequence, the development process of the interior sexual cell could be identified by the external morphology.%以‘湘林1号'油茶为试材,运用石蜡切片法对其花芽分化及雌雄配子体发育进行解剖观察,并对其花芽发育与外部形态的相关性进行分析.结果表明:(1)‘湘林1号'花芽分化大致可以划分为6个时期:即前分化期、萼片形成期、花瓣形成期、雌雄蕊形成期、子房与花药形成期和雌雄蕊成熟期.(2)‘湘林1号'的花药为4室;药壁发育属于基本型;腺质绒毡层;小孢

  9. 川白芷与祁白芷花粉活力及柱头可授性测定%Pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Angelica dahurica from Sichuan and Hebei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈郡雯; 吴卫; 侯凯; 徐应文; 邵金凤; 李静夜

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究川白芷与祁白芷花粉活力、寿命及柱头可授性,为良种选育提供依据.方法:采用TTC法测定花粉活力及寿命,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性.结果:川白芷与祁白芷花蕾期花粉已具有较高活力,随着雄蕊发育,二者活力逐渐增强,花药开裂盛期花粉活力均达85%以上,且花粉活力均随散粉时间延长而逐渐降低.川白芷不同分枝花序的花粉活力差异较小,均维持在85%左右;祁白芷的花粉活力表现为主茎花序<一级分枝花序<二级分枝花序,整体来看,空间位置对花粉活力的影响较小.川白芷与祁白芷花粉在室温储藏条件下,开花后第5天花粉活力仍保持约50%,其中川白芷下降幅度大于祁白芷;-20℃条件下可适当延长花粉活力.柱头于开花后第4天逐渐具有可授性,第6天最强,随后逐渐萎蔫变褐,开花后第10天不具可授性.结论:在进行人工授粉时,应选花药开裂盛期的花粉对开花第6天的柱头进行授粉.%Objective: To provide theoretical basis for artificial cross breeding of Angelica dahurica from Sichuan and Hebei Province, the characteristics of stigma receptivity and the viability and life-span of pollen were studied. Method: The viability and life-span of pollen were evaluated by TTC (2,3, 5-triphenyl tetrazliura chloride) test, and the stigma receptivity was estimated by benzi-dine-H2O2method. Result: The pollen viability of A. dahurica from Sichuan and Hebei provinces was increased gradually since the bud stage, but those levels had since subsided after the pollen release from craze antheral. There was a little difference in the pollen viability of A. dahurica from Sichuan at different branches. While the order of the pollen viability of A. dahurica from Hebei was main stem < first-order branching < second-order branching. At room temperature, the pollen viability of both decreased during time of anthers dehiscing but also above 50

  10. Associação de fases meióticas e estádios dos micrósporos com características morfológicas de botões florais de pimentão Association of meiotic phases and microspore stages with morphological characters of floral buds of pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Augusto de Toledo Picoli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Fases meióticas e estádios de micrósporos de pimentão (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Azeth foram determinados e associados com características morfológicas adotadas para a seleção de botões florais a serem utilizados na indução de androgênese. Plantas foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação para coleta dos botões florais, que foram separados em seis classes de acordo com a relação de tamanho entre cálice e corola e presença de pigmentos nas anteras. As anteras foram fixadas em metanol: ácido acético na proporção de 3:1 e armazenadas a -20º C. Preparações citogenéticas desse material foram montadas pela técnica de dissociação e secagem ao ar e coradas com solução de Giemsa. As observações dos botões foram realizadas sob lupa e as preparações citogenéticas em microscópio ótico. Imagens dos botões florais, das anteras e das fases meióticas foram digitalizadas em computador para documentação. Variações de fases meióticas dentro de cada classe de botão floral foram observadas. Embora o critério de presença de antocianina na extremidade das anteras tenha sido aplicado para outras variedades, o mesmo não se mostrou adequado para a determinação do estádio de micrósporo neste estudo. As fases meióticas foram citogeneticamente identificadas; contudo, não foi possível estabelecer sua associação com as classes dos botões florais. Entretanto, botões com o tamanho de cálice coincidindo com o da corola apresentaram maior número de micrósporos em estádio adequado para a cultura de anteras.In the present study, morphological characters adopted for floral bud selection used for androgenesis induction were associated with pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Azeth meiotic phases and microspore stages. Floral buds were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants and separated into six classes according to size relationships between calyx and corolla, and anthocyanin pigmentation in anthers. After sorting by size, buds

  11. Genes of the most conserved WOX clade in plants affect root and flower development in Arabidopsis

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    Moreau Hervé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Wuschel related homeobox (WOX family proteins are key regulators implicated in the determination of cell fate in plants by preventing cell differentiation. A recent WOX phylogeny, based on WOX homeodomains, showed that all of the Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella moellendorffii WOX proteins clustered into a single orthologous group. We hypothesized that members of this group might preferentially share a significant part of their function in phylogenetically distant organisms. Hence, we first validated the limits of the WOX13 orthologous group (WOX13 OG using the occurrence of other clade specific signatures and conserved intron insertion sites. Secondly, a functional analysis using expression data and mutants was undertaken. Results The WOX13 OG contained the most conserved plant WOX proteins including the only WOX detected in the highly proliferating basal unicellular and photosynthetic organism Ostreococcus tauri. A large expansion of the WOX family was observed after the separation of mosses from other land plants and before monocots and dicots have arisen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, AtWOX13 was dynamically expressed during primary and lateral root initiation and development, in gynoecium and during embryo development. AtWOX13 appeared to affect the floral transition. An intriguing clade, represented by the functional AtWOX14 gene inside the WOX13 OG, was only found in the Brassicaceae. Compared to AtWOX13, the gene expression profile of AtWOX14 was restricted to the early stages of lateral root formation and specific to developing anthers. A mutational insertion upstream of the AtWOX14 homeodomain sequence led to abnormal root development, a delay in the floral transition and premature anther differentiation. Conclusion Our data provide evidence in favor of the WOX13 OG as the clade containing the most conserved WOX genes and established a functional link to organ initiation and development in Arabidopsis, most

  12. Identification, functional characterization and developmental regulation of sesquiterpene synthases from sunflower capitate glandular trichomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Dae-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesquiterpene lactones are characteristic metabolites of Asteraceae (or Compositae which often display potent bioactivities and are sequestered in specialized organs such as laticifers, resin ducts, and trichomes. For characterization of sunflower sesquiterpene synthases we employed a simple method to isolate pure trichomes from anther appendages which facilitated the identification of these genes and investigation of their enzymatic functions and expression patterns during trichome development. Results Glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. were isolated, and their RNA was extracted to investigate the initial steps of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments led to the identification of three sesquiterpene synthases. By combination of in vitro and in vivo characterization of sesquiterpene synthase gene products in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively, two enzymes were identified as germacrene A synthases, the key enzymes of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis. Due to the very low in vitro activity, the third enzyme was expressed in vivo in yeast as a thioredoxin-fusion protein for functional characterization. In in vivo assays, it was identified as a multiproduct enzyme with the volatile sesquiterpene hydrocarbon δ-cadinene as one of the two main products with α-muuorlene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-copaene as minor products. The second main compound remained unidentified. For expression studies, glandular trichomes from the anther appendages of sunflower florets were isolated in particular developmental stages from the pre- to the post-secretory phase. All three sesquiterpene synthases were solely upregulated during the biosynthetically active stages of the trichomes. Expression in different aerial plant parts coincided with occurrence and maturity of trichomes. Young roots with root hairs showed expression of the sesquiterpene synthase genes

  13. Meiotic observations of the pollen mother cells of Dimocarpus longan%龙眼花粉母细胞减数分裂观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽琴; 谢江辉; 李伟才; 王一承; 魏永赞; 石胜友

    2011-01-01

    The developed smearing method was adopted to observe the meiosis process of pollen mother cell(PMC)of Shixia longan(Dimocarpus longan Lour.cv.Shixia)in this article.The results showed that:(1).The meiosis process of longan pollen mother cells were closely correlated with the bud size and the anther color,and the difference in the stages of meiosis existed in the same bud and anther.(2).There were a series of abnormal phenomena in meiotic division of pollen mother cells such as chromosome fragments,lagging chromosomes,chromosome bridges,asynchronization of chromosomes segregation,micronucleus,deviant tetra and so on.The reason of abnormal phenomena in meiosis of pollen mother cells was analyzed on cytogenetics levels.This research aimed to provide scientific evidence for cytogenetics and breeding of longan varieties.%以龙眼石硖品种为材料,采用改良涂片法对花粉母细胞减数分裂过程进行了系统观察。结果表明,(1)龙眼减数分裂进程与花蕾大小,花药颜色有密切关系,在同一花蕾甚至同一花药中表现不同步性。(2)龙眼减数分裂染色体行为存在染色体片段、落后染色体、染色体桥、分裂不同步、微核及多分体等异常现象,从细胞遗传学水平上分析了龙眼花粉母细胞减数分裂异常的原因。为龙眼细胞遗传学的深入研究和品种改良提供了科学依据。

  14. Observation on Microstructure of Male Abortion in Chinese Cabbage%大白菜雄性败育的显微结构观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王福青; 李敏; 曲咏梅

    2001-01-01

    通过对核质互作型雄性不育系169A和核雄性不育两用系88_3的细胞形态解剖学观察表明,两个不育系在开花时雄性细胞均表现100%的败育,花药的表皮细胞均具有生活力,但败育形式、时期、特点各异。169A败育发生于孢原细胞前后,以孢原细胞退化,或转变成薄壁细胞为主要特点。88_3败育从小孢子母细胞至二核花粉粒皆有发生,高峰期在四分体前后(约占80%),小孢子母细胞不能进入减数分裂和不能完成减数分裂及小孢子不能正常发育是败育的主要形式,但败育特点均是败育一旦发生便是急剧而彻底的解体或凝集成一团。%The morphological anatomical characters of the anthers from nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction male sterile line 169A and genic male sterile line 88-3 were observed. The results showed that the epidermal cells of the anther had viability,while the male sex cell of the two sterile lines appeared 100% abortion at blooming date, however,their abortion form,duration and characters were different.The abortion of 169A occurred before to behind of the sporogonia,whose important characterization was that the sporogonia degenerated or transformed into the parenchyma cells. The abortion of 88-3 ocurred from the microspore mother cells to pollen grains of two-nucleus,while the high peak stage of abortion(80%) occurred before and after the tetrad phase. The main abortion forms of 88-3 were that the microspore mother cells were not able to enter meiosis process and to finish meiosis,and the microspores were not able to develop normally.The same abortion character of the two male sterile lines was that the microspore mother cells and microspores sharply and thoroughly disintegrated or aggregated when abortion occurred.

  15. Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003 Reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth (Fabaceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.9003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyra Ramos Chaves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self-compatible and apomitic. In the study area, they were visited by nine species of bees, four butterflies, two wasps, and two hummingbirds. The visits began in early morning and persisted throughout the day, with a peak of activity between 8:00 and 9:00 hours. Species of Centris were the main visitors of B. virgilioides. The butterfly and wasp species were considered resource robbers, and other floral visitors were considered occasional visitors. Although the flowers of B. virgilioides are widely visited, the species shows a high rate of inbreeding because of automatic self-pollination.The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive biology of Bowdichia virgilioides in an area of Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna. The study was carried out in Chapadinha, State of Maranhão in northeastern Brazil. Bowdichia virgilioides has cornucopia flowering and annual pattern. Flowering occurred at the beginning of the dry season, between June and August; and fruiting in the middle of this season, between July and October. The anthesis of B. virgilioides is diurnal, and the main flower resource is the nectar. During the flower opening, the anthers becomes dehiscent and thus pollen grains are deposited at the stigma, promoting automatic self-pollination. The species is self

  16. Research on Integument Tapetum of Higher Plants%高等植物珠被绒毡层的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 郑彩霞

    2012-01-01

    There is a great significance for revealing the plant gametophytic development regulation mechanism to carry out the research on the tapetum, which is recognized as the "nursing organization" of sporophyte generation turning to the gametophyte generation. There are some researches on the development process of the anther tapetum, whereas the research on the integument tapetum is relatively insufficient. The relevant researches in Compositae, Bupleurum, Plantago major and Stylosanthes indicate that the structure of integument tapetum is more complex than anther's one because of its complex development process and structure. The developmental patterns of the integument tapetum are different in various plants. There are two types of integument tapetums include single integument tapetum and bitegmic tapetum; the abnormal growth of the integument tapetum will lead to the ovule abortion. The research of integument tapetum for woody plants is lags behind, and the one for gymnosperm is few in the domestic and foreign reports.%绒毡层是植物孢子体向配子体世代转换的“哺乳组织”,其研究对于揭示植物配子体发育的调控机制具有重要意义.对花药绒毡层的发育过程已有一些研究,而对珠被绒毡层的研究积累相对较薄弱.对菊科(Compositae)、柴胡(Bupleurum)、大车前(Plantago major)、柱花草(Stylosanthes)等草本植物的研究表明,因珠被发育过程和结构复杂,珠被绒毡层结构也较花药绒毡层复杂,其发育模式因植物不同而异,有单珠被绒毡层和双珠被绒毡层两种类型;珠被绒毡层异常生长会导致胚珠败育.木本植物珠被绒毡层,特别是裸子植物的珠被绒毡层在国内外的研究报道不多.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  19. Effect of N fertilizer application on apex development of different tiller positions at different spike development stages%氮肥施用时期对小麦不同茎蘖位顶端发育的调控效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李存东; 曹卫星; 张月辰; 严美春

    2001-01-01

    氮素营养是影响小麦顶端发育的重要因子。本研究表明,分别于护颖原基分化期、雌雄蕊原基分化期和药隔分化期施用氮肥,尽管均未影响到主茎叶原基数,以及主茎(MS)和T1、T2分蘖(主茎第1、2分蘖)的总小穗数,但是明显加快了主茎的出叶速率,减少了各主要茎蘖(MS、T1、T2、T3)不孕小穗数。此外,护颖和雌雄蕊原基分化期施用氮肥,能够促进上述主要茎蘖小花原基的分化,增加其总小花数;而护颖至药隔分化期施用氮肥则明显促进了MS、T1、T2和T3的小花结实。研究结果为高产小麦栽培调控和生长模拟提供了依据。%Nitrogen nutrition is one of the important factors which impactapex development in wheat. It was found that the treatments of applying nitrogen fertilizer at glum (N1), pistil(N2) and anther (N3) differentiation stages, respectively, had no effect on the leaf primordium number on main stem (MS ) and spikelet numbers on MS, T1 and T2 (the first and second tillers on MS). Compared with N0 (no N fertilizer applied in spring), the treatments of N1, N2 an d N3 enhanced the rate of leaf emergence on MS and lessened the infertile spikelets on MS, T1, T2 and T3. The treatments of N1 and N2 improved the floret primordium differentiation, which resulted in more florets on MS, T1, T2 and T3. Also, applying N fertilizer from grum to anther differentiation stage could enhance evidently the grain setting rate of florets on MS, T1, T2 and T3. The results will help the cultural regulation and growth simulation in high-yielding wheat .

  20. Sistema de reprodução de Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC Reproduction system of Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Lam. DC

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    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available R. dichotoma (Lam. DC. é um arbusto que ocorre na região central do Brasil em ambientes úmidos, brejosos, formando nestes locais grandes populações. O período de floração desta espécie é longo de 6-8 meses. Neste estudo realizado no município de Tanabi (São Paulo, o pico de floração ocorreu no mês de abril. Semelhante ao observado em outras Melastomataceae de anteras tubulares e deiscência poricida, R. dichotoma é polinizada por abelhas vibradoras. Este estudo constatou que esta espécie é autocompatível com 59% de sucesso obtido nas autopolinizações manuais (n=90 e não foi observada a presença de agamospernmia (n=85. A polinização cruzada (xenogamia foi predominante, sendo que 66% das flores polinizadas desenvolveram frutos (n=92. Surpreendentemente, apesar desta espécie apresentar anteras poricidas constatou-se a ocorrência de autopolinização espontânea em 33% das flores (n=92.R. dichotoma (Lam.. DC. is a shrub native of Central Brazil, occurring in large population in wet, marsh like environment. The present study was carried out at the municipality of Tanabi (São Paulo State. The flowering season of this species is long lasting ca. 6-8 months, but April is the month when most individuals are in flower. Similar to other Melastomataceae species possessing tubular and poricidal anthers, R. dichotoma is pollinated by buzz bees. The species, as indicated in this study, is self-compatible, 59% of success resulted from artificial self-pollination (n=90. Agamospermy did not occur (n=85. Cross pollination (xenogamy proved to be predominant: 66% fruits was obtained from cross-pollinated flowers (n=92. Although the present species has poricidal anthers, surprisingly spontaneous sef-pollination was observed 33% of success (n=92.

  1. Obtención de plantas haploides en chile miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L. Obtaining haploid plants from miahuateco chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

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    Marcelina Vélez Torres

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas haploides, es una herramienta importante en los programas de mejoramiento y estudios genéticos, ya que permite obtener líneas puras más rápido que los métodos convencionales a través de la duplicación de plantas haploides. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer una metodología que permita la regeneración de plantas haploides de chile tipo miahuateco (Capsicum annuum L.. Las anteras se cultivaron en los medios basales de Murashige y Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975, suplementados con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1-1 mg L-1, ácido naftalenacético (0.1 mg L-1, ácido indolacético (1 mg L-1 y ácido 2-4 diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1. La embriogénesis se indujo hasta en 2.23% de anteras cuando se cultivaron en una combinación de 6-furfurilaminopurina con 2-4, diclorofenoxiacético (1 mg L-1 de ambos o de ácido indolacético con 6-furfurilaminopurina (0.1 mg L-1 de ambos. El análisis cromosómicos de las plantas regeneradas mostró que eran haploides con número cromósomico 2n= x= 12.Haploid plant regeneration is an important tool in breeding programs and genetics studies, since it helps obtain pure lines faster than conventional methods by the duplication of haploid plants. The aim of this study was to establish a methodology to regenerate haploid Miahuateco chili pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.. Anthers were grown on Murashige and Skoog (1962; Chu et al. (1975 basal media, supplemented with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1-1 mg L-1, naphthaleneacetic acid (0.1 mg L-1, indolacetic acid (1 mg L-1, and 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1. Embryogenesis was induced in 2.23% of anthers grown in a combination of 6-furfurylaminopurine with 2-4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1 mg L-1, of each, or indolacetic acid with 6-furfurylaminopurine (0.1 mg L-1 of each. Chromosome analysis of regenerated plants showed that they were haploids with a chromosome number of 2n= x= 12.

  2. Biologia reprodutiva de Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae em mata de galeria Reproductive biology of Psychotria poeppigiana Mull. Arg. (Rubiaceae in gallery forest

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    Christiano Peres Coelho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae é o gênero com mais espécies heterostílicas dentre as Angiospermas. O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever a biologia floral, fenologia, o sistema reprodutivo e os polinizadores de Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. As inflorescências são capitadas terminais, com brácteas vermelhas e flores amarelas apresentando dois morfos distintos: brevistiladas e longistiladas, caracterizadas por flores hermafroditas com diferentes comprimentos de estiletes e posicionamento oposto das anteras (hercogamia recíproca. Encontrou-se diferenças no tamanho das anteras, dos grãos de pólen e da superfície estigmática entre os morfotipos. Polinizações controladas mostraram que os morfotipos apresentam auto-incompatibilidade e intramorfo-incompatibilidade ao nível do estigma e do estilete. Os visitantes são pequenas vespas, abelhas, borboletas e beija-flores, que visitam as flores com maior freqüência no início da manhã. De acordo com a freqüência e eficiência no comportamento de transportar os grãos de pólen entre os morfos florais, o principal polinizador foi o beija-flor Thalurania furcata. O néctar é produzido em pequena quantidade (máximo de 8µl e durante a abertura das flores, que ocorre entre 5 e 7h. A espécie forma agrupamentos devido à existência de reprodução vegetativa.Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae is the genus with the most heterostylous species in the angiosperms. The objective of this study is to describe floral biology, phenology, reproductive system, and pollinators of Psychotria poeppigiana Müll. Arg. The terminal inflorescences are capitate with red bracts and yellow flowers, and presented two different morphs: pin and thrum, characterized by hermaphroditic flowers with different lengths of styles and opposed position of the anthers (reciprocal herkogamy. Dimorphism was also observed in the size of anthers, pollen grains and stigmatic surfaces. Controlled pollination revealed self

  3. 番红花雄蕊柱头状物的离体再生%In Vitro Regeneration of Style-stigma-like Structure from Stamens of Crocus sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 陈放; 颜钫; 唐琳; 徐莺

    2001-01-01

    以番红花(Crocus sativusL.)雄蕊为材料诱导培养出花柱柱头状结构,诱导率可达30%,起源于花丝基部。影响雄蕊柱头状物诱导的主要因素为外植体的发育期和生长素NAA的使用浓度。幼嫩浅黄色雄蕊适于诱导柱头状物。温度和光照在不同激素水平下对雄蕊柱头状物诱导的影响不同。紫外检测表明,由雄蕊诱导出的柱头状物含有番红花甙、番红花醛和番红花苦甙。其含量明显高于由花柱诱导出的柱头状结构。在诱导花柱、子房、花瓣的柱头状物的过程中,观察到成花逆转现象。%Style-stigma-like structures were regenerated from stamens ofCrocus sativus L. The age of the stamen explant has an obvious effect on the induction rate. Auxin NAA has larger effect on the induction of filament style-stigma-like structure. Auxin NAA of higher concentration can lead to higher induction rate. Temperature and light have different effects on the induction of style-stigma-like structure from anther's filament of C.sativus with exogenous hormones at different levels. Ultraviolet tests show that style-stigma-like structure from anther's filament of C.sativus contains crocin, safranal and picrocrocin, contents of which are obviously more than those contained in the style-stigma-like from style. Floral reversion was observed in the induction of style-stigma-like structure from petals, ovaries and styles.

  4. A rat pancreatic ribonuclease fused to a late cotton pollen promoter severely reduces pollen viability in tobacco plants

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    R.B. Bernd-Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an animal RNase fused to the late cotton pollen-specific promoter G9 in a plant system were investigated. Expression of the chimeric genes G9-uidA and G9-RNase in tobacco plants showed that the 1.2-kb promoter fragment of the G9 gene was sufficient to maintain tissue and temporal specificity in a heterologous system. GUS (beta-glucuronidase expression was detected only in pollen from anther stage 6 through anthesis, with maximal GUS activity in pollen from stage 10 anthers. Investigating the effects of the rat RNase on pollen viability at stage 10, we found that pollen viability was reduced from 79 to 8% and from 89 to 40%, in pollen germination and fluoresceine diacetate assays, respectively, in one G9-RNase transgenic line, suggesting a lethal effect of the RNase gene. This indicates that the rat RNase produces deleterious effects in this plant system and may be useful for engineering male sterility.Foram investigados os efeitos da expressão de uma ribonuclease de origem animal em um sistema vegetal, ligando-se esta ao promotor do gene pólen-específico G9 de algodão. Examinou-se a expressão dos genes quiméricos G9-uidA e G9-RNase em plantas de tabaco e determinou-se que o fragmento de 1.2 kb do promotor do gene G9 foi suficiente para manter a especificidade temporal e espacial da expressão, em sistema heterólogo. A expressão do gene GUS foi detectada somente em pólen, do estágio 6 do desenvolvimento da antera até a antese, com atividade máxima em pólen de anteras no estágio 10. Estudos neste estágio com linhagens transgênicas contendo G9-RNase mostraram que um clone transgênico apresentava reduções na viabilidade do pólen de 79 para 8% e de 89 para 40% nos testes de germinação e coloração com diacetato de fluoresceína, respectivamente, sugerindo letalidade na expressão do gene de RNase. Estes resultados indicam que a RNase animal apresenta um efeito deletério em planta e oferece possibilidade de uso

  5. Detection of pollen TTC stainability for sugar beet in different developing phase%不同发育时期甜菜花粉TTC染色活力的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧红; 程大友; 罗成飞; 杨林; 鲁兆新

    2011-01-01

    Pollen viability affects crops pollination, fertilization and seeding ratio. To understand pollen viability and character of sugar beet lines, and bring up advantage for crossbreed work, the staining viability of sugar beet pollen in different developing phase was studied using TTC dyeing method. Detection method of sugar beet pollen stainbility was fixed on. The result showed that the rate of pollen stainability of sugar beet pollen among different growth period was significant difference. The rate of pollen stainability in anther was between 30% and 55% ; the rate of pollen stainability when anther just craze can up to 90% , the stainability of dispersed pollen was the lowest. Pollen staining viability of sugar beet lost quickly after 1 hour under the sun.%花粉活力直接影响作物授粉、受精及种子结实率,为了解甜菜品种(系)的花粉生活力及特性,给甜菜引种栽培和杂交育种工作创造有利条件,本试验以自育2倍体甜菜授粉系为试验材料,采用TTC染色方法检测花粉活力,研究了甜菜花粉在不同发育时期的染色活力,确定了甜菜花粉染色活力的快速检测方法.试验结果显示:处于不同发育及散粉期甜菜花粉的染色活力具有显著差异,未开裂花药内花粉粒染色活力百分率30%~55%,花药刚开裂时,花粉染色活力达90%以上,散粉后的散落花粉染色活力最低,甜菜花粉于阳光下直接照射1h后,花粉迅速丧失染色活力.

  6. 太子参花粉活力和柱头可授性研究%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩怡; 巢建国; 谷巍; 张莹; 孙亚昕

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究太子参的花粉活力、柱头可授性及花粉贮藏.方法:采用离体萌发法、染色法测定花粉活力,用联苯胺-过氧化氢法测定柱头可授性,并检测不同贮藏条件下花粉的活力.结果:离体萌发法适用于太子参花粉活力测定,最适培养基为0.04%硼酸+15%蔗糖+11%聚乙二醇,萌发率达92.44%;太子参花药开裂期柱头可授性较强;花粉的短期保存以4℃效果较好,长期保存以-80℃效果最佳.结论:在进行杂交授粉时,应选花药开裂期的花粉,对开花第2天的柱头进行人工授粉,本研究为太子参的良种选育及种质资源保护提供了科学依据.%Objective: To study the pollen viability, the stigma receptivity and storage character of Pseudostellaria heterophylla. Methods: The pollen viability was evaluated by the methods of in vitro pollen germination and pollen staining,the stigma receptivity was estimated by benzidine-H2O2 method,and the pollen viability in different storage conditions were detected. Results;In vitro pollen germination method was suitable for the determination of pollen germination of Pseudostellaria heterophylla,the optimal medium was 0. 04% H3BO3 + 15% sucrose + 11% PEG4000 ,in which the pollen germination capacity reached to 92. 44% ;The stigma receptivity of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was higher when the pollen anther opening; The results showed that short-term pollen storage at -4 ℃was the most suitable while the long-term pollen storage was at -80 ℃. Conclusion; The optimum cross pollination times of Pseudostellaria heterophylla was 2 days after blooming and choose the pollen in anther opening. This study provides a foundation for the breeding and germplasm resources protection of Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

  7. AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mészáros

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of cereals is one of the emerging areas for plant genomic and biotechnology research. Wheat was among the last major crops to be transformed by particle bombardment about 10 years ago. However, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has several advantages over bombardment, including a reduction in copy number, fewer rearrangements and preferential integration into transcriptionally active chromosome regions. As a first step, we started to adapt an immature embryo-based transformation method for the model variety ‘Cadenza’. The regeneration of this variety was low and especially the cost of generating donor plants was high. Therefore, we decided (i to test regeneration capacity of winter and spring wheats using four different explants, (ii to determine the optimal genotype-regeneration system combinations, and (iii to work out the details of mature embryo transformation with Agrobacterium. The experiment was carried out with 16 cultivated winter wheat and 2 model spring wheat varieties. Four different explants: anther, immature embryo, mature embryo and dry seed were tested for callus induction and plant regeneration. The regeneration capacity was the lowest in the case of anther culture and ranged from 20% (‘Mv Béres’ to 0.1% (‘Mv Magvas’ with four varieties exerting significantly higher regeneration than ‘Cadenza’. Plant regeneration from immature embryos ranged between 59% (‘Mv Regiment’ and 0.1% (‘Mv Toborzó’. Again, four varieties produced significantly more plants than the control ‘Cadenza’. We tested two systems for the plant regeneration from mature embryos. First, mature embryos were isolated from seeds, which resulted in an average of 17% plant regeneration (from 63% in ‘Fatima’ to zero in ‘Mv Palotás’. ‘Cadenza’ was one of the worse regenerating genotype (7%. The highest plant regeneration (average 54% was in the case of seed explants. There were no significant differences

  8. [Entomophilic pollination of squash, Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Bruna D V; Campos, Lucio A de O

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the squash entomofauna in the region of Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, to study their behavior on flowers and their importance for pollination, verifying the role of each pollinator. The most common species were Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Apis mellifera (L.) and Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier). The visitation behavior of A. mellifera, M. quadrifasciata, and Bombus morio (Swederus) were similar. They visited flowers for nectar collection, positioning themselves vertically between the corolla and the sexual structures of the flowers, with the back directed toward the floral axis, which permitted the removal of pollen from the anthers of flowers with stamens and its deposition on the stigma of flowers with pistils, being considered therefore effective pollinators. Trigona spinipes and T. hyalinata foraged in groups, preventing other species from landing on the flowers which they occupied. Due to their small body size and only infrequent contact with the sexual structures of the flowers, these species are considered occasional pollinators. The number of fruits produced differed between freely visited flowers, those prevented from receiving visits and those visited only a single time by M. quadrifasciata, B. morio, A. mellifera, T. hyalinata or T. spinipes. Flowers prevented from receiving visits or visited only once by T. spinipes did not produce fruits. The remaining pollination systems led to fruitification, with open pollination or a single visit from either M. quadrifasciata or B. morio leading to most fruit production.

  9. Review of Sexual Reproduction Characteristics ofAmomum villosum%阳春砂有性生殖特性的研究进展(综述)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美珍; 田惠桥

    2015-01-01

    Amomum villosum is rare and endangered medicinal plants in China, its fruit is used as medicine. Natural pollination seed setting rate is low for stigma being higher than anther, which severely limits its fruit production. In order to reveal the basis of forming fruit and explore corresponding strategy of improving the yield of A. villosum, the paper summarized research status on sexual reproduction such as morphological characteristics, ecological characteristics, pollen development, embryo sac development, flowering, pollination and fertilization.%阳春砂是我国珍稀濒危的药用植物,以其果实入药。由于阳春砂柱头高于花药,自然传粉结实率低,严重制约了果实产量。为揭示阳春砂果实形成的基础,探讨提高阳春砂产量的对应策略,本文就阳春砂的形态特征、生态习性、花粉发育、胚囊发育及开花、传粉、受精等有性生殖研究状况进行综述。

  10. Characterization of the flower morphology of three Duboisia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiltrop, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropane alkaloid scopolamine, an important precursor of active pharmaceutical ingredients due to its anticholinergic properties, can be extracted from leaf material of Duboisia R. Br., a member of the Solanaceae family. Robust and high-yielding Duboisia plants are a major requirement in cultivation because of challenges such as climatic changes and the rising demand of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Therefore, breeding activities are carried out to improve Duboisia plants with regard to leaf and scopolamine yield maximization as well as a higher tolerance to environmental conditions. Molecular genetic analysis of highly conserved plastid sequences was used to prove the identity of the species Duboisia hopwoodii, D. myoporoides and D. leichhardtii. To evaluate different breeding options various flower characteristics have been analyzed by means of stereo microscopy for the three species. For D. hopwoodii and D. leichhardtii, all characteristics occur stably with nearly no variation. In contrast, the number of flower organs such as petals and anthers varied for D. myoporoides.

  11. Pollination of Greenhouse Tomatoes by the Mexican bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernan Vergara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican native bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus Say was evaluated as a potential pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.. The experiments were performed at San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, from June to December 2004 in two 1 000 m2 greenhouses planted with tomatoes of the cultivar Mallory (Hazera ®. For the experiments, we used two colonies of Bombus ephippiatus, reared in the laboratory from queens captured in the field. Four treatments were applied to 20 study plants: pollination by bumble bees, manual pollination, pollination by mechanical vibration and no pollination (bagged flowers, no vibration. We measured percentage of flowers visited by bumble bees, number of seeds per fruit, maturing time, sugar content, fruit weight and fruit shape. All available flowers were visited by bumblebees, as measured by the degree of anther cone bruising. The number of seeds per fruit was higher for bumble bee-pollinated plants as compared with plants pollinated mechanically or not pollinated and was not significantly different between hand-pollinated and bumble bee-pollinated plants. Maturation time was significantly longer and sugar content, fresh weight and seed count were significantly higher for bumblebee pollinated flowers than for flowers pollinated manually or with no supplemental pollination, but did not differ with flowers pollinated mechanically.

  12. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumi, Masakazu [Plant Biotechnology Inst., Ibaraki Agricultural Center, Iwama, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy {center_dot} hr{sup -}1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  13. Effect of the Antisense BcMF12 Driven by the BcA9 Promoter on Gene Silencing in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The study analyzed the silencing of BcMF12 gene regulated by BcA9 promoter in the transgenic pakchoi and confirmed the effect of antisense BcMF12 gene on the pollen development. A conserved BcMF12 gene fragment was amplified from the cDNA of flower buds in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and was fused to the anther specific BcA9 promoter. The plant antisense expression vector was constructed and then introduced into pakchoi via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic plants were screened by antibiotics and molecular analysis. PCR and Southern blot revealed that the antisense BcMF12-GUS fusion gene regulated by BcA9 promoter was integrated into transgenic plants. Northern blot suggested that the expression of BcMF12 gene was down-regulated significantly. The pollen germination rate of transgenic plants with antisense BcMF12 gene decreased as compared with that of the control plants. The expression of the gene BcMF12 related to the pollen development was inhibited by the antisense BcMF12 driven by BcA9 promoter, which consequently affected the pollen development in pakchoi.

  14. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Iridaceae are described from the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Escarpments.  Ixia amethystina. a member of section Dichone, is endemic to the edge of the Roggeveld Escarpment. It shares an unusual, inclined spike that is nodding in bud with  I. trifolia but is distinguished by its blackish purple (not yellow anthers, narrower leaves 1.5-2.0 mm wide, medium-textured corm tunics that form a distinct neck at the base of the stem, and short style branches 2.0-2.5 mm long.Moraea marginata. another Roggeveld endemic, is a member of section Polvanthes and florally similar to M. fistulosa and M. monticola but differs in its linear, channelled leaves 5-7 mm wide, with unusual, thickened margins. Romulea singularis. from the edge of the Kobee River Valley in the Bokkeveld Mountains, is a member of section  Ciliatae. It is unique in the genus in its narrowly funnel-shaped, mauve to purple flowers with slender perianth tube 10-11 mm long, and unusually long filaments, 8-9 mm long, inserted in the lower half of the tube.

  15. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062-5016 pollen grains (266-647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world. PMID:26989640

  16. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  17. The use of a memorandum of understanding to enhance inter-agency security arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper centres on the mutual benefits that can be derived from entering into agreements with other agencies. With regard to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and its policy, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is a signed or unsigned written record of understanding or agreement, other than a contract between the RCMP and any other participant, whereby the participants describe arrangements to provide or receive services or assistance or engage in joint activities. In view of the incredible speed of technological developments and the high cost associated with these new developments, no country can expect to possess all of the information relating to a particular area. Each country possesses special skills, abilities and expertise that may not be available in anther country. Countries should build upon the existing expertise and, wherever practical, share and use these resources for their mutual benefit. The RCMP Legal Service reviews all MOUs to ensure that they conform to legal principles. There are also ministerial directives which offer guidance to the RCMP when establishing agreements or MOUs. (author)

  18. Screening of tissue-specific genes and promoters in tomato by comparing genome wide expression profiles of Arabidopsis orthologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chan Ju; Lee, Ha Yeon; Kim, Woong Bom; Lee, Bok-Sim; Kim, Jungeun; Ahmad, Raza; Kim, Hyun A; Yi, So Young; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2012-07-01

    Constitutive overexpression of transgenes occasionally interferes with normal growth and developmental processes in plants. Thus, the development of tissue-specific promoters that drive transgene expression has become agriculturally important. To identify tomato tissue-specific promoters, tissue-specific genes were screened using a series of in silico-based and experimental procedures, including genome-wide orthologue searches of tomato and Arabidopsis databases, isolation of tissue-specific candidates using an Arabidopsis microarray database, and validation of tissue specificity by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and promoter assay. Using these procedures, we found 311 tissue-specific candidate genes and validated 10 tissue-specific genes by RT-PCR. Among these identified genes, histochemical analysis of five isolated promoter::GUS transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis plants revealed that their promoters have different but distinct tissue-specific activities in anther, fruit, and root, respectively. Therefore, it appears these in silico-based screening approaches in addition to the identification of new tissue-specific genes and promoters will be helpful for the further development of tailored crop development.

  19. Construction and Expression of Methionine-rich and Lysine-rich Fusion Gene inBacillus natto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shuang; Luo Chao-chao; Wu Cai-xia; Gao Xue-jun

    2015-01-01

    Methionine and lysine are restrictive essential amino acids of livestock, they are also the most attentive indexes in the feed production to carry out the quality control and quality evaluation. Their contents in feed directly affect livestock protein synthesis. Bacillus natto has excellent probiotic properties. In this experiment, we used the genetic engineering method, fusion PCR technique, to connect methionine-rich gene (zein) from maize endosperm protein with lysine-rich gene (Cflr) from the pepper anther, then the fusion gene was inserted into the expression vector pHT43, and the recombinant plasmid pHT43/zein-Cflr was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was transferred intoBacillus natto, and induced by IPTG for the expression of the fusion gene. We found an apparent band at 40 ku site for the recombinant strain by SDS-PAGE. The contents of methionine and lysine were individually detected with HPLC, the quantities of methionine and lysine in the recombinant strain increased by 18.37% and 24.68% than the wild one, respectively. We also verified the stability of the recombinant bacterium during passaging, and found the stability was 100%. This study provided research-basis for the application of the recombinedBacillus nattoas feed additive.

  20. Petunia Germinating Pollen S/D3 Interacts with S-RNases in Petunia hybrida Vilm.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Xia Guo; Yan-Sheng Zhang; Yong-Biao Xue

    2006-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a genetic mechanism of self/non-self pollen recognition to prevent self-fertilization in many flowering plants and, in most cases, this is controlled by a multi-allelic S-locus. S-RNase and S-locus F box (SLF) proteins have been shown to be the female and male determinants of gametophytic selfincompatibility (GSI), respectively, in the Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Rosaceae. Nevertheless, it is thought that additional factors are required for the SI response. Herein, we constructed a mature anther cDNA library from a self-incompatible Petunia hybrida Vilm. line of the S3S3 haplotype. Using AhS2-RNase from Antirrhinun hispanicum as a bait for yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that petunia germinating pollen (PGP) S/D3 was capable of interacting physically with the bait. However, the interaction lacked haplotype specificity. The PGPS/D3 gene is a single copy gene that is expressed in tissues such as the style, ovary,pollen, and leaf. The PGPS/D3::GFP (green fluorescence protein) construct was detected in both the membrane and cytoplasm. The implications of these findings in the operation of S-RNase-based SI are discussed.

  1. Mendelian transmission of genes introduced into plants by the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, L; De Greve, H; Hernalsteens, J P; Van Montagu, M; Schieder, O; Straub, J; Schell, J

    1981-01-01

    Insertion of the bacterial transposon Tn7 was used to obtain mutants of an octopine Ti plasmid. Crown gall tumours induced on tobacco by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain carrying a particular mutant Ti plasmid (pGV2100) were found to give rise to shoots. These shoots were grown in vitro and one of them (rGV-1) was found to contain the T-DNA specific enzyme lysopine dehydrogenase (LpDH) and to form roots. After transfer to soil, rGV-1 developed into a morphologically and functionally normal tobacco plant. All cells of the regenerant and of vegetatively produced offspring were shown, by cloning of leaf protoplasts, to contain T-DNA and LpDH activity, rGV-1 and vegetatively produced offspring flowered normally. Plantlets obtained from haploid anther cultures were tested for LpDH activity. Forty-one percent of these plantlets were LpDH positive. Moreover, both self-pollination of rGV-1 and crosses between rGV-1 and normal tobacco plants showed that the LpDH character was transmitted both through the pollen and through the eggs of rGV-1 as a single dominant factor with Mendelian segregation ratios typical for monohybrid crosses. By repeated selfing, homozygous plants were obtained which bred true with respect to LpDH. The importance of these findings with respect to the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Ti plasmids for genetic engineering in plants is discussed.

  2. Functional decoupling between flowers and leaves in the Ameroglossum pernambucense complex can facilitate local adaptation across a pollinator and climatic heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, A M; Galetto, L; Machado, I C S

    2016-03-01

    Decoupling between floral and leaf traits is expected in plants with specialized pollination systems to assure a precise flower-pollinator fit, irrespective of leaf variation associated with environmental heterogeneity (functional modularity). Nonetheless, developmental interactions among floral traits also decouple flowers from leaves regardless of selection pressures (developmental modularity). We tested functional modularity in the hummingbird-pollinated flowers of the Ameroglossum pernambucense complex while controlling for developmental modularity. Using two functional traits responsible for flower-pollinator fit [floral tube length (TL) and anther-nectary distance (AN)], one floral trait not linked to pollination [sepal length (SL), control for developmental modularity] and one leaf trait [leaf length (LL)], we found evidence of flower functional modularity. Covariation between TL and AN was ca. two-fold higher than the covariation of either of these traits with sepal and leaf lengths, and variations in TL and AN, important for a precise flower-pollinator fit, were smaller than SL and LL variations. Furthermore, we show that previously reported among-population variation of flowers associated with local pollinator phenotypes was independent from SL and LL variations. These results suggest that TL and AN are functionally linked to fit pollinators and sufficiently decoupled from developmentally related floral traits (SL) and vegetative traits (LL). These results support previous evidences of population differentiation due to local adaptation in the A. pernambucense complex and shed light on the role of flower-leaf decoupling for local adaptation in species distributed across biotic and abiotic heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:26663030

  3. Studies of the in vitro selection of novel disease resistant plants and mutagenesis of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera cv Primor which had been regenerated from secondary embryoids were found to be more susceptible to Leptosphaeria maculans than those grown from seed, but were generally more resistant to Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro selection of secondary embryoids on medium containing toxic filtrates of A. brassicicola did not result in significantly higher levels of resistance to the pathogen, and in the case of L. maculans, the plants were found to be more susceptible after the selection steps. When tissues were challenged with pycnidiospores of L. maculans it was possible to define growth conditions in which differential reactions correlated with in vivo responses. Studies on in vitro mutagenesis revealed that low doses of gamma rays enhanced the production of anther embryoids, although, whereas both gamma and X-rays reduced the regeneration capacity of treated tissues, irradiation with UV did not. Increased resistance to A. brassicicola was detected in doubled haploid plants following a seed treatment with EMS and from microspore culture following UV irradiation. In vitro studies of Helianthus annuus and Macrophomina phaseolina, and Zea mays and Fusarium moniliforme are also reported. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Analysis of chromosomal and organellar DNA of somatic hybrids between Triticum aestiuvm and Haynaldia villosa Schur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, A; Xia, G; Zhang, X; Chen, H; Hu, H

    2001-05-01

    Intergeneric somatic hybridization between wheat (cv. Jinan 177) protoplasts that have 24-28 chromosomes and Haynaldia villosa protoplasts containing 11-14 chromosomes was carried out by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) method. A high frequency of hybrid calli and plants were obtained from the fusion products, as revealed by cytological and biochemical techniques and by PCR analysis of 5S rDNA spacer sequences. GISH (genomic in situ hybridization) analysis confirmed the presence of chromosomes from both parents in the hybrid clones and the common occurrence of translocations between them. The RFLP analysis of the organellar DNA using mitochondrion- and chloroplast-specific probes revealed that mitochondria from both parents existed in the cells of hybrid calli and their recombination, whereas chloroplasts segregated and recombined randomly. The gross morphology of hybrid plants resembled that of wheat, but the gross morphology of their ovaries and anthers were intermediate between those of the two parents. The relationship between hybrid plant regeneration and the balance of genetic materials in hybrid clones is discussed. PMID:11405621

  5. A duplicated coxI gene is associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in an alloplasmic Brassica juncea line derived from somatic hybridization with Diplotaxis catholica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aruna Pathania; Rajesh Kumar; V. Dinesh Kumar; Ashutosh; K. K. Dwivedi; P. B. Kirti; P. Prakash; V. L. Chopra; S. R. Bhat

    2007-08-01

    A cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of Brassica juncea was derived by repeated backcrossing of the somatic hybrid (Diplotaxis catholica + B. juncea) to B. juncea. The new CMS line is comparable to euplasmic lines for almost all characters, except for flowers which bear slender, needle-like anthers with aborted pollen. Detailed Southern analysis revealed two copies of coxI gene in the CMS line. One copy, coxI-1 is similar to the coxI gene of B. juncea, whereas the second copy, coxI-2 is present in a novel rearranged region. Northern analysis with eight mitochondrial gene probes showed altered transcript pattern only for the coxI gene. Two transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb, respectively, were detected in the CMS line. The novel 2.4 kb transcript was present in floral bud tissue but absent in the leaf tissue. In plants where male sterility broke down under high temperature during the later part of the growing season, the 2.4 kb coxI transcript was absent, which suggested its association with the CMS. The two coxI genes from the CMS line showed two amino acid changes in the coding region. The novel coxI gene showed unique repeats in the 5′ region suggesting recombination of mitochondrial genomes of the two species. The possible role of the duplicated coxI gene in causing male sterility is discussed.

  6. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  7. [Cloning and expression analysis of a LIM-domain protein gene from cotton (Gossypium hirsuturm L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Hou, Lei; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Li, De-Mou; Pei, Yan

    2003-02-01

    LIM-domain protein plays an important role in various cellular processes, including construction of cytoskeleton, transcription control and signal transduction. Based on cotton fiber EST database and contig analysis, the coding region of a cotton LIM-domain protein gene (GhLIM1) was obtained by RT-PCR from 4DPA (day post anthesis) ovule with fiber. The cloned fragment of 848 bp contains an open reading frame of 570 bp, coding for a polypeptide of 189 amino acids. It was demonstrated that the deduced GhLIM1 protein was highly homologous to the LIM-domain protein of sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis thaliana. Two intact LIM-domains, with the conserved sequence of a double zinc-finger structure (C-X2-C-X17-19-H-X2-C-X2-C-X2-C-X16-24-C-X2-H), were found in the GhLIM1 protein. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis showed that GhLIM1 gene expressed in root, shoot tip, hypocotyls, bud, leaf, anther, ovule and fiber (4DPA, 12DPA, 18DPA). However it was preferentially expressed in the shoot tip, fiber and ovule. It was proposed that the express of GhLIM1 gene is related to cotton fiber development. PMID:12776607

  8. Nujiangia (Orchidaceae: Orchideae): A new genus from the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua JIN; De-Zhu LI; Xiao-Guo XIANG; Yang-Jun LAI; Xiao-Chun SHI

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic “wildcard” taxon,Habenaria griffithii,were inferred from molecular data and morphological evidence.Morphologically,H.griffithii is quite “isolated” in Habenaria; instead,it is close to Gennaria,Diphylax,Peristylus,and Platanthera.It can be distinguished from these four genera by its slender staminodes conspicuously longer than the anther,rostellum having two relatively long arms,lip and lateral sepals connate in the basal part,and a transverse cushion-shaped stigma.An analysis of combined plastid and nuclear data (rbcL,matK,and internal transcribed spacer) using Bayesian and parsimony methods revealed that H.griffithii is closest to Gennaria,a monotypic genus restricted to the western Mediterranean and Canary Islands.On this basis,a new genus,Nujiangia,is tentatively proposed to accommodate this taxon.In addition to the taxonomic treatment of this genus,the delimitation of many related genera in Orchideae is discussed.

  9. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  10. Three-dimensional reciprocity of floral morphs in wild flax (Linum suffruticosum): a new twist on heterostyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Arroyo, Juan; Edwards, Mary E; Vargas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Here, we studied the floral morphology and pollination of the distylous plant Linum suffruticosum (Linaceae) in southern Spain. We observed a previously unreported form of distyly that involved twisting and bending of styles and stamens during floral development to achieve three-dimensional reciprocity of anthers and stigmas in the long-styled (pin) and short-styled (thrum) morphs. This developmental pattern causes pin pollen to be placed on the underside of pollinating Usia flies (Bombyliidae), and thrum pollen to be placed on the top of the thorax and abdomen. The pin stigmas contact the flies on the dorsum, apparently picking up predominantly thrum pollen, and the thrum stigmas contact the flies on the ventral surface, apparently picking up predominantly pin pollen. This form of heterostyly would appear on morphological grounds to be far more efficient in dispersing pollen between compatible morphs than the typical pin-thrum system. If so, this plant fits Darwin's prediction of efficient pollen flow between heterostylous morphs more closely than anything Darwin himself reported. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that this form of heterostyly evolved in a lineage that already had typical heterostyly. The analyses also indicate that there have been several independent origins of heterostyly in Linum and at least one reversal to stylar monomorphism. PMID:16866960

  11. An effective approach for identification of in vivo protein-DNA binding sites from paired-end ChIP-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Zoe A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq, which combines chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with high-throughput massively parallel sequencing, is increasingly being used for identification of protein-DNA interactions in vivo in the genome. However, to maximize the effectiveness of data analysis of such sequences requires the development of new algorithms that are able to accurately predict DNA-protein binding sites. Results Here, we present SIPeS (Site Identification from Paired-end Sequencing, a novel algorithm for precise identification of binding sites from short reads generated by paired-end solexa ChIP-Seq technology. In this paper we used ChIP-Seq data from the Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS, which is expressed within the anther during pollen development, the results show that SIPeS has better resolution for binding site identification compared to two existing ChIP-Seq peak detection algorithms, Cisgenome and MACS. Conclusions When compared to Cisgenome and MACS, SIPeS shows better resolution for binding site discovery. Moreover, SIPeS is designed to calculate the mappable genome length accurately with the fragment length based on the paired-end reads. Dynamic baselines are also employed to effectively discriminate closely adjacent binding sites, for effective binding sites discovery, which is of particular value when working with high-density genomes.

  12. Mechanical damage to pollen aids nutrient acquisition in Heliconius butterflies (Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Harald W; Eberhard, Monika J B; Eberhard, Stefan H; Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Huber, Werner; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2009-12-01

    Neotropical Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen onto the proboscis and extract nutrients from it. This study investigates the impact of the processing behaviour on the condition of the pollen grains. Pollen samples (n = 72) were collected from proboscides of various Heliconius species and Laparus doris in surrounding habitats of the Tropical Research Station La Gamba (Costa Rica). Examination using a light microscope revealed that pollen loads contained 74.88 ± 53.67% of damaged Psychotria pollen, 72.04 ± 23.4% of damaged Psiguria/Gurania pollen, and 21.35 ± 14.5% of damaged Lantana pollen (numbers represent median ± first quartile). Damaged pollen grains showed deformed contours, inhomogeneous and/or leaking contents, or they were empty. Experiments with Heliconius and Laparus doris from a natural population in Costa Rica demonstrated that 200 min of pollen processing behaviour significantly increased the percentage of damaged pollen of Psychotria compared to pollen from anthers (P = 0.015, Z = -2.44, Mann-Whitney U-test). Examination of pollen loads from green house reared Heliconius butterflies resulted in significantly greater amounts of damaged Psiguria pollen after 200 min of processing behaviour compared to pollen from flowers (P < 0.001, Z = -4.583, Mann-Whitney U-test). These results indicate that pollen processing functions as extra oral digestion whereby pollen grains are ruptured to make the content available for ingestion.

  13. High specialisation in the pollination system of Mandevilla tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan) Woodson (Apocynaceae) drives the effectiveness of butterflies as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, L D A; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-09-01

    Butterfly pollination in the tropics is considered somewhat effective or solely effective in a few plant species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Mandevilla tenuifolia (Apocynaceae), which has floral attributes associated with psychophily, has strategies adapted to pollination by butterflies, restricting other floral visitors and making these insects act as efficient pollinators. We analysed the floral and reproductive biology of M. tenuifolia, as well as the frequency and efficiency of its flower visitors. M. tenuifolia is an herb whose flowers have strong herkogamy and secondary pollen presentation on the style head, which corresponds to 60.4% of pollen on the anthers. Flower longevity and the long period of receptivity of the stigmatic region associated with the large amount of pollen removed in the first visits suggest that flowers remain functionally female during part of anthesis. Butterflies, mainly of the families Nymphalidae and Pieridae, are the only pollinators of M. tenuifolia. Despite being self-compatible, M. tenuifolia depends on biotic vectors for fruit production. A non-significant difference in fruit set between controlled treatments and natural conditions suggests that the pollinators are efficient. The inclination resulting from the landing of butterflies on flowers, together with flower morphology, guiding the insect proboscis inside the floral tube, as well as the frequency and efficiency of butterfly visits, are evidence of the close relationship between butterflies and M. tenuifolia, and also of the efficiency of these insects as pollinators.

  14. Detection of Epigenetic Modifications During Microspore Embryogenesis: Analysis of DNA Methylation Patterns Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testillano, Pilar S; Risueño, María Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of 5-deoxy-cytidines of DNA constitutes a prominent epigenetic modification of the chromatin fiber which is locked in a transcriptionally inactive conformation. Changes in global DNA methylation are involved in many plant developmental processes during proliferation and differentiation events. The analysis of the changes of global DNA methylation distribution patterns during microspore embryogenesis induction and progression will inform on the regulatory mechanisms of the process, helping in the design of protocols to improve its efficiency in different species. To investigate the DNA methylation dynamics during microspore embryogenesis in the different cell types present in the cultures, the analysis of spatial and temporal pattern of nuclear distribution of 5-methyl-deoxy-cytidine (5mdC) constitutes a potent approach. The immunolocalization of 5mdC on sections and subsequent confocal laser microscopy analysis have been developed for in situ cellular analysis of a variety of plant samples, including embryogenic microspore and anther cultures. Quantification of 5mdC immunofluorescence intensity by image analysis software also permits to estimate differences in global DNA methylation levels among different cell types during development. PMID:26619883

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel pollen predominantly membrane protein gene BcMF12 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianghua; Zhang, Lixin; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-11-01

    A novel membrane protein gene, BcMF12, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends based on a pollen-specific cDNA fragment (DN237936). The cDNA was 1,155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 894 bp capable of encoding a putative polypeptide of 297 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 34.6 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.6. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses revealed that BcMF12 showed high similarities with some membrane protein sequences previously published in the public database and contained six highly conserved transmembrane domains corresponding to six highly hydrophobic regions. This indicates that BcMF12 may be a putative membrane protein. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the transcripts of BcMF12 were abundant in the flower bud, flower and anther, but not detected in the root, stem, leaf and pistil. Moreover, the BcMF12 transcripts were detectable at the late stages of pollen development. Morphological investigations of pollen from the BcMF12 antisense transgenic plants showed that most of pollen grains of transgenic plants were abnormal. These results strongly suggest that BcMF12 is a novel pollen-preferentially membrane protein which play an important role during the pollen development in Chinese cabbage.

  16. Haploidization of vegetable plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haploid plants have been widely introduced into vegetable crops breeding programmes, also in Poland. They can be produced by means of androgenesis in brassicas and pepper, gynogenesis in onion and beetroot, or induced parthenogenesis in vegetables belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Androgenesis in brassicas can be induced using both anther and microspore cultures. Efficiency of this process, provided the optimal medium composition, depends on conditions for culture initiation (thermal shock is necessary). Around 40% of developing androgenic plants of white cabbage and Brussels sprouts are diploids and after their self-pollination doubled-haploid lines can instantly be produced. Gynogenic development of haploid cells constituting the embryo sac in onion can be induced by a flower bud culture method. Firstly an induction medium is used, followed by a regeneration medium. Almost 90% of obtained plants are haploids and therefore the use of antimitotic agents is necessary in order to double their chromosome number. Induced parthogenesis is being applied in cucumber. Pollen previously exposed to ionising radiation is used for pollination, which causes the development of embryos being subsequently plated on a medium in order to develop haploid plants. Efficiency of the processes leading to the production of haploid plants in every species depends to a high degree on the genotype and growth conditions of donor plants. (author)

  17. Flowering biology and structure of floral nectaries in Galanthus nivalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Poland Galanthus nivalis L. is partially protected. The flowers of this species are one of the first sources of nectar and pollen for insects from February to April. The aim of this study was to present the flowering biology as well as the topography, anatomical, and ultrastructural features of the floral nectary. The flower lifespan, the breeding system, and the mass of pollen and nectar produced by the flowers were determined. Examination of the nectary structure was performed using light, fluorescence, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The flower of G. nivalis lives for about 30 days. The stamens and pistils mature simultaneously and during this time nectar is secreted. The anthers of one flower produced the large amount of pollen (4 mg. The breeding system of G. nivalis was found to be characterized by partial self-compatibility, outcrossing, and xenogamy. The nectary is located at the top of the inferior ovary. The nectary epidermal cells are characterized by striated cuticular ornamentation. Initially, the secreted nectar formed vesicle-like protuberances under the cuticle. The epidermal and parenchymal cells contain numerous plastids, mitochondria, dictyosomes, ER cisterns, and vesicles fused with the plasmalemma, which indicates granulocrine nectar secretion.

  18. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueju; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Song, Huimin; Tan, Xinxin; Sun, Lichao; Sangare, Lancine; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI), FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05). Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.

  19. The pollination of Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae) in southeastern Brazil: ornithophilous versus melittophilous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, M B F; Sazima, M

    2005-07-01

    Bromelia antiacantha flowered from December to February and during this period the central leaves and bracts displayed a bright red colour. The inflorescence bears 150-350 flowers, with 10-35 flowers opening per day over 4-5 days. The flowers are dark magenta coloured with white margins, tubular-shaped with a wide opening, and their stigma is situated below the anthers. Anthesis began around 4:00 h and flowers lasted approximately 15 h. The highest nectar volume and sugar concentration occurred between 4:00-6:00 h; after this period, both decreased throughout the day. B. antiacantha is partially self-incompatible, non-autogamous, and therefore, pollinator dependent. The hummingbirds Thalurania glaucopis, Amazilia fimbriata, and Ramphodon naevius were its most frequent pollinators (55% of the visits), visiting flowers mainly in the afternoon. The scattered distribution of B. antiacantha promoted trap-lining behaviour of the hummingbirds, which favoured fruit set through xenogamy. Corolla colour, wide flower opening, sweet odour and concentrated nectar early in the day favoured bee visitation. Of the 38 % of bee visits, 96% were made by Bombus morio, mainly in the morning and their behaviour promoted self-pollination. The bee Trigona spinipes frequently acted as a pollen and nectar thief early in the morning, excluding most of the hummingbirds. Bromelia antiacantha has ornithophilous and melittophilous features, and despite being pollinated by two kinds of agents, its reproductive success depends on a given set of circumstances.

  20. Identification and characterization of Argonaute gene family and meiosis-enriched Argonaute during sporogenesis in maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuxin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins play a key role in regulation of gene expression through smal RNA‐directed RNA cleavage and translational repression, and are essential for multiple developmental processes. In the present study, 17 AGO genes of maize (Zea mays L., ZmAGOs) were identified using a Hidden Markov Model and validated by rapid amplifica-tion of cDNA ends assay. Subsequently, quantitative PCR revealed that expressions of these genes were higher in reproductive than in vegetative tissues. AGOs presented five temporal and spatial expression patterns, which were likely modulated by DNA methylation, 50‐untranslated exons and microRNA‐mediated feedback loops. Intriguingly, ZmAGO18b was highly expressed in tassels during meiosis. Furthermore, in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence showed that ZmA- GO18b was enriched in the tapetum and germ cel s in meiotic anthers. We hypothesized that ZmAGOs are highly expressed in reproductive tissues, and that ZmAGO18b is a tapetum and germ cel‐specific member of the AGO family in maize.

  1. QTL Mapping of Low Temperature on Germination rate of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; LOU Qiao-jun; SUN Zong-xiu; XING Yong-zhong; YU Xin-qiao; LUO Li-jun

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the low temperature on germination capacity (LTG) a double haploid rice (DH) population with 198 lines derived from anther culture of F1 hybrid with indica line Zhenshan 97B and a perennial japonica line AAV002863 was used to construct a linkage map with 140 SSR markers. The germination rate in Zhenshan 97B and AAV002863 was 79.7% and 30.1%, while in DH population it ranged from 0 to 100% at 15℃ after 6 days. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling low temperature germinability were identified on chromosomes 3 and 10. The percentage of observed phenotypic variance attributed to qLTG-3 and qLTG-10 was 12.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Allele from Zhenshan 97B increased the LTG at qLTG-3 region, while allele from AAV002863 increased the LTG at qLTG-10 region. One pair of epistatic interaction was detected between loci on chromosomes 3 and 10. The main-effect of QTL on chromosome 10 was also involved in epistatic interaction.

  2. QTL analysis of rice low temperature germinability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A double haploid population, derived from anther culture of F1 hybrid between a typical indica and a japonica (ZYQ8/JX17), has been used to investigate the low temperature germinability (LTG) at 15C. The low temperature germinability of two parents was significantly different.In 6-11 d, the germination percentage of ZYQ8 was higher than that of JX17. In 12-16 d, the germination percentage of JX17 was higher than that of ZYQ8. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of every day for low temperature germinability have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population. In 8-11 d, qLTG-9 was identiffed in C397B-RZ617B on chromosome 9, the additive effect was positive, showing that the allele from JX17 could increase low temperature germinability. In 12-16 d, qLTG4 was mapped between RG908 and CT563 on chromosome 4,the additive effect was negative, showing that the allele from ZYQ8 could increase low temperature germinability. These two QTLs were detected at different stages, showing the complexity of the mechanism of iow temperature germinability.

  3. First contribution to the bionomics of the pollen wasp Celonites fischeri Spinola, 1838 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Masarinae in Cyprus In memory of Friedrich W. Gess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Mauss

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Celonites fischeri was recorded from ten localities in various open, disturbed habitats in North-West Cyprus. The species is probably narrowly oligolectic exploiting exclusively flowers of Echium (Boraginaceae as the sole pollen and nectar source. Females perform a pollen collecting strategy hitherto unknown in pollen wasps; they ingest pollen from fresh anthers of Echium flowers that have just started to open by forcing their head into the only slightly opened corolla. Males patrol along Echium plants in search for females. Mating was mainly observed at Echium flowers but also occurred in the area of a male sleeping aggregation. The aerial nest, consisting of 2–5 earthen cells sometimes covered with an additional thin layer of earth, is attached to stones or plants. Nest building and soil collection behaviour are described and an ethogram of a nesting female observed during three consecutive days is given. Males form sleeping aggregations at particular sites that are continuously used over at least eleven consecutive nights, even though the size of the male groups may vary from day to day. During sleeping, the males characteristically curl their bodies around withered stems.

  4. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Biology and Food Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Guo, Kai [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fan, Chunfen [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Si, Shengli [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); and others

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid.

  5. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  6. Direct Gene Transfer into Plant Mature Seeds via Electroporation After Vacuum Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagio, Takashi

    A number of direct gene transfer methods have been used successfully in plant genetic engineering, providing powerful tools to investigate fundamental and applied problems in plant biology (Chowrira et al., 1996; D'halluin et al., 1992; Morandini and Salamini, 2003; Rakoczy-Trojanowska, 2002; Songstad et al., 1995). In cereals, several methods have been found to be suitable for obtaining transgenic plant; these include bombardment of scutellum (Hagio et al., 1995) and inflorescence cultures (He et al., 2001), and silicon carbide fiber-mediated DNA delivery (Asano et al., 1991) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation (Potrykus, 1990). Electroporation of cereal protoplasts also has proved successful but it involves prolonged cell treatments and generally is limited by the difficulties of regeneration from cereal protoplast cultures (Fromm et al., 1987). Many laboratories worldwide are now using Agrobacterium as a vehicle for routine production of transgenic crop plants. The primary application of the particle system (Klein et al., 1987) has been for transformation of species recalcitrant to conventional Agrobacterium (Binns, 1990) or protoplast methods. But these conventional methods can be applied to the species and varieties that are amenable to tissue culture (Machii et al., 1998). Mature seeds are readily available and free from the seasonal limits that immature embryo, inflorescence, and anther have. This method enables us to produce transgenic plants without time-consuming tissue culture process.

  7. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Several New Aspects of the Foraging Behavior of Osmia cornifrons in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Matsumoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging behavior of Osmia cornifrons Radoszkowski, which is a useful pollinator in apple orchards consisting of only one kind of commercial cultivars such as “Fuji”, and of different types of pollinizers, such as the red petal type, “Maypole” or “Makamik”. It was confirmed that, in terms of the number of foraging flowers per day, visiting flowers during low temperatures, strong wind, and reduced sunshine in an apple orchard, O. cornifrons were superior to honeybees. We indicated that O. cornifrons seemed to use both petals and anthers as foraging indicator, and that not only female, but also males contributed to apple pollination and fertilization by the pollen grains attached to them from visiting flowers, including those at the balloon stage. It was confirmed that O. cornifrons acts as a useful pollinator in an apple orchard consisting of one kind of cultivar with pollinizers planted not more than 10 m from commercial cultivars.

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of WAG-2 alternative splicing transcripts in developing spikes of Aegilops tauschii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHUHONG WEI

    2016-09-01

    WAG-2 is a C-class MADS-box gene, which is orthologous to AGAMOUS (AG )inArabidopsis. The AG group C-classMADS-box genes are involved in stamen and pistil identity. In this study, two WAG-2 transcripts, namely, WAG-2f and WAG-2g, were isolated and characterized from Aegilops tauschii . The open reading frames of WAG-2f and WAG-2g were 825 and 822 bp, respectively, encoding 275 and 274 amino acid residues. BLAST searches of partial WAG-2 genomic sequence againstthe draft sequence of Ae. tauschii genome database revealed the complex structure of WAG-2 gene, which consisted of seven exons and six introns. TheWAG-2f and WAG-2g cDNAs were two alternative splicing transcripts. The alternative splicing events were produced by an alternative 5 ' splice site. The expression level of WAG-2f transcript, which was extremely weak inyoung spikes of floret primordium formation stage, increased as the spikes developed. The highest expression was observed in the spikes at the anther separation stage. Low expression levels of WAG-2f were also detected at the tetrad stage. The WAG-2g transcript was expressed at all four stages of spike development but at a relatively low level. The expression pattern of thetwo transcripts was distinctly different during floral development, thereby suggesting a functional divergence.

  10. Rate of dehydration of corn (Zea mays L.) pollen in the air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylor, Donald E

    2003-10-01

    The water content of corn (Zea mays L.) pollen directly affects its dispersal in the atmosphere through its effect on settling speed and viability. Therefore, the rate of water loss from pollen after being shed from the anther is an important component of a model to predict effective pollen transport distances in the atmosphere. The rate of water loss from corn pollen in air was determined using two methods: (1) by direct weighing of samples containing approximately 5 x 10(4) grains, and (2) by microscopic measurement of the change in size of individual grains. The conductance of the pollen wall to water loss was derived from the time rate of change of pollen mass or pollen grain size. The two methods gave average conductance values of 0.026 and 0.027 cm s-1, respectively. In other experiments, the water potential, psi, of corn pollen was determined at various values of relative water content (dry weight basis), either by using a thermocouple psychrometer or by allowing samples of pollen to come to vapour equilibrium with various saturated salt solutions. Non-linear regression analysis of the data yielded psi (MPa) = -3.218 theta(-1.35) (r2 = 0.94; for -298 pollen. The model agreed well (r2 approximately 0.98) with the observed time-course of the decrease of water content of pollen grains exposed to a range of temperature and humidity conditions. PMID:12909689

  11. Arabidopsis CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 Functions Independently of the SOS Pathway during Reproductive Development in Saline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monihan, Shea M; Magness, Courtney A; Yadegari, Ramin; Smith, Steven E; Schumaker, Karen S

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of sodium in soil (saline conditions) negatively affects plant growth and development. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) functions to remove sodium from the cytosol during vegetative development preventing its accumulation to toxic levels. In this pathway, the SOS3 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) calcium sensors interact with the SOS2 protein kinase to activate sodium/proton exchange at the plasma membrane (SOS1) or vacuolar membrane. To determine if the same pathway functions during reproductive development in response to salt, fertility was analyzed in wild type and the SOS pathway mutants grown in saline conditions. In response to salt, CBL10 functions early in reproductive development before fertilization, while SOS1 functions mostly after fertilization when seed development begins. Neither SOS2 nor SOS3 function in reproductive development in response to salt. Loss of CBL10 function resulted in reduced anther dehiscence, shortened stamen filaments, and aborted pollen development. In addition, cbl10 mutant pistils could not sustain the growth of wild-type pollen tubes. These results suggest that CBL10 is critical for reproductive development in the presence of salt and that it functions in different pathways during vegetative and reproductive development.

  12. Pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidate Wight and Arn. (Balsaminaceae, a rare and endemic balsam of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sreekala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollination biology of Impatiens cuspidata, a rare and endemic balsam from the Western Ghats, has been studied with special reference to phenology, pollination, pollen-pistil interactions, breeding experiments and stigma receptivity. It flowers at night between 2330 and 0430 hr; flowering days extend up to 160 days in a year. The anther dehisced one day before anthesis, which confirmed the protandrous condition of the flower. Pollen-ovule ratio was calculated as 1729:1. Hawk moths, honeybees, flies and butterflies are the major pollinators of Impatiens cuspidata. Pollen grains are oval, having an average diameter of 28.24μm. Pollen viability by FCR test confirmed that 82% pollen grains are viable on the day of anthesis. Best pollen germination along with 1636μm tube development was achieved in Brewbakers medium. Stigma was more receptive (up to 80% on the first day of flower opening. It chiefly reproduced by means of cross pollination, where the fruit set was only 40%, but artificial cross-pollination through xenogamy enhanced fruit set up to 80%. The plant is an obligate out-crosser and self incompatible, as confirmed by various hand pollination experiments. Seed germination in natural and controlled conditions was only 20%. Its dependence on a specialized habitat, bottlenecks in sexual reproduction, low percentage of seed germination and other abiotic factors could be reasons for its limited distribution and endemism.

  13. 中国外来入侵植物的学名考证%Nomenclatural Notes on Alien Invasive Vascular Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫小玲; 马金双

    2011-01-01

    基于中国外来入侵植物的相关报道和文献,发现-些入侵植物的学名使用比较混乱,-个物种存在两个或两个以上的名称.依据最新植物志资料,对国内30种外来入侵植物学名进行了考证,包括中名、基名(若存在)、异名、原产地以及在中国的分布等.%Based on literatures of invasive plants, the scientific names of thirty alien invasive plants in China are reviewed here, since more than one name were used for one species by different anthers. The data from the floras updated were employed to compile the scientific name for each species. The vernacular name, basionym (if present),synonym (s) for each species, along with their distributions in China were provided.

  14. Gene coexpression analysis reveals complex metabolism of the monoterpene alcohol linalool in Arabidopsis flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginglinger, Jean-François; Boachon, Benoit; Höfer, René; Paetz, Christian; Köllner, Tobias G; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphael; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ullmann, Pascaline; Beran, Franziska; Claudel, Patricia; Verstappen, Francel; Fischer, Marc J C; Karst, Francis; Bouwmeester, Harro; Miesch, Michel; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ehlting, Jürgen; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-11-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simultaneously expressed at anthesis, mainly in upper anther filaments and in petals. Upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the TPS enzymes colocalize in vesicular structures associated with the plastid surface, whereas the P450 proteins were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in N. benthamiana, the TPS enzymes formed two different enantiomers of linalool: (-)-(R)-linalool for TPS10 and (+)-(S)-linalool for TPS14. Both P450 enzymes metabolize the two linalool enantiomers to form different but overlapping sets of hydroxylated or epoxidized products. These oxygenated products are not emitted into the floral headspace, but accumulate in floral tissues as further converted or conjugated metabolites. This work reveals complex linalool metabolism in Arabidopsis flowers, the ecological role of which remains to be determined.

  15. Dynamics of DNA Replication during Premeiosis and Early Meiosis in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat. PMID:25275307

  16. Dynamics of DNA replication during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Rey

    Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialised cell division that involves chromosome replication, two rounds of chromosome segregation and results in the formation of the gametes. Meiotic DNA replication generally precedes chromosome pairing, recombination and synapsis in sexually developing eukaryotes. In this work, replication has been studied during premeiosis and early meiosis in wheat using flow cytometry, which has allowed the quantification of the amount of DNA in wheat anther in each phase of the cell cycle during premeiosis and each stage of early meiosis. Flow cytometry has been revealed as a suitable and user-friendly tool to detect and quantify DNA replication during early meiosis in wheat. Chromosome replication was detected in wheat during premeiosis and early meiosis until the stage of pachytene, when chromosomes are associated in pairs to further recombine and correctly segregate in the gametes. In addition, the effect of the Ph1 locus, which controls chromosome pairing and affects replication in wheat, was also studied by flow cytometry. Here we showed that the Ph1 locus plays an important role on the length of meiotic DNA replication in wheat, particularly affecting the rate of replication during early meiosis in wheat.

  17. Prokaryotic expression of soluble Arabidopsis protein AtERF1 and preparation of its polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AtERF1 encodes a member of the ERF subfamily B-3 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family.It has been demonstrated almost every member of the B3 subgroup of AP2/ERF genes is involved in defense responses in Arabidopsis.Codon usage within a gene is a critical determinant of achievable protein expression level in E.coli. Gene optimization,therefore,is an effective method for synthetic genes with the aim of enhancing soluble expression,particular in heterologous hosts.In this paper,the AtERF1 protein of Arabidopsis thaliana was expressed in Escherichia coli using its optimized DNA sequence for E.coli. and yielded high level of soluble AtERF-1 protein in recombinant E.coli. The AtERF1 protein was used as an antigen to immune rabbits and obtains high titer antibodies.The immunological specificity of the polyclonal antibodies to AtERF1 was confirmed by Western blot assay.The prepared antibody in this work would facilitate the further functional investigation of AtERF1 in biochemical levels in Arabidopsis anther development.

  18. Scalar multi-wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. I.; Kashargin, P. E.; Sushkov, Sergey V.

    2016-09-01

    In 1921 Bach and Weyl derived the method of superposition to construct new axially symmetric vacuum solutions of general relativity. In this paper we extend the Bach–Weyl approach to non-vacuum configurations with massless scalar fields. Considering a phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy, we construct a multi-wormhole solution describing an axially symmetric superposition of N wormholes. The solution found is static, everywhere regular and has no event horizons. These features drastically tell the multi-wormhole configuration from other axially symmetric vacuum solutions which inevitably contain gravitationally inert singular structures, such as ‘struts’ and ‘membranes’, that keep the two bodies apart making a stable configuration. However, the multi-wormholes are static without any singular struts. Instead, the stationarity of the multi-wormhole configuration is provided by the phantom scalar field with the negative kinetic energy. Anther unusual property is that the multi-wormhole spacetime has a complicated topological structure. Namely, in the spacetime there exist 2 N asymptotically flat regions connected by throats.

  19. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2012-01-09

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance. © 2012 Ling et al.

  20. The contribution of mating system variation to reproductive isolation in two closely related Centaurium species (Gentianaceae) with a generalized flower morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brys, Rein; Vanden Broeck, An; Mergeay, Joachim; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2014-05-01

    In closely related plant species that display strong similarities in phenology and pollinator communities, differences in breeding system and associated shifts in floral traits may have important effects on the magnitude and direction of heterospecific pollen flow and hybridization. Here, we quantified the strength of several pre- and postzygotic barriers acting between the facultatively outcrossing Centaurium erythraea and the predominantly selfing C. littorale via a suite of experiments, and estimated the frequency of hybridization in the field using molecular markers. The reproductive barriers primarily responsible for preventing hybridization were essentially prezygotic and these acted asymmetrically. Due to differences in floral display, pollen production, and pollen transfer rates, heterospecific pollen flow occurred predominantly from C. erythraea to C. littorale. In C. littorale, on the other hand, close anther-stigma positioning and resulting higher capacity for autonomous selfing functioned as an efficient barrier to counterbalance the higher risk for hybrid mating. In both species the action of all reproductive barriers resulted in a small opportunity for hybrid establishment, which was confirmed by the occurrence of only ∼1% putative hybrids in the field. Our findings confirm that differences in breeding system affect heterospecific pollen transfer patterns and that autonomous selfing may efficiently prevent hybridization. PMID:24372301

  1. Nectar secretion dynamic links pollinator behavior to consequences for plant reproductive success in the ornithophilous mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, T J; Galetto, L; Silva, W R

    2014-09-01

    The mistletoe Psittacanthus robustus was studied as a model to link flower phenology and nectar secretion strategy to pollinator behaviour and the reproductive consequences for the plant. The bright-coloured flowers presented diurnal anthesis, opened asynchronously throughout the rainy season and produced copious dilute nectar as the main reward for pollinators. Most nectar was secreted just after flower opening, with little sugar replenishment after experimental removals. During the second day of anthesis in bagged flowers, the flowers quickly reabsorbed the offered nectar. Low values of nectar standing crop recorded in open flowers can be linked with high visitation rates by bird pollinators. Eight hummingbirds and two passerines were observed as potential pollinators. The most frequent flower visitors were the hummingbirds Eupetomena macroura and Colibri serrirostris, which actively defended flowering mistletoes. The spatial separation between anthers, stigma and nectar chamber promotes pollen deposition on flapping wings of hovering hummingbirds that usually probe many flowers per visit. Seed set did not differ between hand-, self- and cross-pollinated flowers, but these treatments set significantly more seeds than flowers naturally exposed to flower visitors. We suggest that the limitation observed in the reproductive success of this plant is not related to pollinator scarcity, but probably to the extreme frequency of visitation by territorial hummingbirds. We conclude that the costs and benefits of plant reproduction depend on the interaction strength between flowers and pollinators, and the assessment of nectar secretion dynamics, pollinator behaviour and plant breeding system allows clarification of the complexity of such associations. PMID:24641568

  2. Heat-induced phytohormone changes are associated with disrupted early reproductive development and reduced yield in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Cui, Kehui; Wang, Wencheng; Li, Qian; Fahad, Shah; Hu, Qiuqian; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Peng, Shaobing

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight. The adverse effects of high temperature were alleviated by application of exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in the heat-susceptible Liangyoupeijiu. High temperature stress reduced active cytokinins, gibberellin A1 (GA1), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but increased abscisic acid (ABA) and bound cytokinins in young panicles. Correlation analyses and application of exogenous 6-BA revealed that high temperature-induced cytokinin changes may regulate yield components by modulating the differentiation and degradation of branches and spikelets, panicle exsertion, pollen vigor, anther dehiscence, and grain size. Heat-tolerant Shanyou 63 displayed minor changes in phytohormones, panicle formation, and grain yield under high temperature compared with those of the other three varieties. These results suggest that phytohormone changes are closely associated with yield formation, and a small reduction or stability in phytohormone content is required to avoid large yield losses under heat stress. PMID:27713528

  3. Response and Tolerance Mechanism of Cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. to Elevated Temperature Stress: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kashif Rafiq; Ali, Farhan; Shah, Farooq; Younas, Muhammad; Shah, Tariq; Shahwar, Durri; Hassan, Waseem; Ahmad, Zahoor; Qi, Chao; Lu, Yanli; Iqbal, Amjad; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is an important multipurpose crop which is highly sensitive to both biotic and abiotic stresses. Proper management of this cash crop requires systematic understanding of various environmental conditions that are vital to yield and quality. High temperature stress can severely affect the viability of pollens and anther indehiscence, which leads to significant yield losses. Cotton can respond to withstand adverse environmental condition in several phases among which the accumulation of chemicals is extremely vital. Calcium, kinases, reactive oxygen species, carbohydrate, transcription factors, gene expression regulation, and plant hormones signaling pathways are playing a handy role in activating the major genes responsible to encounter and defend elevated temperature stress. The production of heat shock proteins is up-regulated when crops are unleashed to high temperature stress. Molecular breeding can play a functional role to identify superior genes for all the important attributes as well as provide breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. The development of high-temperature resistant transgenic cultivars of cotton can grant a stability benefit and can also ameliorate the production capacity in response to elevated temperature. PMID:27446165

  4. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  5. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase OsCIPK23 functions in pollination and drought stress responses in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Droughtis very harmful to grain yield due to its adverse effect on reproduction,especially on pollination proeess in rice.However,the molecular basis of such an effect still remains largely unknown.Here,wereport the role of amember of CBL(Calcineurin B-Like)Interacting Protein Kinase(CIPK)family,OsCIPK23,in pollination and stress responses in dee.Molecular analyses revealed that it is mainly expressed in pistil and anther but up-regulated by pollination,as well as by treatments of various abiotic stresses and phytohormones.RNA interference-mediated suppression of OsCIPK23 expression significantly reduced seed set and conferred a hypersensitive response to drought stress,indicating its possible roles in pollination and drought stress.In consistent,overexpression of OsCIPK23 induced the expression of seVeral drought tolerance related genes.Taken together,these results indicate that OsCIPK23 is a multistress induced gene and likely mediatesa signaling pathway commonly shared by both pollination and drought stress responses in rice.

  6. A Mitochondrial Magnesium Transporter Functions in Arabidopsis Pollen Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le-Gong Li; Lubomir N.Sokolov; Yong-Hua Yang; Dong-Ping Li; Julie Ting; Girdhar K.Pandy; Sheng Luan

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium is an abundant divalent cation in plant cells and plays a critical role in many physiological processes.We have previously described the jdentification of a 10-member Arabidopsis gene family encoding putative magnesium transport(MGT)proteins.Here,we report that a member of the MGT family,AtMGT5, functions as a dual-functional Mg-transporter that operates in a concentration-dependent manner, namely it serves as a Mg-importer at micromolar levels and facilitates the efflux in the millimolar range.The AtMGT5 protein is localized in the mitochondria,suggesting that AtMGT5 mediates Mg-trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondria.The AtMGT5 gene was exclusively expressed in anthers at early stages of flower development.Examination of two independent T-DNA insertional mutants of AtMGT5 gene demonstrated that AtMG7-5 played an essential role for pollen development and male fertility.This study suggests a critical role for Mg2+ transport between cytosol and mitochondria in male gametogenesis in plants.

  7. Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, R; Sonia; Jaiwal, P K; Jaiwal, S

    2003-06-01

    Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics.

  8. Marker-assisted selection for the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ar in a backcross population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Garcês de Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A doubled-haploid (DH population, obtained by anther culture of F1 plants from a cross between a highlysusceptible rice cultivar Lijiangxintuanheigu and the resistant somaclone (SC09, of the cultivar Araguaia, was used to identifyRAPD markers linked to the blast resistance gene Pi-ar. The 86 DH plants, inoculated with the race IB-9 of Magnaportheoryzae, segregated in 1:1 ratio of resistant and susceptible plants. Of the 67 primers used 31 produced DNA profiles thatdifferentiated resistant and susceptible bulks as well as the parental cultivars. The resistance gene was found linked to theprimer OPS162072 (‘AGGGGGTTCC’ at a distance of 3.6 cM. The selection efficiency of this primer was assessed in a BC3 F1population derived from another cross between a susceptible cultivar IAC 201 and SC09. The marker OPS16 showedefficiency of 86.9%, when six resistant and two susceptible plants were considered as negatives in RAPD analysis.

  9. Critical Roles of Vacuolar Invertase in Floral Organ Development and Male and Female Fertilities Are Revealed through Characterization of GhVIN1-RNAi Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Seed number and quality are key traits determining plant fitness and crop yield and rely on combined competence in male and female fertilities. Sucrose metabolism is central to reproductive success. It remains elusive, though, how individual sucrose metabolic enzymes may regulate the complex reproductive processes. Here, by silencing vacuolar invertase (VIN) genes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) reproductive organs, we revealed diverse roles that VIN plays in multiple reproductive processes. A set of phenotypic and genetic studies showed significant reductions of viable seeds in GhVIN1-RNAi plants, attributed to pollination failure and impaired male and female fertilities. The former was largely owing to the spatial mismatch between style and stamen and delayed pollen release from the anthers, whereas male defects came from poor pollen viability. The transgenic stamen exhibited altered expression of the genes responsible for starch metabolism and auxin and jasmonic acid signaling. Further analyses identified the reduction of GhVIN expression in the seed coat as the major cause for the reduced female fertility, which appeared to disrupt the expression of some key genes involved in trehalose and auxin metabolism and signaling, leading to programmed cell death or growth repression in the filial tissues. Together, the data provide an unprecedented example of how VIN is required to synchronize style and stamen development and the formation of male and female fertilities for seed development in a crop species, cotton. PMID:26969720

  10. Are differences in breeding mechanisms and fertility among populations contributing to rarity in Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C L; Caddy, H A R

    2006-12-01

    Plant breeding systems are seldom studied across the breadth of a species' range. For many systems, this precludes an informed assessment of the evolutionary biology of a species, particularly of the factors that shape fecundity. Grevillea rhizomatosa is a threatened species of shrub known only from a 7 × 8 km area and c. 2000 plants in northern New South Wales, Australia. The species reproduces asexually from rhizomatous suckers, and fruit are only produced in a few populations. Over two flowering seasons, we investigated the extent of sexual reproduction and the mechanisms of infertility in five populations that span the range of the species. Seed were produced in three of the five populations. The breeding system varied among populations from obligate outcrossing to facultative outcrossing to fully sterile. Fruit to flower ratios were below 0.13 in the fertile populations but within the range found in other species of Grevillea. Pollinator limitation was not linked to infertility. Stigmatic opening and receptivity were functional in all populations. Interpopulation crosses using fertile pollen failed to recover fertility in an infertile population. A breakdown in female and male fertility mechanisms was found including a fault in the mechanical release of pollen from anthers, wild-fires. PMID:21642125

  11. Isolation, expression analysis and characterization of EgNDL, a NDR-like protein in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedsirin Ruttajorn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel cDNA of a SF21-like protein or NDR-like protein (EgNDL from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is 1,044 bp in length and encodes a putative protein with a 347-amino-acid open reading frame. The EgNDL showed 93% identity to the pollenspecific SF21-like protein of Phoenix dactylifera and also showed 79% identity to the NDL protein of Theobroma cacao. Expression analysis of the EgNDL gene in various tissues showed that EgNDL was expressed in the anthers, pistils, mesocarp and leaves. The high expression of EgNDL among three oil palm varieties was significantly expressed in Pisifera (P<0.05, which is commonly used as a male parent in crosses. Computational tools were used to predict the protein and concluded that EgNDL is a putative membrane protein that may function in a signal transduction pathway during pollen development. In this context, knowledge regarding EgNDL and its potential role in plant developmental processes will benefit oil palm breeding programs.

  12. An updated checklist and key to the open-panicled species of Poa L. (Poaceae) in Peru including three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis, and Poa urubambensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Steven P.; Soreng, Robert J.; Peterson, Paul M.; Sylvester, Mitsy D.P.V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We provide an updated checklist and key to the 30 Poa species with open panicles from Peru which includes previously circumscribed Dissanthelium and Aphanelytrum species, new taxon records, and three undescribed species. Poa compressa, Poa grisebachii, and Poa leioclada are recorded from Peru for the first time. A number of species are placed in synonymy: Poa carazensis, Poa ferreyrae and Poa tovarii are synonymized under the name Poa fibrifera; Poa adusta (tentatively) and Poa pilgeri are synonymized under Poa candamoana; Poa superata is synonymized under Poa grisebachii; and Poa paramoensis is synonymized under Poa huancavelicae. Included within this treatment are three new species, Poa ramoniana, Poa tayacajaensis and Poa urubambensis, which are described and illustrated. Poa ramoniana, found growing near lakes in high elevation Puna grasslands of Junín, is similar to a small form of Poa glaberrima, but differs in having rhizomes and growing to only 5 cm tall. Poa tayacajaensis, found from shrublands on Andean slopes of Huancavelica and Huánuco, bears similarities to Poa aequatoriensis but differs in having shorter lemmas which are pubescent between the veins, densely scabrous sheaths with smooth, glabrous throats, and shorter ligules. Poa urubambensis, a common element of the undisturbed Polylepis forest understory of the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, is distinct from all other members of open-panicled Poa’s by having glabrous lemmas with a smooth and glabrous callus, and notably small anthers. The type material for the name Poa adusta is discussed and a lectotype is selected. PMID:27489489

  13. Bidirectional flower color and shape changes allow a second opportunity for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmer, Pat; Stanley, Dara A; Steijven, Karin; Matthews, Iain M; Nuttman, Clive V

    2009-06-01

    Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by pollination or visitation. By retaining color-changed flowers, plants benefit from larger floral displays but also indicate at close range which flowers are still rewarding (and still unpollinated), so that visitors forage more efficiently. However, the legume Desmodium setigerum shows a unique ability, if inadequately pollinated, to reverse its flowers' color and shape changes. Single visits by bees mechanically depress the keel and expose stigma and anthers (termed "tripping"); visits also initiate a rapid color change from lilac to white and turquoise and a slower morphological change, the upper petal folding downwards over the reproductive parts. But flowers receiving insufficient pollen can partially reopen, re-exposing the stigma, with a further color change to deeper turquoise and/or lilac. Thus, most flowers achieve pollination from one bee visit, but those with inadequate pollen receipt can reverse their signals, earning a "second chance" by eliciting attention from other potential pollinators. PMID:19409788

  14. RESPONSE OF EMBRYOS OF SOME VARIETIES OF RICE FOR THEIR CALLUSING AND DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.SINGH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the main food of most of the countries of the world. To cope with the population explosion, conventional method of rice production seems inadequate. Hense, for this purpose; tissue culture technology has been introduced. Before applying any advanced study, such as anther culture, protoplast culture or genetic engineering etc., it is essential to work on the rice varieties from its embryo level. In this perspective, four varieties of rice had been undertaken for the response of their embryos on different concentrations of 2,4D, for their callusing and upon different concentrations of IAA and KN for differentiation. Out of the four varieties of rice, Tulsi and Kanak embryos showed the best response for their callusing at the strength 6 mg/l of 2,4D - 40% and 22% respectively, which is followed by Pusa-Basmati and Birsa 101 embryos. Almost all the varieties showed their callusing more or less at all the strength of 2,4D taken into investigation. But the strength 6 mg/l was the best strength of 2,4D as upon this strength, all the varieties showed their callusing response. On the other hand, embryo derived callus when transferrred to differentiating medium MS + IAA (2 mg/l + KN(4mg/l gave the best result.

  15. Cytological study and PCD assay on pollen development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A systematic cytological comparison of the anther development of photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile (PSGMS) rice with its normal fertility counterpart was conducted.The results showed that pollen abortion in PSGMS rice occurred first no later than the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage and continued during the entire process of pollen development till pollen degradation.This abortive process was closely associated with the abnormal behavior of tapetum.Although tapetum degeneration in the PSGMS rice initiated as early as at the PMC stage,it proceeded slowly and did not complete until the breakdown of the pollen,in sharp contrast to the rapid disintegration of the tapetal layer during the late microspore to the bicellular pollen stage in the fertile rice.Such cytological observation was supported by the results of the TUNEL (TdT2 mediated dU TP Nick End Labeling)assay that detects DNA fragmentation resulting from programmed cell death (PCD),indicating that the tapetum degeneration occurs in the process of PCD.

  16. Chromatin dynamics in Pollen Mother Cells underpin a common scenario at the somatic-to-reproductive fate transition of both the male and female lineages in Arabidopsis

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    Wenjing eShe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, where the germline is established early during embryogenesis, plants set aside their reproductive lineage late in development in dedicated floral organs. The specification of pollen mother cells (PMCs committed to meiosis takes place in the sporogenous tissue in anther locules and marks the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition towards the male reproductive lineage. Here we show that Arabidopsis PMCs differentiation is accompanied by large-scale changes in chromatin organization. This is characterized by significant increase in nuclear volume, chromatin decondensation, reduction in heterochromatin, eviction of linker histones and the H2AZ histone variant. These structural alterations are accompanied by dramatic, quantitative changes in histone modifications levels compared to that of surrounding somatic cells that do not share a sporogenic fate. All these changes are highly reminiscent of those we have formerly described in female megaspore mother cells (MMCs. This indicates that chromatin reprogramming is a common underlying scenario in the somatic-to-reproductive cell fate transition in both male and female lineages.

  17. Embryological Studies on Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Lili; Wu Jian; Chen Linjiao; Wang Rui; Tian Huiqiao

    2006-01-01

    Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis Roem) blooms but has no seeds.Embryological studies on the species were conducted to discover the causes of its sterility.Its anther wall is composed of four layers of cells,and its tapetum is of the secretory type.The cytokinesis of microspore mother cells is of the successive type,and the tetrad is tetrahedral.During meiosis of microspore mother cells,some chromosomes lagged,and several micronuclei were found in tetrads.Only 27.7% of the pollen grains contained full cytoplasm,and 1.3% of them germinated in culture medium.No pollen grain,however,could germinate on the stigma.The ovary is trilocular with axile placenta,and the ovules are bitegmic,tenuinucellate,and anatropous.Its embryo sac is of the polygonum type.Most embryo sacs degenerated,and only about 4.5% of the ovules contained a normal embryo sac with an egg cell,two synergids,three antipodal,and a central cell containing two polar nuclei.One reason for the sterility of Chinese narcissus is the abnormality of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis,in which only a few functional pollen grains and embryo sacs are produced.The other reason is that the pollen grains cannot germinate on the stigma.

  18. Pollination ecology of the invasive tree tobacco Nicotiana glauca: comparisons across native and non-native ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Ollerton

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with pollinators are thought to play a significant role in determining whether plant species become invasive, and ecologically generalised species are predicted to be more likely to invade than more specialised species. Using published and unpublished data we assessed the floral biology and pollination ecology of the South American native Nicotiana glauca (Solanaceae which has become a significant invasive of semi-arid parts of the world. In regions where specialised bird pollinators are available, for example hummingbirds in California and sunbirds in South Africa and Israel, N. glauca interacts with these local pollinators and sets seed by both out-crossing and selfing. In areas where there are no such birds, such as the Canary Islands and Greece, abundant viable seed is set by selfing, facilitated by the shorter stigma-anther distance compared to plants in native populations. Surprisingly, in these areas without pollinating birds, the considerable nectar resources are only rarely exploited by other flower visitors such as bees or butterflies, either legitimately or by nectar robbing. We conclude that Nicotiana glauca is a successful invasive species outside of its native range, despite its functionally specialised hummingbird pollination system, because it has evolved to become more frequently self pollinating in areas where it is introduced. Its invasion success is not predictable from what is known of its interactions with pollinators in its home range.

  19. High specialisation in the pollination system of Mandevilla tenuifolia (J.C. Mikan) Woodson (Apocynaceae) drives the effectiveness of butterflies as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, L D A; Quirino, Z G M; Machado, I C

    2014-09-01

    Butterfly pollination in the tropics is considered somewhat effective or solely effective in a few plant species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Mandevilla tenuifolia (Apocynaceae), which has floral attributes associated with psychophily, has strategies adapted to pollination by butterflies, restricting other floral visitors and making these insects act as efficient pollinators. We analysed the floral and reproductive biology of M. tenuifolia, as well as the frequency and efficiency of its flower visitors. M. tenuifolia is an herb whose flowers have strong herkogamy and secondary pollen presentation on the style head, which corresponds to 60.4% of pollen on the anthers. Flower longevity and the long period of receptivity of the stigmatic region associated with the large amount of pollen removed in the first visits suggest that flowers remain functionally female during part of anthesis. Butterflies, mainly of the families Nymphalidae and Pieridae, are the only pollinators of M. tenuifolia. Despite being self-compatible, M. tenuifolia depends on biotic vectors for fruit production. A non-significant difference in fruit set between controlled treatments and natural conditions suggests that the pollinators are efficient. The inclination resulting from the landing of butterflies on flowers, together with flower morphology, guiding the insect proboscis inside the floral tube, as well as the frequency and efficiency of butterfly visits, are evidence of the close relationship between butterflies and M. tenuifolia, and also of the efficiency of these insects as pollinators. PMID:24628969

  20. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

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    Yueju Zhao

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB, a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI, FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05. Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.