WorldWideScience

Sample records for anterior motor evoked

  1. Multi-channel motor evoked potential monitoring during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF surgery is the most common surgical procedure for the cervical spine with low complication rate. Despite the potential prognostic benefit, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM, a method for detecting impending neurological compromise, is not routinely used in ACDF surgery. The present study aimed to identify the potential benefits of monitoring multi-channel motor evoked potentials (MEPs during ACDF surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive patients who received IONM with multi-channel MEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs. On average, 9.2 muscles per patient were evaluated under MEP monitoring. Results: The rate of MEP change during surgery in the multi-level ACDF group was significantly higher than the single-level group. Two patients from the single-level ACDF group (1.7% and four patients from the multi-level ACDF group (4.9% experienced post-operative motor deficits. Multi-channel MEPs monitoring during single and multi-level ACDF surgery demonstrated higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value than SSEP monitoring. Conclusions: Multi-channel MEP monitoring might be beneficial for the detection of segmental injury as well as long tract injury during single- and multi-level ACDF surgery. Significance: This is first large scale study to identify the usefulness of multi-channel MEPs in monitoring ACDF surgery. Keywords: Disc disease, Somatosensory evoked potentials, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor evoked potentials, Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

  2. Facilitation of soleus but not tibialis anterior motor evoked potentials before onset of antagonist contraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Zuur, Abraham Theodore; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It is well documented that corticospinal projections to motoneurons of one muscle inhibit antagonist motoneurons through collaterals to reciprocally organized spinal inhibitory interneurons. During and just prior to dorsiflexion of the ankle, soleus motoneurons are thus inhibited...... the MEP is evoked. Methods: Seated subjects (n=11) were instructed to react to an auditory cue by contracting either the tibialis anterior (TA) or soleus muscle of the left ankle to 30% of their maximal dorsiflexion voluntary contraction (MVC) or plantar flexion MVC, respectively. Focal TMS at 1.2 x motor...

  3. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  4. Quantification of the proportion of motor neurons recruited by transcranial electrical stimulation during intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2013-12-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are widely used to monitor motor function during spinal surgery. However, they are much smaller and more variable in amplitude than responses evoked by maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, suggesting that a limited number of spinal motor neurons to the target muscle are excited by transcranial stimulation. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of motor neurons recruited during TcMEP monitoring under general anesthesia. In twenty patients who underwent thoracic and/or lumbar spinal surgery with TcMEP monitoring, the triple stimulation technique (TST) was applied to the unilateral upper arm intraoperatively. Total intravenous anesthesia was employed. Trains of four stimuli were delivered with maximal intensity and an inter-pulse interval of 1.5 ms. TST responses were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle, and the negative peak amplitude and area were measured and compared between the TST test (two collisions between transcranial and proximal and distal peripheral stimulation) and control response (two collisions between two proximal and one distal peripheral stimulation). The highest degree of superimposition of the TST test and control responses was chosen from several trials per patient. The average ratios (test:control) were 17.1 % (range 1.8-38 %) for the amplitudes and 21.6 % (range 2.9-40 %) for the areas. The activity of approximately 80 % of the motor units to the target muscle cannot be detected by TcMEP monitoring. Therefore, changes in evoked potentials must be interpreted cautiously when assessing segmental motor function with TcMEP monitoring.

  5. A comparison of myogenic motor evoked responses to electrical and magnetic transcranial stimulation during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubags, L. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Been, H. D.; Koelman, J. H.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (tc-MEPs) are used to monitor spinal cord integrity intraoperatively. We compared myogenic motor evoked responses with electrical and magnetic transcranial stimuli during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia. In 11 patients undergoing spinal surgery, anesthesia was

  6. Conditioning stimulation techniques for enhancement of transcranially elicited evoked motor responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded

  7. Age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Kumar, Dinesh; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies exist on the use of surface electromyogram (EMG) signal features to detect age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior. Motor unit remodeling leads to declined muscle strength and force steadiness during submaximal contractions which are factors for risk of falls in the elderly. This study investigated the remodeling phenomena in the Tibialis Anterior using sample entropy and higher order statistics. Eighteen young (26.1 ± 2.9 years) and twelve elderly (68.7 ± 9.0 years) participants performed isometric dorsiflexion of the ankle at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and their Tibialis Anterior (TA) EMG was recorded. Sample entropy, Gaussianity and Linearity Test statistics were calculated from the recorded EMG for each MVC. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine normality, and either a two-tail student t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine significant difference in the EMG features between the young and old cohorts. Results show age-related motor unit remodeling to be depicted by decreased sample entropy (p <; 0.1), increased non-Gaussianity (p <; 0.05) and lesser degree of linearity in the elderly. This is due to the increased sparsity of the MUAPs as a result of the denervation-reinnervation process, and the decrease in total number of motor units.

  8. Influence of detomidine and buprenorphine on motor-evoked potentials in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, H; Van Ham, L; Gasthuys, F; Dewulf, J; Vanderstraeten, G; Deprez, P

    2003-04-26

    Horses need to be sedated before they are investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation because of the mild discomfort induced by the evoked muscle contraction and the noise of stimulation. This paper describes the influence of a combination of detomidine (10 microg/kg bodyweight) and a low dose of buprenorphine (2.4 microg/kg) on the onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor-evoked potentials in normal horses. There were no significant differences between measurements of these parameters made before the horses were sedated and measurements made 10 and 30 minutes after the drugs were administered.

  9. Acute hypotension in a patient undergoing posttraumatic cervical spine fusion with somatosensory and motor-evoked potential monitoring while under total intravenous anesthesia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, David F

    2009-02-01

    Hypotension should be vigilantly prevented in patients with spinal cord injury. Recent advances in neurological, intraoperative monitoring techniques have allowed Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists to assess the effects of spinal cord ischemia and compression as they occur. This case report describes a young, healthy man who sustained a cervical spine fracture and was scheduled for anterior spinal fusion with somatosensory and motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring while under total intravenous anesthesia. This patient experienced a brief period of intraoperative hypotension with evidence of abnormal MEPs. A wake-up test was performed, which showed normal functioning, and the case resumed an uneventful course. Although this scenario resulted in no neurological sequelae, the effects of spinal cord ischemia due to hypotension can lead to permanent, devastating motor and sensory damage.

  10. The motor evoked potential in AIDS and HAM/TSP: state of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Elfakhani, Mohamed; Boutros, Nash N

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for 'HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP' were selected and analysed. Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.

  11. Factors predicting the feasibility of monitoring lower-limb muscle motor evoked potentials in patients undergoing excision of spinal cord tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Velayutham, Parthiban; Joseph, Mathew; Babu, K Srinivasa

    2011-06-01

    This prospective study on intraoperative muscle motor evoked potentials (MMEPs) from lower-limb muscles in patients undergoing surgery for spinal cord tumors was performed to: 1) determine preoperative clinical features that could predict successful recording of lower-limb MMEPs; 2) determine the muscle in the lower limb from which MMEPs could be most consistently obtained; 3) assess the need to monitor more than 1 muscle per limb; and 4) determine the effect of a successful baseline MMEP recording on early postoperative motor outcome. Of 115 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for spinal cord tumors, 110 were included in this study (44 intramedullary and 66 intradural extramedullary tumors). Muscle MEPs were generated using transcranial electrical stimulation under controlled anesthesia and were recorded from the tibialis anterior, quadriceps, soleus, and external anal sphincter muscles bilaterally. The effect of age (≤ 20 or > 20 years old), location of the tumor (intramedullary or extramedullary), segmental location of the tumor (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar), duration of symptoms (≤ 12 or > 12 months), preoperative functional grade (Nurick Grades 0-3 or 4-5), and muscle power (Medical Research Council Grades 0/5-3/5 or 4/5-5/5) on the success rate of obtaining MMEPs was studied using multiple regression analysis. The effect of the ability to monitor MMEPs on motor outcome at discharge from the hospital was also analyzed. The overall success rate for obtaining baseline lower-limb MMEPs was 68.2% (75 of 110 patients). Eighty-nine percent of patients with Nurick Grades 0-3 had successful MMEP recordings. Muscle MEPs could not be obtained in any patient in whom muscle power was 2/5 or less, but were obtained from 91.4% of patients with muscle power of 4/5 or more. Analysis showed that only preoperative Nurick grade (p ≤ 0.0001) and muscle power (p < 0.0001) were significant predictors of the likelihood of obtaining MMEPs. Responses were most consistently

  12. [Recommendations for the clinical use of motor evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Valls-Sole, J; Relova, J L; Raguer, N; Miralles, F; Dinca, L; Taramundi, S; Costa-Frossard, L; Ferrandiz, M; Ramió-Torrentà, Ll; Villoslada, P; Saiz, A; Calles, C; Antigüedad, A; Alvarez-Cermeño, J C; Prieto, J M; Izquierdo, G; Montalbán, X; Fernández, O

    2013-09-01

    To establish clinical guidelines for the clinical use and interpretation of motor evoked potentials (MEP) in diagnosing and monitoring patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recommendations for MEP use and interpretation will help us rationalise and optimise resources used in MS patient diagnosis and follow up. We completed an extensive literature review and pooled our own data to produce a consensus statement with recommendations for the clinical use of MEPs in the study of MS. MEPs, in addition to spinal and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), help us diagnose and assess MS patients whose disease initially presents as spinal cord syndrome and those with non-specific brain MRI findings, or a normal brain MRI and clinical signs of MS. Whenever possible, a multimodal evoked potential study should be performed on patients with suspected MS in order to demonstrate involvement of the motor pathway which supports a diagnosis of dissemination in space. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  14. Transcranial electric stimulation for intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring: dependence of required stimulation current on interstimulus interval value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, Boban; Szelenyi, Andrea; Seifert, Volker; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Damjanovic, Aleksandra; Rasulic, Lukas

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between stimulus intensity by constant current transcranial electric stimulation and interstimulus interval (ISI) for eliciting muscle motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in three different hand muscles and the tibialis anterior muscles. We tested intraoperatively different monophasic constant current pulses and ISIs in 22 patients with clinically normal motor function. Motor thresholds of contralateral muscle MEPs were determined at 0.5 milliseconds (ms) pulse duration and ISIs of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 ms using a train of 2, 3, and 5 monophasic constant current pulses of 62 to 104 mA before craniotomy and after closure of the dura mater. The lowest stimulation threshold to elicit MEPs in the examined muscles was achieved with a train of 5 pulses (ISI: 3 ms) before craniotomy, which was statistically significant compared with 2 pulses (ISI: 3 ms) as well as 3 pulses (ISIs: 3 and 10 ms). An ISI of 3 ms gave the lowest motor thresholds with statistical significance compared with the ISIs of 4 ms (2 pulses) and of 1 ms (3 pulses). All current intensity (mA) and ISI (ms) relationship graphs had a trend of the exponential function as y = a + bx + c ρ (x), where y is intensity (mA) and x is ISI (ms). The minimum of the function was determined for each patient and each muscle. The difference was statistically significant between 3 and 5 pulses before craniotomy and between 3 and 5 pulses and 2 and 5 pulses after closure of the dura mater. In adult neurosurgical patients with a normal motor status, a train of 5 pulses and an ISI of 3 ms provide the lowest motor thresholds. We provided evidence of the dependence of required stimulation current on ISI. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, T.; Fujii, K.; Fukui, M.; Mizushima, A.; Matsumoto, S.; Hasuo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Tobimatsu, S.

    1995-01-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  16. Functional mapping of the sensorimotor cortex: combined use of magnetoencephalography, functional MRI, and motor evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujii, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukui, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Neurological Inst., Kyshu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Mizushima, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Hasuo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Tobimatsu, S. [Dept. of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Inst., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    Combined use of magnetoencephalography (MEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (f-MRI), and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) was carried out on one patient in an attempt to localise precisely a structural lesion to the central sulcus. A small cyst in the right frontoparietal region was thought to be the cause of generalised seizures in an otherwise asymptomatic woman. First the primary sensory cortex was identified with magnetic source imaging (MSI) of somatosensory evoked magnetic fields using MEG and MRI. Second, the motor area of the hand was identified using f-MRI during handsqueezing. Then transcranial magnetic stimulation localised the hand motor area on the scalp, which was mapped onto the MRI. There was a good agreement between MSI, f-MRI and MEP as to the location of the sensorimotor cortex and its relationship to the lesion. Multimodality mapping techniques may thus prove useful in the precise localisation of cortical lesions, and in the preoperative determination of the best treatment for peri-rolandic lesions. (orig.)

  17. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  18. Prognostic value of motor evoked potentials elicited by multipulse magnetic stimulation in a surgically induced transitory lesion of the supplementary motor area: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, F; Krzan, M; Jallo, G; Epstein, F; Deletis, V

    2000-01-01

    Surgery involving the supplementary motor area (SMA) places the patient at risk of transient motor deficit. To predict outcome in patients with early postoperative hypokinesis would be relevant to both the patient and the surgical team. A 15 year old girl with a large left thalamic tumour removed through a left transcallosal approach is described. Despite intraoperatively preserved muscle motor evoked potentials (mMEPs) from all limbs, elicited by multipulse electrical st...

  19. The effect of ACTH analogues on motor behavior and visual evoked responses in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, O.L.; Wied, D. de

    1976-01-01

    Averaged visual evoked responses (VER) in cortical area 17 were recorded one hour after the administration of 7-l-phe ACTH(4-10) or 7-d-phe ACTH(4-10) to artificially ventilated rats, paralysed with gallamine. In addition, the effects of these peptides on spontaneous motor behavior were analyzed.

  20. Two-day fasting evokes stress, but does not affect mood, brain activity, cognitive, psychomotor, and motor performance in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras

    2018-02-15

    The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  2. Attention modulates specific motor cortical circuits recruited by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2017-09-17

    Skilled performance and acquisition is dependent upon afferent input to motor cortex. The present study used short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to probe how manipulation of sensory afference by attention affects different circuits projecting to pyramidal tract neurons in motor cortex. SAI was assessed in the first dorsal interosseous muscle while participants performed a low or high attention-demanding visual detection task. SAI was evoked by preceding a suprathreshold transcranial magnetic stimulus with electrical stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist. To isolate different afferent intracortical circuits in motor cortex SAI was evoked using either posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (PA) monophasic current. In an independent sample, somatosensory processing during the same attention-demanding visual detection tasks was assessed using somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by median nerve stimulation. SAI elicited by AP TMS was reduced under high compared to low visual attention demands. SAI elicited by PA TMS was not affected by visual attention demands. SEPs revealed that the high visual attention load reduced the fronto-central P20-N30 but not the contralateral parietal N20-P25 SEP component. P20-N30 reduction confirmed that the visual attention task altered sensory afference. The current results offer further support that PA and AP TMS recruit different neuronal circuits. AP circuits may be one substrate by which cognitive strategies shape sensorimotor processing during skilled movement by altering sensory processing in premotor areas. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  4. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Corticobulbar motor evoked potentials from tongue muscles used as a control in cervical spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs changes might be caused to the non-surgically induced factors during cervical spinal surgery. Therefore, control MEPs recorded cranially to the exit of the C5 root are highly recommendable in cervical spinal surgery. We studied whether corticobulbar MEPs (C-MEPs from tongue muscle could be used as a control MEPs in cervical spinal surgery. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive cervical spinal surgeries were analyzed. Stimulation of motor area for tongue was done by subcutaneous electrodes placed at C3/C4 (10–20 EEG System, and recording was done from both sides of tongue. Results: C-MEPs were recorded successfully 24 out of the 25 (96% tested patients. Forty-six out of fifty MEPs (92% from tongue muscles were monitorable from the baseline. In two patients, we could obtain only unilateral C-MEPs. Mean MEPs latencies obtained from the left and right side of the tongue were 11.5 ± 1 ms and 11.5 ± 0.8 ms, respectively. Conclusions: Monitoring C-MEPs from tongue muscles might be useful control in cervical spinal surgery. They were easily elicited and relatively free from phenomenon of peripheral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Significance: This is first study to identify the usefulness of C-MEPs as a control of cervical spinal surgery. Keywords: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor-evoked potential, Corticospinal tract, Corticobulbar MEPs, Hypoglossal nerve

  6. Prognostic Value of Cortically Induced Motor Evoked Activity by TMS in Chronic Stroke: Caveats from a Revealing Single Clinical Case

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Amengual, Julià L

    2012-06-08

    AbstractBackgroundWe report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury) showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand.Case presentationMultimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP), and Cortical Silent period (CSP) as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST). Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity (indexed by CSP) demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations.ConclusionsThe potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  7. Prognostic value of cortically induced motor evoked activity by TMS in chronic stroke: Caveats from a revealing single clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amengual Julià L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the case of a chronic stroke patient (62 months after injury showing total absence of motor activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of spared regions of the left motor cortex, but near-to-complete recovery of motor abilities in the affected hand. Case presentation Multimodal investigations included detailed TMS based motor mapping, motor evoked potentials (MEP, and Cortical Silent period (CSP as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of motor activity, MRI based lesion analysis and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI Tractography of corticospinal tract (CST. Anatomical analysis revealed a left hemisphere subinsular lesion interrupting the descending left CST at the level of the internal capsule. The absence of MEPs after intense TMS pulses to the ipsilesional M1, and the reversible suppression of ongoing electromyographic (EMG activity (indexed by CSP demonstrate a weak modulation of subcortical systems by the ipsilesional left frontal cortex, but an inability to induce efficient descending volleys from those cortical locations to right hand and forearm muscles. Functional MRI recordings under grasping and finger tapping patterns involving the affected hand showed slight signs of subcortical recruitment, as compared to the unaffected hand and hemisphere, as well as the expected cortical activations. Conclusions The potential sources of motor voluntary activity for the affected hand in absence of MEPs are discussed. We conclude that multimodal analysis may contribute to a more accurate prognosis of stroke patients.

  8. Motor tics evoked by striatal disinhibition in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfeld, Maya; Yael, Dorin; Belelovsky, Katya; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    Motor tics are sudden, brief, repetitive movements that constitute the main symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS). Multiple lines of evidence suggest the involvement of the cortico-basal ganglia system, and in particular the basal ganglia input structure—the striatum in tic formation. The striatum receives somatotopically organized cortical projections and contains an internal GABAergic network of interneurons and projection neurons' collaterals. Disruption of local striatal GABAergic connectivity has been associated with TS and was found to induce abnormal movements in model animals. We have previously described the behavioral and neurophysiological characteristics of motor tics induced in monkeys by local striatal microinjections of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. In the current study we explored the abnormal movements induced by a similar manipulation in freely moving rats. We targeted microinjections to different parts of the dorsal striatum, and examined the effects of this manipulation on the induced tic properties, such as latency, duration, and somatic localization. Tics induced by striatal disinhibition in monkeys and rats shared multiple properties: tics began within several minutes after microinjection, were expressed solely in the contralateral side, and waxed and waned around a mean inter-tic interval of 1–4 s. A clear somatotopic organization was observed only in rats, where injections to the anterior or posterior striatum led to tics in the forelimb or hindlimb areas, respectively. These results suggest that striatal disinhibition in the rat may be used to model motor tics such as observed in TS. Establishing this reliable and accessible animal model could facilitate the study of the neural mechanisms underlying motor tics, and the testing of potential therapies for tic disorders. PMID:24065893

  9. Beta-band intermuscular coherence: a novel biomarker of upper motor neuron dysfunction in motor neuron disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karen M.; Zaaimi, Boubker; Williams, Timothy L.; Baker, Stuart N.

    2012-01-01

    In motor neuron disease, the focus of therapy is to prevent or slow neuronal degeneration with neuroprotective pharmacological agents; early diagnosis and treatment are thus essential. Incorporation of needle electromyographic evidence of lower motor neuron degeneration into diagnostic criteria has undoubtedly advanced diagnosis, but even earlier diagnosis might be possible by including tests of subclinical upper motor neuron disease. We hypothesized that beta-band (15–30 Hz) intermuscular coherence could be used as an electrophysiological marker of upper motor neuron integrity in such patients. We measured intermuscular coherence in eight patients who conformed to established diagnostic criteria for primary lateral sclerosis and six patients with progressive muscular atrophy, together with 16 age-matched controls. In the primary lateral sclerosis variant of motor neuron disease, there is selective destruction of motor cortical layer V pyramidal neurons and degeneration of the corticospinal tract, without involvement of anterior horn cells. In progressive muscular atrophy, there is selective degeneration of anterior horn cells but a normal corticospinal tract. All patients with primary lateral sclerosis had abnormal motor-evoked potentials as assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, whereas these were similar to controls in progressive muscular atrophy. Upper and lower limb intermuscular coherence was measured during a precision grip and an ankle dorsiflexion task, respectively. Significant beta-band coherence was observed in all control subjects and all patients with progressive muscular atrophy tested, but not in the patients with primary lateral sclerosis. We conclude that intermuscular coherence in the 15–30 Hz range is dependent on an intact corticospinal tract but persists in the face of selective anterior horn cell destruction. Based on the distributions of coherence values measured from patients with primary lateral sclerosis and control

  10. Long-latency TMS-evoked potentials during motor execution and inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eYamanaka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has often been used in conjunction with electroencephalography (EEG, which is effective for the direct demonstration of cortical reactivity and corticocortical connectivity during cognitive tasks through the spatio-temporal pattern of long-latency TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. However, it remains unclear what pattern is associated with the inhibition of a planned motor response. Therefore, we performed TMS-EEG recording during a go/stop task, in which participants were instructed to click a computer mouse with a right index finger when an indicator that was moving with a constant velocity reached a target (go trial or to avoid the click when the indicator randomly stopped just before it reached the target (stop trial. Single-pulse TMS to the left (contralateral or right (ipsilateral motor cortex was applied 500 ms before or just at the target time. TEPs related to motor execution and inhibition were obtained by subtractions between averaged EEG waveforms with and without TMS. As a result, in TEPs induced by both contralateral and ipsilateral TMS, small oscillations were followed by a prominent negative deflection around the TMS site peaking at approximately 100 ms post-TMS (N100, and a less pronounced later positive component (LPC over the broad areas that was centered at the midline-central site in both go and stop trials. However, compared to the pattern in go and stop trials with TMS at 500 ms before the target time, N100 and LPC were differently modulated in the go and stop trials with TMS just at the target time. The amplitudes of both N100 and LPC decreased in go trials, while the amplitude of LPC decreased and the latency of LPC was delayed in both go and stop trials. These results suggested that TMS-induced neuronal reactions in the motor cortex and subsequent their propagation to surrounding cortical areas might change functionally according to task demand when executing and inhibiting a motor

  11. Dependence of the paired motor unit analysis on motor unit discharge characteristics in the human tibialis anterior muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer L.; Maluf, Katrina S.

    2011-01-01

    The paired motor unit analysis provides in vivo estimates of the magnitude of persistent inward currents (PIC) in human motoneurons by quantifying changes in the firing rate (ΔF) of an earlier recruited (reference) motor unit at the time of recruitment and derecruitment of a later recruited (test) motor unit. This study assessed the variability of ΔF estimates, and quantified the dependence of ΔF on the discharge characteristics of the motor units selected for analysis. ΔF was calculated for 158 pairs of motor units recorded from nine healthy individuals during repeated submaximal contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle. The mean (SD) ΔF was 3.7 (2.5) pps (range −4.2 to 8.9 pps). The median absolute difference in ΔF for the same motor unit pair across trials was 1.8 pps, and the minimal detectable change in ΔF required to exceed measurement error was 4.8 pps. ΔF was positively related to the amount of discharge rate modulation in the reference motor unit (r2=0.335; Precruitment of the reference and test motor units (r2=0.229, Pmotor unit activity (r2=0.110, Precruitment threshold of the test motor unit (r2=0.237, Pmotor unit analysis. PMID:21459110

  12. Sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade and provide optimal conditions for motor-evoked potential monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Trifa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugammadex is a novel pharmacologic agent, which reverses neuromuscular blockade (NMB via a mechanism that differs completely from acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. By encapsulating rocuronium, sugammadex can provide recovery of neuromuscular function even when there is a profound degree of NMB. We report anecdotal experience with the use of sugammadex to reverse NMB to facilitate intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (motor evoked potentials in an adolescent with scoliosis during posterior spinal fusion. Its potential application in this unique clinical scenario is discussed, and potential dosing schemes are reviewed.

  13. Modulation of sensory inhibition of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS prior to movement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    because the afferent information triggered the movement and therefore was important for motor performance. Alle et al. (2009). J Physiol 587:5163-5176 Chen et al. (1998). Ann Neurol 44:317-325 Tokimura et al. (2000). J Physiol 523 Pt 2:503-513......Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) refers to a decrement of the size of a motor evoked potential (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after electrical stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve (PNS) (Tokimura et al. 2000). Since SAI occurs when TMS is applied at the time...... of corticospinal cells to TMS, which starts approximately 100 ms prior to the onset of movement (Chen et al. 1998). Thus, it is hypothesized that the modulation of the MEP prior to movement is linked to the afferent volley arriving at the sensorimotor cortex. It might be speculated that the MEP was facilitated...

  14. Interleaved neuromuscular electrical stimulation: Motor unit recruitment overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Matheus J; Bergquist, Austin J; Schimidt, Helen L; Jones, Kelvin E; Collins, David F

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we quantified the "overlap" between motor units recruited by single pulses of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) delivered over the tibialis anterior muscle (mNMES) and the common peroneal nerve (nNMES). We then quantified the torque produced when pulses were alternated between the mNMES and nNMES sites at 40 Hz ("interleaved" NMES; iNMES). Overlap was assessed by comparing torque produced by twitches evoked by mNMES, nNMES, and both delivered together, over a range of stimulus intensities. Trains of iNMES were delivered at the intensity that produced the lowest overlap. Overlap was lowest (5%) when twitches evoked by both mNMES and nNMES produced 10% peak twitch torque. iNMES delivered at this intensity generated 25% of maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque (11 Nm). Low intensity iNMES leads to low overlap and produces torque that is functionally relevant to evoke dorsiflexion during walking. Muscle Nerve 55: 490-499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bi-phasic activation of the primary motor cortex by pain and its relation to pain-evoked potentials - an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisler, Lee-Bareket; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Sinai, Alon; Sprecher, Elliot; Chistyakov, Andrei V; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone; Moscovitz, Nadav; Granovsky, Yelena

    2017-06-15

    The primary motor cortex (M1) is a known target for brain stimulation aimed at pain alleviation in chronic pain patients, yet the mechanisms through which analgesia occurs, and the exact pain-motor interrelations are not fully understood. We used noxious contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) and cortical source analysis to further explore the relevance of M1 in pain processing. Twenty-four healthy young females received brief noxious heat stimuli to their left non-dominant volar forearm, simultaneously with CHEPs recordings. Thereafter, the pain-evoked activity of M1 and a control area in the occipital cortex (OC) was analyzed and estimated using sLORETA (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography). This analysis revealed two phases of M1 pain-evoked activation (phase 1: the peak at 261.5±25.7ms; phase 2: the peak at 381.3±28.3ms). Canonical correlations revealed that M1, but not the OC, was the main factor contributing to the relation with the CHEPs components. In detail, the activity magnitude of M1 first and second phases was related to the N2 and P2 amplitude, respectively. The latency of the second phase was associated with both N2 and P2 latencies. In relation to pain, the latency of M1's first activity phase was positively correlated with pain ratings, suggesting pain interference to synchronized activity in M1. Our results confirm the established relevance of the primary motor cortex to pain processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor-evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation do not differentiate between patients and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhaus, Leon; Polak, Dana; Amiaz, Revital; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2003-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the motor cortex depolarizes neurons and leads to motor-evoked potentials (MEP). To assess cortico-spinal excitability we compared the motor threshold (MT) and the averaged MEP amplitude generated by TMS in patients with major depression (MD) and matched controls. Nineteen patients, who where participants in a protocol comparing the antidepressant effects of rTMS with those of ECT, and thirteen age- and gender-matched normal controls were studied. MT was similar between patients and normal controls. The MEP amplitude response was significantly increased by rTMS, however, the magnitude of the response was similar in patients and normal controls. Correlations between the averaged MEP amplitude and age revealed that older subjects demonstrated significantly lower responses at all time-points. We conclude that cortico-spinal excitability is increased following rTMS, however, differences between patients and normal controls were not apparent with the paradigm used.

  17. Corticospinal Reorganization after Locomotor Training in a Person with Motor Incomplete Paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Hajela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-dependent plasticity as a result of reorganization of neural circuits is a fundamental characteristic of the central nervous system that occurs simultaneously in multiple sites. In this study, we established the effects of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the primary motor cortex region on the tibialis anterior (TA long-latency flexion reflex. Neurophysiological tests were conducted before and after robotic gait training in one person with a motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI while at rest and during robotic-assisted stepping. The TA flexion reflex was evoked following nonnociceptive sural nerve stimulation and was conditioned by TMS at 0.9 TA motor evoked potential resting threshold at conditioning-test intervals that ranged from 70 to 130 ms. Subthreshold TMS induced a significant facilitation on the TA flexion reflex before training, which was reversed to depression after training with the subject seated at rest. During stepping, corticospinal facilitation of the flexion reflex at early and midstance phases before training was replaced with depression at early and midswing followed by facilitation at late swing after training. These results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence that locomotor training reorganizes the cortical control of spinal interneuronal circuits that generate patterned motor activity, modifying spinal reflex function, in the chronic lesioned human spinal cord.

  18. Comparing the Efficacy of Excitatory Transcranial Stimulation Methods Measuring Motor Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Moliadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The common aim of transcranial stimulation methods is the induction or alterations of cortical excitability in a controlled way. Significant effects of each individual stimulation method have been published; however, conclusive direct comparisons of many of these methods are rare. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of three widely applied stimulation methods inducing excitability enhancement in the motor cortex: 1 mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS, intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, and 1 mA transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS within one subject group. The effect of each stimulation condition was quantified by evaluating motor-evoked-potential amplitudes (MEPs in a fixed time sequence after stimulation. The analyses confirmed a significant enhancement of the M1 excitability caused by all three types of active stimulations compared to sham stimulation. There was no significant difference between the types of active stimulations, although the time course of the excitatory effects slightly differed. Among the stimulation methods, tRNS resulted in the strongest and atDCS significantly longest MEP increase compared to sham. Different time courses of the applied stimulation methods suggest different underlying mechanisms of action. Better understanding may be useful for better targeting of different transcranial stimulation techniques.

  19. Cortical activities evoked by the signals ascending through unmyelinated C fibers in humans. A fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakigi, Ryusuke; Qiu, Yunhai; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2006-01-01

    Acute pain is classified as first and second pain associated with rapidly conducting Aδ fibers and slowly conducting unmyelinated C fibers, respectively. First pain aims at achieving relative safety from the source of injury, whereas second pain, with its strong affective component, attracts longer-lasting attention and initiates behavioral responses in order to limit further injury and optimize recovery. Accordingly, the distinct brain representations for first and second pain should reflect distinct biological functions of both sensations. In this study, therefore, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate brain processing of the signals ascending from peripheral C and Aδ fibers evoked by phasic laser stimuli on the right hand in humans. The stimulation of both C and Aδ nociceptors activated the bilateral thalamus, bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), right (ipsilateral) middle insula, and bilateral Brodmann's area (BA) 24/32, with the majority of activity found in the posterior portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (pACC). However, magnitude of activity in the right (ipsilateral) BA32/8/6, including dorsal parts in the anterior portion of the ACC (aACC) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and the bilateral anterior insula was significantly stronger following the stimulation of C nociceptors than Aδ nociceptors. It was concluded that the activation of C nociceptors, related to second pain, evokes different brain processing from that of Aδ nociceptors, related to first pain, probably due to the differences in the emotional and motivational aspects of either pain, which are mainly related to the aACC, pre-SMA and anterior insula. (author)

  20. Muscle synergies evoked by microstimulation are preferentially encoded during behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alexander Overduin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical microstimulation studies provide some of the most direct evidence for the neural representation of muscle synergies. These synergies, i.e. coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks for the construction of motor behaviors by the nervous system. Intraspinal or intracortical microstimulation has been shown to evoke muscle patterns that can be resolved into a small set of synergies similar to those seen in natural behavior. However, questions remain about the validity of microstimulation as a probe of neural function, particularly given the relatively long trains of supratheshold stimuli used in these studies. Here, we examined whether muscle synergies evoked during intracortical microstimulation in two rhesus macaques were similarly encoded by nearby motor cortical units during a purely voluntary behavior involving object reach, grasp, and carry movements. At each microstimulation site we identified the synergy most strongly evoked among those extracted from muscle patterns evoked over all microstimulation sites. For each cortical unit recorded at the same microstimulation site, we then identified the synergy most strongly encoded among those extracted from muscle patterns recorded during the voluntary behavior. We found that the synergy most strongly evoked at an intracortical microstimulation site matched the synergy most strongly encoded by proximal units more often than expected by chance. These results suggest a common neural substrate for microstimulation-evoked motor responses and for the generation of muscle patterns during natural behaviors.

  1. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that short-term oral sensorimotor training of the jaw muscles would increase the precision of task performance and induce neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. Fifteen healthy volunteers performed six series with ten...... trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold......-and-split" tasks was also performed before and after the training. The hold force and split force along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw muscles were recorded. Motor-evoked potentials and cortical motor maps of the right masseter muscle were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  2. Asymmetry of magnetic motor evoked potentials recorded in calf muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olex-Zarychta, Dorota; Koprowski, Robert; Sobota, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2009-08-07

    The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of magnetic stimulation and magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in motor asymmetry studies by obtaining quantitative and qualitative measures of efferent activity during low intensity magnetic stimulation of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremities. Magnetic stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa was performed in 10 healthy male right-handed and right-footed young adults. Responses were recorded from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left lower extremities. Response characteristics (duration, onset latency, amplitude) were analyzed in relation to the functional dominance of the limbs and in relation to the direction of the current in the magnetic coil by use of the Wilcoxon pair sequence test. The CCW direction of coil current was related to reduced amplitudes of recorded MEPs. Greater amplitudes of evoked potentials were recorded in the non-dominant extremity, both in the CW and CCW coil current directions, with the statistical significance of this effect (p=0.005). No differences in duration of response were found in the CW current direction, while in CCW the time of the left-side response was prolonged (p=0.01). In the non-dominant extremity longer onset latencies were recorded in both current directions, but only for the CW direction the side asymmetries showed a statistical significance of p=0.005. In the dominant extremity the stimulation correlated with stronger paresthesias, especially using the CCW direction of coil current. The results indicate that low intensity magnetic stimulation may be useful in quantitative and qualitative research into the motor asymmetry.

  3. Comparison of effectiveness between cork-screw and peg-screw electrodes for transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring using the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Takenori; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials by transcranial electric stimulation is popular in neurosurgery for monitoring motor function preservation. Some authors have reported that the peg-screw electrodes screwed into the skull can more effectively conduct current to the brain compared to subdermal cork-screw electrodes screwed into the skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of electrode design on transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring. We estimated differences in effectiveness between the cork-screw electrode, peg-screw electrode, and cortical electrode to produce electric fields in the brain. We used the finite element method to visualize electric fields in the brain generated by transcranial electric stimulation using realistic three-dimensional head models developed from T1-weighted images. Surfaces from five layers of the head were separated as accurately as possible. We created the "cork-screws model," "1 peg-screw model," "peg-screws model," and "cortical electrode model". Electric fields in the brain radially diffused from the brain surface at a maximum just below the electrodes in coronal sections. The coronal sections and surface views of the brain showed higher electric field distributions under the peg-screw compared to the cork-screw. An extremely high electric field was observed under cortical electrodes. Our main finding was that the intensity of electric fields in the brain are higher in the peg-screw model than the cork-screw model.

  4. Guanfacine potentiates the activation of prefrontal cortex evoked by warning signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Suzanne M; Schulz, Kurt P; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Ivanov, Iliyan; Tang, Cheuk Y; Fan, Jin

    2009-08-15

    Warning signals evoke an alert state of readiness that prepares for a rapid response by priming a thalamo-frontal-striatal network that includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Animal models indicate that noradrenergic input is essential for this stimulus-driven activation of DLPFC, but the precise mechanisms involved have not been determined. We tested the role that postsynaptic alpha(2A) adrenoceptors play in the activation of DLPFC evoked by warning cues using a placebo-controlled challenge with the alpha(2A) agonist guanfacine. Sixteen healthy young adults were scanned twice with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while performing a simple cued reaction time (RT) task following administration of a single dose of oral guanfacine (1 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order. The RT task temporally segregates the neural effects of warning cues and motor responses and minimizes mnemonic demands. Warning cues produced a marked reduction in RT accompanied by significant activation in a distributed thalamo-frontal-striatal network, including bilateral DLPFC. Guanfacine selectively increased the cue-evoked activation of the left DLPFC and right anterior cerebellum, although this increase was not accompanied by further reductions in RT. The effects of guanfacine on DLPFC activation were specifically associated with the warning cue and were not seen for visual- or target-related activation. Guanfacine produced marked increases in the cue-evoked activation of DLPFC that correspond to the well-described actions of postsynaptic alpha(2) adrenoceptor stimulation. The current procedures provide an opportunity to test postsynaptic alpha(2A) adrenoceptor function in the prefrontal cortex in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders.

  5. Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

    2014-01-01

    When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

  6. The impact of several craniotomies on transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring during neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Takenori; Toda, Masahiro; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Transcranial motor evoked potential (tMEP) monitoring is popular in neurosurgery; however, the accuracy of tMEP can be impaired by craniotomy. Each craniotomy procedure and changes in the CSF levels affects the current spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of several craniotomies on tMEP monitoring by using C3-4 transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). METHODS The authors used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by TES, using realistic 3D head models developed from T1-weighted MR images. Surfaces of 5 layers of the head (brain, CSF, skull, subcutaneous fat, and skin layer) were separated as accurately as possible. The authors created 5 models of the head, as follows: normal head; frontotemporal craniotomy; parietal craniotomy; temporal craniotomy; and occipital craniotomy. The computer simulation was investigated by finite element methods, and clinical recordings of the stimulation threshold level of upper-extremity tMEP (UE-tMEP) during neurosurgery were also studied in 30 patients to validate the simulation study. RESULTS Bone removal during the craniotomy positively affected the generation of the electric field in the motor cortex if the motor cortex was just under the bone at the margin of the craniotomy window. This finding from the authors' simulation study was consistent with clinical reports of frontotemporal craniotomy cases. A major decrease in CSF levels during an operation had a significantly negative impact on the electric field when the motor cortex was exposed to air. The CSF surface level during neurosurgery depends on the body position and location of the craniotomy. The parietal craniotomy and temporal craniotomy were susceptible to the effect of the changing CSF level, based on the simulation study. A marked increase in the threshold following a decrease in CSF was actually recorded in clinical reports of the UE-tMEP threshold from a temporal craniotomy

  7. Motor areas of the frontal cortex in patients with motor eloquent brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulubas, Lucia; Sabih, Jamil; Wohlschlaeger, Afra; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Because of its huge clinical potential, the importance of premotor areas for motor function itself and plastic reshaping due to tumors or ischemic brain lesions has received increased attention. Thus, in this study the authors used navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) to investigate whether tumorous brain lesions induce a change in motor cortex localization in the human brain. METHODS Between 2010 and 2013, nTMS motor mapping was performed in a prospective cohort of 100 patients with brain tumors in or adjacent to the rolandic cortex. Spatial data analysis was performed by normalization of the individual motor maps and creation of overlays according to tumor location. Analysis of motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies was performed regarding mean overall latencies and potentially polysynaptic latencies, defined as latencies longer than 1 SD above the mean value. Hemispheric dominance, lesion location, and motor-function deficits were also considered. RESULTS Graphical analysis showed that motor areas were not restricted to the precentral gyrus. Instead, they spread widely in the anterior-posterior direction. An analysis of MEP latency showed that mean MEP latencies were shortest in the precentral gyrus and longest in the superior and middle frontal gyri. The percentage of latencies longer than 1 SD differed widely across gyri. The dominant hemisphere showed a greater number of longer latencies than the nondominant hemisphere (p < 0.0001). Moreover, tumor location-dependent changes in distribution of polysynaptic latencies were observed (p = 0.0002). Motor-function deficit did not show any statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS The distribution of primary and polysynaptic motor areas changes in patients with brain tumors and highly depends on tumor location. Thus, these data should be considered for resection planning.

  8. Reciprocal inhibition between motor neurons of the tibialis anterior and triceps surae in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Diedrichs, Robin; Farina, Dario

    2018-05-01

    Motor neurons innervating antagonist muscles receive reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs to facilitate the joint movement in the two directions. The present study investigates the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs between the tibialis anterior (TA) and triceps surae (soleus and medial gastrocnemius) motor units. We assessed this mutual mechanism in large populations of motor units for building a statistical distribution of the inhibition amplitudes during standardized input to the motor neuron pools to minimize the effect of modulatory pathways. Single motor unit activities were identified using high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) recorded from the TA, soleus (Sol), and medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscles during isometric dorsi- and plantarflexion. Reciprocal inhibition on the antagonist muscle was elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial (TN) or common peroneal nerves (CPN). The probability density distributions of reflex strength for each muscle were estimated to examine the strength of mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory input. The results showed that the strength of reciprocal inhibition in the TA motor units was fourfold greater than for the GM and the Sol motor units. This suggests an asymmetric transmission of reciprocal inhibition between ankle extensor and flexor muscles. This asymmetry cannot be explained by differences in motor unit type composition between the investigated muscles since we sampled low-threshold motor units in all cases. Therefore, the differences observed for the strength of inhibition are presumably due to a differential reciprocal spindle afferent input and the relative contribution of nonreciprocal inhibitory pathways. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibition in large samples of motor units using a standardized input (electrical stimulation) to the motor neurons. The results demonstrated that the disynaptic reciprocal inhibition exerted

  9. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M...... of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP...... in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1....

  10. Intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation for preservation of facial nerve function in patients with large acoustic neuroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bai-yun; TIAN Yong-ji; LIU Wen; LIU Shu-ling; QIAO Hui; ZHANG Jun-ting; JIA Gui-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various monitoring techniques have been used routinely in the treatment of the lesions in the skull base, iatrogenic facial paresis or paralysis remains a significant clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation on preservation of facial nerve function.Method From January to November 2005, 19 patients with large acoustic neuroma were treated using intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation (TCEMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function. The relationship between the decrease of MEP amplitude after tumor removal and the postoperative function of the facial nerve was analyzed.Results MEP amplitude decreased more than 75% in 11 patients, of which 6 presented significant facial paralysis (H-B grade 3), and 5 had mild facial paralysis (H-B grade 2). In the other 8 patients, whose MEP amplitude decreased less than 75%, 1 experienced significant facial paralysis, 5 had mild facial paralysis, and 2 were normal.Conclusions Intraoperative TCEMEP can be used to predict postoperative function of the facial nerve. The decreased MEP amplitude above 75 % is an alarm point for possible severe facial paralysis.

  11. Combined visual and motor evoked potentials predict multiple sclerosis disability after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaeger, Regina; Schindler, Christian; Grize, Leticia; Dellas, Sophie; Radue, Ernst W; Kappos, Ludwig; Fuhr, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The development of predictors of multiple sclerosis (MS) disability is difficult due to the complex interplay of pathophysiological and adaptive processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether combined evoked potential (EP)-measures allow prediction of MS disability after 20 years. We examined 28 patients with clinically definite MS according to Poser's criteria with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, combined visual and motor EPs at entry (T0), 6 (T1), 12 (T2) and 24 (T3) months, and a cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at T0 and T2. EDSS testing was repeated at year 14 (T4) and year 20 (T5). Spearman rank correlation was used. We performed a multivariable regression analysis to examine predictive relationships of the sum of z-transformed EP latencies (s-EPT0) and other baseline variables with EDSST5. We found that s-EPT0 correlated with EDSST5 (rho=0.72, pdisability in MS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. [Changes of somatosensory and transcranial magnetic stimulation motor evoked potentials in experimental spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Nie, Lin; Liu, Li-hong; Shao, Jun; Yuan, Yong-jian

    2008-03-18

    To study the changes of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and transcranial magnetic simulation motor evoked potential (TMS-MEP) in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-two rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All rabbits were anesthetized for 90 min. A group (Group A) underwent only laminectomy of T12 without SCI, stimulation with different intensities was used to induce SEP and TMS-MEP to determine the most appropriate stimulation intensity. The EPs were recorded before and after the operation. The other 3 groups underwent laminectomy of T12 to expose the dura, and a spinal cord compressing apparatus weighing 40 g was put on the intact dura and dorsal surface of spinal cord underneath for 5, 15, and 30 min respectively (Groups B, C, and D). SEP and TMS-MEP were detected after anesthesia, after exposure of spinal cord, and 5 and 30 min, 1 and 6 h, and 1, 3, and 7 d. The latency and amplitude of each wave were measured. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, t-test and linear correlation. Tarlov behavior score was used to assess the motor function before the operation and 1, 3, and 7 days after SCI. It was found that 100% intensity stimulus obtained stable and reliable MEP waves. Anesthetic did not influence the EPs. The amplitude of SEP began to decrease 5 min after SCI and the latency began to increase 30 min after SCI. And both the amplitude and latency, especially the former, of MEP began to significantly change 5 min after SCI. The latency levels of SEP and MEP increased and the amplitude decreased after compression time-dependently during a certain range of time (all P TMS-MEP are very sensitive to SCI, in particular, the change of amplitude is more sensitive then the latency change and can more accurately reflect the degree of SCI. Combination of SEP and TMS-MEP objectively reflects the SCI degree. EP measurement, as a noninvasive technique, has great value in monitoring spinal cord function.

  13. Paired motor cortex and cervical epidural electrical stimulation timed to converge in the spinal cord promotes lasting increases in motor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asht M; Pal, Ajay; Gupta, Disha; Carmel, Jason B

    2017-11-15

    Pairing motor cortex stimulation and spinal cord epidural stimulation produced large augmentation in motor cortex evoked potentials if they were timed to converge in the spinal cord. The modulation of cortical evoked potentials by spinal cord stimulation was largest when the spinal electrodes were placed over the dorsal root entry zone. Repeated pairing of motor cortex and spinal cord stimulation caused lasting increases in evoked potentials from both sites, but only if the time between the stimuli was optimal. Both immediate and lasting effects of paired stimulation are likely mediated by convergence of descending motor circuits and large diameter afferents onto common interneurons in the cervical spinal cord. Convergent activity in neural circuits can generate changes at their intersection. The rules of paired electrical stimulation are best understood for protocols that stimulate input circuits and their targets. We took a different approach by targeting the interaction of descending motor pathways and large diameter afferents in the spinal cord. We hypothesized that pairing stimulation of motor cortex and cervical spinal cord would strengthen motor responses through their convergence. We placed epidural electrodes over motor cortex and the dorsal cervical spinal cord in rats; motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from biceps. MEPs evoked from motor cortex were robustly augmented with spinal epidural stimulation delivered at an intensity below the threshold for provoking an MEP. Augmentation was critically dependent on the timing and position of spinal stimulation. When the spinal stimulation was timed to coincide with the descending volley from motor cortex stimulation, MEPs were more than doubled. We then tested the effect of repeated pairing of motor cortex and spinal stimulation. Repetitive pairing caused strong augmentation of cortical MEPs and spinal excitability that lasted up to an hour after just 5 min of pairing. Additional physiology

  14. How thoughts give rise to action - conscious motor intention increases the excitability of target-specific motor circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker R Zschorlich

    Full Text Available The present study shows evidence for conscious motor intention in motor preparation prior to movement execution. We demonstrate that conscious motor intention of directed movement, combined with minimally supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex, determines the direction and the force of resulting movements, whilst a lack of intention results in weak and omni-directed muscle activation. We investigated changes of consciously intended goal directed movements by analyzing amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials of the forearm muscle, flexor carpi radialis (FCR, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR, induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right motor cortex and their motor outcome. Right-handed subjects were asked to develop a strong intention to move their left wrist (flexion or extension, without any overt motor output at the wrist, prior to brain stimulation. Our analyses of hand acceleration and electromyography showed that during the strong motor intention of wrist flexion movement, it evoked motor potential responses that were significantly larger in the FCR muscle than in the ECR, whilst the opposite was true for an extension movement. The acceleration data on flexion/extension corresponded to this finding. Under no-intention conditions again, which served as a reference for motor evoked potentials, brain stimulation resulted in undirected and minimally simultaneous extension/flexion innervation and virtually no movement. These results indicate that conscious intentions govern motor function, which in turn shows that a neuronal activation representing an "intention network" in the human brain pre-exists, and that it functionally represents target specific motor circuits. Until today, it was unclear whether conscious motor intention exists prior to movement, or whether the brain constructs such an intention after movement initiation. Our study gives evidence that motor intentions become aware before

  15. How Thoughts Give Rise to Action - Conscious Motor Intention Increases the Excitability of Target-Specific Motor Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschorlich, Volker R.; Köhling, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    The present study shows evidence for conscious motor intention in motor preparation prior to movement execution. We demonstrate that conscious motor intention of directed movement, combined with minimally supra-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex, determines the direction and the force of resulting movements, whilst a lack of intention results in weak and omni-directed muscle activation. We investigated changes of consciously intended goal directed movements by analyzing amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials of the forearm muscle, flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and extensor carpi radialis (ECR), induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right motor cortex and their motor outcome. Right-handed subjects were asked to develop a strong intention to move their left wrist (flexion or extension), without any overt motor output at the wrist, prior to brain stimulation. Our analyses of hand acceleration and electromyography showed that during the strong motor intention of wrist flexion movement, it evoked motor potential responses that were significantly larger in the FCR muscle than in the ECR, whilst the opposite was true for an extension movement. The acceleration data on flexion/extension corresponded to this finding. Under no-intention conditions again, which served as a reference for motor evoked potentials, brain stimulation resulted in undirected and minimally simultaneous extension/flexion innervation and virtually no movement. These results indicate that conscious intentions govern motor function, which in turn shows that a neuronal activation representing an “intention network” in the human brain pre-exists, and that it functionally represents target specific motor circuits. Until today, it was unclear whether conscious motor intention exists prior to movement, or whether the brain constructs such an intention after movement initiation. Our study gives evidence that motor intentions become aware before any motor

  16. The effect of type of afferent feedback timed with motor imagery on the induction of cortical plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Voigt, Michael; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2017-01-01

    : 8-35 mAmp) or a passive ankle movement (amplitude and velocity matched to a normal gait cycle) was applied such that the first afferent inflow would coincide with the PN of the MRCP. The change in the output of the primary motor cortex (M1) was quantified by applying single transcranial magnetic...... compared these two interventions (BCIFES and BCIpassive) where the afferent input was timed to arrive at the motor cortex during the PN of the MRCP. Twelve healthy participants attended two experimental sessions. They were asked to perform 30 dorsiflexion movements timed to a cue while continuous...... stimuli to the area of M1 controlling the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and measuring the motor evoked potential (MEP). Spinal changes were assessed pre and post by eliciting the TA stretch reflex. Both BCIFES and BCIpassive led to significant increases in the excitability of the cortical projections...

  17. Effect of Cutaneous Heat Pain on Corticospinal Excitability of the Tibialis Anterior at Rest and during Submaximal Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Billot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that pain can interfere with motor control. The neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain largely unknown. At the upper limb, mounting evidence suggests that pain-induced reduction in corticospinal excitability is involved. No equivalent data is currently available at the lower limb. The present study therefore examined the effect of thermal pain on the corticospinal drive to tibialis anterior (TA at rest and during an isometric submaximal dorsiflexion. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to induce motor-evoked potentials (MEPs in the TA at rest and during contraction in the presence or absence of cutaneous heat pain induced by a thermode positioned above the TA (51°C during 1 s. With similar pain ratings between conditions (3.9/10 at rest and 3.6/10 during contraction, results indicate significant decreases in MEP amplitude during both rest (−9% and active conditions (−13% (main effect of pain, p=0.02. These results therefore suggest that cutaneous heat pain can reduce corticospinal excitability in the TA muscle and that such reduction in corticospinal excitability could contribute to the interference of pain on motor control/motor learning.

  18. Paired Associative Stimulation Targeting the Tibialis Anterior Muscle using either Mono or Biphasic Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Paired associative stimulation (PAS protocols induce plastic changes within the motor cortex. The objectives of this study were to investigate PAS effects targeting the tibialis anterior (TA muscle using a biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulse form and, to determine whether a reduced intensity of this pulse would lead to significant changes as has been reported for hand muscles using a monophasic TMS pulse. Three interventions were investigated: (1 suprathreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 11; (2 suprathreshold PAmono-PAS (n = 11 where PAS was applied using a biphasic or monophasic pulse form at 120% resting motor threshold (RMT; (3 subthreshold PAbi-PAS (n = 10 where PAS was applied as for (1 at 95% active motor threshold (AMT. The peak-to-peak motor evoked potentials (MEPs were quantified prior to, immediately following, and 30 min after the cessation of the intervention. TA MEP size increased significantly for all interventions immediately post (61% for suprathreshold PAbi-PAS, 83% for suprathreshold PAmono-PAS, 55% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS and 30 min after the cessation of the intervention (123% for suprathreshold PAbi-PAS, 105% for suprathreshold PAmono-PAS, 80% for subthreshold PAbi-PAS. PAS using a biphasic pulse form at subthreshold intensities induces similar effects to conventional PAS.

  19. Electrical stimulation site influences the spatial distribution of motor units recruited in tibialis anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Yoshino; Bergquist, Austin J; Hong, Mandy; Chan, K Ming; Collins, David F

    2013-11-01

    To compare the spatial distribution of motor units recruited in tibialis anterior (TA) when electrical stimulation is applied over the TA muscle belly versus the common peroneal nerve trunk. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the surface and from fine wires in superficial and deep regions of TA. Separate M-wave recruitment curves were constructed for muscle belly and nerve trunk stimulation. During muscle belly stimulation, significantly more current was required to generate M-waves that were 5% of the maximal M-wave (M max; M5%max), 50% M max (M 50%max) and 95% M max (M 95%max) at the deep versus the superficial recording site. In contrast, during nerve trunk stimulation, there were no differences in the current required to reach M5%max, M 50%max or M 95%max between deep and superficial recording sites. Surface EMG reflected activity in both superficial and deep muscle regions. Stimulation over the muscle belly recruited motor units from superficial to deep with increasing stimulation amplitude. Stimulation over the nerve trunk recruited superficial and deep motor units equally, regardless of stimulation amplitude. These results support the idea that where electrical stimulation is applied markedly affects how contractions are produced and have implications for the interpretation of surface EMG data. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ipsilesional motor-evoked potential absence in pediatric hemiparesis impacts tracking accuracy of the less affected hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jessica M; Carey, James R; Lu, Chiahao; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Tim; Durfee, William K; Gillick, Bernadette T

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between electrophysiological responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), finger tracking accuracy, and volume of neural substrate in children with congenital hemiparesis. Nineteen participants demonstrating an ipsilesional motor-evoked potential (MEP) were compared with eleven participants showing an absent ipsilesional MEP response. Comparisons of finger tracking accuracy from the affected and less affected hands and ipsilesional/contralesional (I/C) volume ratio for the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) were done using two-sample t-tests. Participants showing an ipsilesional MEP response demonstrated superior tracking performance from the less affected hand (p=0.016) and significantly higher I/C volume ratios for M1 (p=0.028) and PLIC (p=0.005) compared to participants without an ipsilesional MEP response. Group differences in finger tracking accuracy from the affected hand were not significant. These results highlight differentiating factors amongst children with congenital hemiparesis showing contrasting MEP responses: less affected hand performance and preserved M1 and PLIC volume. Along with MEP status, these factors pose important clinical implications in pediatric stroke rehabilitation. These findings may also reflect competitive developmental processes associated with the preservation of affected hand function at the expense of some function in the less affected hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of current flow direction on motor hot spot allocation by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Caspar; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of pulse configurations and current direction for corticospinal activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In 11 healthy subjects (8 female), a motor map for the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM), extensor carpi radialis, and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of the dominant side was established. Starting from a manually determined hot spot of the FDI representation, we measured MEPs at equal oriented points on an hexagonal grid, with 7 MEPs recorded at each point, using the following pulse configurations: posteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-P), anteriorly directed monophasic (Mo-A), biphasic with the more relevant second cycle oriented posteriorly (Bi-P) as well as a reversed biphasic condition (Bi-A). For each pulse configuration, a hot spot was determined and a center of gravity (CoG) was calculated. We found that the factor current direction had an effect on location of the CoG-adjusted hot spot in the cranio-caudal axis but not in the latero-medial direction with anteriorly directed pulses locating the CoG more anteriorly and vice versa. In addition, the CoG for the FDI was more laterally than the cortical representations for the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) which were registered as well. The results indicate that direction of the current pulse should be taken into account for determination of the motor representation of a muscle by TMS. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Motor coordination during gait after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Leporace

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of art about motor coordination during gait in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. Searches were carried out, limited from 1980 to 2010, in various databases with keywords related to motor coordination, gait and ACL injury. From the analysis of titles and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria 24 studies were initially selected and, after reading the abstract, eight studies remained in the final analysis. ACL deficient patients tend to have a more rigid and less variable gait, while injured patients with ACL reconstruction have less rigid and more variable gait with respect to healthy individuals. The overall results suggest the existence of differences in motor coordination between the segments with intact and those with injured knee, regardless of ligament reconstruction. ACL injured patients present aspects related to the impairment of the capability to adapt the gait pattern to different environmental conditions, possibly leading to premature knee degeneration. However, the techniques used for biomechanical gait data processing are limited with respect to obtaining information that leads to the development of intervention strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of that injury, since it is not possible to identify the location within the gait cycle where the differences could be explained.

  3. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Pitkänen

    Full Text Available Repetition suppression (RS is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  4. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  5. Kinesthetic motor imagery modulates body sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E C; Lemos, T; Gouvea, B; Volchan, E; Imbiriba, L A; Vargas, C D

    2010-08-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of imagining an action implicating the body axis in the kinesthetic and visual motor imagery modalities upon the balance control system. Body sway analysis (measurement of center of pressure, CoP) together with electromyography (EMG) recording and verbal evaluation of imagery abilities were obtained from subjects during four tasks, performed in the upright position: to execute bilateral plantar flexions; to imagine themselves executing bilateral plantar flexions (kinesthetic modality); to imagine someone else executing the same movement (visual modality), and to imagine themselves singing a song (as a control imagery task). Body sway analysis revealed that kinesthetic imagery leads to a general increase in CoP oscillation, as reflected by an enhanced area of displacement. This effect was also verified for the CoP standard deviation in the medial-lateral direction. An increase in the trembling displacement (equivalent to center of pressure minus center of gravity) restricted to the anterior-posterior direction was also observed to occur during kinesthetic imagery. The visual imagery task did not differ from the control (sing) task for any of the analyzed parameters. No difference in the subjects' ability to perform the imagery tasks was found. No modulation of EMG data were observed across imagery tasks, indicating that there was no actual execution during motor imagination. These results suggest that motor imagery performed in the kinesthetic modality evokes motor representations involved in balance control. Copyright (c)10 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortical modulation of short-latency TMS-evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica eVeniero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation - electroencephalogram (TMS-EEG co-registration offers the opportunity to test reactivity of brain areas across distinct conditions through TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs. Several TEPs have been described, their functional meaning being largely unknown. In particular, short-latency potentials peaking at 5 (P5 and 8 (N8 ms after the TMS pulse have been recently described, but because of their huge amplitude, the problem of whether their origin is cortical or not has been opened. To gain information about these components, we employed a protocol that modulates primary motor cortex excitability (MI through an exclusively cortical phenomena: low frequency stimulation of premotor area (PMC. TMS was applied simultaneously with EEG recording from 70 electrodes. Amplitude of TEPs evoked by 200 single-pulses TMS delivered over MI at 110% of resting motor threshold was measured before and after applying 900 TMS conditioning stimuli to left premotor cortex with 1 Hz repetition rate. Single subject analyses showed reduction in TEPs amplitude after PMC conditioning in a sample of participants and increase in TEPs amplitude in two subjects. No effects were found on corticospinal excitability as recorded by motor evoked potentials (MEPs. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed an inverse relation between the effects of the conditioning protocol on P5-N8 complex amplitude and MEPs amplitude. Because the effects of the used protocol have been ascribed to a cortical interaction between premotor area and MI, we suggest that despite the sign of P5-N8 amplitude modulation is not consistent across participant, this modulation could indicate, at least in part, their cortical origin. We conclude that with an accurate experimental procedure early-latency components can be used to evaluate the reactivity of the stimulated cortex.

  7. Intermediate Latency-Evoked Potentials of Multimodal Cortical Vestibular Areas: Galvanic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kammermeier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHuman multimodal vestibular cortical regions are bilaterally anterior insulae and posterior opercula, where characteristic vestibular-related cortical potentials were previously reported under acoustic otolith stimulation. Galvanic vestibular stimulation likely influences semicircular canals preferentially. Galvanic stimulation was compared to previously established data under acoustic stimulation.Methods14 healthy right-handed subjects, who were also included in the previous acoustic potential study, showed normal acoustic and galvanic vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. They received 2,000 galvanic binaural bipolar stimuli for each side during EEG recording.ResultsVestibular cortical potentials were found in all 14 subjects and in the pooled data of all subjects (“grand average” bilaterally. Anterior insula and posterior operculum were activated exclusively under galvanic stimulation at 25, 35, 50, and 80 ms; frontal regions at 30 and 45 ms. Potentials at 70 ms in frontal regions and at 110 ms at all of the involved regions could also be recorded; these events were also found using acoustic stimulation in our previous study.ConclusionGalvanic semicircular canal stimulation evokes specific potentials in addition to those also found with acoustic otolith stimulation in identically located regions of the vestibular cortex. Vestibular cortical regions activate differently by galvanic and acoustic input at the peripheral sensory level.SignificanceDifferential effects in vestibular cortical-evoked potentials may see clinical use in specific vertigo disorders.

  8. Different Stimulation Frequencies Alter Synchronous Fluctuations in Motor Evoked Potential Amplitude of Intrinsic Hand Muscles—a TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V.; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs. PMID:27014031

  9. Transcranial motor evoked potential waveform changes in corrective fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Corrective surgery for spinal deformities can lead to neurological complications. Several reports have described spinal cord monitoring in surgery for spinal deformity, but only a few have included patients younger than 20 years with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of cases with intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (Tc-MEP) waveform deterioration during posterior corrective fusion for AIS. METHODS A prospective database was reviewed, comprising 68 patients with AIS who were treated with posterior corrective fusion in a prospective database. A total of 864 muscles in the lower extremities were chosen for monitoring, and acceptable baseline responses were obtained from 819 muscles (95%). Intraoperative Tc-MEP waveform deterioration was defined as a decrease in intraoperative amplitude of ≥ 70% of the control waveform. Age, Cobb angle, flexibility, operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), intraoperative body temperature, blood pressure, number of levels fused, and correction rate were examined in patients with and without waveform deterioration. RESULTS The patients (3 males and 65 females) had an average age of 14.4 years (range 11-19 years). The mean Cobb angles before and after surgery were 52.9° and 11.9°, respectively, giving a correction rate of 77.4%. Fourteen patients (20%) exhibited an intraoperative waveform change, and these occurred during incision (14%), after screw fixation (7%), during the rotation maneuver (64%), during placement of the second rod after the rotation maneuver (7%), and after intervertebral compression (7%). Most waveform changes recovered after decreased correction or rest. No patient had a motor deficit postoperatively. In multivariate analysis, EBL (OR 1.001, p = 0.085) and number of levels fused (OR 1.535, p = 0.045) were associated with waveform deterioration. CONCLUSIONS Waveform deterioration commonly occurred during rotation maneuvers

  10. Short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition of TMS-evoked EEG potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premoli, Isabella; Király, Julia; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Zipser, Carl M; Rossini, Pierre; Zrenner, Christoph; Ziemann, Ulf; Belardinelli, Paolo

    2018-03-15

    Inhibition in the human motor cortex can be probed by means of paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) at interstimulus intervals of 2-3 ms (short-interval intracortical inhibition, SICI) or ∼100 ms (long-interval intracortical inhibition, LICI). Conventionally, SICI and LICI are recorded as motor evoked potential (MEP) inhibition in the hand muscle. Pharmacological experiments indicate that they are mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors, respectively. SICI and LICI of TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) and their pharmacological properties have not been systematically studied. Here, we sought to examine SICI by ppTMS-evoked compared to single-pulse TMS-evoked TEPs, to investigate its pharmacological manipulation and to compare SICI with our previous results on LICI. PpTMS-EEG was applied to the left motor cortex in 16 healthy subjects in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, testing the effects of a single oral dose 20 mg of diazepam, a positive modulator at the GABAA receptor, vs. 50 mg of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on SICI of TEPs. We found significant SICI of the N100 and P180 TEPs prior to drug intake. Diazepam reduced SICI of the N100 TEP, while baclofen enhanced it. Compared to our previous ppTMS-EEG results on LICI, the SICI effects on TEPs, including their drug modulation, were largely analogous. Findings suggest a similar interaction of paired-pulse effects on TEPs irrespective of the interstimulus interval. Therefore, SICI and LICI as measured with TEPs cannot be directly derived from SICI and LICI measured with MEPs, but may offer novel insight into paired-pulse responses recorded directly from the brain rather than muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573

  12. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia in a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    We report on a chronic stroke patient who showed motor recovery by improvement of limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) after undergoing intensive rehabilitation for a period of one month, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe paralysis of the left extremities at the onset of thalamic hemorrhage. At thirty months after onset, the patient exhibited moderate weakness of his left upper and lower extremities. In addition, he exhibited a slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern during grasp-release movements of his left hand. During a one-month period of intensive rehabilitation, which was started at thrity months after onset, the patient showed 22% motor recovery of the left extremities. The slow, clumsy, and mutilated movement pattern of the left hand almost disappeared. DTTs of the corticospinal tract (CST) in both hemispheres originated from the cerebral cortex, including the primary motor cortex, and passed along the known CST pathway. The DTT of the right CST was located anterior to the old hemorrhagic lesion. TMS study performed at thirty and thirty-one months after onset showed normal and similar findings for motor evoked potential in terms of latency and amplitude of the left hand muscle. We think that the motor weakness of the left extremities in this patient was mainly ascribed to LKA and that most of the motor recovery during a one-month period of rehabilitation was attributed to improvement of LKA.

  14. Distribution of muscle fibre conduction velocity for representative samples of motor units in the full recruitment range of the tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, A; Negro, F; Felici, F; Farina, D

    2018-02-01

    Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner according to the size of motor neurones. Moreover, because larger motor neurones innervate fibres with larger diameters than smaller motor neurones, motor units should be recruited orderly according to their conduction velocity (MUCV). Because of technical limitations, these relations have been previously tested either indirectly or in small motor unit samples that revealed weak associations between motor unit recruitment threshold (RT) and MUCV. Here, we analyse the relation between MUCV and RT for large samples of motor units. Ten healthy volunteers completed a series of isometric ankle dorsiflexions at forces up to 70% of the maximum. Multi-channel surface electromyographic signals recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle were decomposed into single motor unit action potentials, from which the corresponding motor unit RT, MUCV and action potential amplitude were estimated. Established relations between muscle fibre diameter and CV were used to estimate the fibre size. Within individual subjects, the distributions of MUCV and fibre diameters were unimodal and did not show distinct populations. MUCV was strongly correlated with RT (mean (SD) R 2  = 0.7 (0.09), P motor units), which supported the hypothesis that fibre diameter is associated with RT. The results provide further evidence for the relations between motor neurone and muscle fibre properties for large samples of motor units. The proposed methodology for motor unit analysis has also the potential to open new perspectives in the study of chronic and acute neuromuscular adaptations to ageing, training and pathology. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ALS and other motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Ezgi; Horak, Holli A

    2014-10-01

    This review describes the most common motor neuron disease, ALS. It discusses the diagnosis and evaluation of ALS and the current understanding of its pathophysiology, including new genetic underpinnings of the disease. This article also covers other motor neuron diseases, reviews how to distinguish them from ALS, and discusses their pathophysiology. In this article, the spectrum of cognitive involvement in ALS, new concepts about protein synthesis pathology in the etiology of ALS, and new genetic associations will be covered. This concept has changed over the past 3 to 4 years with the discovery of new genes and genetic processes that may trigger the disease. As of 2014, two-thirds of familial ALS and 10% of sporadic ALS can be explained by genetics. TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), for instance, has been shown to cause frontotemporal dementia as well as some cases of familial ALS, and is associated with frontotemporal dysfunction in ALS. The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement: motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking) lead patients to seek medical attention. Neurologists are the most likely practitioners to recognize and diagnose damage or loss of anterior horn cells. ALS, the prototypical motor neuron disease, demonstrates the impact of this class of disorders. ALS and other motor neuron diseases can represent diagnostic challenges. Neurologists are often called upon to serve as a "medical home" for these patients: coordinating care, arranging for durable medical equipment, and leading discussions about end-of-life care with patients and caregivers. It is important for neurologists to be able to identify motor neuron diseases and to evaluate and treat patients affected by them.

  16. Different stimulation frequencies alter synchronous fluctuations in motor evoked potential amplitude of intrinsic hand muscles – a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Victor Sale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz. MEPs (n = 50 were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.

  17. Functional and structural correlates of motor speed in the cerebellar anterior lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wenzel

    Full Text Available In athletics, motor performance is determined by different abilities such as technique, endurance, strength and speed. Based on animal studies, motor speed is thought to be encoded in the basal ganglia, sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum. The question arises whether there is a unique structural feature in the human brain, which allows "power athletes" to perform a simple foot movement significantly faster than "endurance athletes". We acquired structural and functional brain imaging data from 32 track-and-field athletes. The study comprised of 16 "power athletes" requiring high speed foot movements (sprinters, jumpers, throwers and 16 endurance athletes (distance runners which in contrast do not require as high speed foot movements. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to identify speed specific regions of interest in the brain during fast and slow foot movements. Anatomical MRI scans were performed to assess structural grey matter volume differences between athletes groups (voxel based morphometry. We tested maximum movement velocity of plantarflexion (PF-Vmax and acquired electromyographical activity of the lateral and medial gastrocnemius muscle. Behaviourally, a significant difference between the two groups of athletes was noted in PF-Vmax and fMRI indicates that fast plantarflexions are accompanied by increased activity in the cerebellar anterior lobe. The same region indicates increased grey matter volume for the power athletes compared to the endurance counterparts. Our results suggest that speed-specific neuro-functional and -structural differences exist between power and endurance athletes in the peripheral and central nervous system.

  18. In vivo correlation between c-Fos expression and corticotroph stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretagogues in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Shu; Fujiwara, Ken; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    In the anterior pituitary gland, c-Fos expression is evoked by various stimuli. However, whether c-Fos expression is directly related to the stimulation of anterior pituitary cells by hypothalamic secretagogues is unclear. To confirm whether the reception of hormone-releasing stimuli evokes c-Fos expression in anterior pituitary cells, we have examined c-Fos expression of anterior pituitary glands in rats administered with synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) intravenously or subjected to restraint stress. Single intravenous administration of CRH increases the number of c-Fos-expressing cells, and this number does not change even if the dose is increased. Double-immunostaining has revealed that most of the c-Fos-expressing cells contain adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH); corticotrophs that do not express c-Fos in response to CRH have also been found. However, restraint stress evokes c-Fos expression in most of the corticotrophs and in a partial population of lactotrophs. These results suggest that c-Fos expression increases in corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues, including CRH. Furthermore, we have found restricted numbers of corticotrophs expressing c-Fos in response to CRH. Although the mechanism underlying the different responses to CRH is not apparent, c-Fos is probably a useful immunohistochemical marker for corticotrophs stimulated by ACTH secretagogues.

  19. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of t...

  20. The Effect of Visual and Auditory Enhancements on Excitability of the Primary Motor Cortex during Motor Imagery: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kohei; Higashi, Toshio; Sugawara, Kenichi; Tomori, Kounosuke; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The effect of visual and auditory enhancements of finger movement on corticospinal excitability during motor imagery (MI) was investigated using the transcranial magnetic stimulation technique. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited from the abductor digit minimi muscle during MI with auditory, visual and, auditory and visual information, and no…

  1. Assessment of Motor Units in Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units. Since 1970 a number of different methods, including the incremental, F-wave, multipoint, and statistical methods, have been developed but none has achieved widespread applicability. Two methods (MUNIX and the multipoint incremental method) are in current use across multiple centres and are discussed in detail in this review, together with other recently published methods. Imaging with magnetic resonance and ultrasound is increasingly being applied to this area. Motor unit number estimates have also been applied to other neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, compression neuropathies, and prior poliomyelitis. The need for an objective measure for the assessment of motor units remains tantalizingly close but unfulfilled in 2016.

  2. Torque and mechanomyogram relationships during electrically-evoked isometric quadriceps contractions in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Davis, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between muscle contractions and joint loading produces torques necessary for movements during activities of daily living. However, during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), a simple and reliable proxy of torque at the muscle level has been minimally investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mechanomyographic (MMG) characteristics and NMES-evoked isometric quadriceps torques in persons with motor complete SCI. Six SCI participants with lesion levels below C4 [(mean (SD) age, 39.2 (7.9) year; stature, 1.71 (0.05) m; and body mass, 69.3 (12.9) kg)] performed randomly ordered NMES-evoked isometric leg muscle contractions at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. MMG signals were detected by an accelerometer-based vibromyographic sensor placed over the belly of rectus femoris muscle. The relationship between MMG root mean square (MMG-RMS) and NMES-evoked torque revealed a very high association (R(2)=0.91 at 30°; R(2)=0.98 at 60°; and R(2)=0.97 at 90° knee angles; Ptorque, between 0.65 and 0.79 for MMG-RMS, and from 0.67 to 0.73 for MMG-PTP. Their standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged between 10.1% and 31.6% (of mean values) for torque, MMG-RMS and MMG-PTP. The MMG peak frequency (MMG-PF) of 30Hz approximated the stimulation frequency, indicating NMES-evoked motor unit firing rate. The results demonstrated knee angle differences in the MMG-RMS versus NMES-isometric torque relationship, but a similar torque related pattern for MMG-PF. These findings suggested that MMG was well associated with torque production, reliably tracking the motor unit recruitment pattern during NMES-evoked muscle contractions. The strong positive relationship between MMG signal and NMES-evoked torque production suggested that the MMG might be deployed as a direct proxy for muscle torque or fatigue measurement during

  3. Movement and afferent representations in human motor areas: a simultaneous neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic/peripheral nerve-stimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi eShitara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to primary motor cortex (M1 is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains unclear. We delivered suprathreshold TMS to left M1 or electrically stimulated the right median nerve (MNS in 18 healthy volunteers while simultaneously conducting functional magnetic resonance imaging and monitoring with electromyography (EMG. We examined in detail the localization of TMS-, muscle afferent- and superficial afferent-induced activity in M1 subdivisions. Muscle afferent- and TMS-evoked activity occurred mainly in rostral M1, while superficial afferents generated a slightly different activation distribution. In 12 participants who yielded quantifiable EMG, differences in brain activity ascribed to differences in movement-size were adjusted using integrated information from the EMGs. Sensory components only explained 10-20% of the suprathreshold TMS-induced activity, indicating that locally and remotely evoked activity in motor areas mostly resulted from the recruitment of neural and synaptic activity. The present study appears to justify the use of fMRI combined with suprathreshold TMS to M1 for evoked motor network imaging.

  4. Corticospinal tract damage in patients with severe diffuse axonal injury in a chronic stage on diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and motor evoked potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasokawa, Yu-to; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Iwama, Toru; Okumura, Ayumi; Shinoda, Jun; Miwa, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the disturbed motor function of the corticospinal tract (CST) of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging and motor evoked potential (MEP) examination, and to analyze these comparatively. Forty-three patients (86 sides of the CST) with severe DAI in a chronic stage underwent DTMR imaging and MEP examination using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Fractional anisotrophy (FA) values of 6 regions of interests (ROIs) in the CST were measured on FA map obtained from DTMR imaging. The lowest FA value among the FA values of the 6 ROIs in each of the CSTs was defined as the minimum FA value. And the lowest magnetic stimulation strength that could derive MEP was defined as the minimum threshold of MEP. The mean minimum FA value of the CSTs in which MEP could not be obtained even by the maximum strength of magnetic stimulation (the MEP (-) group) was significantly lower than that of the CSTs in which MEP could be obtained (the MEP (+) group). In the MEP (+) group, the minimum FA value decreased with the increase of the minimum threshold of MEP with a significant correlation. These results demonstrate that physiological motor dysfunction disclosed on MEP is significantly correlated with morphological damage of the CST observed on DTMR imaging in patients with DAI in a chronic stage. DTMR imaging is strongly suggested to be helpful to evaluate disturbed motor function and to infer its severity in DAI. (author)

  5. [Effects of intermittent hypoxia on the responses of genioglossus motor cortex to transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kong, De-lei; Su, Jiao; Kang, Jian

    2012-04-01

    To explore the influence of intermittent hypoxia on the responses of genioglossus motor cortex to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and a chronic intermittent hypoxia group. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied in genioglossus motor cortex of the 2 groups. The responses of transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded and analyzed by single factor analysis of variance. The anterolateral area provided an optimal motor evoked potential response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in the genioglossus motor cortex of the rats. Genioglossus motor evoked potential latency and amplitude were significantly modified by intermittent hypoxic exposure, with a significant decrease in latency (F = 3.294, P motor cortex in rats.

  6. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sporadic lower motor neuron disease with a snake eyes appearance on the cervical anterior horns by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2015-09-01

    Lower motor neuron disease (LMND) is the term generally used to describe diseases in which only lower motor neuron signs are detected. A snake eyes appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological conditions including LMND. The author reports on three unique LMND patients with upper limb muscle weakness and atrophy who show a snake eyes appearance by MRI. The patients were aged 18, 40 and 52 years, respectively, at the onset of the disease and had a longstanding clinical course (more than 10 years for two patients and 8 years for one patient). They were followed up for more than 6 years. Clinical manifestations were characterized by (1) longstanding slow progression or delayed spontaneous arrest of asymmetric lower motor neuron signs localized exclusively in the upper extremities with unilateral predominance and distal or proximal preponderance; (2) the absence of upper motor neuron signs, bulbar signs, sensory disturbances and respiratory involvement; (3) a snake eyes appearance on the anterior horns of the cervical cord over more than 3 vertebrae by axial T2-weighted MRI and a longitudinal linear-shaped T2-signal hyperintensity by sagittal MRI; (4) neurogenic change with fasciculation and denervation potentials (fibrillation and a positive sharp wave) confined to the affected muscles by needle electromyogram; and (5) normal cerebrospinal fluid and a normal creatine kinase level. These cases did not fall into any existing category of LMND, such as progressive muscular atrophy, flail arm syndrome or Hirayama disease. These patients should be classified as sporadic LMND with snake eyes on MRI with a relatively benign prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in motor evoked potentials induced in rats by transcranial magnetic stimulation under two separate anesthetics: implications for plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when

  9. Differences in Motor Evoked Potentials Induced in Rats by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation under Two Separate Anesthetics: Implications for Plasticity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Matthew; Matheson, Natalie A; Brownjohn, Philip W; Tang, Alexander D; Rodger, Jennifer; Shemmell, Jonathan B H; Reynolds, John N J

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when selecting an

  10. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Anna; Mortensen, Erik L.; Osler, Merete; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Memory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (ΔC). The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (ΔC A ). The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intelligence. The sensitivity of ΔC A for detecting low memory capacity is 90%. Cerebral rhythmic activity and oscillations are important pathways of communication between cortical cell assemblies and may ...

  11. Effects of pesticides on the peripheral and central nervous system in tobacco farmers in Malaysia: studies on peripheral nerve conduction, brain-evoked potentials and computerized posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Sato, Hajime; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Naing, Lin; Kimura, Satoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Maeno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Kitamura, Fumihiko; Araki, Shunichi

    2005-04-01

    We examined the effects of pesticides on the central and peripheral nervous system in the setting of a tobacco farm at a developing country. Maximal motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (MCV and SCV, respectively) in the median, sural and tibial nerves, postural sway, and brain-evoked potentials (auditory event-related and visual-evoked potentials) were measured in 80 male tobacco farmers and age- and sex-matched 40 controls in Kelantan, Malaysia. Median SCV (finger-wrist) in farmers using Delsen (mancozeb, dithiocarbamate fungicide), who showed significant decrease of serum cholinesterase activities, were significantly lower compared with the controls. Sural SCV in farmers using Fastac (alpha-cypermethrin, pyrethroid insecticide) and median MCV (elbow-wrist) in farmers using Tamex (butralin, dinitroaniline herbicide) were significantly slowed compared with their respective controls. In Delsen (mancozeb, dithiocarbamate) users, the power of postural sway of 0-1 Hz was significantly larger than that in the controls both in the anterior-posterior direction with eyes open and in the right-left direction with eyes closed. The former type of sway was also significantly increased in Tamaron (methamidophos, organophosphorus insecticide) users. In conclusion, nerve conduction velocities and postural sway seem to be sensitive indicators of the effects of pesticides on the central and peripheral nervous system.

  12. Comparison of joint torque evoked with monopolar and tripolar-cuff electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarler, Matthew D; Mortimer, J Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Using a self-sizing spiral-cuff electrode placed on the sciatic nerve of the cat, the joint torque evoked with stimulation applied to contacts in a monopolar configuration was judged to be the same as the torque evoked by stimulation applied to contacts in a tripolar configuration. Experiments were carried out in six acute cat preparations. In each experiment, a 12-contact electrode was placed on the sciatic nerve and used to effect both the monopolar and tripolar electrode configurations. The ankle torque produced by electrically evoked isometric muscle contraction was measured in three dimensions: plantar flexion, internal rotation, and inversion. Based on the recorded ankle torque, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were performed to determine if any significant difference existed in the pattern or order in which motor nerve fibers were recruited. No significant difference was found at a 98% confidence interval in either the recruitment properties or the repeatability of the monopolar and tripolar configurations. Further, isolated activation of single fascicles within the sciatic nerve was observed. Once nerve fibers in a fascicle were activated, recruitment of that fascicle was modulated over the full range before "spill-over" excitation occurred in neighboring fascicles. These results indicate that a four contact, monopolar nerve-cuff electrode is a viable substitute for a 12 contact, tripolar nerve-cuff electrode. The results of this study are also consistent with the hypothesis that multicontact self-sizing spiral-cuff electrodes can be used in motor prostheses to provide selective control of many muscles. These findings should also apply to other neuroprostheses employing-cuff electrodes on nerve trunks.

  13. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement.

  14. Scent-evoked nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Chelsea A; Green, Jeffrey D; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Can scents evoke nostalgia; what might be the psychological implications of such an evocation? Participants sampled 12 scents and rated the extent to which each scent was familiar, arousing and autobiographically relevant, as well as the extent to which each scent elicited nostalgia. Participants who were high (compared to low) in nostalgia proneness reported more scent-evoked nostalgia, and scents elicited greater nostalgia to the extent that they were arousing, familiar and autobiographically relevant. Scent-evoked nostalgia predicted higher levels of positive affect, self-esteem, self-continuity, optimism, social connectedness and meaning in life. In addition, scent-evoked nostalgia was characterised by more positive emotions than either non-nostalgic autobiographical memories or non-nostalgic non-autobiographical memories. Finally, scent-evoked nostalgia predicted in-the-moment feelings of personal (general or object-specific) nostalgia. The findings represent a foray into understanding the triggers and affective signature of scent-evoked nostalgia.

  15. Motor evoked potential monitoring of the vagus nerve with transcranial electrical stimulation during skull base surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eiji; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Itakura, Takeshi; Ando, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Yuka; Oda, Keiko; Sato, Taku; Watanabe, Tadashi; Sakuma, Jun; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Dysphasia is one of the most serious complications of skull base surgeries and results from damage to the brainstem and/or cranial nerves involved in swallowing. Here, the authors propose a method to monitor the function of the vagus nerve using endotracheal tube surface electrodes and transcranial electrical stimulation during skull base surgeries. Fifteen patients with skull base or brainstem tumors were enrolled. The authors used surface electrodes of an endotracheal tube to record compound electromyographic responses from the vocalis muscle. Motor neurons were stimulated using corkscrew electrodes placed subdermally on the scalp at C3 and C4. During surgery, the operator received a warning when the amplitude of the vagal motor evoked potential (MEP) decreased to less than 50% of the control level. After surgery, swallowing function was assessed clinically using grading criteria. In 5 patients, vagal MEP amplitude permanently deteriorated to less than 50% of the control level on the right side when meningiomas were dissected from the pons or basilar artery, or when a schwannoma was dissected from the vagal rootlets. These 5 patients had postoperative dysphagia. At 4 weeks after surgery, 2 patients still had dysphagia. In 2 patients, vagal MEPs of one side transiently disappeared when the tumors were dissected from the brainstem or the vagal rootlets. After surgery, both patients had dysphagia, which recovered in 4 weeks. In 7 patients, MEP amplitude was consistent, maintaining more than 50% of the control level throughout the operative procedures. After surgery all 7 patients were neurologically intact with normal swallowing function. Vagal MEP monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation and endotracheal tube electrode recording was a safe and effective method to provide continuous real-time information on the integrity of both the supranuclear and infranuclear vagal pathway. This method is useful to prevent intraoperative injury of the brainstem

  16. Recent History of Effector Use Modulates Practice-Dependent Changes in Corticospinal Excitability but Not Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sara J; Darling, Warren G; Cole, Kelly J

    2016-01-01

    The theory of homeostatic metaplasticity has significant implications for human motor cortical plasticity and motor learning. Previous work has shown that the extent of recent effector use before exogenously-induced plasticity can affect the direction, magnitude and variability of aftereffects. However, the impact of recent effector use on motor learning and practice-dependent plasticity is not known. We hypothesized that reducing effector use for 8 hours via hand/wrist immobilization would facilitate practice-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability and TMS-evoked thumb movement kinematics, while also promoting 24-hour retention of a ballistic motor skill. Subjects participated in a crossover study involving two conditions. During the immobilization condition, subjects wore a splint that restricted motion of the left hand and thumb for 8 hours. While wearing the splint, subjects were instructed to avoid using their left hand as much as possible. During the control condition, subjects did not wear a splint at any time nor were they instructed to avoid hand use. After either an 8 hour period of immobilization or normal hand use, we collected MEP and TMS-evoked thumb movement recruitment curves, and subjects practiced a ballistic motor skill involving rapid thumb extension. After motor practice, MEP and TMS-evoked thumb movement recruitment curves were re-tested. Retention of the motor skill was tested 30 minutes and 24 hours after motor practice. Reduced effector use did not impact pre-practice corticospinal excitability but did facilitate practice-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability, and this enhancement was specific to the trained muscle. In contrast, reducing effector use did not affect practice-dependent changes in TMS-evoked thumb movements nor did it promote acquisition or retention of the skill. Finally, we detected some associations between pre-practice excitability levels, plasticity effects and learning effects, but these did not reach

  17. Enhancement of Cortical Excitability and Lower Limb Motor Function in Patients With Stroke by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Min Cheol; Kim, Dae Yul; Park, Dae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Motor dysfunction in the lower limbs is a common sequela in stroke patients. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to determine if applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the primary motor cortex helps enhance cortical excitability. Furthermore, we evaluate if combination anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy improves motor function in the lower limbs. Twenty-four patients with early-stage stroke were randomly assigned to 2 groups: 1) the tDCS group, in which patients received 10 sessions of anodal tDCS and conventional physical therapy; and 2) the sham group, in which patients received 10 sessions of sham stimulation and conventional physical therapy. One day before and after intervention, the motor-evoked potential (MEP) of the affected tibialis anterior muscle was evaluated and motor function was assessed using the lower limb subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), lower limb Motricity Index (MI-LE), Functional Ambulatory Category (FAC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and gait analysis. The MEPs in the tDCS group became shorter in latency and higher in amplitude after intervention in comparison with the sham group. Improvements in FMA-LE and MI-LE were greater in the tDCS group, but no significant differences in FAC or BBS scores were found. Also, the changes observed on the gait analyses did not significantly differ between the tDCS and sham groups. Combination anodal tDCS and conservative physical therapy appears to be a beneficial therapeutic modality for improving motor function in the lower limbs in patients with subacute stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring outcome in the high-risk brain and spine surgeries: Correlation of clinical and neurophysiological data - An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Amit Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the safety, feasibility and clinical value of transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP monitoring by electrical stimulation. Setting: Clinical neurophysiology department of tertiary reach hospital. Materials and Methods: MEP monitoring was attempted in 44 "high risk" patients. Intraoperative surgical, anesthesia and neurophysiological findings were documented prospectively. MEP monitoring results were correlated with motor outcome. Results: The success for reliable MEP recording from the lower limbs was 75%. Incidence of new permanent post-operative motor deficit was zero. Nearly, 76.5% of the cases (13 out of 17 cases who showed unobtainable and unstable MEP outcome had lesion location in the spine as compared with 23.5% (4 out of 17 cases that had lesion location in the brain. Chi-square test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between these two groups (P = 0.0020. Out of these 13 spine surgery cases, 8 (62% were operated for deformity. Seven out of 12 (60% patients less than 12 years of age had a poor MEP monitoring outcome suggesting that extremes of age and presence of a spine deformity may be associated with a lesser incidence of successful MEP monitoring. No complications related to the repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation for eliciting MEP were observed. Conclusion: MEP monitoring is safe. The protocol used in this study is simple, feasible for use and has a fairly high success rate form the lower limbs. Pediatric age group and spine lesions, particularly deformities have an adverse effect on stable MEP recording.

  19. Clinical neurophysiology in the prognosis and monitoring of traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curt, A; Ellaway, P H

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI) and potential therapies for accessing the inherent plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS) to promote recovery of function are currently moving into the translational stage. These emerging clinical trials of therapeutic interventions for the repair of SCI require improved assessment techniques and quantitative outcome measures to supplement the American Spinal Injuries Association (ASIA) Impairment Scales. This chapter attempts to identify those electrophysiological techniques that show the most promise for provision of objective and quantitative measures of sensory, motor, and autonomic function in SCI. Reviewed are: (1) somatosensory evoked potentials, including dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials, and the electrical perceptual threshold as tests of the dorsal (posterior) column pathway; (2) laser evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials as tests of the anterior spinothalamic tract; (3) motor evoked potentials in limb muscles, in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex as tests of the corticospinal tract, and the application of the technique to assessment of trunk and sphincter muscles; and (4) the sympathetic skin response as a test of spinal cord access to the sympathetic chain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Output Properties of the Cortical Hindlimb Motor Area in Spinal Cord-Injured Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Shawn B; Dunham, Caleb L; Barbay, Scott; Krizsan-Agbas, Dora; Winter, Michelle K; Guggenmos, David J; Nudo, Randolph J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neuronal activity levels in the hindlimb area of motor cortex following spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats and compare the results with measurements in normal rats. Fifteen male Fischer-344 rats received a 200 Kdyn contusion injury in the thoracic cord at level T9-T10. After a minimum of 4 weeks following SCI, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and single-unit recording techniques were used in both the forelimb and hindlimb motor areas (FLA, HLA) under ketamine anesthesia. Although movements could be evoked using ICMS in the forelimb area with relatively low current levels, no movements or electromyographical responses could be evoked from ICMS in the HLA in any of the injured rats. During the same procedure, electrophysiological recordings were obtained with a single-shank, 16-channel Michigan probe (Neuronexus) to monitor activity. Neural spikes were discriminated using principle component analysis. Neural activity (action potentials) was collected and digitized for a duration of 5 min. Despite the inability to evoke movement from stimulation of cortex, robust single-unit activity could be recorded reliably from hindlimb motor cortex in SCI rats. Activity in the motor cortex of SCI rats was significantly higher compared with uninjured rats, and increased in hindlimb and forelimb motor cortex by similar amounts. These results demonstrate that in a rat model of thoracic SCI, an increase in single-unit cortical activity can be reliably recorded for several weeks post-injury.

  1. Location of lesion determines motor vs. cognitive consequences in patients with cerebellar stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Stoodley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar lesions can cause motor deficits and/or the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome. We used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to test the hypothesis that the cerebellar motor syndrome results from anterior lobe damage whereas lesions in the posterolateral cerebellum produce the CCAS. Eighteen patients with isolated cerebellar stroke (13 males, 5 females; 20–66 years old were evaluated using measures of ataxia and neurocognitive ability. Patients showed a wide range of motor and cognitive performance, from normal to severely impaired; individual deficits varied according to lesion location within the cerebellum. Patients with damage to cerebellar lobules III–VI had worse ataxia scores: as predicted, the cerebellar motor syndrome resulted from lesions involving the anterior cerebellum. Poorer performance on fine motor tasks was associated primarily with strokes affecting the anterior lobe extending into lobule VI, with right-handed finger tapping and peg-placement associated with damage to the right cerebellum, and left-handed finger tapping associated with left cerebellar damage. Patients with the CCAS in the absence of cerebellar motor syndrome had damage to posterior lobe regions, with lesions leading to significantly poorer scores on language (e.g. right Crus I and II extending through IX, spatial (bilateral Crus I, Crus II, and right lobule VIII, and executive function measures (lobules VII–VIII. These data reveal clinically significant functional regions underpinning movement and cognition in the cerebellum, with a broad anterior-posterior distinction. Motor and cognitive outcomes following cerebellar damage appear to reflect the disruption of different cerebro-cerebellar motor and cognitive loops.

  2. Awareness during anaesthesia for surgery requiring evoked potential monitoring: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritish J Korula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evoked potential monitoring such as somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP or motor-evoked potential (MEP monitoring during surgical procedures in proximity to the spinal cord requires minimising the minimum alveolar concentrations (MACs below the anaesthetic concentrations normally required (1 MAC to prevent interference in amplitude and latency of evoked potentials. This could result in awareness. Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of awareness while administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics for these unique procedures. The secondary objective was to assess the adequacy of our anaesthetic technique from neurophysiologist′s perspective. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, 61 American Society of Anesthesiologists 1 and 2 patients undergoing spinal surgery for whom intraoperative evoked potential monitoring was performed were included; during the maintenance phase, 0.7-0.8 MAC of isoflurane was targeted. We evaluated the intraoperative depth of anaesthesia using a bispectral (BIS index monitor as well as the patients response to surgical stimulus (PRST scoring system. Post-operatively, a modified Bruce questionnaire was used to verify awareness. The adequacy of evoked potential readings was also assessed. Results: Of the 61 patients, no patient had explicit awareness. Intraoperatively, 19 of 61 patients had a BIS value of above sixty at least once, during surgery. There was no correlation with PRST scoring and BIS during surgery. Fifty-four out of 61 patient′s evoked potential readings were deemed ′good′ or ′fair′ for the conduct of electrophysiological monitoring. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates that administering low MAC inhalational anaesthetics to facilitate evoked potential monitoring does not result in explicit awareness. However, larger studies are needed to verify this. The conduct of SSEP electrophysiological monitoring was satisfactory with the use of this

  3. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period.

  4. HCN channels segregate stimulation‐evoked movement responses in neocortex and allow for coordinated forelimb movements in rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Jordan S.; Palmer, Laura A.; Singleton, Anna C.; Pittman, Quentin J.; Teskey, G. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Key points The present study tested whether HCN channels contribute to the organization of motor cortex and to skilled motor behaviour during a forelimb reaching task.Experimental reductions in HCN channel signalling increase the representation of complex multiple forelimb movements in motor cortex as assessed by intracortical microstimulation.Global HCN1KO mice exhibit reduced reaching accuracy and atypical movements during a single‐pellet reaching task relative to wild‐type controls.Acute pharmacological inhibition of HCN channels in forelimb motor cortex decreases reaching accuracy and increases atypical movements during forelimb reaching. Abstract The mechanisms by which distinct movements of a forelimb are generated from the same area of motor cortex have remained elusive. Here we examined a role for HCN channels, given their ability to alter synaptic integration, in the expression of forelimb movement responses during intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and movements of the forelimb on a skilled reaching task. We used short‐duration high‐resolution ICMS to evoke forelimb movements following pharmacological (ZD7288), experimental (electrically induced cortical seizures) or genetic approaches that we confirmed with whole‐cell patch clamp to substantially reduce I h current. We observed significant increases in the number of multiple movement responses evoked at single sites in motor maps to all three experimental manipulations in rats or mice. Global HCN1 knockout mice were less successful and exhibited atypical movements on a skilled‐motor learning task relative to wild‐type controls. Furthermore, in reaching‐proficient rats, reaching accuracy was reduced and forelimb movements were altered during infusion of ZD7288 within motor cortex. Thus, HCN channels play a critical role in the separation of overlapping movement responses and allow for successful reaching behaviours. These data provide a novel mechanism for the encoding of multiple

  5. Effects of 10 Hz and 20 Hz Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Automatic Motor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Davide; D'Ostilio, Kevin; Garraux, Gaëtan; Rothwell, John; Bisiacchi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    In a masked prime choice reaction task, presentation of a compatible prime increases the reaction time to the following imperative stimulus if the interval between mask and prime is around 80-250 ms. This is thought to be due to automatic suppression of the motor plan evoked by the prime, which delays reaction to the imperative stimulus. Oscillatory activity in motor networks around the beta frequency range of 20 Hz is important in suppression of movement. Transcranial alternating current at 20 Hz may be able to drive oscillations in the beta range. To investigate whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 20 Hz would increase automatic inhibition in a masked prime task. As a control we used 10 Hz tACS. Stimulation was delivered at alpha (10 Hz) and beta (20 Hz) frequency over the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex (simultaneous tACS of SMA-M1), which are part of the BG-cortical motor loop, during the execution of the subliminal masked prime left/right choice reaction task. We measured the effects on reaction times. Corticospinal excitability was assessed by measuring the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the first dorsal interosseous muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over M1. The 10 and 20-Hz tACS over SMA-M1 had different effects on automatic inhibition. The 20 Hz tACS increased the duration of automatic inhibition whereas it was decreased by 10 Hz tACS. Neurophysiologically, 20 Hz tACS reduced the amplitude of MEPs evoked from M1, whereas there was no change after 10 Hz tACS. Automatic mechanisms of motor inhibition can be modulated by tACS over motor areas of cortex. tACS may be a useful additional tool to investigate the causal links between endogenous brain oscillations and specific cognitive processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Task-relevant cognitive and motor functions are prioritized during prolonged speed-accuracy motor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Satas, Andrius; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Cekanauskaite, Agne; Valanciene, Dovile; Majauskiene, Daiva; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of prolonged speed-accuracy motor task on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, psychomotor and motor function. Ten young men aged 21.1 ± 1.0 years performed a fast- and accurate-reaching movement task and a control task. Both tasks were performed for 2 h. Despite decreased motivation, and increased perception of effort as well as subjective feeling of fatigue, speed-accuracy motor task performance improved during the whole period of task execution. After the motor task, the increased working memory function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation at rest and during conflict detection, and the decreased efficiency of incorrect response inhibition and visuomotor tracking were observed. The speed-accuracy motor task increased the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials, while grip strength was not affected. These findings demonstrate that to sustain the performance of 2-h speed-accuracy task under conditions of self-reported fatigue, task-relevant functions are maintained or even improved, whereas less critical functions are impaired.

  7. Lifting the veil on the dynamics of neuronal activities evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingshuo; Virtanen, Juha P; Oeltermann, Axel; Schwarz, Cornelius; Giese, Martin A; Ziemann, Ulf; Benali, Alia

    2017-11-22

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here, we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8-1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6-300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles. The advance here facilitates a new level of insight into the TMS-brain interaction that is vital for developing this non-invasive tool to purposefully explore and effectively treat the human brain.

  8. Aphasia following anterior cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimosaka, Shinichi; Waga, Shiro; Kojima, Tadashi; Shimizu, Takeo; Morikawa, Atsunori

    1982-01-01

    We have report two cases of aphasia that had infarcts in the distribution of the left or right anterior cerebral artery, as confirmed by computed tomography. Case 1 is a right-handed, 65-year-old man in whom computerized tomographic scanning revealed an infarction of the territory of the left anterior cerebral artery after the clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The standard language test of aphasia (SLTA) revealed non-fluent aphasia with dysarthria, good comprehension, almost normal repetition with good articulation, and a defectiveness in writing. This syndrome was considered an instance of transcortical motor aphasia. Although three years had passed from the onset, his aphasia did not show any improvement. Case 2 is a 37-year-old man who is right-handed but who can use his left hand as well. He was admitted because of subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior communicating aneurysm. Because of postoperative spasm, an infarction in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery developed. He was totally unable to express himself vocally, but he could use written language quite well to express his ideas and had a good comprehension of spoken language. This clinical picture was considered that of an aphemia. After several weeks, his vocalization returned, but the initial output was still hypophonic. (J.P.N.)

  9. Rapid motor learning in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Weldon, Patrick; Tang, Bingfeng; King, W. M.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Motor learning was induced in the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) when monkeys were repeatedly subjected to a brief (0.5 sec) head translation while they tried to maintain binocular fixation on a visual target for juice rewards. If the target was world-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually increased; if the target was head-fixed, the initial eye speed of the TVOR gradually decreased. The rate of learning acquisition was very rapid, with a time constant of approximately 100 trials, which was equivalent to or=1 d without any reinforcement, indicating induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. Although the learning generalized to targets with different viewing distances and to head translations with different accelerations, it was highly specific for the particular combination of head motion and evoked eye movement associated with the training. For example, it was specific to the modality of the stimulus (translation vs rotation) and the direction of the evoked eye movement in the training. Furthermore, when one eye was aligned with the heading direction so that it remained motionless during training, learning was not expressed in this eye, but only in the other nonaligned eye. These specificities show that the learning sites are neither in the sensory nor the motor limb of the reflex but in the sensory-motor transformation stage of the reflex. The dependence of the learning on both head motion and evoked eye movement suggests that Hebbian learning may be one of the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  10. A computational role for bistability and traveling waves in motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eHeitmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive changes in behavior require rapid changes in brain states yet the brain must also remain stable. We investigated two neural mechanisms for evoking rapid transitions between spatiotemporal synchronization patterns of beta oscillations (13--30Hz in motor cortex. Cortex was modeled as a sheet of neural oscillators that were spatially coupled using a center-surround connection topology. Manipulating the inhibitory surround was found to evoke reliable transitions between synchronous oscillation patterns and traveling waves. These transitions modulated the simulated local field potential in agreement with physiological observations in humans. Intermediate levels of surround inhibition were also found to produce bistable coupling topologies that supported both waves and synchrony. State-dependent perturbation between bistable states produced very rapid transitions but were less reliable. We surmise that motor cortex may thus employ state-dependent computation to achieve very rapid changes between bistable motor states when the demand for speed exceeds the demand for accuracy.

  11. Cortical stimulation evokes abnormal responses in the dopamine-depleted rat basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Hitoshi; Kita, Takako

    2011-07-13

    The motor cortex (MC) sends massive projections to the basal ganglia. Motor disabilities in patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be caused by dopamine (DA)-depleted basal ganglia that abnormally process the information originating from MC. To study how DA depletion alters signal transfer in the basal ganglia, MC stimulation-induced (MC-induced) unitary responses were recorded from the basal ganglia of control and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated hemi-parkinsonian rats anesthetized with isoflurane. This report describes new findings about how DA depletion alters MC-induced responses. MC stimulation evokes an excitation in normally quiescent striatal (Str) neurons projecting to the globus pallidus external segment (GPe). After DA-depletion, the spontaneous firing of Str-GPe neurons increases, and MC stimulation evokes a shorter latency excitation followed by a long-lasting inhibition that was invisible under normal conditions. The increased firing activity and the newly exposed long inhibition generate tonic inhibition and a disfacilitation in GPe. The disfacilitation in GPe is then amplified in basal ganglia circuitry and generates a powerful long inhibition in the basal ganglia output nucleus, the globus pallidus internal segment. Intra-Str injections of a behaviorally effective dose of DA precursor l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine effectively reversed these changes. These newly observed mechanisms also support the generation of pauses and burst activity commonly observed in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian subjects. These results suggest that the generation of abnormal response sequences in the basal ganglia contributes to the development of motor disabilities in PD and that intra-Str DA supplements effectively suppress abnormal signal transfer.

  12. Intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation of motor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S

    1995-12-01

    Neuromodulation of motor circuits by extrinsic inputs provides enormous flexibility in the production of behavior. Recent work has shown that neurons intrinsic to central pattern-generating circuits can evoke neuromodulatory effects in addition to their neurotransmitting actions. Modulatory neurons often elicit a multitude of different effects attributable to actions at different receptors and/or through the release of co-transmitters. Differences in neuromodulation between species can account for differences in behavior. Modulation of neuromodulation may provide an additional level of flexibility to motor circuits.

  13. Dynamic properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in mouse cerebellar granule cell layer and molecular layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Jian; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-01-12

    Sensory information coming from climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, generates motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation in the cerebellar cortex. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processing in mouse cerebellar cortex are less understood. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) and molecular layer (ML) by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that air-puff stimulation (5-10 ms in duration) of the ipsilateral whisker pad evoked single-peak responses in the GCL and ML; whereas a duration of stimulation ≥30 ms in GCL and ≥60 ms in ML, evoked double-peak responses that corresponded with stimulation-on and -off responses via mossy fiber pathway. The highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking GCL responses was 33 Hz. In contrast, the highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking ML responses was 4 Hz. These results indicate that the cerebellar granule cells transfer the high-fidelity sensory information from mossy fibers, which is cut-off by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). Our results suggest that the MLIs network acts as a low-pass filter during the processing of high-frequency sensory information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V; Brezing, C; Gallea, C; Hallett, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversion disorder is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that conversion disorder with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amgydala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Methods Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated two-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Results Eleven conversion disorder patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Conclusion We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation. PMID:21935985

  16. The auditory cortex hosts network nodes influential for emotion processing: An fMRI study on music-evoked fear and joy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Lohmann, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Sound is a potent elicitor of emotions. Auditory core, belt and parabelt regions have anatomical connections to a large array of limbic and paralimbic structures which are involved in the generation of affective activity. However, little is known about the functional role of auditory cortical regions in emotion processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and music stimuli that evoke joy or fear, our study reveals that anterior and posterior regions of auditory association cortex have emotion-characteristic functional connectivity with limbic/paralimbic (insula, cingulate cortex, and striatum), somatosensory, visual, motor-related, and attentional structures. We found that these regions have remarkably high emotion-characteristic eigenvector centrality, revealing that they have influential positions within emotion-processing brain networks with "small-world" properties. By contrast, primary auditory fields showed surprisingly strong emotion-characteristic functional connectivity with intra-auditory regions. Our findings demonstrate that the auditory cortex hosts regions that are influential within networks underlying the affective processing of auditory information. We anticipate our results to incite research specifying the role of the auditory cortex-and sensory systems in general-in emotion processing, beyond the traditional view that sensory cortices have merely perceptual functions.

  17. Effects of overweight and obese body mass on motor planning and motor skills during obstacle crossing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simone V; Hung, Ya-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how obesity relates to motor planning and skills during functional tasks. We collected 3-D kinematics and kinetics as normal weight (n=10) and overweight/obese (n=12) children walked on flat ground and as they crossed low, medium, and high obstacles. We investigated if motor planning and motor skill impairments were evident during obstacle crossing. Baseline conditions showed no group differences (all ps>.05). Increased toe clearance was found on low obstacles (p=.01) for the overweight/obese group and on high obstacles (p=.01) for the normal weight group. With the crossing leg, the overweight/obese group had larger hip abduction angles (p=.01) and medial ground reaction forces (p=.006) on high obstacles and high anterior ground reaction forces on low obstacles (p=.001). With the trailing leg, overweight/obese children had higher vertical ground reaction forces on high obstacles (p=.005) and higher knee angles (p=.01) and anterior acceleration in the center of mass (p=.01) on low obstacles. These findings suggest that differences in motor planning and skills in overweight/obese children may be more apparent during functional activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The neural career of sensory-motor metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rutvik H; Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Mano, Quintino R; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    The role of sensory-motor systems in conceptual understanding has been controversial. It has been proposed that many abstract concepts are understood metaphorically through concrete sensory-motor domains such as actions. Using fMRI, we compared neural responses with literal action (Lit; The daughter grasped the flowers), metaphoric action (Met; The public grasped the idea), and abstract (Abs; The public understood the idea) sentences of varying familiarity. Both Lit and Met sentences activated the left anterior inferior parietal lobule, an area involved in action planning, with Met sentences also activating a homologous area in the right hemisphere, relative to Abs sentences. Both Met and Abs sentences activated the left superior temporal regions associated with abstract language. Importantly, activation in primary motor and biological motion perception regions was inversely correlated with Lit and Met familiarity. These results support the view that the understanding of metaphoric action retains a link to sensory-motor systems involved in action performance. However, the involvement of sensory-motor systems in metaphor understanding changes through a gradual abstraction process whereby relatively detailed simulations are used for understanding unfamiliar metaphors, and these simulations become less detailed and involve only secondary motor regions as familiarity increases. Consistent with these data, we propose that anterior inferior parietal lobule serves as an interface between sensory-motor and conceptual systems and plays an important role in both domains. The similarity of abstract and metaphoric sentences in the activation of left superior temporal regions suggests that action metaphor understanding is not completely based on sensory-motor simulations but relies also on abstract lexical-semantic codes.

  19. Delayed detection of motor pathway dysfunction after selective reduction of thoracic spinal cord blood flow in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, Jeroen; de Haan, Peter; Bouma, Gerrit J.; Jacobs, Michael J.; Kalkman, Cor J.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Clinical monitoring of myogenic motor evoked potentials to transcranial stimulation provides rapid evaluation of motor-pathway function during surgical procedures in which spinal cord ischemia can occur. However, a severe reduction of spinal cord blood flow that remains confined to the

  20. Lifting the veil on the dynamics of neuronal activities evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingshuo; Virtanen, Juha P; Oeltermann, Axel; Schwarz, Cornelius; Giese, Martin A; Ziemann, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used non-invasive tool to study and modulate human brain functions. However, TMS-evoked activity of individual neurons has remained largely inaccessible due to the large TMS-induced electromagnetic fields. Here, we present a general method providing direct in vivo electrophysiological access to TMS-evoked neuronal activity 0.8–1 ms after TMS onset. We translated human single-pulse TMS to rodents and unveiled time-grained evoked activities of motor cortex layer V neurons that show high-frequency spiking within the first 6 ms depending on TMS-induced current orientation and a multiphasic spike-rhythm alternating between excitation and inhibition in the 6–300 ms epoch, all of which can be linked to various human TMS responses recorded at the level of spinal cord and muscles. The advance here facilitates a new level of insight into the TMS-brain interaction that is vital for developing this non-invasive tool to purposefully explore and effectively treat the human brain. PMID:29165241

  1. Weaker Seniors Exhibit Motor Cortex Hypoexcitability and Impairments in Voluntary Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Taylor, Janet L; Hong, S Lee; Law, Timothy D; Russ, David W

    2015-09-01

    Weakness predisposes seniors to a fourfold increase in functional limitations. The potential for age-related degradation in nervous system function to contribute to weakness and physical disability has garnered much interest of late. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that weaker seniors have impairments in voluntary (neural) activation and increased indices of GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex, assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Young adults (N = 46; 21.2±0.5 years) and seniors (N = 42; 70.7±0.9 years) had their wrist flexion strength quantified along with voluntary activation capacity (by comparing voluntary and electrically evoked forces). Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor-evoked potential amplitude and silent period duration during isometric contractions at 15% and 30% of maximum strength. Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure intracortical facilitation and short-interval and long-interval intracortical inhibition. The primary analysis compared seniors to young adults. The secondary analysis compared stronger seniors (top two tertiles) to weaker seniors (bottom tertile) based on strength relative to body weight. The most novel findings were that weaker seniors exhibited: (i) a 20% deficit in voluntary activation; (ii) ~20% smaller motor-evoked potentials during the 30% contraction task; and (iii) nearly twofold higher levels of long-interval intracortical inhibition under resting conditions. These findings indicate that weaker seniors exhibit significant impairments in voluntary activation, and that this impairment may be mechanistically associated with increased GABAergic inhibition of the motor cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Increased motor cortex excitability during motor imagery in brain-computer interface trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokienko, Olesya A.; Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Kulikova, Sofia N.; Bobrov, Pavel D.; Chernikova, Liudmila A.; Frolov, Alexander A.; Piradov, Mikhail A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Motor imagery (MI) is the mental performance of movement without muscle activity. It is generally accepted that MI and motor performance have similar physiological mechanisms. Purpose: To investigate the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas during MI in subjects who were previously trained with an MI-based brain-computer interface (BCI). Subjects and Methods: Eleven healthy volunteers without neurological impairments (mean age, 36 years; range: 24–68 years) were either trained with an MI-based BCI (BCI-trained, n = 5) or received no BCI training (n = 6, controls). Subjects imagined grasping in a blocked paradigm task with alternating rest and task periods. For evaluating the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas we used functional MRI and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). Results: fMRI revealed activation in Brodmann areas 3 and 6, the cerebellum, and the thalamus during MI in all subjects. The primary motor cortex was activated only in BCI-trained subjects. The associative zones of activation were larger in non-trained subjects. During MI, motor evoked potentials recorded from two of the three targeted muscles were significantly higher only in BCI-trained subjects. The motor threshold decreased (median = 17%) during MI, which was also observed only in BCI-trained subjects. Conclusion: Previous BCI training increased motor cortex excitability during MI. These data may help to improve BCI applications, including rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy. PMID:24319425

  3. Increased motor cortex excitability during motor imagery in brain-computer interface trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya eMokienko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motor imagery (MI is the mental performance of movement without muscle activity. It is generally accepted that MI and motor performance have similar physiological mechanisms.Purpose: To investigate the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas during MI in subjects who were previously trained with an MI-based brain-computer interface (BCI.Subjects and methods: Eleven healthy volunteers without neurological impairments (mean age, 36 years; range: 24–68 years were either trained with an MI-based BCI (BCI-trained, n = 5 or received no BCI training (n = 6, controls. Subjects imagined grasping in a blocked paradigm task with alternating rest and task periods. For evaluating the activity and excitability of cortical motor areas we used functional MRI and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS.Results: fMRI revealed activation in Brodmann areas 3 and 6, the cerebellum, and the thalamus during MI in all subjects. The primary motor cortex was activated only in BCI-trained subjects. The associative zones of activation were larger in non-trained subjects. During MI, motor evoked potentials recorded from two of the three targeted muscles were significantly higher only in BCI-trained subjects. The motor threshold decreased (median = 17% during MI, which was also observed only in BCI-trained subjects.Conclusion: Previous BCI training increased motor cortex excitability during MI. These data may help to improve BCI applications, including rehabilitation of patients with cerebral palsy.

  4. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right......-handed subjects to test if this procedure could modulate M1 excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity. One hundred and eighty paired transcranial magnetic stimuli to the PPC and M1 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms were delivered at 0.2 Hz. We found that parietal ccPAS in the left hemisphere increased...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...

  5. Adverse Weather Evokes Nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Four studies examined the link between adverse weather and the palliative role of nostalgia. We proposed and tested that (a) adverse weather evokes nostalgia (Hypothesis 1); (b) adverse weather causes distress, which predicts elevated nostalgia (Hypothesis 2); (c) preventing nostalgia exacerbates weather-induced distress (Hypothesis 3); and (d) weather-evoked nostalgia confers psychological benefits (Hypothesis 4). In Study 1, participants listened to recordings of wind, thunder, rain, and neutral sounds. Adverse weather evoked nostalgia. In Study 2, participants kept a 10-day diary recording weather conditions, distress, and nostalgia. We also obtained meteorological data. Adverse weather perceptions were positively correlated with distress, which predicted higher nostalgia. Also, adverse natural weather was associated with corresponding weather perceptions, which predicted elevated nostalgia. (Results were mixed for rain.) In Study 3, preventing nostalgia (via cognitive load) increased weather-evoked distress. In Study 4, weather-evoked nostalgia was positively associated with psychological benefits. The findings pioneer the relevance of nostalgia as source of comfort in adverse weather.

  6. Theta Burst Stimulation of the Cerebellum Modifies the TMS-Evoked N100 Potential, a Marker of GABA Inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allanah Harrington

    Full Text Available Theta burst stimulation (TBS of the cerebellum, a potential therapy for neurological disease, can modulate corticospinal excitability via the dentato-thalamo-cortical pathway, but it is uncertain whether its effects are mediated via inhibitory or facilitatory networks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on the N100 waveform of the TMS-evoked potential (TEP, a marker of intracortical GABAB-mediated inhibition. 16 healthy participants (aged 18-30 years; 13 right handed and 3 left handed received 30Hz intermittent TBS (iTBS, continuous TBS (cTBS or sham stimulation over the right cerebellum, in three separate sessions. The first 8 participants received TBS at a stimulus intensity of 80% of active motor threshold (AMT, while the remainder received 90% of AMT. Motor evoked potentials (MEP and TEP were recorded before and after each treatment, by stimulating the first dorsal interosseus area of the left motor cortex. Analysis of the 13 right handed participants showed that iTBS at 90% of AMT increased the N100 amplitude compared to sham and cTBS, without significantly altering MEP amplitude. cTBS at 80% of active motor threshold decreased the N100 amplitude and cTBS overall reduced resting MEP amplitude. The study demonstrates effects of 30Hz cerebellar TBS on inhibitory cortical networks that may be useful for treatment of neurological conditions associated with dysfunctional intracortical inhibition.

  7. Torque decrease during submaximal evoked contractions of the quadriceps muscle is linked not only to muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkowski, Boris; Lepers, Romuald; Martin, Alain

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the torque decrease induced by submaximal electromyostimulation (EMS) of the quadriceps muscle. It was hypothesized that torque decrease after EMS would reflect the fatigability of the activated motor units (MUs), but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited as a result of changes in axonal excitability threshold. Two experiments were performed on 20 men to analyze 1) the supramaximal twitch superimposed and evoked at rest during EMS (Experiment 1, n = 9) and 2) the twitch response and torque-frequency relation of the MUs activated by EMS (Experiment 2, n = 11). Torque loss was assessed by 15 EMS-evoked contractions (50 Hz; 6 s on/6 s off), elicited at a constant intensity that evoked 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The same stimulation intensity delivered over the muscles was used to induce the torque-frequency relation and the single electrical pulse evoked after each EMS contraction (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, supramaximal twitch was induced by femoral nerve stimulation. Torque decreased by ~60% during EMS-evoked contractions and by only ~18% during MVCs. This was accompanied by a rightward shift of the torque-frequency relation of MUs activated and an increase of the ratio between the superimposed and posttetanic maximal twitch evoked during EMS contraction. These findings suggest that the torque decrease observed during submaximal EMS-evoked contractions involved muscular mechanisms but also a reduction in the number of MUs recruited due to changes in axonal excitability. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumbre, G; Gutfreund, Y; Fiorito, G; Flash, T; Hochner, B

    2001-09-07

    For goal-directed arm movements, the nervous system generates a sequence of motor commands that bring the arm toward the target. Control of the octopus arm is especially complex because the arm can be moved in any direction, with a virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom. Here we show that arm extensions can be evoked mechanically or electrically in arms whose connection with the brain has been severed. These extensions show kinematic features that are almost identical to normal behavior, suggesting that the basic motor program for voluntary movement is embedded within the neural circuitry of the arm itself. Such peripheral motor programs represent considerable simplification in the motor control of this highly redundant appendage.

  9. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  10. Motor cortex changes after amputation are modulated by phantom limb motor control rather than pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle E.; Pascal, Giraux,; Karen, Reilly,

    Amputation of a limb induces reorganization within the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1-c) (1-3). In the case of hand amputation, M1-c areas evoking movements in the face and the remaining part of the upper-limb expand toward the hand area. Despite this expansion, the amputated hand still...... reorganization and the residual M1-c activity of the amputated hand is unknown. This fMRI study aimed to determine this relationship...

  11. Deterioration of pre-existing hemiparesis due to injury of the ipsilateral anterior corticospinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2013-05-29

    The anterior corticospinal tract (CST) has been suggested as one of the ipsilateral motor pathways, which contribute to motor recovery following stroke. In this study, we report on a patient who showed deterioration of pre-existing hemiparesis due to an injury of the ipsilateral anterior CST following a pontine infarct, as evaluated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 55-year-old male patient showed quadriparesis after the onset of an infarct in the right pontine basis. He had history of an infarct in the left middle cerebral artery territory 7 years ago. Consequently, he showed right hemiparesis before onset of the right pontine infarct. Following this, his right hemiparesis deteriorated whereas his left hemiparesis newly developed. The DTTs for whole CST of the right hemisphere in the patient and both hemispheres in control subjects descended through the known CST pathway. By contrast, the DTT for the left whole CST of the patient showed a complete injury finding. The DTTs for the anterior CST of control subjects passed through the known pathway of the CST from cerebral cortex to medulla and terminated in the anterior funiculus of the upper cervical cord. However, the DTT for right anterior CST in the patient showed discontinuation below the right pontine infarct. It appeared that the deterioration of the pre-existing right hemiparesis was ascribed to an injury of the right anterior CST due to the right pontine infarct.

  12. Role of motor-evoked potential monitoring in conjunction with temporary clipping of spinal nerve roots in posterior thoracic spine tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleraky, Mohammed A; Setzer, Matthias; Papanastassiou, Ioannis D; Baaj, Ali A; Tran, Nam D; Katsares, Kiesha M; Vrionis, Frank D

    2010-05-01

    The vascular supply of the thoracic spinal cord depends on the thoracolumbar segmental arteries. Because of the small size and ventral course of these arteries in relation to the dorsal root ganglion and ventral root, they cannot be reliably identified during surgery by anatomic or morphologic criteria. Sacrificing them will most likely result in paraplegia. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel method of intraoperative testing of a nerve root's contribution to the blood supply of the thoracic spinal cord. This is a clinical retrospective study of 49 patients diagnosed with thoracic spine tumors. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with motor-evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring was performed; additionally, postoperative clinical evaluation was done and reported in all cases. All cases were monitored by SSEP and MEPs. The nerve root to be sacrificed was temporarily clipped using standard aneurysm clips, and SSEP/MEP were assessed before and after clipping. Four nerve roots were sacrificed in four cases, three nerve roots in eight cases, and two nerve roots in 22 cases. Nerve roots were sacrificed bilaterally in 12 cases. Most patients (47/49) had no changes in MEP/SSEP and had no neurological deficit postoperatively. One case of a spinal sarcoma demonstrated changes in MEP after temporary clipping of the left T11 nerve root. The nerve was not sacrificed, and the patient was neurologically intact after surgery. In another case of a sarcoma, MEPs changed in the lower limbs after ligation of left T9 nerve root. It was felt that it was a global event because of anesthesia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete paraplegia but recovered almost completely after 6 months. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with MEP and SSEP monitoring may enhance the impact of neuromonitoring in the intraoperative management of patients with thoracic spine tumors and favorably influence neurological outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  13. Non-invasive brain stimulation of motor cortex induces embodiment when integrated with virtual reality feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, M; Franza, M; Bello Ruiz, J; Pinardi, M; Schmidlin, T; Stephan, M A; Solcà, M; Serino, A; Blanke, O

    2018-04-01

    Previous evidence highlighted the multisensory-motor origin of embodiment - that is, the experience of having a body and of being in control of it - and the possibility of experimentally manipulating it. For instance, an illusory feeling of embodiment towards a fake hand can be triggered by providing synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation to the hand of participants and to a fake hand or by asking participants to move their hand and observe a fake hand moving accordingly (rubber hand illusion). Here, we tested whether it is possible to manipulate embodiment not through stimulation of the participant's hand, but by directly tapping into the brain's hand representation via non-invasive brain stimulation. To this aim, we combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to activate the hand corticospinal representation, with virtual reality (VR), to provide matching (as contrasted to non-matching) visual feedback, mimicking involuntary hand movements evoked by TMS. We show that the illusory embodiment occurred when TMS pulses were temporally matched with VR feedback, but not when TMS was administered outside primary motor cortex, (over the vertex) or when stimulating motor cortex at a lower intensity (that did not activate peripheral muscles). Behavioural (questionnaires) and neurophysiological (motor-evoked-potentials, TMS-evoked-movements) measures further indicated that embodiment was not explained by stimulation per se, but depended on the temporal coherence between TMS-induced activation of hand corticospinal representation and the virtual bodily feedback. This reveals that non-invasive brain stimulation may replace the application of external tactile hand cues and motor components related to volition, planning and anticipation. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sensory Disturbances, but Not Motor Disturbances, Induced by Sensorimotor Conflicts Are Increased in the Presence of Acute Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Brun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Incongruence between our motor intention and the sensory feedback of the action (sensorimotor conflict induces abnormalities in sensory perception in various chronic pain populations, and to a lesser extent in pain-free individuals. The aim of this study was to simultaneously investigate sensory and motor disturbances evoked by sensorimotor conflicts, as well as to assess how they are influenced by the presence of acute pain. It was hypothesized that both sensory and motor disturbances would be increased in presence of pain, which would suggest that pain makes body representations less robust. Thirty healthy participants realized cyclic asymmetric movements of flexion-extension with both upper limbs in a robotized system combined to a 2D virtual environment. The virtual environment provided a visual feedback (VF about movements that was either congruent or incongruent, while the robotized system precisely measured motor performance (characterized by bilateral amplitude asymmetry and medio-lateral drift. Changes in sensory perception were assessed with a questionnaire after each trial. The effect of pain (induced with capsaicin was compared to three control conditions (no somatosensory stimulation, tactile distraction and proprioceptive masking. Results showed that while both sensory and motor disturbances were induced by sensorimotor conflicts, only sensory disturbances were enhanced during pain condition comparatively to the three control conditions. This increase did not statistically differ across VF conditions (congruent or incongruent. Interestingly however, the types of sensations evoked by the conflict in the presence of pain (changes in intensity of pain or discomfort, changes in temperature or impression of a missing limb were different than those evoked by the conflict alone (loss of control, peculiarity and the perception of having an extra limb. Finally, results showed no relationship between the amount of motor and sensory

  15. Galvanic vestibular stimulation may improve anterior bending posture in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yohei; Kita, Yorihiro; Nakamura, Junji; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kiriyama, Takao; Ueno, Satoshi; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Morioka, Shu; Shomoto, Koji

    2015-05-06

    This study investigated the effects of binaural monopolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which likely stimulates the bilateral vestibular system, on the anterior bending angle in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with anterior bending posture in a single-blind, randomized sham-controlled crossover trial. The seven PD patients completed two types of stimulation (binaural monopolar GVS and sham stimulation) applied in a random order 1 week apart. We measured each patient's anterior bending angles while he or she stood with eyes open and eyes closed before/after the stimulations. The anterior bending angles in both the eyes-open and the eyes-closed conditions were significantly reduced after the GVS. The amount of change in the eyes-closed condition post-GVS was significantly larger than that by sham stimulation. The amount of change in anterior bending angles in the GVS condition was not significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, disease duration, the duration of the postural deformities, and the anterior bending angles before the GVS. Binaural monopolar GVS might improve anterior bending posture in PD patients, irrespective of the duration and the severity of disease and postural deformities. Binaural monopolar GVS might be a novel treatment strategy to improve anterior bending posture in PD.

  16. Insights on the neural basis of motor plasticity induced by theta burst stimulation from TMS-EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    VERNET, Marine; BASHIR, Shahid; YOO, Woo-Kyoung; PEREZ, Jennifer M.; NAJIB, Umer; PASCUAL-LEONE, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a useful tool to induce and measure plasticity in the human brain. However, the cortical effects are generally indirectly evaluated with motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) reflective of modulation of cortico-spinal excitability. In this study, we aim to provide direct measures of cortical plasticity by combining TMS with electroencephalography (EEG). Continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) of young healthy adults; and we measured modulation of (i) motor evoked-potentials (MEPs), (ii) TMS-induced EEG evoked potentials (TEPs), (iii) TMS-induced EEG synchronization and (iv) eyes-closed resting EEG. Our results show the expected cTBS-induced decrease in MEPs size, which we found to be paralleled by a modulation of a combination of TEPs. Furthermore, we found that cTBS increased the power in the theta band of eyes-closed resting EEG, whereas it decreased single-pulse TMS-induced power in the theta and alpha bands. In addition, cTBS decreased the power in the beta band of eyes-closed resting EEG, whereas it increased single-pulse TMS-induced power in the beta band. We suggest that cTBS acts by modulating the phase alignment between already active oscillators; it synchronizes low frequency (theta and/or alpha) oscillators and desynchronizes high frequency (beta) oscillators. These results provide novel insights into the cortical effects of cTBS and could be useful for exploring cTBS-induced plasticity outside of the motor cortex. PMID:23190020

  17. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  18. Deconvolution of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhöner, Bernd; Basel, Türker

    2012-02-07

    The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and the associated variance modulation can be understood by a convolution model. Two functions of time are incorporated into the model: the motor unit action potential (MUAP) of an average motor unit, and the temporal modulation of the MUAP rate of all contributing motor units, briefly called rate modulation. The latter is the function of interest, whereas the MUAP acts as a filter that distorts the information contained in the measured data. Here, it is shown how to recover the rate modulation by undoing the filtering using a deconvolution approach. The key aspects of our deconvolution algorithm are as follows: (1) the rate modulation is described in terms of just a few parameters; (2) the MUAP is calculated by Wiener deconvolution of the VEMP with the rate modulation; (3) the model parameters are optimized using a figure-of-merit function where the most important term quantifies the difference between measured and model-predicted variance modulation. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with simulated data. An analysis of real data confirms the view that there are basically two components, which roughly correspond to the waves p13-n23 and n34-p44 of the VEMP. The rate modulation corresponding to the first, inhibitory component is much stronger than that corresponding to the second, excitatory component. But the latter is more extended so that the two modulations have almost the same equivalent rectangular duration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Right lower limb apraxia in a patient with left supplementary motor area infarction: intactness of the corticospinal tract confirmed by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Cheol Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported a 50-year-old female patient with left supplementary motor area infarction who presented right lower limb apraxia and investigated the possible causes using transcranial magnetic stimulation. The patient was able to walk and climb stairs spontaneously without any assistance at 3 weeks after onset. However, she was unable to intentionally move her right lower limb although she understood what she supposed to do. The motor evoked potential evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation from the right lower limb was within the normal range, indicating that the corticospinal tract innervating the right lower limb was uninjured. Thus, we thought that her motor dysfunction was not induced by motor weakness, and confirmed her symptoms as apraxia. In addition, these results also suggest that transcranial magnetic stimulation is helpful for diagnosing apraxia.

  20. Motor tic disorder and traumatic cervical myelopathy: a case report Trastorno de tic motor y mielopatía cervical traumática: relato de caso Transtorno de tique motor e mielopatia cervical traumática: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson Sfredo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between motor tics and cervical myelopathy is rare and not well understood. Only a few papers in the literature reported this disorder until the present date. This is a case report of a cervical myelopathy case secondary to a motor tic disorder. A 23-year-old male with a 10-year history of motor tic disorder, involving sudden forced extension of the head and cervical spine. Disturbed tactile sensation and kinetic posturing that progressed to the Lhermitte sign every time he made the movement were detected over the last six months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed hyperintense intramedullary lesion at C2-C3, degeneration at C3-C4, and no signs of spinal cord compression. On sagittal view, functional MRI with head extension showed anterior compression with protrusion of the intervertebral disc and posterior compression of the yellow ligaments causing spinal cord stenosis. Anterior discectomy and fixation of C3-C4 were performed. There were no complications. The patient showed improvement and the motor tics were controlled by haloperidol. The patient remains symptom-free after 2 years of follow-up. Uncontrolled motor tics can compromise spinal cord function. Functional MRI can reproduce the abnormal movements and clarify the physiopathology.La asociación entre tics motores y mielopatía cervical es rara y no es bien comprendida. Pocos estudios, que analizan este disturbio, han sido encontrados en la literatura hasta el momento. Este es el relato de un caso de mielopatía cervical secundaria a tics motores. Paciente masculino de 23 años con historial de trastorno de tic motor desde hace diez años, involucrando extensión forzada de la cabeza y columna cervical. En los últimos seis meses, se diagnosticaron deficiencias de sensaciones táctiles y postura cinética que progresaron hacia la señal de Lhermitte, cada vez que el paciente se movía. La Resonancia Magnética (RM reveló lesión intramedular hiperintensa al nivel de

  1. The outcome of a surgical protocol based on ischemia overprotection in large and giant aneurysms of the anterior cerebral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hideaki; Watanabe, Katsushige; Miyagishima, Takaaki; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Kin, Taichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2016-07-01

    Aiming to define the optimal treatment of large and giant aneurysms (LGAs) in the anterior circulation, we present our surgical protocol and patient outcome. A series of 42 patients with intracavernous LGAs (n = 16), paraclinoid (C2) LGAs (n = 17), and peripheral (middle cerebral artery-MCA or anterior cerebral artery-ACA) LGAs (n = 9) were treated after bypass under motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring. Preoperatively, three categories of ischemic tolerance during internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion were defined on conventional angiography: optimal, suboptimal, and insufficient collaterals. Accordingly, three types of bypass: low flow (LFB), middle flow (MFB) and high flow (HFB) were applied for the cases with optimal, suboptimal, and insufficient collaterals, respectively. Outcome was evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). All patients had excellent GOS score except one, who suffered a major ischemic stroke immediately after surgery for a paraclinoid lesion. Forty-one patients were followed up for 87.1 ± 40.1 months (range 13-144 months). Intracavernous LGAs were all treated by proximal occlusion with bypass surgery. Of paraclinoid LGA patients, 15 patients had direct clipping under suction decompression and other 2 patients with recurrent aneurysms had ICA (C2) proximal clipping with HFB. MEP monitoring guided for temporary clipping time and clip repositioning, observing significant MEP changes for up to 6 min duration. Of 9 peripheral LGAs patients 7 MCA LGAs had reconstructive clipping (n = 4) or trapping (n = 3) with bypass including LFB in 3 cases, MFB in 1 and HFB in 1. Two ACA LGAs had clipping (n = 1) or trapping (n = 1) with A3-A3 bypass. The applied protocol provided excellent results in intracavernous, paraclinoid, and peripheral thrombosed LGAs of the anterior circulation.

  2. DC-Evoked Modulation of Excitability of Myelinated Nerve Fibers and Their Terminal Branches; Differences in Sustained Effects of DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Dominik; Jankowska, Elzbieta

    2018-03-15

    Direct current (DC) evokes long-lasting changes in neuronal networks both presynaptically and postsynaptically and different mechanisms were proposed to be involved in them. Different mechanisms were also suggested to account for the different dynamics of presynaptic DC actions on myelinated nerve fibers stimulated before they entered the spinal gray matter and on their terminal branches. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these different dynamics might be related to differences in the involvement of K + channels. To this end, we compared effects of the K + channel blocker 4-amino-pyridine (4-AP) on DC-evoked changes in the excitability of afferent fibers stimulated within the dorsal columns (epidurally) and within their projection areas in the dorsal horn and motor nuclei (intraspinally). 4-AP was applied systemically in deeply anesthetized rats. DC-evoked increases in the excitability of epidurally stimulated afferent nerve fibers, and increases in field potentials evoked by these fibers, were not affected by 4-AP. In contrast, sustained decreases rather than increases in the excitability of intraspinally stimulated terminal nerve branches were evoked by local application of DC in conjunction with 4-AP. The study leads to the conclusion that 4-AP-sensitive K + channels contribute to the sustained DC-evoked post-polarization increases in the excitability at the level of terminal branches of nerve fibers but not of the nodes of Ranvier nor within the juxta-paranodal regions where other mechanisms would be involved in inducing the sustained DC-evoked changes. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B; Wit, HP; van Dijk, P

    2000-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and acoustical responses evoked by bandlimited Gaussian noise (noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions; NEOAEs) were measured in three normal-hearing subjects. For the NEOAEs the first- and second-order Wiener kernel and polynomial correlation functions up to

  4. Visual attentional load influences plasticity in the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Marc R; Hall, Michelle G; Lye, Hayley F; Sale, Martin V; Fenlon, Laura R; Carroll, Timothy J; Riek, Stephan; Mattingley, Jason B

    2012-05-16

    Neural plasticity plays a critical role in learning, memory, and recovery from injury to the nervous system. Although much is known about the physical and physiological determinants of plasticity, little is known about the influence of cognitive factors. In this study, we investigated whether selective attention plays a role in modifying changes in neural excitability reflecting long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity. We induced LTP-like effects in the hand area of the human motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). During the induction of plasticity, participants engaged in a visual detection task with either low or high attentional demands. Changes in neural excitability were assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials in a small hand muscle before and after the TMS procedures. In separate experiments plasticity was induced either by paired associative stimulation (PAS) or intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). Because these procedures induce different forms of LTP-like effects, they allowed us to investigate the generality of any attentional influence on plasticity. In both experiments reliable changes in motor cortex excitability were evident under low-load conditions, but this effect was eliminated under high-attentional load. In a third experiment we investigated whether the attentional task was associated with ongoing changes in the excitability of motor cortex, but found no difference in evoked potentials across the levels of attentional load. Our findings indicate that in addition to their role in modifying sensory processing, mechanisms of attention can also be a potent modulator of cortical plasticity.

  5. The monoamine reuptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 fails to evoke established dyskinesia but does not synergise with levodopa in MPTP-treated primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, Matthew J; Smith, Lance A; Jackson, Michael J; Cheetham, Sharon C; Jenner, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa (L-dopa) induces dyskinesia that, once established, is provoked by each dose of L-dopa or a dopamine (DA) agonist. In contrast, monoamine reuptake inhibitors may reverse motor deficits in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates without provoking established involuntary movements. We now examine whether the potent monoamine reuptake blocker BTS 74 398 induces established dyskinesia in MPTP-treated common marmosets primed previously with L-dopa and whether co-administration of BTS 74 398 with L-dopa potentiates motor behaviour and dyskinesia induced by acute L-dopa treatment. Administration of BTS 74 398 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg, p.o.) in MPTP-treated common marmosets increased locomotor activity and reduced motor disability in a dose-related manner but did not provoke involuntary movements. BTS 74 398 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg p.o.) co-administered with a threshold dose of L-dopa (2.5 mg/kg p.o.) did not evoke a motor response or induce dyskinesia. Similarly, concomitant administration of BTS 74 398 (5.0 mg/kg p.o.) with a submaximal L-dopa dose (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) did not potentiate the motor response produced by L-dopa alone and there was no alteration in the dyskinesia provoked by L-dopa challenge. BTS 74 398 reverses motor abnormalities in MPTP-treated marmosets without evoking established dyskinesia but no additive improvement occurs when administered in combination with L-dopa. The lack of synergy with L-dopa may suggest different sites of drug action. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

  6. Changes in corticospinal drive to spinal motoneurones following visuo-motor skill learning in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2006-01-01

    learning. Here we investigated the effect of visuo-motor skill training involving the ankle muscles on the coupling between electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded from the motor cortex (Cz) and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the left tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in 11 volunteers...... between cortex and muscle as part of the motor learning process....

  7. Procedure for the energy evaluation of electric motors; Procedimiento para la evaluacion energetica de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliz Quiroz, Marco Antonio [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    The present article is not a complete treaty about motors, here it is simply tried to show a practical procedure to evaluate electric motors, in order to determine the economics of their possible replacement by others of high efficiency. With the former in mind, the included database is sustained in the information of a representative number of motors brands commercialized in Mexico, since to include all the brands sold in our country would not be practical and it would be outside the scope of this publication. [Spanish] El presente articulo no es todo un tratado acerca de motores, sencillamente aqui se pretende mostrar un procedimiento practico para evaluar los motores electricos, a fin de determinar la rentabilidad de su eventual reemplazo por otros de alta eficiencia. Por lo anterior, la base de datos incluida se sustente en la informacion de un numero representativo de marcas de motores comercializados en Mexico, ya que abarcar todas las marcas vendidas en nuestro pais no seria practico y quedaria fuera del alcance de esta publicacion.

  8. Modulation of visually evoked postural responses by contextual visual, haptic and auditory information: a 'virtual reality check'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F; Shao, Fei; White, Mark D; Hopkins, Carl; Robotham, Antony J

    2013-01-01

    Externally generated visual motion signals can cause the illusion of self-motion in space (vection) and corresponding visually evoked postural responses (VEPR). These VEPRs are not simple responses to optokinetic stimulation, but are modulated by the configuration of the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore what factors modulate VEPRs in a high quality virtual reality (VR) environment where real and virtual foreground objects served as static visual, auditory and haptic reference points. Data from four experiments on visually evoked postural responses show that: 1) visually evoked postural sway in the lateral direction is modulated by the presence of static anchor points that can be haptic, visual and auditory reference signals; 2) real objects and their matching virtual reality representations as visual anchors have different effects on postural sway; 3) visual motion in the anterior-posterior plane induces robust postural responses that are not modulated by the presence of reference signals or the reality of objects that can serve as visual anchors in the scene. We conclude that automatic postural responses for laterally moving visual stimuli are strongly influenced by the configuration and interpretation of the environment and draw on multisensory representations. Different postural responses were observed for real and virtual visual reference objects. On the basis that automatic visually evoked postural responses in high fidelity virtual environments should mimic those seen in real situations we propose to use the observed effect as a robust objective test for presence and fidelity in VR.

  9. Subclinical recurrent neck pain and its treatment impacts motor training-induced plasticity of the cerebellum and motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarbé, Julianne K.; Yielder, Paul; Haavik, Heidi; Holmes, Michael W. R.

    2018-01-01

    The cerebellum processes pain inputs and is important for motor learning. Yet, how the cerebellum interacts with the motor cortex in individuals with recurrent pain is not clear. Functional connectivity between the cerebellum and motor cortex can be measured by a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation technique in which stimulation is applied to the cerebellum prior to stimulation over the motor cortex, which inhibits motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by motor cortex stimulation alone, called cerebellar inhibition (CBI). Healthy individuals without pain have been shown to demonstrate reduced CBI following motor acquisition. We hypothesized that CBI would not reduce to the same extent in those with mild-recurrent neck pain following the same motor acquisition task. We further hypothesized that a common treatment for neck pain (spinal manipulation) would restore reduced CBI following motor acquisition. Motor acquisition involved typing an eight-letter sequence of the letters Z,P,D,F with the right index finger. Twenty-seven neck pain participants received spinal manipulation (14 participants, 18–27 years) or sham control (13 participants, 19–24 years). Twelve healthy controls (20–27 years) also participated. Participants had CBI measured; they completed manipulation or sham control followed by motor acquisition; and then had CBI re-measured. Following motor acquisition, neck pain sham controls remained inhibited (58 ± 33% of test MEP) vs. healthy controls who disinhibited (98 ± 49% of test MEP, Pneck pain sham vs. healthy control groups suggests that neck pain may change cerebellar-motor cortex interaction. The change to facilitation suggests that spinal manipulation may reverse inhibitory effects of neck pain. PMID:29489878

  10. Cerebellar contribution to motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: An MRI sub-regional volumetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12). Multivariate linear regression models assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and motor/cognitive scores. Compared to HC, only secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients had lower cerebellar volumes (total and posterior cerebellum). In MS patients, lower anterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted worse motor performance, whereas lower posterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted poor cognitive performance. Global measures of brain volume and infratentorial T2 LV were not selected by the final multivariate models. Cerebellar volumetric abnormalities are likely to play an important contribution to explain motor and cognitive performance in MS patients. Consistently with functional mapping studies, cerebellar posterior-inferior volume accounted for variance in cognitive measures, whereas anterior cerebellar volume accounted for variance in motor performance, supporting the assessment of cerebellar damage at sub-regional level.

  11. Role of cyclooxygenase isoforms in the altered excitatory motor pathways of human colon with diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornai, M; Colucci, R; Antonioli, L; Ippolito, C; Segnani, C; Buccianti, P; Marioni, A; Chiarugi, M; Villanacci, V; Bassotti, G; Blandizzi, C; Bernardini, N

    2014-08-01

    The COX isoforms (COX-1, COX-2) regulate human gut motility, although their role under pathological conditions remains unclear. This study examines the effects of COX inhibitors on excitatory motility in colonic tissue from patients with diverticular disease (DD). Longitudinal muscle preparations, from patients with DD or uncomplicated cancer (controls), were set up in organ baths and connected to isotonic transducers. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), SC-560 (COX-1 inhibitor) or DFU (COX-2 inhibitor) were assayed on electrically evoked, neurogenic, cholinergic and tachykininergic contractions, or carbachol- and substance P (SP)-induced myogenic contractions. Distribution and expression of COX isoforms in the neuromuscular compartment were assessed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In control preparations, neurogenic cholinergic contractions were enhanced by COX inhibitors, whereas tachykininergic responses were blunted. Carbachol-evoked contractions were increased by indomethacin or SC-560, but not DFU, whereas all inhibitors reduced SP-induced motor responses. In preparations from DD patients, COX inhibitors did not affect electrically evoked cholinergic contractions. Both indomethacin and DFU, but not SC-560, decreased tachykininergic responses. COX inhibitors did not modify carbachol-evoked motor responses, whereas they counteracted SP-induced contractions. COX-1 expression was decreased in myenteric neurons, whereas COX-2 was enhanced in glial cells and smooth muscle. In control colon, COX-1 and COX-2 down-regulate cholinergic motility, whereas both isoforms enhance tachykininergic motor activity. In the presence of DD, there is a loss of modulation by both COX isoforms on the cholinergic system, whereas COX-2 displays an enhanced facilitatory control on tachykininergic contractile activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  13. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by paired peripheral and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Hatice; Albu, Sergiu; Rothwell, John; Leon, Daniel; Flores, Cecilia; Opisso, Eloy; Tormos, Josep Maria; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive application of peripheral electrical stimuli paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 cortex at low frequency, known as paired associative stimulation (PAS), is an effective method to induce motor cortex plasticity in humans. Here we investigated the effects of repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) combined with low frequency rTMS ('magnetic-PAS') on intracortical and corticospinal excitability and whether those changes were widespread or circumscribed to the cortical area controlling the stimulated muscle. Eleven healthy subjects underwent three 10min stimulation sessions: 10HzrPMS alone, applied in trains of 5 stimuli every 10s (60 trains) on the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle; rTMS alone at an intensity 120% of ECR threshold, applied over motor cortex of ECR and at a frequency of 0.1Hz (60 stimuli) and magnetic PAS, i.e., paired rPMS and rTMS. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from ECR and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles. We measured resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials (MEP) amplitude at 120% of RMT, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) at interstimulus interval (ISI) of 2ms and intracortical facilitation (ICF) at an ISI of 15ms before and immediately after each intervention. Magnetic-PAS , but not rTMS or rPMS applied separately, increased MEP amplitude and reduced short intracortical inhibition in ECR but not in FDI muscle. Magnetic-PAS can increase corticospinal excitability and reduce intracortical inhibition. The effects may be specific for the area of cortical representation of the stimulated muscle. Application of magnetic-PAS might be relevant for motor rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. All rights reserved.

  14. Refinement of learned skilled movement representation in motor cortex deep output layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ko, Ho; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Yan, Leo Y. C.; Chan, Danny C. W.; Arbuthnott, Gordon; Ke, Ya; Yung, Wing-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the emergence of learned motor skill representation in primary motor cortex (M1) are not well understood. Specifically, how motor representation in the deep output layer 5b (L5b) is shaped by motor learning remains virtually unknown. In rats undergoing motor skill training, we detect a subpopulation of task-recruited L5b neurons that not only become more movement-encoding, but their activities are also more structured and temporally aligned to motor execution with a timescale of refinement in tens-of-milliseconds. Field potentials evoked at L5b in vivo exhibit persistent long-term potentiation (LTP) that parallels motor performance. Intracortical dopamine denervation impairs motor learning, and disrupts the LTP profile as well as the emergent neurodynamical properties of task-recruited L5b neurons. Thus, dopamine-dependent recruitment of L5b neuronal ensembles via synaptic reorganization may allow the motor cortex to generate more temporally structured, movement-encoding output signal from M1 to downstream circuitry that drives increased uniformity and precision of movement during motor learning. PMID:28598433

  15. Complete reorganization of the motor cortex of adult rats following long-term spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shashank; Kambi, Niranjan; Mohammed, Hisham; Jain, Neeraj

    2013-07-01

    Understanding brain reorganization following long-term spinal cord injuries is important for optimizing recoveries based on residual function as well as developing brain-controlled assistive devices. Although it has been shown that the motor cortex undergoes partial reorganization within a few weeks after peripheral and spinal cord injuries, it is not known if the motor cortex of rats is capable of large-scale reorganization after longer recovery periods. Here we determined the organization of the rat (Rattus norvegicus) motor cortex at 5 or more months after chronic lesions of the spinal cord at cervical levels using intracortical microstimulation. The results show that, in the rats with the lesions, stimulation of neurons in the de-efferented forelimb motor cortex no longer evokes movements of the forelimb. Instead, movements of the body parts in the adjacent representations, namely the whiskers and neck were evoked. In addition, at many sites, movements of the ipsilateral forelimb were observed at threshold currents. The extent of representations of the eye, jaw and tongue movements was unaltered by the lesion. Thus, large-scale reorganization of the motor cortex leads to complete filling-in of the de-efferented cortex by neighboring representations following long-term partial spinal cord injuries at cervical levels in adult rats. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  17. Modulation of Visually Evoked Postural Responses by Contextual Visual, Haptic and Auditory Information: A ‘Virtual Reality Check’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Georg F.; Shao, Fei; White, Mark D.; Hopkins, Carl; Robotham, Antony J.

    2013-01-01

    Externally generated visual motion signals can cause the illusion of self-motion in space (vection) and corresponding visually evoked postural responses (VEPR). These VEPRs are not simple responses to optokinetic stimulation, but are modulated by the configuration of the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore what factors modulate VEPRs in a high quality virtual reality (VR) environment where real and virtual foreground objects served as static visual, auditory and haptic reference points. Data from four experiments on visually evoked postural responses show that: 1) visually evoked postural sway in the lateral direction is modulated by the presence of static anchor points that can be haptic, visual and auditory reference signals; 2) real objects and their matching virtual reality representations as visual anchors have different effects on postural sway; 3) visual motion in the anterior-posterior plane induces robust postural responses that are not modulated by the presence of reference signals or the reality of objects that can serve as visual anchors in the scene. We conclude that automatic postural responses for laterally moving visual stimuli are strongly influenced by the configuration and interpretation of the environment and draw on multisensory representations. Different postural responses were observed for real and virtual visual reference objects. On the basis that automatic visually evoked postural responses in high fidelity virtual environments should mimic those seen in real situations we propose to use the observed effect as a robust objective test for presence and fidelity in VR. PMID:23840760

  18. Subclinical recurrent neck pain and its treatment impacts motor training-induced plasticity of the cerebellum and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne K Baarbé

    Full Text Available The cerebellum processes pain inputs and is important for motor learning. Yet, how the cerebellum interacts with the motor cortex in individuals with recurrent pain is not clear. Functional connectivity between the cerebellum and motor cortex can be measured by a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation technique in which stimulation is applied to the cerebellum prior to stimulation over the motor cortex, which inhibits motor evoked potentials (MEPs produced by motor cortex stimulation alone, called cerebellar inhibition (CBI. Healthy individuals without pain have been shown to demonstrate reduced CBI following motor acquisition. We hypothesized that CBI would not reduce to the same extent in those with mild-recurrent neck pain following the same motor acquisition task. We further hypothesized that a common treatment for neck pain (spinal manipulation would restore reduced CBI following motor acquisition. Motor acquisition involved typing an eight-letter sequence of the letters Z,P,D,F with the right index finger. Twenty-seven neck pain participants received spinal manipulation (14 participants, 18-27 years or sham control (13 participants, 19-24 years. Twelve healthy controls (20-27 years also participated. Participants had CBI measured; they completed manipulation or sham control followed by motor acquisition; and then had CBI re-measured. Following motor acquisition, neck pain sham controls remained inhibited (58 ± 33% of test MEP vs. healthy controls who disinhibited (98 ± 49% of test MEP, P<0.001, while the spinal manipulation group facilitated (146 ± 95% of test MEP, P<0.001. Greater inhibition in neck pain sham vs. healthy control groups suggests that neck pain may change cerebellar-motor cortex interaction. The change to facilitation suggests that spinal manipulation may reverse inhibitory effects of neck pain.

  19. Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayel, Shady; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Bedetti, Christophe; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Monchi, Oury; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gaubert, Malo; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2018-02-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures. Cortical thickness analysis revealed thinning in iRBD patients in bilateral medial superior frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate cortices, and the right dorsolateral primary motor cortex. VBM results showed lower gray matter volume in iRBD patients in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyri, and caudate nucleus. Shape analysis revealed extensive surface contraction in the external and internal segments of the left pallidum. Clinical and motor impaired features in iRBD were associated with anomalies of the motor cortico-subcortical loop. In summary, iRBD patients showed numerous gray matter structural abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop, which are associated with lower motor performance and clinical manifestations of iRBD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Task-dependent engagements of the primary visual cortex during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakamura, Maiko; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery can be divided into kinesthetic and visual aspects. In the present study, we investigated excitability in the corticospinal tract and primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery. To accomplish this, we measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and probability of phosphene occurrence during the two types of motor imageries of finger tapping. The MEPs and phosphenes were induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex and V1, respectively. The amplitudes of MEPs and probability of phosphene occurrence during motor imagery were normalized based on the values obtained at rest. Corticospinal excitability increased during both kinesthetic and visual motor imagery, while excitability in V1 was increased only during visual motor imagery. These results imply that modulation of cortical excitability during kinesthetic and visual motor imagery is task dependent. The present finding aids in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motor imagery and provides useful information for the use of motor imagery in rehabilitation or motor imagery training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of music-evoked autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Rakowski, Sonja K

    2007-11-01

    Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

  2. Modulation of visually evoked postural responses by contextual visual, haptic and auditory information: a 'virtual reality check'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F Meyer

    Full Text Available Externally generated visual motion signals can cause the illusion of self-motion in space (vection and corresponding visually evoked postural responses (VEPR. These VEPRs are not simple responses to optokinetic stimulation, but are modulated by the configuration of the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore what factors modulate VEPRs in a high quality virtual reality (VR environment where real and virtual foreground objects served as static visual, auditory and haptic reference points. Data from four experiments on visually evoked postural responses show that: 1 visually evoked postural sway in the lateral direction is modulated by the presence of static anchor points that can be haptic, visual and auditory reference signals; 2 real objects and their matching virtual reality representations as visual anchors have different effects on postural sway; 3 visual motion in the anterior-posterior plane induces robust postural responses that are not modulated by the presence of reference signals or the reality of objects that can serve as visual anchors in the scene. We conclude that automatic postural responses for laterally moving visual stimuli are strongly influenced by the configuration and interpretation of the environment and draw on multisensory representations. Different postural responses were observed for real and virtual visual reference objects. On the basis that automatic visually evoked postural responses in high fidelity virtual environments should mimic those seen in real situations we propose to use the observed effect as a robust objective test for presence and fidelity in VR.

  3. A review of monopolar motor mapping and a comprehensive guide to continuous dynamic motor mapping for resection of motor eloquent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schucht, P; Seidel, K; Jilch, A; Beck, J; Raabe, A

    2017-06-01

    Monopolar mapping of motor function differs from the most commonly used method of intraoperative mapping, i.e. bipolar direct electrical stimulation at 50-60Hz (Penfield technique mapping). Most importantly, the monopolar probe emits a radial, homogenous electrical field different to the more focused inter-tip bipolar electrical field. Most users combine monopolar stimulation with the short train technique, also called high frequency stimulation, or train-of-five techniques. It consists of trains of four to nine monopolar rectangular electrical pulses of 200-500μs pulse length with an inter stimulus interval of 2-4msec. High frequency short train stimulation triggers a time-locked motor-evoked potential response, which has a defined latency and an easily quantifiable amplitude. In this way, motor thresholds might be used to evaluate a current-to-distance relation. The homogeneous electrical field and the current-to-distance approximation provide the surgeon with an estimate of the remaining distance to the corticospinal tract, enabling the surgeon to adjust the speed of resection as the corticospinal tract is approached. Furthermore, this stimulation paradigm is associated with a lower incidence of intraoperative seizures, allowing continuous stimulation. Hence, monopolar mapping is increasingly used as part of a strategy of continuous dynamic mapping: ergonomically integrated into the surgeon's tools, the monopolar probe reliably provides continuous/uninterrupted feedback on motor function. As part of this strategy, motor mapping is not any longer a time consuming interruption of resection but rather a radar-like, real-time information system on the spatial relationship of the current resection site to eloquent motor structures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Neural correlates of conversion disorder: overview and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckle, Markus; Liegl, Gregor; Jank, Robert; Pieh, Christoph

    2016-06-10

    Conversion Disorders (CD) are prevalent functional disorders. Although the pathogenesis is still not completely understood, an interaction of genetic, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors is quite likely. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic overview on imaging studies on CDs and investigate neuronal areas involved in Motor Conversion Disorders (MCD). A systematic literature search was conducted on CD. Subsequently a meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies on MCD was implemented using an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE). We calculated differences between patients and healthy controls as well as between affected versus unaffected sides in addition to an overall analysis in order to identify neuronal areas related to MCD. Patients with MCD differ from healthy controls in the amygdala, superior temporal lobe, retrosplenial area, primary motor cortex, insula, red nucleus, thalamus, anterior as well as dorsolateral prefrontal and frontal cortex. When comparing affected versus unaffected sides, temporal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supramarginal gyrus, dorsal temporal lobe, anterior insula, primary somatosensory cortex, superior frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal as well as frontal cortex show significant differences. Neuronal areas seem to be involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance or as a result of MCD. Areas that are important for motor-planning, motor-selection or autonomic response seem to be especially relevant. Our results support the emotional unawareness theory but also underline the need of more support by conduction imaging studies on both CD and MCD.

  5. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-08-19

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. Copyright © 2014, Seeds et al.

  6. High-order motor cortex in rats receives somatosensory inputs from the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunori, Nobuo; Takashima, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb. This procedure was followed by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping to identify the motor representations in the imaged cortex. The combined use of VSD imaging and ICMS revealed that both the CFA and RFA received excitatory synaptic inputs after forelimb stimulation. Further evaluation of the sensory input pathway to the RFA revealed that the forelimb-evoked RFA response was abolished either by the pharmacological inactivation of the CFA or a cortical transection between the CFA and RFA. These results suggest that forelimb-related sensory inputs would be transmitted to the RFA from the CFA via the cortico-cortical pathway. Thus, the present findings imply that sensory information processed in the RFA may be used for the generation of coordinated forelimb movements, which would be similar to the function of the higher-order motor cortex in primates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mirth and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the human anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Fausto; Avanzini, Pietro; Gozzo, Francesca; Francione, Stefano; Cardinale, Francesco; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Laughter is a complex motor behavior that, typically, expresses mirth. Despite its fundamental role in social life, knowledge about the neural basis of laughter is very limited and mostly based on a few electrical stimulation (ES) studies carried out in epileptic patients. In these studies laughter was elicited from temporal areas where it was accompanied by mirth and from frontal areas plus an anterior cingulate case where laughter without mirth was observed. On the basis of these findings, it has been proposed a dichotomy between temporal lobe areas processing the emotional content of laughter and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and motor areas responsible of laughter production. The present study is aimed to understand the role of ACC in laughter. We report the effects of stimulation of 10 rostral, pregenual ACC (pACC) patients in which the ES elicited laughter. In half of the patients ES elicited a clear burst of laughter with mirth, while in the other half mirth was not evident. This large dataset allow us to offer a more reliable picture of the functional contribute of this region in laughter, and to precisely localize it in the cingulate cortex. We conclude that the pACC is involved in both the motor and the affective components of emotions, and challenge the validity of a sharp dichotomy between motor and emotional centers for laughing. Finally, we suggest a possible anatomical network for the production of positive emotional expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperlexia and ambient echolalia in a case of cerebral infarction of the left anterior cingulate cortex and corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Itoh, Shouichi; Hayashi, Mototaka; Kouno, Masako; Takeda, Katsuhiko

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with cerebral infarction in the left anterior cingulate cortex and corpus callosum. She showed hyperlexia, which was a distinctive reading phenomenon, as well as ambient echolalia. Clinical features also included complex disorders such as visual groping, compulsive manipulation of tools, and callosal disconnection syndrome. She read words written on the cover of a book and repeated words emanating from unrelated conversations around her or from hospital announcements. The combination of these two features due to a focal lesion has never been reported previously. The supplementary motor area may control the execution of established subroutines according to external and internal inputs. Hyperlexia as well as the compulsive manipulation of tools could be interpreted as faulty inhibition of preexisting essentially intact motor subroutines by damage to the anterior cingulate cortex reciprocally interconnected with the supplementary motor area.

  9. Management of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms presenting with sudden paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-hong MA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the causes of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms presenting with paraplegia, and summarize the key points of diagnosis and treatment methods. Methods  A total of 260 patients with ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms were received medical treatment in the Department of Neurosurgery, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital from Jan. 2012 to Mar. 2015. Of which 6 patients were clinically presented with paraplegia, their clinical data including CT/MR/DSA were retrospectively analyzed, and based on the analysis, aneurysm embolization and anti-vasospasm treatment were performed. Results  Besides headache and discomfort in the neck, 5 of the 6 patients were with double lower limbs paraplegia, and the another one presented quadriplegia. By symptomatic treatment of aneurysm embolization and anti vasospasm, the myodynamia of the paraplegic limbs recovered from 0-Ⅰto Ⅳ-Ⅴgrade, and 2 of the 6 patients spent a shorter recovery time (about 2 weeks, the other 4 recovered in 3 months. The limbs myodynamia of the 6 patients recovered completely in half-and one year follow up. Conclusions  The mechanism of ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms presenting with paraplegia may be the insufficient blood supply to the primary motor area and supplementary motor area (SMA of brain cortex caused by aneurysms rupture. Aneurysm embolization should be performed in clinical treatment, supplemented with anti vasospasm and symptomatic treatment of improving neurological function. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.14

  10. Role of association cortices and cerebellum during motor consolidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Ken; Wright, David K.; Box, Georgia A.

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral circulation activated during the first (naive) and second (learned) visual-motor tasks were performed to confirm the hypothesis that activated brain regions are different before and after the motor work. Subjects were 30 normal healthy right-handed volunteers (av. age 21 y), who had the first 10 tasks of cursor tracing (regular tracing, rt), as rapidly and accurately as possible, along the given star features and then second 15 tasks of tracing with the cursor with inverse polarity (mirror tracing, mt). During the tasks, PET images were obtained at 7th and 9th rt, and 10 times (1st-15th) during mt, with the high-resolution positron camera (HEADTOME V) to measure the cerebral blood flow after intravenous 15 O-water and were processed into 3D for statistics. At the 1st mt (under the most unfamiliar condition), stimulated were the right frontal and supplementary motor areas and temporal lobe, bilateral centriciput lobe, anterior cingulated gyrus, and left cerebellum hemisphere. Under the learned condition (at 15th mt), the primary motor area, lingual gyrus, cuneus, anterior cuneus, occipital lobe involving posterior cingulated gyrus and left cerebellum hemisphere were activated. Thus the hypothesis above was confirmed: reconfirmation of the brain plasticity. (R.T.)

  11. Kinesthetic perception based on integration of motor imagery and afferent inputs from antagonistic muscles with tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, E; Kaneko, F

    2013-04-29

    The perceptual integration of afferent inputs from two antagonistic muscles, or the perceptual integration of afferent input and motor imagery are related to the generation of a kinesthetic sensation. However, it has not been clarified how, or indeed whether, a kinesthetic perception would be generated by motor imagery if afferent inputs from two antagonistic muscles were simultaneously induced by tendon vibration. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a kinesthetic perception would be generated by motor imagery during co-vibration of the two antagonistic muscles at the same frequency. Healthy subjects participated in this experiment. Illusory movement was evoked by tendon vibration. Next, the subjects imaged wrist flexion movement simultaneously with tendon vibration. Wrist flexor and extensor muscles were vibrated according to 4 patterns such that the difference between the two vibration frequencies was zero. After each trial, the perceived movement sensations were quantified on the basis of the velocity and direction of the ipsilateral hand-tracking movements. When the difference in frequency applied to the wrist flexor and the extensor was 0Hz, no subjects perceived movements without motor imagery. However, during motor imagery, the flexion velocity of the perceived movement was higher than the flexion velocity without motor imagery. This study clarified that the afferent inputs from the muscle spindle interact with motor imagery, to evoke a kinesthetic perception, even when the difference in frequency applied to the wrist flexor and extensor was 0Hz. Furthermore, the kinesthetic perception resulting from integrations of vibration and motor imagery increased depending on the vibration frequency to the two antagonistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discharge properties of motor units during steady isometric contractions performed with the dorsiflexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesunathadas, Mark; Klass, Malgorzata; Duchateau, Jacques; Enoka, Roger M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to record the discharge characteristics of tibialis anterior motor units over a range of target forces and to import these data, along with previously reported observations, into a computational model to compare experimental and simulated measures of torque variability during isometric contractions with the dorsiflexor muscles. The discharge characteristics of 44 motor units were quantified during brief isometric contractions at torques that ranged from recruitment threshold to an average of 22 ± 14.4% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque above recruitment threshold. The minimal [range: 5.8-19.8 pulses per second (pps)] and peak (range: 8.6-37.5 pps) discharge rates of motor units were positively related to the recruitment threshold torque (R(2) ≥ 0.266; P recruitment was positively associated with recruitment threshold torque (R(2) = 0.443; P recruitment threshold torque. The variability in the simulated torque did not differ from the experimental values once the recruitment range was set to ∼85% MVC torque, and the association between motor twitch contraction times and peak twitch torque was defined as a weak linear association (R(2) = 0.096; P motor units in the tibialis anterior.

  13. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate...... and during three RHI conditions: a) agency and ownership, b) agency but no ownership and c) neither agency nor ownership. Parietal-motor communication differed among experimental conditions. The induction of action ownership was associated with an inhibitory parietal-to-motor connectivity, which...... cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  14. Evaluation of the Predictive Value of Intraoperative Changes in Motor-Evoked Potentials of Caudal Cranial Nerves for the Postoperative Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Marcel; Tatagiba, Marcos; Liebsch, Marina; Feigl, Guenther C

    2016-11-01

    The predictive value of changes in intraoperatively acquired motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) IX-X (glossopharyngeal-vagus nerve) and CN XII (hypoglossal nerve) on operative outcomes was investigated. MEPs of CN IX-X and CN XII were recorded intraoperatively in 63 patients undergoing surgery of the posterior cranial fossa. We correlated the changes of the MEPs with postoperative nerve function. For CN IX-X, we found a correlation between the amplitude of the MEP ratio and uvula deviation (P = 0.028) and the amplitude duration of the MEP and gag reflex function (P = 0.027). Patients with an MEP ratio of the glossopharyngeal-vagus amplitude ≤1.47 μV had a 3.4 times increased risk of developing a uvula deviation. Patients with a final MEP duration of the CN IX-X ≤11.6 milliseconds had a 3.6 times increased risk for their gag reflex to become extinct. Our study greatly contributes to the current knowledge of intraoperative MEPs as a predictor for postoperative cranial nerve function. We were able to extent previous findings on MEP values of the facial nerve on postoperative nerve function to 3 additional cranial nerves. Finding reliable predictors for postoperative nerve function is of great importance to the overall quality of life for a patient undergoing surgery of the posterior cranial fossa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of epidural 0.25% bupivacaine on somatosensory evoked potentials to dermatomal stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, C; Hansen, O B; Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    The effect of lumbar epidural analgesia with similar volumes (about 25 ml) of 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine on early (less than 0.5 seconds) somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to electrical stimulation of the S1, L1, and T10 dermatomes was examined in two groups of ten patients. Level of sensory...... analgesia to pinprick was T5.7 +/- 0.8 and T6.4 +/- 0.7 in the 0.25% and 0.5% bupivacaine group, respectively. Motor blockade was more pronounced in the 0.5% bupivacaine group (p less than 0.05). Despite similar analgesia to pinprick, SEPs were more reduced during 0.5% bupivacaine than during 0...

  16. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yo

    2004-01-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal

  18. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  19. Ipsilateral hemiparesis and contralateral lower limb paresis caused by anterior cerebral artery territory infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Liu, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Ipsilateral hemiparesis is rare after a supratentorial stroke, and the role of reorganization in the motor areas of unaffected hemisphere is important for the rehabilitation of the stroke patients. In this study, we present a patient who had a subclinical remote infarct in the right pons developed ipsilateral hemiparesis and contralateral lower limb paresis caused by a new infarct in the left anterior cerebral artery territory. Our case suggests that the motor areas of the unaffected hemisphere might be reorganized after stroke, which is important for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  20. Hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Fukai, Yuta; Rikimaru, Mitsue; Henmi, Shoji; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2010-04-15

    We describe three patients from the same family with hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy followed by proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities. Sensory ataxic gait began as an initial symptom when patients were in their 50s. Mild proximal weakness in the lower extremities appeared several years later. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory dominant axonal neuropathy, and short sensory evoked potentials showed involvement of the sensory nerve axon, dorsal root ganglia and posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. Needle electromyography showed fibrillation, positive sharp waves, and multiple giant motor unit potentials, suggesting the involvement of anterior horn motor neurons or the anterior root. Autosomal recessive inheritance was considered, because of consanguinity. The disorder described here may be a new clinical entity with unique clinical manifestations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Voluntary muscle activation and evoked volitional-wave responses as a function of torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight, Robert E; Quarshie, Alwyn T; Black, Christopher D

    2018-08-01

    This study employed a unique stimulation paradigm which allowed for the simultaneous assessment of voluntary activation levels (VA) via twitch-interpolation, and the evoked V-wave responses of the plantar flexors during submaximal and maximal contractions. Test-retest reliability was also examined. Fourteen participants repeated a stimulation protocol over four visits to assess VA and evoked V-wave amplitude across torque levels ranging from 20% to 100% MVC. MVC torque and EMG amplitude were also measured. VA increased nonlinearly with torque production and plateaued by 80% MVC. V-wave amplitude increased linearly from 20% to 100% MVC. There were no differences in any dependent variable across visits (p > 0.05). VA demonstrated moderate to substantial reliability across all torque levels (ICC = 0.76-0.91) while V-wave amplitude exhibited fair to moderate reliability from 40% to 100% (ICC = 0.48-0.74). We were able to reliably collect VA and the V-wave simultaneously in the plantar flexors. Collection of VA and V-wave during the same contraction provides distinct information regarding the contribution of motor-unit recruitment and descending cortico-spinal drive/excitability to force production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Somatotopic Semantic Priming and Prediction in the Motor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisoni, Luigi; Dreyer, Felix R.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of action-related sounds and words activates motor regions, reflecting the semantic grounding of these symbols in action information; in addition, motor cortex exerts causal influences on sound perception and language comprehension. However, proponents of classic symbolic theories still dispute the role of modality-preferential systems such as the motor cortex in the semantic processing of meaningful stimuli. To clarify whether the motor system carries semantic processes, we investigated neurophysiological indexes of semantic relationships between action-related sounds and words. Event-related potentials revealed that action-related words produced significantly larger stimulus-evoked (Mismatch Negativity-like) and predictive brain responses (Readiness Potentials) when presented in body-part-incongruent sound contexts (e.g., “kiss” in footstep sound context; “kick” in whistle context) than in body-part-congruent contexts, a pattern reminiscent of neurophysiological correlates of semantic priming. Cortical generators of the semantic relatedness effect were localized in areas traditionally associated with semantic memory, including left inferior frontal cortex and temporal pole, and, crucially, in motor areas, where body-part congruency of action sound–word relationships was indexed by a somatotopic pattern of activation. As our results show neurophysiological manifestations of action-semantic priming in the motor cortex, they prove semantic processing in the motor system and thus in a modality-preferential system of the human brain. PMID:26908635

  3. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  4. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Beyond the evoked/intrinsic neural process dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Bolt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary functional neuroimaging research has increasingly focused on characterization of intrinsic or “spontaneous” brain activity. Analysis of intrinsic activity is often contrasted with analysis of task-evoked activity that has traditionally been the focus of cognitive neuroscience. But does this evoked/intrinsic dichotomy adequately characterize human brain function? Based on empirical data demonstrating a close functional interdependence between intrinsic and task-evoked activity, we argue that the dichotomy between intrinsic and task-evoked activity as unobserved contributions to brain activity is artificial. We present an alternative picture of brain function in which the brain’s spatiotemporal dynamics do not consist of separable intrinsic and task-evoked components, but reflect the enaction of a system of mutual constraints to move the brain into and out of task-appropriate functional configurations. According to this alternative picture, cognitive neuroscientists are tasked with describing both the temporal trajectory of brain activity patterns across time, and the modulation of this trajectory by task states, without separating this process into intrinsic and task-evoked components. We argue that this alternative picture of brain function is best captured in a novel explanatory framework called enabling constraint. Overall, these insights call for a reconceptualization of functional brain activity, and should drive future methodological and empirical efforts.

  6. Rhythmic activity of feline dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons during fictive motor actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedirchuk, Brent; Stecina, Katinka; Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl

    2013-01-01

    (without phasic afferent feedback). In this study, we compared the activity of DSCT and VSCT neurons during fictive rhythmic motor behaviors. We used decerebrate cat preparations in which fictive motor tasks can be evoked while the animal is paralyzed and there is no rhythmic sensory input from hindlimb......Neurons of the dorsal spinocerebellar tracts (DSCT) have been described to be rhythmically active during walking on a treadmill in decerebrate cats, but this activity ceased following deafferentation of the hindlimb. This observation supported the hypothesis that DSCT neurons primarily relay...

  7. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (pfrontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (pgyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 at 9.4T static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrubla, Jorge; Neuner, Irene; Hahn, David; Boers, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shown a number of advantages that make this multimodal technique superior to fMRI alone. The feasibility of recording EEG at ultra-high static magnetic field up to 9.4 T was recently demonstrated and promises to be implemented soon in fMRI studies at ultra high magnetic fields. Recording visual evoked potentials are expected to be amongst the most simple for simultaneous EEG/fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field due to the easy assessment of the visual cortex. Auditory evoked P300 measurements are of interest since it is believed that they represent the earliest stage of cognitive processing. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of recording visual evoked potentials and auditory evoked P300 in a 9.4 T static magnetic field. For this purpose, EEG data were recorded from 26 healthy volunteers inside a 9.4 T MR scanner using a 32-channel MR compatible EEG system. Visual stimulation and auditory oddball paradigm were presented in order to elicit evoked related potentials (ERP). Recordings made outside the scanner were performed using the same stimuli and EEG system for comparison purposes. We were able to retrieve visual P100 and auditory P300 evoked potentials at 9.4 T static magnetic field after correction of the ballistocardiogram artefact using independent component analysis. The latencies of the ERPs recorded at 9.4 T were not different from those recorded at 0 T. The amplitudes of ERPs were higher at 9.4 T when compared to recordings at 0 T. Nevertheless, it seems that the increased amplitudes of the ERPs are due to the effect of the ultra-high field on the EEG recording system rather than alteration in the intrinsic processes that generate the electrophysiological responses.

  9. Effects of 2-day calorie restriction on cardiovascular autonomic response, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Čekanauskaitė, Agnė

    2018-06-02

    Although long-term energy restriction has been widely investigated and has consistently induced improvements in health and cognitive and motor functions, the responses to short-duration calorie restriction are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2-day very low-calorie diet on evoked stress, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese women. Nine obese women (body fatness > 32%) aged 22-31 years were tested under two randomly allocated conditions: 2-day very low-calorie diet (511 kcal) and 2-day usual diet. The perceived stressfulness of the diet, cardiovascular autonomic response, and cognitive and motor performances were evaluated before and after each diet. The subjective stress rating of the calorie-restricted diet was 41.5 ± 23.3. Calorie restriction had no detectable effects on the heart rate variability indices, mood, grip strength, or psychomotor functions. By contrast, calorie restriction increased (p restriction evoked moderate stress in obese women, cardiovascular autonomic function was not affected. Calorie restriction had complex effects on cognition: it declined cognitive flexibility, and improved spatial processing and visuospatial working memory, but did not affect mood or motor behavior.

  10. Jaw-motor effects of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress in patients with deep bite and matched control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain......OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...

  11. Turtle Flexion Reflex Motor Patterns Show Windup, Mediated Partly by L-type Calcium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith P. Johnson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Windup is a form of multisecond temporal summation in which identical stimuli, delivered seconds apart, trigger increasingly strong neuronal responses. L-type Ca2+ channels have been shown to play an important role in the production of windup of spinal cord neuronal responses, initially in studies of turtle spinal cord and later in studies of mammalian spinal cord. L-type Ca2+ channels have also been shown to contribute to windup of limb withdrawal reflex (flexion reflex in rats, but flexion reflex windup has not previously been described in turtles and its cellular mechanisms have not been studied. We studied windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, evoked with weak mechanical and electrical stimulation of the dorsal hindlimb foot skin and assessed via a hip flexor (HF nerve recording, in spinal cord-transected and immobilized turtles in vivo. We found that an L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist, nifedipine, applied at concentrations of 50 μM or 100 μM to the hindlimb enlargement spinal cord, significantly reduced windup of flexion reflex motor patterns, while lower concentrations of nifedipine had no such effect. Nifedipine similarly reduced the amplitude of an individual flexion reflex motor pattern evoked by a stronger mechanical stimulus, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to each flexion reflex as well as to multisecond summation of flexion reflex responses in turtles. We also found that we could elicit flexion reflex windup consistently using a 4-g von Frey filament, which is not usually considered a nociceptive stimulus. Thus, it may be that windup can be evoked by a wide range of tactile stimuli and that L-type calcium channels contribute to multisecond temporal summation of diverse tactile stimuli across vertebrates.

  12. A novel cortical target to enhance hand motor output in humans with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinyi; Federico, Paolo; Perez, Monica A

    2017-06-01

    A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4.3 ms; I-wave protocol) or at an interstimulus interval in-between I-waves (3.5 ms; control protocol) on separate days in a randomized order. Late I-waves are thought to arise from trans-synaptic cortical inputs and have a crucial role in the recruitment of spinal motor neurons following spinal cord injury. Motor evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation, paired-pulse intracortical inhibition, spinal motor neuron excitability (F-waves), index finger abduction force and electromyographic activity as well as a hand dexterity task were measured before and after both protocols in 15 individuals with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury and 17 uninjured participants. We found that motor evoked potentials size increased in spinal cord injury and uninjured participants after the I-wave but not the control protocol for ∼30 to 60 min after the stimulation. Intracortical inhibition decreased and F-wave amplitude and persistence increased after the I-wave but not the control protocol, suggesting that cortical and subcortical networks contributed to changes in corticospinal excitability. Importantly, hand motor output and hand dexterity increased in individuals with spinal cord injury after the I-wave protocol. These results provide the first evidence that late synaptic input to corticospinal neurons may represent a novel therapeutic target for improving motor function

  13. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-11-01

    , the two most common kinds of non-fluent aphasia. In summary, the current results suggest that the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus, a white matter tract that lies deep to posterior portions of Broca's area and the sensory-motor cortex, is a robust predictor of impaired speech fluency in aphasic patients, even when motor speech, lexical processing, and executive functioning are included as co-factors. Simply put, damage to those regions results in non-fluent aphasic speech; when they are undamaged, fluent aphasias result.

  14. Normalization of auditory evoked potential and visual evoked potential in patients with idiot savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zhang, M; Wang, J; Lou, F; Liang, J

    1999-03-01

    To investigate the variations of auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) of patients with idiot savant (IS) syndrome. Both AEP and VEP were recorded from 7 patients with IS syndrome, 21 mentally retarded (MR) children without the syndrome and 21 normally age-matched controls, using a Dantec concerto SEEG-16 BEAM instrument. Both AEP and VEP of MR group showed significantly longer latencies (P1 and P2 latencies of AEP, P savant syndrome presented normalized AEP and VEP.

  15. On the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaday, Charles; Ethier, Christian; Van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2013-01-01

    of the movements evoked by activation of each point on its own. This operational principle may simplify the synthesis of motor commands. We will discuss two possible mechanisms that may explain linear summation of outputs. We have observed that the final posture of the arm when pointing to a given spatial location......Recent studies on the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex (MCx), taken together, strongly support the notion that the MCx controls the muscle synergies subserving movements in an integrated manner. For example, during pointing the shoulder, elbow and wrist muscles...... appear to be controlled as a coupled functional system, rather than singly and separately. The recurrent pattern of intrinsic synaptic connections between motor cortical points is likely part of the explanation for this operational principle. So too is the reduplicated, non-contiguous and intermingled...

  16. Not all reading is alike: Task modulation of magnetic evoked response to visual word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that brain response to a written word depends on the task: whether the word is a target in a version of lexical decision task or should be read silently. Although this effect has been interpreted as an evidence for an interaction between word recognition processes and task demands, it also may be caused by greater attention allocation to the target word. Objective. We aimed to examine the task effect on brain response evoked by non- target written words. Design. Using MEG and magnetic source imaging, we compared spatial-temporal pattern of brain response elicited by a noun cue when it was read silently either without additional task (SR or with a requirement to produce an associated verb (VG. Results.The task demands penetrated into early (200-300 ms and late (500-800 ms stages of a word processing by enhancing brain response under VG versus SR condition. The cortical sources of the early response were localized to bilateral inferior occipitotemporal and anterior temporal cortex suggesting that more demanding VG task required elaborated lexical-semantic analysis. The late effect was observed in the associative auditory areas in middle and superior temporal gyri and in motor representation of articulators. Our results suggest that a remote goal plays a pivotal role in enhanced recruitment of cortical structures underlying orthographic, semantic and sensorimotor dimensions of written word perception from the early processing stages. Surprisingly, we found that to fulfil a more challenging goal the brain progressively engaged resources of the right hemisphere throughout all stages of silent reading. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that a deeper processing of linguistic input amplifies activation of brain areas involved in integration of speech perception and production. This is consistent with theories that emphasize the role of sensorimotor integration in speech understanding.

  17. Evoked bioelectrical brain activity following exposure to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, K; Kuts, K

    2017-12-01

    The article provides an overview of modern physiological evidence to support the hypothesis on cortico limbic sys tem dysfunction due to the hippocampal neurogenesis impairment as a basis of the brain interhemispheric asym metry and neurocognitive deficit after radiation exposure. The importance of the research of both evoked poten tials and fields as a highly sensitive and informative method is emphasized.Particular attention is paid to cerebral sensor systems dysfunction as a typical effect of ionizing radiation. Changes in functioning of the central parts of sensory analyzers of different modalities as well as the violation of brain integrative information processes under the influence of small doses of ionizing radiation can be critical when determining the radiation risks of space flight. The possible long term prospects for manned flights into space, including to Mars, given the effects identified are discussed. Potential risks to the central nervous system during space travel comprise cognitive functions impairment, including the volume of short term memory short ening, impaired motor functions, behavioral changes that could affect human performance and health. The remote risks for CNS are considered to be the following possible neuropsychiatric disorders: accelerated brain aging, Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The new radiocerebral dose dependent effect, when applied cog nitive auditory evoked potentials P300 technique with a possible threshold dose of 0.05 Gy, manifesting in a form of disruption of information processing in the Wernicke's area is under discussion. In order to identify neurophys iological biological markers of ionizing radiation further international researches with adequate dosimetry support are necessary. K. Loganovsky, K. Kuts.

  18. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion...... in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist...... in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion...

  19. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Darokhan, Ziauddin; Valentiniene, Sonata; Roland, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex spontaneously spike even when there are no visual stimuli. It is unknown whether the spiking evoked by visual stimuli is just a modification of the spontaneous ongoing cortical spiking dynamics or whether the spontaneous spiking state disappears and is replaced by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization is that it avoids the need for a system reorganization following visual stimulation, and impedes the transition of spontaneous spiking to evoked spiking and the propagation of spontaneous spiking from layer 4 to layers 2–3. PMID:26778982

  20. Effect of gabazine on sensory stimulation train evoked response in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Jin, Wen-Zhe; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-02-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) respond to sensory stimulation via climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, and generate motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processed by PC in mouse cerebellar cortex are currently unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA(A)) antagonist, gabazine, on the stimulation train on the simple spike firing of PCs by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that the output of cerebellar PCs could be significantly affected by all pulses of the low-frequency (0.25 -2 Hz) sensory stimulation train, but only by the 1st and 2nd pulses of the high-frequency (≥ 4 Hz) sensory stimulation train. In the presence of gabazine (20 μM), each pulse of 1 Hz facial stimulation evoked simple spike firing in the PCs, but only the 1st and 2nd pulses of 4 Hz stimulation induced an increase in simple spike firing of the PCs. These results indicated that GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition did not significantly affect the frequency properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in the mouse cerebellar PCs.

  1. Upper motor neuron predominant degeneration with frontal and temporal lobe atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, M; Sakai, M; Matsuoka, Y; Konagaya, Y; Hashizume, Y

    1998-11-01

    The autopsy findings of a 78-year-old man mimicking primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are reported. He showed slowly progressive spasticity, pseudobulbar palsy and character change, and died 32 months after the onset of symptoms. Autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, remarkable neuronal loss and gliosis in the precentral gyrus, left temporal lobe pole and amygdala, mild degeneration of the Ammon's horn, degeneration of the corticospinal tract, and very mild involvement of the lower motor neurons. The anterior horn cells only occasionally demonstrated Bunina body by cystatin-C staining, and skein-like inclusions by ubiquitin staining. This is a peculiar case with concomitant involvement in the motor cortex and temporal lobe in motor neuron disease predominantly affecting the upper motor neuron.

  2. Presence and Absence of Muscle Contraction Elicited by Peripheral Nerve Electrical Stimulation Differentially Modulate Primary Motor Cortex Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryoki; Kotan, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Masaki; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Saito, Kei; Inukai, Yasuto; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of cortical excitability by sensory inputs is a critical component of sensorimotor integration. Sensory afferents, including muscle and joint afferents, to somatosensory cortex (S1) modulate primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, but the effects of muscle and joint afferents specifically activated by muscle contraction are unknown. We compared motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following median nerve stimulation (MNS) above and below the contraction threshold based on the persistence of M-waves. Peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (PES) conditions, including right MNS at the wrist at 110% motor threshold (MT; 110% MNS condition), right MNS at the index finger (sensory digit nerve stimulation [DNS]) with stimulus intensity approximately 110% MNS (DNS condition), and right MNS at the wrist at 90% MT (90% MNS condition) were applied. PES was administered in a 4 s ON and 6 s OFF cycle for 20 min at 30 Hz. In Experiment 1 (n = 15), MEPs were recorded from the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) before (baseline) and after PES. In Experiment 2 (n = 15), M- and F-waves were recorded from the right APB. Stimulation at 110% MNS at the wrist evoking muscle contraction increased MEP amplitudes after PES compared with those at baseline, whereas DNS at the index finger and 90% MNS at the wrist not evoking muscle contraction decreased MEP amplitudes after PES. M- and F-waves, which reflect spinal cord or muscular and neuromuscular junctions, did not change following PES. These results suggest that muscle contraction and concomitant muscle/joint afferent inputs specifically enhance M1 excitability. PMID:28392766

  3. Abstract Art and Cortical Motor Activation: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra eUmilta'

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al 2007, Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al, 2011, neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Zeki, 1999; Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999 mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder’s brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works. Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works.

  4. Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Vogrin, Simon J; Carter, Olivia; Cook, Mark J; Forte, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses a weak electric current to modulate neuronal activity. A neurophysiologic outcome measure to demonstrate reliable tDCS modulation at the group level is transcranial magnetic stimulation engendered motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Here, we conduct a study testing the reliability of individual MEP response patterns following a common tDCS protocol. Fourteen participants (7m/7f) each underwent nine randomized sessions of 1 mA, 10 min tDCS (3 anode; 3 cathode; 3 sham) delivered using an M1/orbito-frontal electrode montage (sessions separated by an average of ~5.5 days). Fifteen MEPs were obtained prior to, immediately following and in 5 min intervals for 30 min following tDCS. TMS was delivered at 130 % resting motor threshold using neuronavigation to ensure consistent coil localization. A number of non-experimental variables were collected during each session. At the individual level, considerable variability was seen among different testing sessions. No participant demonstrated an excitatory response ≥20 % to all three anodal sessions, and no participant demonstrated an inhibitory response ≥20 % to all three cathodal sessions. Intra-class correlation revealed poor anodal and cathodal test-retest reliability [anode: ICC(2,1) = 0.062; cathode: ICC(2,1) = 0.055] and moderate sham test-retest reliability [ICC(2,1) = 0.433]. Results also revealed no significant effect of tDCS at the group level. Using this common protocol, we found the effects of tDCS on MEP amplitudes to be highly variable at the individual level. In addition, no significant effects of tDCS on MEP amplitude were found at the group level. Future studies should consider utilizing a more strict experimental protocol to potentially account for intra-individual response variations.

  5. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  6. Brain–Immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-Evoked Autobiographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Bai, Yu; Yamakawa, Kaori; Toyama, Asako; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Fukuda, Kazuyuki; Oshida, Akiko; Sanada, Kazue; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Sadato, Norihiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET) recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions. PMID:23977312

  7. Brain-immune interaction accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling molecules that modulate systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to clarify the neural substrates associated with the interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memory and peripheral circulating cytokines. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated the association between brain responses and the concentration of several cytokines in the plasma by using positron emission tomography (PET recordings when an autographic memory was evoked in participants by asking them to smell an odor that was nostalgic to them. Participants experienced positive emotions and autobiographic memories when nostalgic odors were presented to them. The levels of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, were significantly reduced after experiencing odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Subtraction analysis of PET images indicated that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were significantly activated during experiences of odor-evoked autobiographic memory. Furthermore, a correlation analysis indicated that activities of the mOFC and precuneus/PCC were negatively correlated with IFN-γ concentration. These results indicate that the neural networks including the precuneus/PCC and mOFC might regulate the secretion of peripheral proinflammatory cytokines during the experience of odor-evoked autobiographic memories accompanied with positive emotions.

  8. Sustained maximal voluntary contraction produces independent changes in human motor axons and the muscle they innervate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Milder

    Full Text Available The repetitive discharges required to produce a sustained muscle contraction results in activity-dependent hyperpolarization of the motor axons and a reduction in the force-generating capacity of the muscle. We investigated the relationship between these changes in the adductor pollicis muscle and the motor axons of its ulnar nerve supply, and the reproducibility of these changes. Ten subjects performed a 1-min maximal voluntary contraction. Activity-dependent changes in axonal excitability were measured using threshold tracking with electrical stimulation at the wrist; changes in the muscle were assessed as evoked and voluntary electromyography (EMG and isometric force. Separate components of axonal excitability and muscle properties were tested at 5 min intervals after the sustained contraction in 5 separate sessions. The current threshold required to produce the target muscle action potential increased immediately after the contraction by 14.8% (p<0.05, reflecting decreased axonal excitability secondary to hyperpolarization. This was not correlated with the decline in amplitude of muscle force or evoked EMG. A late reversal in threshold current after the initial recovery from hyperpolarization peaked at -5.9% at ∼35 min (p<0.05. This pattern was mirrored by other indices of axonal excitability revealing a previously unreported depolarization of motor axons in the late recovery period. Measures of axonal excitability were relatively stable at rest but less so after sustained activity. The coefficient of variation (CoV for threshold current increase was higher after activity (CoV 0.54, p<0.05 whereas changes in voluntary (CoV 0.12 and evoked twitch (CoV 0.15 force were relatively stable. These results demonstrate that activity-dependent changes in motor axon excitability are unlikely to contribute to concomitant changes in the muscle after sustained activity in healthy people. The variability in axonal excitability after sustained activity

  9. Spontaneous and Evoked Activity from Murine Ventral Horn Cultures on Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Black

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15–16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by immunocytochemistry. Well resolved, all-or-nothing spontaneous spikes with profiles consistent with extracellular action potentials were observed after 3 days in vitro, persisting with consistent firing rates until at least day in vitro 19. The majority of the spontaneous activity consisted of tonic firing interspersed with coordinated bursting across the network. After 5 days in vitro, spike activity was readily evoked by voltage pulses where a minimum amplitude and duration required for excitation was 300 mV and 100 μs/phase, respectively. We characterized the sensitivity of spontaneous and evoked activity to a host of pharmacological agents including AP5, CNQX, strychnine, ω-agatoxin IVA, and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A. These experiments revealed sensitivity of the cultured VH to both agonist and antagonist compounds in a manner consistent with mature tissue derived from slices. In the case of BoNT/A, we also demonstrated intoxication persistence over an 18-day period, followed by partial intoxication recovery induced by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel agonist GV-58. In total, our findings suggest that VH cultures on multi-well MEA plates may represent a moderate throughput, high content assay for performing mechanistic studies and for screening potential therapeutics pertaining to paralytic toxins and neurological disorders.

  10. Anterior perineal hernia after anterior exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Wing Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Perineal hernia is a rare complication of anterior exenteration. We reported this complication after an anterior exenteration for bladder cancer with bleeding complication requiring packing and second-look laparotomy. Perineal approach is a simple and effective method for repair of perineal hernia.

  11. Motor Training Promotes Both Synaptic and Intrinsic Plasticity of Layer II/III Pyramidal Neurons in the Primary Motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Hiroyuki; Tsuda, Yasumasa; Ito, Nana; Yamamoto, Yui; Owada, Yuji; Kamiya, Yoshinori; Mitsushima, Dai

    2016-08-01

    Motor skill training induces structural plasticity at dendritic spines in the primary motor cortex (M1). To further analyze both synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in the layer II/III area of M1, we subjected rats to a rotor rod test and then prepared acute brain slices. Motor skill consistently improved within 2 days of training. Voltage clamp analysis showed significantly higher α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/N-methyl-d-aspartate (AMPA/NMDA) ratios and miniature EPSC amplitudes in 1-day trained rats compared with untrained rats, suggesting increased postsynaptic AMPA receptors in the early phase of motor learning. Compared with untrained controls, 2-days trained rats showed significantly higher miniature EPSC amplitude and frequency. Paired-pulse analysis further demonstrated lower rates in 2-days trained rats, suggesting increased presynaptic glutamate release during the late phase of learning. One-day trained rats showed decreased miniature IPSC frequency and increased paired-pulse analysis of evoked IPSC, suggesting a transient decrease in presynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release. Moreover, current clamp analysis revealed lower resting membrane potential, higher spike threshold, and deeper afterhyperpolarization in 1-day trained rats-while 2-days trained rats showed higher membrane potential, suggesting dynamic changes in intrinsic properties. Our present results indicate dynamic changes in glutamatergic, GABAergic, and intrinsic plasticity in M1 layer II/III neurons after the motor training. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinaz, Sule; Malone, Patrick; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G

    2015-08-01

    The mid-posterior part of the insula is involved in processing bodily sensations and urges and is activated during tic generation in Tourette syndrome. The dorsal anterior part of the insula, however, integrates sensory and emotional information with cognitive valuation and is implicated in interoception. The right dorsal anterior insula also participates in urge suppression in healthy subjects. This study examined the role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 adult Tourette patients and 13 matched controls. The role of the right dorsal anterior insula within the urge-tic network was investigated using graph theory-based neural network analysis. The functional connectivity of the right dorsal anterior insula was also correlated with urge and tic severity. Even though the patients did not exhibit any overt tics, the right dorsal anterior insula demonstrated higher connectivity, especially with the frontostriatal nodes of the urge-tic network in patients compared with controls. The functional connectivity between the right dorsal anterior insula and bilateral supplementary motor area also correlated positively with urge severity in patients. These results suggest that the right dorsal anterior insula is part of the urge-tic network and could influence the urge- and tic-related cortico-striato-thalamic regions even during rest in Tourette syndrome. It might be responsible for heightened awareness of bodily sensations generating premonitory urges in Tourette syndrome. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. The effects of local forearm muscle cooling on motor unit properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Matthew M; Green, Lara A; Gabriel, David A; Cheung, Stephen S

    2018-02-01

    Muscle cooling impairs maximal force. Using needle electromyography (EMG) to assess motor unit properties during muscle cooling, is limited and equivocal. Therefore, we aimed to determine the impact of local muscle cooling on motor unit firing properties using surface EMG decomposition. Twenty participants (12 M, 8 F) completed maximal, evoked, and trapezoidal contractions during thermoneutral and cold muscle conditions. Forearm muscle temperature was manipulated using 10-min neutral (~ 32 °C) or 20-min cold (~ 3 °C) water baths. Twitches and maximal voluntary contractions were performed prior to, and after, forearm immersion in neutral or cold water. Motor unit properties were assessed during trapezoidal contractions to 50% baseline force using surface EMG decomposition. Impaired contractile properties from muscle cooling were evident in the twitch amplitude, duration, and rate of force development indicating that the muscle was successfully cooled from the cold water bath (all d ≥ 0.5, P motor units (d = 0.7, P = 0.01) and motor unit action potential (MUAP) duration (d = 0.6, P motor unit firing rates (d = 0.1, P = 0.843) nor recruitment threshold (d = 0.1, P = 0.746) changed; however, the relationship between the recruitment threshold and motor unit firing rate was steeper (d = 1.0, P motor units, and small but coupled changes in motor unit firing rates and recruitment threshold to produce the same force.

  14. The effectiveness of FES-evoked EMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Estigoni, Eduardo H; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul; Davis, Glen M

    2014-07-14

    The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG) potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES)-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI) population.

  15. The Effectiveness of FES-Evoked EMG Potentials to Assess Muscle Force and Fatigue in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evoked electromyographic signal (eEMG potential is the standard index used to monitor both electrical changes within the motor unit during muscular activity and the electrical patterns during evoked contraction. However, technical and physiological limitations often preclude the acquisition and analysis of the signal especially during functional electrical stimulation (FES-evoked contractions. Hence, an accurate quantification of the relationship between the eEMG potential and FES-evoked muscle response remains elusive and continues to attract the attention of researchers due to its potential application in the fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and rehabilitation science. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of eEMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue, particularly as a biofeedback descriptor of FES-evoked contractions in individuals with spinal cord injury. At the outset, 2867 citations were identified and, finally, fifty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria. Four hypotheses were proposed and evaluated to inform this review. The results showed that eEMG is effective at quantifying muscle force and fatigue during isometric contraction, but may not be effective during dynamic contractions including cycling and stepping. Positive correlation of up to r = 0.90 (p < 0.05 between the decline in the peak-to-peak amplitude of the eEMG and the decline in the force output during fatiguing isometric contractions has been reported. In the available prediction models, the performance index of the eEMG signal to estimate the generated muscle force ranged from 3.8% to 34% for 18 s to 70 s ahead of the actual muscle force generation. The strength and inherent limitations of the eEMG signal to assess muscle force and fatigue were evident from our findings with implications in clinical management of spinal cord injury (SCI population.

  16. Adult-onset stereotypical motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltête, D

    Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit. The pathophysiology of stereotypies may involve the corticostriatal pathways, especially the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulated cortices. Because antipsychotics have long been used to manage stereotypical behaviours in mental retardation, stereotypies that present in isolation tend not to warrant pharmacological intervention, as the benefit-to-risk ratio is not great enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of motor imagery with specific implement in expert badminton player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Wang, S; Shi, F-Y; Guan, Y; Wu, Y; Zhang, L-L; Shen, C; Zeng, Y-W; Wang, D-H; Zhang, J

    2014-09-05

    Motor skill can be improved with mental simulation. Implements are widely used in daily life and in various sports. However, it is unclear whether the utilization of implements enhances the effect of mental simulation. The present study was designed to investigate the different effects of motor imagery in athletes and novices when they handled a specific implement. We hypothesize that athletes have better motor imagery ability than novices when they hold a specific implement for the sport. This is manifested as higher motor cortical excitability in athletes than novices during motor imagery with the specific implement. Sixteen expert badminton players and 16 novices were compared when they held a specific implement such as a badminton racket and a non-specific implement such as a a plastic bar. Motor imagery ability was measured with a self-evaluation questionnaire. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test the motor cortical excitability during motor imagery. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis muscles were recorded. Athletes reported better motor imagery than novices when they held a specific implement. Athletes exhibited more MEP facilitation than novices in the FDI muscle with the specific implement applied during motor imagery. The MEP facilitation is correlated with motor imagery ability in athletes. We conclude that the effects of motor imagery with a specific implement are enhanced in athletes compared to novices and the difference between two groups is caused by long-term physical training of athletes with the specific implement. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Visual evoked potentials produced by monocular flash stimuli in the cerebral cortex of the rabbit. I. Typography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cobo, J C; Ruiz-Beramendi, M; Pérez-Arroyo, M

    1990-12-01

    The visually evoked potentials in the hemisphere contralateral to the stimulated eye in rabbit, can be described topographically as follows. While a positive wave (P1) begins forming in the anterior zones and in the V I binocular zone, the N0 wave, at times very large, is produced in a more occipital zone, which corresponds to the visual streak. Immediately afterwards, the positivity, P1, practically invades the whole of the hemisphere. After this, the N1 wave which is produced in the most posterior parts of the V I, begins forming. The whole phenomenon comes to an end when the P2 wave is generated in the most occipital zones.

  19. Mechanism of Activating the Proprioceptive NT-3/TrkC Signalling Pathway by Reverse Intervention for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Hamstring Reflex Arc with Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is an important structure maintaining stability of the knee joints. Deficits in physical stability and the proprioceptive capabilities of the knee joints are observed, when the ACL is damaged. Additionally, a unilateral ACL injury can affect bilateral knee proprioception; therefore, proprioception of the ACL may play a key role in stability. Electroacupuncture therapy has a definite effect nerve regeneration. In this study, cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into 4 groups: the model control group, intervention of the injured knee with electroacupuncture (IIKE group, intervention of the bilateral knees with electroacupuncture (IBKE group, and the blank control group. The unilateral ACL injury model was developed in IIKE and IBKE groups; acupuncture points around the knees underwent intervention similarly in the IIKE and IBKE groups. Then, mRNA and protein expressions of NT-3 and TrkC in the dorsal root ganglion and of growth-associated protein-43 in the ACL increased according to reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting results. Decreased incubations and increased amplitudes were found for somatosensory-evoked potentials and motor nerve conduction velocity. The finding indicates that electroacupuncture may play an important role in the recovery of proprioception in the ACL by activating the NT-3/TrkC signalling pathway.

  20. Agonist contraction during intermittent theta burst stimulation enhances motor cortical plasticity of the wrist flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2015-03-30

    Differences in cortical control across the different muscles of the upper limb may mitigate the efficacy of TMS interventions targeting a specific muscle. The current study sought to determine whether weak concurrent contraction during TMS could enhance the efficacy of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in the forearm flexors. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were elicited from the flexor (FCR) and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motor cortical hotspots before and after iTBS over the FCR cortical hotspot. During iTBS the FCR was either relaxed (iTBS-Relax) or tonically contracted to 10% of maximum voluntary force (iTBS-Contract). iTBS-Relax failed to produce consistent potentiation of MEPFCR amplitude. Individuals with a relatively lower RMTFCR compared RMTECR demonstrated MEPFCR facilitation post-iTBS-Relax. Individuals with relatively higher RMTFCR demonstrated less facilitation and even suppression of MEPFCR amplitude. iTBS-Contract facilitated MEPFCR amplitude but only for MEPFCR evoked from the ECR hotspot. Interactions between overlapping cortical representations determine the efficacy of iTBS. Tonic contraction increases the efficacy of iTBS by enhancing the volume of the cortical representation. However, metaplastic effects may attenuate the enhancement of MEP gain at the motor cortical hotspot. The use of TMS as an adjunct to physical therapy should account for inter-muscle interactions when targeting muscles of the forearm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a visuo-motor skill in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Sensory information continuously converges on the spinal cord during a variety of motor behaviours. Here, we examined presynaptic control of group Ia afferents in relation to acquisition of a novel motor skill. We tested whether repetition of two motor tasks with different degrees of difficulty......, a novel visuo-motor task involving the ankle muscles, and a control task involving simple voluntary ankle movements, would induce changes in the size of the soleus H-reflex. The slope of the H-reflex recruitment curve and the H-max/M-max ratio were depressed after repetition of the visuo-motor skill task...... of the monosynaptic Ia facilitation of the soleus H-reflex evoked by femoral nerve stimulation. The D1 inhibition was increased and the femoral nerve facilitation was decreased following the visuo-motor skill task, suggesting an increase in presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. No changes were observed...

  2. Towards a neural basis of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of sensorimotor cortical representation asymmetries and motor skills in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenkreis, Peter; El Tom, Susan; Ragert, Patrick; Pleger, Burkhard; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2007-12-01

    As a model for use-dependent plasticity, the brains of professional musicians have been extensively studied to examine structural and functional adaptation to unique requirements of skilled performance. Here we provide a combination of data on motor performance and hand representation in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex of professional violin players, with the aim of assessing possible behavioural consequences of sensorimotor cortical asymmetries. We studied 15 healthy right-handed professional violin players and 35 healthy nonmusician controls. Motor and somatosensory cortex asymmetry was assessed by recording the motor output map after transcranial magnetic stimulation from a small hand muscle, and by dipole source localization of somatosensory evoked potentials after electrical stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves. Motor performance was examined using a series of standardized motor tasks covering different aspects of hand function. Violin players showed a significant right-larger-than-left asymmetry of the motor and somatosensory cortex, whereas nonmusician controls showed no significant interhemispheric difference. The amount of asymmetry in the motor and somatosensory cortices of musicians was significantly correlated. At the behavioural level, motor performance did not significantly differ between musicians and nonmusicians. The results support a use-dependent enlargement of the left hand representation in the sensorimotor cortex of violin players. However, these cortical asymmetries were not paralleled by accompanying altered asymmetries at a behavioural level, suggesting that the reorganisation might be task-specific and does not lead to improved motor abilities in general.

  4. Early functional MRI activation predicts motor outcome after ischemic stroke: a longitudinal, multimodal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Jingze; Xu, Qiang; Hu, Jianping; Zeng, Fanyong; Lu, Guangming; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-05-15

    An accurate prediction of long term outcome after stroke is urgently required to provide early individualized neurorehabilitation. This study aimed to examine the added value of early neuroimaging measures and identify the best approaches for predicting motor outcome after stroke. This prospective study involved 34 first-ever ischemic stroke patients (time since stroke: 1-14 days) with upper limb impairment. All patients underwent baseline multimodal assessments that included clinical (age, motor impairment), neurophysiological (motor-evoked potentials, MEP) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging and motor task-based fMRI) measures, and also underwent reassessment 3 months after stroke. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression models were used to predict the motor scores (Fugl-Meyer assessment, FMA) at 3 months post-stroke. With bivariate analysis, better motor outcome significantly correlated with (1) less initial motor impairment and disability, (2) less corticospinal tract injury, (3) the initial presence of MEPs, (4) stronger baseline motor fMRI activations. In multivariate analysis, incorporating neuroimaging data improved the predictive accuracy relative to only clinical and neurophysiological assessments. Baseline fMRI activation in SMA was an independent predictor of motor outcome after stroke. A multimodal model incorporating fMRI and clinical measures best predicted the motor outcome following stroke. fMRI measures obtained early after stroke provided independent prediction of long-term motor outcome.

  5. Rapid Identification of Cortical Motor Areas in Rodents by High-Frequency Automatic Cortical Stimulation and Novel Motor Threshold Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Takemi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cortical stimulation mapping is a valuable tool to test the functional organization of the motor cortex in both basic neurophysiology (e.g., elucidating the process of motor plasticity and clinical practice (e.g., before resecting brain tumors involving the motor cortex. However, compilation of motor maps based on the motor threshold (MT requires a large number of cortical stimulations and is therefore time consuming. Shortening the time for mapping may reduce stress on the subjects and unveil short-term plasticity mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to establish a cortical stimulation mapping procedure in which the time needed to identify a motor area is reduced to the order of minutes without compromising reliability. We developed an automatic motor mapping system that applies epidural cortical surface stimulations (CSSs through one-by-one of 32 micro-electrocorticographic electrodes while examining the muscles represented in a cortical region. The next stimulus intensity was selected according to previously evoked electromyographic responses in a closed-loop fashion. CSS was repeated at 4 Hz and electromyographic responses were submitted to a newly proposed algorithm estimating the MT with smaller number of stimuli with respect to traditional approaches. The results showed that in all tested rats (n = 12 the motor area maps identified by our novel mapping procedure (novel MT algorithm and 4-Hz CSS significantly correlated with the maps achieved by the conventional MT algorithm with 1-Hz CSS. The reliability of the both mapping methods was very high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≧0.8, while the time needed for the mapping was one-twelfth shorter with the novel method. Furthermore, the motor maps assessed by intracortical microstimulation and the novel CSS mapping procedure in two rats were compared and were also significantly correlated. Our novel mapping procedure that determined a cortical motor area within a few minutes could help

  6. Effects of DBS, premotor rTMS, and levodopa on motor function and silent period in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäumer, Tobias; Hidding, Ute; Hamel, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used and highly effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive TMS (rTMS) applied to motor cortical areas has also been shown to improve symptoms in PD and modulate motor cortical...... excitability. Here, we compared clinical and neurophysiological effects of STN stimulation with those of 1 Hz rTMS given to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and those following intake of levodopa in a group of PD patients with advanced disease. Ten PD patients were studied on 2 consecutive days before...... and after surgery. Clinical effects were determined using the UPDRS motor score. Motor thresholds, motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes during slight voluntary contraction, and the cortical silent periods (SP) were measured using TMS. Before surgery effects of levodopa and 1 Hz PMd rTMS and after surgery...

  7. Predictors and brain connectivity changes associated with arm motor function improvement from intensive practice in chronic stroke [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George F. Wittenberg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The brain changes that underlie therapy-induced improvement in motor function after stroke remain obscure. This study sought to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of measuring motor system physiology in a clinical trial of intensive upper extremity rehabilitation in chronic stroke-related hemiparesis. Methods: This was a substudy of two multi-center clinical trials of intensive robotic and intensive conventional therapy arm therapy in chronic, significantly hemiparetic, stroke patients. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure motor cortical output to the biceps and extensor digitorum communus muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was used to determine the cortical anatomy, as well as to measure fractional anisotropy, and blood oxygenation (BOLD during an eyes-closed rest state. Region-of-interest time-series correlation analysis was performed on the BOLD signal to determine interregional connectivity. Functional status was measured with the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer and Wolf Motor Function Test. Results: Motor evoked potential (MEP presence was associated with better functional outcomes, but the effect was not significant when considering baseline impairment. Affected side internal capsule fractional anisotropy was associated with better function at baseline. Affected side primary motor cortex (M1 activity became more correlated with other frontal motor regions after treatment. Resting state connectivity between affected hemisphere M1 and dorsal premotor area (PMAd predicted recovery. Conclusions: Presence of motor evoked potentials in the affected motor cortex and its functional connectivity with PMAd may be useful in predicting recovery. Functional connectivity in the motor network shows a trends towards increasing after intensive robotic or non-robotic arm therapy. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00372411 \\& NCT00333983.

  8. Human θ burst stimulation enhances subsequent motor learning and increases performance variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, James T H; Swayne, Orlando B C; Cheeran, Binith; Greenwood, Richard J; Rothwell, John C

    2011-07-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) transiently increases motor cortex excitability in healthy humans by a process thought to involve synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP), and this is enhanced by nicotine. Acquisition of a ballistic motor task is likewise accompanied by increased excitability and presumed intracortical LTP. Here, we test how iTBS and nicotine influences subsequent motor learning. Ten healthy subjects participated in a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial testing the effects of iTBS and nicotine. iTBS alone increased the rate of learning but this increase was blocked by nicotine. We then investigated factors other than synaptic strengthening that may play a role. Behavioral analysis and modeling suggested that iTBS increased performance variability, which correlated with learning outcome. A control experiment confirmed the increase in motor output variability by showing that iTBS increased the dispersion of involuntary transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked thumb movements. We suggest that in addition to the effect on synaptic plasticity, iTBS may have facilitated performance by increasing motor output variability; nicotine negated this effect on variability perhaps via increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in cerebral cortex.

  9. [Cortical potentials evoked to response to a signal to make a memory-guided saccade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavutskaia, M V; Moiseeva, V V; Shul'govskiĭ, V V

    2010-01-01

    The difference in parameters of visually guided and memory-guided saccades was shown. Increase in the memory-guided saccade latency as compared to that of the visually guided saccades may indicate the deceleration of saccadic programming on the basis of information extraction from the memory. The comparison of parameters and topography of evoked components N1 and P1 of the evoked potential on the signal to make a memory- or visually guided saccade suggests that the early stage of the saccade programming associated with the space information processing is performed predominantly with top-down attention mechanism before the memory-guided saccade and bottom-up mechanism before the visually guided saccade. The findings show that the increase in the latency of the memory-guided saccades is connected with decision making at the central stage of the saccade programming. We proposed that wave N2, which develops in the middle of the latent period of the memory-guided saccades, is correlated with this process. Topography and spatial dynamics of components N1, P1 and N2 testify that the memory-guided saccade programming is controlled by the frontal mediothalamic system of selective attention and left-hemispheric brain mechanisms of motor attention.

  10. Skin denervation does not alter cortical potentials to surface concentric electrode stimulation: A comparison with laser evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cesa, S; Di Stefano, G; Leone, C; Pepe, A; Galosi, E; Alu, F; Fasolino, A; Cruccu, G; Valeriani, M; Truini, A

    2018-01-01

    In the neurophysiological assessment of patients with neuropathic pain, laser evoked potentials (LEPs), contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) and the evoked potentials by the intraepidermal electrical stimulation via concentric needle electrode are widely agreed as nociceptive specific responses; conversely, the nociceptive specificity of evoked potentials by surface concentric electrode (SE-PREPs) is still debated. In this neurophysiological study we aimed at verifying the nociceptive specificity of SE-PREPs. We recorded LEPs, CHEPs and SE-PREPs in eleven healthy participants, before and after epidermal denervation produced by prolonged capsaicin application. We also used skin biopsy to verify the capsaicin-induced nociceptive nerve fibre loss in the epidermis. We found that whereas LEPs and CHEPs were suppressed after capsaicin-induced epidermal denervation, the surface concentric electrode stimulation of the same denervated skin area yielded unchanged SE-PREPs. The suppression of LEPs and CHEPs after nociceptive nerve fibre loss in the epidermis indicates that these techniques are selectively mediated by nociceptive system. Conversely, the lack of SE-PREP changes suggests that SE-PREPs do not provide selective information on nociceptive system function. Capsaicin-induced epidermal denervation abolishes laser evoked potentials (LEPs) and contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), but leaves unaffected pain-related evoked potentials by surface concentric electrode (SE-PREPs). These findings suggest that unlike LEPs and CHEPs, SE-PREPs are not selectively mediated by nociceptive system. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Motor Function: A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Toshihiko; Hirata, Masayuki; Sugata, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Onishi, Mai; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Omura, Kayoko; Honda, Chika; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Yorifuji, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of genetic and environmental influences on cerebral motor function, we determined similarities and differences of movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs) in middle-aged and elderly monozygotic (MZ) twins. MRCFs were measured using a 160-channel magnetoencephalogram system when MZ twins were instructed to repeat lifting of the right index finger. We compared latency, amplitude, dipole location, and dipole intensity of movement-evoked field 1 (MEF1) between 16 MZ twin...

  12. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Anna; Mortensen, Erik L; Osler, Merete; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Memory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (Δ C ).The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (Δ C A ).The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intelligence.The sensitivity of Δ C A for detecting low memory capacity is 90%. Cerebral rhythmic activity and oscillations are important pathways of communication between cortical cell assemblies and may be key factors in memory. We asked whether memory performance is related to gamma coherence in a non-task sensory steady-state stimulation. We investigated 40 healthy males born in 1953 who were part of a Danish birth cohort study. Coherence was measured in the gamma range in response to a single-sensory visual stimulation (36 Hz) and a double-sensory combined audiovisual stimulation (auditive: 40 Hz; visual: 36 Hz). The individual difference in coherence (Δ C ) between the bimodal and monomodal stimulation was calculated for each subject and used as the main explanatory variable. Δ C in total brain were significantly negatively correlated with long-term verbal recall. This correlation was pronounced for the anterior region. In addition, the correlation between Δ C and long-term memory was robust when controlling for working memory, as well as a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including intelligence, length of education, speed of processing, visual attention and executive function. Moreover, we found that the difference in anterior coherence (Δ C A ) is a better predictor of memory than power in multivariate models. The sensitivity of Δ C A for detecting low memory capacity is 92%. Finally, Δ C A was also associated with other types of memory: verbal learning, visual recognition, and spatial memory, and these additional correlations were also robust enough to control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Thus, the Δ C is a predictor of memory

  13. Passive Double-Sensory Evoked Coherence Correlates with Long-Term Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horwitz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSMemory correlates with the difference between single and double-sensory evoked steady-state coherence in the gamma range (ΔC.The correlation is most pronounced for the anterior brain region (ΔCA.The correlation is not driven by birth size, education, speed of processing, or intelligence.The sensitivity of ΔCA for detecting low memory capacity is 90%.Cerebral rhythmic activity and oscillations are important pathways of communication between cortical cell assemblies and may be key factors in memory. We asked whether memory performance is related to gamma coherence in a non-task sensory steady-state stimulation. We investigated 40 healthy males born in 1953 who were part of a Danish birth cohort study. Coherence was measured in the gamma range in response to a single-sensory visual stimulation (36 Hz and a double-sensory combined audiovisual stimulation (auditive: 40 Hz; visual: 36 Hz. The individual difference in coherence (ΔC between the bimodal and monomodal stimulation was calculated for each subject and used as the main explanatory variable. ΔC in total brain were significantly negatively correlated with long-term verbal recall. This correlation was pronounced for the anterior region. In addition, the correlation between ΔC and long-term memory was robust when controlling for working memory, as well as a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including intelligence, length of education, speed of processing, visual attention and executive function. Moreover, we found that the difference in anterior coherence (ΔCA is a better predictor of memory than power in multivariate models. The sensitivity of ΔCA for detecting low memory capacity is 92%. Finally, ΔCA was also associated with other types of memory: verbal learning, visual recognition, and spatial memory, and these additional correlations were also robust enough to control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Thus, the ΔC is a predictor of memory

  14. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Uehara, Shintaro; Hirose, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s) and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.

  15. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential in HIV-Positive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluísio C

    2015-10-20

    To characterize the findings of brainstem auditory evoked potential in HIV-positive individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. This research was a cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. Forty-five HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to the antiretroviral treatment - research groups I and II, respectively - and 30 control group individuals) were assessed through brainstem auditory evoked potential. There were no significant between-group differences regarding wave latencies. A higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential was observed in the HIV-positive groups when compared to the control group. The most common alteration was in the low brainstem. HIV-positive individuals have a higher percentage of altered brainstem auditory evoked potential that suggests central auditory pathway impairment when compared to HIV-negative individuals. There was no significant difference between individuals exposed and not exposed to antiretroviral treatment.

  16. Psychological and physiological responses to odor-evoked autobiographic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Oshida, Akiko; Katayama, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Mitsuyoshi; Ohira, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    The "Proust phenomenon" occurs when a certain smell evokes a specific memory. Recent studies have demonstrated that odor-evoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli because of the direct neural communication between the olfactory system and the amygdala. The amygdala is known to regulate various physiological activities including the endocrine and immune systems; therefore, odor-evoked autobiographic memory may trigger various psychological and physiological responses; however, the responses elicited by this memory remains obscure. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological responses accompanying odor-evoked autobiographic memory. We recruited healthy male and female volunteers and investigated changes in their mood states and autonomic nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when autobiographic memory was evoked in the participants by asking them to smell an odor(s) that was nostalgic to them. The autobiographic memories associated with positive emotion resulted in increased positive mood states, such as comfort and happiness, and decreased negative mood states, such as anxiety. Furthermore, heart rate was decreased, skin-conductance level was increased, and peripheral interleukin-2 level was decreased after smelling the nostalgic odor. These psychological and physiological responses were significantly correlated. The present study suggests that odor-evoked autobiographic memory along with a positive feeling induce various physiological responses, including the autonomic nervous and immune activities. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to observe an interaction between odor-evoked autobiographic memories and immune function.

  17. Motor Simulation without Motor Expertise: Enhanced Corticospinal Excitability in Visually Experienced Dance Spectators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jola, Corinne; Abedian-Amiri, Ali; Kuppuswamy, Annapoorna; Pollick, Frank E.; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2012-01-01

    The human “mirror-system” is suggested to play a crucial role in action observation and execution, and is characterized by activity in the premotor and parietal cortices during the passive observation of movements. The previous motor experience of the observer has been shown to enhance the activity in this network. Yet visual experience could also have a determinant influence when watching more complex actions, as in dance performances. Here we tested the impact visual experience has on motor simulation when watching dance, by measuring changes in corticospinal excitability. We also tested the effects of empathic abilities. To fully match the participants' long-term visual experience with the present experimental setting, we used three live solo dance performances: ballet, Indian dance, and non-dance. Participants were either frequent dance spectators of ballet or Indian dance, or “novices” who never watched dance. None of the spectators had been physically trained in these dance styles. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure corticospinal excitability by means of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in both the hand and the arm, because the hand is specifically used in Indian dance and the arm is frequently engaged in ballet dance movements. We observed that frequent ballet spectators showed larger MEP amplitudes in the arm muscles when watching ballet compared to when they watched other performances. We also found that the higher Indian dance spectators scored on the fantasy subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the larger their MEPs were in the arms when watching Indian dance. Our results show that even without physical training, corticospinal excitability can be enhanced as a function of either visual experience or the tendency to imaginatively transpose oneself into fictional characters. We suggest that spectators covertly simulate the movements for which they have acquired visual experience, and that empathic abilities heighten

  18. Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Papeo

    Full Text Available The embodied cognition hypothesis suggests that motor and premotor areas are automatically and necessarily involved in understanding action language, as word conceptual representations are embodied. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials from right-hand muscles were recorded as a measure of M1 activity, while participants were asked either to judge explicitly whether a verb was action-related (semantic task or to decide on the number of syllables in a verb (syllabic task. TMS was applied in three different experiments at 170, 350 and 500 ms post-stimulus during both tasks to identify when the enhancement of M1 activity occurred during word processing. The delays between stimulus onset and magnetic stimulation were consistent with electrophysiological studies, suggesting that word recognition can be differentiated into early (within 200 ms and late (within 400 ms lexical-semantic stages, and post-conceptual stages. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to measure the extent to which the participants' linguistic performance was affected by the interference of TMS with M1 activity. No enhancement of M1 activity specific for action verbs was found at 170 and 350 ms post-stimulus, when lexical-semantic processes are presumed to occur (Experiments 1-2. When TMS was applied at 500 ms post-stimulus (Experiment 3, processing action verbs, compared with non-action verbs, increased the M1-activity in the semantic task and decreased it in the syllabic task. This effect was specific for hand-action verbs and was not observed for action-verbs related to other body parts. Neither accuracy nor RTs were affected by TMS. These findings suggest that the lexical-semantic processing of action verbs does not automatically activate the M1. This area seems to be rather involved in post-conceptual processing that follows the retrieval of motor

  19. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  20. Motor cortex stimulation in the treatment of central and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J P; Lefaucher, J P; Le Guerinel, C; Eizenbaum, J F; Nakano, N; Carpentier, A; Brugières, P; Pollin, B; Rostaing, S; Keravel, Y

    2000-01-01

    Motor cortex stimulation has been proposed for the treatment of central pain. Thirty-two patients with refractory central and neuropathic pain of peripheral origin were treated by chronic stimulation of the motor cortex between May 1993 and January 1997. The mean follow-up was 27.3 months. The first 24 patients were operated on according to the technique described by Tsubokawa. The last 13 cases (8 new patients and 5 reinterventions) were operated on by a technique including localization by superficial CT reconstruction of the central region and neuronavigator guidance. The position of the central sulcus was confirmed by the use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials. The somatotopic organization of the motor cortex was established preoperatively by studying the motor responses at stimulation of the motor cortex through the dura. Ten of the 13 patients with central pain (77%) and 10 of the 12 patients with neuropathic facial pain experienced substantial pain relief (83.3%). One of the three patients with post-paraplegia pain was clearly improved. A satisfactory result was obtained in one patient with pain related to plexus avulsion and in one patient with pain related to intercostal herpes zoster. None of the patients developed epileptic seizures. Our results confirm that chronic stimulation of the motor cortex is an effective method in treating certain forms of refractory pain.

  1. The age related slow and fast contributions to the overall changes in tibialis anterior contractile features disclosed by maximal single twitch scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orizio, Claudio; Cogliati, Marta; Bissolotti, Luciano; Diemont, Bertrand; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to verify if maximal electrically evoked single twitch (STmax) scan discloses the relative functional weight of fast and slow small bundles of fibres (SBF) in determining the contractile features of tibialis anterior (TA) with ageing. SBFs were recruited by TA main motor point stimulation through 60 increasing levels of stimulation (LS): 20 stimuli at 2Hz for each LS. The lowest and highest LS provided the least ST and STmax, respectively. The scanned STmax was decomposed into individual SBF STs. They were identified when twitches from adjacent LS were significantly different and then subtracted from each other. Nine young (Y) and eleven old (O) subjects were investigated. Contraction time (CT) and STarea/STpeak (A/PT) were calculated per each SBF ST. 143 and 155 SBF STs were obtained in Y and O, respectively. Y: CT and A/PT range: 45-105ms and 67-183mNs/mN, respectively. Literature data set TA fast fibres at 34% so, from the arrays of CT and A/PT, 65ms and 100mNs/mN were identified as the upper limit for SBF fast ST classification. O: no SBF ST could be classified as fast. STmax scan reveals age-related changes in the relative contribution of fast and slow SBFs to the overall muscle mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Functional Organization and Cortical Connections of Motor Cortex in Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Padberg, Jeffrey; Zahner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity in the rodent order, studies of motor cortex have been limited to only 2 species, rats and mice. Here, we examine the topographic organization of motor cortex in the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and cortical connections of motor cortex in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi). We distinguish a primary motor area, M1, based on intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), myeloarchitecture, and patterns of connectivity. A sensorimotor area between M1 and the primary somatosensory area, S1, was also distinguished based on connections, functional organization, and myeloarchitecture. We term this field 3a based on similarities with area 3a in nonrodent mammals. Movements are evoked with ICMS in both M1 and 3a in a roughly somatotopic pattern. Connections of 3a and M1 are distinct and suggest the presence of a third far rostral field, termed “F,” possibly involved in motor processing based on its connections. We hypothesize that 3a is homologous to the dysgranular zone (DZ) in S1 of rats and mice. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have both similar and unique features of M1 organization compared with those described in rats and mice, and that changes in 3a/DZ borders appear to have occurred in both lineages. PMID:22021916

  3. Anterior cervical fusion: the role of anterior plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Scott D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of cervical pathology requires a clear understanding of the biomechanical benefits and limitations of cervical plates, their indications, and their associated complications. The use of anterior cervical plates has evolved significantly since their early application in cervical trauma. They have become widely used for anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis. Plate design has undergone significant refinement and innovation, from the initial unlocked plates requiring bicortical purchase to the latest rotationally and translationally semiconstrained dynamic plates. Excellent clinical results have been reported for single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion with or without plate fixation; however, the addition of an anterior cervical plate clearly leads to earlier fusion and better clinical results in longer fusions. Longer fusions should ideally consist of corpectomies and strut grafting because the decreased number of fusion surfaces tends to lead to higher fusion rates. Although anterior plate fixation leads to higher fusion rates in fusions of three or more levels, the associated pseudarthrosis rate is still high. The use of dynamic plates, through increased load sharing across the graft and decreased stress shielding, may improve fusion rates, particularly in long fusions. Nevertheless, adjuvant posterior fixation is recommended for fusions of more than three vertebral levels. Anterior plate fixation may be of particular benefit in the management of traumatic injuries, in revision settings, and in the treatment of smokers. Complications unique to plate fixation include hardware breakage and migration as well as ossification of the adjacent disk levels.

  4. Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation of the human motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Antonio; Mordillo-Mateos, Laura; Arias, Pablo; Panyavin, Ivan; Foffani, Guglielmo; Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate in healthy humans the possibility of a non-invasive modulation of motor cortex excitability by the application of static magnetic fields through the scalp. Static magnetic fields were obtained by using cylindrical NdFeB magnets. We performed four sets of experiments. In Experiment 1, we recorded motor potentials evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex before and after 10 min of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) in conscious subjects. We observed an average reduction of motor cortex excitability of up to 25%, as revealed by TMS, which lasted for several minutes after the end of tSMS, and was dose dependent (intensity of the magnetic field) but not polarity dependent. In Experiment 2, we confirmed the reduction of motor cortex excitability induced by tSMS using a double-blind sham-controlled design. In Experiment 3, we investigated the duration of tSMS that was necessary to modulate motor cortex excitability. We found that 10 min of tSMS (compared to 1 min and 5 min) were necessary to induce significant effects. In Experiment 4, we used transcranial electric stimulation (TES) to establish that the tSMS-induced reduction of motor cortex excitability was not due to corticospinal axon and/or spinal excitability, but specifically involved intracortical networks. These results suggest that tSMS using small static magnets may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non-invasive, painless, and reversible way. PMID:21807616

  5. Brainstem evoked potentials in infantile spasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Masahito; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Tayama, Masanobu; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

    1992-01-01

    In ten patients with infantile spasms, brainstem evoked potentials and MRI examinations were performed to evaluate the brainstem involvement. The result of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) following the right median nerve stimulation revealed abnormal findings including the absence or low amplitudes of the waves below wave P3 and delayed central conduction time in 7 of the ten patients. The result of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) revealed abnormal findings including low amplitudes of wave V, prolonged interpeak latency of waves I-V and absence of the waves below wave IV in 5 of the ten patients. The result of the MRI examinations revealed various degrees of the brainstem atrophy in 6 of the ten patients, all of whom showed abnormal brainstem evoked potentials. The result of this study demonstrates that patients with infantile spasms are frequently associated with brainstem dysfunction and raises the possibility that brainstem atrophy might be a cause of infantile spasms. (author)

  6. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Marstrand, Peter C.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Changes in corticospinal excitability induced by 4 wk of heavy strength training or visuomotor skill learning were investigated in 24 healthy human subjects. Measurements of the input-output relation for biceps brachii motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation...... decreased significantly at rest but not during contraction in the strength-trained subjects (P = 0.01). No significant changes were observed in a control group. A significant correlation between changes in neurophysiological parameters and motor performance was observed for skill learning but not strength...... were obtained at rest and during voluntary contraction in the course of the training. The training paradigms induced specific changes in the motor performance capacity of the subjects. The strength training group increased maximal dynamic and isometric muscle strength by 31% (P

  7. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseti, Jorge; Bruhn, Daniel; Nolting, Julia; Gerwinn, Hannah; Pohl, Alexander; Stirn, Aglaja; Granert, Oliver; Laufs, Helmut; Deuschl, Günther; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Siebner, Hartwig; Briken, Peer; Mohnke, Sebastian; Amelung, Till; Kneer, Jonas; Schiffer, Boris; Walter, Henrik; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles) not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system) to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By using pictures of infant animals (instead of human infants), we aimed to elicit nurturing processing without triggering sexual processing. We hypothesized that elevated brain responses to nurturing stimuli will be found - in addition to other brain areas - in the anterior insula of pedophiles because this area was repeatedly found to be activated when adults see pictures of babies. Behavioral ratings confirmed that pictures of infant or adult animals were not perceived as sexually arousing neither by the pedophilic participants nor by the heathy controls. Statistical analysis was applied to the whole brain as well as to the anterior insula as region of interest. Only in pedophiles did infants relative to adult animals increase brain activity in the anterior insula, supplementary motor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. Within-group analysis revealed an increased brain response to infant animals in the left anterior insular cortex of the pedophilic participants. Currently, pedophilia is considered the consequence of disturbed sexual or executive brain processing, but details are far from known. The present findings raise the question whether there is also an over-responsive nurturing system in pedophilia.

  8. Inducing homeostatic-like plasticity in human motor cortex through converging corticocortical inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötter-Nerger, Monika; Fischer, Sarah; Mastroeni, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial stimulation techniques have revealed homeostatic-like metaplasticity in the hand area of the human primary motor cortex (M1(HAND)) that controls stimulation-induced changes in corticospinal excitability. Here we combined two interventional protocols that induce long-term depression......TMS) of the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMD) was first applied to produce an LTP-like increase (5 Hz rTMS) or LTD-like decrease (1 Hz rTMS) in corticospinal excitability in left M1(HAND) via premotor-to-motor inputs. Following PMD rTMS, paired-associative stimulation (PAS) was applied to the right median nerve...... and left M1(HAND) to induce spike-time-dependent plasticity in sensory-to-motor inputs to left M1(HAND). We adjusted the interstimulus interval to the N20 latency of the median nerve somatosensory-evoked cortical potential to produce an LTP-like increase (PAS(N20+2ms)) or an LTD-like decrease (PAS(N20-5ms...

  9. Motor mapping of implied actions during perception of emotional body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2012-04-01

    Perceiving and understanding emotional cues is critical for survival. Using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) previous TMS studies have found that watching humans in emotional pictures increases motor excitability relative to seeing landscapes or household objects, suggesting that emotional cues may prime the body for action. Here we tested whether motor facilitation to emotional pictures may reflect the simulation of the human motor behavior implied in the pictures occurring independently of its emotional valence. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to single-pulse TMS of the left motor cortex were recorded from hand muscles during observation and categorization of emotional and neutral pictures. In experiment 1 participants watched neutral, positive and negative IAPS stimuli, while in experiment 2, they watched pictures depicting human emotional (joyful, fearful), neutral body movements and neutral static postures. Experiment 1 confirms the increase in excitability for emotional IAPS stimuli found in previous research and shows, however, that more implied motion is perceived in emotional relative to neutral scenes. Experiment 2 shows that motor excitability and implied motion scores for emotional and neutral body actions were comparable and greater than for static body postures. In keeping with embodied simulation theories, motor response to emotional pictures may reflect the simulation of the action implied in the emotional scenes. Action simulation may occur independently of whether the observed implied action carries emotional or neutral meanings. Our study suggests the need of controlling implied motion when exploring motor response to emotional pictures of humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive listening to preferred motor tempo modulates corticospinal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Kelly; Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2014-01-01

    Rhythms are an essential characteristic of our lives, and auditory-motor coupling affects a variety of behaviors. Previous research has shown that the neural regions associated with motor system processing are coupled to perceptual rhythmic and melodic processing such that the perception of rhythmic stimuli can entrain motor system responses. However, the degree to which individual preference modulates the motor system is unknown. Recent work has shown that passively listening to metrically strong rhythms increases corticospinal excitability, as indicated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Furthermore, this effect is modulated by high-groove music, or music that inspires movement, while neuroimaging evidence suggests that premotor activity increases with tempos occurring within a preferred tempo (PT) category. PT refers to the rate of a hypothetical endogenous oscillator that may be indicated by spontaneous motor tempo (SMT) and preferred perceptual tempo (PPT) measurements. The present study investigated whether listening to a rhythm at an individual's PT preferentially modulates motor system excitability. SMT was obtained in human participants through a tapping task in which subjects were asked to tap a response key at their most comfortable rate. Subjects listened a 10-beat tone sequence at 11 log-spaced tempos and rated their preference for each (PPT). We found that SMT and PPT measurements were correlated, indicating that preferred and produced tempos occurred at a similar rate. Crucially, single-pulse TMS delivered to left M1 during PPT judgments revealed that corticospinal excitability, measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), was modulated by tempos traveling closer to individual PT. However, the specific nature of this modulation differed across individuals, with some exhibiting an increase in excitability around PT and others exhibiting a decrease. These findings suggest that auditory-motor coupling induced by rhythms is preferentially

  11. Motor pathway excitability in ATP13A2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Kroeger, J; van der Vegt, J P M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe excitability of motor pathways in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), an autosomal recessive nigro-striatal-pallidal-pyramidal neurodegeneration caused by a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Five members of a Chilean family...... with an ATP13A2 mutation (one affected mutation carrier (MC) with a compound heterozygous mutation, 4 asymptomatic MC with a single heterozygous mutation) and 11 healthy subjects without mutations were studied. We measured motor evoked potentials (MEP), the contralateral silent period (cSP), short interval....... RESULTS: CSP duration was increased in the symptomatic ATP13A2 MC. The iSP measurements revealed increased interhemispheric inhibition in both the compound heterozygous and the heterozygous MC. CONCLUSION: A compound heterozygous mutation in the ATP13A2 gene is associated with increased intracortical...

  12. Can visual evoked potentials be used in biometric identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Alan J; Lalor, Edmund C; Reilly, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    Due to known differences in the anatomical structure of the visual pathways and generators in different individuals, the use of visual evoked potentials offers the possibility of an alternative to existing biometrics methods. A study based on visual evoked potentials from 13 individuals was carried out to assess the best combination of temporal, spectral and AR modeling features to realize a robust biometric. From the results it can be concluded that visual evoked potentials show considerable biometric qualities, with classification accuracies reaching a high of 86.54% and that a specific temporal and spectral combination was found to be optimal. Based on these results the visual evoked potential may be a useful tool in biometric identification when used in conjunction with more established biometric methods.

  13. Stimulus uncertainty enhances long-term potentiation-like plasticity in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Nydam, Abbey S; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-03-01

    Plasticity can be induced in human cortex using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which repeatedly and predictably pairs a peripheral electrical stimulus with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral motor region. Many studies have reported small or inconsistent effects of PAS. Given that uncertain stimuli can promote learning, the predictable nature of the stimulation in conventional PAS paradigms might serve to attenuate plasticity induction. Here, we introduced stimulus uncertainty into the PAS paradigm to investigate if it can boost plasticity induction. Across two experimental sessions, participants (n = 28) received a modified PAS paradigm consisting of a random combination of 90 paired stimuli and 90 unpaired (TMS-only) stimuli. Prior to each of these stimuli, participants also received an auditory cue which either reliably predicted whether the upcoming stimulus was paired or unpaired (no uncertainty condition) or did not predict the upcoming stimulus (maximum uncertainty condition). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked from abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle quantified cortical excitability before and after PAS. MEP amplitude increased significantly 15 min following PAS in the maximum uncertainty condition. There was no reliable change in MEP amplitude in the no uncertainty condition, nor between post-PAS MEP amplitudes across the two conditions. These results suggest that stimulus uncertainty may provide a novel means to enhance plasticity induction with the PAS paradigm in human motor cortex. To provide further support to the notion that stimulus uncertainty and prediction error promote plasticity, future studies should further explore the time course of these changes, and investigate what aspects of stimulus uncertainty are critical in boosting plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangert Marc

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Performing music requires fast auditory and motor processing. Regarding professional musicians, recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that auditory stimulation produces a co-activation of motor areas, whereas silent tapping of musical phrases evokes a co-activation in auditory regions. Whether this is obtained via a specific cerebral relay station is unclear. Furthermore, the time course of plasticity has not yet been addressed. Results Changes in cortical activation patterns (DC-EEG potentials induced by short (20 minute and long term (5 week piano learning were investigated during auditory and motoric tasks. Two beginner groups were trained. The 'map' group was allowed to learn the standard piano key-to-pitch map. For the 'no-map' group, random assignment of keys to tones prevented such a map. Auditory-sensorimotor EEG co-activity occurred within only 20 minutes. The effect was enhanced after 5-week training, contributing elements of both perception and action to the mental representation of the instrument. The 'map' group demonstrated significant additional activity of right anterior regions. Conclusion We conclude that musical training triggers instant plasticity in the cortex, and that right-hemispheric anterior areas provide an audio-motor interface for the mental representation of the keyboard.

  15. Motor unit recruitment and firing rate in medial gastrocnemius muscles during external perturbations in standing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2014-10-01

    There is limited investigation of the interaction between motor unit recruitment and rate coding for modulating force during standing or responding to external perturbations. Fifty-seven motor units were recorded from the medial gastrocnemius muscle with intramuscular electrodes in response to external perturbations in standing. Anteriorly directed perturbations were generated by applying loads in 0.45-kg increments at the pelvis every 25-40 s until 2.25 kg was maintained. Motor unit firing rate was calculated for the initial recruitment load and all subsequent loads during two epochs: 1) dynamic response to perturbation directly following each load drop and 2) maintenance of steady state between perturbations. Joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower extremities and force platform measurements were assessed. Application of the external loads resulted in a significant forward progression of the anterior-posterior center of pressure (AP COP) that was accompanied by modest changes in joint angles (recruitment, motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop was significantly lower than during subsequent load drops or during the steady state at the same load. There was a modest increase in motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop on subsequent load drops associated with regaining balance. There was no effect of maintaining balance with increased load and forward progression of the AP COP on steady-state motor unit firing rate. The medial gastrocnemius utilized primarily motor unit recruitment to achieve the increased levels of activation necessary to maintain standing in the presence of external loads. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...

  17. Binaural interaction in auditory evoked potentials: Brainstem, middle- and long-latency components

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, DL; Starr, A

    1993-01-01

    Binaural interaction occurs in the auditory evoked potentials when the sum of the monaural auditory evoked potentials are not equivalent to the binaural evoked auditory potentials. Binaural interaction of the early- (0-10 ms), middle- (10-50 ms) and long-latency (50-200 ms) auditory evoked potentials was studied in 17 normal young adults. For the early components, binaural interaction was maximal at 7.35 ms accounting for a reduction of 21% of the amplitude of the binaural evoked potentials. ...

  18. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition. PMID:28278267

  19. SOMATOSENSORY EVOKED POTENTIALS IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE - 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder affecting majority of population. It is estimated that over 400 million people throughout the world have diabetes. It has progressed to be a pandemic from an epidemic causing morbidity and mortality in the population. Among the many complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathies contribute majorly to the morbidity associated with the disease. Axonal conduction is affected by elevated levels of protein kinase c causing neuronal ischemia; decreased ce llular myoinositol affecting sodium potassium ATPase pump leads to decreased nerve conduction; Somatosensory E voked P otentials (SSEPs reflect the activity of somatosensory pathways mediated through the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and the specific so matosensory cortex. Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in diabetics is done to assess the sensory involvement of spinal cord. Presence of SEPs provides clear evidence for axonal continuity and by using different stimulation sites, the rate of reg eneration can be determined. Both onset and peak latencies of all SEP components are prolonged in patients with diabetes. Present study is done to compare somatosensory evoked potentials in diabetics and normal subjects. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: The present study was undertaken at the Upgraded Department of Physiology, Osmania Medical College, Koti, Hyderabad. The study was conducted on subjects, both male and female in the age group of 45 to 55 years, suffering from type II diabetes excluding other neurologi cal disorders. Non - invasive method of estimation of nerve conduction studies using SFEMG/EP — Electromyography or evoked potential system (Nicolet systems — USA using surface electrodes with automated computerized monitor attached with printer is used. RESUL TS : ANOVA showed statistically significant N9 latency (right & left sides. Latencies of all the components of SSEPs were more significant than amplitudes in Diabetic

  20. Comparison of TMS and DTT for predicting motor outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Sakong, Joon; Byun, Woo Mok; Choi, Byung Yun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Bai, Daiseg; Son, Su Min

    2010-03-15

    TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and DTT (diffusion tensor tractography) have different advantages in evaluating stroke patients. TMS has good clinical accessibility and economical benefit. On the contrary, DTT has a unique advantage to visualize neural tracts three-dimensionally although it requires an expensive and large MRI machine. Many studies have demonstrated that TMS and DTT have predictive values for motor outcome in stroke patients. However, there has been no study on the comparison of these two evaluation tools. In the current study, we compared the abilities of TMS and DTT to predict upper motor outcome in patients with ICH (intracerebral hemorrhage). Fifty-three consecutive patients with severe motor weakness were evaluated by TMS and DTT at the early stage (7-28 days) of ICH. Modified Brunnstrom classification (MBC) and the motricity index of upper extremity (UMI) were evaluated at onset and 6 months after onset. Patients with the presence of a motor evoked potential (MEP) in TMS or a preserved corticospinal tract (CST) in DTT showed better motor outcomes than those without (p=0.000). TMS showed higher positive predictive value than DTT. In contrast, DTT showed higher negative predictive value than TMS. TMS and DTT had different advantages in predicting motor outcome, and this result could be a reference to predict final neurological deficit at the early stage of ICH.

  1. Interference in Ballistic Motor Learning: Specificity and Role of Sensory Error Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are capable of learning numerous motor skills, but newly acquired skills may be abolished by subsequent learning. Here we ask what factors determine whether interference occurs in motor learning. We speculated that interference requires competing processes of synaptic plasticity in overlapping circuits and predicted specificity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic motor task. Interference was observed following subsequent learning of an accuracy-tracking task, but only if the competing task involved the same muscles and movement direction. Interference was not observed from a non-learning task suggesting that interference requires competing learning. Subsequent learning of the competing task 4 h after initial learning did not cause interference suggesting disruption of early motor memory consolidation as one possible mechanism underlying interference. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below movement threshold did not cause interference, whereas suprathreshold rTMS evoking motor responses and (re)afferent activation did. Finally, the experiments revealed that suprathreshold repetitive electrical stimulation of the agonist (but not antagonist) peripheral nerve caused interference. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that peripheral nerve stimulation may cause interference. The finding underscores the importance of sensory feedback as error signals in motor learning. We conclude that interference requires competing plasticity in overlapping circuits. Interference is remarkably specific for circuits involved in a specific movement and it may relate to sensory error signals. PMID:21408054

  2. Fine motor skills in adult Tourette patients are task-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Irene

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.

  3. Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Weis, Luca; Dembek, Till A; Samuel, Michael; Rizos, Alexandra; Silverdale, Monty; Barbe, Michael T; Fink, Gereon R; Evans, Julian; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Antonini, Angelo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-03-16

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS. To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. In this prospective, open-label, multicenter study including 50 PD patients undergoing bilateral STN-DBS, we collected NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (anxiety/depression, HADS-A/-D), PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), Scales for Outcomes in PD-motor examination, motor complications, activities of daily living (ADL), and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD) preoperatively and at 6 months follow-up. Changes were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank/t-test and Bonferroni-correction for multiple comparisons. Although the STN was targeted visually, we employed an atlas-based approach to explore the relationship between active contact locations and DBS outcomes. Based on fused MRI/CT-images, we identified Cartesian coordinates of active contacts with patient-specific Mai-atlas standardization. We computed linear mixed-effects models with x-/y-/z-coordinates as independent, hemispheres as within-subject, and test change scores as dependent variables. NMSS, NMSQ, PDQ-8, motor examination, complications, and LEDD significantly improved at follow-up. Linear mixed-effect models showed that NMS and QoL improvement significantly depended on more medial (HADS-D, NMSS), anterior (HADS-D, NMSQ, PDQ-8), and ventral (HADS-A/-D, NMSS, PDQ-8) neurostimulation. ADL improved more in posterior, LEDD in lateral neurostimulation locations. No relationship was observed for motor examination and complications scores. Our study provides evidence that more anterior, medial, and ventral STN-DBS is significantly related to more beneficial non-motor outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Slow cortical evoked potentials after noise exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Wedel, H; Opitz, H J

    1979-07-01

    Human cortical evoked potentials under conditions of stimuation are registrated in the post-stimulatory phase of a five minutes lasting equally masking white noise (90 dB HL). Changes of the evoked potentials during adaptation, possible analogy with high tone losses after noise representation and the origin of tinnitus are examined. Stimulation was started 3 sec after the off-effect of the noise. For five minutes periodically tone bursts were represented. Each train of stimulation consists of tone bursts of three frequencies: 2 kcs, 4 kcs, 8 kcs. The 0.5 sec lasting tones were separated by pauses of 2 sec. During the experiment stimulation and analysis were controlled by a computer. Changes in latency and amplitudes of the cortical evoked potentials were registered. Changes of the adaptation patterns as a function of the poststimulatory time are discussed.

  5. Steady State Visual Evoked Potential Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cognitive Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Nicolai; Bendtsen, Rasmus L.; Kjær, Troels W.

    2016-01-01

    decline is important. Cognitive decline may be detected using fullyautomated computerized assessment. Such systems will provide inexpensive and widely available screenings of cognitive ability. The aim of this pilot study is to develop a real time steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer...... interface (BCI) for neurological cognitive assessment. It is intended for use by patients who suffer from diseases impairing their motor skills, but are still able to control their gaze. Results are based on 11 healthy test subjects. The system performance have an average accuracy of 100% ± 0%. The test...... subjects achieved an information transfer rate (ITR) of 14:64 bits/min ± 7:63 bits=min and a subject test performance of 47:22% ± 34:10%. This study suggests that BCI may be applicable in practice as a computerized cognitive assessment tool. However, many improvements are required for the system...

  6. The Paradox of Music-Evoked Sadness: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners’ experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no “real-life” implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life. PMID:25330315

  7. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liila Taruffi

    Full Text Available This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772. The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  8. The paradox of music-evoked sadness: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores listeners' experience of music-evoked sadness. Sadness is typically assumed to be undesirable and is therefore usually avoided in everyday life. Yet the question remains: Why do people seek and appreciate sadness in music? We present findings from an online survey with both Western and Eastern participants (N = 772). The survey investigates the rewarding aspects of music-evoked sadness, as well as the relative contribution of listener characteristics and situational factors to the appreciation of sad music. The survey also examines the different principles through which sadness is evoked by music, and their interaction with personality traits. Results show 4 different rewards of music-evoked sadness: reward of imagination, emotion regulation, empathy, and no "real-life" implications. Moreover, appreciation of sad music follows a mood-congruent fashion and is greater among individuals with high empathy and low emotional stability. Surprisingly, nostalgia rather than sadness is the most frequent emotion evoked by sad music. Correspondingly, memory was rated as the most important principle through which sadness is evoked. Finally, the trait empathy contributes to the evocation of sadness via contagion, appraisal, and by engaging social functions. The present findings indicate that emotional responses to sad music are multifaceted, are modulated by empathy, and are linked with a multidimensional experience of pleasure. These results were corroborated by a follow-up survey on happy music, which indicated differences between the emotional experiences resulting from listening to sad versus happy music. This is the first comprehensive survey of music-evoked sadness, revealing that listening to sad music can lead to beneficial emotional effects such as regulation of negative emotion and mood as well as consolation. Such beneficial emotional effects constitute the prime motivations for engaging with sad music in everyday life.

  9. Motor Function and Dopamine Release Measurements in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Model Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Osterhaus, Gregory L.; Lauderdale, Kelli; Mahoney, Luke; Fowler, Stephen C.; von Hörsten, Stephan; Riess, Olaf; Johnson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in motor and cognitive function. Here, we have quantitatively characterized motor deficiencies and dopamine release dynamics in transgenic HD model rats. Behavioral analyses were conducted using a newly-developed force-sensing runway and a previously-developed force-plate actometer. Gait disturbances were readily observed in transgenic HD rats at 12 to 15 months of age. Additionally, dopamine system challenge by ip injection of amphetamine also revealed that these rats were resistant to the expression of focused stereotypy compared to wild-type controls. Moreover, dopamine release, evoked by the application of single and multiple electrical stimulus pulses applied at different frequencies, and measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes, was diminished in transgenic HD rats compared to age-matched wild-type control rats. Collectively, these results underscore the potential contribution of dopamine release alterations to the expression of motor impairments in transgenic HD rats. PMID:22418060

  10. Treadmill Exercise Improves Motor Dysfunction and Hyperactivity of the Corticostriatal Glutamatergic Pathway in Rats with 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperactivity in the corticostriatal glutamatergic pathway (CGP induces basal ganglia dysfunction, contributing to parkinsonian syndrome (PS. Physical exercise can improve PS. However, the effect of exercise on the CGP, and whether this pathway is involved in the improvement of PS, remains unclear. Parkinson’s disease (PD was induced in rats by 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the right medial forebrain bundle. Motor function was assessed using the cylinder test. Striatal neuron (SN spontaneous and evoked firing activity was recorded, and the expression levels of Cav1.3 and CaMKII in the striatum were measured after 4 weeks of treadmill exercise. The motor function in PD rats was improved by treadmill exercise. SN showed significantly enhanced excitability, and treadmill exercise reduced SN excitability in PD rats. In addition, firing activity was evoked in SNs by stimulation of the primary motor cortex, and SNs exhibited significantly decreased stimulus threshold, increased firing rates, and reduced latency. The expression of Cav1.3 and p-CaMKII (Thr286 in the striatum were enhanced in PD rats. However, these effects were reversed by treadmill exercise. These findings suggest that treadmill exercise inhibits CGP hyperactivity in PD rats, which may be related to improvement of PS.

  11. Genetic influence demonstrated for MEG-recorded somatosensory evoked responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Ent, D.; van Soelen, I.L.C.; Stam, K.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    We tested for a genetic influence on magnetoencephalogram (MEG)-recorded somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) in 20 monozygotic (MZ) and 14 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies that demonstrated a genetic contribution to evoked responses generally focused on

  12. Level of action of cathodal DC polarisation induced inhibition of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Michael A; Nitsche, Maren S; Klein, Cornelia C; Tergau, Frithjof; Rothwell, John C; Paulus, Walter

    2003-04-01

    To induce prolonged motor cortical excitability reductions by transcranial direct current stimulation in the human. Cathodal direct current stimulation was applied transcranially to the hand area of the human primary motor cortex from 5 to 9 min in separate sessions in twelve healthy subjects. Cortico-spinal excitability was tested by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation and H-reflexes were used to learn about the origin of the excitability changes. Neurone specific enolase was measured before and after the stimulation to prove the safety of the stimulation protocol. Five and 7 min direct current stimulation resulted in motor cortical excitability reductions, which lasted for minutes after the end of stimulation, 9 min stimulation induced after-effects for up to an hour after the end of stimulation, as revealed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Muscle evoked potentials elicited by transcranial electric stimulation and H-reflexes did not change. Neurone specific enolase concentrations remained stable throughout the experiments. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation is capable of inducing prolonged excitability reductions in the human motor cortex non-invasively. These changes are most probably localised intracortically.

  13. Behavioural and neural basis of anomalous motor learning in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Mollie K; Crocetti, Deana; Hulst, Thomas; Donchin, Opher; Shadmehr, Reza; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communication skills and repetitive and stereotyped interests and behaviours. Although not part of the diagnostic criteria, individuals with autism experience a host of motor impairments, potentially due to abnormalities in how they learn motor control throughout development. Here, we used behavioural techniques to quantify motor learning in autism spectrum disorder, and structural brain imaging to investigate the neural basis of that learning in the cerebellum. Twenty children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing control subjects, aged 8-12, made reaching movements while holding the handle of a robotic manipulandum. In random trials the reach was perturbed, resulting in errors that were sensed through vision and proprioception. The brain learned from these errors and altered the motor commands on the subsequent reach. We measured learning from error as a function of the sensory modality of that error, and found that children with autism spectrum disorder outperformed typically developing children when learning from errors that were sensed through proprioception, but underperformed typically developing children when learning from errors that were sensed through vision. Previous work had shown that this learning depends on the integrity of a region in the anterior cerebellum. Here we found that the anterior cerebellum, extending into lobule VI, and parts of lobule VIII were smaller than normal in children with autism spectrum disorder, with a volume that was predicted by the pattern of learning from visual and proprioceptive errors. We suggest that the abnormal patterns of motor learning in children with autism spectrum disorder, showing an increased sensitivity to proprioceptive error and a decreased sensitivity to visual error, may be associated with abnormalities in the cerebellum. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  14. anomalous left anterior cerebral artery with hypoplastic right anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... We report an extremely rare anomalous variation of left anterior cerebral artery arising from the ... paraclinoid internal carotid artery and right ... Studies on the arteries of the brain: II-The anterior cerebral artery: Some anatomic ...

  15. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareen, N; Shinozaki, M; Ryan, D; Alexander, H; Amer, A; Truong, D Q; Khadka, N; Sarkar, A; Naeem, S; Bikson, M; Martin, J H

    2017-11-01

    Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement. Combined iTBS-tsDCS was delivered for 30min daily for 10days. We compared the effect of stimulation on performance in the horizontal ladder and the Irvine Beattie and Bresnahan forepaw manipulation tasks and CST axonal sprouting in injury-only and injury+stimulation animals. The contusion eliminated the dorsal CST in all animals. tsDCS significantly enhanced motor cortex evoked responses after C4 injury. Using this combined spinal-M1 neuromodulatory approach, we found significant recovery of skilled locomotion and forepaw manipulation skills compared with injury-only controls. The spared CST axons caudal to the lesion in both animal groups derived mostly from lateral CST axons that populated the contralateral intermediate zone. Stimulation enhanced injury-dependent CST axonal outgrowth below and above the level of the injury. This dual neuromodulatory approach produced partial recovery of skilled motor behaviors that normally require integration of posture, upper limb sensory information, and intent for performance. We propose that the motor systems use these new CST projections to control movements better after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Different brain circuits underlie motor and perceptual representations of temporal intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueti, Doemnica; Walsh, Vincent; Frith, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    V5/MT. Our findings point to a role for the parietal cortex as an interface between sensory and motor processes and suggest that it may be a key node in translation of temporal information into action. Furthermore, we discuss the potential importance of the extrastriate cortex in processing visual......In everyday life, temporal information is used for both perception and action, but whether these two functions reflect the operation of similar or different neural circuits is unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of processing temporal...... information when either a motor or a perceptual representation is used. Participants viewed two identical sequences of visual stimuli and used the information differently to perform either a temporal reproduction or a temporal estimation task. By comparing brain activity evoked by these tasks and control...

  17. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  18. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ponseti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By using pictures of infant animals (instead of human infants, we aimed to elicit nurturing processing without triggering sexual processing. We hypothesized that elevated brain responses to nurturing stimuli will be found – in addition to other brain areas – in the anterior insula of pedophiles because this area was repeatedly found to be activated when adults see pictures of babies. Behavioral ratings confirmed that pictures of infant or adult animals were not perceived as sexually arousing neither by the pedophilic participants nor by the heathy controls. Statistical analysis was applied to the whole brain as well as to the anterior insula as region of interest. Only in pedophiles did infants relative to adult animals increase brain activity in the anterior insula, supplementary motor cortex, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas. Within-group analysis revealed an increased brain response to infant animals in the left anterior insular cortex of the pedophilic participants. Currently, pedophilia is considered the consequence of disturbed sexual or executive brain processing, but details are far from known. The present findings raise the question whether there is also an over-responsive nurturing system in pedophilia.

  19. An autopsy case of a giant aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Fujio; Takayasu, Kenji; Ohiwa, Yasuyuki; Sakata, Ryuichi; Ariwa, Rokuro

    1983-01-01

    A 64-year-old female was admitted to our hospital on 8, July, 1980 with a history of three previous subarachnoid hemorrhages. Neurological examinations revealed incontinentia urinae, gait disturbance, recent memory disturbance and motor weakness on the left side. The results of the neuroradiological examinations were as follows. Plain X-ray films showed a ring-like calcification in the right frontal region. A plain CT scan showed a ring-shaped iso- and high-density area in the intra hemispheric region, the intra bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, the intra septum pellucidum, and the intra anterior part of the third ventricle. A small high-density region was enhanced as an island within it by means of a Conray infusion. Left carotid angiography showed a large aneurysmal shadow arising from the anterior communicating artery and another from the left middle cerebral artery. In the venous phase the venous angle was supero-posteriorly shifted, and the septal vein was elevated. She died unexpectedly with a status epilepticus of unknown origin. Clinically, rerupture was not verified. An autopsy specimen revealed that a giant aneurysm (6 x 5 x 4 cm in size) arising from the anterior communicating artery occupied the intra ventricular space, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the right thalamic region. Also, there was a large berry aneurysm (2 x 1.7 x 1.5 cm in size) arising from the middle cerebral artery. A coronary section through the giant aneurysm showed a markedly compressed left lateral ventricle, right thalamus, and hypothalamus, while the third ventricle had shifted toward the left side. (J.P.N.)

  20. Joint angle affects volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, C; Rees, D; Gleeson, N P

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance of the quadriceps femoris at functional knee joint angles adjacent to full extension. Indices of volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance (N=15 healthy males, 23.5 ± 2.9 years, 71.5 ± 5.4 kg, 176.5 ± 5.5 cm) were obtained at 25°, 35° and 45° of knee flexion. Results showed that volitional and magnetically-evoked peak force (PF(V) and P(T)F(E), respectively) and electromechanical delay (EMD(V) and EMD(E), respectively) were enhanced by increased knee flexion. However, greater relative improvements in volitional compared to evoked indices of neuromuscular performance were observed with increasing flexion from 25° to 45° (e.g. EMD(V), EMD(E): 36% vs. 11% improvement, respectively; F([2,14])=6.8, pjoint positions. These findings suggest that the extent of the relative differential between volitional and evoked neuromuscular performance capabilities is joint angle-specific and not correlated with performance capabilities at adjacent angles, but tends to be smaller with increased flexion. As such, effective prediction of volitional from evoked performance capabilities at both analogous and adjacent knee joint positions would lack robustness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional connectivity and laterality of the motor and sensory components in the volitional swallowing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Soren Y; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Horwitz, Barry; Ludlow, Christy L

    2012-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging has shown that multiple brain regions are active during volitional swallowing. Little is known, however, about which regions integrate motor execution and sensory feedback in the swallowing system. Although unilateral brain lesions in either hemisphere can produce swallowing deficits, some functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the left hemisphere has greater activation in certain sensory and motor-related swallowing regions. In this study, correlation coefficients were computed for five seed regions during volitional saliva swallowing to determine the functional relationships of these regions with the rest of the brain: the anterior and posterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), primary sensory cortex (S1), and primary motor cortex (M1). A laterality index (LI) was derived that accounts for relative differences in total, positive connected voxels for the left/right hemisphere seeds. Clusters of significantly connected voxels were greater from the anterior and posterior insula than from the other three seed regions. Interactions of the insula with other brain regions were greater on the left than on the right during volitional swallowing. Group means showed laterality in the anterior insula (LI = 0.25) and the posterior insula (LI = 0.33). BA44 showed a lesser degree of difference in left versus right hemisphere interactions (LI = 0.12) while S1 did not show lateralization (LI = 0.02) and M1 showed some predominance of interactions in the right hemisphere (LI = -0.19). The greater connectivity from the left hemisphere insula to brain regions within and across hemispheres suggests that the insula is a primary integrative region for volitional swallowing in humans.

  2. Brain cortex phosphatidylserine inhibits phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat anterior pituitary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, A.C.; Canonico, P.L.; MacLeod, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro effect of bovine brain cortex phosphatidylserine on 32 Pi incorporation into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine of rat anterior pituitary glands was studied. Phosphatidylserine (0.1 to 66.6 microM) decreased the incorporation of 32 Pi into phosphatidylinositol, but not phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, in a concentration-related manner. The inhibitory effect of phosphatidylinositol was similar to that of dopamine in the same experimental conditions. The combined effects of submaximal concentrations of dopamine and phosphatidylserine elicited an apparently additive inhibitory effect on phosphatidylinositol synthesis. The inhibitory effect of phosphatidylserine was completely reversed by haloperidol and sulpiride and only partially by pimozide, antidopaminergic agents which per se do not affect phosphatidylinositol synthesis. The stimulatory effect of TRH to increase 32 Pi incorporation into phosphatidylinositol was decreased by phosphatidylserine. These observations suggest that the decrease in prolactin release in the presence of phosphatidylserine may be evoked through a dopaminergic mechanism

  3. International Evoked Potentials Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    The past decade has seen great progress in the measurement of evoked potentials in man; a steady increase in our understanding of their charac­ teristics, their origins and their usefulness; and a growing application in the field of clinical diagnosis. The topic is a truly multidisciplinary one. Important research contributions have been made by workers of many different backgrounds and clinical applications span the specialities. This book represents a revised and updated version of the work originally presented at the international evoked potential symposium held in Nottingham 4-6 1978. The Nottingham Symposium provided a forum for a state-of-the-art discussion amongst workers from many different disciplines and from many different countries. For each major topic in the field an expert review set the scene for discussion of current research presentations. This format is retained in the book: the chapters in Part A provide the context in which the research presented in Part B is set. The task of selecting m...

  4. Expression and activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the mouse anterior pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Du

    Full Text Available Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in fear learning and memory. The function of ASICs in the pituitary, an endocrine gland that contributes to emotions, is unknown. We sought to investigate which ASIC subunits were present in the pituitary and found mRNA expression for all ASIC isoforms, including ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3 and ASIC4. We also observed acid-evoked ASIC-like currents in isolated anterior pituitary cells that were absent in mice lacking ASIC1a. The biophysical properties and the responses to PcTx1, amiloride, Ca2+ and Zn2+ suggested that ASIC currents were mediated predominantly by heteromultimeric channels that contained ASIC1a and ASIC2a or ASIC2b. ASIC currents were also sensitive to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide, suggesting that FMRFamide-like compounds might endogenously regulate pituitary ASICs. To determine whether ASICs might regulate pituitary cell function, we applied low pH and found that it increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These data suggest that ASIC channels are present and functionally active in anterior pituitary cells and may therefore influence their function.

  5. Subcortical Contributions to Motor Speech: Phylogenetic, Developmental, Clinical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, W; Ackermann, H

    2017-08-01

    Vocal learning is an exclusively human trait among primates. However, songbirds demonstrate behavioral features resembling human speech learning. Two circuits have a preeminent role in this human behavior; namely, the corticostriatal and the cerebrocerebellar motor loops. While the striatal contribution can be traced back to the avian anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), the sensorimotor adaptation functions of the cerebellum appear to be human specific in acoustic communication. This review contributes to an ongoing discussion on how birdsong translates into human speech. While earlier approaches were focused on higher linguistic functions, we place the motor aspects of speaking at center stage. Genetic data are brought together with clinical and developmental evidence to outline the role of cerebrocerebellar and corticostriatal interactions in human speech. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early life vincristine exposure evokes mechanical pain hypersensitivity in the developing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappacher, Katie A; Styczynski, Lauren; Baccei, Mark L

    2017-09-01

    Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat. Low doses of VNC (15 or 30 μg/kg) failed to alter nociceptive withdrawal reflexes at any age examined compared with vehicle-injected littermate controls. Meanwhile, high dose VNC (60 μg/kg) evoked mechanical hypersensitivity in both sexes beginning at P26 that persisted until adulthood and included both static and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Hind paw withdrawal latencies to noxious heat and cold were unaffected by high doses of VNC, suggesting a selective effect of neonatal VNC on mechanical pain sensitivity. Gross and fine motor function appeared normal after VNC treatment, although a small decrease in weight gain was observed. The VNC regimen also produced a significant decrease in intraepidermal nerve fiber density in the hind paw skin by P33. Overall, the present results demonstrate that high-dose administration of VNC during the early postnatal period selectively evokes a mechanical hypersensitivity that is slow to emerge during adolescence, providing further evidence that aberrant sensory input during early life can have prolonged consequences for pain processing.

  7. Distinct olfactory cross-modal effects on the human motor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rossi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Converging evidence indicates that action observation and action-related sounds activate cross-modally the human motor system. Since olfaction, the most ancestral sense, may have behavioural consequences on human activities, we causally investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS whether food odour could additionally facilitate the human motor system during the observation of grasping objects with alimentary valence, and the degree of specificity of these effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a repeated-measure block design, carried out on 24 healthy individuals participating to three different experiments, we show that sniffing alimentary odorants immediately increases the motor potentials evoked in hand muscles by TMS of the motor cortex. This effect was odorant-specific and was absent when subjects were presented with odorants including a potentially noxious trigeminal component. The smell-induced corticospinal facilitation of hand muscles during observation of grasping was an additive effect which superimposed to that induced by the mere observation of grasping actions for food or non-food objects. The odour-induced motor facilitation took place only in case of congruence between the sniffed odour and the observed grasped food, and specifically involved the muscle acting as prime mover for hand/fingers shaping in the observed action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complex olfactory cross-modal effects on the human corticospinal system are physiologically demonstrable. They are odorant-specific and, depending on the experimental context, muscle- and action-specific as well. This finding implies potential new diagnostic and rehabilitative applications.

  8. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Carlo; Maggiolini, Emma; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The effect of unilateral superior colliculus (SC) output suppression on the ipsilateral whisker motor cortex (WMC) was studied at different time points after tetrodotoxin and quinolinic acid injections, in adult rats. The WMC output was assessed by mapping the movement evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and by recording the ICMS-evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses from contralateral whisker muscles. At 1 h after SC injections, the WMC showed: (i) a strong decrease in contralateral whisker sites, (ii) a strong increase in ipsilateral whisker sites and in ineffective sites, and (iii) a strong increase in threshold current values. At 6 h after injections, the WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value and forelimb representation had expanded into the lateral part of the normal WMC. Thereafter, the size of the WMC recovered, returning to nearly normal 12 h later (94% of control) and persisted unchanged over time (1-3 weeks). The ICMS-evoked EMG response area decreased at 1 h after SC lesion and had recovered its baseline value 12 h later. Conversely, the latency of ICMS-evoked EMG responses had increased by 1 h and continued to increase for as long as 3 weeks following the lesion. These findings provide physiological evidence that SC output suppression persistently withdrew the direct excitatory drive from whisker motoneurons and induced changes in the WMC. We suggest that the changes in the WMC are a form of reversible short-term reorganization that is induced by SC lesion. The persistent latency increase in the ICMS-evoked EMG response suggested that the recovery of basic WMC excitability did not take place with the recovery of normal explorative behaviour. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Frontal lobe atrophy in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, J A; Hudson, A J

    1994-08-01

    Neuronal degeneration in the precentral gyrus alone cannot account for the occurrence of spastic paresis in motor neuron diseases. To look for more extensive cortical atrophy we measured MRIs of the upper parts of the frontal and parietal lobes in 11 sporadic cases of classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), eight patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and an age- and sex-matched group of 49 neurologically normal people. None of the patients had overt dementia or other mental diseases. In PLS there is progressive spastic paresis but in contrast to ALS there is no lower motor neuron degeneration. The surface area of the precentral gyri and the amount of underlying white matter in PLS were consistently approximately 75% of the normal size. By contrast, there was some shrinkage of the precentral gyri in some of the ALS patients but the mean measurements for the group did not differ significantly from the controls. Anterior to the precentral sulci, the cortical surface area in PLS was approximately 85% of that of the controls, with correspondingly reduced white matter. In ALS the cortical surface areas of the anterior frontal lobes did not differ from those of the controls, but the amount of underlying white matter was reduced almost as much in ALS as it was in PLS. The measured changes in the frontal lobes suggest that in PLS there is simultaneous atrophy of the primary, premotor and supplementary motor areas of the cortex, with consequent degeneration of corticospinal and corticoreticular axons descending through the underlying white matter. These changes could account for the progressive upper motor neuron syndrome. In ALS, with no significant frontal cortical atrophy, the shrinkage of the white matter may be due to degeneration of axons projecting to the frontal cortex from elsewhere. Deprivation of afferents could explain the diminution of motor functions of the frontal lobes in ALS and also the changes in word fluency, judgement and attention that

  10. Motor system dysfunction in the schizophrenia diathesis: Neural systems to neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, R; Noronha, C; Diwadkar, V A

    2017-07-01

    Motor control is a ubiquitous aspect of human function, and from its earliest origins, abnormal motor control has been proposed as being central to schizophrenia. The neurobiological architecture of the motor system is well understood in primates and involves cortical and sub-cortical components including the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Notably all of these regions are associated in some manner to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. At the molecular scale, both dopamine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) abnormalities have been associated with working memory dysfunction, but particularly relating to the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex respectively. As evidence from multiple scales (behavioral, regional and molecular) converges, here we provide a synthesis of the bio-behavioral relevance of motor dysfunction in schizophrenia, and its consistency across scales. We believe that the selective compendium we provide can supplement calls arguing for renewed interest in studying the motor system in schizophrenia. We believe that in addition to being a highly relevant target for the study of schizophrenia related pathways in the brain, such focus provides tractable behavioral probes for in vivo imaging studies in the illness. Our assessment is that the motor system is a highly valuable research domain for the study of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in corticospinal excitability and the direction of evoked movements during motor preparation: a TMS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Schot, W.D.; Stegeman, D.F.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preparation of the direction of a forthcoming movement has a particularly strong influence on both reaction times and neuronal activity in the primate motor cortex. Here, we aimed to find direct neurophysiologic evidence for the preparation of movement direction in humans. We used

  12. Changes in corticospinal excitability and the direction of evoked movements during motor preparation: A tms study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elswijk, G.; Schot, W.D.; Stegeman, D.F.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Preparation of the direction of a forthcoming movement has a particularly strong influence on both reaction times and neuronal activity in the primate motor cortex. Here, we aimed to find direct neurophysiologic evidence for the preparation of movement direction in humans. We used

  13. Modulation of motor cortex excitability by physical similarity with an observed hand action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Désy

    Full Text Available The passive observation of hand actions is associated with increased motor cortex excitability, presumably reflecting activity within the human mirror neuron system (MNS. Recent data show that in-group ethnic membership increases motor cortex excitability during observation of culturally relevant hand gestures, suggesting that physical similarity with an observed body part may modulate MNS responses. Here, we ask whether the MNS is preferentially activated by passive observation of hand actions that are similar or dissimilar to self in terms of sex and skin color. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus muscle while participants viewed videos depicting index finger movements made by female or male participants with black or white skin color. Forty-eight participants equally distributed in terms of sex and skin color participated in the study. Results show an interaction between self-attributes and physical attributes of the observed hand in the right motor cortex of female participants, where corticospinal excitability is increased during observation of hand actions in a different skin color than that of the observer. Our data show that specific physical properties of an observed action modulate motor cortex excitability and we hypothesize that in-group/out-group membership and self-related processes underlie these effects.

  14. Neuroplasticity Changes on Human Motor Cortex Induced by Acupuncture Therapy: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While neuroplasticity changes measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation have been proved to be highly correlated to motor recovery and have been tested in various forms of interventions, it has not been applied to investigate the neurophysiologic mechanism of acupuncture therapy. The aim of this study is to investigate neuroplasticity changes induced by a single session of acupuncture therapy in healthy adults, regarding the excitability change on bilateral primary motor cortex and interhemispheric inhibition. Ten subjects took a 30-minute acupuncture therapy and the same length relaxing phase in separate days. Transcranial magnetic stimulation measures, including resting motor threshold, amplitudes of motor-evoked potential, and interhemispheric inhibition, were assessed before and 10 minutes after intervention. Acupuncture treatment showed significant changes on potential amplitude from both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres to acupuncture compared to baseline. Also, interhemispheric inhibition from the contralateral motor cortex to the opposite showed a significant decline. The results indicated that corticomotoneuronal excitability and interhemispheric competition could be modulated by acupuncture therapy on healthy subjects. The following question about whether these changes will be observed in the same way on stroke patients and whether they correlate with the therapeutic effect on movement need to be answered by following studies. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13074245.

  15. Plasticity Induced by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Bilateral Motor Cortices Is Not Altered in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina S. E. Dickins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that plasticity induced in the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is attenuated in older adults. Those investigations, however, have focused solely on the stimulated hemisphere. Compared to young adults, older adults exhibit more widespread activity across bilateral motor cortices during the performance of unilateral motor tasks, suggesting that the manifestation of plasticity might also be altered. To address this question, twenty young (65 years underwent intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS whilst attending to the hand targeted by the plasticity-inducing procedure. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by single pulse TMS was used to quantify cortical excitability before and after iTBS. Individual responses to iTBS were highly variable, with half the participants showing an unexpected decrease in cortical excitability. Contrary to predictions, however, there were no age-related differences in the magnitude or manifestation of plasticity across bilateral motor cortices. The findings suggest that advancing age does not influence the capacity for, or manifestation of, plasticity induced by iTBS.

  16. Plasticity Induced by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Bilateral Motor Cortices Is Not Altered in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickins, Daina S. E.; Sale, Martin V.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that plasticity induced in the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is attenuated in older adults. Those investigations, however, have focused solely on the stimulated hemisphere. Compared to young adults, older adults exhibit more widespread activity across bilateral motor cortices during the performance of unilateral motor tasks, suggesting that the manifestation of plasticity might also be altered. To address this question, twenty young (65 years) underwent intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) whilst attending to the hand targeted by the plasticity-inducing procedure. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single pulse TMS was used to quantify cortical excitability before and after iTBS. Individual responses to iTBS were highly variable, with half the participants showing an unexpected decrease in cortical excitability. Contrary to predictions, however, there were no age-related differences in the magnitude or manifestation of plasticity across bilateral motor cortices. The findings suggest that advancing age does not influence the capacity for, or manifestation of, plasticity induced by iTBS. PMID:26064691

  17. Deficient inhibition in alcohol-dependence: let's consider the role of the motor system!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoilin, Caroline; Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Maurage, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe; Duque, Julie

    2018-04-26

    Impaired inhibitory control contributes to the development, maintenance, and relapse of alcohol-dependence, but the neural correlates of this deficit are still unclear. Because inhibitory control has been labeled as an executive function, most studies have focused on prefrontal areas, overlooking the contribution of more "primary" structures, such as the motor system. Yet, appropriate neural inhibition of the motor output pathway has emerged as a central aspect of healthy behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this motor inhibition is altered in alcohol-dependence. Neural inhibitory measures of motor activity were obtained in 20 detoxified alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and 20 matched healthy subjects, using a standard transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure whereby motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are elicited in a choice reaction time task. Moreover, behavioral inhibition and trait impulsivity were evaluated in all participants. Finally, the relapse status of patients was assessed 1 year after the experiment. As expected, AD patients displayed poorer behavioral inhibition and higher trait impulsivity than controls. More importantly, the MEP data revealed a considerable shortage of neural motor inhibition in AD patients. Interestingly, this neural defect was strongest in the patients who ended up relapsing during the year following the experiment. Our data suggest a strong motor component in the neural correlates of altered inhibitory control in AD patients. They also highlight an intriguing relationship with relapse and the perspective of a new biomarker to follow strategies aiming at reducing relapse in AD patients.

  18. A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko; Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-08-12

    We present an fMRI study demonstrating that an onomatopoeia word highly suggestive of subjective pain, heard by the ear, significantly activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) while hearing non-sense words that did not imply affective pain under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the ACC would be a pivotal locus for perceiving affective pain evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied affective pain closely associated with the unpleasantness of pain. We suggest that the pain affect sustained by pain unpleasantness may depend on ACC-prefrontal cortical interactions that modify cognitive evaluation of emotions associated with word-induced pain.

  19. Interplay of upper and lower motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Poliakov, Artiom; Tavares, Cristiano; Swash, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We studied motor unit recruitment to test a new method to identify motor unit firing rate (FR) variability. We studied 68 ALS patients, with and without upper neuron signs (UMN) in lower limbs, 24 patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), 13 patients with spinal cord lesion and 39 normal subjects. All recordings were made from tibialis anterior muscles of normal strength. Subjects performed a very slight contraction in order to activate 2 motor units in each recording. 5-7 motor unit pairs were recorded in each subject. Mean consecutive differences (MCD) were calculated for each pair of potentials. The mean MCD for each muscle was estimated as the mean from the total number of pairs recorded. Ap valuemotor unit in a pair of units was markedly reduced in PLS, and in subjects with spinal cord lesions. These results support a lower threshold and reduced FR fluctuation in spinal motor neurons of spastic patients. This method can be developed for detection of UMN lesions. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Treatment of central and neuropathic facial pain by chronic stimulation of the motor cortex: value of neuronavigation guidance systems for the localization of the motor cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J P; Lefaucheur, J P; Le Guerinel, C; Fontaine, D; Nakano, N; Sakka, L; Eizenbaum, J F; Pollin, B; Keravel, Y

    2000-11-01

    Thirty two patients with refractory central and neuropathic pain of peripheral origin were treated by chronic stimulation of the motor cortex between May 1993 and January 1997. The mean follow-up was 27. 3 months. The first 24 patients were operated according to the technique described by Tsubokawa. The last 13 cases (8 new patients and 5 reinterventions) were operated by a technique including localization by superficial CT reconstruction of the central region and neuronavigator guidance. The position of the central sulcus was confirmed by the use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials. The somatotopic organisation of the motor cortex was established peroperatively by studying the motor responses at stimulation of the motor cortex through the dura. Ten of the 13 patients with central pain (77%) and nine of the 12 patients with neuropathic facial pain had experienced substantial pain relief (75%). One of the 3 patients with post-paraplegia pain was clearly improved. A satisfactory result was obtained in one patient with pain related to plexus avulsion and in one patient with pain related to intercostal herpes zoster. None of the patients developed epileptic seizures. The position of the stimulating poles effective on pain corresponded to the somatotopic representation of the motor cortex. The neuronavigator localization and guidance technique proved to be most useful identifying the appropriate portion of the motor gyrus. It also allowed the establishment of reliable correlations between electrophysiological-clinical and anatomical data which may be used to improve the clinical results and possibly to extend the indications of this technique.

  1. Aberrant neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex in children with acute migraine: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyao Guo

    Full Text Available Migraine attacks have been shown to interfere with normal function in the brain such as motor or sensory function. However, to date, there has been no clinical neurophysiology study focusing on the motor function in children with migraine during headache attacks. To investigate the motor function in children with migraine, twenty-six children with acute migraine, meeting International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria and age- and gender-matched healthy children were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography system. A finger-tapping paradigm was designed to elicit neuromagnetic activation in the motor cortex. Children with migraine showed significantly prolonged latency of movement-evoked magnetic fields (MEF during finger movement compared with the controls. The correlation coefficient of MEF latency and age in children with migraine was significantly different from that in healthy controls. The spectral power of high gamma (65-150 Hz oscillations during finger movement in the primary motor cortex is also significantly higher in children with migraine than in controls. The alteration of responding latency and aberrant high gamma oscillations suggest that the developmental trajectory of motor function in children with migraine is impaired during migraine attacks and/or developmentally delayed. This finding indicates that childhood migraine may affect the development of brain function and result in long-term problems.

  2. Cortical evoked potentials to an auditory illusion: binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2009-08-01

    To define brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of 3 and 6Hz binaural beats in 250Hz or 1000Hz base frequencies, and compare it to the sound onset response. Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in response to unmodulated tones of 250 or 1000Hz to one ear and 3 or 6Hz higher to the other, creating an illusion of amplitude modulations (beats) of 3Hz and 6Hz, in base frequencies of 250Hz and 1000Hz. Tones were 2000ms in duration and presented with approximately 1s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to tone onset and subsequent beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat frequencies with both base frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset P(50), N(100) and P(200) components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude with the low base frequency and to the low beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left lateral and inferior temporal lobe areas in all stimulus conditions. Onset-evoked components were not different across stimulus conditions; P(50) had significantly different sources than the beats-evoked oscillations; and N(100) and P(200) sources located to the same temporal lobe regions as beats-evoked oscillations, but were bilateral and also included frontal and parietal contributions. Neural activity with slightly different volley frequencies from left and right ear converges and interacts in the central auditory brainstem pathways to generate beats of neural activity to modulate activities in the left temporal lobe, giving rise to the illusion of binaural beats. Cortical potentials recorded to binaural beats are distinct from onset responses. Brain activity corresponding to an auditory illusion of low frequency beats can be recorded from the scalp.

  3. Brain correlates of music-evoked emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies, partly owing to its power to evoke strong emotions and influence moods. During the past decade, the investigation of the neural correlates of music-evoked emotions has been invaluable for the understanding of human emotion. Functional neuroimaging studies on music and emotion show that music can modulate activity in brain structures that are known to be crucially involved in emotion, such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, hippocampus, insula, cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex. The potential of music to modulate activity in these structures has important implications for the use of music in the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  4. Effect of sensory and motor connectivity on hand function in pediatric hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Barachant, Alexandre; Gordon, Andrew M; Ferre, Claudio; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Carmel, Jason B; Friel, Kathleen M

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that somatosensory system injury would more strongly affect movement than motor system injury in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (USCP). This hypothesis was based on how somatosensory and corticospinal circuits adapt to injury during development; whereas the motor system can maintain connections to the impaired hand from the uninjured hemisphere, this does not occur in the somatosensory system. As a corollary, cortical injury strongly impairs sensory function, so we hypothesized that cortical lesions would impair hand function more than subcortical lesions. Twenty-four children with unilateral cerebral palsy had physiological and anatomical measures of the motor and somatosensory systems and lesion classification. Motor physiology was performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation and somatosensory physiology with vibration-evoked electroencephalographic potentials. Tractography of the corticospinal tract and the medial lemniscus was performed with diffusion tensor imaging, and lesions were classified by magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomical and physiological results were correlated with measures of hand function using 2 independent statistical methods. Children with disruptions in the somatosensory connectivity and cortical lesions had the most severe upper extremity impairments, particularly somatosensory function. Motor system connectivity was significantly correlated with bimanual function, but not unimanual function or somatosensory function. Both sensory and motor connectivity impact hand function in children with USCP. Somatosensory connectivity could be an important target for recovery of hand function in children with USCP. Ann Neurol 2017;82:766-780. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  5. Short-term immobilization influences use-dependent cortical plasticity and fine motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, George M; Evans, Alexandra; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    2016-08-25

    Short-term immobilization that reduces muscle use for 8-10h is known to influence cortical excitability and motor performance. However, the mechanisms through which this is achieved, and whether these changes can be used to modify cortical plasticity and motor skill learning, are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of short-term immobilization on use-dependent cortical plasticity, motor learning and retention. Twenty-one adults were divided into control and immobilized groups, both of which underwent two experimental sessions on consecutive days. Within each session, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes, short- (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) before and after a grooved pegboard task. Prior to the second training session, the immobilized group underwent 8h of left hand immobilization targeting the index finger, while control subjects were allowed normal limb use. Immobilization produced a reduction in MEP amplitudes, but no change in SICI, LICI or ICF. While motor performance improved for both groups in each session, the level of performance was greater 24-h later in control, but not immobilized subjects. Furthermore, training-related MEP facilitation was greater after, compared with before, immobilization. These results indicate that immobilization can modulate use-dependent plasticity and the retention of motor skills. They also suggest that changes in intracortical excitability are unlikely to contribute to the immobilization-induced modification of cortical excitability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Nouns referring to tools and natural objects differentially modulate the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Patricia M; Riggio, Lucia; Chersi, Fabian; Sato, Marc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Buccino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    While increasing evidence points to a critical role for the motor system in language processing, the focus of previous work has been on the linguistic category of verbs. Here we tested whether nouns are effective in modulating the motor system and further whether different kinds of nouns - those referring to artifacts or natural items, and items that are graspable or ungraspable - would differentially modulate the system. A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) study was carried out to compare modulation of the motor system when subjects read nouns referring to objects which are Artificial or Natural and which are Graspable or Ungraspable. TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the right hand at 150 ms after noun presentation. Analyses of Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) revealed that across the duration of the task, nouns referring to graspable artifacts (tools) were associated with significantly greater MEP areas. Analyses of the initial presentation of items revealed a main effect of graspability. The findings are in line with an embodied view of nouns, with MEP measures modulated according to whether nouns referred to natural objects or artifacts (tools), confirming tools as a special class of items in motor terms. Additionally our data support a difference for graspable versus non graspable objects, an effect which for natural objects is restricted to initial presentation of items. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on motor function: a magnetoencephalographic study of twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko eAraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of genetic and environmental influences on cerebral motor function, we determined similarities of movement-related cortical fields (MRCFs in middle-aged and elderly monozygotic (MZ twins. MRCFs were measured using a 160-channel MEG system when MZ twins were instructed to repeat lifting of the right index finger. We compared latency, amplitude, dipole location, and dipole intensity of movement-evoked field 1 (MEF1 between 16 MZ twins and 16 pairs of genetically unrelated pairs. Differences in latency and dipole location between MZ twins were significantly less than those between unrelated age-matched pairs. However, amplitude and dipole intensity were not significantly different. These results suggest that the latency and dipole location of MEF1 are determined early in life by genetic and early common environmental factors, whereas amplitude and dipole intensity are influenced by long-term environmental factors. Improved understanding of genetic and environmental factors that influence cerebral motor function may contribute to evaluation and improvement for individual motor function.

  8. Abbreviated exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce CNS dysmyelination, modulate spinal motor neuron composition, and impair motor development in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O Watzlawik

    Full Text Available Neonatal white matter injury (nWMI is an increasingly common cause of cerebral palsy that results predominantly from hypoxic injury to progenitor cells including those of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Existing mouse models of nWMI utilize prolonged periods of hypoxia during the neonatal period, require complex cross-fostering and exhibit poor growth and high mortality rates. Abnormal CNS myelin composition serves as the major explanation for persistent neuro-motor deficits. Here we developed a simplified model of nWMI with low mortality rates and improved growth without cross-fostering. Neonatal mice are exposed to low oxygen from postnatal day (P 3 to P7, which roughly corresponds to the period of human brain development between gestational weeks 32 and 36. CNS hypomyelination is detectable for 2-3 weeks post injury and strongly correlates with levels of body and brain weight loss. Immediately following hypoxia treatment, cell death was evident in multiple brain regions, most notably in superficial and deep cortical layers as well as the subventricular zone progenitor compartment. PDGFαR, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell were significantly reduced until postnatal day 27. In addition to CNS dysmyelination we identified a novel pathological marker for adult hypoxic animals that strongly correlates with life-long neuro-motor deficits. Mice reared under hypoxia reveal an abnormal spinal neuron composition with increased small and medium diameter axons and decreased large diameter axons in thoracic lateral and anterior funiculi. Differences were particularly pronounced in white matter motor tracts left and right of the anterior median fissure. Our findings suggest that 4 days of exposure to hypoxia are sufficient to induce experimental nWMI in CD1 mice, thus providing a model to test new therapeutics. Pathological hallmarks of this model include early cell death, decreased OPCs and hypomyelination in early postnatal life

  9. Vestibular neuritis: three-dimensional videonystagmography and vestibular evoked myogenic potential results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C W; Young, Y H; Wu, C H

    2000-10-01

    Eight patients diagnosed with vestibular neuritis received the newly developed three-dimensional videonystagmography (3D VNG) and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) examination in order to localize the lesion site. Two (25%) of the 8 patients exhibited spontaneous nystagmus with 3 components, indicating that both the horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC) and anterior semicircular canal (ASCC) were affected. The remaining 6 patients (75%) displayed only horizontal nystagmus, meaning that only the HSCC was involved. Seven (88%) of the 8 patients had bilateral normal VEMPs, revealing sparing of the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC). In a comparative study, another seven patients with vestibular neuritis 1 year post-treatment also received the caloric test, 3D VNG and VEMP examination. Only one patient exhibited spontaneous nystagmus. An absent caloric response of the lesioned side persisted in 5 (71%) of the 7 patients. However, all patients showed normal VEMPs bilaterally. 3D VNG and VEMP examination indicates that vestibular neuritis mainly affects the superior division of the vestibular nerve, which innervates the HSCC and ASCC. Meanwhile, the function of the PSCC and saccule, innervated by the inferior vestibular nerve, is preserved.

  10. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Groothof, Hinke A. K.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's

  11. Kinesthetically guided reaching accuracy in individuals with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available You-jou Hung,1 Warren G Darling2 1Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation Sciences, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA; 2Department of Health and Human Physiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether individuals with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation show larger reaching errors than those with healthy shoulders and to determine if they implement different reaching strategies to protect the injured shoulder. Methods: Ten people with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation and 15 with healthy shoulders volunteered for this study. After viewing targets in space, participants pointed with the unconstrained arm to remembered target locations in space without visual guidance. Nine different targets were located in various planes and heights. Endpoint reaching errors were determined by comparing the finger endpoint position without visual guidance to the target location. Shoulder rotation angle at the endpoint was also compared between groups. Results: Participants with injured shoulders were able to point voluntarily to visually specified targets as accurately as participants with healthy shoulders (1 cm difference. However, participants with injured shoulders showed less shoulder external rotation (average 12° difference at the target location when compared with healthy shoulders. This difference was consistent over a large range of target locations. Conclusion: Individuals with a history of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation have sufficient kinesthetic information about their upper limb orientation to point accurately to visually specified targets in space. However, individuals with injured shoulders acquired a new motor strategy to reach with less shoulder external rotation, presumably to protect the injured shoulder from recurrent injuries. Keywords: shoulder injuries, physiotherapy, shoulder

  12. Neural substrates of motor and cognitive dysfunctions in SCA2 patients: A network based statistics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olivito

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the network-based statistics (NBS approach was used to assess differences in functional connectivity between specific cerebellar and cerebral “nodes” in SCA2 patients. Altered inter-nodal connectivity was found between more posterior regions in the cerebellum and regions in the cerebral cortex clearly related to cognition and emotion. Furthermore, more anterior cerebellar lobules showed altered inter-nodal connectivity with motor and somatosensory cerebral regions. The present data suggest that in SCA2 a cerebellar dysfunction affects long-distance cerebral regions and that the clinical symptoms may be specifically related with connectivity changes between motor and non-motor cerebello-cortical nodes.

  13. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  14. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  15. Generation of novel motor sequences: the neural correlates of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aaron L; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    While some motor behavior is instinctive and stereotyped or learned and re-executed, much action is a spontaneous response to a novel set of environmental conditions. The neural correlates of both pre-learned and cued motor sequences have been previously studied, but novel motor behavior has thus far not been examined through brain imaging. In this paper, we report a study of musical improvisation in trained pianists with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using improvisation as a case study of novel action generation. We demonstrate that both rhythmic (temporal) and melodic (ordinal) motor sequence creation modulate activity in a network of brain regions comprised of the dorsal premotor cortex, the rostral cingulate zone of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior frontal gyrus. These findings are consistent with a role for the dorsal premotor cortex in movement coordination, the rostral cingulate zone in voluntary selection, and the inferior frontal gyrus in sequence generation. Thus, the invention of novel motor sequences in musical improvisation recruits a network of brain regions coordinated to generate possible sequences, select among them, and execute the decided-upon sequence.

  16. Music-evoked emotions: principles, brain correlates, and implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes principles underlying the evocation of emotion with music: evaluation, resonance, memory, expectancy/tension, imagination, understanding, and social functions. Each of these principles includes several subprinciples, and the framework on music-evoked emotions emerging from these principles and subprinciples is supposed to provide a starting point for a systematic, coherent, and comprehensive theory on music-evoked emotions that considers both reception and production of music, as well as the relevance of emotion-evoking principles for music therapy. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging applied to motor neuron disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroal, Gonzalo M.; Giavitto, Enrique; Nagel, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Differentiate Motor Neuron Disease by MRI. Material and Methods: 10 patients were studied, 7 patients had a diagnosis of definite ALS by the El Escorial criteria, 2 patients had lower motor neuron signs (LMN) and hyperreflexia and one patient had LMN signs without pain. MRI was performed: slices brain: Sagittal T1-weighted, sagittal and axial FSE T2, axial and coronal FLAIR, diffusion, singlevoxel spectroscopy in protuberances. Functional MRI with motor test; slices in cervical spine: Sagittal T1-weighted, sagittal and axial FSE T2, sagittal FSIR. Results: The 7 patients with definite ALS by El Escorial criteria and 2 patients with LMN signs and hyperreflexia: hyperintensity signal in FSE T2 and FLAIR extending from the motor cortex down to the corona radiate, posterior limb of internal capsules, cerebral peduncles and protuberance base; FSE T2: hypointensity sign in motor cortex; elevation in diffusivity and hyperintensity signal in ADC in posterior limb of internal capsule; reduction of NAA, high levels of Glutamine-Glutamate and of Colina. One of these 9 patients showed disc hernia in C4-5, and other patient in C3-C4, C4-C5 without cord lesion. The patient with LMN signs without pain showed normal brain and disc hernia C5-C6, hypertrophy yellow ligament, anterior-posterior diminution of medullar canal, hyperintensity signal in spine cord in the same level in sagittal FSIR. fMRI: increase signal in contralateral, ipsilateral motor area, and areas involved in initiation and planning movement. Conclusion: MRI allow differentiation between ALS and myelopathy cervical spondylitis and others motor neuron disease. (author) [es

  18. Motor facilitation during observation of implied motion: Evidence for a role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Ludovico; Fetterman, Alexander; Concerto, Carmen; Warren, Michael; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Freedberg, David; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2018-06-01

    The phenomenon of motor resonance (the increase in motor cortex excitability during observation of actions) has been previously described. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have demonstrated a similar effect during perception of implied motion (IM). The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be activated during action observation. Furthermore, the role of this brain area in motor resonance to IM is yet to be investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled into the study. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to stimulate DLPFC aiming to investigate whether stimulation with different polarities would affect the amplitude of motor evoked potential collected during observation of images with and without IM. The results of our experiment indicated that Cathodal tDCS over the left DLPFC prevented motor resonance during observation of IM. On the contrary, anodal and sham tDCS did not significantly modulate motor resonance to IM. The current study expands the understanding of the neural circuits engaged during observation of IM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that action understanding requires the interaction of large networks and that the left DLPFC plays a crucial role in generating motor resonance to IM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor-Evoked Potentials in the Lower Back Are Modulated by Visual Perception of Lifted Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Behrendt

    Full Text Available Facilitation of the primary motor cortex (M1 during the mere observation of an action is highly congruent with the observed action itself. This congruency comprises several features of the executed action such as somatotopy and temporal coding. Studies using reach-grasp-lift paradigms showed that the muscle-specific facilitation of the observer's motor system reflects the degree of grip force exerted in an observed hand action. The weight judgment of a lifted object during action observation is an easy task which is the case for hand actions as well as for lifting boxes from the ground. Here we investigated whether the cortical representation in M1 for lumbar back muscles is modulated due to the observation of a whole-body lifting movement as it was shown for hand action. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to measure the corticospinal excitability of the m. erector spinae (ES while subjects visually observed the recorded sequences of a person lifting boxes of different weights from the floor. Consistent with the results regarding hand action the present study reveals a differential modulation of corticospinal excitability despite the relatively small M1 representation of the back also for lifting actions that mainly involve the lower back musculature.

  20. Motor-Evoked Potentials in the Lower Back Are Modulated by Visual Perception of Lifted Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Frank; de Lussanet, Marc H E; Zentgraf, Karen; Zschorlich, Volker R

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation of the primary motor cortex (M1) during the mere observation of an action is highly congruent with the observed action itself. This congruency comprises several features of the executed action such as somatotopy and temporal coding. Studies using reach-grasp-lift paradigms showed that the muscle-specific facilitation of the observer's motor system reflects the degree of grip force exerted in an observed hand action. The weight judgment of a lifted object during action observation is an easy task which is the case for hand actions as well as for lifting boxes from the ground. Here we investigated whether the cortical representation in M1 for lumbar back muscles is modulated due to the observation of a whole-body lifting movement as it was shown for hand action. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to measure the corticospinal excitability of the m. erector spinae (ES) while subjects visually observed the recorded sequences of a person lifting boxes of different weights from the floor. Consistent with the results regarding hand action the present study reveals a differential modulation of corticospinal excitability despite the relatively small M1 representation of the back also for lifting actions that mainly involve the lower back musculature.

  1. Vibration and muscle contraction affect somatosensory evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, LG; Starr, A

    1985-01-01

    We recorded potentials evoked by specific somatosensory stimuli over peripheral nerve, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. Vibration attenuated spinal and cerebral potentials evoked by mixed nerve and muscle spindle stimulation; in one subject that was tested, there was no effect on cutaneous input. Presynaptic inhibition of Ia input in the spinal cord and muscle spindle receptor occupancy are probably the responsible mechanisms. In contrast, muscle contraction attenuated cerebral potentials to...

  2. Altered Modulation of Silent Period in Tongue Motor Cortex of Persistent Developmental Stuttering in Relation to Stuttering Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Pierpaolo; Del Ben, Giovanni; Bernardini, Simona; Natarelli, Giulia; Bencich, Marco; Monti, Fabrizio; Manganotti, Paolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials. Tongue silent period duration was increased in DS, especially in the left hemisphere (Pstuttering severity. Pre-TMS electromyography data gave overlapping evidence. Findings suggest the existence of a complex intracortical balance in DS tongue primary motor cortex, with a particular interplay between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, also in neural substrates related to silent periods. Findings are discussed with respect to functional and structural impairments in stuttering, and are also proposed as novel neural markers of a stuttering "state" in persistent DS, helping to define more focused treatments (e.g. neuro-modulation).

  3. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  4. The involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this paper was to examine the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories. For this purpose, young adults, older adults, and patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) were asked to remember autobiographical events in two conditions: after being exposed to their own chosen music, and in silence. Compared to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked in the "Music" condition were found to be more specific, accompanied by more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. In addition, these memories engaged less executive processes. Thus, with all these characteristics and the fact that they are activated by a perceptual cue (i.e., music), music-evoked autobiographic memories have all the features to be considered as involuntary memories. Our paper reveals several characteristics of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients and offers a theoretical background for this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurophysiological detection of impending spinal cord injury during scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel M; Auerbach, Joshua D; Dormans, John P; Flynn, John; Drummond, Denis S; Bowe, J Andrew; Laufer, Samuel; Shah, Suken A; Bowen, J Richard; Pizzutillo, Peter D; Jones, Kristofer J; Drummond, Denis S

    2007-11-01

    Despite the many reports attesting to the efficacy of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potential monitoring in reducing the prevalence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury during corrective scoliosis surgery, these afferent neurophysiological signals can provide only indirect evidence of injury to the motor tracts since they monitor posterior column function. Early reports on the use of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials to monitor the corticospinal motor tracts directly suggested that the method holds great promise for improving detection of emerging spinal cord injury. We sought to compare the efficacy of these two methods of monitoring to detect impending iatrogenic neural injury during scoliosis surgery. We reviewed the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring records of 1121 consecutive patients (834 female and 287 male) with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (mean age, 13.9 years) treated between 2000 and 2004 at four pediatric spine centers. The same group of experienced surgical neurophysiologists monitored spinal cord function in all patients with use of a standardized multimodality technique with the patient under total intravenous anesthesia. A relevant neurophysiological change (an alert) was defined as a reduction in amplitude (unilateral or bilateral) of at least 50% for somatosensory evoked potentials and at least 65% for transcranial electric motor evoked potentials compared with baseline. Thirty-eight (3.4%) of the 1121 patients had recordings that met the criteria for a relevant signal change (i.e., an alert). Of those thirty-eight patients, seventeen showed suppression of the amplitude of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials in excess of 65% without any evidence of changes in somatosensory evoked potentials. In nine of the thirty-eight patients, the signal change was related to hypotension and was corrected with augmentation of the blood pressure. The remaining twenty-nine patients had an alert that was related directly to a

  6. The primary motor and premotor areas of the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Paus, Tomás

    2006-04-01

    Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map of the human cortex designates area 4 as cortex in the anterior bank of the precentral sulcus and area 6 as cortex encompassing the precentral gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior frontal gyrus on both the lateral and medial surfaces of the brain. More than 70 years ago, Fulton proposed a functional distinction between these two areas, coining the terms primary motor area for cortex in Brodmann area 4 and premotor area for cortex in Brodmann area 6. The parcellation of the cortical motor system has subsequently become more complex. Several nonprimary motor areas have been identified in the brain of the macaque monkey, and associations between anatomy and function in the human brain are being tested continuously using brain mapping techniques. In the present review, the authors discuss the unique properties of the primary motor area (M1), the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex (PMd), and the ventral portion of the premotor cortex (PMv). They end this review by discussing how the premotor areas influence M1.

  7. LTP-like plasticity in the visual system and in the motor system appear related in young and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eKlöppel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available LTP-like plasticity measured by visual evoked potentials (VEP can be induced in the intact human brain by presenting checkerboard reversals. Also associated with LTP-like plasticity, around two third of participants respond to transcranial magnetic stimulation with a paired-associate stimulation (PAS protocol with a potentiation of their motor evoked potentials. LTP-like processes are also required for verbal and motor learning tasks. We compared effect sizes, responder rates and intercorrelations as well as the potential influence of attention between these four assessments in a group of 37 young and healthy volunteers. We observed a potentiation effect of the N75 and P100 VEP component which positively correlated with plasticity induced by PAS. Subjects with a better subjective alertness were more likely to show PAS and VEP potentiation. No correlation was found between the other assessments. Effect sizes and responder rates of VEP potentiation were higher compared to PAS. Our results indicate a high variability of LTP-like effects and no evidence for a system-specific nature. As a consequence, studies wishing to assess individual levels of LTP-like plasticity should employ a combination of multiple assessments.

  8. Altered synaptic plasticity in Tourette's syndrome and its relationship to motor skill learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Cathérine Brandt

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics that can be considered motor responses to preceding inner urges. It has been shown that Tourette patients have inferior performance in some motor learning tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. However, it has not been investigated whether altered synaptic plasticity is directly linked to impaired motor skill acquisition in Tourette patients. In this study, cortical plasticity was assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials before and after paired associative stimulation in 14 Tourette patients (13 male; age 18-39 and 15 healthy controls (12 male; age 18-33. Tic and urge severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Premonitory Urges for Tics Scale. Motor learning was assessed 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity and 9 months later, using the rotary pursuit task. On average, long-term potentiation-like effects in response to the paired associative stimulation were present in healthy controls but not in patients. In Tourette patients, long-term potentiation-like effects were associated with more and long-term depression-like effects with less severe urges and tics. While motor learning did not differ between patients and healthy controls 45 minutes after inducing synaptic plasticity, the learning curve of the healthy controls started at a significantly higher level than the Tourette patients' 9 months later. Induced synaptic plasticity correlated positively with motor skills in healthy controls 9 months later. The present study confirms previously found long-term improvement in motor performance after paired associative stimulation in healthy controls but not in Tourette patients. Tourette patients did not show long-term potentiation in response to PAS and also showed reduced levels of motor skill consolidation after 9 months compared to healthy controls. Moreover

  9. Inhibition or facilitation? Modulation of corticospinal excitability during motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Valentina; Fossataro, Carlotta; Garbarini, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is the mental simulation of an action without any overt movement. Functional evidences show that brain activity during MI and motor execution (ME) largely overlaps. However, the role of the primary motor cortex (M1) during MI is controversial. Effective connectivity techniques show a facilitation on M1 during ME and an inhibition during MI, depending on whether an action should be performed or suppressed. Conversely, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) studies report facilitatory effects during both ME and MI. The present TMS study shed light on MI mechanisms, by manipulating the instructions given to the participants. In both Experimental and Control groups, participants were asked to mentally simulate a finger-thumb opposition task, but only the Experimental group received the explicit instruction to avoid any unwanted fingers movements. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS during MI was compared between the two groups. If the M1 facilitation actually pertains to MI per se, we should have expected to find it, irrespective of the instructions. Contrariwise, we found opposite results, showing facilitatory effects (increased MEPs amplitude) in the Control group and inhibitory effects (decreased MEPs amplitude) in the Experimental group. Control experiments demonstrated that the inhibitory effect was specific for the M1 contralateral to the hand performing the MI task and that the given instructions did not compromise the subjects' MI abilities. The present findings suggest a crucial role of motor inhibition when a "pure" MI task is performed and the subjects are explicitly instructed to avoid overt movements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity indicate recruitment of distinct motor unit populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, C J; Stegeman, D F; Van Dijk, J P; Zwarts, M J

    2003-09-01

    To obtain more insight into the changes in mean muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) during sustained isometric exercise at relatively low contraction levels, we performed an in-depth study of the human tibialis anterior muscle by using multichannel surface electromyogram. The results show an increase in MFCV after an initial decrease of MFCV at 30 or 40% maximum voluntary contraction in all of the five subjects studied. With a peak velocity analysis, we calculated the distribution of conduction velocities of action potentials in the bipolar electromyogram signal. It shows two populations of peak velocities occurring simultaneously halfway through the exercise. The MFCV pattern implies the recruitment of two different populations of motor units. Because of the lowering of MFCV of the first activated population of motor units, the newly recruited second population of motor units becomes visible. It is most likely that the MFCV pattern can be ascribed to the fatiguing of already recruited predominantly type I motor units, followed by the recruitment of fresh, predominantly type II, motor units.

  11. H-reflexes reduce fatigue of evoked contractions after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Austin J; Wiest, Matheus J; Okuma, Yoshino; Collins, David F

    2014-08-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) over a muscle belly (mNMES) generates contractions predominantly through M-waves, while NMES over a nerve trunk (nNMES) can generate contractions through H-reflexes in people who are neurologically intact. We tested whether the differences between mNMES and nNMES are present in people with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury and, if so, whether they influence contraction fatigue. Plantar-flexion torque and soleus electromyography were recorded from 8 participants. Fatigue protocols were delivered using mNMES and nNMES on separate days. nNMES generated contractions that fatigued less than mNMES. Torque decreased the least when nNMES generated contractions, at least partly through H-reflexes (n = 4 participants; 39% decrease), and torque decreased the most when contractions were generated through M-waves, regardless of NMES site (nNMES 71% decrease, n = 4; mNMES, 73% decrease, n = 8). nNMES generates contractions that fatigue less than mNMES, but only when H-reflexes contribute to the evoked contractions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaneil Lahiri

    Full Text Available When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1 peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2 asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  14. Treatment of Motor Neuron Disease with Qi-invigorating Herbs—— A Report of 31 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃小兰; 杨志敏; 何德平; 刘旭生; 陈红霞; 黄燕; 张文青

    2002-01-01

    @@ The motor neuron disease (MND) refers to a group of progressive diseases with unknown reasons, which attacks the cells of the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the motor nuclei of the brain stem cranial nerves and the pyramidal cells of the cerebral motor cortex. It is characterized in clinic by atrophy of the muscles, myasthenia and even death due to paralysis of the respiratory muscle. Currently, there is still no any effective cure for this illness. 50-70% of the victims will die in 3 to 5 years, and the survival time for those with brain stem injuries is no more than two years.1 Since 1996, the authors have treated 31 cases of motor neuron disease with large dosage of qi-invigorating drugs in accordance with Prof. Liu Mocai's experience, and obtained certain therapeutic effects. A report follows.

  15. Network connectivity and individual responses to brain stimulation in the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Volz, Lukas J; Michely, Jochen; Rehme, Anne K; Pool, Eva-Maria; Nettekoven, Charlotte; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms driving cortical plasticity in response to brain stimulation are still incompletely understood. We here explored whether neural activity and connectivity in the motor system relate to the magnitude of cortical plasticity induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve right-handed volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during rest and while performing a simple hand motor task. Resting-state functional connectivity, task-induced activation, and task-related effective connectivity were assessed for a network of key motor areas. We then investigated the effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) on motor-evoked potentials (MEP) for up to 25 min after stimulation over left primary motor cortex (M1) or parieto-occipital vertex (for control). ITBS-induced increases in MEP amplitudes correlated negatively with movement-related fMRI activity in left M1. Control iTBS had no effect on M1 excitability. Subjects with better response to M1-iTBS featured stronger preinterventional effective connectivity between left premotor areas and left M1. In contrast, resting-state connectivity did not predict iTBS aftereffects. Plasticity-related changes in M1 following brain stimulation seem to depend not only on local factors but also on interconnected brain regions. Predominantly activity-dependent properties of the cortical motor system are indicative of excitability changes following induction of cortical plasticity with rTMS. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface training: the impact on motor cortical responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiorri, F.; De Vico Fallani, F.; Cincotti, F.; Babiloni, F.; Molinari, M.; Kleih, S. C.; Neuper, C.; Kübler, A.; Mattia, D.

    2011-04-01

    The main purpose of electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is to provide an alternative channel to support communication and control when motor pathways are interrupted. Despite the considerable amount of research focused on the improvement of EEG signal detection and translation into output commands, little is known about how learning to operate a BCI device may affect brain plasticity. This study investigated if and how sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training would induce persistent functional changes in motor cortex, as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and high-density EEG. Motor imagery (MI)-based BCI training in naïve participants led to a significant increase in motor cortical excitability, as revealed by post-training TMS mapping of the hand muscle's cortical representation; peak amplitude and volume of the motor evoked potentials recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle were significantly higher only in those subjects who develop a MI strategy based on imagination of hand grasping to successfully control a computer cursor. Furthermore, analysis of the functional brain networks constructed using a connectivity matrix between scalp electrodes revealed a significant decrease in the global efficiency index for the higher-beta frequency range (22-29 Hz), indicating that the brain network changes its topology with practice of hand grasping MI. Our findings build the neurophysiological basis for the use of non-invasive BCI technology for monitoring and guidance of motor imagery-dependent brain plasticity and thus may render BCI a viable tool for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  17. Weak but Critical Links between Primary Somatosensory Centers and Motor Cortex during Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxu Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance is improved by stimulation of the agonist muscle during movement. However, related brain mechanisms remain unknown. In this work, we perform a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study in 21 healthy subjects under three different conditions: (1 movement of right ankle alone; (2 movement and simultaneous stimulation of the agonist muscle; or (3 movement and simultaneous stimulation of a control area. We constructed weighted brain networks for each condition by using functional connectivity. Network features were analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found that: (1 the second condition evokes the strongest and most widespread brain activations (5147 vs. 4419 and 2320 activated voxels; and (2 this condition also induces a unique network layout and changes hubs and the modular structure of the brain motor network by activating the most “silent” links between primary somatosensory centers and the motor cortex, particularly weak links from the thalamus to the left primary motor cortex (M1. Significant statistical differences were found when the strength values of the right cerebellum (P < 0.001 or the left thalamus (P = 0.006 were compared among the three conditions. Over the years, studies reported a small number of projections from the thalamus to the motor cortex. This is the first work to present functions of these pathways. These findings reveal mechanisms for enhancing motor function with somatosensory stimulation, and suggest that network function cannot be thoroughly understood when weak ties are disregarded.

  18. Imitation and matching of meaningless gestures: distinct involvement from motor and visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Mathieu; Navarro, Jordan; Baumard, Josselin; Jarry, Christophe; Le Gall, Didier; Osiurak, François

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the underlying cognitive processes of imitation and matching of meaningless gestures. Neuropsychological evidence obtained in brain damaged patients, has shown that distinct cognitive processes supported imitation and matching of meaningless gestures. Left-brain damaged (LBD) patients failed to imitate while right-brain damaged (RBD) patients failed to match meaningless gestures. Moreover, other studies with brain damaged patients showed that LBD patients were impaired in motor imagery while RBD patients were impaired in visual imagery. Thus, we hypothesize that imitation of meaningless gestures might rely on motor imagery, whereas matching of meaningless gestures might be based on visual imagery. In a first experiment, using a correlational design, we demonstrated that posture imitation relies on motor imagery but not on visual imagery (Experiment 1a) and that posture matching relies on visual imagery but not on motor imagery (Experiment 1b). In a second experiment, by manipulating directly the body posture of the participants, we demonstrated that such manipulation evokes a difference only in imitation task but not in matching task. In conclusion, the present study provides direct evidence that the way we imitate or we have to compare postures depends on motor imagery or visual imagery, respectively. Our results are discussed in the light of recent findings about underlying mechanisms of meaningful and meaningless gestures.

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): compared sensitivity of different motor response parameters in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouget, J; Trefouret, S; Attarian, S

    2000-06-01

    Owing to the low sensitivity of clinical signs in assessing upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement in ALS, there is a need for investigative tools capable of detecting abnormal function of the pyramidal tract. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may contribute to the diagnosis by reflecting a UMN dysfunction that is not clinically detectable. Several parameters for the motor responses to TMS can be evaluated with different levels of significance in healthy subjects compared with ALS patients. The central motor conduction time, however, is not sensitive in detecting subclinical UMN defects in individual ALS patients. The amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP), expressed as the percentage of the maximum wave, also has a low sensitivity. In some cases, the corticomotor threshold is decreased early in the disease course as a result of corticomotor neuron hyperexcitability induced by glutamate. Later, the threshold increases, indicating a loss of UMN. In our experience, a decreased silent period duration appears to be the most sensitive parameter when using motor TMS in ALS. TMS is also a sensitive technique for investigating the corticobulbar tract, which is difficult to study by other methods. TMS is a widely available, painless and safe technique with a good sensitivity that can visualize both corticospinal and corticobulbar tract abnormalities. The sensitivity can be improved further by taking into account the several MEP parameters, including latency and cortical silent period decreased duration.

  20. Catarata polar anterior piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior causando edema de córnea: relato de caso Corneal edema caused by a pyramidal anterior polar cataract dislocated to the anterior chamber: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Coral Ghanem

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cataratas polares anteriores piramidais são opacidades cônicas que se projetam para a câmara anterior a partir da cápsula anterior do cristalino. Na grande maioria dos pacientes a opacidade permanece aderida e estável durante toda a vida. O objetivo deste trabalho é documentar uma manifestação incomum desse tipo de catarata: a deiscência espontânea das pirâmides para a câmara anterior causando descompensação endotelial e edema corneal bilateral. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente feminina, de 66 anos, branca, que apresentava edema corneal localizado inferiormente no olho direito associado à lesão nodular branco-esclerótica compatível com a pirâmide anterior da catarata polar. O olho esquerdo apresentava edema corneal difuso intenso e presença de uma catarata polar anterior com a região piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior. Sabe-se que a pirâmide anterior pode permanecer inabsorvida na câmara anterior por longo período, pois é composta de tecido colágeno denso. Isto causa perda endotelial progressiva e edema corneal e deve ser considerada indicação de remoção cirúrgica da catarata polar anterior e de seu fragmento. Ressalta-se, também, a importância do bom senso no julgamento das cataratas polares anteriores, considerando-se tamanho da opacidade, simetria das opacidades e componente cortical associado, na tentativa de se evitar ambliopia.Pyramidal anterior polar cataracts are conical opacities that project into the anterior chamber from the anterior capsule of the lens. In the vast majority of patients the opacity remains bound and stable throughout life. We report an unusual complication of this type of cataract: spontaneous dehiscence of the pyramids to the anterior chamber causing bilateral endothelial damage and corneal edema. 66-year-old white woman presented with inferior corneal edema in the right eye and diffuse corneal edema in the left eye. A white nodular lesion was observed in the inferior angle

  1. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  2. Early and late changes in the distal forelimb representation of the supplementary motor area after injury to frontal motor areas in the squirrel monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner-Janowicz, Ines; Barbay, Scott; Hoover, Erica; Stowe, Ann M; Frost, Shawn B; Plautz, Erik J; Nudo, Randolph J

    2008-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies in stroke survivors have suggested that adaptive plasticity occurs following stroke. However, the complex temporal dynamics of neural reorganization after injury make the interpretation of functional imaging studies equivocal. In the present study in adult squirrel monkeys, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) techniques were used to monitor changes in representational maps of the distal forelimb in the supplementary motor area (SMA) after a unilateral ischemic infarct of primary motor (M1) and premotor distal forelimb representations (DFLs). In each animal, ICMS maps were derived at early (3 wk) and late (13 wk) postinfarct stages. Lesions resulted in severe deficits in motor abilities on a reach and retrieval task. Limited behavioral recovery occurred and plateaued at 3 wk postinfarct. At both early and late postinfarct stages, distal forelimb movements could still be evoked by ICMS in SMA at low current levels. However, the size of the SMA DFL changed after the infarct. In particular, wrist-forearm representations enlarged significantly between early and late stages, attaining a size substantially larger than the preinfarct area. At the late postinfarct stage, the expansion in the SMA DFL area was directly proportional to the absolute size of the lesion. The motor performance scores were positively correlated to the absolute size of the SMA DFL at the late postinfarct stage. Together, these data suggest that, at least in squirrel monkeys, descending output from M1 and dorsal and ventral premotor cortices is not necessary for SMA representations to be maintained and that SMA motor output maps undergo delayed increases in representational area after damage to other motor areas. Finally, the role of SMA in recovery of function after such lesions remains unclear because behavioral recovery appears to precede neurophysiological map changes.

  3. Association between vestibular function and motor performance in hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-12-01

    The clinical balance performance of normal-hearing (NH) children was compared with the balance performance of hearing-impaired (HI) children with and without vestibular dysfunction to identify an association between vestibular function and motor performance. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six children (mean age, 7 yr 5 mo; range, 3 yr 8 mo-12 yr 11 mo) divided into three groups: NH children with normal vestibular responses, HI children with normal vestibular responses, and HI children with abnormal vestibular function. A vestibular test protocol (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing) in combination with three clinical balance tests (balance beam walking, one-leg hopping, one-leg stance). Clinical balance performance. HI children with abnormal vestibular test results obtained the lowest quotients of motor performance, which were significantly lower compared with the NH group (p beam walking and one-leg stance; p = 0.003 for one-leg hopping). The balance performance of the HI group with normal vestibular responses was better in comparison with the vestibular impaired group but still significantly lower compared with the NH group (p = 0.020 for balance beam walking; p = 0.001 for one-leg stance; not significant for one-leg hopping). These results indicate an association between vestibular function and motor performance in HI children, with a more distinct motor deterioration if a vestibular impairment is superimposed to the auditory dysfunction.

  4. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J

    2007-01-01

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential

  5. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  6. Evoking prescribed spike times in stochastic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, Jens; Lindner, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    Single cell stimulation in vivo is a powerful tool to investigate the properties of single neurons and their functionality in neural networks. We present a method to determine a cell-specific stimulus that reliably evokes a prescribed spike train with high temporal precision of action potentials. We test the performance of this stimulus in simulations for two different stochastic neuron models. For a broad range of parameters and a neuron firing with intermediate firing rates (20-40 Hz) the reliability in evoking the prescribed spike train is close to its theoretical maximum that is mainly determined by the level of intrinsic noise.

  7. Visual evoked potentials in patients after methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Zakharov, Sergey; Diblík, Pavel; Pelclová, Daniela; Ridzoň, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of the visual evoked potentials (VEP) examination in patients after severe poisoning by methanol. The group of 47 patients (38 males and 9 females) was assembled out of persons who survived an outbreak of poisoning by the methanol adulterated alcohol beverages, which happened in the Czech Republic in 2012-2013. The visual evoked potentials examination was performed using monocular checkerboard pattern-reversal stimulation. Two criteria of abnormality were chosen: missing evoked response, and wave P1 latency > 117 ms. Non-parametric statistical methods (median, range, and the median test) were used to analyze factors influencing the VEP abnormality. The visual evoked potential was abnormal in 20 patients (43%), 5 of them had normal visual acuity on the Snellen chart. The VEP abnormality did not correlate significantly with initial serum concentrations of methanol, formic acid or lactate; however, it showed statistically significant inverse relation to the initial serum pH: the subgroup with the abnormal VEP had significantly lower median pH in comparison with the subgroup with the normal VEP (7.16 vs. 7.34, p = 0.04). The abnormality was not related to chronic alcohol abuse. The visual evoked potentials examination appeared sensitive enough to detected even subclinical impairment of the optic system. Metabolic acidosis is likely to be the key factor related to the development of visual damage induced by methanol. The examination performed with a delay of 1-9 months after the poisoning documented the situation relatively early after the event. It is considered as a baseline for the planned long-term follow-up of the patients, which will make it possible to assess the dynamics of the observed changes, their reversibility, and the occurrence of potential late sequelae. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Relationships between motor unit size and recruitment threshold in older adults: implications for size principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fling, Brett W; Knight, Christopher A; Kamen, Gary

    2009-08-01

    As a part of the aging process, motor unit reorganization occurs in which small motoneurons reinnervate predominantly fast-twitch muscle fibers that have lost their innervation. We examined the relationship between motor unit size and the threshold force for recruitment in two muscles to determine whether older individuals might develop an alternative pattern of motor unit activation. Young and older adults performed isometric contractions ranging from 0 to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction in both the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Muscle fiber action potentials were recorded with an intramuscular needle electrode and motor unit size was computed using spike-triggered averaging of the global EMG signal (macro EMG), which was also obtained from the intramuscular needle electrode. As expected, older individuals exhibited larger motor units than young subjects in both the FDI and the TA. However, moderately strong correlations were obtained for the macro EMG amplitude versus recruitment threshold relationship in both the young and older adults within both muscles, suggesting that the size principle of motor unit recruitment seems to be preserved in older adults.

  9. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  10. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with a half-sine wave pulse elicits direction-specific effects in human motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Delvendahl, Igor; Pechmann, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) commonly uses so-called monophasic pulses where the initial rapidly changing current flow is followed by a critically dampened return current. It has been shown that a monophasic TMS pulse preferentially excites different cortical circuits in the human motor...... hand area (M1-HAND), if the induced tissue current has a posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) direction. Here we tested whether similar direction-specific effects could be elicited in M1-HAND using TMS pulses with a half-sine wave configuration....

  12. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event decreases enjoyment of a positive focal activity but increases enjoyment of a negative focal activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Anterior tibial stress fractures treated with anterior tension band plating in high-performance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alexandre Santa; de Hollanda, João Paris Buarque; Duarte, Aires; Hungria Neto, José Soares

    2013-06-01

    The non-surgical treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures requires long periods of abstention from sports activities and often results in non-union. Many different surgical techniques have already been previously described to treat these fractures, but there is no consensus on the best treatment. We describe the outcome of treatment using anterior tibial tension band plating in three high-performance athletes (4 legs) with anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Tibial osteosynthesis with a 3.5-mm locking compression plate in the anterolateral aspect of the tibia was performed in all patients diagnosed with anterior tibial stress fracture after September 2010 at Santa Casa Hospital. All of the fractures were consolidated within a period of 3 months after surgery, allowing for an early return to pre-injury levels of competitive sports activity. There were no infection, non-union, malunion or anterior knee pain complications. Anterior tibial tension band plating leads to prompt fracture consolidation and is a good alternative for the treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Bone grafts were shown to be unnecessary.

  14. K-wire assisted split-thickness skin graft harvesting from the anterior trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontar, Yalcin; Coruh, Atilla; Severcan, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Split thickness skin graft (STSG) harvesting from the anterior chest and abdominal wall skin is quite a difficult process. The main reason for the difficulty to perform this process is the unsuitable anatomic characteristics of the anterior trunk, such as irregular wavy-like surface over the ribs and lax abdominal wall skin resulting in collapse due to lack of adequate underneath supporting structures when a downward force is applied by the skin graft dermatome. Lower extremity and especially the thigh are generally chosen as the donor site where the STSGs are easily harvested from. However, extensive lower extremity burns, with or without other region burns, preclude harvesting auto STSGs from this invaluable anatomic site. We harvested K-wire assisted STSGs from the anterior chest and abdominal wall skin of 7 patients with lower extremity burns and also a patient that sustained motor vehicle collision. We encountered no problems in any of our patients both intra and postoperatively by using K-wire assisted STSG harvesting. All of the STSGs donor sites healed uneventfully without complications. In our opinion, K-wire assisted STSG harvesting must always be in the tool-box of any surgeon who deals with extensive burns with or without lower extremity burns and extensive traumas of lower extremities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of chemokine CXCL10 in dendritic-cell-like S100β-positive cells in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ueharu, Hiroki; Chen, Mo; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2014-09-01

    Chemokines are mostly small secreted polypeptides whose signals are mediated by seven trans-membrane G-protein-coupled receptors. Their functions include the control of leukocytes and the intercellular mediation of cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion in several tissues. We have previously revealed that the CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor 4 (CXCR4) are expressed in the anterior pituitary gland, and that the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis evokes the migration and interconnection of S100β-protein-positive cells (S100β-positive cells), which do not produce classical anterior pituitary hormones. However, little is known of the cells producing the other CXCLs and CXCRs or of their characteristics in the anterior pituitary. We therefore examined whether CXCLs and CXCRs occurred in the rat anterior pituitary lobe. We used reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction to analyze the expression of Cxcl and Cxcr and identified the cells that expressed Cxcl by in situ hybridization. Transcripts of Cxcl10 and its receptor (Cxcr3 and toll-like receptor 4, Tlr4) were clearly detected: cells expressing Cxcl10 and Tlr4 were identified amongst S100β-positive cells and those expressing Cxcr3 amongst adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing cells. We also investigated Cxcl10 expression in subpopulations of S100β-positive cells. We separated cultured S100β-positive cells into the round-type (dendritic-cell-like) and process-type (astrocyte- or epithelial-cell-like) by their adherent activity to laminin, a component of the extracellular matrix; CXCL10 was expressed only in round-type S100β-positive cells. Thus, CXCL10 produced by a subpopulation of S100β-positive cells probably exerts an autocrine/paracrine effect on S100β-positive cells and ACTH-producing cells in the anterior lobe.

  16. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter A J; Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-05-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7-1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5-0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  17. High frequency oscillations evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, S; Simon, L; Fiedler, P; Strohmeier, D; Haueisen, J

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and / or fields (SEF) is a well-established and important tool for investigating the functioning of the peripheral and central human nervous system. A standard technique to evoke SEPs / SEFs is the stimulation of the median nerve by using a bipolar electrical stimulus. We aim at an alternative stimulation technique enabling stimulation of deep nerve structures while reducing patient stress and error susceptibility. In the current study, we apply a commercial transcranial magnetic stimulation system for peripheral magnetic stimulation of the median nerve. We compare the results of simultaneously recorded EEG signals to prove applicability of our technique to evoke SEPs including low frequency components (LFC) as well as high frequency oscillations (HFO). Therefore, we compare amplitude, latency and time-frequency characteristics of the SEP of 14 healthy volunteers after electric and magnetic stimulation. Both low frequency components and high frequency oscillations were detected. The HFOs were superimposed onto the primary cortical response N20. Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower amplitudes and increased latencies for LFC and HFO components after magnetic stimulation. The differences indicate the inability of magnetic stimulation to elicit supramaximal responses. A psycho-perceptual evaluation showed that magnetic stimulation was less unpleasant for 12 out of the 14 volunteers. In conclusion, we showed that LFC and HFO components related to median nerve stimulation can be evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

  18. Unilateral nasal obstruction affects motor representation development within the face primary motor cortex in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yasunori; Kato, Chiho; Uchima Koecklin, Karin Harumi; Okihara, Hidemasa; Ishida, Takayoshi; Fujita, Koichi; Yabushita, Tadachika; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Postnatal growth is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nasal obstruction during growth alters the electromyographic activity of orofacial muscles. The facial primary motor area represents muscles of the tongue and jaw, which are essential in regulating orofacial motor functions, including chewing and jaw opening. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic unilateral nasal obstruction during growth on the motor representations within the face primary motor cortex (M1). Seventy-two 6-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control ( n = 36) and experimental ( n = 36) groups. Rats in the experimental group underwent unilateral nasal obstruction after cauterization of the external nostril at 8 days of age. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed when the rats were 5, 7, 9, and 11 wk old in control and experimental groups ( n = 9 per group per time point). Repeated-measures multivariate ANOVA was used for intergroup and intragroup statistical comparisons. In the control and experimental groups, the total number of positive ICMS sites for the genioglossus and anterior digastric muscles was significantly higher at 5, 7, and 9 wk, but there was no significant difference between 9 and 11 wk of age. Moreover, the total number of positive ICMS sites was significantly smaller in the experimental group than in the control at each age. It is possible that nasal obstruction induced the initial changes in orofacial motor behavior in response to the altered respiratory pattern, which eventually contributed to face-M1 neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Unilateral nasal obstruction in rats during growth periods induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and altered development of the motor representation within the face primary cortex. Unilateral nasal obstruction occurring during growth periods may greatly affect not only respiratory function but also craniofacial function in rats. Nasal obstruction should be treated

  19. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Ward

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2, we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2 to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555 was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour, one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-. We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons.

  20. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization.We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH and unaffected hemisphere (UH by measuring resting and active motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI, to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. Active motor threshold differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p=0.004, not in females (p>0.200, and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p=0.033 and p=0.042. LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery.

  1. Steady-state evoked potentials possibilities for mental-state estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Andrew M.; Schnurer, John H.; Ingle, David F.; Downey, Craig W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the human steady-state evoked potential (SSEP) as a possible measure of mental-state estimation is explored. A method for evoking a visual response to a sum-of-ten sine waves is presented. This approach provides simultaneous multiple frequency measurements of the human EEG to the evoking stimulus in terms of describing functions (gain and phase) and remnant spectra. Ways in which these quantities vary with the addition of performance tasks (manual tracking, grammatical reasoning, and decision making) are presented. Models of the describing function measures can be formulated using systems engineering technology. Relationships between model parameters and performance scores during manual tracking are discussed. Problems of unresponsiveness and lack of repeatability of subject responses are addressed in terms of a need for loop closure of the SSEP. A technique to achieve loop closure using a lock-in amplifier approach is presented. Results of a study designed to test the effectiveness of using feedback to consciously connect humans to their evoked response are presented. Findings indicate that conscious control of EEG is possible. Implications of these results in terms of secondary tasks for mental-state estimation and brain actuated control are addressed.

  2. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    OpenAIRE

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, where...

  3. Influence of position and stimulation parameters on intracortical inhibition and facilitation in human tongue motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk

    2014-01-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) can be used to assess short-interval intracortical inhibitory (SICI) and facilitatory (ICF) networks. Many methodological parameters may however influence the outcome. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of body positions (recline...... motor cortex and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from contralateral tongue muscles. In study 1, single pulse and three ppTMS ISIs: 2, 10, 15 ms were applied 8 times each in three blocks (TS: 120%, 140% and 160% of resting motor threshold (rMT); CS: 80% of rMT) in two different body...... positions (recline and supine) randomly. In study 2, single pulse and four ppTMS ISIs: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 ms were applied 8 times each in randomized order in two blocks (CS: 70% and 80% of rMT; TS: 120% of rMT). There was a significant effect of body position (P=0.049), TS intensities (P

  4. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension.

  5. Task-specific recruitment of motor units for vibration damping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, James M; Liphardt, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Vibrations occur within the soft tissues of the lower extremities due to the heel-strike impact during walking. Increases in muscle activity in the lower extremities result in increased damping to reduce this vibration. The myoelectric intensity spectra were compared using principal component analysis from the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius of 40 subjects walking with different shoe conditions. The soft insert condition resulted in a significant, simultaneous increase in muscle activity with a shift to higher myoelectric frequencies in the period 0-60 ms after heel-strike which is the period when the greater vibration damping occurred. These increases in myoelectric frequency match the spectral patterns which indicate increases in recruitment of faster motor units. It is concluded that fast motor units are recruited during the task of damping the soft-tissue resonance that occurs following heel-strike.

  6. Anterior Z-plate and titanic mesh fixation for acute burst thoracolumbar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Guang; Zeng, Bing-Fang; Zhou, Wei; Kong, Wei-Qing; Fu, Yi-Shan; Zhao, Bi-Zeng; Zhang, Tao; Lian, Xiao-Feng

    2011-04-01

    A retrospective study. To evaluate the clinical outcome, effectiveness, and security of the surgical management of acute thoracolumbar burst fracture with corpectomy, titanic mesh autograft, and Z-plate fixation by anterior approach. Many surgical methods were adopted to treat acute burst thoracolumbar fracture. But the optimal surgical management remains controversial. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of 48 patients with thoracolumbar burst fracture treated with anterior corpectomy, titanic mesh autograft, and Z-plate internal fixation was carried out. Preoperative clinical and radiographic data of all cases were originally collected. Surgical indications were motor neurologic deficit and thoracolumbar column instability. Twenty-two patients (45.8%) with acute thoracolumbar burst fractures presented with a neurologic deficit. The postoperative recovery of neural function, restoration of anterior cortex collapse, kyphotic angle, and spinal canal compromise were observed. The preoperative kyphotic angle was improved to a mean of 5.6°, radiographic height restored to 95.8% of the adjacent normal levels, and canal compromise was 0%. None of the patients had neurologic deterioration. Mean follow-up time was 32.4 months (range, 24-47 months). All 22 patients with neurologic deficit demonstrated at least one Frankel grade improvement on final observation, with 16 (73%) patients had accomplished complete neurologic recovery. Forty-six (96%) patients reported minimal or no pain at final follow-up observation, and 40 (83%) patients who had been working before injury returned to original work. The authors considered spinal cord decompression with anterior corpectomy and stability reconstruction with titanic mesh autograft and Z-plate fixation at same time in one incision as an effective technique for unstable thoracolumbar burst fracture with and without neurologic deficit.

  7. Electrical stimulation of transplanted motoneurons improves motor unit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Grumbles, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneurons die following spinal cord trauma and with neurological disease. Intact axons reinnervate nearby muscle fibers to compensate for the death of motoneurons, but when an entire motoneuron pool dies, there is complete denervation. To reduce denervation atrophy, we have reinnervated muscles in Fisher rats from local transplants of embryonic motoneurons in peripheral nerve. Since growth of axons from embryonic neurons is activity dependent, our aim was to test whether brief electrical stimulation of the neurons immediately after transplantation altered motor unit numbers and muscle properties 10 wk later. All surgical procedures and recordings were done in anesthetized animals. The muscle consequences of motoneuron death were mimicked by unilateral sciatic nerve section. One week later, 200,000 embryonic day 14 and 15 ventral spinal cord cells, purified for motoneurons, were injected into the tibial nerve 10–15 mm from the gastrocnemii muscles as the only neuron source for muscle reinnervation. The cells were stimulated immediately after transplantation for up to 1 h using protocols designed to examine differential effects due to pulse number, stimulation frequency, pattern, and duration. Electrical stimulation that included short rests and lasted for 1 h resulted in higher motor unit counts. Muscles with higher motor unit counts had more reinnervated fibers and were stronger. Denervated muscles had to be stimulated directly to evoke contractions. These results show that brief electrical stimulation of embryonic neurons, in vivo, has long-term effects on motor unit formation and muscle force. This muscle reinnervation provides the opportunity to use patterned electrical stimulation to produce functional movements. PMID:24848463

  8. White matter microstructure changes induced by motor skill learning utilizing a body machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Casadio, Maura; Weber, Kenneth A; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Parrish, Todd B

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify white matter microstructure changes following bilateral upper extremity motor skill training to increase our understanding of learning-induced structural plasticity and enhance clinical strategies in physical rehabilitation. Eleven healthy subjects performed two visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 9 sessions (2-3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders and upper arms using a body machine interface. Before the start and within 2days of the completion of training, whole brain diffusion tensor MR imaging data were acquired. Motor training increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the posterior and anterior limbs of the internal capsule, the corona radiata, and the body of the corpus callosum by 4.19% on average indicating white matter microstructure changes induced by activity-dependent modulation of axon number, axon diameter, or myelin thickness. These changes may underlie the functional reorganization associated with motor skill learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons drives olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Hui; Yang, Dong; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Xiankun; Jing, Bi-Yang; Li, Meng-Tong; Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Chao; Tu, Yuhai; Luo, Dong-Gen

    2017-11-07

    Inhibitory response occurs throughout the nervous system, including the peripheral olfactory system. While odor-evoked excitation in peripheral olfactory cells is known to encode odor information, the molecular mechanism and functional roles of odor-evoked inhibition remain largely unknown. Here, we examined Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and found that inhibitory odors triggered outward receptor currents by reducing the constitutive activities of odorant receptors, inhibiting the basal spike firing in olfactory sensory neurons. Remarkably, this odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons elicited by itself a full range of olfactory behaviors from attraction to avoidance, as did odor-evoked olfactory sensory neuron excitation. These results indicated that peripheral inhibition is comparable to excitation in encoding sensory signals rather than merely regulating excitation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a bidirectional code with both odor-evoked inhibition and excitation in single olfactory sensory neurons increases the odor-coding capacity, providing a means of efficient sensory encoding.

  10. The role of pulse shape in motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation using full-sine stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Delvendahl

    Full Text Available A full-sine (biphasic pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using a novel TMS device, we systematically varied the configuration of full-sine pulses to assess the impact of configuration changes on resting motor threshold (RMT as measure of stimulation effectiveness with single-pulse TMS of the non-dominant motor hand area (M1. In young healthy volunteers, we (i compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic pulses compared with full-sine. Pulses combining two half-sines of identical polarity and duration were also characterized by higher RMT than full-sine stimuli resulting. For full-sine stimuli, decreasing the amplitude of the half-segment inducing posterior-anterior oriented current in M1 resulted in considerably higher RMT, whereas varying the amplitude of the half-segment inducing anterior-posterior current had a smaller effect. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the pulse segment inducing a posterior-anterior directed current in M1 contributes most to corticospinal pathway excitation. Preferential excitation of neuronal target cells in the posterior-anterior segment or targeting of different neuronal structures by the two half-segments can explain this result. Thus, our findings help understanding the mechanisms of neural stimulation by full-sine TMS.

  11. Norepinephrine-evoked pain in fibromyalgia. A randomized pilot study [ISRCTN70707830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Jose-Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia syndrome displays sympathetically maintained pain features such as frequent post-traumatic onset and stimuli-independent pain accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias. Heart rate variability studies showed that fibromyalgia patients have changes consistent with ongoing sympathetic hyperactivity. Norepinephrine-evoked pain test is used to assess sympathetically maintained pain syndromes. Our objective was to define if fibromyalgia patients have norepinephrine-evoked pain. Methods Prospective double blind controlled study. Participants: Twenty FM patients, and two age/sex matched control groups; 20 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Ten micrograms of norepinephrine diluted in 0.1 ml of saline solution were injected in a forearm. The contrasting substance, 0.1 ml of saline solution alone, was injected in the opposite forearm. Maximum local pain elicited during the 5 minutes post-injection was graded on a visual analog scale (VAS. Norepinephrine-evoked pain was diagnosed when norepinephrine injection induced greater pain than placebo injection. Intensity of norepinephrine-evoked pain was calculated as the difference between norepinephrine minus placebo-induced VAS scores. Results Norepinephrine-evoked pain was seen in 80 % of FM patients (95% confidence intervals 56.3 – 94.3%, in 30 % of rheumatoid arthritis patients and in 30 % of healthy controls (95% confidence intervals 11.9 – 54.3 (p Conclusions Fibromyalgia patients have norepinephrine-evoked pain. This finding supports the hypothesis that fibromyalgia may be a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament tear induces a sustained loss of muscle fiber force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Enselman, Elizabeth R Sibilsky; Konja, Alexis C; Eckhardt, Logan R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2018-01-18

    Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have persistent quadriceps strength deficits that are thought to be due to altered neurophysiological function. Our goal was to determine the changes in muscle fiber contractility independent of the ability of motor neurons to activate fibers. We obtained quadriceps biopsies of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, and additional biopsies 1, 2, and 6 months after surgery. Muscles fiber contractility was assessed in vitro, along with whole muscle strength testing. Compared with controls, patients had a 30% reduction in normalized muscle fiber force at the time of surgery. One month later, the force deficit was 41%, and at 6 months the deficit was 23%. Whole muscle strength testing demonstrated similar trends. While neurophysiological dysfunction contributes to whole muscle weakness, there is also a reduction in the force generating capacity of individual muscle cells independent of alpha motor neuron activation. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The physiological basis of the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Dileone, M; Profice, P; Oliviero, A; Mazzone, P; Insola, A; Ranieri, F; Meglio, M; Tonali, P A; Rothwell, J C

    2008-08-15

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When applied to motor cortex it leads to after-effects on corticospinal and corticocortical excitability that may reflect LTP/LTD-like synaptic effects. An inhibitory form of TBS (continuous, cTBS) suppresses MEPs, and spinal epidural recordings show this is due to suppression of the I1 volley evoked by TMS. Here we investigate whether the excitatory form of TBS (intermittent, iTBS) affects the same I-wave circuitry. We recorded corticospinal volleys evoked by single pulse TMS of the motor cortex before and after iTBS in three conscious patients who had an electrode implanted in the cervical epidural space for the control of pain. As in healthy subjects, iTBS increased MEPs, and this was accompanied by a significant increase in the amplitude of later I-waves, but not the I1 wave. In two of the patients we tested the excitability of the contralateral cortex and found a significant suppression of the late I-waves. The extent of the changes varied between the three patients, as did their age. To investigate whether age might be a significant contributor to the variability we examined the effect of iTBS on MEPs in 18 healthy subjects. iTBS facilitated MEPs evoked by TMS of the conditioned hemisphere and suppressed MEPs evoked by stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. There was a slight but non-significant decline in MEP facilitation with age, suggesting that interindividual variability was more important than age in explaining our data. In a subgroup of 10 subjects we found that iTBS had no effect on the duration of the ipsilateral silent period suggesting that the reduction in contralateral MEPs was not due to an increase in ongoing transcallosal inhibition. In conclusion, iTBS affects the excitability of excitatory synaptic inputs to pyramidal tract neurones that are recruited by a TMS pulse, both in the stimulated hemisphere and in the contralateral hemisphere

  14. Objective correlate of subjective pain perception by contact heat-evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Granot, Michal; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Yarnitsky, David

    2008-01-01

    The method of pain-evoked potentials has gained considerable acceptance over the last 3 decades regarding its objectivity, repeatability, and quantifiability. The present study explored whether the relationship between pain-evoked potentials and pain psychophysics obtained by contact heat stimuli is similar to those observed for the conventionally used laser stimulation. Evoked potentials (EPs) were recorded in response to contact heat stimuli at different body sites in 24 healthy volunteers. Stimuli at various temperatures were applied to the forearm (43 degrees C, 46 degrees C, 49 degrees C, and 52 degrees C) and leg (46 degrees C and 49 degrees C). The amplitudes of both components (N2 and P2) were strongly associated with the intensity of the applied stimuli and with subjective pain perception. Yet, regression analysis revealed pain perception and not stimulus intensity as the major contributing factor. A significant correlation was found between the forearm and the leg for both psychophysics and EPs amplitude. Contact heat can generate readily distinguishable evoked potentials on the scalp, consistent between upper and lower limbs. Although these potentials bear positive correlation with both stimulus intensity and pain magnitude, the latter is the main contributor to the evoked brain response.

  15. Effects of single cycle binaural beat duration on auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihajloski, Todor; Bohorquez, Jorge; Özdamar, Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beat (BB) illusions are experienced as continuous central pulsations when two sounds with slightly different frequencies are delivered to each ear. It has been shown that steady-state auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) to BBs can be captured and investigated. The authors recently developed a new method of evoking transient AEPs to binaural beats using frequency modulated stimuli. This methodology was able to create single BBs in predetermined intervals with varying carrier frequencies. This study examines the effects of the BB duration and the frequency modulating component of the stimulus on the binaural beats and their evoked potentials. Normal hearing subjects were tested with a set of four durations (25, 50, 100, and 200 ms) with two stimulation configurations, binaural dichotic (binaural beats) and diotic (frequency modulation). The results obtained from the study showed that out of the given durations, the 100 ms beat, was capable of evoking the largest amplitude responses. The frequency modulation effect showed a decrease in peak amplitudes with increasing beat duration until their complete disappearance at 200 ms. Even though, at 200 ms, the frequency modulation effects were not present, the binaural beats were still perceived and captured as evoked potentials.

  16. Early and unintentional release of planned motor actions during motor cortical preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colum D MacKinnon

    Full Text Available Voluntary movements are often preceded by a movement-related potential beginning as much as two seconds prior to the onset of movement. In light of evidence that motor actions can be prepared and initiated in less than 200 ms, the function of this early activity has remained enigmatic. We hypothesized that the movement-related potential reflects the state of preparation of the planned movement. This was tested by delivering a startling acoustic stimulus during the preparation phase of a load-release task. The cue to release the load was presented either 3.5 seconds after a warning cue (PREDICT condition or randomly between 4-12 seconds (REACT condition. Electroencephalographic, electromyographic and limb and load kinematic signals were recorded. In a subset of trials, a startle stimulus was delivered at -1500, -1000, -500, -250, -100 or 0 ms before the release cue. A contingent-negative variation (CNV waveform, with a late phase of slow-rising negativity beginning an average of 1459 ms prior to movement, was observed for the PREDICT condition but not the REACT condition. For both conditions, the startle stimulus frequently evoked the early and unintentional release of the load-release sequence. The incidence of release was significantly (p<0.001 correlated with the late phase of the CNV for the PREDICT condition but not the REACT condition. For the REACT condition, the incidence of movement release was subject-specific, constant across the preparation interval, and uncorrelated with cortical activity. The onset of movement release by the startle stimulus was significantly shorter (p<0.001 for the PREDICT compared to the REACT condition. These findings provide evidence that the late phase of the CNV reflects cortical activity mediating the progressive preparation and storage of the forthcoming movement and that during this phase an intense sensory stimulus can evoke early and unintentional release of the planned action.

  17. Motor cortical representation of the pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, A; Wolff, S; van der Horst, C; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, J P

    2011-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training involves rhythmical voluntary contractions of the external urethral sphincter and ancillary pelvic floor muscles. The representation of these muscles in the motor cortex has not been located precisely and unambiguously. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine brain activity during slow and fast pelvic floor contractions. Cerebral responses were recorded in 17 healthy male volunteers, 21 to 47 years old, with normal bladder control. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during metronome paced slow (0.25 Hertz) and fast (0.7 Hertz) contractions of the pelvic floor that mimicked the interruption of voiding. To study the somatotopy of the cortical representations, flexion-extension movements of the right toes were performed as a control task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during pelvic floor contractions detected activity of the supplementary motor area in the medial wall and of the midcingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, putamen, thalamus, cerebellar vermis and upper ventral pons. There were no significant differences in activation between slow and fast contractions. Toe movements involved significantly stronger activity of the paracentral lobule (ie the medial primary motor cortex) than did the pelvic floor contractions. Otherwise the areas active during pelvic floor and leg muscle contractions overlapped considerably. The motor cortical representation of pelvic floor muscles is located mostly in the supplementary motor area. It extends further ventrally and anteriorly than the representation of distal leg muscles. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a modified model of spinal cord ischemia injury by selective ligation of lumbar arteries in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, W; Wen, J; Huang, Y-C; Yu, B-S

    2017-11-01

    Experimental study. The aim of this study is to develop a modified model of spinal cord ischemia in rabbits. Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Spine Surgery, Shenzhen, China. In total, 20 New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following four groups according to the level of ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries: (1) group A, sham group, no ligation, n=5; (2) group B, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at three levels (L2-L4, n=5); (3) group C, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at four levels (L2-L5, n=5); and (4) group D, ligation of bilateral lumbar arteries at five levels (L1-L5, n=5). The latency of motor-evoked potentials was measured intraoperatively and the modified Tarlov grades were scored, followed by a histological observation of spinal cord, on the seventh day after surgery. All 10 rabbits in Group A and Group B were electrophysiologically, neurologically and histologically normal. In Group C, moderate spinal cord ischemia injury was found in three of five rabbits: they had prolonged latency of motor-evoked potentials and neuronal karyopyknosis in the anterior horn of spinal cord, and the average Tarlov score was 4.2±0.8. In Group D, severe spinal cord ischemia injury was recorded in all the five rabbits: the latency of motor-evoked potential prolonged in one rabbit, whereas the waveform disappeared in four rabbits; loss of neurons and vacuolation of gray matter were seen in spinal cord sections, and the average Tarlov score was 0.6±0.9. Selective ligation of lumbar arteries was a modified method to induce feasible and reproducible model of spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

  19. Sensory and motor innervation of the crural diaphragm by the vagus nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard L; Page, Amanda J; Cooper, Nicole J; Frisby, Claudine L; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2010-03-01

    During gastroesophageal reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and crural diaphragm (CD) inhibition occur concomitantly. Modifying vagus nerve control of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is a major focus of development of therapeutics for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but neural mechanisms that coordinate the CD are poorly understood. Nerve tracing and immunolabeling were used to assess innervation of the diaphragm and lower esophageal sphincter in ferrets. Mechanosensory responses of vagal afferents in the CD and electromyography responses of the CD were recorded in novel in vitro preparations and in vivo. Retrograde tracing revealed a unique population of vagal CD sensory neurons in nodose ganglia and CD motor neurons in brainstem vagal nuclei. Anterograde tracing revealed specialized vagal endings in the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament-sites of vagal afferent mechanosensitivity recorded in vitro. Spontaneous electromyography activity persisted in the CD following bilateral phrenicotomy in vivo, while vagus nerve stimulation evoked electromyography responses in the CD in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that vagal sensory and motor neurons functionally innervate the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament. CD vagal afferents show mechanosensitivity to distortion of the gastroesophageal junction, while vagal motor neurons innervate both CD and distal esophagus and may represent a common substrate for motor control of the reflux barrier. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The functional integration of the anterior cingulate cortex during conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin; Hof, Patrick R; Guise, Kevin G; Fossella, John A; Posner, Michael I

    2008-04-01

    Although functional activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) related to conflict processing has been studied extensively, the functional integration of the subdivisions of the ACC and other brain regions during conditions of conflict is still unclear. In this study, participants performed a task designed to elicit conflict processing by using flanker interference on target response while they were scanned using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. The physiological response of several brain regions in terms of an interaction between conflict processing and activity of the anterior rostral cingulate zone (RCZa) of the ACC, and the effective connectivity between this zone and other regions were examined using psychophysiological interaction analysis and dynamic causal modeling, respectively. There was significant integration of the RCZa with the caudal cingulate zone (CCZ) of the ACC and other brain regions such as the lateral prefrontal, primary, and supplementary motor areas above and beyond the main effect of conflict and baseline connectivity. The intrinsic connectivity from the RCZa to the CCZ was modulated by the context of conflict. These findings suggest that conflict processing is associated with the effective contribution of the RCZa to the neuronal activity of CCZ, as well as other cortical regions.

  1. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Laura K; Tresch, Matthew C; Heckman, C J; Manuel, Marin; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2014-08-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10-60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Observing back pain provoking lifting actions modulates corticomotor excitability of the observer's primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Rea; Meesen, Raf; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Observing another person experiencing exogenously inflicted pain (e.g. by a sharp object penetrating a finger) modulates the excitability of the observer' primary motor cortex (M1). By contrast, far less is known about the response to endogenously evoked pain such as sudden back pain provoked by lifting a heavy object. Here, participants (n=26) observed the lifting of a heavy object. During this action the actor (1) flexed and extended the legs (LEG), (2) flexed and extended the back (BACK) or (3) flexed and extended the back which caused visible pain (BACKPAIN). Corticomotor excitability was measured by applying a single transcranial magnetic stimulation pulse to the M1 representation of the muscle erector spinae and participants scored their perception of the actor's pain on the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). The participants scored vicarious pain as highest during the BACKPAIN condition and lowest during the LEG condition. MEP size was significantly lower for the LEG than the BACK and BACKPAIN condition. Although we found no statistical difference in the motor-evoked potential (MEP) size between the conditions BACK and BACKPAIN, there was a significant correlation between the difference in NPRS scores between the conditions BACKPAIN and BACK and the difference in MEP size between these conditions. Participants who believed the vicarious pain to be much stronger in the BACKPAIN than in the BACK condition also exhibited higher MEPs for the BACKPAIN than the BACK condition. Our results indicate that observing how others lift heavy objects facilitates motor representations of back muscles in the observer. Modulation occurs in a movement-specific manner and is additionally modulated by the extent to which the participants perceived the actor's pain. Our findings suggest that movement observation might be a promising paradigm to study the brain's response to back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral activation is correlated to regional atrophy of the spinal cord and functional motor disability in spinal cord injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundell, Henrik; Christensen, Mark Schram; Barthélemy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Recovery of function following lesions in the nervous system requires adaptive changes in surviving circuitries. Here we investigate whether changes in cerebral activation are correlated to spinal cord atrophy and recovery of functionality in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). 19...... hand and the functional ability of the SCI participants measured by the clinical motor score on the other. There was no significant correlation between activation in any other cerebral area and the motor score. Activation in ipsilateral somatosensory cortex (S1), M1 and PMC was negatively correlated...... to the width of the spinal cord in the left-right direction, where the corticospinal tract is located, but not in the antero-posterior direction. There was a tendency for a negative correlation between cerebral activation in ipsilateral S1, M1 and PMC and the amplitude of motor evoked potentials...

  4. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  5. A Telehealth System for Remote Auditory Evoked Potential Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Millan, Jorge; Yunda, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    A portable, Internet-based EEG/Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP) monitoring system was developed for remote electrophysiological studies during sleep. The system records EEG/AEP simultaneously at the subject?s home for increased comfort and flexibility. The system provides simultaneous recording and remote viewing of EEG, EMG and EOG waves and allows on-line averaging of auditory evoked potentials. The design allows the recording of all major AEP components (brainstem, middle and late latency E...

  6. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2016-07-19

    This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  7. The Role of Odor-Evoked Memory in Psychological and Physiological Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S. Herz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.

  8. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  9. Autopsy case of a giant aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. Correlation of CT findings and angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmura, Fujio; Takayasu, Kenji; Ohiwa, Yasuyuki; Sakata, Ryuichi; Ariwa, Rokuro

    1983-06-01

    A 64-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with a history of three previous subarachnoid hemorrhages. Neurological examinations revealed incontinentia urinae, gait disturbance, recent memory disturbance and motor weakness on the left side. Plain X-ray films showed a ring-like calcification in the right frontal region. A plain CT scan showed a ring-shaped iso- and high-density area in the intra hemispheric region, the intra bilateral anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, the intra septum pellucidum, and the intra anterior part of the third ventricle. Left carotid angiography showed a large aneurysmal shadow arising from the anterior communicating artery and another from the left middle cerebral artery. In the venous phase the venous angle was supero-posteriorly shifted, and the septal vein was elevated. She died unexpectedly with a status epilepticus of unknown origin. An autopsy specimen revealed that a giant aneurysm occupied the intra ventricular space, the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle, and the right thalamic region. Also, there was a large berry aneurysm arising from the middle cerebral artery. A coronary section through the giant aneurysm showed a markedly compressed left lateral ventricle, right thalamus, and hypothalamus, while the third ventricle had shifted toward the left side.

  10. Speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses in children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Al Osman, Rida; Rivest, Véronique; Poulin, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate subcortical auditory processing in children with sensorineural hearing loss. Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABRs) were recorded using click and speech/da/stimuli. Twenty-five children, aged 6-14 years old, participated in the study: 13 with normal hearing acuity and 12 with sensorineural hearing loss. No significant differences were observed for the click-evoked ABRs between normal hearing and hearing-impaired groups. For the speech-evoked ABRs, no significant differences were found for the latencies of the following responses between the two groups: onset (V and A), transition (C), one of the steady-state wave (F), and offset (O). However, the latency of the steady-state waves (D and E) was significantly longer for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Furthermore, the amplitude of the offset wave O and of the envelope frequency response (EFR) of the speech-evoked ABRs was significantly larger for the hearing-impaired compared to the normal hearing group. Results obtained from the speech-evoked ABRs suggest that children with a mild to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss have a specific pattern of subcortical auditory processing. Our results show differences for the speech-evoked ABRs in normal hearing children compared to hearing-impaired children. These results add to the body of the literature on how children with hearing loss process speech at the brainstem level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute changes in motor cortical excitability during slow oscillatory and constant anodal transcranial direct current stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Til Ole; Groppa, Sergiu; Seeger, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial oscillatory current stimulation has recently emerged as a noninvasive technique that can interact with ongoing endogenous rhythms of the human brain. Yet, there is still little knowledge on how time-varied exogenous currents acutely modulate cortical excitability. In ten healthy...... individuals we used on-line single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to search for systematic shifts in corticospinal excitability during anodal sleeplike 0.8-Hz slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS). In separate sessions, we repeatedly applied 30-s trials (two blocks...... at 20 min) of either anodal so-tDCS or constant tDCS (c-tDCS) to the primary motor hand area during quiet wakefulness. Simultaneously and time-locked to different phase angles of the slow oscillation, motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of corticospinal excitability were obtained...

  12. Intermittent θ burst stimulation over primary motor cortex enhances movement-related β synchronisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Fang; Liao, Kwong-Kum; Lee, Po-Lei; Tsai, Yun-An; Yeh, Chia-Lung; Lai, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Ying-Zu; Lin, Yung-Yang; Lee, I-Hui

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate how transcranial magnetic intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) with a prolonged protocol affects human cortical excitability and movement-related oscillations. Using motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and movement-related magnetoencephalography (MEG), we assessed the changes of corticospinal excitability and cortical oscillations after iTBS with double the conventional stimulation time (1200 pulses, iTBS1200) over the primary motor cortex (M1) in 10 healthy subjects. Continuous TBS (cTBS1200) and sham stimulation served as controls. iTBS1200 facilitated MEPs evoked from the conditioned M1, while inhibiting MEPs from the contralateral M1 for 30 min. By contrast, cTBS1200 inhibited MEPs from the conditioned M1. Importantly, empirical mode decomposition-based MEG analysis showed that the amplitude of post-movement beta synchronisation (16-26 Hz) was significantly increased by iTBS1200 at the conditioned M1, but was suppressed at the nonconditioned M1. Alpha (8-13 Hz) and low gamma-ranged (35-45 Hz) rhythms were not notably affected. Movement kinetics remained consistent throughout. TBS1200 modulated corticospinal excitability in parallel with the direction of conventional paradigms with modestly prolonged efficacy. Moreover, iTBS1200 increased post-movement beta synchronisation of the stimulated M1, and decreased that of the contralateral M1, probably through interhemispheric interaction. Our results provide insight into the underlying mechanism of TBS and reinforce the connection between movement-related beta synchronisation and corticospinal output. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a patient with Athetoid cerebral palsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajima Takuya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen ACL reconstruction performed in a broad range of patients, regardless of age, sex or occupation, thanks to great advances in surgical techniques, instrumentation and the basic research. Favorable results have been reported; however, we have not been able to locate any reports describing ACL reconstruction in patients with athetoid cerebral palsy. We present herein a previously unreported anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction performed in a patient with athetoid cerebral palsy. The patient was a 25-year-old woman with level II athetoid cerebral palsy according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System. She initially injured her right knee after falling off a bicycle. Two years later, she again experienced right-knee pain and a feeling of instability. A right-knee ACL tear and avulsion fracture was diagnosed upon physical examination and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and X-ray examination at that time. An ACL reconstruction using an autologous hamstring double-bundle graft was performed for recurrent instability nine years after the initial injury. Cast immobilization was provided for 3 weeks following surgery and knee extension was restricted for 3 months with the functional ACL brace to prevent hyperextension due to involuntary movement. Partial weight-bearing was started 1 week postoperatively, with full weight-bearing after 4 weeks. The anterior drawer stress radiography showed a 63% anterior displacement of the involved tibia on the femur six months following the surgery, while the contralateral knee demonstrated a 60% anterior displacement of the tibia. The functional ACL functional brace was then removed. A second-look arthroscopy was performed 13 months after the ACL reconstruction, and both the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles were in excellent position as per Kondo’s criteria. The Lachman and pivot shift test performed under anesthesia were also negative. An

  14. Nicotine-induced activation of caudate and anterior cingulate cortex in response to errors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lauren V; Stoeckel, Luke E; Wang, Kristina; Caine, Carolyn E; Villafuerte, Rosemond; Calderon, Vanessa; Baker, Justin T; Ongur, Dost; Janes, Amy C; Evins, A Eden; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine improves attention and processing speed in individuals with schizophrenia. Few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on cognitive control. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research demonstrates blunted activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in response to error and decreased post-error slowing in schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 12) participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the effects of transdermal nicotine on cognitive control. For each drug condition, participants underwent fMRI while performing the stop signal task where participants attempt to inhibit prepotent responses to "go (motor activation)" signals when an occasional "stop (motor inhibition)" signal appears. Error processing was evaluated by comparing "stop error" trials (failed response inhibition) to "go" trials. Resting-state fMRI data were collected prior to the task. Participants with schizophrenia had increased nicotine-induced activation of right caudate in response to errors compared to controls (DRUG × GROUP effect: p corrected  state functional connectivity analysis, relative to controls, participants with schizophrenia had significantly decreased connectivity between the right caudate and dACC/bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In sum, we replicated prior findings of decreased post-error slowing in schizophrenia and found that nicotine was associated with more adaptive (i.e., increased) post-error reaction time (RT). This proof-of-concept pilot study suggests a role for nicotinic agents in targeting cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia.

  15. An unavoidable modulation? Sensory attention and human primary motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Diane; Muggleton, Neil; Hoad, Damon; Caronni, Antonio; Rothwell, John C

    2014-09-01

    The link between basic physiology and its modulation by cognitive states, such as attention, is poorly understood. A significant association becomes apparent when patients with movement disorders describe experiences with changing their attention focus and the fundamental effect that this has on their motor symptoms. Moreover, frequently used mental strategies for treating such patients, e.g. with task-specific dystonia, widely lack laboratory-based knowledge about physiological mechanisms. In this largely unexplored field, we looked at how the locus of attention, when it changed between internal (locus hand) and external (visual target), influenced excitability in the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy humans. Intriguingly, both internal and external attention had the capacity to change M1 excitability. Both led to a reduced stimulation-induced GABA-related inhibition and a change in motor evoked potential size, i.e. an overall increased M1 excitability. These previously unreported findings indicated: (i) that cognitive state differentially interacted with M1 physiology, (ii) that our view of distraction (attention locus shifted towards external or distant location), which is used as a prevention or management strategy for use-dependent motor disorders, is too simple and currently unsupported for clinical application, and (iii) the physiological state reached through attention modulation represents an alternative explanation for frequently reported electrophysiology findings in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as an aberrant inhibition. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Behavioral analyses of wind-evoked escape of the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Konishi, Atsuko; Suenaga, Rie

    2006-04-01

    The wind-evoked escape behavior of the cricket Gryllodes sigillatus was investigated using an air puff stimulus. A high velocity air puff elicited the escape behavior in many crickets. The crickets tended to escape away from the stimulus source, but the direction was not accurately oriented 180 degrees from the stimulus. After bilateral cercal ablation, only a few crickets showed wind-evoked escape behavior, and their response rates did not increase even 19 days after ablation. Therefore, information on air motion detected by cercal filiform hairs is essential for triggering wind-evoked behavior. After unilateral cercal ablation, the 81.3% response rate of intact crickets decreased to 16.5%, that is, it decreased to almost 20% that of intact crickets. One week after unilateral cercal ablation, the response rate recovered to more than 60% that of intact crickets. However, the accuracy rate of the escape direction of G. sigillatus showed no change even immediately after the unilateral cercal ablation. Therefore, both cerci are not necessarily required to determine the escape direction. The behavioral characteristics of wind-evoked escape of G. sigillatus are compared with those of another species of cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The two species of cricket employ different strategies for wind-evoked escape.

  17. Abnormal short-latency synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex of subjects with Becker muscular dystrophy: a rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaszewski, Stefan; Schwenker, Kerstin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further investigate motor cortex excitability in 13 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), six of them with slight mental retardation. RTMS delivered at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity progressively increases the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy subjects; the rTMS-induced facilitation of MEPs was significantly reduced in the BMD patients mentally retarded or classified as borderline when compared with age-matched control subjects and the BMD patients with normal intelligence. The increase in the duration of the cortical silent period was similar in both patient groups and controls. These findings suggest an altered cortical short-term synaptic plasticity in glutamate-dependent excitatory circuits within the motor cortex in BMD patients with intellectual disabilities. RTMS studies may shed new light on the physiological mechanisms of cortical involvement in dystrophinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of EMG temporal parameters from the tibialis anterior during hemiparetic gait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonell, Claudia E; Cherniz, AnalIa S; Tabernig, Carolina B

    2007-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technique used to restore the motor muscular function by means of electrical stimulus commanded by a trigger signal under volitional control. In order to enhance the motor rehabilitation, a more convenient control signal may be provided by the same muscle that is being stimulated. For example, the tibialis anterior (TA) in the applications of foot drop correction could be used. This work presents the statistical analysis of the root mean square (RMS) and the absolute mean value (VMA) of the TA electromyogram (EMG) signal computed from different phases of the gait cycle related with increases/decreases stages of muscle activity. The EMG records of 40 strides of 2 subjects with hemiparesia were processed. The RMS and VMA parameters allow distinguishing the oscillation phase from the other analyzed intervals, but they present significant spreading of mean values. This led to conclude that it is possible to use these parameters to identify the start of TA muscle activity, but altogether with other parameter or sensor that would reduce the number of false positives

  19. Analysis of EMG temporal parameters from the tibialis anterior during hemiparetic gait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonell, Claudia E; Cherniz, AnalIa S; Tabernig, Carolina B [Laboratorio de Ingenieria de Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales, Facultad de Ingenieria, UNER, Oro Verde (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technique used to restore the motor muscular function by means of electrical stimulus commanded by a trigger signal under volitional control. In order to enhance the motor rehabilitation, a more convenient control signal may be provided by the same muscle that is being stimulated. For example, the tibialis anterior (TA) in the applications of foot drop correction could be used. This work presents the statistical analysis of the root mean square (RMS) and the absolute mean value (VMA) of the TA electromyogram (EMG) signal computed from different phases of the gait cycle related with increases/decreases stages of muscle activity. The EMG records of 40 strides of 2 subjects with hemiparesia were processed. The RMS and VMA parameters allow distinguishing the oscillation phase from the other analyzed intervals, but they present significant spreading of mean values. This led to conclude that it is possible to use these parameters to identify the start of TA muscle activity, but altogether with other parameter or sensor that would reduce the number of false positives.

  20. Morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and its clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, A; Nayak, S R; Bagoji, I B; D'Costa, S; Pai, M M; Jiji, P J; Kumar, C G; Rai, R

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cerebral artery, one of the terminal branches of the internal carotid artery is an important vessel taking part in the formation of circle of Willis. It supplies a large part of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere containing the areas of motor and somatosensory cortices of the lower limb. Aim of this study was the morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. 93 formalin fixed brain specimen of either sex and of Indian origin were studied. The mean length, mean external diameter and the anomalies present in A1 segment of the vessel were studied in detail and photographed. The mean length of A1 segment of the vessel was 14.49+/-0.28 mm and 14.22+/-0.22 mm on right and left side respectively. The mean external diameter of the vessel on right and left side was 2.12+/-0.07 mm and 2.32+/-0.06 mm respectively. Narrowing, aneurysm formation, buttonhole formation and median anterior cerebral artery were the anomalies seen with an occurrence of 15.05%, 5.37%, 3.22% and 12.9%, respectively. The above anomalies did not have any sex or side predilection. Knowledge of morphometry of the vessel will be of use to neurosurgeons while performing the shunt operation, in assessing the feasibility of such operations and in the choice of patients. From this study we infer that the morphometry of anterior cerebral artery varies in different population and that the neurosurgeons operating should have a thorough knowledge of the possible variations.

  1. Skinfold thickness affects the isometric knee extension torque evoked by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flávia V A; Vieira, Amilton; Carregaro, Rodrigo L; Bottaro, Martim; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Durigan, João L Q

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT) on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm) vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm) SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01) while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01). A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017). A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53). These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness) affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies.

  2. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Matthew M; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Neuropathic Pain Causes Pyramidal Neuronal Hyperactivity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohe Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is thought to be important for acute pain perception as well as the development of chronic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Nevertheless, how ACC neurons respond to sensory stimulation under chronic pain states is not well understood. Here, we used an in vivo two-photon imaging technique to monitor the activity of individual neurons in the ACC of awake, head restrained mice. Calcium imaging in the dorsal ACC revealed robust somatic activity in layer 5 (L5 pyramidal neurons in response to peripheral noxious stimuli, and the degree of evoked activity was correlated with the intensity of noxious stimulation. Furthermore, the activation of ACC neurons occurred bilaterally upon noxious stimulation to either contralateral or ipsilateral hind paws. Notably, with nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in one limb, L5 pyramidal neurons in both sides of the ACC showed enhanced activity in the absence or presence of pain stimuli. These results reveal hyperactivity of L5 pyramidal neurons in the bilateral ACC during the development of neuropathic pain.

  4. Do video games evoke specific types of epileptic seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli, Marta; Vigevano, Federico; Buttinelli, Carla; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A

    2005-11-01

    We determined whether epileptic clinical manifestations evoked by playing video games (VG) differ from those evoked by intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) or striped patterns (P). We exposed nine children who had TV- and VG-evoked seizures in daily life to 12 VG after standardized photic stimulation and pattern stimulation. Their EEGs were recorded continuously, analyzed, and then correlated with a video of their behavior. Similar types of clinical signs were seen during VG, P, and IPS, but the signs we observed were more subtle during the VG. Eight patients showed a clear lateralization. A new observation was the lowering of the eyelids to a state of half-closed. Our study suggests that the type of visual stimulus provoking a photoparoxysmal response or seizure is not particularly relevant. The children belonged to different epilepsy groups, and our findings add to the discussion on the boundaries of the epilepsy types.

  5. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) influence behavioral and motivational states through their projections to the thalamus, ventral tegmental area and a brainstem 'rapid eye movement (REM)-induction' site. Action potential-evoked intracel......Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) influence behavioral and motivational states through their projections to the thalamus, ventral tegmental area and a brainstem 'rapid eye movement (REM)-induction' site. Action potential......-evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium...... of cholinergic LDT neurons and that inhibition of spike-evoked Ca(2+)-transients is a common action of neurotransmitters that also activate GIRK channels in these neurons. Because spike-evoked calcium influx dampens excitability, our findings suggest that these 'inhibitory' transmitters could boost firing rate...

  6. Linear summation of outputs in a balanced network model of motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaday, Charles; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Given the non-linearities of the neural circuitry's elements, we would expect cortical circuits to respond non-linearly when activated. Surprisingly, when two points in the motor cortex are activated simultaneously, the EMG responses are the linear sum of the responses evoked by each of the points activated separately. Additionally, the corticospinal transfer function is close to linear, implying that the synaptic interactions in motor cortex must be effectively linear. To account for this, here we develop a model of motor cortex composed of multiple interconnected points, each comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We show how non-linearities in neuronal transfer functions are eschewed by strong synaptic interactions within each point. Consequently, the simultaneous activation of multiple points results in a linear summation of their respective outputs. We also consider the effects of reduction of inhibition at a cortical point when one or more surrounding points are active. The network response in this condition is linear over an approximately two- to three-fold decrease of inhibitory feedback strength. This result supports the idea that focal disinhibition allows linear coupling of motor cortical points to generate movement related muscle activation patterns; albeit with a limitation on gain control. The model also explains why neural activity does not spread as far out as the axonal connectivity allows, whilst also explaining why distant cortical points can be, nonetheless, functionally coupled by focal disinhibition. Finally, we discuss the advantages that linear interactions at the cortical level afford to motor command synthesis.

  7. Do Puzzle Pieces and Autism Puzzle Piece Logos Evoke Negative Associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Boston, Jilana S.; Harp, Bev

    2018-01-01

    Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public.…

  8. Reduced cortico-motor facilitation in a normal sample with high traits of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2009-12-25

    Recent research in social neuroscience proposes a link between mirror neuron system (MNS) and social cognition. The MNS has been proposed to be the neural mechanism underlying action recognition and intention understanding and more broadly social cognition. Pre-motor MNS has been suggested to modulate the motor cortex during action observation. This modulation results in an enhanced cortico-motor excitability reflected in increased motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at the muscle of interest during action observation. Anomalous MNS activity has been reported in the autistic population whose social skills are notably impaired. It is still an open question whether traits of autism in the normal population are linked to the MNS functioning. We measured TMS-induced MEPs in normal individuals with high and low traits of autism as measured by the autistic quotient (AQ), while observing videos of hand or mouth actions, static images of a hand or mouth or a blank screen. No differences were observed between the two while they observed a blank screen. However participants with low traits of autism showed significantly greater MEP amplitudes during observation of hand/mouth actions relative to static hand/mouth stimuli. In contrast, participants with high traits of autism did not show such a MEP amplitude difference between observation of actions and static stimuli. These results are discussed with reference to MNS functioning.

  9. Tratamiento de la mordida cruzada anterior con plano inclinado anterior. Efecto sobre los arcos dentales

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Rodríguez Manjarrés; Jesús Alberto Hernández Silva

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar los cambios dimensionales de los arcos dentales primarios tratados con plano inclinado anterior como método de corrección de la mordida cruzada anterior. Métodos: Se trataron 10 pacientes con edades entre 3 y 5 años afectados con mordida cruzada anterior completa, se colocó un plano inclinado anterior elaborado en acrílico, que estuvo en posición en promedio 8.5 semanas. Se obtuvieron modelos de estudio en 3 momentos T0: antes del tratamiento; T1: 6 meses después de iniciado...

  10. Identification of Inhibitory Premotor Interneurons Activated at a Late Phase in a Motor Cycle during Drosophila Larval Locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Itakura

    behind that of motoneurons by several segments. Thus, GVLIs are activated when the front of a forward motor wave reaches the second or third anterior segment. We propose that GVLIs are part of the feedback inhibition system that terminates motor activity once the front of the motor wave proceeds to anterior segments.

  11. Infantile onset progressive cerebellar atrophy and anterior horn cell degeneration--a late onset variant of PCH-1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorit; Michelson-Kerman, Marina; Vinkler, Chana; Blumkin, Lubov; Shalev, Stavit A; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2008-03-01

    Despite major recent advances in our understanding of developmental cerebellar disorders, classification and delineation of these disorders remains difficult. The term pontocerebellar hypoplasia is used when there is a structural defect, originating in utero of both pons and cerebellar hemispheres. The term olivopontocerebellar atrophy is used when the disorder starts later in life and the process is a primary degeneration of cerebellar neurons. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1 is associated with spinal anterior horn cell degeneration, congenital contractures, microcephaly, polyhydramnion and respiratory insufficiency leading to early death. However, anterior horn cell degeneration has also been described in cases with later onset pontocerebellar atrophy and recently the spectrum has even been further extended to include the association of anterior horn cell degeneration and cerebellar atrophy without pontine involvement. We describe two siblings from a consanguineous Moslem Arabic family who presented with progressive degeneration of both the cerebellum and the anterior horn cells. The patients presented after 1 year of age with a slow neurodegenerative course that included both cognitive and motor functions. There is considerable phenotypic variability; the sister shows a much milder course. Both children are still alive at 6 and 9 years. The sister could still crawl and speak two word sentences at the age of 3 years while the brother was bedridden and only uttered guttural sounds at the same age. Our cases further extend the phenotype of the cerebellar syndromes with anterior horn cell involvement to include a childhood onset and protracted course and further prove that this neurodegenerative disorder may start in utero or later in life.

  12. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Celis-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. Objective: To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Methods: Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8 mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30 mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Results: Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30 dB. Conclusions: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

  13. Phantom somatosensory evoked potentials following selective intraneural electrical stimulation in two amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Romanello, Roberto; Iodice, Francesco; Raspopovic, Stanisa; Petrini, Francesco; Strauss, Ivo; Valle, Giacomo; Stieglitz, Thomas; Čvančara, Paul; Andreu, David; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Guiraud, David; Wauters, Loic; Hiairrassary, Arthur; Jensen, Winnie; Micera, Silvestro; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to objectively demonstrate that amputees implanted with intraneural interfaces are truly able to feel a sensation in the phantom hand by recording "phantom" somatosensory evoked potentials from the corresponding brain areas. We implanted four transverse intrafascicular multichannel electrodes, available with percutaneous connections to a multichannel electrical stimulator, in the median and ulnar nerves of two left trans-radial amputees. Two channels of the implants that were able to elicit sensations during intraneural nerve stimulation were chosen, in both patients, for recording somatosensory evoked potentials. We recorded reproducible evoked responses by stimulating the median and the ulnar nerves in both cases. Latencies were in accordance with the arrival of somatosensory information to the primary somatosensory cortex. Our results provide evidence that sensations generated by intraneural stimulation are truly perceived by amputees and located in the phantom hand. Moreover, our results strongly suggest that sensations perceived in different parts of the phantom hand result in different evoked responses. Somatosensory evoked potentials obtained by selective intraneural electrical stimulation in amputee patients are a useful tool to provide an objective demonstration of somatosensory feedback in new generation bidirectional prostheses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. An inventory and update of jealousy-evoking partner behaviours in modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P H; Groothof, Hinke A K

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the most important jealousy-evoking partner behaviours and to examine the extent to which these behaviours evoke jealousy. Based on the literature, a questionnaire was constructed containing 42 jealousy-evoking partner behaviours, including a partner's extra-dyadic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices, such as the Internet. A second study examined the extent to which undergraduates and a community sample experienced jealousy in response to these partner behaviours. Results showed that explicit unfaithful behaviours evoked most feelings of jealousy, followed by a partner's emotional or romantic involvement with someone else by means of modern communication devices. In general, older individuals responded with less jealousy in response to a partner's unfaithful and suspicious behaviours. Clinical implications are discussed. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Long-term neuroplasticity of the face primary motor cortex and adjacent somatosensory cortex induced by tooth loss can be reversed following dental implant replacement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Lee, Jye-Chang; Sood, Mandeep; Lakschevitz, Flavia; Fung, Michelle; Barashi-Gozal, Maayan; Glogauer, Michael; Sessle, Barry J

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is common, and exploring the neuroplastic capacity of the face primary motor cortex (face-M1) and adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (face-S1) is crucial for understanding how subjects adapt to tooth loss and their prosthetic replacement. The aim was to test if functional reorganization of jaw and tongue motor representations in the rat face-M1 and face-S1 occurs following tooth extraction, and if subsequent dental implant placement can reverse this neuroplasticity. Rats (n = 22) had the right maxillary molar teeth extracted under local and general anesthesia. One month later, seven rats had dental implant placement into healed extraction sites. Naive rats (n = 8) received no surgical treatment. Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recording of evoked jaw and tongue electromyographic responses were used to define jaw and tongue motor representations at 1 month (n = 8) or 2 months (n = 7) postextraction, 1 month postimplant placement, and at 1-2 months in naive rats. There were no significant differences across study groups in the onset latencies of the ICMS-evoked responses (P > 0.05), but in comparison with naive rats, tooth extraction caused a significant (P rats. These novel findings suggest that face-M1 and adjacent face-S1 may play a role in adaptive mechanisms related to tooth loss and their replacement with dental implants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Simultaneous recording of electroretinogram and visual evoked response. Focal stimulation under direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, T; Miyake, Y; Hara, A

    1977-07-01

    A system has been tested that allows simultaneous recording of the retinal response (electroretinogram [ERG]) and the occipital response (visual evoked response [VER]) with focal photic stimulation of the retina under direct observation of the fundus. A helium-neon gas laser is used as a stimulus source. The laser is chopped either by a pen motor or a rotating disc. The laser is attached to a biomicroscope through which the examiner can observe the fundus of the subject during the entire recording session. The optically clear contact lens is made with a flat surface that neutralizes refraction due to the cornea, thereby allowing fundus observation by microscope. Two metal wires mounted inside and outside of the lens serve as the electrode for the ERG. Graticules consisting of concentric circles and radial lines are projected onto the subject's fundus, providing a pattern that the examiner can use to determine the exact location to be stimulated in the fundus. With proper adjustment of stimulus and background illumination, local ERG and VER can be recorded simultaneously by stimulating the macula.

  17. Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Monica A; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2009-10-01

    During performance of a unimanual force generation task primary motor cortices (M1s) experience clear functional changes. Here, we evaluated the way in which M1s interact during parametric increases in right wrist flexion force in healthy volunteers. We measured the amplitude and the slope of motor evoked potentials (MEP) recruitment curves to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the left and right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during 10%, 30% and 70% of maximal wrist flexion force. At rest, no differences were observed in the amplitude and slope of MEP recruitment curves in the left and right FCR muscles. With increasing right wrist flexion force, MEP amplitudes increased in both FCR muscles, with larger amplitudes in the right FCR. We found a significant correlation between the left and right MEP amplitudes across conditions. The slope of right and left FCR MEP recruitment curve was significantly steeper at 70% of force compared to rest and 10% of force. A significant correlation between the slope of left and right FCR MEP amplitudes was found at 70% of force only. Our results indicate a differential scaling of excitability in the corticospinal system controlling right and left FCR muscles at increasing levels of unimanual force generation. Specifically, these data highlights that at strong levels of unimanual force the increases in motor cortical excitability with increasing TMS stimulus intensities follow a similar pattern in both M1s, while at low levels of force they do not.

  18. An intersectional gene regulatory strategy defines subclass diversity of C. elegans motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratsios, Paschalis; Kerk, Sze Yen; Catela, Catarina; Liang, Joseph; Vidal, Berta; Bayer, Emily A; Feng, Weidong; De La Cruz, Estanisla Daniel; Croci, Laura; Consalez, G Giacomo; Mizumoto, Kota; Hobert, Oliver

    2017-07-05

    A core principle of nervous system organization is the diversification of neuron classes into subclasses that share large sets of features but differ in select traits. We describe here a molecular mechanism necessary for motor neurons to acquire subclass-specific traits in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Cholinergic motor neuron classes of the ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into subclasses along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis based on synaptic connectivity patterns and molecular features. The conserved COE-type terminal selector UNC-3 not only controls the expression of traits shared by all members of a neuron class, but is also required for subclass-specific traits expressed along the A-P axis. UNC-3, which is not regionally restricted, requires region-specific cofactors in the form of Hox proteins to co-activate subclass-specific effector genes in post-mitotic motor neurons. This intersectional gene regulatory principle for neuronal subclass diversification may be conserved from nematodes to mice.

  19. Evoked Brain Activity and Personnel Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Shucard and Horn (1972), Galbraith, Gliddon, and Busk (1970), and Callaway (1975), the latter using Navy recruits. Callaway’s own work was reported at...G.C., Gliddon, J.B., & Busk , J. (1970). Visual evoked responses in mentally retarded and nonretarded subjects. American Journal of Mental Deficiency

  20. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riichiro eHira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between distinct motor cortical areas are essential for coordinated motor behaviors. In rodents, the motor cortical forelimb areas are divided into at least two distinct areas: the rostral forelimb area (RFA and the caudal forelimb area (CFA. The RFA is thought to be an equivalent of the premotor cortex in primates, whereas the CFA is believed to be an equivalent of the primary motor cortex. Although reciprocal connections between the RFA and the CFA have been anatomically identified in rats, it is unknown whether there are functional connections between these areas that can induce postsynaptic spikes. In this study, we used an in vivo Channelrhodopsin-2 photostimulation method to trace the functional connections between the mouse RFA and CFA. Simultaneous electrical recordings were utilized to detect spiking activities induced by synaptic inputs originating from photostimulated areas. This method, in combination with anatomical tracing, demonstrated that the RFA receives strong functional projections from layer 2/3 and/or layer 5a, but not from layer 5b, of the CFA. Further, the CFA receives strong projections from layer 5b neurons of the RFA. The onset latency of electrical responses evoked in remote areas upon photostimulation of the other areas was approximately 10 ms, which is consistent with the synaptic connectivity between these areas. Our results suggest that neuronal activities in the RFA and the CFA during movements are formed through asymmetric reciprocal connections.

  1. The Effect of Lamotrigine and Levetiracetam on TMS-Evoked EEG Responses Depends on Stimulation Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Premoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG has uncovered underlying mechanisms of two anti-epileptic medications: levetiracetam and lamotrigine. Despite their different mechanism of action, both drugs modulated TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs in a similar way. Since both medications increase resting motor threshold (RMT, the current aim was to examine the similarities and differences in post-drug TEPs, depending on whether stimulation intensity was adjusted to take account of post-drug RMT increase. The experiment followed a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover design, involving a single dose of either lamotrigine or levetiracetam. When a drug-induced increase of RMT occurred, post-drug measurements involved two blocks of stimulations, using unadjusted and adjusted stimulation intensity. A cluster based permutation analysis of differences in TEP amplitude between adjusted and unadjusted stimulation intensity showed that lamotrigine induced a stronger modulation of the N45 TEP component compared to levetiracetam. Results highlight the impact of adjusting stimulation intensity.

  2. Evoked potentials in pediatric cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Bhanushali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortical evoked potentials (EP provide localized data regarding brain function and may offer prognostic information and insights into the pathologic mechanisms of malariamediated cerebral injury. As part of a prospective cohort study, we obtained somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs and brainstem auditory EPs (AEPs within 24 hours of admission on 27 consecutive children admitted with cerebral malaria (CM. Children underwent follow-up for 12 months to determine if they had any long term neurologic sequelae. EPs were obtained in 27 pediatric CM admissions. Two children died. Among survivors followed an average of 514 days, 7/25 (28.0% had at least one adverse neurologic outcome. Only a single subject had absent cortical EPs on admission and this child had a good neurologic outcome. Among pediatric CM survivors, cortical EPs are generally intact and do not predict adverse neurologic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine if alterations in cortical EPs can be used to predict a fatal outcome in CM.

  3. Serial recording of median nerve stimulated subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in developing brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, H; Ferbert, A; Hacke, W

    1988-01-01

    Subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation were recorded serially in 35 patients during the evolution towards brain death and in brain death. Neuropathological alterations of the central nervous system down to the C1/C2 spinal cord segment in brain death are well known. SEP components supposed to be generated above this level should be lost in brain death, while components generated below should not be altered. Erb's point, scalp and neck potentials were recorded at C3/4, or over the spinous process C7, using an Fz reference. In 10 patients additional montages, including spinous process C2-Fz, a non-cephalic reference (Fz-contralateral shoulder) and a posterior to anterior neck montage (spinous process C7-jugulum) were used. The cephalic referenced N9 and N11 peaks remained unchanged until brain death. N9 and N11 decreased in parallel in amplitude and increased in latency after systemic effects like hypoxia or hypothermia occurred. The cephalic referenced 'N14' decreased in amplitude and increased in latency after the clinical brain death syndrome was observed, while N13 in the posterior to anterior neck montage remained unchanged. The alteration of 'N14' went parallel to the decrease of the P14 amplitude. The subcortical SEPs in the cephalic referenced lead are supposed to be a peak composed by a horizontally orientated dorsal horn generated N13 and a rostrally orientated P14 arising at the level of the foramen magnum. The deterioration of the non-cephalic referenced P14 and of its cephalic referenced reflection 'N14' seems to provide an additional objective criterion for the diagnosis of brain death.

  4. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  5. Laser-evoked coloration in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.Y.; Rosseinsky, David; Lim, G.C.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-evoked coloration in polymers has long been a major aim of polymer technology for potential applications in product surface decoration, marking personalised images and logos. However, the coloration results reported so far were mostly attributed to laser-induced thermal-chemical reactions. The laser-irradiated areas are characterized with grooves due to material removal. Furthermore, only single color was laser-induced in any given polymer matrix. To induce multiple colors in a given polymer matrix with no apparent surface material removal is most desirable and challenging and may be achieved through laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. However, little public information is available at present. We report that two colors of red and green have been produced on an initially transparent CPV/PVA samples through UV laser-induced photo-chemical reactions. This is believed the first observation of laser-induced multiple-colors in the given polymer matrix. It is believed that the colorants underwent photo-effected electron transfer with suitable electron donors from the polymers to change from colorless bipyridilium Bipm 2+ to the colored Bipm + species. The discovery may lead to new approaches to the development of laser-evoked multiple coloration in polymers

  6. [An autopsied case of dominantly affecting upper motor neuron with atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes--with special reference to primary lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, M; Sakai, M; Iida, M; Hashizume, Y

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, the autopsy findings of a 78-year-old man mimicking primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) are reported. His clinical symptoms were slowly progressive spasticity, pseudobulbar palsy and character change. He died of sepsis 32 months after protracting the disease. The autopsy revealed severe atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes. The histological findings were severe neuronal loss with gliosis in the precentral gyrus and left temporal lobe tip, loss of Betz cell, prominent demyelination throughout of the corticospinal tract, axonal swelling in the cerebral peduncule, severe degeneration of the amygdala, mild degeneration of the Ammon horn, normal substantia nigra, a few neuronal cells with central chromatolysis in the facial nerve nucleus and very mild neuronal cell loss in the spinal anterior horn. The anterior horn cell only occasionally demonstrated Bunina body by H & E and cystatin-C stainings, as well as, skein-like inclusion by ubiquitin staining. Thus, this is a case of uncommon amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) dominantly affecting the upper motor neuron including the motor cortex and temporal limbic system. In analysis of nine cases of putative primary lateral sclerosis in the literature, six cases showed loss of Betz cell in the precentral gyrus, and four cases very mild involvement of the lower motor neuron such as central chromatolysis and eosinophilic inclusion body. Degeneration of the limbic system was observed in two cases. We indicated a possible subgroup with concomitant involvement in the motor cortex and temporal lobe in motor neuron disease dominantly affecting the upper motor neuron.

  7. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Aguilar, Erika; Hinojosa-González, Ramon; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Coutinho-Toledo, Heloisa

    Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset) delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30dB. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials). Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Using Transcranial Electrically Stimulated Muscle-evoked Potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for Predicting Postoperative Segmental Upper Extremity Motor Paresis After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yasushi; Manabe, Hideki; Izumi, Bunichiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Prospective study. To investigate the efficacy of transcranial electrically stimulated muscle-evoked potentials (TcE-MsEPs) for predicting postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy following cervical laminoplasty. Postoperative segmental upper extremity palsy, especially in the deltoid and biceps (so-called C5 palsy), is the most common complication following cervical laminoplasty. Some papers have reported that postoperative C5 palsy cannot be predicted by TcE-MsEPs, although others have reported that it can be predicted. This study included 160 consecutive cases that underwent open-door laminoplasty, and TcE-MsEP monitoring was performed in the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, abductor digiti minimi, tibialis anterior, and abductor hallucis. A >50% decrease in the wave amplitude was defined as an alarm point. According to the monitoring alarm, interventions were performed, which include steroid administration, foraminotomies, etc. Postoperative deltoid and biceps palsy occurred in 5 cases. Among the 155 cases without segmental upper extremity palsy, there were no monitoring alarms. Among the 5 deltoid and biceps palsy cases, 3 had significant wave amplitude decreases in the biceps during surgery, and palsy occurred when the patients awoke from anesthesia (acute type). In the other 2 cases in which the palsy occurred 2 days after the operation (delayed type), there were no significant wave decreases. In all of the cases, the palsy was completely resolved within 6 months. The majority of C5 palsies have been reported to occur several days after surgery, but some of them have been reported to occur immediately after surgery. Our results demonstrated that TcE-MsEPs can predict the acute type, whereas the delayed type cannot be predicted. A >50% wave amplitude decrease in the biceps is useful to predict acute-type segmental upper extremity palsy. Further examination about the interventions for monitoring alarm will be essential for preventing palsy.

  9. Electrical and magnetic repetitive transcranial stimulation of the primary motor cortex in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Francesca; Iacovelli, Elisa; Frasca, Vittorio; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; De Lena, Carlo; Cipriani, Anna Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-08

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered in short trains at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity over the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects facilitates the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude by increasing cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, to investigate whether rTES acts through similar mechanisms we compared the effects of rTMS and repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation (rTES) (10 stimuli-trains, 5Hz frequency, suprathreshold intensity) delivered over the M1 on the MEP amplitude. Four healthy subjects were studied in two separate sessions in a relaxed condition. rTMS and anodal rTES were delivered in trains to the left M1 over the motor area for evoking a MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Changes in MEP size and latency during the course of the rTMS and rTES trains were compared. The possible effects of muscle activation on MEP amplitude were evaluated, and the possible effects of cutaneous trigeminal fibre activation on corticospinal excitability were excluded in a control experiment testing the MEP amplitude before and after supraorbital nerve repetitive electrical stimulation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that rTES and rTMS trains elicited similar amplitude first MEPs and a similar magnitude MEP amplitude facilitation during the trains. rTES elicited a first MEP with a shorter latency than rTMS, without significant changes during the course of the train of stimuli. The MEP elicited by single-pulse TES delivered during muscle contraction had a smaller amplitude than the last MEP in the rTES trains. Repetitive supraorbital nerve stimulation left the conditioned MEP unchanged. Our results suggest that 5 Hz-rTES delivered in short trains increases cortical excitability and does so by acting on the excitatory interneurones probably through mechanisms similar to those underlying the rTMS-induced MEP facilitation.

  10. MRI appearances of the anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle: a rare anterior compartment muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Bhavin [Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Imaging Department, Essex (United Kingdom); Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Health Care NHS Trust, Imaging Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    MRI of a 62-year-old female presenting with ankle pain demonstrated an accessory muscle within the anterior compartment of the lower leg. The muscle originated from the fibula and anterior crural septum. The tendon passed anterior to the lateral malleolus and inserted at the critical angle of Gissane on the calcaneus. This muscle was initially described in the anatomic literature by Lambert and Atsas in 2010. To our knowledge, this is the first time the MRI appearances of this muscle has been described in the radiological literature. Awareness of the fibulocalcaneal muscle is important as it may represent a cause of ankle pain. In addition, the tendon could potentially be harvested for use in reconstructive procedures. (orig.)

  11. A comparison of auditory evoked potentials to acoustic beats and to binaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Hillel; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cortical brain responses evoked by amplitude modulated acoustic beats of 3 and 6 Hz in tones of 250 and 1000 Hz with those evoked by their binaural beats counterparts in unmodulated tones to indicate whether the cortical processes involved differ. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to 3- and 6-Hz acoustic and binaural beats in 2000 ms duration 250 and 1000 Hz tones presented with approximately 1 s intervals. Latency, amplitude and source current density estimates of ERP components to beats-evoked oscillations were determined and compared across beat types, beat frequencies and base (carrier) frequencies. All stimuli evoked tone-onset components followed by oscillations corresponding to the beat frequency, and a subsequent tone-offset complex. Beats-evoked oscillations were higher in amplitude in response to acoustic than to binaural beats, to 250 than to 1000 Hz base frequency and to 3 Hz than to 6 Hz beat frequency. Sources of the beats-evoked oscillations across all stimulus conditions located mostly to left temporal lobe areas. Differences between estimated sources of potentials to acoustic and binaural beats were not significant. The perceptions of binaural beats involve cortical activity that is not different than acoustic beats in distribution and in the effects of beat- and base frequency, indicating similar cortical processing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on change of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Ling; Chen Jiaxin; Zhang Lixiang; Wang Tiejian; Han Min; Lu Xiaoling

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible changes of multi-modally evoked potentials in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 48 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving primary conventional external beam irradiation were examined before and after radiotherapy to determine their brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP), short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SLSEP) and pattern reversal visual-evoked potential (PRVEP). Results: In comparison with the conditions before radiotherapy, in different periods after radiotherapy abnormal peak latency and interval latency difference were found in BAEP, SLSEP and PRVEP. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy may cause abnormal function of nerve conduction in early periods, which can be showed by BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP, and injury can be timely detected if the three evoked potentials are used together. Thus authors suggest BAEP, SLSEP, PRVEP should be examined in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients during and after the radiotherapy so as to find early damage in auditory somatosensory and visual conduction pathways

  13. Combined motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promotes corticospinal system functional and structural plasticity and motor function after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Amer, Alzahraa; Ryan, Daniel; Martin, John H

    2016-03-01

    An important strategy for promoting voluntary movements after motor system injury is to harness activity-dependent corticospinal tract (CST) plasticity. We combine forelimb motor cortex (M1) activation with co-activation of its cervical spinal targets in rats to promote CST sprouting and skilled limb movement after pyramidal tract lesion (PTX). We used a two-step experimental design in which we first established the optimal combined stimulation protocol in intact rats and then used the optimal protocol in injured animals to promote CST repair and motor recovery. M1 was activated epidurally using an electrical analog of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). The cervical spinal cord was co-activated by trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) that was targeted to the cervical enlargement, simulated from finite element method. In intact rats, forelimb motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were strongly facilitated during iTBS and for 10 min after cessation of stimulation. Cathodal, not anodal, tsDCS alone facilitated MEPs and also produced a facilitatory aftereffect that peaked at 10 min. Combined iTBS and cathodal tsDCS (c-tsDCS) produced further MEP enhancement during stimulation, but without further aftereffect enhancement. Correlations between forelimb M1 local field potentials and forelimb electromyogram (EMG) during locomotion increased after electrical iTBS alone and further increased with combined stimulation (iTBS+c-tsDCS). This optimized combined stimulation was then used to promote function after PTX because it enhanced functional connections between M1 and spinal circuits and greater M1 engagement in muscle contraction than either stimulation alone. Daily application of combined M1 iTBS on the intact side and c-tsDCS after PTX (10 days, 27 min/day) significantly restored skilled movements during horizontal ladder walking. Stimulation produced a 5.4-fold increase in spared ipsilateral CST terminations. Combined neuromodulation achieves optimal motor

  14. Body Position Influences Which Neural Structures Are Recruited by Lumbar Transcutaneous Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Danner

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous stimulation of the human lumbosacral spinal cord is used to evoke spinal reflexes and to neuromodulate altered sensorimotor function following spinal cord injury. Both applications require the reliable stimulation of afferent posterior root fibers. Yet under certain circumstances, efferent anterior root fibers can be co-activated. We hypothesized that body position influences the preferential stimulation of sensory or motor fibers. Stimulus-triggered responses to transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were recorded using surface-electromyography from quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior, and triceps surae muscles in 10 individuals with intact nervous systems in the supine, standing and prone positions. Single and paired (30-ms inter-stimulus intervals biphasic stimulation pulses were applied through surface electrodes placed on the skin between the T11 and T12 inter-spinous processes referenced to electrodes on the abdomen. The paired stimulation was applied to evaluate the origin of the evoked electromyographic response; trans-synaptic responses would be suppressed whereas direct efferent responses would almost retain their amplitude. We found that responses to the second stimulus were decreased to 14%±5% of the amplitude of the response to the initial pulse in the supine position across muscles, to 30%±5% in the standing, and to only 80%±5% in the prone position. Response thresholds were lowest during standing and highest in the prone position and response amplitudes were largest in the supine and smallest in the prone position. The responses obtained in the supine and standing positions likely resulted from selective stimulation of sensory fibers while concomitant motor-fiber stimulation occurred in the prone position. We assume that changes of root-fiber paths within the generated electric field when in the prone position increase the stimulation thresholds of posterior above those of anterior root fibers. Thus, we

  15. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  16. Interest of Electrostimulation of Peripheral Motor Nerves during Percutaneous Thermal Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Garnon, Julien; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We present our experience of utilizing peripheral nerve electrostimulation as a complementary monitoring technique during percutaneous thermal ablation procedures; and we highlight its utility and feasibility in the prevention of iatrogenic neurologic thermal injury. Methods: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation was performed in 12 patients undergoing percutaneous image-guided thermal ablations of spinal/pelvic lesions in close proximity to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Electrostimulation was used in addition to existing insulation (active warming/cooling with hydrodissection, passive insulation with CO 2 insufflation) and temperature monitoring (thermocouples) techniques. Impending neurologic deficit was defined as a visual reduction of muscle response or need for a stronger electric current to evoke muscle contraction, compared with baseline. Results: Significant reduction of the muscle response to electrostimulation was observed in three patients during the ablation, necessitating temporary interruption, followed by injection of warm/cool saline. This resulted in complete recovery of the muscle response in two cases, while for the third patient the response did not improve and the procedure was terminated. No patient experienced postoperative motor deficit. Conclusion: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation is a simple, easily accessible technique allowing early detection of impending neurologic injury during percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation. It complements existing monitoring techniques and provides a functional assessment along the whole length of the nerve

  17. Interest of Electrostimulation of Peripheral Motor Nerves during Percutaneous Thermal Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin_ramamurthy@hotmail.com; Buy, Xavier, E-mail: xbuy@ymail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [University Hospital of Strasbourg (France)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We present our experience of utilizing peripheral nerve electrostimulation as a complementary monitoring technique during percutaneous thermal ablation procedures; and we highlight its utility and feasibility in the prevention of iatrogenic neurologic thermal injury. Methods: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation was performed in 12 patients undergoing percutaneous image-guided thermal ablations of spinal/pelvic lesions in close proximity to the spinal cord and nerve roots. Electrostimulation was used in addition to existing insulation (active warming/cooling with hydrodissection, passive insulation with CO{sub 2} insufflation) and temperature monitoring (thermocouples) techniques. Impending neurologic deficit was defined as a visual reduction of muscle response or need for a stronger electric current to evoke muscle contraction, compared with baseline. Results: Significant reduction of the muscle response to electrostimulation was observed in three patients during the ablation, necessitating temporary interruption, followed by injection of warm/cool saline. This resulted in complete recovery of the muscle response in two cases, while for the third patient the response did not improve and the procedure was terminated. No patient experienced postoperative motor deficit. Conclusion: Peripheral motor nerve electrostimulation is a simple, easily accessible technique allowing early detection of impending neurologic injury during percutaneous image-guided thermal ablation. It complements existing monitoring techniques and provides a functional assessment along the whole length of the nerve.

  18. Capsulorhexis contraction after cataract surgery: Comparison of sharp anterior edge and modified anterior edge acrylic intraocular lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, C.; Lindholt, M.; Knudsen, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    eyes) were included in a prospective randomized study. All had phacoemulsification followed by implantation of an IOL with a modified anterior edge (38 eyes) or a sharp anterior edge (46 eyes). One day (baseline) and 3 months postoperatively, the area of the anterior capsule opening was measured using...... retroillumination photographs. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the area of the anterior capsule opening from 1 day to 3 months postoperatively in both groups (Psharp...

  19. The motor system resonates to the distal goal of observed actions: testing the inverse pliers paradigm in an ecological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Maule, Francesca; Barchiesi, Guido; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    Does motor mirroring in humans reflect the observed movements or the goal of the observed motor acts? Tools that dissociate the agent/object dynamics from the movements of the body parts used to operate them provide a model for testing resonance to both movements and goals. Here, we describe the temporal relationship of the observer's motor excitability, assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with the observed goal-directed tool actions, in an ecological setting. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were recorded from the opponens pollicis (OP, thumb flexor) and the extensor indicis proprius (EIP, index extensor) muscles of participants while they observed a person moving several small objects with a pair of normal pliers (closed by finger flexion) or reverse pliers (opened by finger flexion). The MEPs were a significant predictor of the pliers' kinematics that occurred in a variable time interval between -400 and +300 ms from TMS. Whatever pliers' type was being observed, OP MEPs correlated positively and EIP MEPs correlated negatively with the velocity of pliers' tips closure. This datum was confirmed both at individual and at a group level. Motor simulation can be demonstrated in single observers in a "real-life" ecological setting. The relation of motor resonance to the tool type shows that the observer's motor system codes the distal goal of the observed acts (i.e., grasping and releasing objects) in terms of its own motor vocabulary, irrespective of the actual finger movements that were performed by the observed actor.

  20. Post-irradiation lesions of the caudal roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feistner, H.; Weissenborn, K.; Muente, T.F.; Heinze, H.-J.; Malin, J.P. (Clinic for Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Medical College Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The article reports on 3 patients suffering from muscular atrophy after radiotherapy of the para-aortal lymph nodes for malignant testicular tumor without any sensory, bladder, or bowel disburbances. By neurophysiological examination, a lesion of the lumbal plexus and the peripheral nerves of the lower extremities were excluded. On EMG-examination there were no giant motor unit potentials, as they can be found in anterior horn cell lesions. Though there were no sensory deficits, a distinct prolongation of latencies and reduction of amplitudes could be found for lumbar dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and those after stimulation of some peripheral nerves of the lower extremities. (author).

  1. Post-irradiation lesions of the caudal roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feistner, H.; Weissenborn, K.; Muente, T.F.; Heinze, H.-J.; Malin, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The article reports on 3 patients suffering from muscular atrophy after radiotherapy of the para-aortal lymph nodes for malignant testicular tumor without any sensory, bladder, or bowel disburbances. By neurophysiological examination, a lesion of the lumbal plexus and the peripheral nerves of the lower extremities were excluded. On EMG-examination there were no giant motor unit potentials, as they can be found in anterior horn cell lesions. Though there were no sensory deficits, a distinct prolongation of latencies and reduction of amplitudes could be found for lumbar dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) and those after stimulation of some peripheral nerves of the lower extremities. (author)

  2. Frontal Fibers Connecting the Superior Frontal Gyrus to Broca Area: A Corticocortical Evoked Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Satoshi; Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ochi, Satoko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Riki; Kunieda, Takeharu; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using corticocortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). This study enrolled 8 patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language-dominant side. All patients underwent CCEP recordings during tumor resection or during invasive evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Alternating 1-Hz electrical stimuli were delivered to pars opercularis (pO) and pars triangularis (pT), corresponding to Broca area, and SFG via the subdural grid electrodes with intensity of 10 mA. Electrocorticograms from SFG and pO/pT time-locked to 50 stimuli were averaged in each trial to obtain CCEP responses. In all patients, stimulation of pO/pT induced CCEP responses in SFG. CCEP responses were recorded in lateral SFG in 5 patients and in supplementary motor areas in 4 patients. Reciprocality was observed in 7 patients in the stimulation of SFG. CCEP responses were significantly faster at SFG from pO/pT than at pO/pT from SFG (Wilcoxon signed rank test, P = 0.028). The present study demonstrated a corticocortical network connecting Broca areas and SFG in a reciprocal manner. Our findings might provide new insight into language and motor integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation of complex motor patterns in american grasshopper via current-controlled thoracic electrical interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, Susan L; Absher, Benjamin F; Bourne, W Tucker; Steves, Lida E; Vodenski, Vassil V; O'Donnell, Peter M; Erickson, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs) have attracted attention for their potential application to military applications, environmental sensing, and search and rescue missions. While progress is being made toward fabrication of a completely human-engineered MAV, another promising approach seeks to interface to, and take control of, an insect's nervous system. Cyborg insects take advantage of their innate exquisite loco-motor, navigation, and sensing abilities. Recently, several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of radio-controlled flight in the hawkmoth and beetle via electrical neural interfaces. Here, we report a method for eliciting the "jump" response in the American grasshopper (S. Americana). We found that stimulating the metathoracic T3 ganglion with constant-current square wave pulses with amplitude 186 ± 40 μA and frequency 190 ± 13 Hz reproducibly evoked (≥95% success rate) the desired motor activity in N=3 test subjects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an insect cyborg with a synchronous neuromuscular system.

  4. Index finger somatosensory evoked potentials in blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Dayananda; Subrahmanyam, Roopakala Mysore; Rangashetty, Srinivasa; Sharma, Rajeev

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, vision has been considered the dominant modality in our multi-sensory perception of the surrounding world. Sensory input via non-visual tracts becomes of greater behavioural relevance in totally blind individuals to enable effective interaction with the world around them. These include audition and tactile perceptions, leading to an augmentation in these perceptions when compared with normal sighted individuals. The objective of the present work was to study the index finger somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in totally blind and normal sighted individuals. SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading totally blind females and compared with 15 age-matched normal sighted females. Latency and amplitudes of somatosensory evoked potential waveforms (N9, N13, and N20) were measured. Amplitude of N20 SEP (a cortical somatosensory evoked potential) was significantly larger in the totally blind than in normal sighted individuals (p Braille reading right index finger. Totally blind Braille readers have larger N20 amplitude, suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical representation of the Braille reading index finger.

  5. Anterior vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach to treat chronic postoperative endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Güler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To describe the results of vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach surgical technique in treatment of chronic postoperative endophthalmitis (CPE.METHODS:Clinical records of 9 patients treated for CPE between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. All of these patients were treated with vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach.RESULTS:Six of 9 patients were male. The average patients’ age was (60±8.1 years. The average period between cataract extraction and onset of signs and symptoms was (3.6±1.3 weeks. The average presenting visual acuity was 0.3±0.1 and the average final post operative visual acuity was 0.7±0.2. The mean follow-up period was (28.1±8.9 weeks. In all patients, the inflammation subsided after surgery.CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that anterior vitrectomy and partial capsulectomy via anterior approach may be considered as potentially useful and relatively less invasive technique to treat CPE.

  6. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  7. Double dissociation of the anterior and posterior dorsomedial caudate-putamen in the acquisition and expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charntikov, Sergios; Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Li, Ming; Bevins, Rick A

    2017-07-15

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. This habit is not only debilitating to individual users but also to those around them (second-hand smoking). Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco products and is a moderate stimulant and a mild reinforcer. Importantly, besides its unconditional effects, nicotine also has conditioned stimulus effects that may contribute to the tenacity of the smoking habit. Because the neurobiological substrates underlying these processes are virtually unexplored, the present study investigated the functional involvement of the dorsomedial caudate putamen (dmCPu) in learning processes with nicotine as an interoceptive stimulus. Rats were trained using the discriminated goal-tracking task where nicotine injections (0.4 mg/kg; SC), on some days, were paired with intermittent (36 per session) sucrose deliveries; sucrose was not available on interspersed saline days. Pre-training excitotoxic or post-training transient lesions of anterior or posterior dmCPu were used to elucidate the role of these areas in acquisition or expression of associative learning with nicotine stimulus. Pre-training lesion of p-dmCPu inhibited acquisition while post-training lesions of p-dmCPu attenuated the expression of associative learning with the nicotine stimulus. On the other hand, post-training lesions of a-dmCPu evoked nicotine-like responding following saline treatment indicating the role of this area in disinhibition of learned motor behaviors. These results, for the first time, show functionally distinct involvement of a- and p-dmCPu in various stages of associative learning using nicotine stimulus and provide an initial account of neural plasticity underlying these learning processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immediate postoperative anterior knee stability: double- versus triple-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Tatsuo; Shino, Konsei; Matsumoto, Norinao; Yoneda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the triple-bundle (TB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the double-bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction in immediate postoperative anterior knee stability. This study involved 133 patients who had undergone the anatomic ACL reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendon unilaterally. Then 83 patients (mean age, 28.8 years) underwent the DB between November 2004 and December 2005, and 50 patients (mean age, 29.6 years) underwent the TB ACL reconstruction between January and December 2006. The 2 femoral tunnels were created in the ideal ACL attachment area, whereas 2 tibial tunnels for the DB and 3 tunnels for the TB were created in the ACL footprint. The 2 doubled tendon grafts were fixed with EndoButton-CL (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) on the femur. The grafts were fixed to the tibia using a Double Spike Plate and a screw under the total initial tension of 20 N at 20° of flexion, after meticulous in situ pretensioning using a tensioning boot. Then immediate postoperative anterior knee laxity in response to 89 N of anterior load was measured by one experienced examiner (T.M.) with the KT-2000 Knee Arthrometer (MEDmedtric, San Diego, CA) under general anesthesia at 30° of knee flexion with muscle relaxants. The measured anterior laxity was 3.4 ± 1.2 mm in the DB and 2.5 ± 0.7 mm in the TB ACL reconstruction, a statistically significant difference. The side-to-side difference of the laxity was -3.2 ± 1.6 mm in the DB and -4.2 ± 2.0 mm in the TB, again a significant difference. TB ACL reconstruction resulted in better immediate postoperative anterior knee sta