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Sample records for antenatal emotional attachment

  1. Antenatal mood and fetal attachment after assisted conception.

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    Fisher, Jane R W; Hammarberg, Karin; Baker, Gordon H W

    2008-05-01

    Australian women conceiving with ART are at fourfold risk of admission to early parenting treatment programs compared with those conceiving spontaneously. This study aimed to identify prevalence and determinants of antenatal mood disturbance and other risks for early parenting difficulties after assisted conception. A prospective longitudinal investigation from conception to 18 months postpartum using telephone interviews and self-report questionnaires. Melbourne IVF and Royal Women's Hospital Reproductive Services, Victoria, Australia. A consecutive cohort of English-speaking women with ultrasound-confirmed ART-conceived pregnancies. Standardized psychometric measures of mood, quality of marital relationship, mother-to-fetus emotional attachment, and personality. None. Of the 288 women with confirmed pregnancies, 239 were contactable, and 183 (77%) were recruited, 95% of whom completed both early and late pregnancy assessments. Participants were socioeconomically advantaged, had very good pregnancy health, exceptional marital relationships, normal personality styles, and intense affectionate attachment to the fetus. Very few (<5%) had clinically significant mood disturbance in late pregnancy. There were low rates of antenatal mood disturbance and other risk factors for postpartum depression. Pregnancy and motherhood might be idealized after ART conception, and preparation for the realities of infant care might then be insufficient.

  2. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

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    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal pa...

  3. Maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganized attachment at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lisa J; Goodman, Sherryl H; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at three months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at three months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing.

  4. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

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    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  5. Depression, pregnancy-related anxiety and parental-antenatal attachment in couples using preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

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    Winter, C; Van Acker, F; Bonduelle, M; Van Berkel, K; Belva, F; Liebaers, I; Nekkebroeck, J

    2016-06-01

    analyses, taking into account covariation between measurements and within couples. Several perinatal covariates as well as social desirability, coping and adult attachment style were controlled for. All three conception groups had similar scores for depression during pregnancy and beyond. Also, pregnancy-related anxiety scales did not differ among the three groups. All groups also followed a similar trajectory in time regarding their scores for anxiety, depression and parental-antenatal attachment. ART groups did not give more socially desirable answers than SC controls. The subsequent moderators: coping and adult attachment style did not add any relevant information. No interaction effects occurred between gender and conception groups. The participants were Caucasian, Dutch-speaking couples, with medium to high socio-economic status, from a single centre. Our data should be replicated by multicultural and multicentre studies. Furthermore, the inclusion of an additional control group of couples who did not opt for PGD but for prenatal diagnosis may point to the most beneficial strategy for the couple. PGD parents invest a similar amount of time and emotion in their future children compared with controls. This implies that successful PGD treatment makes an important psychological contribution towards the well-being of couples given their complex hereditary and family backgrounds. This research project was funded by grants from the internal research council of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (OZR), the Flemish Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO) and the Wetenschappelijk Fonds Willy Gepts (WGFG). UZ Brussel and the Centre for Medical Genetics have received several educational grants for organizing the data collection, from IBSA, Ferring, Organon, Shering-Plough, Merck and Merck Belgium. M.B. has received consultancy and speaker's fees from Organon, Serono Symposia and Merck. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human

  6. ANTENATAL DETERMINANTS OF PARENTAL ATTACHMENT AND PARENTING ALLIANCE: HOW DO MOTHERS AND FATHERS DIFFER?

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    Luz, Rita; George, Astrid; Vieux, Rachel; Spitz, Elisabeth

    2017-03-01

    Parental (parent-to-infant) attachment and parenting alliance are defined as two important components of psychoaffective adjustment to the parental role. This study aimed to build a predictive model of parental attachment and parenting alliance for mothers and fathers using partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Specifically, we were interested in assessing how adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress influenced parental attachment (parent-to-infant) and parenting alliance. Forty heterosexual couples completed questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy and 2 months after childbirth. Results showed that adult romantic attachment, marital quality, and psychological distress were important antenatal determinants of parental attachment and parenting alliance, although they behaved differently for mothers and fathers. Hence, different predictive models were therefore proposed for mothers and fathers. Mothers' attachment to the child was influenced by internal factors as adult attachment dimensions; for fathers, it also depended on mothers' antenatal attachment to the child and on marital quality. Concerning parenting alliance, both mothers and fathers depended on own and partner's variables. Antenatal variables are important for what occurs during the transition to parenthood in terms of parenting adjustment and act differently for mothers and fathers. It thus is important to assess the psychological functioning of both mothers and fathers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Gender moderates the relationship between attachment insecurities and emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, P.; D’Aguanno, M.; de Campora, G.; di Francescantonio, S.; Garofalo, C.; Giromini, L.; Petrocchi, C.; Terrasi, M.; Zavattini, G.C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment styles and emotion regulation is well documented, and emotion dysregulation is considered characteristic of individuals with insecure attachment styles. Although gender differences in emotion regulation have often been reported, it is not clear whether the association

  8. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

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    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  9. Father attachment, father emotion expression, and children's attachment to fathers: The role of marital conflict.

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    Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A; Gilbert, Lauren R; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined relations between father attachment to spouses and child attachment to fathers in middle childhood, focusing on father emotion expressions in father-child interactions as mediators and marital conflict as a moderator of relations. Participants were 199 children between 6 and 12 years of age and their fathers. Fathers completed questionnaires about their attachment to their spouses, and both fathers and mothers reported on their marital conflict. Fathers also discussed a difficult topic with their children for 5 min, and fathers' positive and negative emotion expression during the discussions were coded. Children completed questionnaires through an interview about their attachment to their father. Father insecure attachment interacted with marital conflict in predicting more negative emotions and less positive emotions during father-child interactions. Specifically, in the context of higher marital conflict in this community sample, fathers who reported greater preoccupied attachment to their spouses exhibited more negative emotions and less positive emotions when interacting with their children. In turn, more father negative emotions and less positive emotions were associated with children's less secure attachment to fathers. In contrast, father fearful attachment interacted with marital conflict to predict less negative emotion and more positive emotion during interactions with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Attachment, Autonomy, and Emotional Reliance: A Multilevel Model

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    Lynch, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a test of a multilevel model investigating how attachment security and autonomy contribute to emotional reliance, or the willingness to seek interpersonal support. Participants ("N" = 247) completed online measures of attachment, autonomy, emotional reliance, and vitality with respect to several everyday…

  11. Attachment and selective attention: disorganization and emotional Stroop reaction time.

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    Atkinson, Leslie; Leung, Eman; Goldberg, Susan; Benoit, Diane; Poulton, Lori; Myhal, Natalie; Blokland, Kirsten; Kerr, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    Although central to attachment theory, internal working models remain a useful heuristic in need of concretization. We compared the selective attention of organized and disorganized mothers using the emotional Stroop task. Both disorganized attachment and emotional Stroop response involve the coordination of strongly conflicting motivations under conditions of emotional arousal. Furthermore, much is known about the cognitive and neuromodulatory correlates of the Stroop that may inform attempts to substantiate the internal working model construct. We assessed 47 community mothers with the Adult Attachment Interview and the Working Model of the Child Interview in the third trimester of pregnancy. At 6 and 12 months postpartum, we assessed mothers with emotional Stroop tasks involving neutral, attachment, and emotion conditions. At 12 months, we observed their infants in the Strange Situation. Results showed that: disorganized attachment is related to relative Stroop reaction time, that is, unlike organized mothers, disorganized mothers respond to negative attachment/emotion stimuli more slowly than to neutral stimuli; relative speed of response is positively related to number of times the dyad was classified disorganized, and change in relative Stroop response time from 6 to 12 months is related to the match-mismatch status of mother and infant attachment classifications. We discuss implications in terms of automatic and controlled processing and, more specifically, cognitive threat tags, parallel distributed processing, and neuromodulation through norepinephrine and dopamine.

  12. Attention Bias of Avoidant Individuals to Attachment Emotion Pictures.

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    Liu, Ying; Ding, Yi; Lu, Luluzi; Chen, Xu

    2017-01-27

    How attachment style affects emotion processing is tightly connected with individuals' attention bias. This experiment explored avoidant individuals' attentional engagement and attentional disengagement using a cue-target paradigm in fMRI. The experimental group consisted of 17 avoidant participants, while the control group consisted of 16 secure participants; these were identified by the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory and the Relationship Questionnaire. Each reacted to pictures of positive parent-child attachment, negative parent-child attachment, positive romantic attachment, negative romantic attachment, and neutral non-attachment. Behaviorally, avoidant individuals were slower than secure individuals in responding to emotions and their attentional disengagement effect for negative parent-child emotions was stronger than positive ones. fMRI results showed that avoidant compared to secure individuals activated more strongly in the right superior temporal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and the left medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, supplementary motor area, and cingulate gyrus. They also showed stronger activation in disengaging from positive than negative emotions in the bilateral fusiform and middle occipital gyri. In conclusion, avoidant individuals could detect emotions as effective as secure individuals in attentioal engaging stages. They can disengage from positive emotions with effective cognitive resources and were harder to get rid of negative emotions with insufficient resource.

  13. [Attachment Representation and Emotion Regulation in Patients with Burnout Syndrome].

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    Söllner, Wolfgang; Behringer, Johanna; Böhme, Stephanie; Stein, Barbara; Reiner, Iris; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-06-01

    Burnout describes a syndrome of exhaustion resulting from insufficient coping with work-related distress. We investigated if patients that are being clinically treated for burnout show insecure and unresolved attachment representation more often compared with healthy controls. 50 out of 60 consecutive burnout patients participated in the study. Mental representation of attachment was measured by using the Adult Attachment Interview. Additionally, we administered the Self Report Questionnaire to Assess Emotional Experience and Emotion Regulation and several burnout specific questionnaires. A population sample was used as control group. Burnout patients were classified as insecurely attached significantly more often than controls. Unresolved attachment status concerning loss or trauma was found significantly more often within the burnout sample. Patients with insecure attachment representation reported a lower subjective significance of work. Patients with avoidant insecure attachment showed more depersonalisation. Patients with unresolved loss/trauma reported less social support. They showed more passive-negative emotion experience and emotion regulation characterized by externalization. The results of the study suggest that an insecure or unresolved attachment representation might constitute an intrapersonal risk factor for the development of burnout syndrome. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

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    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  15. Maternal Attachment Strategies and Emotion Regulation with Adolescent Offspring.

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    Kobak, Roger; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between mothers' attachment strategies and emotion regulation in a sample of 42 families with 2 high school-aged siblings. Found that mothers with preoccupied strategies had difficulty regulating emotion during conversations with their older teenagers about them leaving home. Mothers with secure strategies perceived their…

  16. Infant emotion regulation: relations to bedtime emotional availability, attachment security, and temperament.

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    Kim, Bo-Ram; Stifter, Cynthia A; Philbrook, Lauren E; Teti, Douglas M

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines the influences of mothers' emotional availability toward their infants during bedtime, infant attachment security, and interactions between bedtime parenting and attachment with infant temperamental negative affectivity, on infants' emotion regulation strategy use at 12 and 18 months. Infants' emotion regulation strategies were assessed during a frustration task that required infants to regulate their emotions in the absence of parental support. Whereas emotional availability was not directly related to infants' emotion regulation strategies, infant attachment security had direct relations with infants' orienting toward the environment and tension reduction behaviors. Both maternal emotional availability and security of the mother-infant attachment relationship interacted with infant temperamental negative affectivity to predict two strategies that were less adaptive in regulating frustration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional regulation, attachment to possessions and hoarding symptoms.

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    Phung, Philip J; Moulding, Richard; Taylor, Jasmine K; Nedeljkovic, Maja

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to test which particular facets of emotion regulation (ER) are most linked to symptoms of hoarding disorder, and whether beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions (EA) mediate this relationship. A non-clinical sample of 150 participants (108 females) completed questionnaires of emotional tolerance (distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency - impulsivity when experiencing negative emotions), depressed mood, hoarding, and beliefs about emotional attachment to possessions. While all emotional tolerance measures related to hoarding, when considered together and controlling for depression and age, anxiety sensitivity and urgency were the significant predictors. Anxiety sensitivity was fully mediated, and urgency partially mediated, via beliefs regarding emotional attachment to possessions. These findings provide further support for (1) the importance of anxiety sensitivity and negative urgency for hoarding symptoms, and (2) the view that individuals with HD symptoms may rely on items for emotion regulation, leading to stronger beliefs that items are integral to emotional wellbeing. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Exploring the relationships among attachment, emotional intelligence and communication.

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    Cherry, M Gemma; Fletcher, Ian; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2013-03-01

    Attachment style has been shown to influence both emotional intelligence (EI) and the clinical communication of medical students and doctors. No research has assessed the relationships among attachment, EI and clinical communication in medical students. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of EI on the relationship between medical students' attachment style and clinical communication. Medical students were invited to complete measures of attachment (using the Experiences in Close Relationships-Short Form [ECR-SF], a 12-item measure that provides attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety dimensional scores) and EI (using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT], a 141-item measure of the perception, use, understanding and management of emotions) at the end of Year 1, prior to a summative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Clinical communication was assessed using OSCE scores. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse a hypothetical model of the relationships among attachment style, EI and clinical communication. A total of 200 of 358 (55.9%) students participated. Attachment avoidance was significantly negatively correlated with total EI scores (r=-0.28, pcommunication. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  19. Do brain lesions in stroke affect basic emotions and attachment?

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    Farinelli, Marina; Panksepp, Jaak; Gestieri, Laura; Maffei, Monica; Agati, Raffaele; Cevolani, Daniela; Pedone, Vincenzo; Northoff, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic emotions and attachment in a sample of 86 stroke patients. We included a control group of 115 orthopedic patients (matched for age and cognitive status) without brain lesions to control for unspecific general illness effects of a traumatic recent event on basic emotions and attachment. In order to measure basic emotions and attachment style we applied the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ). The stroke patients showed significantly different scores in the SEEKING, SADNESS, and ANGER subscales of the ANPS as well as in the Relationship as Secondary Attachment dimension of the ASQ when compared to the control group. These differences show a pattern influenced by lesion location mainly as concerns basic emotions. Anterior, medial, left, and subcortical patients provide scores significantly lower in ANPS-SEEKING than the control group; ANPS-SADNESS scores in anterior, right, medial, and subcortical patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. ANPS-ANGER scores in posterior, right, and lateral patients were significantly higher than those in the control group; finally, the ANPS-FEAR showed slightly lower scores in posterior patients than in the control group. Minor effects on brain lesions were also individuated in the attachment style. Anterior lesion patients showed a significantly higher average score in the ASQ-Need for Approval subscale than the control group. ASQ-Confidence subscale scores differed significantly in stroke patients with lesions in medial brain regions when compared to control subjects. Scores at ANPS and ASQ subscales appear significantly more correlated in stroke patients than in the control group. Such finding of abnormalities, especially concerning basic emotions in stroke brain-lesioned patients, indicates that the effect of brain lesions may enhance the interrelation between basic emotions and attachment with

  20. Antenatal emotional wellbeing screening in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services in Australia.

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    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra; Nagel, Tricia; Rumbold, Alice; Connors, Christine; Matthews, Veronica; Boyle, Jacqueline; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which antenatal emotional wellbeing (EW) assessments are undertaken in primary health care (PHC) centres and factors associated with completion of EW screening. Medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 PHC centres in five states (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were audited. Overall, 85% of the women were Aboriginal. The proportion of women with documented screening for EW varied from 5 to 38% between states (mean 17%). Aboriginal women were four times more likely (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 2.46-6.92) to not be screened for antenatal EW than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginality, lack of counselling on financial support were independently linked with no screening of EW. Provision of training for health service providers and further research on appropriate screening tools for Aboriginal women are needed to help redress this gap.

  1. Midwives' emotional wellbeing: impact of conducting a structured antenatal psychosocial assessment (SAPSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollart, Lyndall; Newing, Carol; Foureur, Maralyn

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the impact of conducting structured antenatal psychosocial assessments (SAPSA) on midwives' emotional wellbeing. The SAPSA includes screening and assessment tools for domestic violence, childhood trauma, drug and alcohol use, depression, and vulnerability factors. Registered midwives who had conducted the SAPSA with women during the first hospital booking visit at two hospitals in NSW. Data was collected by means of focus group interviews. Four sub-themes were identified that directly impacted upon the midwives' emotional wellbeing: cumulative complex disclosures, frustration and stress, lack of support for midwives and unhealthy coping strategies. There was a cumulative emotional effect with some midwives utilising unhealthy strategies to cope with feelings of frustration, inadequacy and vicarious trauma. Establishment of structured referral pathways for women and supportive systems for midwives is essential prior to implementing the SAPSA.

  2. College Student Binge Eating: Insecure Attachment and Emotion Regulation

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    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole

    2014-01-01

    Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…

  3. The Role of Emotion in Parent-Child Relationships: Children's Emotionality, Maternal Meta-Emotion, and Children's Attachment Security

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    Chen, Fu Mei; Lin, Hsiao Shih; Li, Chun Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study was intended to examine the relationship among children's emotionality, parental meta-emotion, and parent-child attachment. The sample consisted of 546 5th and 6th grade children and their mothers. The test instruments used in this study were the Emotionality subscale of the EAS Temperament Survey (mothers' ratings only), the Parental…

  4. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

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    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  5. Mindfulness, Emotional Availability, and Emotional Attachment: Three Pillars of Daily Practice

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    Biringen, Zeynep; Closson, Lia; Derr-Moore, Abigail; Pratt, Deborah; Pybus, Kylie; Saunders, Hannah; Warren, Virginia; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; Harman, J. J.; Neu, Madalynn

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver-child relationships offer the first opportunity for a healthy start and the possibility for a secure attachment. Balanced and healthy dyadic emotional communication is referred to as "emotional availability" (EA; Biringen, Robinson, & Emde, 1998). EA in a family is enhanced when there is lower stress, often addressed…

  6. The Heterogeneity of ADHD Symptoms and Conduct Problems : Cognitive Inhibition, Emotion Regulation, Emotionality and Disorganized Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachm...

  7. Maternal Attachment Status, Mother-Child Emotion Talk, Emotion Understanding, and Child Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.

  8. Validating relationships among attachment, emotional intelligence and clinical communication.

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    Cherry, M Gemma; Fletcher, Ian; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study, we found that emotional intelligence (EI) mediates the negative influences of Year 1 medical students' attachment styles on their provider-patient communication (PPC). However, in that study, students were examined on a relatively straightforward PPC skill set and were not assessed on their abilities to elicit relevant clinical information from standardised patients. The influence of these psychological variables in more demanding and realistic clinical scenarios warrants investigation. This study aimed to validate previous research findings by exploring the mediating effect of EI on the relationship between medical students' attachment styles and their PPC across an ecologically valid PPC objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Year 2 medical students completed measures of attachment (the Experiences in Close Relationships-Short Form [ECR-SF], a 12-item measure which provides attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety dimensional scores) and EI (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT], a 141-item measure on the perception, use, understanding and management of emotions), prior to their summative PPC OSCE. Provider-patient communication was assessed using OSCE scores. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to validate our earlier model of the relationships between attachment style, EI and PPC. A total of 296 of 382 (77.5%) students participated. Attachment avoidance was significantly negatively correlated with total EI scores (r = -0.23, p < 0.01); total EI was significantly positively correlated with OSCE scores (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). Parsimonious SEM confirmed that EI mediated the negative influence of attachment avoidance on OSCE scores. It significantly predicted 14% of the variance in OSCE scores, twice as much as the 7% observed in the previous study. In more demanding and realistic clinical scenarios, EI makes a greater contribution towards effective PPC. Attachment is perceived to be stable

  9. Relationship jealousy and its relation to emotional attachment and sexuality

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    Sanja Temnik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to study the emotion of relationship jealousy in context of emotional attachment and sexuality. Two main theories that try to explain the nature of this complex emotional state are the evolutionary paradigm and the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis. According to evolutionary psychologists, jealousy is an evolved adaptation, activated by threats to a valuable relationship, functioning to protect it from partial or total loss. The "double-shot" hypothesis on the other hand emphasises the importance of different beliefs men and women hold about emotional vs. sexual infidelity. Slovenian data suggests that (a emotional infidelity is the primary jealousy trigger in both sexes; (b jealousy is influenced by the socio-cultural context (the degree of sexual permissiveness and sex role egalitarity seem to be of special importance, but not by characteristics of the individuals` early life situation; (c marital status influences the tendency towards sexual or emotional jealousy in romantic relationships; (d this tendency also depends on whether the individual comes from a rural or urban environment. Because the results seem to be affected by the linguistic formulation of jealousy and each infidelity type, special attention should be directed towards a precise conceptualisation of these terms. Beliefs about the typical relationship between the emotional and sexual aspect of human relations as well as participants` self-reports indicate that men find it a lot easier to separate both types of attachment than women. In Slovenia, the degree of sexual permissiveness as well as the degree of sex role egalitarity seem to be relatively high and comparable to certain other European countries. The results support the so-called "double-shot" hypothesis, but not the evolutionary theory of jealousy as a sex-specific innate module.

  10. Perceived hunger mediates the relationship between attachment anxiety and emotional eating.

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    Alexander, Katherine E; Siegel, Harold I

    2013-08-01

    Eating is an inherently emotional activity and the attachment system is an emotion regulation system. Individuals with attachment insecurity have less interoceptive awareness and difficulty regulating emotion. Insecurely attached individuals may eat emotionally because they misinterpret internal hunger cues, (i.e. think they are hungry when they are experiencing some other internal, attachment-related state). The current study found a positive association between attachment anxiety and emotional eating. This relationship was mediated by perceived hunger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. “Toward socially responsible agents: integrating attachment and learning in emotional decision-making,”

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ben Moussa and N. Magnenat-Thalmann

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to create socially responsible agents either robots or virtual humans. In this paper we present an integration of emotions attachment and learning in emotional decision making to achieve this goal. Based on emerging psychological theories we aim at building human like emotional decision making where emotions play a central role in selecting the next action to be performed by the agent. Here we present our own approach for emotion appraisal where we use emotional attachment as an i...

  12. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema Affects the Emotional Face Processing Bias in Attachment Anxiety: An fMRI Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study explored how priming with a secure base schema affects the processing of emotional facial stimuli in individuals with attachment anxiety. We enrolled 42 undergraduate students between 18 and 27 years of age, and divided them into two groups: attachment anxiety and attachment secure. All participants were primed under two conditions, the secure priming using references to the partner, and neutral priming using neutral references. We performed repeated attachment security priming combined with a dual-task paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants’ reaction times in terms of responding to the facial stimuli were also measured. Attachment security priming can facilitate an individual’s processing of positive emotional faces; for instance, the presentation of the partner’s name was associated with stronger activities in a wide range of brain regions and faster reaction times for positive facial expressions in the subjects. The current finding of higher activity in the left-hemisphere regions for secure priming rather than neutral priming is consistent with the prediction that attachment security priming triggers the spread of the activation of a positive emotional state. However, the difference in brain activity during processing of both, positive and negative emotional facial stimuli between the two priming conditions appeared in the attachment anxiety group alone. This study indicates that the effect of attachment secure priming on the processing of emotional facial stimuli could be mediated by chronic attachment anxiety. In addition, it highlights the association between higher-order processes of the attachment system (secure attachment schema priming and early-stage information processing system (attention, given the increased attention toward the effects of secure base schema on the processing of emotion- and attachment-related information among the insecure population. Thus, the following study has

  13. Restabilizing attachment to cultural objects. Aesthetics, emotions and biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzecry, Claudio E

    2015-12-01

    The scholarship on aesthetics and materiality has studied how objects help shape identity, social action and subjectivity. Objects, as 'equipment[s] for living' (Luhmann 2000), become the 'obligatory passage points humans have to contend with in order to pursue their projects (Latour 1991). They provide patterns to which bodies can unconsciously latch onto, or help human agents work towards particular states of being (DeNora 2000, 2003). Objects are central in the long term process of taste construction, as any attachment to an object is made out of a delicate equilibrium of mediators, bodies, situations and techniques (Hennion and his collaborators (Hennion and Fouquet 2001; Hennion and Gomart 1999). In all of these accounts objects are the end result of long-term processes of stabilization, in which the actual material object (a musical piece, a sculpture, an art installation, a glass of wine, the oeuvre of Bach as we know it) is both a result and yet a key co-producer of its own generation. Whereas the literature has been generous and detailed in exploring the processes of assembling and sustaining object-centered attachments, it has not sufficiently engaged with what happens when the aesthetic elements of cultural artifacts that have produced emotional resonance are transformed: what do these artifacts morph into? What explains the transition (or not) of different cultural objects? And relatedly, what happens to the key aesthetic qualities that were so central to how the objects had been defined, and to those who have emotionally attached to them? To answer these questions, this article uses as exemplars two different cases of attachment, predicated on the distinctive features of a cultural object--the transcendence of opera and the authenticity of a soccer jersey--that have undergone transformations. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  14. Emotional attachment and emotional availability tele-intervention for adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Megan; Biringen, Zeynep; Meyer-Parsons, Beatrice; Schneider, Abby

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the new online Emotional Attachment and Emotional Availability (EA2) Intervention for use with adoptive families in enhancing parent-child EA, parental perceptions of EA, child attachment behaviors, parent-child emotional attachment, and reducing parent-reported child behavioral problems and parenting-related stress. Participants in this study were adoptive parents and their adopted children ages 1.5 to 5 years old (N = 15 dyads). Participants were placed in an immediate intervention group (IG) or a delayed intervention group (DG) that would receive the 6-week EA2 Tele-Intervention after the IG. Results revealed significant differences in the IG in child behavioral problems, parent-child EA, parental perceptions of EA, and parent-child emotional attachment, improvements not seen in the DG. Analysis of effects of the DG after receiving the EA2 Tele-Intervention revealed significant differences over time also in most of these qualities. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. The impact of attachment security and emotion dysregulation on anxiety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed...... to anxiety and that emotion dysregulation would help explain the association between attachment security and anxiety. Results showed that more securely attached youths reported less emotion dysregulation and that youths who had fewer emotion regulation difficulties experienced less anxiety. The association...... between attachment security and anxiety was mediated by emotion dysregulation. The model was confirmed for both children and adolescents. Findings are discussed with respect to theoretical implications, as well as future directions....

  16. Emotional Availability and Attachment Representations in Kibbutz Infants and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Ora; Sagi, Abraham; Joels, Tirtsa; Ziv, Yair

    1999-01-01

    Examined three components of the attachment-transmission model in 48 kibbutz dyads from communal and home-based sleeping arrangements. Found that security of infants' attachment relations and autonomy of mothers' attachment representations were associated with higher emotional availability scores. Poorer emotional availability was found in dyads…

  17. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  18. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  19. Change in attachment predicts change in emotion regulation particularly among 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viddal, Kristine Rensvik; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Belsky, Jay; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-07-01

    In view of the theory that the attachment relationship provides a foundation for the development of emotion regulation, here, we evaluated (a) whether change in attachment security from 4 to 6 years predicts change in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 years and (b) whether 5-HTTLPR moderates this relation in a Norwegian community sample (n = 678, 99.7% Caucasian). Attachment was measured with the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, and teachers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist. Attachment security was modestly stable, with children becoming more secure over time. Regression analyses revealed that increased attachment security from 4 to 6 forecasted increases in emotion regulation from 6 to 8 and decreased attachment security forecasted decreases in emotion regulation. This effect was strongest among the 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygotes and, according to competitive model fitting, in a differential-susceptibility manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Attachment style and emotional eating in bariatric surgery candidates: The mediating role of difficulties in emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Van Exan, Jessica; Tanaka, Rika; Wnuk, Susan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2015-08-01

    Difficulties with emotion regulation is a hypothesized mechanism through which attachment insecurity may affect emotional eating. No studies have yet investigated this effect in the bariatric population. Because many obese individuals engage in emotional eating, difficulty regulating emotion may be an important underlying mechanism through which attachment insecurity is linked to emotional eating in bariatric surgery candidates. In this cross-sectional study, 1393 adult bariatric surgery candidates from the Toronto Western Hospital were recruited to complete the Emotional Eating Scale (EES), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD7), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and the Experiences for Close Relationships 16-item Scale (ECR-16) in order to explore the mediating role of emotion regulation on the relationship between attachment insecurity and emotional eating. Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework examined direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity on emotional eating. The indices of this overall model indicated that the specified set of direct and indirect pathways and corresponding correlations were a good fit with the data (RMSEAemotional eating were significant. Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important mechanism to consider when examining the association between attachment insecurity and emotional eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates. Although causality cannot be concluded, these results shed light on the important role that emotion regulation may have in predicting problematic eating in bariatric patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Using food to soothe: Maternal attachment anxiety is associated with child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Christiansen, Paul; Wilkinson, Laura L

    2016-04-01

    Attachment anxiety (fear of abandonment) is associated with disinhibited eating in adults. Both maternal disinhibited eating and use of emotional feedings strategies are associated with emotional eating in children. On this basis, the current study sought to determine whether attachment anxiety is an underlying maternal characteristic that predicts parental reports of child emotional over-eating via its effects on maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding. Mothers of a preadolescent child (N = 116) completed an internet-delivered questionnaire. Maternal attachment anxiety and dietary disinhibition were assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, respectively. The Parental Feeding Strategies Questionnaire and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire were used to quantify emotional feeding and child emotional over-eating, respectively. Bias-corrected bootstrapping indicated a significant direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating (i.e., controlling for maternal disinhibited eating and emotional feeding). There was also a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on child emotional over-eating via emotional feeding strategies. In a subsequent model to investigate bi-directional relationships, the direct effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies was not statistically significant after controlling for child emotional over-eating. There was, however, a significant indirect effect of maternal attachment anxiety on emotional feeding strategies via child emotional over-eating. These findings highlight the influence of maternal attachment anxiety on parental reports of aberrant eating behaviour in children. While this may be partly due to use of emotional feeding strategies, there is stronger evidence for a "child-responsive" model whereby anxiously-attached mothers use these feeding practices in response to perceived

  2. Emotion regulation as a mediator in the relationship between attachment and depressive symptomatology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Wells, Adrian; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-02-01

    Attachment theory has been conceptualised as an emotion regulation theory. Research attributes the occurrence of depressive symptoms to a dysfunction of emotion regulation. Anxious attachment and avoidant attachment, which are two dimensions of insecure attachment, are hypothesised to lead to the development of hyperactivating and deactivating emotion regulation strategies. This systematic review examines the literature on the role of emotion regulation and its relationship with attachment and depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, we examined evidence for hyperactivating and deactivating strategies. Nineteen papers were identified. Adolescent studies demonstrated associations of varying strength and found unreliable and contradictory results for emotion regulation as a mediator. Conversely, adult studies provided strong evidence for emotion regulation as a mediator. The hypothesis that hyperactivating strategies mediate anxious attachment and depressive symptoms was consistently supported. Mixed evidence was provided for deactivating strategies as mediators to avoidant attachment and depressive symptomatology. Limitations of methodology and quality of studies are identified with particular attention drawn to problems with conceptual singularity and multicollinearity. Despite mixed variable findings, this review indicates that emotion regulation is a mediator between attachment and depression. Hyperactivating strategies, in particular, have been consistently noted as mediators for anxious attachment and depressive symptomatology, whereas evidence for deactivating strategies as mediators between avoidant attachment and depressive symptoms has been mixed. Future research should test the mediators of attachment and symptoms and examine theoretically grounded models of psychopathology, such as metacognitive and cognitive models using clinical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating Emotional Attachment and Sustainability in Electronic Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lobos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current models for Information and Communication Technology (ICT products encourage frequent product replacement with newer versions that offer only minor incremental improvements. This pattern, named planned obsolescence, diminishes user experience and shortens product lifespan. This paper presents the conceptual basis for a two-part integrated approach to combating planned obsolescence in ICT devices. First, design for emotional attachment, which creates products that users enjoy, value, and use for longer. Second, technological adaptability, which anticipates product upgrades and repairs as new technologies emerge. A model interdisciplinary design course in industrial design and sustainability, also described herein, trains students to apply this approach to create innovative ICT products with smaller environmental footprints.

  4. Attachment, emotion regulation, and adaptation to breast cancer: assessment of a mediational hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Marisa; Brandão, Tânia; Teixeira, Joana; Coimbra, Joaquim Luis; Matos, Paula Mena

    2015-11-01

    This study examines the links between attachment, adaptation to breast cancer, and the mediating role played by emotional regulation processes. Participants were 127 women with breast cancer recruited in two public hospitals of Porto and at the Portuguese Cancer League. Women completed measures of attachment, quality of life, and emotion regulation. Path models were used to examine the associations between the constructs and to test the mediational hypotheses. Significant associations were found between attachment and adaptation. Dimensions of emotion regulation totally or partially mediated the associations between attachment and adaptation outcomes. Attachment security effects on interpersonal relations were totally mediated by communicating emotions. Also, attachment anxiety effect on physical well-being was totally mediated by rumination. Attachment avoidance effects on psychological outcomes were totally mediated by emotional control and partially mediated by communicating emotions for the case of interpersonal relations. This study highlights the importance of addressing emotional regulation jointly with attachment to deepen the comprehension of the relational processes implicated in adaptation to breast cancer. Results supported a mediational hypothesis, presenting emotional regulation processes as relevant dimensions for the understanding of attachment associations with adaptation to breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Adult attachment, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  6. How the attachment styles associated with Student Alienation: The Mediation Role of Emotional Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Mert, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined emotional well-being as a mediator between parental attachment (mother and father) and student alienation. A total of 227 high school students from the city of Ankara completed the self-report measures of parental attachment, positive and negative affect, and alienation. Using structural equation modeling, a model was examined in which emotional well-being mediated the link between parental attachment and alienation feeling of students. Results from structural equat...

  7. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Maternal Attachment Representation and Neurophysiological Processing during the Perception of Infants' Emotional Expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Leyh

    Full Text Available The perception of infant emotions is an integral part of sensitive caregiving within the mother-child relationship, a maternal ability which develops in mothers during their own attachment history. In this study we address the association between maternal attachment representation and brain activity underlying the perception of infant emotions. Event related potentials (ERPs of 32 primiparous mothers were assessed during a three stimulus oddball task presenting negative, positive and neutral emotion expressions of infants as target, deviant or standard stimuli. Attachment representation was assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview during pregnancy. Securely attached mothers recognized emotions of infants more accurately than insecurely attached mothers. ERPs yielded amplified N170 amplitudes for insecure mothers when focusing on negative infant emotions. Secure mothers showed enlarged P3 amplitudes to target emotion expressions of infants compared to insecure mothers, especially within conditions with frequent negative infant emotions. In these conditions, P3 latencies were prolonged in insecure mothers. In summary, maternal attachment representation was found associated with brain activity during the perception of infant emotions. This further clarifies psychological mechanisms contributing to maternal sensitivity.

  9. Gender moderates the associations between attachment and discrete emotions in late middle age and later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L

    2009-11-01

    Although patterns of attachment have been linked to patterns of emotional experience, studies in developmentally diverse samples are few and have not yet examined possible gender differences in attachment or their implications for emotional wellbeing. This article describes patterns of attachment in a diverse sample of 616 men and women from middle age and later life, examines the relations between attachment and nine discrete emotions, and tests the thesis that gender moderates these associations. Convenience sampling was used to derive a sample of 616 ethnically diverse men and women from seven ethnic groups. Multiple regressions controlling for demographics found no gender differences in attachment categorizations although men reported greater dimensional fearful avoidance. Security predicted greater joy and interest whereas dismissingness was associated with lower shame and fear and with greater interest. Both preoccupation and fearful avoidance predicted most negative emotions but were not associated with positive emotions. Finally, gender moderated these associations such that (a) attachment security was more closely related to interest and, marginally, joy, among men; (b) fearful avoidance was more closely related to fear and contempt among men; and (c) preoccupation was associated with greater interest among men, whereas fear and contempt were associated with preoccupation among women only. Interpreted in the context of theories of emotions, the social origins of emotional experience, and the different roles that social relationships have for aging men and women, our data imply that attachment styles may differentially predict male emotions because of their less diverse networks.

  10. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Attachment Representation Moderates the Influence of Emotional Context on Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyh, Rainer; Heinisch, Christine; Kungl, Melanie T; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    The induction of emotional states has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive processing capacities. At a neurophysiological level, P3 amplitude responses that are associated with attention allocation have been found to be reduced to task-relevant stimuli during emotional conditions as compared to neutral conditions suggesting a draining impact of emotion on cognitive resources. Attachment theory claims that how individuals regulate their emotions is guided by an internal working model (IWM) of attachment that has formed early in life. While securely attached individuals are capable of freely evaluating their emotions insecurely attached ones tend to either suppress or heighten the emotional experience in a regulatory effort. To explore how attachment quality moderates the impact of emotional contexts on information processing event-related potentials (ERPs) in 41 individuals were assessed. Subjects were instructed to detect neutral target letters within an oddball paradigm. Various images taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) served as background pictures and represented negative, positive and neutral task-irrelevant contexts. Attachment representation was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and individuals were assigned to one of three categories (secure, insecure-dismissing, insecure-preoccupied). At a behavioral level, the study revealed that negative emotionally conditions were associated with the detection of less target stimuli in insecure-dismissing subjects. Accordingly, ERPs yielded reduced P3 amplitudes in insecure-dismissing subjects when given a negative emotional context. We interpret these findings in terms of less sufficient emotion regulation strategies in insecure-dismissing subjects at the cost of accurate behavioral performance. The study suggests that attachment representation differentially moderates the relationship between emotional contexts and information processing most evident in insecure

  12. Different perspectives on the sex-attachment link: towards an emotion-motivational account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between sex and attachment was made decades ago (Hazan & Shaver, 1987), theories on sexual and attachment functioning have been developed in relative isolation. Recent efforts to integrate both literatures have been complicated by the fact that the sex-attachment link has been approached from very different perspectives, including biological, evolutionary, developmental, cognitive, and social psychology approaches. Also, at the empirical level, research on sex and attachment lacks overarching synthesis. This article gives an overview of the most important theoretical ideas and empirical insights on sex and attachment. It starts with describing general models that approach the sex-attachment link from an evolutionary and neurobiological perspective. Then, it summarizes theoretical and empirical ideas of attachment theory and describes how attachment style differences are manifested in intimate and sexual relationships. Research so far has been limited to studying the predicted link between sex and attachment in terms of broad descriptives, and it would benefit the literature to specify the processes and pathways that mediate the sex-attachment link. After a short discussion of the functional similarities between the sexual and the attachment systems, the article describes some specific--dynamical--models that focus on the emotional and cognitive-motivational processes through which attachment schemas influence sexual experiences. Such an emotion-motivational perspective on sex and attachment can help to organize theoretical ideas and empirical findings and eventually promote an integrative view on how attachment dynamics can interact with sexual experiences.

  13. Considering Attachment and Partner Perceptions in the Prediction of Physical and Emotional Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverup, Camilla S; Smith, C Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding sexual satisfaction; in general, research suggests that attachment anxiety and avoidance are associated with decreased sexual satisfaction. Given their different working models of self and other, perceptions of the partner's level of satisfaction might differentially influence people's own perceptions of satisfaction based on their attachment avoidance and anxiety. To examine the predictive value of attachment anxiety and avoidance and perceptions of partner satisfaction in predicting physical and emotional satisfaction after sexual interactions in two studies. Participants (study 1, n = 52; study 2, n = 144) completed a one-time survey containing a measurement of attachment and then reported on their physical and emotional sexual satisfaction after each sexual interaction over the course of 2 to 3 weeks. The Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised was completed during the one-time survey, and ratings of personal physical and emotional sexual satisfaction (studies 1 and 2) and perceptions of partner's physical and emotional satisfaction were completed after sexual interactions (study 2). Greater attachment avoidance was associated with lesser physical and emotional satisfaction. Moreover, when perceiving the partner to be emotionally satisfied, people with more attachment avoidance reported less emotional satisfaction for themselves. For greater attachment anxiety, greater perceived partner satisfaction (physical and emotional) predicted greater personal satisfaction of the two types. The findings support attachment theory as a valuable lens through which to study sexual satisfaction. Moreover, the results suggest that it is important to consider perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction in understanding the sexual satisfaction of people who demonstrate attachment anxiety and avoidance. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotional availability and attachment across generations: variations in patterns associated with infant health risk status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassibba, R; van IJzendoorn, M H; Coppola, G

    2012-07-01

    The presence of limits or distortions in the children's communicative behaviours (due to a chronic illness) may interfere with the possibility to build secure attachment relationships. Moreover, the distress that the atypical chronic illness condition brings to family life may interfere the intergenerational transmission of attachment. This study evaluated the associations between maternal attachment representations, emotional availability and mother-child attachment in a clinical and in a comparison group. Forty infants (23 female) in their 14th month of life and their mothers participated in this study, 20 dyads with clinical infants (10 premature infants and 10 infants affected by atopic dermatitis) and 20 full-term and healthy comparison infants. The Adult Attachment Interview, the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS) and the Strange Situation Procedure were used to assess, respectively, the security of mothers' attachment representations, the emotional availability and the quality of mother-child attachment. We found that the two groups (clinical vs. comparison) did not differ with respect to the Adult Attachment Interview and the Emotional Availability Scales measures. A significant difference was found in the distribution of the infant-mother attachment patterns, with a higher incidence of insecure infants in the clinical group. In the typically developing group, more secure maternal attachment representations predicted more emotional availability in mother-infant interactions, which predicted more secure infant-mother attachments. However, we did not find similar support for intergenerational transmission of attachment in the clinical group. We speculate that constant concerns about the child's health condition and communicative difficulties of clinical infants may hamper or even mitigate the intergenerational transmission of attachment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Attachment as a partial mediator of the relationship between emotional abuse and schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Karen; Rush, Robert; Grünwald, Lisa; Darling, Stephen; Tiliopoulos, Niko

    2015-12-15

    Developmental theories highlight the salience of attachment theory in explaining vulnerability towards psychosis. At the same time there is increasing recognition that psychosis is associated with childhood trauma variables. This study explored the interaction between attachment and several trauma variables in relation to schizotypy levels in a non-clinical sample. 283 non-clinical participants completed online measures of schizotypy, attachment, childhood abuse and neglect. When five types of abuse/neglect were entered into a linear regression analysis emotional abuse was the sole independent predictor of schizotypy. Age, attachment anxiety and avoidance were independent predictors after the effects of emotional abuse were controlled for. The overall model was significant, explaining 34% of the variation in schizotypy. Moderation analysis indicated that the effect of emotional abuse was not conditional upon attachment. Parallel mediation analysis indicated small but significant indirect effects of emotional abuse on schizotypy through attachment avoidance (13%) and attachment anxiety (8%). We conclude that emotional abuse contributes to vulnerability towards psychosis both directly and indirectly through attachment insecurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A controlled study of attachment representations and emotion regulation in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Serena Pace

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several recent studies highlighted that both attachment insecurity and emotion regulation difficulties form a key part of conceptual models of anorexia nervosa (AN, but they had never been analyzed in the same controlled study. Method: This study examined the attachment states of mind, assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, and emotion regulation difficulties, measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, among 25 girls with AN diagnosis aged 14-18 years (M age=16.52, SD= 1.23, and 25 general population controls, matched for gender, age, years of education and SES. Results. The AN group reported both significantly higher attachment insecurity (75% vs 46%, Fisher Exact Test, p=.04, dismissing (Ds in particular (χ²=6.41, df=2, p=.03, and difficulties with emotion regulation than non-clinical controls. Two AAI’s scales connected to Ds classification – idealization of mother and lack of recall – were significantly correlated to lack of emotional awareness and clarity. Conclusions. Our results provide support for conceptualization of AN emphasizing the role of attachment insecurity and emotional dysregulation in the development and maintenance of this restrictive type of eating disorder. These findings may have implications for treatment programs which may prove more fruitful integrating attachment-based intervention with clinical work focused on development of emotion regulation abilities.

  17. The dimensions of affective attachment as predictors of the level of emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core issue of this investigation was to examine whether the dimensions of familial affective attachment (anxious and avoidant can serve as predictors of the level of emotional intelligence in university students. In addition, explored was the connection between the above constructs, as well as whether they differ in prominence by sex, academic success, birth order and parent's education. The prominence of the dimensions of familial affective attachment on the sample used was also investigated. Used questionnaires were: Questionnaire for assessment of family attachment PAVb (Kamenov and Jelić, 2003 questionnaire for assessing emotional competence (UEK-45; (Takšić, 2002 and a questionnaire created for research purposes. The sample consists of students from the second and third year students 'Vocational high school for teachers' in Krusevac and 'Faculty of Pedagogical Sciences' in Jagodina, a total of 200. The findings show that emotional intelligence in general, as well as its Ability to Name and Express Emotion can be predicted on the basis of dimensions of Anxiety and Avoidance. The prominence of dimensions of familial attachment is low in the sample, and the Secure pattern of attachment predominates. Differences in the prominence of constructs under observation were not found by sex, year of study, birth order and parent's education, while connection between academic success and emotional intelligence is positive. The findings concerning connection between dimensions of familial affective attachment and capability of emotional intelligence show that the dimension Avoidance is negatively correlated with the Ability to Name and Express Emotion.

  18. ENHANCING BRAND EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT TOWARDS TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Ardyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on Samsung’s smartphone consumers in Surakarta, have aimed to (1 Test the influence of brand experience on brand trust; (2 Test brand beliefs on brand loyalty; (3 Test on emotional attachment brand experience; (4 Test emotional attachment on brand trust; (5 Test brand experience on brand loyalty. The sample of this research was obtained from 100 respondents who have purchased a Samsung smartphone with the number of the purchase more than once. Methods of analysis used in this study are Structural Equation Modelling. The results of this research indicate that: (1 Brand experience influenced brand trust positively and significantly; (2 The trust against a brand loyalty affect brand positively and significantly; (3 Brand experience have positive and significant effect on emotional attachment; (4 Emotional attachment affects brand trust positively and significantly; (5 Brand trust have the influence of brand loyalty positively but not significant.

  19. An experimental study of emotion regulation during relationship conflict interactions: the moderating role of attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Shiri; Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Mikulincer, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Romantic couples (N = 127) engaged in a relationship conflict interaction during which their autonomic physiology, emotional experience, and emotional behavior were recorded. Couples were assigned randomly to one of two interventions, or to a control condition: In the affective suppression condition, one partner was instructed to refrain from expressing emotions. In the positive mindset condition, one partner was instructed to think about the positive aspects of the relationship. Results revealed that emotion regulation interventions influenced the physiology, emotional behavior, and emotional experience of both the manipulated person and his or her partner, who was oblivious to regulation manipulations. Specifically, suppression increased, and positive mindset decreased cardiovascular arousal and negative affect. These effects were generally exacerbated among those high on attachment anxiety and attenuated among those high on attachment avoidance. The results of this research corroborate and extend the Temporal Interpersonal Emotion Systems model (Butler, 2011) in the context of relationship conflict interactions.

  20. The Attachment-Satisfaction Relationship On Facebook: Emotional Intelligence And Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Jarred Michael

    2013-01-01

    Caldwell, J. M., Ph.D. Purdue University, February 2013. The Attachment-Satisfaction Relationship on Facebook: Emotional Intelligence and Conflict. Major Professor: M. Carole Pistole, Ph.D. Because of the unique interpersonal nature of social networking sites, as well as the vast number of people using them, this study examines how attachment differences and other factors, including social networking site romantic conflict behavior and emotional intelligence, link to romantic relationship ...

  1. ENHANCING BRAND EXPERIENCE ALONG WITH EMOTIONAL ATTACHMENT TOWARDS TRUST AND BRAND LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Ardyan; Heny Kurnianingsih; Ginanjar Rahmawan; Utomo Wibisono; Winata Winata

    2016-01-01

    Research on Samsung’s smartphone consumers in Surakarta, have aimed to (1) Test the influence of brand experience on brand trust; (2) Test brand beliefs on brand loyalty; (3) Test on emotional attachment brand experience; (4) Test emotional attachment on brand trust; (5) Test brand experience on brand loyalty. The sample of this research was obtained from 100 respondents who have purchased a Samsung smartphone with the number of the purchase more than once. Methods of analysis used in this s...

  2. Influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city

    OpenAIRE

    Manyiwa, Simon; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - This study examines the influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city. The study also compares the effects of perceived brand image of the city on the emotional attachment to the city across two groups: residents and visitors. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology - A total of 207 usable questionnaires were collected from 107 residents of the city of Bratislava, Slovakia, and 100 visitors to the city. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) me...

  3. Influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city

    OpenAIRE

    Manyiwa, Simon; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Wang, Xuan Lorna

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - This study examines the influence of perceived city brand image on emotional attachment to the city. The study also compares the effects of perceived brand image of the city on the emotional attachment to the city across two groups: residents and visitors. Design/methodology - A total of 207 usable questionnaires were collected from 107 residents of the city of Bratislava, Slovakia, and 100 visitors to the city. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) met...

  4. College Student Binge Eating: Attachment, Psychological Needs Satisfaction, and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Suejung; Lee, Soonhee

    2017-01-01

    In this study we examine the mediating roles of psychological needs satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment insecurity (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and binge eating behavior in college students. A total sample of 820 college students…

  5. How the Attachment Styles Associated with Student Alienation: The Mediation Role of Emotional Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocayörük, Ercan; Uzman, Ersin; Mert, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined emotional well-being as a mediator between parental attachment (mother and father) and student alienation. A total of 227 high school students from the city of Ankara completed the self-report measures of parental attachment, positive and negative affect, and alienation. Using structural equation modeling, a model was…

  6. Attachment linked predictors of women's emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M; Siepak, Kathryn J

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among women's emotional and cognitive responses to infant fear and anger and to identify attachment linked predictors of these responses. Four hundred and forty Caucasian and African American undergraduate college women viewed video clips of two crying infants, one displaying anger and the other displaying fear. They identified what the infants were feeling, made causal attributions about the cause of crying, rated their own emotional reactions to the crying infants, and reported on the extent to which their parents met their emotional needs in childhood and their current adult attachment patterns. Emotional and cognitive responses to infant fear and anger were interrelated. Consistent with prediction, a history of parental emotional rejection and adult attachment anxiety and avoidance correlated negatively with accurate identification of emotions and positively with negative attributions, amusement, and neutral responses to infant distress. Adult attachment security moderated the effects of early parental rejection on emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress, and these results varied based on race and parent gender. Results are discussed from an attachment theory perspective.

  7. Negative emotionality moderates associations among attachment, toddler sleep, and later problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Wendy M; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Forbes, Erika E; Campbell, Susan B

    2013-02-01

    Secure parent-child relationships are implicated in children's self-regulation, including the ability to self-soothe at bedtime. Sleep, in turn, may serve as a pathway linking attachment security with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems in children. We used path analysis to examine the direct relationship between attachment security and maternal reports of sleep problems during toddlerhood and the degree to which sleep serves as a pathway linking attachment with subsequent teacher-reported emotional and behavioral problems. We also examined infant negative emotionality as a vulnerability factor that may potentiate attachment-sleep-adjustment outcomes. Data were drawn from 776 mother-infant dyads participating in the National Institute of Child and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. After statistically adjusting for mother and child characteristics, including child sleep and emotional and behavioral problems at 24 months, we found no evidence for a statistically significant direct path between attachment security and sleep problems at 36 months; however, there was a direct relationship between sleep problems at 36 months and internalizing problems at 54 months. Path models that examined the moderating influence of infant negative emotionality demonstrated significant direct relationships between attachment security and toddler sleep problems and between sleep problems and subsequent emotional and behavioral problems, but only among children characterized by high negative emotionality at 6 months. In addition, among this subset, there was a significant indirect path between attachment and internalizing problems through sleep problems. These longitudinal findings implicate sleep as one critical pathway linking attachment security with adjustment difficulties, particularly among temperamentally vulnerable children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Attachment, emotion regulation and coping in Portuguese emerging adults: a test of a mediation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Joana; Matos, Paula M; Beyers, Wim; Soenens, Bart

    2012-11-01

    Although the quality of parent-adolescent emotional bonds has consistently been proposed as a major influence on young adult's psycho-emotional functioning, the precise means by which these bonds either facilitate or impede adaptive coping are not well-understood. In an effort to advance this inquiry, the present study examined interrelationships among measures of parental attachment, emotion regulation processes, and preferred coping strategies within a sample of 942 college freshmen. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test whether the link between attachment to parents and the use of particular coping strategies is mediated by differences in emotion regulation mechanisms. As hypothesized, differences in attachment to parents predicted differences in the use of emotion regulation mechanisms and coping strategies. More specifically, having a close emotional bond, feeling supported in autonomy processes and having (moderately) low levels of separation anxiety toward parents predict more constructive emotion regulation mechanisms and coping strategies. Additionally emotion regulation was found to (partly or totally) mediate the association between attachment and coping.

  9. It takes two to talk: longitudinal associations among infant-mother attachment, maternal attachment representations, and mother-child emotion dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Celia; Koren-Karie, Nina; Bailey, Heidi; Moran, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Research on the attachment-dialogue link has largely focused on infant-mother attachment. This study investigated longitudinal associations between infant-mother attachment and maternal attachment representations and subsequent mother-child emotion dialogues (N = 50). Maternal attachment representations were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview when children were 3 months, infant-mother attachment was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure at 13 months, and mother-child emotion dialogues were assessed using the Autobiographical Emotional Events Dialogue at 3.5 years. Consistent with past research, the three organized categories of infant-mother attachment relationships were associated with later mother-child emotion dialogues. Disorganized attachment relationships were associated with a lack of consistent and coherent strategy during emotion dialogues. Autonomous mothers co-constructed coherent narratives with their children; Dismissing and Preoccupied mothers created stories that were less narratively organized. Although the Unresolved category was unrelated to classifications of types of mother-child discourse, mothers' quality of contribution to the dialogues was marginally lower compared to the quality of their children's contributions to the emotion discussion. Secure children showed highest levels of child cooperation and exploration. Autonomous mothers displayed highest levels of maternal sensitive guidance during emotion dialogues. We provide preliminary evidence for role reversal in dialogues between Preoccupied and Unresolved mothers and their children.

  10. Attachment, emotion regulation and coping in portuguese emerging adults: a test of a mediation hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Cabral; Paula Mena Matos; Wim Beyers; Bart Soenens

    2012-01-01

    Although the quality of parent-adolescent emotional bonds has consistently been proposed as a major influence on young adult's psycho-emotional functioning, the precise means by which these bonds either facilitate or impede adaptive coping are not well-understood. In an effort to advance this inquiry, the present study examined interrelationships among measures of parental attachment, emotion regulation processes, and preferred coping strategies within a sample of 942 college freshmen. Struct...

  11. Binge eating in bariatric surgery candidates: The role of insecure attachment and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakory, Sharry; Van Exan, Jessica; Mills, Jennifer S; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Keating, Leah; Taube-Schiff, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    Binge eating has a high prevalence among bariatric patients and is associated with post-surgical weight gain. This study examined the potential mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the relation between attachment insecurity and binge eating among this population. Participants were 1388 adult pre-bariatric surgery candidates from an accredited bariatric surgery assessment centre in Toronto, Ontario. Participants completed measures of psychological functioning, including attachment style and emotion regulation. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulties with emotion regulation mediated a positive association between insecure-anxious attachment and binge eating. An insecure-avoidant attachment was found to have a non-significant association with binge eating when examining the total effect. However, when difficulties with emotion regulation were controlled for in the model to examine its role as a mediator, this association became significant, and emotion regulation difficulties also mediated the relationship between attachment avoidance and binge eating. These findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important clinical issue to address in order to reduce binge eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  13. The Emotional Complexity of Attachment Interactions in Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jools; Elfer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In a single intensive nursery case study, using in depth interviews, group discussion and self completed daily diaries, this article reports on staff accounts of the emotional aspects of their interactions with young children. The findings show how much the staff achieved through their empathy for children and families and the establishment of…

  14. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  15. Effects of adult attachment and emotional distractors on brain mechanisms of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stacie L; Bost, Kelly K; Roisman, Glenn I; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Engels, Anna S; Choi, Eunsil; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2010-12-01

    Using data from 34 participants who completed an emotion-word Stroop task during functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the effects of adult attachment on neural activity associated with top-down cognitive control in the presence of emotional distractors. Individuals with lower levels of secure-base-script knowledge--reflected in an adult's inability to generate narratives in which attachment-related threats are recognized, competent help is provided, and the problem is resolved--demonstrated more activity in prefrontal cortical regions associated with emotion regulation (e.g., right orbitofrontal cortex) and with top-down cognitive control (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and superior frontal gyrus). Less efficient performance and related increases in brain activity suggest that insecure attachment involves a vulnerability to distraction by attachment-relevant emotional information and that greater cognitive control is required to attend to task-relevant, nonemotional information. These results contribute to the understanding of mechanisms through which attachment-related experiences may influence developmental adaptation.

  16. Preoccupied Attachment and Emotional Dysregulation: Specific Aspects of Borderline Personality Disorder or General Dimensions of Personality Pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N.; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitrait-multimethod models, we examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Our findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD. PMID:23586934

  17. Preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation: specific aspects of borderline personality disorder or general dimensions of personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Kim, Yookyung; Nolf, Kimberly A; Hallquist, Michael N; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Morse, Jennifer Q; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2013-08-01

    Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are seen by many clinical researchers as central aspects of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Alternatively, these constructs may represent general impairments in personality that are nonspecific to BPD. Using multitraitmultimethod models, the authors examined the strength of associations among preoccupied attachment, difficulties with emotion regulation, BPD features, and features of two other personality disorders (i.e., antisocial and avoidant) in a combined psychiatric outpatient and community sample of adults. Results suggested that preoccupied attachment and difficulties with emotion regulation shared strong positive associations with each other and with each of the selected personality disorders. However, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation were more strongly related to BPD features than to features of other personality disorders. Findings suggest that although impairments in relational and emotional domains may underlie personality pathology in general, preoccupied attachment and emotional dysregulation also have specificity for understanding core difficulties in those with BPD.

  18. Parental attachment and adolescents' emotional adjustment: The associations with social skills and relational competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Finkenauer, C.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Young people learn from their interactions with their parents how to initiate and maintain satisfying and warm friendships. Attachment with parents thereby plays an important role in adolescents' social and emotional adjustment. The model tested in this study proposes that the relation between

  19. Understanding Aggression through Attachment and Social Emotional Competence in Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…

  20. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  1. Social Information Processing, Security of Attachment, and Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Kimhi-Kind, Ilanit

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of attachment security and emotion regulation (ER) to the explanation of social information processing (SIP) in middle childhood boys with learning disabilities (LD) and without LD matched on age and grade level. Children analyzed four social vignettes using Dodge's SIP model and completed the Kerns security…

  2. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  3. Insecure Attachment and Eating Pathology in Early Adolescence: Role of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline; Goossens, Lien

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether associations exist between attachment dimensions toward mother and different forms of eating pathology (EP) in a group of early adolescent boys and girls, and whether these associations were mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Developmentally appropriate self-report questionnaires were…

  4. [The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder from the aspects of attachment theory, with special regard to perceived parental treatment, attachment patterns and emotion regulation difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejtô, Nóra; Papp, Gábor; Molnár, Judit

    The focus of our study was the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder from attachment aspects. Our aim was to examine the representations of perceived parental treatment, attachment patterns and the level of emotion regulation of people who suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder. 223 people participated in our study. The clinical group consisted of 92 persons with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, while the control group involved 131 people without OC symptoms. In the study we used the Young Parenting Inventory, the Relationship Questionnaire, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Besides we compiled a questionnaire based on the DSM-5 and a demographic questionnaire. Respondents could fill the questionnaires online. The clinical group is characterized by significantly higher toxic frustration of each five basic emotional needs than the control group. Specifically, in the case of people with OC smptoms the toxic parental treatments for Defectiveness/ Shame, Dependence/Incompetence, Enmeshment/Undeveloped self, Entitlement/Grandiosity, Approval-seeking/ Recognition-seeking, Negativity/Pessimism, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting standards/Hypercriticalness and Punitiveness were significantly more frequent than in the control group. The OC group is also characterized by significantly lower rate of secure attachment style, while dismissive attachment style proved to be the most frequent attachment style among them. The OC group also struggle with significantly higher level of emotion regulation difficulties.

  5. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior prob...

  6. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners’ degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners’ attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The “Pet Bonding Scale” (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents’ degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals’ primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people’s awareness of animal welfare. PMID:29304166

  7. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bingtao; Koda, Naoko; Martens, Pim

    2018-01-01

    Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  8. How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtao Su

    Full Text Available Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS, which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546 distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively, which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10 to companion animals (all p < 0.05. This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.

  9. Trajectories of mothers' emotional availability: relations with infant temperament in predicting attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Ram; Chow, Sy-Miin; Bray, Bethany; Teti, Douglas M

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined observations of parenting quality (mothers' emotional availability - EA) during infant bedtimes at 4 points across the infants' first year, assessing relations between levels and trajectories of EA and infant attachment at 12 months and the role of infant temperament in moderating these associations. The sample (N = 128) was predominantly Euro-American (82.5%) and at low socioeconomic risk. Latent growth curve modeling with latent basis coefficients indicated substantial individual differences in initial levels and slopes in EA trajectories across the first year. Both levels of maternal EA and EA trajectories across the first year predicted 12-month infant attachment security. Although maternal EA tended to decrease across the first year in the full sample, EA trajectories that showed a "bounce-back" between 6 and 12 months, suggesting more successful maternal adaptation to an expanding infant developmental repertoire, predicted greater infant security at 12 months. In addition, linkages between latent EA trajectories and 12-month attachment were moderated by 3-month infant temperamental reactivity and regulation. These findings indicate that infant attachment security is sensitive to both static and dynamic aspects of parenting quality across the first year, and that infant temperament can interact with both in predicting infant attachment.

  10. Do doctors' attachment styles and emotional intelligence influence patients' emotional expressions in primary care consultations? An exploratory study using multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, M Gemma; Fletcher, Ian; Berridge, Damon; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate whether and how doctors' attachment styles and emotional intelligence (EI) might influence patients' emotional expressions in general practice consultations. Video recordings of 26 junior doctors consulting with 173 patients were coded using the Verona Coding Definition of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). Doctors' attachment style was scored across two dimensions, avoidance and anxiety, using the Experiences in Close Relationships: Short Form questionnaire. EI was assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Multilevel Poisson regressions modelled the probability of patients' expressing emotional distress, considering doctors' attachment styles and EI and demographic and contextual factors. Both attachment styles and EI were significantly associated with frequency of patients' cues, with patient- and doctor-level explanatory variables accounting for 42% of the variance in patients' cues. The relative contribution of attachment styles and EI varied depending on whether patients' presenting complaints were physical or psychosocial in nature. Doctors' attachment styles and levels of EI are associated with patients' emotional expressions in primary care consultations. Further research is needed to investigate how these two variables interact and influence provider responses and patient outcomes. Understanding how doctors' psychological characteristics influence PPC may help to optimise undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional responses to a romantic partner's imaginary rejection: the roles of attachment anxiety, covert narcissism, and self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-02-01

    These studies tested the associations between responses to an induced imaginary romantic rejection and individual differences on dimensions of attachment and covert narcissism. In Study 1 (N=125), we examined the associations between attachment dimensions and emotional responses to a vignette depicting a scenario of romantic rejection, as measured by self-reported negative mood states, expressions of anger, somatic symptoms, and self-evaluation. Higher scores on attachment anxiety, but not on attachment avoidance, were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, decreased self-evaluation scores (self-esteem and pride) were found to mediate these associations. In Study 2 (N=88), the relative contributions of covert narcissism and attachment anxiety to the emotional responses to romantic rejection were explored. Higher scores on covert narcissism were associated with stronger reactions to the induced rejection. Moreover, covert narcissism seemed to constitute a specific aspect of attachment anxiety.

  12. The Multifaceted Role of Attachment during Preschool: Moderator of Its Indirect Effect on Empathy through Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Catrinel A.; Avram, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the current study were (1) to replicate findings regarding the mediator role of emotion regulation (ER) between attachment and empathy; (2) to extend current knowledge by testing the moderator effect of ER on the relationship between attachment and empathy; and (3) to test an integrative moderated mediation model in which attachment…

  13. Infant Distress and Regulatory Behaviors Vary as a Function of Attachment Security Regardless of Emotion Context and Maternal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in infant distress and regulatory behaviors based on the quality of attachment to mother, emotion context (frustration versus fear), and whether or not mothers were actively involved in the emotion-eliciting tasks were examined in a sample of ninety-eight 16-month-old infants and their mothers. Dyads participated in the Strange…

  14. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  15. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Expression and Regulation of Attachment-Related Emotions in Children with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R; Gale, Nyree; Godbee, Megan; Moul, Caroline; Pasalich, Dave S; Fink, Elian; Hawes, David J

    2016-08-01

    Callous-unemotional traits (CU) are defined by low responsiveness to, and unfeeling disregard for the emotions of others. There is controversial evidence, however, that children with high CU traits can demonstrate affective responsiveness under certain conditions, namely those associated with attachment threat. We tested this using 'fear + amusing' and 'attachment rich' stimuli from the Lion King film. Of N = 76, 4-14 years old children, 56 were clinic-referred children divided into high and low CU traits groups, and 20 children were drawn from the community. Participants watched film sequences of fearful, attachment-related and neutral stimuli and their affective responses and emotion-regulation strategies were coded by independent observers. Children in the high CU traits group were able to disengage from the fear stimuli by showing more 'happiness' to a brief slapstick interlude. In the attachment scenario, high CU children expressed similar or trends toward higher emotional responses and emotion regulation strategies, compared to low-CU children and control children. The results support the idea that high CU children may have the potential for emotional responsiveness to complex emotional stimuli in attachment contexts. Implications of these results for the development of interventions are discussed.

  17. SECURE BASE SCRIPT CONTENT EXPLAINS THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTACHMENT AVOIDANCE AND EMOTION-RELATED CONSTRUCTS IN PARENTS OF YOUNG CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Burkhart, Margaret L; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Brody, Robin; Sbarra, David A

    2017-03-01

    The secure base script (SBS) framework is one method of assessing implicit internal working models of attachment; recently, researchers have applied this method to analyze narratives regarding relationship experiences. This study examines the associations between attachment avoidance and SBS content when parents recall a positive moment of connection between themselves and their children (relational savoring) as well as their association with parental emotion and reflective functioning (RF). Using a sample of parents (N = 155, 92% female) of young children (53% boys, M age = 12.76 months), we found that parental attachment avoidance is inversely associated with SBS content during relational savoring, and that SBS content is an indirect effect explaining the association between attachment avoidance and postsavoring (positive and negative) emotion as well as avoidance and poststressor RF. Findings have implications for understanding attachment and parenting. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this attachment to the Annual report 1999 of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) the economic and personnel data of the UJD, used abbreviations, as well as the International nuclear event scales - INES are presented. Professional level of staff of the UJD is influenced by the education structure of its staff, when nearly 75% of the total number of staff has a university degree. A of 31.12.1999 there were 79 employees as average calculated number. Financing of the regulator in 1999 was mainly provided from the state budget, which represented 96% of all expenditures. The total volume of expenditures for UJD activity funded from the state budget achieved as of 31.12.1999 Slovak crowns (SK) 67 067 thousands. In the main category of expenditures an amount of SK 63 499 thous. was used for current activities, and the difference of SK 3 587 thous. was used for raising capital assets. Significant increase expenditures in the evaluated year compared to the 1998 was caused by a special purpose payment made by the Slovakia into the Fund for reconstruction of the Chernobyl cover (SK 19 996 thous.) funded through the budget chapter of the regulator. In the structure of current expenditures the highest share is taken by current transfers to abroad in total of SK 22 543 thous., i.e. contribution to reconstruction of Chernobyl cover made to the EBRD and contributions to the Fund of Technical Co-operation of the IAEA. For procurement of goods and services an amount of SK 19 814 thous. was spent, of which SK 7 054 thous. was used for funding science and technology tasks which were contracted out. The decision-making process in performing state supervision forced UJD to contact out various expert opinions and studies, for which UJD paid SK 2 058 thous. in total. Other expenditures in a volume of SK 10 702 thous. represent travel expenses, goods and services for UJD, rent for offices and other inevitable expenses. Salaries of staff represented SK 15 953

  19. Interactive effects of attachment and FKBP5 genotype on school-aged children's emotion regulation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Gómez, Anthony; Seaman, Lauren C; Nurmi, Erika L

    2017-05-15

    Attachment insecurity is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but few studies have examined the effects of gene-environment interactions. In the context of environmental stress, a functional variant in the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone FKBP5 gene has been repeatedly shown to increase risk for psychiatric illness, including depression. We expand on prior work by exploring cross-sectional attachment by gene effects on both attachment insecurity and downstream physiological and behavioral measures in a diverse community sample of school-aged children (N=99, 49% girls, M age =10.29years, 66.6% non-White) and their mothers. Specifically, we examined moderating effects of FKBP5 rs3800373 genotype on the links between parenting insensitivity (overcontrol) and child attachment. Further, we assessed whether FKBP5 moderates the links between maternal and child attachment and children's emotion regulation self-report, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to a standardized laboratory stressor, and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of overcontrol predicted lower child attachment security only in FKBP5 minor allele carriers. Among children with two minor alleles (CC), attachment security was negatively associated with emotion suppression, rumination, depressive symptoms, and RSA reactivity; similarly, for these children, maternal attachment anxiety was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The findings can be conceptualized in a differential susceptibility framework, where the FKBP5 minor allele confers either risk or resilience, depending on the parenting environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  1. Attachment representations among substance-abusing women in transition to motherhood: implications for prenatal emotions and mother-infant interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosävi, Sanna; Flykt, Marjo; Belt, Ritva; Posa, Tiina; Kuittinen, Saija; Puura, Kaija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-08-01

    We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad.

  2. Children's perceptions of emotion regulation strategy effectiveness: links with attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sara F; Thompson, Ross A

    2016-08-01

    Six- and nine-year-old children (N = 97) heard illustrated stories evoking anger in a story character and provided evaluations of the effectiveness of eight anger regulation strategies. Half the stories involved the child's mother as social partner and the other half involved a peer. Attachment security was assessed via the Security Scale. Children reported greater effectiveness for seeking support from adults and peers in the peer context than the mother context, but perceived venting as more effective with mothers. Children with higher security scores were more likely to endorse problem solving and less likely to endorse aggression in both social contexts than those with lower security scores. Early evidence for gender differences was found in that boys endorsed the effectiveness of distraction while girls endorsed venting their emotion.

  3. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  4. Modelling Facebook Usage among University Students in Thailand: The Role of Emotional Attachment in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the factors that influenced the use of Facebook among university students. Using an extended technology acceptance model (TAM) with emotional attachment (EA) as an external variable, a sample of 498 students from a public-funded Thailand university were surveyed on their responses to five variables hypothesized…

  5. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents? observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 1...

  6. Adult Attachment Styles: Relations with Emotional Well-Being, Marriage, and Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; Notaro, Paul C.; Larsen, Joelle J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the pairings of adult attachment styles among married couples raising young children. There was no relation between adult attachment styles, parenting behavior, and the security of infant/parent attachments. Future work would benefit by focusing on the dyadic constellations of adult attachment styles and their implications for family…

  7. Late-adoptions in adolescence: Can attachment and emotion regulation influence behaviour problems? A controlled study using a moderation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Cecilia Serena; Di Folco, Simona; Guerriero, Viviana

    2018-03-01

    A growing body of research suggests that, compared to normative adolescence, adoptive adolescence could be considered a specific risk condition characterized by more psychiatric problems, attachment insecurity, and emotional regulation difficulties as consequences of negative experiences in preadoption relationships. The current study explores (a) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between attachment representations (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and disorganized) and behavioural problems and (b) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between emotion regulation processes (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and behavioural problems. Both the moderation models were controlled for verbal skills. Forty-six adopted adolescents and a control group of 34 nonadopted peers (12-16 years old) living with both their biological parents were assessed using the Friends and Family Interview, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents, the Child Behaviour Check List 6-18, and the verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the latter as control measure. Results showed that adoption status (but not attachment) positively predicted externalizing and total behaviour problems, whereas attachment disorganization (but not adoption status) positively predicted internalizing problems in both group. Moreover, low cognitive reappraisal had a negative impact on externalizing problems only for adopted adolescents, but not for nonadopted youths. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed in order to enhance effective intervention with adopted adolescents and their parents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The afterlife of the slide: exploring emotional attachment to artefactualised bodily traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Bronwyn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I explore the role of the slide, not as familiar scientific object, but rather as a fixed remnant that testifies to the lived experience of an individual. Returning to the scene of the public scandal that surrounded the unauthorised retention of children's organs and tissues at two British hospitals in the late 1990s, I investigate the emotional significance that here came to be attached to archived slides. In so doing I draw attention to the ways in which the facticity of the slide--its ability to testify to the fact, or the existence, not only of the person from whom it is drawn, but also, when created for histopathological reasons, the disease that ultimately killed them--acts to efface their presumed ephemerality. In the final section of the paper I turn to consider how the events that I describe have come to shape the ways in which this kind of highly artefactualised bodily material is now accommodated in the institutional setting of the tissue bank and with what implications for research and the wider dissemination of scientific knowledge. Specifically, I explore how and why slides have come to acquire a "personality" and, with it, something akin to legally constituted "personality rights" including rights relating to publicity and privacy.

  9. Defense Mechanisms of Pregnant Mothers Predict Attachment Security, Social-Emotional Competence, and Behavior Problems in Their Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Huprich, Steven K; Richardson, Laura

    2016-02-01

    For at-risk (single parent, low income, low support) mothers, healthy adaptation and the ability to manage stress have clear implications for parenting and the social-emotional well-being of their young offspring. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between defense mechanisms in pregnant women and their toddlers' attachment security, social-emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants were 84 pregnant women during their last trimester of pregnancy, recruited from community agencies primarily serving low-income families. Women were followed prospectively from pregnancy through 2 years after birth and completed several multimethod assessments during that period. Observations of mother-child interactions were also coded after the postnatal visits. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mothers' defense mechanisms were significantly associated with several toddler outcomes. Mature, healthy defenses were significantly associated with greater toddler attachment security and social-emotional competence and fewer behavior problems, and less mature defenses (disavowal in particular) were associated with lower levels of attachment security and social-emotional competence. Associations remained significant, or were only slightly attenuated, after controlling for demographic variables and partner abuse during pregnancy. The study findings suggest that defensive functioning in parents preparing for and parenting toddlers influences the parent-child attachment relationship and social-emotional adjustment in the earliest years of life. Possible mechanisms for these associations may include parental attunement and mentalization, as well as specific caregiving behavior toward the child. Defensive functioning during times of increased stress (such as the prenatal to postnatal period) may be especially important for understanding parental influences on the child.

  10. Marital conflict and the quality of young children's peer play behavior: the mediating and moderating role of parent-child emotional reciprocity and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W; Caldera, Yvonne M; Tankersley, Laura

    2009-04-01

    Parent-child attachment security and dyadic measures of parent-child positive and negative emotional reciprocity were examined as possible mediators and moderators of the connection between marital conflict and children's peer play behavior. Eighty parents were observed in a laboratory play session with their 15- to 18-month-old child. Subsequently, at 36 months children were observed interacting with peers at their child care setting. Connections between marital conflict and children's positive peer interaction were mediated by mother-child attachment security, mother-child positive emotional reciprocity, and father-child negative emotional reciprocity. Connections between marital conflict and children's negative peer interaction were mediated by mother-child positive emotional reciprocity and father-child attachment security. Parent-child attachment security and negative emotional reciprocity emerged as important moderators of the connection between marital conflict and children's peer play behavior.

  11. Parents’ Self-Reported Attachment Styles: A Review of Links with Parenting Behaviors, Emotions, and Cognitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D.; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip. R.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents’ adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review over 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. PMID:25024278

  12. Emotional attachment to personal tobacco packages might affect quitting behaviour. Results from a cross-sectional survey among tobacco users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Lund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Emotional attachment to your brand of cigarettes or snus might imply a lower tendency to want to quit smoking or using snus. Aim: Investigate emotional attachment to the personal snus or cigarette pack, and its potential effect on quitting plans, among snus users and smokers. Methods A sample of 1625 smokers and 1626 snus users, aged 16-75, recruited from a web-panel, and weighted according to national statistics on smoking and snus use within gender, age and region. Mean age: 41 years, and 41% women. A principal component analysis showed that all positive feelings loaded on a single component, which was used in a multinomial adjusted regression, with a three-point quitting-plans variable as the dependent variable (no quitting plan, plan to quit during this month, plan to quit later. Adjustments were made for gender, age, education, tobacco product (cigarettes or snus, and last month quitting attempts. Results A relatively large minority (20-30% of smokers and snus users agreed fully or partly with statements expressing positive feelings related to buying and using their choice of tobacco brand. The exception was the statement “I like my current/regular pack”, which was endorsed by 65% of smokers and 75% of snus users. Adjusted multinomial regression showed that those who had less positive feelings related to their pack were more likely to have plans to quit tobacco within the next month (AOR=1.5, p< 0.001, or to have plans to quit at some later date (AOR=1.2, p< 0.001, than to have no quitting plans (ref. Other significant factors were gender and earlier quit attempts. Conclusions Emotional attachment to cigarette and snus brands and packages reduces the likelihood of having plans to quit tobacco, which might in turn result in lower actual quitting behaviour. Regulatory actions that reduce emotional attachment, e.g. standardised packaging, may potentially affect quitting behaviour.

  13. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents’ Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents’ observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized, emotion eliciting computer game task. They were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Concurrent attachment quality was assessed by the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Results revealed a significant gene × attachment effect showing that ss/sl carriers of 5-HTTLPR show increased emotional dysregulation and aggressive hostile autonomy towards their mothers. The results of the study suggest that secure attachment in adolescence moderates the genetically based higher tendency for emotional dysregulation and aggressive reactions to restrictions of autonomy during emotional social interactions with their mothers. PMID:27378877

  14. Effects of Gene × Attachment Interaction on Adolescents' Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Hostile Behavior Towards their Mothers during a Computer Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Spangler, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased emotionality and major changes in emotion regulation often elicited in autonomy-relevant situations. Both genetic as well as social factors may lead to inter-individual differences in emotional processes in adolescence. We investigated whether both 5-HTTLPR and attachment security influence adolescents' observed emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and their aggressive hostile autonomy while interacting with their mothers. Eighty-eight adolescents at age 12 were observed in interaction with their mothers during a standardized, emotion eliciting computer game task. They were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR, a repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. Concurrent attachment quality was assessed by the Late Childhood Attachment Interview (LCAI). Results revealed a significant gene × attachment effect showing that ss/sl carriers of 5-HTTLPR show increased emotional dysregulation and aggressive hostile autonomy towards their mothers. The results of the study suggest that secure attachment in adolescence moderates the genetically based higher tendency for emotional dysregulation and aggressive reactions to restrictions of autonomy during emotional social interactions with their mothers.

  15. The Relationship Between Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Worry About Body Image, Attachment Styles, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Among Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There are different assumptions about the factors responsible for the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders. Each of the two main types of eating disorders results from a complex interaction of emotional and psychological factors. Objectives The purpose of the current research was to study the relationship between symptoms of eating disorders and worry about body image, attachment styles, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, among a sample of students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 2011 - 2012. The research participants were selected with use of multistage random sample from various colleges. Our research tools were the eating attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26, the Worry about body image questionnaire, the attachment styles questionnaire, and a questionnaire on cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods, with inter and stepwise methods, were used during data analysis. Results The results of this research indicated that worry about body image, an avoidant attachment style, negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and secure attachment style in regression equation remained significant (P < 0.0001. Results also showed that worry about body image, an anxious attachment style, an avoidant attachment style, and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies were significant in the regression equation, predicting 19% of the variance in the eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions Concerns about body image, an avoidant attachment style, and cognitive strategies to regulate negative emotions were the strongest predictors for eating disorder symptoms. Based on current research findings, an avoidance attachment style, concerns about body image, and negative emotion regulation cognitive strategies increase eating disorder symptoms in students. Because attachment

  16. Effectiveness of an Attachment-Based Intervention Program in Promoting Emotion Regulation and Attachment in Adolescent Mothers and their Infants: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Albizzati, Alessandro; Downing, George

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention program, PRERAYMI, based on video technique, psychological counseling and developmental guidance in improving the style of interaction and emotion regulation of adolescent mothers and their infants after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Analyses revealed that adolescent mothers who participated in the intervention (vs. control group adolescent mothers) increased their Sensitivity and reduced their Controlling style after both 3 and 6 months of treatment. Infants who participated in the intervention (vs. control group infants) increased their Cooperative style and reduced their Passive style from 3 to 9 months. Moreover, the intervention group dyads (vs. control group dyads) increased the amount of time spent in affective positive coordination states (matches), decreased the amount of time spent in affective mismatches, and had a greater ability to repair mismatches from 3 to 9 months. Furthermore, the intervention group dyads (vs. control group dyads) increased the amount of time spent in reciprocal involvement in play with objects from 3 to 9 months. The quality of maternal attachment did not affect the intervention effect. PMID:26941673

  17. Effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention program in promoting emotion regulation and attachment in adolescent mothers and their infants: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eRiva Crugnola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an attachment-based intervention program, PRERAYMI, based on video technique, psychological counseling and developmental guidance in improving the style of interaction and emotion regulation of adolescent mothers and their infants after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Analyses revealed that adolescent mothers who participated in the intervention (vs. control group adolescent mothers increased their Sensitivity and reduced their Controlling style after both 3 and 6 months of treatment. Infants who participated in the intervention (vs. control group infants increased their Cooperative style and reduced their Passive style from 3 to 9 months. Moreover, the intervention group dyads (vs. control group dyads increased the amount of time spent in affective positive coordination states (matches, decreased the amount of time spent in affective mismatches, and had a greater ability to repair mismatches from 3 to 9 months. Furthermore, the intervention group dyads (vs. control group dyads increased the amount of time spent in reciprocal involvement in play with objects from 3 to 9 months. The quality of maternal attachment did not affect the intervention effect.

  18. Parents' self-reported attachment styles: a review of links with parenting behaviors, emotions, and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude; Shaver, Phillip R

    2015-02-01

    For decades, attachment scholars have been investigating how parents' adult attachment orientations relate to the ways in which they parent. Traditionally, this research has been conducted by developmental and clinical psychologists who typically employ the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to measure adult attachment. However, dating back to the mid-1990s, social and personality psychologists have been investigating how self-reported adult attachment styles relate to various facets of parenting. The literature on self-reported attachment and parenting has received less attention than AAI research on the same topic and, to date, there is no comprehensive review of this literature. In this article, we review more than 60 studies of the links between self-reported attachment styles and parenting, integrate the findings to reach general conclusions, discuss unresolved questions, and suggest future directions. Finally, we discuss the potential benefits to the study of parenting of collaborations among researchers from the developmental and social attachment research traditions. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Putting up emotional (Facebook) walls? Attachment status and emerging adults' experiences of social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Farber, Barry A

    2013-11-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook can increase interpersonal connections but also intensify jealousy, envy, and surveillance behaviors. Attachment styles may help explain differences in experiencing SNS. This study investigated the role of attachment in influencing emerging adults' perceptions and feelings about SNS and their disclosures on SNS. Disorganized and anxious attachment predicted subjects' use of SNS to avoid more personal face-to-face communication, suggesting individuals with these tendencies use SNS to hold relationships at a psychological arm's distance. Anxious attachment also predicted feelings of intimacy when using SNS, perhaps reflecting online needs for comfort from others. A case narrative is presented to show how those with insecure attachment patterns may struggle to avoid interpersonal conflict when being continuously presented with ambiguous social information. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. What about the Child's Tie to the Father? A New Insight into Fathering, Father-Child Attachment, Children's Socio-Emotional Development and the Activation Relationship Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Caroline; Paquette, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The broad aim of this study on father-child attachment was to verify whether the Risky Situation (RS) procedure is a more valid means than the Strange Situation (SS) procedure of predicting children's socio-emotional development, and to evaluate the moderator effect of day-to-day involvement on attachment and activation. Participants were 53…

  1. Bound to feel bad about oneself : Relations between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Muris, P.; Meesters, C.; Cima, M.J.; Brochard, N.; Sanders, A.; Kempener, C.; Beurskens, A.J.; Meesters, V.

    2014-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to explore the relationship between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in childhood. Study 1 was performed in non-clinical children aged 9–13 years (N = 688) who completed a single-item measure of attachment style and a

  2. Bound to feel bad about oneself: Relations between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.E.H.M.; Meesters, C.M.G.; Cima, M.; Verhagen, M.; Brochard, N.; Sanders, A.; Kempener, C.; Beurskens, J.; Meesters, V.

    2014-01-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to explore the relationship between attachment and the self-conscious emotions of guilt and shame in childhood. Study 1 was performed in non-clinical children aged 9-13 years (N = 688) who completed a single-item measure of attachment style and a

  3. Reflective functioning, maternal attachment, mind-mindedness, and emotional availability in adolescent and adult mothers at infant 3 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Canevini, Maria Paola

    2018-02-01

    The study evaluated reflective functioning (RF), maternal attachment, mind-mindedness, and emotional availability among 44 adolescent mother-infant dyads and 41 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant age 3 months, mother-infant interaction was coded with the mind-mindedness coding system and Emotional Availability Scales; mother attachment and RF were evaluated with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) were more insecure and had lower RF; they were also less sensitive, more intrusive and hostile, and less structuring of their infant's activity; they used fewer attuned mind-related comments and fewer mind-related comments appropriate to infant development. In adult mothers, the Mother Idealizing and Lack of Memory AAI scales were correlated to non-attuned mind-related comments and the Father Anger scale to negative mind-related comments. In adult mothers, RF was associated with sensitivity. This was not the case with adolescent mothers. In both groups of mothers, there were no associations between sensitivity and mind-mindedness.

  4. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Prins, Judith; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a hospital compared to a nursing home. We carried out a qualitative and a quantitative survey by administering questionnaires about expectations, impressive experiences and learning activities within two cohorts of first-year medical students before and after a 4-week nursing attachment. Despite different expectations, students reported similar experiences and learning activities for the nursing home and the hospital. Most impressive events were related to patient care, being a trainee, or professional identities being challenged. Students in nursing homes most often referred to their own relationships with patients. Students expressed different emotions, and frequently experienced positive and negative emotions at the same time. Rewarding experiences (not only difficult or stressful events) do matter for medical professional development. Students need to learn how to deal with and feel strengthened by the emotions evoked during clinical experiences, which should be supported by educators. The nursing home and the hospital seem to be equally suited as learning environments.

  5. Does It Matter if Preschool Children and Mothers Discuss Positive vs. Negative Events during Reminiscing? Links with Mother-Reported Attachment, Family Emotional Climate, and Socioemotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differential relations between mother-child reminiscing about a positive emotional event vs. a negative emotional event and attachment security, family climate, and young children's socioemotional development. Fifty preschool children (M age = 50.69 months, SD = 4.64) and their mothers completed two…

  6. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  7. Attachment and Immigrants : Emotional security among Dutch and Belgian Immigrants in California, U.S.A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ecke, van Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Yolanda van Ecke's onderzoek laat zien dat immigranten vaker onzeker gehecht zijn, en ook gevoeliger zijn voor ervaringen van isolatie en afscheid, vergeleken met autochtonen. Het boek Immigrants and attachment bespreekt ook beroepskeuze psychologie en hechting, zowel als persoonlijkheids aspecten

  8. Attachment and Emotional Development in Institutional Care: Characteristics and Catch-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Steele, Howard; Zeanah, Charles H.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Vorria, Panayiota; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Steele, Miriam; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Attachment has been assessed in the extreme environment of orphanages, but an important issue to be addressed in this chapter is whether in addition to standard assessment procedures, such as the Strange Situation, the lack of a specific attachment in some institutionalized children should be taken into account given the limits to the development of stable relationships in institutionalized care. In addition, this chapter discusses disinhibited or indiscriminately friendly behavior that is often seen in institutionalized children. Enhanced caregiving quality alone appears to be insufficient to diminish indiscriminate behavior, at least in some children, as evidenced by the persistence of indiscriminate behavior in children adopted out of institutions into adoptive families. We suggest that the etiology and function of indiscriminate friendly behavior may be different for institutionalized versus not-institutionalized children. In the first case it may reflect a distortion or disruption of early attachment relationships, in the latter case it is likely to result from the lack of expected input in the form of contingent interactions with a stable caregiver in early life. We try to delineate infant and caregiver characteristics that are associated with secure attachment in institutional settings, given the inevitable fact that large numbers of infants worldwide are being raised, and will be raised, in contexts of institutional care. We conclude that much further study is needed of the development of children’s attachments following adoption out of an institutional setting. PMID:25242826

  9. Emotional and behavioral problems associated with attachment security and parenting style in adopted and non-adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınoğlu Dikmeer, Ilkiz; Erol, Neşe; Gençöz, Tülin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare emotional and behavioral problems in Turkish adoptees and non-adopted peers raised by their biological parents. The study included 61 adopted children (34 female and 27 male) aged 6-18 years and 62 age- and gender-matched non-adopted children (35 female and 27 male). Parents rated their children's problem behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18, temperament characteristics using the School Age Temperament Inventory, their own personality traits using the Basic Personality Traits Inventory, and their parenting styles using the Measure of Child Rearing Styles. Children rated their parents' availability and reliability as attachment figures using the Kerns Security Scale and parenting styles using the Measure of Child Rearing Styles. Adolescents aged 11-18 years self-rated their problem behaviors using the Youth Self Report. Group differences and correlations were analyzed. There were non-significant differences in all scale scores between the adopted and non-adopted groups. In contrast to the literature, age of the children at the time of adoption was not associated with problem behaviors or attachment relationships. On the other hand, the findings indicate that as the age at which the children learned that they had been adopted increased emotional and behavioral problems increased. Adoption alone could not explain the problem behaviors observed in the adopted children; the observed problem behaviors should be considered within the context of the developmental process.

  10. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Hamed; Mohammadi, Abolalfazl; Zarrinfar, Pouria

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder. Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique. Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎ Conclusion : The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.

  11. An Investigation into the Roles of Theory of Mind, Emotion Regulation, and Attachment Styles in Predicting the Traits of Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghiasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Borderline personality disorder is one of the most complex and prevalent personality disorders. Many variables have so far been studied in relation to this disorder. This study aimed to investigate the role of emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder.Method: In this study, 85 patients with borderline personality disorder were selected using convenience sampling method. To measure the desired variables, the questionnaires of Gross emotion regulation, Collins and Read attachment styles, and Baron Cohen's Reading Mind from Eyes Test were applied. The data were analyzed using multivariate stepwise regression technique.Results: Emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind predicted 41.2% of the variance criterion altogether; among which, the shares of emotion regulation, attachment styles and theory of mind to the distribution of the traits of borderline personality disorder were 27.5%, 9.8%, and 3.9%, respectively.‎‎Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that emotion regulation, attachment styles, and theory of mind are important variables in predicting the traits of borderline personality disorder and that these variables can be well applied for both the treatment and identification of this disorder.

  12. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship among Attachment Security, Emotional Intelligence, Trait Anxiety, and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kristyn

    2016-01-01

    Substance use among college students is a serious problem in the United States. The existing body of literature demonstrates that multiple internal risk factors contribute to the presence of substance use and that often these risk factors co-occur. Based on attachment theory, the purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationships…

  14. The Interplay between Parental Beliefs about Children's Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children's Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children's emotions and parental stress relate to children's feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children's…

  15. Understanding adolescent loneliness : longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships with attachment, emotion regulation, and coping.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Liesl Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Loneliness is an emotionally unpleasant experience which is associated with a host of psychosocial and mental health problems, such as low self-esteem, poor social skills, fewer and poorer quality friendships, social anxiety, depression, poorer life satisfaction, and suicidal thoughts and behaviour (e.g., see Heinrich & Gullone, 2006, for a review). It affects as many as 74% of adolescents in any given 12 month period (Fleming & Jacobsen, 2009), with painful and persistent feelings of lonelin...

  16. Attachment and couple satisfaction as predictors of expressed emotion in women facing breast cancer and their partners in the immediate post-surgery period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, Nicolas; Cairo Notari, Sarah; Antonini, Tania; Charvoz, Linda

    2017-02-01

    To investigate expressed emotion (EE) in couples facing breast cancer in the immediate post-surgery period. EE may be predictive of psychological disturbances that hinder both partners' capacities to cope with the stress of the disease. Severity of the disease, attachment tendencies, and couple satisfaction were tested as predictors of EE. The design was cross-sectional. Couples (N = 61) were interviewed 2 weeks after the women's breast surgery. Expressed emotion was assessed in women and in partners with the Five-Minute Speech Sample, with a focus on overt and covert criticisms. Self-reported EE, attachment tendencies, and couple satisfaction were assessed with questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to test the predictors and possible interactions between them. Both partners expressed overt and covert criticisms; women expressed more overt criticisms than did their partners. Cancer stage was inversely related to the number of overt criticisms in women and to the number of covert criticisms in partners. Regression analyses showed that in women, higher attachment anxiety and lower couple satisfaction were positive predictors of overt criticisms; in partners, a higher cancer stage was a negative predictor of overt and covert criticisms. Practitioners should pay attention to the couple relationship in breast cancer. EE is most likely to appear when the cancer stage is low, showing that even when the medical prognosis is optimal, relational and emotional disturbances may occur. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The couple relationship is of paramount importance in breast cancer. Expressed emotion (EE) is related to negative individual and relational psychological outcomes in psychiatric and somatic diseases. Expressed emotion has not yet been studied in the context of breast cancer. What does this study add? Expressed emotion is present in breast cancer situations, especially when the cancer stage is low. There

  17. [Levels of emotional intelligence and types of attachment among third year students of the Faculty of Health Science and the Faculty of Medicine--a comparative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkiewicz-Bandur, Monika

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of this research attachment theory was incorporated into the concept of emotional intelligence. The methodological starting point of this study was the assumption that the level of emotional intelligence and social competence is related to a steady feature, namely the type of attachment. Standardized questionnaires available in the Laboratory of Psychological Tests of the Polish Psychological Association were chosen to measure the level of emotional intelligence. However, the type of attachment was studied by Bartholomew's Self Description Test in my own translation. The study involved two groups of students, who were compared: 147 people from the Faculty of Health Sciences/Faculty of Nursing (nursing, midwifery, health promotion, cosmetology, emergency medicine, dietetics), and 181 people from the Faculty of Medicine (medicine), students in their second and third years of studies. A total of 328 people, aged 19-24, were tested. On the basis of the results it was stated that students of the Faculty of Health Sciences/Faculty of Nursing, as compared to students of the Faculty of Medicine, received significantly higher scores on the scale of the social competence scale, which investigated the efficiency of their behaviour in intimate situations. Moreover, statistical analysis proved that students of the Faculty of Health Sciences showed significantly higher scores than those studying at the Faculty of Medicine in the following fields: KKS-I subscale assessing social competencies in--conditioning effective behaviour in intimate situations, emotional intelligence measured with the INTE questionnaire,--awareness of their own emotional states and understanding their causes (DINEMO-I),--ability to recognize emotions in other people and understanding the reasons for the reactions expressed by them (DINEMO-Others)--emotional intelligence measured with the DINEMO questionnaire (DINEMO-general score). Women from both faculties showed higher social competence

  18. Working with mice in immunological research. Attachment, emotions and care - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2i1.142en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bischur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and reflects upon some typical features of the animal-researchers relation in the settings of scientific animal experimentation. The relationship between researchers and “their lab-animals” is highly ambivalent. On one hand animals are reduced to some kind of technological tools, data bearing analytical animals. On the other hand they certainly remain living natural animals cared for and object of emotional attachments. Scientists are building up a certain emotional distance towards their lab-animals, but nevertheless keep some kind of emotional relationship with them. After a description of routines with mice in an immunology laboratory, I will focus on the relevance of the living body of the used mice for the characteristic ambivalence of the scientists’ perception of them.

  19. Antenatal Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Ejaz A; Khan, Wisal A; Anwar, Viqas; Yaqoob, Asma; Rafiq, Shahid; Azam, Shaheena

    2014-05-01

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome is characterized by severe polyhydramnios in mother leading to premature delivery. Antenatal treatment has proven effective to prevent these problems. Postnatally newborns suffer from recurrent episodes of severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance which can lead to fatal outcome. These manifestations are likely to be overlooked and missed under the umbrella of diagnosis of prematurity. This premature newborn with antenatal polyhydramnios had severe manifestations of polyuria, recurrent dehydration, electrolyte derangements and metabolic alkalosis. She was managed accordingly but unfortunately could not survive beyond 4 weeks.

  20. Apego y Ajuste Socio Emocional: Un Estudio en Embarazadas Primigestas Attachment and Socio-Emotional Adjustment: A Study in First Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamarrita Farkas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se centra en el estudio del apego adulto y su relación con el ajuste socioemocional durante el primer embarazo. Se utiliza una investigación descriptiva correlacional de carácter transversal. La muestra se compone de 139 embarazadas primigestas de 19 a 40 años y nivel socio-económico medio, medio bajo y bajo. El estilo de apego fue evaluado con el Cuestionario de Apego en Adultos, CaMir, y el ajuste socioemocional con el Cuestionario de Salud Mental, OQ-45.2. Se realizan análisis descriptivos de la muestra y correlaciones entre estilos de apego y las dimensiones del Cuestionario de Ajuste Socioemocional con el Coeficiente Producto Momento de Pearson. Los resultados muestran una relación significativa entre los estilos de apego y los indicadores de ajuste.This article focuses on the study of adult attachment and its relationship with socio-emotional adjustment during the first pregnacy. A correlational descriptive study using a cross-sectional design was conducted. The sample included 139 primípara females between 19 and 40 years of age, from medium, medium-low and low socioeconomic status. The attachment style was evaluated using the Attachment Questionnaire for Adults, CaMir, and the socio-emotional adjustment with the Mental Health Questionnaire, OQ-45.2. Descriptive analyses of the sample were conducted, and the bivariate correlations between attachment styles and adjustment was estimated. The results show a significant relation between attachment styles and adjustment indexes.

  1. Differences in the speech of 10- to 13-year-old boys from divorced and nondivorced families against the background of emotional attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    In Germany, an increasing number of children live with one parent alone and have to cope with the separation or divorce of their parents. Emotional drawbacks have frequently been hypothesized for these children. Thus, we studied if such experiences are reflected in speech behavior. Twenty-eight 10- to 13-year-old boys from separated parents (physical separation of the parents was 2 years before the investigation) were compared with 26 boys from parents living together in an interview focusing on attachment-related themes and everyday situations. The interviews were analyzed with regard to coherence of speech, coping with emotional problems, reflectivity, child representation of both parents, and verbal and nonverbal expression of feelings. Boys from separated parents had incoherent speech, difficulties in coping with emotional problems, a poorer reflectivity (thinking about their own mental states and those of others), they represented neither parent supportively and did not show their feelings openly. These results can be traced back to an insecure attachment representation of the boys with separated parents. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Explaining Emotional Attachment to a Protected Area by Visitors' Perceived Importance of Seeing Wildlife, Behavioral Connections with Nature and Sociodemographics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigen, Paulus P.P.; Haartsen, Tialda; Folmer, Akke

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the interest in understanding emotional bonds with protected nature areas has been growing. The role of wildlife in emotional bonds with places has until now not been the focus of many studies. The aim of our paper is to explore relations between the perceived importance of seeing wildlife

  3. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Prins, Judith; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    Background: Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. Aims: We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a

  4. Emotional learning of undergraduate medical students in an early nursing attachment in a hospital or nursing home.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Bolhuis, S.; Prins, J.B.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Entering medicine for the first time is highly impressive for students, but we know little about the actual emotional learning processes taking place. AIMS: We aimed to get more insight into expectations, experiences and emotions of students during their first clinical experiences in a

  5. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.

  6. Influence of Perinatal Depression on Labor-Associated Fear and Emotional Attachment to the Child in High-Risk Pregnancies and the First Days After Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Joanna; Bidzan, Mariola; Smutek, Jerzy; Bidzan, Leszek

    2016-03-29

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the level of perinatal depression on the labor-associated fear and emotional attachment of children born to women during high-risk pregnancies and in the first days after delivery. 133 women aged between 16 and 45 years took part in the study. The first group included 63 pregnant women (mean age=28.59, SD=5.578) with a high-risk pregnancy (of maternal origin, for example, cardiologic disorders and diabetes). The second group included 70 women (mean age=27.94, SD=5.164) who were in the first days post-partum. Research methods included: Analysis of medical documentation; Clinical interview; the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); the Questionnaire of Labor-Associated Anxiety (KLP), the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS). Women after delivery displayed a higher level of concern for the child's health and life when compared to the high-risk pregnancy group. The results indicated the appearance of a postnatal fear, the level of which is connected with the perception of the role of the mother. This fear is lower in women prior to childbirth than it is after. There has also been noted a statistically significant relationship between the appearance of depression and attachment to the child. Those women with depression show less attachment to their child than is the case for those who do not suffer from depression. The appearance of a high level of depression amongst women from the high-risk pregnancy group during the first days post childbirth was accompanied by perinatal depression and a weaker attachment to the child.

  7. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita ePezzati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the Bowlby’s theory of attachment to investigate the effectiveness of Doll therapy. The hypothesis that we here propose is that the emotional experience of the person with dementia during Doll therapy activates caregiving and exploration systems together with the attachment one. To test this hypothesis we compared institutionalized patients with dementia undergoing Doll therapy with a control group and assessed measures of the relational dimension with the environment, such as gaze direction, behaviors of exploration, and behaviors of caregiving. We used an experimental protocol consisting of 10 non-consecutive sessions structured with the goal of recreating a situation of (1 separation from a known figure and (2 interaction with the environment in order to partially recreate the prototypical phases of the ‘Strange situation’. All sessions were videotaped and analyzed through an observational grid. Results support the effectiveness of Doll therapy in promoting and maintaining the affective-relational dimension of attachment-caregiving and the attentive dimension of exploration in patients with advanced stage of dementia. Thus, our results suggest that the use of Doll therapy promotes clinically significant improvements in the ability to relate with the surrounding world. This may be important for managing and caring for patients with dementia in institutionalized context.

  8. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzati, Rita; Molteni, Valentina; Bani, Marco; Settanta, Carmen; Di Maggio, Maria Grazia; Villa, Ivan; Poletti, Barbara; Ardito, Rita B

    2014-01-01

    Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the Bowlby's theory of attachment to investigate the effectiveness of Doll therapy. The hypothesis that we here propose is that the emotional experience of the person with dementia during Doll therapy activates caregiving and exploration systems together with the attachment one. To test this hypothesis we compared institutionalized patients with dementia undergoing Doll therapy with a control group and assessed measures of the relational dimension with the environment, such as gaze direction, behaviors of exploration, and behaviors of caregiving. We used an experimental protocol consisting of 10 non-consecutive sessions structured with the goal of recreating a situation of (1) separation from a known figure and (2) interaction with the environment in order to partially recreate the prototypical phases of the "Strange situation." All sessions were videotaped and analyzed through an observational grid. Results support the effectiveness of Doll therapy in promoting and maintaining the affective-relational dimension of attachment-caregiving and the attentive dimension of exploration in patients with advanced stage of dementia. Thus, our results suggest that the use of Doll therapy promotes clinically significant improvements in the ability to relate with the surrounding world. This may be important for managing and caring for patients with dementia in institutionalized context.

  9. Masculinities, Attachment Theory and Transformative Learning: A Discussion of Some Theoretical Considerations for Developing an Emotionally Secure Teaching Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper situates education as an integral component of the overall prison rehabilitation process. The article discusses how an educational practitioner's knowledge of attachment theory and masculinities can be utilized to develop a secure methodological teaching environment in the classroom of a prison education unit and create a space where…

  10. Adult attachment style and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have rar...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms.......Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...

  11. Attachment and prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelley, Katherine B; Boag, Elle M

    2018-04-16

    There is a paucity of research that examines prejudice from an attachment theory perspective. Herein we make theoretical links between attachment patterns and levels of prejudice. Perceptions of outgroup threat, which activate the attachment system, are thought to lead to fear and prejudice for those high in attachment anxiety, and to distancing and prejudice for those high in attachment avoidance. We review the literature that examines the associations between attachment patterns and prejudice; evidence from attachment priming studies suggests a causal role of attachment security in reducing prejudice. We identify several mediators of these links: empathy, negative emotions, trust, social dominance orientation, romanticism, and contact quality. Future research should manipulate potential mediators and use psychophysiological assessments of threat. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death...

  13. The Interplay Between Parental Beliefs about Children’s Emotions and Parental Stress Impacts Children’s Attachment Security

    OpenAIRE

    Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one ...

  14. Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Observing science classroom activities presents an opportunity to observe the emotional aspect of interactions, and this chapter presents how this can be done and why. Drawing on ideas proposed by French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, emotions are theorized as publicly embodied enactments......, where differences in behavior between people shape emotional responses. Merleau-Ponty’s theorization of the body and feelings is connected to embodiment while examining central concepts such as consciousness and perception. Merleau-Ponty describes what he calls the emotional atmosphere and how it shapes...... the ways we experience events and activities. We use our interpretation of his understanding of emotions to examine an example of a group of year 8 science students who were engaged in a physics activity. Using the analytical framework of analyzing bodily stance by Goodwin, Cekaite, and Goodwin...

  15. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  16. REVIEW OF FOCUSSED ANTENATAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum programme which involves a coordinated approach to medical care , continuous risk assessment , and psychological support that optimally begins before conception and extends throughout the postpartum period and int erconceptional period . [1] One of major responsibility of obstetrician providing antenatal care is to identify high risk factors based on past history, examination and investigation results. The objective of antenatal care therefore is to assure that every wanted pregnancy results in the delivery of a healthy baby without impairing the mothers health . [2] In a 1914 study by Williams antenatal care reduced fetal mortality by 40%

  17. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  18. Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  19. Focusing on relationships, not information, respects autonomy during antenatal consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Nathalie; Payot, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Policy statements regarding antenatal consultations for preterm labour are guided by physicians' concerns for upholding the legal doctrine of informed consent, through the provision of standardised homogeneous medical information. This approach, led by classical in-control conceptions of patient autonomy, conceives moral agents as rational, independent, self-sufficient decision-makers. Recent studies on these antenatal consultations have explored patients' perspectives, and these differ from guidelines' suggestions. Relational autonomy - which understands moral agents as rational, emotional, creative and interdependent - resonates impressively with these new data. A model for antenatal consultations is proposed. This approach encourages clinicians to explore individual patients' lived experiences and engage in trusting empowering relationships. Moreover, it calls on physicians to enhance patients' relational autonomy by becoming advocates for their patients within healthcare institutions and professional organisations, while calling for broadscale policy changes to encourage further funding and support in investigations of the patient's voice. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    En emotion er en evaluerende respons på en betydningsfuld hændelse, som har affektiv valens og motiverer organismen i forhold til objektverdenen (omverden). Emotioner fører til affekt: til smerte (negativ) eller glæde (positiv affekt). Både positive og negative emotioner påvirker organismens...

  1. Adult attachment as a moderator of treatment outcome for generalized anxiety disorder: Comparison between cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening and CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G; Castonguay, Louis G; Jacobson, Nicholas C; Moore, Ginger A

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether baseline dimensions of adult insecure attachment (avoidant and anxious) moderated outcome in a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening (CBT + SL) versus CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy (CBT + I/EP). Eighty-three participants diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were recruited from the community and assigned randomly to CBT + SL (n = 40) or to CBT + I/EP (n = 43) within a study using an additive design. PhD-level psychologists treated participants. Blind assessors evaluated participants at pretreatment, posttreatment, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up with a composite of self-report and assessor-rated GAD symptom measures (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinician's Severity Rating). Avoidant and anxious attachment were assessed using self-reported dismissing and angry states of mind, respectively, on the Perceptions of Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Consistent with our prediction, at all assessments higher levels of dismissing styles in those who received CBT + I/EP predicted greater change in GAD symptoms compared with those who received CBT + SL for whom dismissiveness was unrelated to the change. At postassessment, higher angry attachment was associated with less change in GAD symptoms for those receiving CBT + I/EP, compared with CBT + SL, for whom anger was unrelated to change in GAD symptoms. Pretreatment attachment-related anger failed to moderate outcome at other time points and therefore, these moderation effects were more short-lived than the ones for dismissing attachment. When compared with CBT + SL, CBT + I/EP may be better for individuals with GAD who have relatively higher dismissing styles of attachment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Adult Attachment as a Moderator of Treatment Outcome for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Comparison Between Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Plus Supportive Listening and CBT Plus Interpersonal and Emotional Processing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Jacobson, Nicholas C.; Moore, Ginger A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether baseline dimensions of adult insecure attachment (avoidant and anxious) moderated outcome in a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) plus supportive listening (CBT + SL) versus CBT plus interpersonal and emotional processing therapy (CBT + I/EP). Method Eighty-three participants diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were recruited from the community and assigned randomly to CBT + SL (n = 40) or to CBT + I/EP (n = 43) within a study using an additive design. PhD-level psychologists treated participants. Blind assessors evaluated participants at pretreatment, posttreatment, 6-month, 12-month, and 2-year follow-up with a composite of self-report and assessor-rated GAD symptom measures (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinician’s Severity Rating). Avoidant and anxious attachment were assessed using self-reported dismissing and angry states of mind, respectively, on the Perceptions of Adult Attachment Questionnaire. Results Consistent with our prediction, at all assessments higher levels of dismissing styles in those who received CBT + I/EP predicted greater change in GAD symptoms compared with those who received CBT + SL for whom dismissiveness was unrelated to the change. At postassessment, higher angry attachment was associated with less change in GAD symptoms for those receiving CBT + I/EP, compared with CBT + SL, for whom anger was unrelated to change in GAD symptoms. Pretreatment attachment-related anger failed to moderate outcome at other time points and therefore, these moderation effects were more short-lived than the ones for dismissing attachment. Conclusions When compared with CBT + SL, CBT + I/EP may be better for individuals with GAD who have relatively higher dismissing styles of attachment. PMID:26052875

  3. Diagnosis of antenatal Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, R; Peres, M; Kesby, G

    2016-01-01

    Bartter syndrome is a rare heterogeneous group of autosomal-recessive salt-losing renal tubular disorders that can present in fetal life (antenatal Bartter syndrome; ABS) as "unexplained" early-onset polyhydramnios, often associated with growth restriction. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition involves assessment of amniotic fluid biochemistry in a setting of polyuric polyhydramnios; with elevated chloride levels considered a consistent and diagnostic finding. Other amniotic fluid biochemical markers have been described, notably increased aldosterone levels, and low total protein levels. NOVEL INSIGHT: Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a heterogeneous group of renal disorders. While certain biochemical features in amniotic fluid might heighten suspicion, final diagnosis can only be made in the postnatal setting. In the setting of unexplained severe polyhydramnios, clinicians should continue to entertain the diagnosis of antenatal Bartter Syndrome and maintain neonatal surveillance, even if amniotic fluid markers do not support the diagnosis.

  4. Postnatal Imaging of Antenatal Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, David M.; Herndon, C. D. Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Radiologic imaging of the newborn detected prenatally with hydronephrosis should follow a systematic approach. Upper and lower urinary tract imaging should be performed in most cases in order to determine the etiology and gauge the use of future imaging. An overview of renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, renal scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance urography in the setting of antenatal hydronephrosis are discussed. PMID:19484160

  5. Postnatal Imaging of Antenatal Hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kitchens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiologic imaging of the newborn detected prenatally with hydronephrosis should follow a systematic approach. Upper and lower urinary tract imaging should be performed in most cases in order to determine the etiology and gauge the use of future imaging. An overview of renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, renal scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance urography in the setting of antenatal hydronephrosis are discussed.

  6. Using attachment theory in mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Kerri

    Attachment theory is a useful way to understand the bond between children and the people with whom they have emotional ties--usually caregivers. The theory can also help us to understand any adult relationship that provides closeness and a sense of attachment, especially in times of stress or need. Understanding the nature, cause and effect of the role and function of attachment from a training and development perspective, and different styles of attachment, may improve the quality of the mentoring experience for both mentors and mentees.

  7. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Do emotion regulation, attentional control, and attachment style predict response to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders? - an investigation in clinical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Hageman, Ida; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Approximately, 50% of all individuals with anxiety disorders do not benefit from the "gold standard" treatment, namely cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reliable predictors of treatment effect are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of emotion...

  9. Do emotion regulation, attentional control, and attachment style predict response to cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders? – an investigation in clinical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Hageman, Ida; Petersen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Approximately, 50% of all individuals with anxiety disorders do not benefit from the “gold standard” treatment, namely cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reliable predictors of treatment effect are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of emotion...

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with late antenatal care visit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora

    Background: Adequate utilization of antenatal health care services is associated ... access to antenatal care services including provision of ANC services that are free of charge (Gross ... Information about demographic characteristics, antenatal.

  11. Antenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Ghana, the importance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Ghana, the importance of women\\'s ... The antenatal characteristics of 503 pregnant women attending maternal and child ... Higher educational level associated with early antenatal care attendance.

  12. Antenatal diagnosis of congenital deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, G

    1988-01-01

    Advances in the field of antenatal diagnosis have made possible the detection of profound sensorineural hearing loss prior to birth. Fetal motion in response to sound and auditory evoked potential testing can determine the presence of fetal hearing in the third trimester of pregnancy. Imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging hold promise for the diagnosis of some forms of congenital deafness in the second trimester fetus. The methods by which congenital deafness soon may be diagnosed and the implications for the otologist are discussed.

  13. Attachment and Dyadic Regulation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-02-01

    Insecurely attached people have relatively unhappy and unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships depends on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to regulate the emotional and behavioral reactions of insecurely attached individuals, which promotes greater relationship satisfaction and security. We discuss attachment theory and interdependence dilemmas, and then explain how and why certain responses by partners assuage the cardinal concerns of insecure individuals in key interdependent situations. We then review recent studies illustrating how partners can successfully regulate the reactions of anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals, yielding more constructive interactions. We finish by considering how these regulation processes can create a more secure dyadic environment, which helps to improve relationships and attachment security across time.

  14. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzati, Rita; Molteni, Valentina; Bani, Marco; Settanta, Carmen; Di Maggio, Maria Grazia; Villa, Ivan; Poletti, Barbara; Ardito, Rita B.

    2014-01-01

    Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the...

  15. Can Doll therapy preserve or promote attachment in people with cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems? A pilot study in institutionalized patients with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Rita ePezzati; Rita ePezzati; Valentina eMolteni; Valentina eMolteni; Marco eBani; Carmen eSettanta; Maria Grazia eDi Maggio; Ivan eVilla; Barbara ePoletti; Barbara ePoletti; Rita B. Ardito

    2014-01-01

    Doll therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention aimed at reducing behavioral and psychological disorders in institutionalized patients with dementia. This therapy as a care tool has been integrated into the context of long-term care institutions, in which the need to find solutions to cognitive, behavioral and emotional problems showed by people with dementia meets the primary objective of developing good care practices focusing on patients and their needs. In the present work we adopt the...

  16. Determinants of Antenatal Care Use in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbosch, G.B.; Nsowah-Nuamah, N.N.N.; van den Boom, G.J.M.; Damnyag, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the determinants of antenatal care use in Ghana. In particular, we study how economic factors affect the demand for antenatal care and the probability that the number of visits falls below the recommended number of four. Estimation results from a nested three-level multinomial

  17. Antenatal Testing – A Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signore, Caroline; Freeman, Roger K.; Spong, Catherine Y.

    2009-01-01

    In August 2007, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Pediatrics cosponsored a 2-day workshop to reassess the body of evidence supporting antepartum assessment of fetal well-being, identify key gaps in the evidence, and formulate recommendations for further research. Participants included experts in obstetrics and fetal physiology, and representatives from relevant stakeholder groups and organizations. This article is a summary of the discussions at the workshop, including synopses of oral presentations on the epidemiology of stillbirth and fetal neurological injury, fetal physiology, techniques for antenatal monitoring, and maternal and fetal indications for monitoring. Finally, a synthesis of recommendations for further research compiled from three breakout workgroups is presented. PMID:19300336

  18. Thanatophoric dysplasia: Antenatal to postmortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanabasappa V Chavadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanatophoric dwarfism (TD, literally meaning death seeking dwarf, is the most common form of lethal bone dysplasia characterized by severe micromelia, extra folds of skin and narrow chest. Other signs include small ribs, underdeveloped lungs, cloverleaf skull, hypertelorism and protuberant abdomen. A short neck, depressed nasal bridge and hypoplastic mandible may also be present. Hydrocephalus is uncommon but is another poor prognostic sign. The diagnosis is usually made with the ultrasonography in the second trimester. Based on the morphological characters, this condition is sub-divided into type 1 and type 2. Fetuses with this condition are either still-born or die shortly after birth. Antenatal sonographic, postpartum radiological and autopsy findings of a case of type 1 TD with a relatively uncommon association of hydrocephalus is discussed.

  19. Swedish women's expectations about antenatal care and change over time - a comparative study of two cohorts of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Andersson, Ewa; Christensson, Kyllike

    2014-06-01

    A decade ago a national cohort of Swedish-speaking women were surveyed about their expectations on antenatal care. Today, antenatal care in Sweden still operates under similar circumstances while changes have occurred in society and the pregnant population. To compare expectations of antenatal care in pregnant women recruited 2009-2010 to those of pregnant women from a national cohort in 1999-2000. An additional aim was to compare antenatal expectations in women recruited to a clinical trial and subsequently received group based or standard antenatal care. A cross-sectional pre-study of 700 women recruited to a clinical trial and a historical cohort of 3061 women from a Swedish national survey. Data was collected by a questionnaire in early pregnancy for both cohorts and before the clinical trial started. In early pregnancy 79% of the women in the study sample reported a preference for the recommended number of visits, which is slightly higher than in the national cohort (70%). Continuity of the caregiver was still important with 95% vs 97% of the women rated it important to meet the same midwife at subsequent antenatal visits. The content of care rank order showed a change over time with lower expectations in health check-ups and emotional content and higher expectations in information needs, respect and partner involvement. Women approached in early pregnancy had lower expectations about medical and emotional check-ups and parent education but higher expectations regarding information, being met with respect and the involvement of the partner compared to women 10 years ago. Continuity of a midwife caregiver was still important and women seem more willing to follow the recommended number of antenatal visits. Asking women about their expectations regarding antenatal care could be a means to individualize the care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Attachment avoidance, but not anxiety, minimizes the joys of caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine; Borelli, Jessica L; River, Laura M

    2017-10-01

    Perhaps unlike other social roles that people may hold, caring for children offers opportunities for both immense joy and incredible frustration. Yet what predicts how parents will feel during caregiving experiences? In the current study, we examined parents' (N = 152) positive emotion, negative emotion, and felt meaning during caregiving using the Day Reconstruction Method. In addition, we tested attachment anxiety and avoidance as predictors of parents' emotion during caregiving relative to their other daily experiences. We found that attachment avoidance was associated with elevated negative emotion and reduced positive emotion and meaning in life across the entire day, whereas attachment anxiety was associated with elevated negative emotion and marginally greater meaning in life, but not positive emotion, across the entire day. Furthermore, caregiving was associated with greater positive emotion and meaning, but not negative emotion, compared to parents' other daily activities. Finally, attachment avoidance, but not anxiety, was associated with lower levels of positive emotion, negative emotion, and felt meaning during caregiving compared to other daily activities. These findings are consistent with other evidence that attachment avoidance is associated with deactivation of emotion in close relationships and suggest that attachment avoidance minimizes the joys of parenting.

  1. Internet: a new concept of antenatal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Gergana

    2015-02-01

    Historically antenatal education has been seen as an important part of antenatal care and a mechanism to provide women with close to realistic interpretations of childbirth and motherhood. Through the years, the main themes and emphases of parenting education have changed, sometimes to reflect the new socio-economic structure and sometimes forced by the women themselves seeking specific information and knowledge. Yet again, this time the invasion of online information and social media is about to change the perception and the philosophy of antenatal education from an informative opportunity to a powerful and effective intervention.

  2. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  3. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.......Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience....

  4. Antenatal education in the transition to motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Burley, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    This thesis explores the relationship between antenatal education and the transition to motherhood, focusing on the pre-natal expectations and postnatal experiences of a small sample of first-time mothers in Plymouth. The aims of the study were 1) to investigate the style and content of statutory and voluntary sector antenatal classes in the Plymouth area. 2) To investigate factors affecting non-attendance, including non-attenders' perceptions of them. 3) To examine the role of...

  5. Antenatal education for childbirth-epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutajar, Lisa; Cyna, Allan M

    2018-05-07

    The language structures used by antenatal educators have not been previously researched in the context of antenatal childbirth classes. Epidural analgesia for labour is a common, and a frequently asked about, component of antenatal education for parents in hospitals providing maternity care. We aimed to identify the way information is described and presented by childbirth educators to assess content and determine which language structures such as metaphor, suggestion, information and storytelling are utilized. This observational study of antenatal education was conducted at a single tertiary referral center for maternity care in Western Sydney, Australia. All three childbirth educators agreed to be video recorded whilst providing information to parents during antenatal classes. Audio data was subsequently transcribed and then analysed by two researchers, independently categorising the various language structures and types of information provided. For the purposes of the current study, data concerning a single topic was used for the analysis-'epidural analgesia for labour'. Language structures used were highly variable between educators, as was the content and time taken for the information being provided. Our findings represent a first attempt to identify baseline information used in the clinical setting of antenatal education in order to categories communication structures used. This study has identified areas for further improvements and consistency in the way educators provide information to parents and has important implications for future midwifery practice, education and research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  7. [Emotion Regulation and Emotional Vulnerability in Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.

  8. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  9. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramesh Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  11. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Y. Ramesh; Vinayaka, G.; Sreelakshmi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS. PMID:22518185

  12. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  13. Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates intrusive traumatic memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Chan, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antenatal imaging of cutis verticis gyrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Ana; Perry, David; Battin, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a skin condition characterized by thick folds and deep furrows, resembling a cortical gyral pattern. There is a recognized but rare association with Noonan syndrome. We report the antenatal imaging, including three-dimensional surface-rendered sonography and MRI, of a fetus with CVG who was subsequently diagnosed with Noonan syndrome. The case illustrates the antenatal appearances of congenital CVG and the potential yield of antenatal imaging in excluding a major central nervous system anomaly. This is important because without prior knowledge of this condition and its imaging characteristics, it is possible to get a false impression of an underlying skull defect on mid-trimester imaging. (orig.)

  15. Antenatal imaging of cutis verticis gyrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ana [Starship Hospital, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Perry, David [Starship Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Auckland (New Zealand); Battin, Malcolm [Auckland City Hospital, Newborn Services, National Women' s Health, Auckland (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-05-15

    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a skin condition characterized by thick folds and deep furrows, resembling a cortical gyral pattern. There is a recognized but rare association with Noonan syndrome. We report the antenatal imaging, including three-dimensional surface-rendered sonography and MRI, of a fetus with CVG who was subsequently diagnosed with Noonan syndrome. The case illustrates the antenatal appearances of congenital CVG and the potential yield of antenatal imaging in excluding a major central nervous system anomaly. This is important because without prior knowledge of this condition and its imaging characteristics, it is possible to get a false impression of an underlying skull defect on mid-trimester imaging. (orig.)

  16. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  17. Perception of prenatal services by antenatal clinic attendees in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADDAH A.O

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... also been recognised that most women who registered for antenatal care in a particular health ..... is not yet appropriate to embrace focused antenatal care.9 There are still gaps in the continued use of ... higher wages.

  18. Effects of Antenatal Betamethasone and Dexamethasone in Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chen

    2005-09-01

    Conclusion: In our study, no significant differences between antenatal betamethasone and dexamethasone were found in complications of preterm neonates. Incomplete courses of antenatal corticosteroids were associated with an increased incidence of RDS compared with complete courses.

  19. The application of attachment theory to a psychotherapy case

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the psychotherapeutic use of Attachment Theory. Attachment Theory is an interpersonal theory which refers to the way an individual internalises an emotional-cognitive model of his relationships with his various attachment figures. These models of ways of relating are reflected in the way an individual speaks. The methodology of the study entailed conducting the semi-structured Adult Attachment Interview to elicit a psychotherapy client's narr...

  20. Antenatal corticosteroids: an assessment of anticipated benefits and potential risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Alan H; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2018-04-07

    Antenatal corticosteroids are standard of care for pregnancies at risk of preterm delivery between 24-34 weeks' gestational age. Recent trials demonstrate modest benefits from antenatal corticosteroids for late preterm and elective cesarean deliveries, and antenatal corticosteroids for periviable deliveries should be considered with family discussion. However, many women with threatened preterm deliveries receive antenatal corticosteroids but do not deliver until >34 weeks or at term. The net effect is that a substantial fraction of the delivery population will be exposed to antenatal corticosteroids. There are gaps in accurate assessments of benefits of antenatal corticosteroids because the randomized controlled trials were performed prior to about 1990 in pregnancies generally >28 weeks. The care practices for the mother and infant survival were different than today. The randomized controlled trial data also do not strongly support the optimal interval from antenatal corticosteroid treatment to delivery of 1-7 days. Epidemiology-based studies using large cohorts with >85% of at-risk pregnancies treated with antenatal corticosteroids probably overestimate the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids. Although most of the prematurity-associated mortality is in low-resource environments, the efficacy and safety of antenatal corticosteroids in those environments remain to be evaluated. The short-term benefits of antenatal corticosteroids for high-risk pregnancies in high-resource environments certainly justify antenatal corticosteroids as few risks have been identified over many years. However, cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities have been identified in large animal models and cohorts of children exposed to antenatal corticosteroids that are consistent with fetal programming for adult diseases. These late effects of antenatal corticosteroids suggest caution for the expanded use of antenatal corticosteroids beyond at-risk pregnancies at 24-34 weeks. A way forward

  1. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  2. Health care providers' knowledge and practice of focused antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... observational checklist were the instruments for data collection. Findings revealed poor knowledge of concept, components, timing of visits on focused antenatal care and non compliance with the guidelines for the practice of focused antenatal care, because of health workers lack of knowledge on focused antenatal care.

  3. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  4. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  5. Midwifery basics. Antenatal care: the options available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Helen

    2002-10-01

    This new series of articles is aimed at student midwives. Its purpose is to provide them with a basic understanding of the main issues and concepts surrounding the delivery of antenatal care. Students will be encouraged to seek further information through a series of activities throughout the text. They will also be helped to link theory with practice by following 'Joanna' through her pregnancy.

  6. Antenatal Bartter's syndrome with sensorineural deafness

    OpenAIRE

    Bhamkar, R. P.; Gajendragadkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Bartter's syndrome is a group of inherited, salt-losing tubulopathies presenting as metabolic alkalosis with normotensive hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism. We report here the first case of a neonate with bilateral, sensorineural deafness, a variant of antenatal Bartter's syndrome from an Indian community.

  7. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  8. Addressing the needs of first-time fathers in Tasmania: A qualitative study of father-only antenatal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Meredith

    2018-04-01

    To examine how first-time fathers in rural Tasmania experienced father-only antenatal support/education groups. Semistructured interviews with expectant fathers were used for this study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit fathers in 2014. Participants were recruited face-to-face via email through a government health service and not-for-profit organisation that runs a state-wide fatherhood program. Several participants were recruited through a company that holds antenatal education classes for men in a pub. Data were analysed thematically. Three rural Tasmanian areas (South, Central Coast and Northern Midlands) PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five men from three rural areas of Tasmania, ≥18 years, about to become first-time father with partner at least 20 weeks pregnant. Semistructured interviews explored men's experiences of father-only antenatal education groups. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis: (i) motivations for attending antenatal groups; (ii) the effect of the group setting on men's experiences; (iii) masculine stereotypes in antenatal groups; and (iv) strategies to support fathers. Data show men wanted to join the groups and learn about being an involved father. They often felt uncomfortable sharing experiences in discussion-based groups. They tended to prefer information-based groups which were not premised on sharing emotions. Men offered strategies to improve father-only antenatal education groups. Tasmanian antenatal education/support programs need improvement. Providing men with multiple opportunities to connect with other fathers is critical to improving support. Groups can be improved by accounting for multiple and complex constructions of masculinity, increasing the number of sessions offered and altering the structure. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  9. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  10. Infant-parent attachment: Definition, types, antecedents, measurement and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Diane

    2004-10-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most popular and empirically grounded theories relating to parenting. The purpose of the present article is to review some pertinent aspects of attachment theory and findings from attachment research. Attachment is one specific aspect of the relationship between a child and a parent with its purpose being to make a child safe, secure and protected. Attachment is distinguished from other aspects of parenting, such as disciplining, entertaining and teaching. Common misconceptions about what attachment is and what it is not are discussed. The distinction between attachment and bonding is provided. The recognized method to assess infant-parent attachment, the Strange Situation procedure, is described. In addition, a description is provided for the four major types of infant-parent attachment, ie, secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-resistant and insecure-disorganized. The antecedents and consequences of each of the four types of infant-parent attachment are discussed. A special emphasis is placed on the description of disorganized attachment because of its association with significant emotional and behavioural problems, and poor social and emotional outcomes in high-risk groups and in the majority of children who have disorganized attachment with their primary caregiver. Practical applications of attachment theory and research are presented.

  11. Maternal-foetal attachment independently predicts the quality of maternal-infant bonding and post-partum psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Eleonora; Palagini, Laura; Bacci, Olivia; Borri, Chiara; Teristi, Valentina; Corezzi, Camilla; Faraoni, Sara; Antonelli, Paolo; Cargioli, Claudio; Banti, Susanna; Perugi, Giulio; Mauri, Mauro

    2017-08-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal antenatal attachment and post-partum psychopathology, maternal-infant bonding, while checking for antenatal psychopathology, for lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and for the known risk factors for peripartum depression. One hundred and six women recruited at the first month of pregnancy (T0) were evaluated with the structured interview for DSM-IV TR (SCID-I) to assess the presence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis and with the Perinatal Depression Predictor Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). At the sixth month of pregnancy (T1) and at the first month post-partum (T2), all patients were evaluated with the PDPI-R, the EPDS, the STAI, at T1, with the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS), and at T2 with the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS). Multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal-foetal attachment was the variable most significantly associated with postnatal symptoms of depression and anxiety and with quality of maternal-infant attachment. The logistic regression analyses showed that antenatal attachment may predict postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms (respectively, OR: 0.83 - IC [0.74 - 0.95], p = .005, OR: 0.88 - IC [0.79 - 0.98], p = .02), and the quality of maternal postnatal attachment (OR: 1.17 - IC [1.08 - 1.27], p depression, the sociodemographic variables and lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. The quality of maternal-foetal bonding may independently predict the quality of maternal-infant attachment and post-partum depressive and anxiety symptoms. A comprehensive assessment of maternal risk factors for perinatal psychopathology during pregnancy should include the evaluation of antenatal attachment that could be modifiable by specific interventions promoting the quality of maternal bonding.

  12. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  13. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  14. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  15. Attachment within life history theory: an evolutionary perspective on individual differences in attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-15

    In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relational trauma: using play therapy to treat a disrupted attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah M; Gedo, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Caregiver-child attachment results in a cognitive-emotional schema of self, other, and self-other relationships. Significantly disrupted attachments may lead to pathogenic internal working models, which may have deleterious consequences; this indicates the need for early attachment intervention. The authors consider the therapy of a 3-year-old boy with aggressive behaviors who had lacked consistent caregiving. Attachment theory can account for the child's psychotherapeutic gains, despite his insecure attachment style. The authors discuss discrepancies between treatment and current research trends.

  17. Attachment security, personality, and adjustment of elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri

    2013-01-01

    Children's development is assumed to be closely related to their attachment security and their personality. The authors' aim was to examine the joint contribution of attachment security and personality traits to children's adjustment by examining diverse children's outcomes (emotional symptoms, social functioning, and behavioral problems) and using various perspectives (children, parents, and teachers). The sample comprised 247 8-12-year-old children from low socioeconomic status neighborhoods. Personality and attachment contribute to the different domains of adjustment. In cases of moderation, attachment security moderates the implications of personality traits on children's adjustment. The findings highlight the contribution of positive personality tendencies in playing down the difficulties of insecurely attached children.

  18. Attachment patterns and Reflective Functioning in Traumatized Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    , attachment systems, emotion-regulation, and personality. Attachment research on the consequences of organized violence and forced migration is sparse and research in PTSD-treatment for refugees is lacking behind. Cumulative pre-migration traumatic experiences and ongoing post-migration stressors might lead...... Psychiatry, Denmark. June 2011-March 2012 patients fulfilling inclusion criteria entered the trial. The present sample consisted of those of the 135 patients who were Arabic-speaking (N=67). Measures involved the Adult Attachment Interview, The Reflective Functioning Scale, Revised Adult Attachment Scale...... and reflective functioning will be described and implications for psychotherapy discussed. Keywords: Adult attachment, reflective functioning, refugee traumatisation....

  19. Prognostic accuracy of antenatal neonatology consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukora, S; Gollehon, N; Weiner, G; Laventhal, N

    2017-01-01

    Neonatologists provide antenatal counseling to support shared decision-making for complicated pregnancies. Poor or ambiguous prognostication can lead to inappropriate treatment and parental distress. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of antenatal prognosticaltion. A retrospective cohort was assembled from a prospectively populated database of all outpatient neonatology consultations. On the basis of the written consultation, fetuses were characterized by diagnosis groups (multiple anomalies or genetic disorders, single major anomaly and obstetric complications), assigned to five prognostic categories (I=survivable, IIA=uncertain but likely survivable, II=uncertain, IIB=uncertain but likely non-survivable, III non-survivable) and two final outcome categories (fetal demise/in-hospital neonatal death or survival to hospital discharge). When possible, status at last follow-up was recorded for those discharged from the hospital. Prognostic accuracy was assessed using unweighted, multi-level likelihood ratios (LRs). The final cohort included 143 fetuses/infants distributed nearly evenly among the three diagnosis groups. Over half (64%) were assigned an uncertain prognosis, but most of these could be divided into 'likely survivable' or 'likely non-survivable' subgroups. Overall survival for the entire cohort was 62% (89/143). All but one of the fetuses assigned a non-survivable prognosis suffered fetal demise or died before hospital discharge. The neonatologist's antenatal prognosis accurately predicted the probability of survival by prognosis group (LR I=4.56, LR IIA=10.53, LR II=4.71, LR IIB=0.099, LR III=0.040). The LRs clearly differentiated between fetuses with high and low probability of survival. Eleven fetuses (7.7%) had misalignment between the predicted prognosis and outcome. Five died before discharge despite being given category I or IIA prognoses, whereas six infants with category IIB or III prognoses survived to discharge, though some of these were

  20. Implementation and assessment of an early home-based intervention on infant attachment organisation: the CAPEDP attachment study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, Susana; Guedeney, Nicole; Dugravier, Romain; Greacen, Tim; Saïas, Thomas; Tubach, Florence; Guédeney, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Attachment is a long-term emotional link between infants and their mothers. Attachment quality influences subsequent psychosocial relationships, the ability to manage stress and, consequently, later mental health. Home intervention programmes targeting infant attachment have been implemented in several contexts with varying degrees of efficacy. Within the CAPEDP study (Parental Skills and Attachment in Early Childhood: reduction of risks linked to mental health problems and promotion of resilience), a subsample of 120 families were recruited with the objective of assessing the impact of this home-visiting programme on infant attachment organisation using the Strange Situation Procedure. The present paper describes the methodology used in this ancillary study.

  1. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  2. Antenatal services for Aboriginal women: the relevance of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Tracy; Walker, Roz

    2010-01-01

    Due to persistent significantly poorer Aboriginal perinatal outcomes, the Women's and Newborns' Health Network, Western Australian Department of Health, required a comprehensive appraisal of antenatal services available to Aboriginal women as a starting point for future service delivery modelling. A services audit was conducted to ascertain the usage frequency and characteristics of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women in Western Australia (WA). Telephone interviews were undertaken with eligible antenatal services utilising a purpose specific service audit tool comprising questions in five categories: 1) general characteristics; 2) risk assessment; 3) treatment, risk reduction and education; 4) access; and 5) quality of care. Data were analysed according to routine antenatal care (e.g. risk assessment, treatment and risk reduction), service status (Aboriginal specific or non-specific) and application of cultural responsiveness. Significant gaps in appropriate antenatal services for Aboriginal women in metropolitan, rural and remote regions in WA were evident. Approximately 75% of antenatal services used by Aboriginal women have not achieved a model of service delivery consistent with the principles of culturally responsive care, with few services incorporating Aboriginal specific antenatal protocols/programme, maintaining access or employing Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs). Of 42 audited services, 18 Aboriginal specific and 24 general antenatal services reported utilisation by Aboriginal women. Of these, nine were identified as providing culturally responsive service delivery, incorporating key indicators of cultural security combined with highly consistent delivery of routine antenatal care. One service was located in the metropolitan area and eight in rural or remote locations. The audit of antenatal services in WA represents a significant step towards a detailed understanding of which services are most highly utilised and their defining characteristics

  3. Psychoprophylaxis - Antenatal preparation and actual use during labour

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Malin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of a model of antenatal education, focusing on natural childbirth preparation by including psychoprophylaxis, breathing and relaxation techniques to cope with labour pain, and the actual use of psychoprophylaxis during labour. Satisfaction with antenatal education and experiences of a subgroup of men with antenatal fear of childbirth were also explored. The principal design was a randomised controlled trial where the new mo...

  4. Implementation of Attachment Theory into Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…

  5. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmanny, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic

  6. An assessment of antenatal care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benage, Matthew; Greenough, P Gregg; Vinck, Patrick; Omeira, Nada; Pham, Phuong

    2015-01-01

    After more than three years of violence in Syria, Lebanon hosts over one million Syrian refugees creating significant public health concerns. Antenatal care delivery to tens of thousands of pregnant Syrian refugee women is critical to preventing maternal and fetal mortality but is not well characterized given the multiple factors obtaining health data in a displaced population. This study describes antenatal care access, the scope of existing antenatal care, and antenatal and family planning behaviors and practice among pregnant Syrian refugees in various living conditions and multiple geographic areas of Lebanon. A field-based survey was conducted between July and October 2013 in 14 main geographic sites of refugee concentration. The assessment evaluated antenatal services among a non-randomized sample of 420 self-identified pregnant Syrian refugee women that included demographics, gestational age, living accommodation, antenatal care coverage, antenatal care content, antenatal health behaviors, antenatal health literacy, and family planning perception and practices. In total, 420 pregnant Syrian refugees living in Lebanon completed the survey. Of these, 82.9% (348) received some antenatal care. Of those with at least one antenatal visit, 222 (63.8%) received care attended by a skilled professional three or more times, 111 (31.9%) 1-2 times, and 15 (4.3%) had never received skilled antenatal care. We assessed antenatal care content defined by blood pressure measurement, and urine and blood sample analyses. Of those who had received any antenatal care, only 31.2% received all three interventions, 18.2% received two out of three, 32.1% received one out of three, and 18.5% received no interventions. Only (41.2%) had an adequate diet of vitamins, minerals, and folic acid. Access, content and health behaviors varied by gestational age, type of accommodation and location in Lebanon. Standards of antenatal care are not being met for pregnant Syrian refugee women in

  7. Antenatal Deworming and Materno-Perinatal Outcomes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubong Bassey Akpan

    2018-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Presumptive deworming during the antenatal period can significantly reduce the incidence of peripartum anaemia. However, more studies may be needed to prove any positive perinatal outcome.

  8. Attachment and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillath, Omri; C Karantzas, Gery; Lee, Juwon

    2018-02-21

    The current review covers two lines of research linking attachment and social networks. One focuses on attachment networks (the people who fulfill one's attachment needs), examining composition and age-related differences pertaining to these networks. The other line integrates attachment with social network analysis to investigate how individual differences in adult attachment are associated with the management and characteristics (e.g., density, multiplexity, and centrality) of people's social networks. We show that most people's attachment networks are small and hierarchical, with one figure being the primary attachment figure (often a mother or romantic partner, depending on age). Furthermore, attachment style predicts network characteristics and management, such that insecurity is associated with less closeness, multiplexity, centrality, and poorer management (less maintenance, more dissolution). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Women's education level, antenatal visits and the quality of skilled antenatal care: a study of three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella

    2014-02-01

    Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit.

  10. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  11. Electron-attachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christodoulides, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Topics covered include: (1) modes of production of negative ions, (2) techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, (3) dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules, (4) dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), (5) molecular parent negative ions, and (6) negative ions formed by ion-pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms

  12. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  13. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  14. Special Attachments. Module 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on special attachments, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers four topics: gauges; cording attachment; zipper foot; and hemming, shirring, and binding. For each topic these components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student…

  15. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  16. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...

  17. Ante-natal ionising radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This editorial comments on the latest reports of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer (now based on Birmingham). With 14759 pairs, the latest survey is over 10-fold larger than the 1958 report and the calculation of fatal childhood cancer rate at one case in 990 ante-natal radiographic examinations is rather larger than the early estimates, in spite of the fetal radiation dose having been halved and the cure rate for childhood leukemia being much improved. Comments are made on the comparisons with bomb survivors, and on the much increased fatal cancer incidence after first trimester radiography. (UK)

  18. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  19. Effects of Antenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Socio-Economic Status on Neonatal Brain Development are Modulated by Genetic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Anqi; Shen, Mojun; Buss, Claudia; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Entringer, Sonja; Styner, Martin; Karnani, Neerja; Heim, Christine M; O'Donnell, Kieran J; Holbrook, Joanna D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    This study included 168 and 85 mother-infant dyads from Asian and United States of America cohorts to examine whether a genomic profile risk score for major depressive disorder (GPRSMDD) moderates the association between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms (or socio-economic status, SES) and fetal neurodevelopment, and to identify candidate biological processes underlying such association. Both cohorts showed a significant interaction between antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and infant GPRSMDD on the right amygdala volume. The Asian cohort also showed such interaction on the right hippocampal volume and shape, thickness of the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Likewise, a significant interaction between SES and infant GPRSMDD was on the right amygdala and hippocampal volumes and shapes. After controlling for each other, the interaction effect of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right amygdala, while the interaction effect of SES and GPRSMDD was mainly shown on the right hippocampus. Bioinformatic analyses suggested neurotransmitter/neurotrophic signaling, SNAp REceptor complex, and glutamate receptor activity as common biological processes underlying the influence of antenatal maternal depressive symptoms on fetal cortico-limbic development. These findings suggest gene-environment interdependence in the fetal development of brain regions implicated in cognitive-emotional function. Candidate biological mechanisms involve a range of brain region-specific signaling pathways that converge on common processes of synaptic development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Influence of Antenatal Care on the Haematocrit Value of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Antenatal care is generally believed to influence the outcome of any pregnancy. Haematocrit values are important in the assessment of anaemia in pregnancy. A good antenatal care is expected to be associated with good haematocrit values, prevent anaemia in pregnancy, and result in an overall good pregnancy ...

  1. Antenatal care service utilization and associated factors in Metekel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    socioeconomic and some obstetric factors have been stated by few studies in other areas, the factors associated with low utilization of Antenatal care in Metekel Zone are not well assed before. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the status of Antenatal care service utilization and associated factors among ...

  2. Factors associated with late antenatal care attendance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite antenatal care services being provided free of charge or sometimes at a minimal cost in Zambia, only 19% of women attend antenatal care by their fourth month of pregnancy, as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). An estimated 21% of pregnant women in urban and 18% in rural ...

  3. Antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes at a Kenyan rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of antenatal care (ANC) is to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Fewer ANC visits in focused antenatal care (FANC) model can affect maternal and perinatal outcomes in low income settings where the number ANC visits are often low. Objective: To determine the number of ANC visits and their ...

  4. Variables influencing delay in antenatal clinic attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A delay in deciding to seek antenatal care is predominant among pregnant teenagers in Lesotho. This subsequently leads to delay in reaching treatment and in receiving adequate treatment. Early antenatal care attendance plays a major role in detecting and treating complications of pregnancy and forms a good basis for ...

  5. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  6. Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 1Department of Public ... cross‑sectional study of 430 antenatal women using structured self‑administered ... KEY WORDS: Antenatal, contraception, population control Nigeria ... hence, the need to study the contraceptive-seeking behavior.

  7. Antenatal care services utilization among women of reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between September and October 2013 among 425 women of reproductive age using a multi-stage sampling technique. Results: Almost all the respondents (93.9%) were aware of antenatal care services. A good proportion of the mothers (90.1%) used antenatal services, ...

  8. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and ...

  9. Antenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in Three Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antenatal Care and Skilled Birth Attendance in Three Communities in Kaduna State, Nigeria. ... Most importantly, safer delivery options that would be acceptable in communities where women traditionally birth at home need to be explored (Afr. J. Reprod. Health 2010; 14[3]: 89-96). Key words: Antenatal care, skilled birth ...

  10. Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the pattern of family planning methods used by antenatal patients at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted between December,2007 and February,2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical committee of ...

  11. Awareness of family planning amongst antenatal patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study aimed at determining the awareness about family planning amongst pregnant women presenting to the antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was conducted between December, 2007 and February, 2008 at the antenatal clinic of the hospital. Ethical ...

  12. The Prevalence of Osteoporosis among Antenatal Clinic Attendees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a global public health problem characterized by reduction of bone mineral density (BMD). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis among antenatal clinic attendees in a rural Southeastern hospital. Material and Methods: This was a cross‑sectional study of booking. Antenatal ...

  13. Pattern and Determinants of Antenatal Booking at Abakaliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for pregnant women to enable them attain and maintain a state of good health throughout pregnancy and to improve ... subsidization of cost of medical services will help in reversing the trend of late antenatal booking. Keywords: Abakaliki, Antenatal booking, .... Artisan/fashion/ design. 10 (2.9). 3 (30). 7 (70). Civil servant.

  14. Revised guidelines on management of antenatal hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A.; Bagga, A.; Krishna, A; Bajpai, M.; Srinivas, M.; Uppal, R.; Agarwal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread antenatal screening has resulted in increased detection of anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract. The present guidelines update the recommendations published in 2000. Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is transient and resolves by the third trimester in almost one-half cases. The presence of oligohydramnios and additional renal or extrarenal anomalies suggests significant pathology. All patients with ANH should undergo postnatal ultrasonography; the intensity of subsequent evaluation depends on anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the renal pelvis and/or Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading. Patients with postnatal APD exceeding 10 mm and/or SFU grade 3-4 should be screened for upper or lower urinary tract obstruction and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Infants with VUR should receive antibiotic prophylaxis through the first year of life, and their parents counseled regarding the risk of urinary tract infections. The management of patients with pelviureteric junction or vesicoureteric junction obstruction depends on clinical features and results of sequential ultrasonography and radionuclide renography. Surgery is considered in patients with increasing renal pelvic APD and/or an obstructed renogram with differential renal function <35-40% or its subsequent decline. Further studies are necessary to clarify the role of prenatal intervention, frequency of follow-up investigations and indications for surgery in these patients. PMID:23716913

  15. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  16. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns' survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality...... of care is declining. We evaluated the association between a mobile phone intervention and antenatal care in a resource-limited setting. We aimed to assess antenatal care in a comprehensive way taking into consideration utilisation of antenatal care as well as content and timing of interventions during...... included at their first antenatal care visit and followed until 42 days after delivery. 24 primary health care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text-message and voucher component. Primary outcome...

  17. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2016-12-06

    Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were

  18. Antenatal physical activity: a qualitative study exploring women's experiences and the acceptability of antenatal walking groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Sinéad; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; McInnes, Rhona J

    2016-07-22

    Regular physical activity (PA) can be beneficial to pregnant women, however, many women do not adhere to current PA guidelines during the antenatal period. Patient and public involvement is essential when designing antenatal PA interventions in order to uncover the reasons for non-adherence and non-engagement with the behaviour, as well as determining what type of intervention would be acceptable. The aim of this research was to explore women's experiences of PA during a recent pregnancy, understand the barriers and determinants of antenatal PA and explore the acceptability of antenatal walking groups for further development. Seven focus groups were undertaken with women who had given birth within the past five years. Focus groups were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Relevant and related behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which could be applied to future interventions, were identified using the BCT taxonomy. Women's opinions and experiences of PA during pregnancy were categorised into biological/physical (including tiredness and morning sickness), psychological (fear of harm to baby and self-confidence) and social/environmental issues (including access to facilities). Although antenatal walking groups did not appear popular, women identified some factors which could encourage attendance (e.g. childcare provision) and some which could discourage attendance (e.g. walking being boring). It was clear that the personality of the walk leader would be extremely important in encouraging women to join a walking group and keep attending. Behaviour change technique categories identified as potential intervention components included social support and comparison of outcomes (e.g. considering pros and cons of behaviour). Women's experiences and views provided a range of considerations for future intervention development, including provision of childcare, involvement of a fun and engaging leader and a range of activities rather than just walking

  19. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  20. ATTACHMENT AND TRANSFER

    OpenAIRE

    Pasare, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Bowlby's concept of attachment and Freud's concept of transference are two of the most influential theories of how we construct mental representations of human relationships. The attachment’s theory offers one more strategy for the therapeutic approach. Factors that lead to a secure attachment between mother and child may also be applied to the relationship between patient and psychotherapist. Psychotherapy may help a patient create himself new attachment and relationship patterns. Creating a...

  1. A Study of Maternal Attachment among Mothers of Infants with Congenital Anomalies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylmaz, Hatice Bal; Kavlak, Oya; Isler, Aysegul; Liman, Tulin; Van Sell, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect maternal attachment among mothers whose infants were born with congenital anomalies. A questionnaire was used to collect individual sociodemographic data, and the Maternal Attachment Inventory was used to collect information about the emotional attachment of mothers to infants…

  2. Visitors' relationship to the resource: comparing place attachment in wildland and developed settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia A. Warzecha; David W. Lime; Jerrilyn L. Thompson

    2000-01-01

    Emotional/symbolic and functional place attachments were measured on the Green and Colorado Rivers in Canyonlands National Park and at Mount Rushmore National Memorial. Although Canyonlands and Mount Rushmore represent very different recreational settings, it was possible to measure both types of attachment by using 12 place attachment statements. In Canyonlands, river...

  3. We only talk about breast feeding: a discourse analysis of infant feeding messages in antenatal group-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Fenwick; Elaine, Burns; Athena, Sheehan; Virginia, Schmied

    2013-05-01

    the aim of the study was to examine the dominant discourses that midwives draw on to present information on breast feeding in group-based antenatal education sessions. breast-feeding initiation rates are high among Australian women however, duration rates are low. Antenatal breast-feeding education is considered a key strategy in promoting breast feeding to childbearing women. The efficacy and effectiveness of such a strategy is equivocal and there is little qualitative work examining group-based antenatal breast-feeding education. discourse analysis was used to explore the language and practises of midwives facilitating group antenatal breast-feeding education sessions at two Australian maternity facilities. Nine sessions were observed and tape recorded over a 12 month period. Each session lasted between 60 and 140 mins. the analysis revealed four dominate discourses midwives used to promote breast feeding during group-based antenatal education session. The predominant discourses 'There is only one feeding option': breast feeding' and 'Selling the 'breast is best' reflected how midwives used their personal and professional commitment to breast feeding, within supportive and protective policy frameworks, to convince as many pregnant women as possible to commit to breast feeding. Sessions were organised to ensure women and their partners were 'armed' with as much information as possible about the value of breastmilk, successful positioning and attachment and practical strategies to deal with early breast-feeding problems. Antenatal commitment to breast feeding was deemed necessary if women were to overcome potential hurdles and maintain a commitment to the supply of breast milk. The latter two discourses, drawn upon to promote the breast-feeding message, presented infants as 'hard wired' to breast feed and male partners as 'protectors' of breast feeding. midwives clearly demonstrated a passion and enthusiasm for breast-feeding education. Examining the dominant

  4. The first antenatal appointment: An exploratory study of the experiences of women with a diagnosis of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise; Thomas, Dona

    2015-08-01

    to explore and gain insight into the expectations and experiences of women with a pre-existing diagnosis of mental illness, of their first booking appointment; to make recommendations for practice development and collaborative partnership working between healthcare professionals. a qualitative design using semi structured interviews and thematic analysis of the data. QSR NVivo 10 software is used to organise the data into themes. the interviews took place either at the women׳s homes, or within the antenatal service with the consent of the woman and relevant practitioners. twelve participants were selected from one antenatal clinic and one perinatal mental health service. the themes identified within the data included the lack of information prior to the initial midwife booking appointment; the perception of too much information at the initial booking appointment and women not being clear about their mental health needs at this time; a general positivity about disclosing mental illness diagnoses; overall positive thoughts about midwives although some midwives appeared less knowledgeable about bipolar disorder, and perceptions about a lack of joined up working between antenatal and perinatal mental health services. it is recommended that GPs receive adequate training in order to equip them with the skills needed to discuss sensitive issues around perinatal mental illness and the impact on pregnancy and childbirth. Women require more information about their booking appointment, and it would be beneficial for their emotional and physical health needs to be assessed at each follow-up antenatal appointment. Midwives need to be facilitated to receive up-to-date knowledge of antenatal and postnatal mental illness and treatments, and the referral process to perinatal mental health services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antenatal Diagnosis of an XXX Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krone, Lawrence R.; Prichard, Lorraine L.; Bradshaw, Christy L.; Jones, Oliver W.; Peterson, Raymond M.; Dixson, Barbara K.

    1975-01-01

    This report describes the first antenatal diagnosis of an XXX female. Over 150 postnatal cases of XXX females have been described. There is no specific phenotype associated with the sex chromosome abnormality and most such persons are fertile. The frequency of XXX females in mental institutions is 3.9 per 1,000 female subjects whereas the frequency in consecutive newborn infants is 1.1 per 1,000 newborns. Chi-square analysis shows this difference cannot be due to chance. On the other hand, data from consecutive newborn studies suggest that intellectual development in XXX newborns is within normal range. Available evidence favors normal development in XXX female infants although the risk for developmental disabilities may be higher for the XXX than for the XX infant. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1154778

  6. Antenatal stress: An Irish case study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2013-05-16

    BACKGROUND:: stress in pregnancy is common and impacts negatively on women, infants and families. A number of factors contribute to high levels of stress in pregnancy, including financial concerns, marital discord, low support systems and low socio-economic status. OBJECTIVES:: the aim of this study was to evaluate stress anxiety levels and depressive symptoms among low risk women in an area in Ireland that was particularly impacted by the 2008 economic crisis. DESIGN:: a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Perceived Stress Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data was collected at a single time during the second trimester. SETTING:: this paper reports a case study of one maternity service in Ireland. Participants included low risk pregnant women who were attending the hospital clinic for routine antenatal care. RESULTS:: of 150 questionnaires distributed, 74 completed questionnaires were returned indicating a 49.3% return rate. Findings indicated high levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptomatology among participants. There were no significant difference in mean EPDS score for different age groups (F4,69=2.48, P=0.052), living arrangements (F4,68=0.90, P=0.5) or usual occupation (F4,69=1.45, P=0.2). A score of ≥12 was taken as indicative of probable antenatal depression and 86.5% of participants responded with a score of 12 or above. PSS scores were also high and more than three quarters of respondents scored ≥15 (75.6%) and more than a third had scores ≥20 (35.1%), out of a total score of 40. There was a significant difference in mean PSS score between the different age groups (F4,69=3.60, P=0.010) but not for living arrangements or usual occupation. A STAI score of ≥39 was taken as indicative of antenatal anxiety, and 74.3% of participants responded with a score of 39 or above. There were no significant differences in mean STAI

  7. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  8. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic

  9. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...

  10. The Attachment Imperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Laura Emdal; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    on social relations and point to the productive aspects of practices of distance and detachment. We show that while the NICU upholds an imperative of attachment independently of the infant's chances of survival, for parents, attachment is contingent on certain hesitations in relation to their infant. We...... argue that there are nuances in practices of relationmaking in need of more attention (i.e., the nexus of attachment and detachment). Refraining from touching, holding, and feeding their infants during critical periods, the parents enact detachment as integral to their practices of attachment....... Such “cuts” in parent–infant relations become steps on the way to securing the infant's survival and making kin(ship). We conclude that although infants may be articulated as “maybe‐lives” by staff, in the NICU as well as in Danish society, the ideal of attachment appears to leave little room for “maybe‐parents.”...

  11. Adolescents' multiple versus single primary attachment figures, reorganization of attachment hierarchy, and adjustments: the important people interview approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tomotaka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kraus, Jakub; Horská, Eliška; Pivodová, Lenka

    2018-04-20

    Using 212 adolescents from a central-European country (mean age = 14.02, SD = 2.05, ranged from 11 to 18 years; females = 54%) and a multi-informant method to measure adolescents' behavioral and emotional adjustments, the present study explored three aspects regarding the attachment hierarchy. (1) The three types of behavioral systems of Rosenthal and Kobak's important people interview (IPI) were initially validated using an exploratory factor analysis with a US sample. Using a confirmatory factor analysis with a Czech sample, we replicated these three behavioral systems: attachment bond, support seeking, and affiliation. (2) We found that adolescents who developed attachment bond to multiple primary attachment figures were likely to score lower on both teacher-rated and parent-rated internalizing problems compared to those who had a single primary attachment figure. These multiple primary attachment figures tended to be family members (not peers). (3) Early adolescents who placed parents low in their attachment hierarchy scored higher on self-reported negative affect and lower on self-reported positive affect compared to early adolescents who placed parents high. The present study highlights multiple (vs. single) primary attachment figures as a protective factor and the premature reorganization of attachment hierarchy as a risk factor for adolescents' emotional and affective adjustments.

  12. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  14. Determinants of Home Delivery among Women attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Unskilled home delivery is a threat to maternal and child health. ... home delivery after attending antenatal services, this study employed a cross-sectional design and a non-probability purposive ... deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Skilled antenatal care service utilization and its association with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were entered into EPI info version 7 statistical software and exported to STATA ... Conclusions: Skilled ANC service utilization is the joint effect of individual and ... analysis, skilled antenatal care service, women's health development team ...

  16. Does antenatal care attendance prevent anemia in pregnancy at term?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-03

    : all > 0.05). Conclusion: The ... low socioeconomic class[11] and poor maternal education are some of .... significance was set at 95% confidence interval (CI). Results ... the antenatal attendees, a total of 3442 women satisfied.

  17. Antenatal Magnesium Sulfate and Neurologic Outcome in Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa; Marret, Stephane

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review rates of neurologic outcomes reported in childhood for the preterm fetus exposed to antenatal magnesium sulfate. DATA SOURCES: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 3), relevant

  18. Proportion and Factors Associated with late Antenatal Care Booking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Booking among Pregnant Mothers in Gondar Town, North West ... of booking, perceived the right time of booking beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy, were not autonomous to use antenatal care ..... blood cell folate concentration at 10-12 weeks.

  19. determinants of first antenatal care visit by pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... Subjects: Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care ... convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to ... identifying maternal education, employment, age,.

  20. Medicinal Plants used during Antenatal Care by Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. ... Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Antenatal, Traditional Birth Attendants, Uganda. Résumé ..... phenomenon, possibly due to their availability and.

  1. Incidence of nevirapine-associated hepatitis in an antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based highly active antiretroviral therapy at a dedicated antenatal antiretroviral clinic between July 2004 and December 2006. Results. Three hundred and ninety women were included in the analysis. Median age was 29 (interquartile range (IQR)

  2. factors affecting antenatal care service utilization in yem special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jhon

    assess antenatal care utilization and factors that affect it in Yem Special Woreda, South Western Ethiopia. METHODS: A ... A pre-tested structured questionnaire consisting of information on socio- ..... model and access to medical care: does it.

  3. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  4. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  5. The Gap of Self - States and Its Association to an Individual‟s Interaction and Emotional Bond to their Significant Relationships: A Correlational Study about Filipino Youth‟s Self - Discrepancy and Their Attachment Styl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae R. Galing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A youth is expected to experience difficulties due to the opposing desire to be free while still remaining dependent to family and other significant individuals in their lives. Filipino youth are known as being family - oriented and being submissive which is one of the factors that pounds the importance of what people around them utters. Thus, creating a gap or discrepancy between what they truly want and what other people expect them to do. When these internal battles began, significant external aspects such as social interaction can be compromised. These occurrences can be elucidated by using the two frameworks Self - Discrepancy Theory and Attachment Style. In this study, correlational research design and survey method were employed to 384 Filipino Youth from Makati whom are selected through convenience sampling. Results of the study showed that the respondents have positive image of themselves. Also, a big majority of the respondents were discerned to have high discrepancies between their self - states. In this study, it was also seen that the respondents were dismissive and were characterized to be independent, self - reliant, and gave low importance to relationships. Finally, findings of this study revealed a weak positive correlation between secure attachment s tyle towards the self - discrepancy of the respondents while weak negative correlation was found between the rest of the attachment styles towards the discrepancy among their self - states. With this, the researchers recommended stabilizing internal discrepanc ies and strengthening significant relationships as the two were seen as big factors in respondents’ social interaction and self - esteem.

  6. The neural correlates of attachment security in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Jung; Taylor, Margot J; Hong, Soon-Beom; Kim, Changdai; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated neural correlates of children's attachment security using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-one boys' attachment styles (age mean = 9.5 years, SD = 0.61) were assessed with the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). We created an fMRI version of the SAT to activate children's attachment system in fMRI environment and contrasted two conditions in which children were instructed to infer the specific feeling of the boy in the picture or to identify objects or physical activities. In the final fMRI analysis (N = 21), attachment security could be detected at the neural level corresponding to the behavioural differences in the attachment interview. Securely attached children showed greater activation in the frontal, limbic and basal ganglia area which included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, cingulate cortex and striatum, compared to other children who had lower quality of attachment. These regions have a key role in socio-emotional information processing and also represent a brain network related to approach and avoidance motivation in humans. Especially the striatum, strongly linked to reward processing underpinning social approach and avoidance motivation, showed the largest effects in these differences and also positively correlated with emotional openness scores in SAT. This suggests that the quality of attachment configures the approach and avoidance motivational system in our brain mediated by the striatum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms among women in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Yusuff, Aza Sherin; Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antenatal depression and to assess whether the common risk factors identified in previous studies were applicable to women in Sabah, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study of 2072 women was conducted in Sabah during 2009-2010. Participants were recruited at 36-38 weeks of gestation to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The presence of depression was assessed using the validated Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.3%, 15.3%]. Women who were happy with the pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89] and those with a planned pregnancy (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.33, 0.60) were less likely to suffer from antenatal depression. Pregnant mothers who were taking oral contraceptives before pregnancy (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20, 2.22) and women who experienced antenatal anxiety (OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.35, 4.26) appeared to have an increased risk of antenatal depression. A substantial proportion of women suffered from antenatal depression in Sabah, Malaysia. Screening and culturally tailored intervention programs targeting vulnerable subgroups of women in the early stage of pregnancy are recommended to deal with the problem.

  8. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I.F.

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy...... (cognitive–behavioural, cognitive–behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong...... inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis...

  9. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment, and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeschi, Claudia; Pazzagli, Chiara; Radi, Giulia; Raspa, Veronica; Buratta, Livia

    2015-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers' postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers' attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th months of gestation) and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress 3 months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety) was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress 3 months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers.

  10. Antecedents of maternal parenting stress: the role of attachment style, prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment in first-time mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMazzeschi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition to parenthood is widely considered a period of increased vulnerability often accompanied by stress. Abidin conceived parenting stress as referring to specific difficulties in adjusting to the parenting role. Most studies of psychological distress arising from the demands of parenting have investigated the impact of stress on the development of dysfunctional parent-child relationships and on adult and child psychopathology. Studies have largely focused on mothers’ postnatal experience; less attention has been devoted to maternal prenatal characteristics associated with the subsequent parental stress and studies of maternal prenatal predictors are few. Furthermore, no studies have examined that association exclusively with samples of first-time mothers. With an observational prospective study design with two time periods, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of mothers’ attachment style, maternal prenatal attachment to the fetus and dyadic adjustment during pregnancy (7th month of gestation and their potential unique contribution to parenting stress three months after childbirth in a sample of nulliparous women. Results showed significant correlations between antenatal measures. Maternal attachment style (especially relationship anxiety was negatively correlated with prenatal attachment and with dyadic adjustment; positive correlations resulted between prenatal attachment and dyadic adjustment. Each of the investigated variables was also good predictor of parenting stress three months after childbirth. Findings suggested how these dimensions could be considered as risk factors in the transition to motherhood and in the very beginning of the emergence of the caregiving system, especially with first-time mothers

  11. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  12. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  13. Attachment theory and group processes: the association between attachment style and group-related representations, goals, memories, and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Eldad; Mikulincer, Mario

    2003-06-01

    Four studies examined attachment-style differences in group-related cognitions and behaviors. In Studies 1-2, participants completed scales on group-related cognitions and emotions. In Studies 3-4, participants were divided into small groups, and their performance in group tasks as well as the cohesion of their group were assessed. Both attachment anxiety and avoidance in close relationships were associated with negative group-related cognitions and emotions. Anxiety was also related to the pursuit of closeness goals and impaired instrumental performance in group tasks. Avoidance was related to the pursuit of distance goals and deficits in socioemotional and instrumental performance. Group cohesion significantly moderated the effects of attachment anxiety. The discussion emphasizes the relevance of attachment theory within group contexts.

  14. Maternal Antenatal Bereavement and Neural Tube Defect in Live-Born Offspring: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    Full Text Available Maternal emotional stress during pregnancy has previously been associated with congenital neural malformations, but most studies are based on data collected retrospectively. The objective of our study was to investigate associations between antenatal maternal bereavement due to death of a close relative and neural tube defects (NTDs in the offspring.We performed a register-based cohort study including all live-born children (N = 1,734,190 from 1978-2008. Exposure was bereavement due to loss of a close relative from one year before conception to the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. The outcome was NTDs in the offspring according to the International Classification of Disease. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (ORs.A total of 2% children were born to mothers who lost a close relative prenatally. During 30 years of follow-up, 1,115 children were diagnosed with any NTDs: spina bifida (n = 889, anencephaly (n = 85 and encephalocele (n = 164. And 23 children were diagnosed with two types of NTDs. Overall, when comparing bereaved mothers to non-bereaved mothers, no significant increased prevalence of NTDs in the offspring was seen (OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.33.Overall maternal bereavement in the antenatal period was not related to NTDs in liveborn offspring.

  15. The lived experiences of rural women diagnosed with the human immunodeficiency virus in the antenatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fords, Genevieve Marion; Crowley, Talitha; van der Merwe, Anita S

    2017-12-01

    In South Africa, pregnant women are diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at antenatal clinics and simultaneously initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART). An HIV diagnosis together with the initiation of ART has an emotional impact that may influence how pregnant women cope with pregnancy and their adherence to a treatment plan. The aim of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women diagnosed with HIV in the antenatal period in a rural area in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. A qualitative approach with a descriptive phenomenological design was utilised. The study applied purposive sampling to select participants from a local community clinic in the Eastern Cape. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework. Four themes formed the essential structure of the phenomenon being investigated: a reality that hits raw, a loneliness that hurts, hope for a fractured tomorrow and support of a few. Although the participants had to accept the harsh reality of being diagnosed with HIV and experienced loneliness and the support of only a few people, they had hope to live and see the future of their children. Women diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy are ultimately concerned with the well-being of their unborn children, and this concern motivates their adherence to ART. Women's lived experiences are situated in their unique sociocultural context, and although some known challenges remain, counselling and support strategies need to be informed by exploring context-specific issues and involving the local community.

  16. Attachment behavior and mother-child conversations as predictors of attachment representations in middle childhood: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    This study examines longitudinal links between mother-child conversations and attachment patterns in early childhood and later attachment representations. It also tests the role of conversations as mediators in the association between behavioral security and attachment representations. Mother-child conversations (snack-time) and attachment behaviors (Separation-Reunion procedure) were assessed for 83 5.5-year-olds while attachment representations (attachment narratives) were measured at 8.5 years of age. Results showed correspondence between attachment behaviors and representations for secure-confident, ambivalent-preoccupied, and disorganized/controlling-frightened groups. Affective quality of mother-child conversations predicted both child attachment behaviors and representations. Secure and confident children showed greater integration of affective information, ambivalent and preoccupied children more affect exaggeration, and disorganized/controlling and frightened children more chaotic conversations. Avoidant children tended to show more affect minimization in conversations. Finally, mother-child conversations centered on the sharing of emotions and thoughts mediated the relation between behavioral and representational attachment security, which underscores the importance of mother-child conversations in the development of attachment representations in childhood.

  17. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Bonnie WM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27, dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93, antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90, and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14 predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early.

  18. Genetic and caregiving-based contributions to infant attachment: unique associations with distress reactivity and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K Lee; Cicchetti, Dante; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Cutuli, J J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2012-09-01

    In the longitudinal study reported here, we examined genetic and caregiving-based contributions to individual differences in infant attachment classifications. For 154 mother-infant pairs, we rated mothers' responsiveness to their 6-month-old infants during naturalistic interactions and classified infants' attachment organization at 12 and 18 months using the Strange Situation procedure. These infants were later genotyped with respect to the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Maternal responsiveness uniquely predicted infants' attachment security. Infants' 5-HTTLPR variation uniquely predicted their subtype of attachment security at 12 months and their subtype of attachment insecurity at 12 and 18 months. The short allele for 5-HTTLPR was associated with attachment classifications characterized by higher emotional distress. These findings suggest that 5-HTTLPR variation contributes to infants' emotional reactivity and that the degree to which caregivers are responsive influences how effectively infants use their caregivers for emotion regulation. Theoretical implications for the study of genetic and caregiving influences are discussed.

  19. A review of attachment theory in the context of adolescent parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Serena Cherry; Sadler, Lois S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review attachment theory and relate the attachment perspective to adolescent mothers and their children. Attachment theory explains positive maternal-infant attachment as a dyadic relationship between the infant and mother that provides the infant with a secure base from which to explore the world. With respect to cognitive, social, and behavioral domains, securely attached infants tend to have more favorable long-term outcomes, while insecurely attached infants are more likely to have adverse outcomes. Adolescent parenthood can disrupt normal adolescent development, and this disruption influences development of the emotional and cognitive capacities necessary for maternal behaviors that foster secure attachment. However, it appears that if specialized supports are in place to facilitate the process of developing attachment, infants of adolescent mothers can obtain higher rates of secure attachment than normative samples in this population. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  1. Superego: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jeremy

    2011-10-01

    With the help of attachment theory and research, the paper attempts to broaden and build on classical and current views on the superego. Attachment theory's epigenetic approach and the concept of the subliminal superego are described. The superego, it is argued, is as much concerned with safety as sex. The superego is 'heir', not just to the Oedipus complex or Klein's pre-oedipal constellation, but also to the attachment relationship. Under favourable developmental conditions a 'mature superego' emerges, facilitating, in the presence of an internal secure base, maturational boundary crossings towards adult sexuality. In the light of the above, the paper reviews Lear's updating of Strachey's model of psychic change and explores the concept of transgression in relation to the 'professional superego', its development and maturation. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with clinical examples. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Fuel rod attachment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    A reusable system for removably attaching a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support member. A locking cap is secured to the fuel rod and a locking strip is fastened to the support member or vice versa. The locking cap has two opposing fingers and shaped to form a socket having a body portion. The locking strip has an extension shaped to rigidly attach to the socket's body portion. The locking cap's fingers are resiliently deflectable. For attachment, the locking cap is longitudinally pushed onto the locking strip causing the extension to temporarily deflect open the fingers to engage the socket's body portion. For removal, the process is reversed. In an alternative embodiment, the cap is rigid and the strip is transversely resiliently compressible. (author)

  3. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  4. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  5. Life events and difficulties and their association with antenatal distress in White and South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traviss, Gemma D; Meer, Shaista; West, Robert M; House, Allan O

    2013-05-01

    Symptoms of distress during pregnancy are common and often go unnoticed. There is a well-established relation between life events and depression. The current study aims to explore the association between life events and difficulties, and symptoms of emotional and somatic distress during pregnancy in White and South Asian women in the UK. 100 pregnant women attending routine antenatal appointments were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS). We investigated the frequency and type of events experienced in the year prior to conception and during pregnancy, as predictors for somatic and emotional distress, measured using the GHQ-28. Non-severe stressors accounted for over 90 % of those reported, half of which (43-53 %) were health and reproduction-related. Somatic symptoms were associated with the number of non-severe events, and number of children and emotional symptoms were associated with non-marked difficulties. There was little evidence of an association between severe events and distress. Ethnicity had little effect on any associations although South Asian women were at slightly higher odds of experiencing emotional symptoms, which appear to be buffered by social support. In routine antenatal care it is important to assess both emotional and somatic symptoms. Health professionals need to be sensitive to the health, social, cultural and environmental circumstances of women during pregnancy and ensure appropriate support is in place, particularly for multi-parous women. Regression models explained a small but significant amount of the variance in distress symptoms. Further work is necessary to explore other contributory factors and also the mechanisms through which stressors have their effect.

  6. Discrete emotions and persuasion: the role of emotion-induced expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Petty, Richard E; Rucker, Derek D; Wegener, Duane T; Braverman, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The authors argue that specific emotions can alter the persuasive impact of messages as a function of the emotional framing of persuasive appeals. Because specific emotions inflate expectancies for events possessing matching emotional overtones (D. DeSteno, R. E. Petty, D. T. Wegener, & D. D. Rucker, 2000), the authors predicted that attempts at persuasion would be more successful when messages were framed with emotional overtones matching the emotional state of the receiver and that these changes would be mediated by emotion-induced biases involving expectancies attached to arguments contained in the messages. Two studies manipulating discrete negative emotional states and message frames (i.e., sadness and anger) confirmed these predictions. The functioning of this emotion-matching bias in parallel with emotion-induced processing differences and the limitations of a valence-based approach to the study of attitude change are also considered.

  7. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghaddam Hoseini V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.486.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.893.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  8. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2010-01-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  9. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2012-02-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  10. EFFECT OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN ANTENATAL MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasooya Parail Sankaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the effect of thyroid dysfunction in antenatal mothers in Alappuzha one of the coastal areas in South Kerala over a period from January 2012 to January 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a descriptive study of the effect of thyroid dysfunction among pregnant ladies attending OBG Department in Government Medical College, Alappuzha, a rural medical college at coastal areas of Kerala over a period of 3 years. RESULTS The incidence is found to be maximum in the coastal area, i.e. 84.9%, but p-valve 0.625 is not statistically significant. Thyroid disorder is mostly seen in primigravida (57.8% and between the age of 20 and 25 yrs. (43.2% and the most commonly seen disorder among is subclinical hypothyroidism (73.7% (p valve <.005, which is statistically significant. There is significant increase in maternal complications like preeclampsia, (RR-8.54, p-value 0.014 recurrent abortion (RR-91.13, p-value 0.000, prolonged period of infertility (RR-55.16, p-value 0.000, anaemia (RR-11.37, p-value 0.003 is seen in subclinical hypothyroidism. The foetal complications seen are oligamnios (7.8%, MSAF (9.2%, foetal distress (12.1%, PROM (5.1% and FGR (10.9%. The neonates were admitted in NICU in view of NEC (1.5%, NNJ (24.1%, MAS (6.9%, TTNB (9.5% and HIE (2.9%. CONCLUSION The present study is intended to study the maternal and foetal effects of thyroid dysfunction. After the study, we concluded that there are many adverse maternal, foetal and neonatal effects in pregnancies complicated with thyroid dysfunction. In coastal area, the disease has got a high prevalence and hence there is a need for proper screening and early diagnosis. Proper treatment options are given to the patient.

  11. Prevalence of Novel MAGED2 Mutations in Antenatal Bartter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Anne; Treard, Cyrielle; Roncelin, Isabelle; Dreux, Sophie; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Broux, Françoise; Bruno, Daniele; Decramer, Stéphane; Deschenes, Georges; Djeddi, Djamal; Guigonis, Vincent; Jay, Nadine; Khalifeh, Tackwa; Llanas, Brigitte; Morin, Denis; Morin, Gilles; Nobili, François; Pietrement, Christine; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Salomon, Rémi; Vrillon, Isabelle; Blanchard, Anne; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2018-02-07

    Mutations in the MAGED2 gene, located on the X chromosome, have been recently detected in males with a transient form of antenatal Bartter syndrome or with idiopathic polyhydramnios. The aim of this study is to analyze the proportion of the population with mutations in this gene in a French cohort of patients with antenatal Bartter syndrome. The French cohort of patients with antenatal Bartter syndrome encompasses 171 families. Mutations in genes responsible for types 1-4 have been detected in 75% of cases. In patients without identified genetic cause ( n =42), transient antenatal Bartter syndrome was reported in 12 cases. We analyzed the MAGED2 gene in the entire cohort of negative cases by Sanger sequencing and retrospectively collected clinical data regarding pregnancy as well as the postnatal outcome for positive cases. We detected mutations in MAGED2 in 17 patients, including the 12 with transient antenatal Bartter syndrome, from 16 families. Fifteen different mutations were detected (one whole deletion, three frameshift, three splicing, three nonsense, two inframe deletions, and three missense); 13 of these mutations had not been previously described. Interestingly, two patients are females; in one of these patients our data are consistent with selective inactivation of chromosome X explaining the severity. The phenotypic presentation in our patients was variable and less severe than that of the originally described cases. MAGED2 mutations explained 9% of cases of antenatal Bartter syndrome in a French cohort, and accounted for 38% of patients without other characterized mutations and for 44% of male probands of negative cases. Our study confirmed previously published data and showed that females can be affected. As a result, this gene must be included in the screening of the most severe clinical form of Bartter syndrome. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  13. Midwives' views on of appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.

  14. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  15. Maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Monica; Valentino, Kristin; McDonnell, Christina G; Speidel, Ruth

    2018-05-01

    In the current investigation, we examined associations between maternal attachment and the way that mothers and children discuss past emotional experiences (i.e., reminiscing) among 146 maltreating and 73 nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children. Recent studies demonstrate that maltreating mothers engage in less elaborative reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating mothers. To further explicate the nature of reminiscing among maltreating families, we examined maternal and child contributions to reminiscing, their interrelations, and associations with maternal attachment among dyads from maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Maternal attachment is theoretically and empirically associated with mother-child reminiscing, and an insecure maternal attachment style was hypothesized to exacerbate poor elaborative reminiscing among maltreating families. Mothers and children reminisced about four emotional experiences. Maternal attachment was measured with the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire. Mothers and children from maltreating families engaged in less elaborative and emotion-rich reminiscing compared with nonmaltreating dyads. Maternal attachment anxiety was negatively associated with maternal elaborative reminiscing, but only among nonmaltreating mothers. Mother-child reminiscing among dyads with nonmaltreating and low attachment anxiety mothers was highly collaborative; whereas reminiscing among dyads with maltreating and high attachment anxiety mothers was less reciprocal. Our findings largely support communicative perspectives of attachment theory and also indicate that maternal attachment is differentially associated with mother-child reminiscing among maltreating and nonmaltreating families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Andersen, Stig Krøger

    2014-01-01

    The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small num......-analysis aims to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes....

  17. Attachment reorganization following divorce: normative processes and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbarra, David A; Borelli, Jessica L

    2018-03-21

    This paper uses attachment theory as a lens for reviewing contemporary research on how adults cope with marital separation and loss. The first section of the paper discusses the process of normative attachment reorganization, or the psychology of adaptive grief responses following relationship transitions. We argue that changes two processes, in particular, can be uses to track changes in this normative reorganization process: narrative coherence and self-concept clarity. The second section of the paper suggest that individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance shape the variability in this normative reorganization process, largely as a result of the characteristic ways in which these styles organize emotion-regulatory tendencies. The paper closes with a series of integrative questions for future research, including a call for new studies aimed at understanding under what contexts anxiety and avoidance may be adaptive in promoting emotion recovery to separation and divorce experiences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discursive Positioning and Emotion in School Mathematics Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeff; Morgan, Candia; Tsatsaroni, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Our approach to emotion in school mathematics draws on social semiotics, pedagogic discourse theory and psychoanalysis. Emotions are considered as socially organised and shaped by power relations; we portray emotion as a charge (of energy) attached to ideas or signifiers. We analyse transcripts from a small group solving problems in mathematics…

  19. Sex differences in jealousy: a contribution from attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Kelly, Kristen M

    2010-02-01

    Studies have found that more men than women endorse sexual infidelity as more distressing than emotional infidelity, whereas more women than men endorse emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Some evolutionary psychologists have proposed that this sex difference can be best conceptualized as reflecting evolution-based differences in parental investment that produce a need for paternity certainty among men and a need for male investment in offspring among women. Nonetheless, a conspicuous subset of men report emotional infidelity as more distressing than sexual infidelity. Current theorizing explains between-sex differences but not within-sex differences. We hypothesized that attachment-style differences may help to explain both between- and within-sex differences in jealousy. As hypothesized, dismissing avoidant participants reported more jealousy regarding sexual than emotional infidelity (64.8%), and secure participants, including secure men, reported more jealousy regarding emotional than sexual infidelity (77.3%), chi(2)(3, N = 411) = 45.03, p jealousy relationship by attachment style. Implications of an attachment perspective are discussed.

  20. Audit of antenatal care at a community health centre in Tshwane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Few studies document the level of compliance with antenatal care protocols in primary health care in South Africa. The aim of this study was to conduct an audit of antenatal care at a community health centre in Tshwane North subdistrict in order to measure the level of compliance of maternity staff with antenatal ...

  1. Antenatal mother–infant bonding scores are related to maternal reports of infant crying behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Truijens, S.E.M.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between antenatal mother–infant bonding scores and maternal reports of infant crying behaviour. Background: Crying is normal behaviour and it is important for parent–infant bonding. Even though bonding starts antenatally, the relation between antenatal bonding

  2. Antenatal psychosomatic programming to reduce postpartum depression risk and improve childbirth outcomes: a randomized controlled trial in Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Collado, Maria Assumpta; Saez, Marc; Favrod, Jérôme; Hatem, Marie

    2014-01-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) and poor childbirth outcomes are associated with poverty; these variables should be addressed by an adapted approach. The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of an antenatal programme based on a novel psychosomatic approach to pregnancy and delivery, regarding the risk of PPD and childbirth outcomes in disadvantaged women. A multi-centre, randomized, controlled trial comparing a novel to standard antenatal programme. Primary outcome was depressive symptoms (using EPDS) and secondary outcome was preterm childbirth (fewer 37 weeks). The sample comprised 184 couples in which the women were identified to be at PPD risk by validated interview. The study was conducted in three public hospitals with comparable standards of perinatal care. Women were randomly distributed in to an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG), and evaluated twice: during pregnancy (T1) and four weeks post-partum (T2). At T2, the variables were compared using the chi square test. Data analysis was based on intention to treat. The novel programme used the Tourné psychosomatic approach focusing on body awareness sensations, construction of an individualized childbirth model, and attachment. The 10 group antenatal sessions each lasted two hours, with one telephone conversation between sessions. In the control group, the participants choose the standard model of antenatal education, i.e., 8 to 10 two-hour sessions focused on childbirth by obstetrical prophylaxis. A difference of 11.2% was noted in postpartum percentages of PPD risk (EPDS ≥ 12): 34.3% (24) in EG and 45.5% (27) in CG (p = 0.26). The number of depressive symptoms among EG women decreased at T2 (intragroup p = 0.01). Premature childbirth was four times less in EG women: three (4.4%) compared to 13 (22.4%) among CG women (p = 0.003). Birth weight was higher in EG women (p = 0.01). The decrease of depressive symptoms in women was not conclusive. However, because birth weight was higher and

  3. Workspace appropriation and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This literature synthesis presents a short history of the evolution of the concepts of space appropriation and place attachment, highlighting the difficulty of their operationalisation from a cultural point of view. The next subject brought into discussion is the relation between the affective dimension of the connection between a person and the work place and the behaviours which are prone to insure the proper functioning of organizations, such as the organizational civism and the organizational commitment.

  4. Electron attachment analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Grosse, H.J.; Leonhardt, J.; Mothes, S.; Oppermann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns an electron attachment analyzer for detecting traces of electroaffine substances in electronegative gases, especially in air. The analyzer can be used for monitoring working places, e. g., in operating theatres. The analyzer consists of two electrodes inserted in a base frame of insulating material (quartz or ceramics) and a high-temperature resistant radiation source ( 85 Kr, 3 H, or 63 Ni)

  5. Love attitudes and attachment

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Brenlla; Analía Brizzio; Alejandra Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love), Ludus (game-pla- ying love), Storge (friendship love), Mania (possessive, dependent love), Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love) and Agape (all-giving, selfless love). Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale). Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the relia...

  6. Theory of Mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    Objective: Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to

  7. Theory of Mind and attachment styles in people with psychotic disorders, their siblings, and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pos, Karin; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Simons, Claudia J. P.; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin J.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) and insecure (adult) attachment styles have been found in persons with schizophrenia as well as in their healthy siblings. ToM refers to the ability to infer mental states of self and others including beliefs and emotions. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie

  8. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Examining the relationship of place attachment with pro-environmental intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Halpenny

    2007-01-01

    Place attachment, the emotional, functional, and cognitive bond that an individual has with a specific setting may play a role in an individual's choice to engage in environmentally-responsible behavior. This is particularly true for behaviors which directly benefit the place that the individual has a positive attachment with. This study examines the relationship...

  10. Stress Regulation in Adolescents: Physiological Reactivity during the Adult Attachment Interview and Conflict Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Marielle D.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescents' attachment representations were associated with differences in emotion regulation during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; C. George, N. Kaplan, & M. Main, 1996) and during a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task (Family Interaction Task [FIT]; J. P. Allen et al., 2003). Participants…

  11. Green Space Attachment and Health : A Comparative Study in Two Urban Neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yang; van Dijk, Theodorus; Tang, Jianjun; van den Berg, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationships between urban green space and health have been well documented. Little is known, however, about the role of residents’ emotional attachment to local green spaces in these relationships, and how attachment to green spaces and health may be promoted by the availability of

  12. Self-concept in institutionalized children with disturbed attachment: The mediating role of exploratory behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vacaru, V.S.; Sterkenburg, P.S.; Schuengel, C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Self-concept is seen as both an outcome of sociocognitive and emotional development, and a factor in social and mental health outcomes. Although the contribution of attachment experiences to self-concept has been limited to quality of primary attachment relationships, little is known of

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Early Antenatal Care Visit among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Antenatal care (ANC), which is given to pregnant women, is widely used for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of general medical and ... Les soins prénatals (SP), que reçoivent les femmes enceintes, sont largement utilisés pour la prévention, le diagnostic précoce et ... syphilis, HIV/AIDS and severe anemia and.

  14. Intentions of Registered Antenatal Clinic Patients About Utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nigeria bears a sizeable proportion of the global HIV burden; mother to child transmission as a major contributor and prevention of mother to child transmission the hope for a HIV-free generation. Objective: To find evaluate how booked antenatal attendees intend to utilize the labour and delivery services of the ...

  15. Factors Influencing Antenatal Care Service Utilization in Hadiya Zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore factors influencing antenatal care services utilization in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross sectional study was conducted in Hadiya Zone of Southern Ethiopia from January to February 2009. A multi stage sampling technique was used to select the ...

  16. Implementing focussed antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A SWOT Analysis framework was used to assess the situational analysis of antenatal care programmes in sub-Saharan Africa while the Walt and Gilson policy analysis triangle was used to analyse the feasibility of introducing the new WHO ANC model into the sub-region. The content of the WHO model may need to be ...

  17. Quality of Antenatal care services in eastern Uganda: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Good quality Antenatal Care (ANC) provides opportunity to detect and respond to risky maternal conditions. This study assessed quality of ANC services in eastern Uganda with a goal of benchmarking implications for interventions. Methods Data was collected from 15 health facilities in Eastern Uganda to establish capacity ...

  18. Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal Care in a Developing Country: A Veritable Tool for Slowing Population Growth. ... Background: The use of modern contraceptives has been embraced by developed nations as a means of achieving controlled growth rate. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation ...

  19. Utilization of antenatal care services among teenagers in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teenaged women suffer from a disproportionate share of reproductive health problem. The purpose of this study was to estimate the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services among teenagers (13-19 years) during delivery in Ethiopia. Methodology: Raw data collected from all part of the country on child ...

  20. Antenatal corticosteroid use in preterm birth at Kenyatta National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Preterm birth causes about 75% of neonatal deaths that are not attributable to congenital malformations. Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) given to mothers at risk of preterm birth reduce the incidence/severity of RDS, intraventricular haemmorhage, necrotizing enterocolitis and neonatal deaths. The WHO ...

  1. determinants of first antenatal care visit by pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... M. Turyasiima, R. Tugume, A. Openy, E. Ahairwomugisha, R. Opio, M. Ntunguka and N. Mahulo, Fifth year MBChB ... AT COMMUNITY BASED EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND SERVICE SITES IN ... health workers compared to those who initiate ... sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care considerably.

  2. perception and satisfaction with quality of antenatal care services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of this new focus, measurement of customer satisfaction has become equally important in assessing ... Objectives: This study evaluated clients' perception of antenatal care quality at the University College Hospital (UCH), ..... National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), waivers for staff of the UCH and for People Living with.

  3. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical protozoan disease of public health importance. This study estimated the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ...

  4. Perceptions of pregnant adolescents on the antenatal care received ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-25

    Mar 25, 2018 ... women because of the low self-esteem and stigma associated .... School again will help you to look young because when you give birth to three or four babies .... and older women delay seeking antenatal care14,17,18,21,26.

  5. practice of antenatal clinical breast examination in calabar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    population of breast cancer patients in the country than in the west led to this study to determine the proportion of women ... UCTH is low and is significantly related to the cadre and gender of the attending physician. Obstetricians .... regular role nurses play in the antenatal clinics) ... breast and cervical cancer screening? J.

  6. Audit of antenatal services in primary healthcare centres in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Maternal mortality remains a big challenge in developing countries including Nigeria where the figures are amongst the highest in the world. The Nigerian government's response in providing primary healthcare centres (PHCs) in all local government areas is commendable but access to quality antenatal care is ...

  7. Game-based online antenatal breastfeeding education: A pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassley, Jane S; Connor, Kelley C; Bond, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Healthy Moms intervention on antenatal breastfeeding self-efficacy and intention and to determine the feasibility of using an online game-based learning platform to deliver antenatal breastfeeding education. The Internet has potential for improving breastfeeding rates through improving women's access to antenatal breastfeeding education. Twelve computer-based breastfeeding education modules were developed using an online learning platform. Changes in participants' breastfeeding self-efficacy and intention pre- and post-intervention were measured using descriptive statistics and a one-way ANOVA. Of the 25 women submitting the pretest, four completed zero quests; seven, orientation only; eight, one to six breastfeeding quests; and six, 10 to 12 breastfeeding quests. No significant differences in breastfeeding self-efficacy and intention were found among the groups. Online antenatal breastfeeding education is feasible; however, further research is warranted to determine if it can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Awareness and desirability of the Nigerian antenatal women about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results:Of the 650 subjects, 249(38.3%)were aware of analgesia use in labour and their sources of information were through media (30.9%), antenatal counselling (22.9%), friends/relations (17.3%), internet (5.6%) and others – literature/lectures/ symposium (22.9%). The only factor that influence awareness on logistic ...

  9. Determinants of condom use among antenatal clinic attendees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The reported prevalence of ever use of a condom amongst antenatal clinic attendees is low and inconsistent especially among HIV positive women. Deliberate effort should be used to ensure condom access, availability and correct and consistent use of condoms by women in all sexual acts.

  10. Placenta accreta: MRI antenatal diagnosis and surgical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, T P; Li, K C

    1998-01-01

    We describe a case of a placenta previa accreta that was diagnosed antenatally by MRI with subsequent surgical confirmation. We show the advantages of ultrafast MRI single shot (SS) fast spin echo (FSE) techniques for accurate diagnosis with minimal scan time and fetal motion artifacts.

  11. Prevalence of malaria at booking among antenatal clients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2Institute for Advanced medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, Ibadan, Nigeria. 3Department of Obstetrics ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. We used a cross sectional ... all part of routine care in the. Prevalence of malaria at booking among antenatal clients in a secondary health care facility in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

  12. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...

  13. Antenatal clinical pelvimetry in primigravidae and outcome of labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A retrospective study of clinical pelvimetry and outcome of labour in primigravidae. Results: The total number of primigravidae included in the study was 268 and of these, 74 were adjudged to have adequate pelvis at antenatal clinical pelvimetry. The APGAR scores at one and five minutes were significantly higher ...

  14. Induced abortion among women attending antenatal clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Unsafe abortion is a public health concern because of its impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to document on induced abortion in Yaounde, Cameroon. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Six antenatal clinics in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: Women attending ...

  15. Antenatal blood donation: Pregnant mothers' attitude, fears and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to 150,000 pregnancy-related deaths could be avoided each year through access to safe blood. Antenatal blood donation, which will increase access to safe blood, is one of the ways to reduce maternal mortality in this environment. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, fears and preferences of pregnant mothers ...

  16. The association of maternal social factors and antenatal care with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc is a crucial micronutrient in early childhood survival and the development of innate and acquired immunity. The objective is to determine the relationship between of maternal social class and antenatal care to serum zinc level in newborns in a tertiary and a rural hospital. It is prospective study using questionnaires on ...

  17. Mothers' Antenatal Depression and Their Children's Antisocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Perra, Oliver; Sharp, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Interviews of 120 British adolescents and their parents (80% of a random sample of antenatal patients drawn from a representative urban population and followed longitudinally) revealed that 40 (33%) had been arrested and/or had a diagnosis of "DSM-IV" conduct disorder by 16 years of age; of those, 18 (45%) had committed violent acts.…

  18. Variables influencing delay in antenatal clinic attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although antenatal care is provided at different levels, Lesotho still has a ... This shortage of health care personnel and the impact of HIV/Aids result in ... of early attendance, denial of the pregnancy by the boyfriend, the fact that sex outside of ..... “My parents were still negotiating with ... want him to pay for the damage he did.

  19. Clients satisfaction of antenatal care services in public and private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antenatal care involves screening for health and socioeconomic conditions likely to increase the possibility of specific adverse pregnancy outcomes, providing therapeutic interventions known to be effective and educating pregnant women about planning for safe birth. Quality and customer service have been ...

  20. Polyhydramnios, Transient Antenatal Bartter's Syndrome, and MAGED2 Mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laghmani, Kamel; Beck, Bodo B.; Yang, Sung-Sen; Seaayfan, Elie; Wenzel, Andrea; Reusch, Bjorn; Vitzthum, Helga; Priem, Dario; Demaretz, Sylvie; Bergmann, Klasien; Duin, Leonie K.; Goebel, Heike; Mache, Christoph; Thiele, Holger; Bartram, Malte P.; Dombret, Carlos; Altmueller, Janine; Nuernberg, Peter; Benzing, Thomas; Levtchenko, Elena; Seyberth, Hannsjoerg W.; Klaus, Guenter; Yigit, Goekhan; Lin, Shih-Hua; Timmer, Albert; de Koning, Tom J.; Scherjon, Sicco; Schlingmann, Karl P.; Bertrand, Mathieu J. M.; Rinschen, Markus M.; de Backer, Olivier; Konrad, Martin; Koemhoff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Three' pregnancies with male offspring in one family were complicated by severe polyhydramnios and prematurity. One fetus died; the other two had transient massive salt-wasting and polyuria reminiscent of antenatal Bartter's syndrome. METHODS To uncover the molecular cause of this

  1. Routine antenatal syphilis screening in South West Nigeria - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Untreated maternal syphilis is strongly associated with adverse birth outcomes, especially in women with high titre syphilis. The WHO recommends routine serological screening in pregnancy. Some workers have advised a reappraisal of this practice, having demonstrated low sero-prevalence in their antenatal ...

  2. Variables influencing delay in antenatal clinic attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and to make recommendations based on the research findings for the development of policies that will ensure early .... Table 1: Antenatal service utilisation by pregnant adolescents in Lesotho (First visits ... fail to recognise that they are pregnant ..... Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Calverton, Maryland. 2. Safe.

  3. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in antenatal women with bad obstetric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Suryamani; Padmaja, I Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of fetal death is one of the tragedies that confront the physician providing obstetric care. Among the various agents associated with infections of pregnancy, viruses are the most important followed by bacteria and protozoa. Among protozoal infections in pregnancy, toxoplasmosis is reported to have a high incidence, sometimes causing fetal death. The study was intended to observe the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presenting with bad obstetric history (BOH). A total of 92 antenatal women were included in the study (80 in the study group and 12 in control group). The study group comprised of antenatal women with BOH in the age group of 20-35 years. Antenatal women with Rh incompatibility, pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus, renal disorders and syphilis were not included in the study. The control group included women in reproductive age group without BOH. All the samples were screened by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for Toxoplasma specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Of the 80 antenatal women in the study group, 36 (45%) were seropositive for Toxoplasma specific IgG antibodies (P habits, illiteracy, socio-economic status and residential status were also studied. We conclude that toxoplasmosis during pregnancy causes congenital fetal infection with possible fetal loss. ELISA was found to be a sensitive serological test for diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women with BOH. Major cause of fetal loss in BOH cases in the study group was abortion.

  4. Socio-demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic determinants of antenatal clinic utilization in a Nigerian university teaching hospital. ... CONCLUSION:Among other social factors female education improved women's ability to take decisions on reproductive matters. Poor education and low socioeconomic status not only increase women's vulnerability ...

  5. A Review of the Importance of Maternal-fetal Attachment According to the Islamic Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Ghodrati; Marzieh Akbarzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Background & aim: Maternal-fetal attachment has an important effect on mother's identity as well as maternal and fetal health. Moreover, this concept is considered as a crucial issue for the improvement of children emotional development. Regarding the Islamic recommendations on maternal-fetal attachment and its correlation with maternal affection, this study was conducted to review the importance of maternal-fetal attachment according to the Islamic recommendations. Methods: This review was c...

  6. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of f...

  7. Quality and uptake of antenatal and postnatal care in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Lathrop, Eva; Hulland, Erin N; Jean-Louis, Reginald; Lauture, Daniel; D'Alexis, Ghislaine Desinor; Handzel, Endang; Grand-Pierre, Reynold

    2017-02-02

    Despite improvement, maternal mortality in Haiti remains high at 359/100,000 live births. Improving access to high quality antenatal and postnatal care has been shown to reduce maternal mortality and improve newborn outcomes. Little is known regarding the quality and uptake of antenatal and postnatal care among Haitian women. Exit interviews were conducted with all pregnant and postpartum women seeking care from large health facilities (n = 10) in the Nord and Nord-Est department and communes of St. Marc, Verrettes, and Petite Rivière in Haiti over the study period (March-April 2015; 3-4 days/facility). Standard questions related to demographics, previous pregnancies, current pregnancy, and services/satisfaction during the visit were asked. Total number of antenatal visits were abstracted from charts of recently delivered women (n = 1141). Provider knowledge assessments were completed by antenatal and postnatal care providers (n = 39). Frequencies were calculated for descriptive variables and multivariable logistic regression was used to explore predictors of receiving 5 out of 10 counseling messages among pregnant women. Among 894 pregnant women seeking antenatal care, most reported receiving standard clinical service components during their visit (97% were weighed, 80% had fetal heart tones checked), however fewer reported receiving recommended counseling messages (44% counselled on danger signs, 33% on postpartum family planning). Far fewer women were seeking postnatal care (n = 63) and similar service patterns were reported. Forty-three percent of pregnant women report receiving at least 5 out of 10 counseling messages. Pregnant women on a repeat visit and women with greater educational attainment had greater odds of reporting having received 5 out of 10 counseling messages (2 nd visit: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.66; 5+ visit: aOR = 5.44, 95% CI: 2.91-10.16; elementary school certificate: a

  8. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote

  9. Next Steps in Attachment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  10. Next Steps in Attachment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to the phenomenal success of attachment theory, great progress has been made in understanding child and adult relationships. The success of attachment theory opens the way to new research directions that can extend its successes even further. In particular, more work on the fundamental nature of attachment that respects recent biological research is important, as is concentrated effort on the related caregiving system.

  11. Introduction: attachment theory and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N

    2013-11-01

    In this introduction to the JCLP: In Session 69(11) issue on attachment theory and psychotherapy, the key points of attachment theory (Bowlby, , , 1981) and its relevance to psychotherapy are briefly described. The aim of this issue is to provide case illustrations of how an attachment theory perspective and principles can expand our understanding of psychotherapy practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The hippocampus is an integral part of the temporal limbic system during emotional processing. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Wiebke; Frühholz, Sascha

    2015-06-01

    The proposed quartet theory of human emotions by Koelsch and colleagues [1] identifies four different affect systems to be involved in the processing of particular types of emotions. Moreover, the theory integrates both basic emotions and more complex emotion concepts, which include also aesthetic emotions such as musical emotions. The authors identify a particular brain system for each kind of emotion type, also by contrasting them to brain structures that are generally involved in emotion processing irrespective of the type of emotion. A brain system that has been less regarded in emotion theories, but which represents one of the four systems of the quartet to induce attachment related emotions, is the hippocampus.

  13. Impact of Maternal Attachment Style on Mother to Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Moghaddam Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Maternal attachment has the potential to affect both child development and parenting. As such, mother-infant attachment has been considered an important topic in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal adult attachment style, the maternal obstetric and demographic characteristics and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 102 women who had referred to health centers in Mashhad in 2008 and who had inclusion criteriawere selected using stratified cluster sampling. After interview about obstetric and demographic characteristics, they were asked to complete the "Revised Adult Attachment Scale" and "Mother to Infant Attachment Inventory" for assessment of maternal attachment style and mother-infant attachment 4-5 weeks after delivery. Data were analyzed by Pearson Correlation, Kruskal-wallis and Mann-whitney statistical tests.

     

    Results: In this study, themean of mother-infant attachment was found to be 97.48±6.12 and the mean of secure adult attachment was higher than that of other styles (16.89±3.97. Although, there were negative significant relationship between maternal avoidant style and mother-infant attachment (p=0.037,r=-0/20, there were no relationship between maternal age and education, parity, type of delivery and mother-infant attachment.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this research show that maternal attachment style is one of the factors of mother -infant attachment.

  14. Antenatal Exposure of Persons from Belarus Following the Chernobyl Accidents: Neuropsychiatric Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.; Drozdovitch, V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident has been conducted. Exposed cohort was compared with a control group of 250 persons in the same age from non and slightly contaminated regions. For each study subject, individual antenatal doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) internal doses to thyroid gland arising from the intake of ''131 I via inhalation or ingestion; and (2) external doses from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. At the age of 6-7 years the persons in the exposed group had a mean full-scale intelligent quotient (IQ) lower than the control group. At the age of 10-12 and 15-16 years there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Positive dynamics of intellectual development in persons of both groups has been observed up to age of 15-16 years. No statiscally significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the different ages. In both groups we notice a positive moderate correlation between IQ of persons and the educational level of their parents. We conclude that probably a significant role in the genesis of borderline intellectual functioning and emotional disorders in the exposed group of persons was played by unfavorable factors such as a low educational level of parents, the break of micro social contacts and adaptation difficulties, which appear following the evacuation and relocation from the contaminated areas. (Author) 10 refs-

  15. Men's experiences of antenatal screening: a metasynthesis of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Metcalfe, Alison; Williams, Robert Alan

    2013-01-01

    First to develop a consensus on what is known about men's experiences and involvement in antenatal screening, second to understand whether screening is an appropriate way to engage uninvolved men in pregnancy and third to identify areas requiring further research. A systematic review was conducted to extract relevant qualitative primary research studies, which were subsequently synthesised. International qualitative research papers, in English or with English translations, were identified using twenty-three electronic databases, such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA and British Nursing Index. Articles that explored men's views and opinions of antenatal screening and prenatal diagnosis were included. Eighteen relevant research studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Each one was appraised as suitable for inclusion using a published appraisal tool. Three themes were constructed, which were (1) men's emotional conflicts, (2) men's focus on information and (3) men's influence on decision-making. Men felt a responsibility towards their unborn child to be involved in screening. Despite this, their input was often limited to supporting their partners, and there was no clearly defined, additional role for them as expectant fathers. Thus screening is not likely to be sufficient as an opportunity to encourage men who are uninvolved in pregnancy to become more involved. Nonetheless, engaging men who were involved in the pregnancy and who attended screening appointments was beneficial in encouraging the responsibility they felt towards their unborn child, and in allowing them to support their partners. Healthcare professionals need to engage those men who show willingness to be involved. Nevertheless trying to engage reluctant men in screening, where there is no clearly defined role for them might create further distance between them and the pregnancy. Alternative ways to engage such men in pregnancy are thus required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of domestic violence among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishal, Poonam; Pun, Kunta Devi; Darj, Elisabeth; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Swahnberg, Katarina; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2017-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) and its associated factors among pregnant women in Nepal. The secondary aims were to investigate disclosure of DV by women to health-care personnel and to assess whether health-care personnel had asked women about their experience of DV. This cross-sectional study included 2004 pregnant women between 12 and 28 weeks of gestation attending routine antenatal care at two hospitals in Nepal from August 2014 to November 2015. In this study, DV was defined as fear of a family member and/or an experience of physical, emotional or sexual violence. Associated risk factors were analysed using logistic regression analyses. Twenty-one per cent of the women had experienced DV; 12.5% experienced fear only, 3.6% violence only and 4.9% experienced both violence and fear. Less than 2% per cent reported physical violence during pregnancy. This study found that just 17.7% had ever been asked by health-care personnel about DV, and of the women who had reported DV, only 9.5% had disclosed their experience to health-care personnel. Women of young age and low socio-economic status were more likely to have experienced DV. Women who reported having their own income and the autonomy to use it were at significantly lower risk of DV compared to women with no income. A substantial proportion of women reported having experienced DV. Victims had rarely disclosed their experience of DV to health-care personnel. This study underlines the importance of integrating systematic assessment of DV in antenatal care.

  17. Influence of multiple antenatal counselling sessions on modern contraceptive uptake in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanikin, Abiodun I; Onwudiegwu, Uche; Loto, Olabisi M

    2013-10-01

    To determine the influence of multiple contraceptive counselling sessions during antenatal care on use of modern postpartum contraception. A total of 216 eligible pregnant women were randomised into antenatal and postnatal counselling groups. The 'Antenatal group' received one-to-one antenatal contraceptive counselling on several occasions while the 'Postnatal group' received a single one-to-one contraceptive counselling session at the sixth week postnatal check, as is routinely practised. All participants were contacted six months postpartum by telephone or personal visit, and questioned about their contraceptive use, if any. More women who had multiple antenatal contraceptive counselling sessions used modern contraceptive methods than those who had a single postnatal counselling session (57% vs. 35%; p = 0.002). There was also a significantly more frequent use of contraception among previously undecided patients in the Antenatal group (p = 0.014). Multiple antenatal contraceptive counselling sessions improve the use of modern postpartum contraception.

  18. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  19. Emotion understanding in clinically anxious children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the pr....... Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.......Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...

  20. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  1. Gonococcal attachment to eukaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.F.; Lammel, C.J.; Draper, D.L.; Brown, D.A.; Sweet, R.L.; Brooks, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    The attachment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture was analyzed by use of light and electron microscopy and by labeling of the bacteria with [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C]adenine. Isogenic piliated and nonpiliated N. gonorrhoeae from opaque and transparent colonies were studied. The results of light microscopy studies showed that the gonococci attached to cells of human origin, including Flow 2000, HeLa 229, and HEp 2. Studies using radiolabeled gonococci gave comparable results. Piliated N. gonorrhoeae usually attached in larger numbers than nonpiliated organisms, and those from opaque colonies attached more often than isogenic variants from transparent colonies. Day-to-day variation in rate of attachment was observed. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the gonococcal attachment to be specific for microvilli of the host cells. It is concluded that more N. gonorrhoeae from opaque colonies, as compared with isogenic variants from transparent colonies, attach to eukaryotic cells grown in tissue culture

  2. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  3. Ceramic blade attachment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, G.A.; Jimenez, O.D.

    1996-12-03

    A turbine blade having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is attached to a turbine flange having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the turbine blade. The turbine flange includes a first upstanding flange and a second upstanding flange having a groove formed between them. The turbine flange further includes a recess. Each of the first and second upstanding flanges have a plurality of bores therein. A turbine blade has a first member and a second member positioned in one of the groove and the recess. Each of the first member and the second member have a plurality of bores therein. A pin is positioned in respective ones of the plurality of bores in the first and second upstanding members and the first and second members and attach the blade to the turbine flange. The pin has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being substantially equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the blade. 4 figs.

  4. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Treating disorganized attachment in the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Hannah; Murphy, Anne; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam

    2018-05-24

    This paper describes the treatment of a mother and child who demonstrated disorganized attachment behaviors in their interactions with one another. The mother, who was diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder, felt incapable of managing her aggressive toddler and his emotional needs. The dyad was referred for therapy due to concerns about his developmental progress, evident delays having been mainly attributed to the problems observed within the parent-child relationship. The primary intervention applied to working with the dyad was the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©), developed by Anne Murphy in collaboration with Miriam Steele and Howard Steele. The mother also received individual psychotherapy as a supplement to the dyadic and group work of GABI©. The process and outcome of this comprehensive approach to treating a vulnerable dyad is explored in this case study. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  7. Links between attachment and social information processing: examination of intergenerational processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes theory and research on intergenerational connections between parents' attachment and children's social information processing, as well as between parents' social information processing and children's attachment. The chapter begins with a discussion of attachment theorists' early insights into the role that social information processing plays in attachment processes. Next, current theory about the mechanisms through which cross-generational links between attachment and social information processing might emerge is presented. The central proposition is that the quality of attachment and/or the social information processing of the parent contributes to the quality of attachment and/or social information processing in the child, and these links emerge through mediating processes related to social learning, open communication, gate-keeping, emotion regulation, and joint attention. A comprehensive review of the literature is then presented. The chapter ends with the presentation of a current theoretical perspective and suggestions for future empirical and clinical endeavors.

  8. Electron attachment cross sections obtained from electron attachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.; Baumbach, J.I.; Leonhardt, J.W.; Mothes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Electron capture detectors have a high sensitivity for substances with high thermal electron attachment cross sections. The electron attachment spectroscopy makes it possible to change the mean electron energy in such a way that the maximum for dissociative electron attachment is reached. Thus, best operation modes of the detection system as well as significant dependencies of electron attachment coefficients are available. Cross sections for electron attachment as a function of the electron energy are obtained with the knowledge of electron energy distribution functions from Boltzmann equation analysis by a special computer code. A disadvantage of this electron attachment spectroscopy is the superposition of space charge effects due to the decrease of the electron drift velocity with increasing mean electron energy. These influences are discussed. (author)

  9. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  10. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.; Drozdovitch, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  11. Antenatal Hydronephrosis: Differential Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, C.D. Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis, evaluation and management of antenatal hydronephrosis has undergone a two stage paradigm shift since the advent of prenatal ultrasonography in the early 1980s. Initially the identification of a large number of asymptomatic infants appeared to afford the surgeon the opportunity for preemptive intervention. However, it has now become apparent that antenatal hydronephrosis (AH) is far more difficult to interpret thanoriginally perceived. The initial enthusiasm for surgery has now been replaced by a much more conservative approach to ureteropelvic junction(UPJ) obstruction, multi-cystic dysplastic kidney(MCDK), vesicoureteral reflux and the non-refluxing megaureter. This review will highlight the postnatal evaluation of AH and include an overview of the Society for Fetal Urology grading system for hydronephrosis. The differential diagnosis and treatment options for UPJ obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, MCDK, duplication anomalies, megaureter, and posterior urethral valves will be discussed. PMID:17619702

  12. Risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R

    2009-11-01

    Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.

  13. Outcomes of Isolated Antenatal Hydronephrosis at First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz Orabi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the grade of hydronephrosis between the antenatal and first postnatal ultrasound (US and their clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study included all cases of isolated hydronephrosis detected by antenatal US from August 2005 to February 2011. Hydronephrosis was classified based on the standard criteria into mild, moderate, or severe. Cases associated with other major congenital anomalies were excluded. All patients were followed-up postnatally and outcomes available were analyzed at one year of age. Results: A total of 105 cases were included out of which 83 (79.0% were males and 22 (20.9% were females with a median gestational age of 38 weeks. First postnatal US of 105 cases showed that 20 (19.0% were free of hydronephrosis, 39 (37.1% had mild, 29 (27.6% moderate, and 17 (16.1% had severe hydronephrosis. Half (50.4% of hydronephrosis cases improved in their clinical presentation while 13.3% showed deterioration and 36.3% remained the same. Almost half of all cases (52 cases were diagnosed by US at the end of first year without any effect on renal function. Conclusions: Antenatal and postnatal US are sensitive tools for detecting hydronephrosis as well as for postnatal counseling. Fetal anatomy US is usually done at 18 weeks gestation and if this reveals any evidence of hydronephrosis, the patient is followed according to the severity. Postnatal US is not done routinely for cases where hydronephrosis resolves completely during pregnancy. Although newborns with antenatal hydronephrosis due to secondary causes are at greater risk for renal impairment, surgical intervention reserves renal function.

  14. Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3%) fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress. PMID:23237601

  15. Outcomes of Isolated Antenatal Hydronephrosis at First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Mutaz; Abozaid, Sameh; Sallout, Bahauddin; Abu Shaheen, Amani; Heena, Humariya; Al Matary, Abdulrahman

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To compare the grade of hydronephrosis between the antenatal and first postnatal ultrasound (US) and their clinical outcomes. Methods This retrospective study included all cases of isolated hydronephrosis detected by antenatal US from August 2005 to February 2011. Hydronephrosis was classified based on the standard criteria into mild, moderate, or severe. Cases associated with other major congenital anomalies were excluded. All patients were followed-up postnatally and outcomes available were analyzed at one year of age. Results A total of 105 cases were included out of which 83 (79.0%) were males and 22 (20.9%) were females with a median gestational age of 38 weeks. First postnatal US of 105 cases showed that 20 (19.0%) were free of hydronephrosis, 39 (37.1%) had mild, 29 (27.6%) moderate, and 17 (16.1%) had severe hydronephrosis. Half (50.4%) of hydronephrosis cases improved in their clinical presentation while 13.3% showed deterioration and 36.3% remained the same. Almost half of all cases (52 cases) were diagnosed by US at the end of first year without any effect on renal function. Conclusions Antenatal and postnatal US are sensitive tools for detecting hydronephrosis as well as for postnatal counseling. Fetal anatomy US is usually done at 18 weeks gestation and if this reveals any evidence of hydronephrosis, the patient is followed according to the severity. Postnatal US is not done routinely for cases where hydronephrosis resolves completely during pregnancy. Although newborns with antenatal hydronephrosis due to secondary causes are at greater risk for renal impairment, surgical intervention reserves renal function. PMID:29657681

  16. Specialist antenatal clinics for women at high risk of preterm birth: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Reem; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-02-02

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Women with previous prenatal loss are at higher risk of preterm birth. A specialist antenatal clinic is considered as one approach to improve maternity and pregnancy outcomes. A systematic review of quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies conducted on women at high risk of preterm birth (PTB). The review primary outcomes were to report on the specialist antenatal clinics effect in preventing or reducing preterm birth, perinatal mortality and morbidity and women's perceptions and experiences of a specialist clinic whether compared or not compared with standard antenatal care. Other secondary maternal, infant and economic outcomes were also determined. A comprehensive search strategy was carried out in English within electronic databases as far back as 1980. The reviewers selected studies, assessed the quality, and extracted data independently. Results were summarized and tabulated. Eleven studies fully met the review inclusion criteria, ten were quantitative design studies and only one was a qualitative design study. No mixed method design study was included in the review. All were published after 1989, seven were conducted in the USA and four in the UK. Results from five good to low quality randomised controlled trials (RCTs), all conducted before 1990, did not illustrate the efficacy of the clinic in reducing preterm birth. Whereas results from more recent low quality cohort studies showed some positive neonatal outcomes. Themes from one good quality qualitative study reflected on the emotional and psychological need to reduce anxiety and stress of women referred to such a clinic. Women expressed their negative emotional responses at being labelled as high risk and positive responses to being assessed and treated in the clinic. Women also reported that their partners were struggling to cope emotionally. Findings from this review were mixed. Evidence from cohort studies

  17. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  18. Dimensions of quality of antenatal care service at Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel Rahman El Gammal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 5 th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC, quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider′s satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ° 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians′ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement.

  19. Personalized Antenatal Consultations for Preterm Labor: Responding to Mothers' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Nathalie; Nadeau, Sophie; Barbier, Alexandre; Janvier, Annie; Payot, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    To explore prospective mothers' perspectives regarding antenatal consultations by neonatology teams for threatened preterm delivery. In a prospective multicenter study, women at risk of preterm delivery between 26 and 32 weeks of gestational age were surveyed during the 72 hours following their antenatal consultation. The questionnaire used was developed and validated during a single-center study. Over 18 months, 229 mothers completed the survey (73% response rate), at a median gestational age of 30 weeks. Spouses/partners were present for 49% of consultations. Most women (90%) reported a positive experience. They found it important to discuss the outcomes of prematurity (96%), but 39% of them reported receiving too much information. Women wanted their spouse/partner to be present (71%) and wished to discuss parental concerns: their roles as mother of a premature baby (82%), their integration in their baby's care (83%), and a better understanding of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, including antenatal NICU visits (69%). The majority (56%) wanted a follow-up consultation: this was less likely if a NICU visit had been offered (P parents with child-centered information. Although clinicians follow these guidelines, mothers want personalized information focusing on their individual concerns and questions, such as what they can do for their baby, how NICUs work, and the integration of their family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dimensions of Quality of Antenatal Care Sservice at Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC) based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider's satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ± 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians’ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement. PMID:25374861

  1. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanxiao; Ran, Guangming; Chen, Xu; Ma, Haijing; Hu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver's sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  2. Adult Attachment Styles Associated with Brain Activity in Response to Infant Faces in Nulliparous Women: An Event-Related Potentials Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult attachment style is a key for understanding emotion regulation and feelings of security in human interactions as well as for the construction of the caregiving system. The caregiving system is a group of representations about affiliative behaviors, which is guided by the caregiver’s sensitivity and empathy, and is mature in young adulthood. Appropriate perception and interpretation of infant emotions is a crucial component of the formation of a secure attachment relationship between infant and caregiver. As attachment styles influence the ways in which people perceive emotional information, we examined how different attachment styles associated with brain response to the perception of infant facial expressions in nulliparous females with secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment styles. The event-related potentials of 65 nulliparous females were assessed during a facial recognition task with joy, neutral, and crying infant faces. The results showed that anxiously attached females exhibited larger N170 amplitudes than those with avoidant attachment in response to all infant faces. Regarding the P300 component, securely attached females showed larger amplitudes to all infant faces in comparison with avoidantly attached females. Moreover, anxiously attached females exhibited greater amplitudes than avoidantly attached females to only crying infant faces. In conclusion, the current results provide evidence that attachment style differences are associated with brain responses to the perception of infant faces. Furthermore, these findings further separate the psychological mechanisms underlying the caregiving behavior of those with anxious and avoidant attachment from secure attachment.

  3. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores.

  4. Interferences in place attachment: implications for wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Sharpe; Alan W. Ewert

    2000-01-01

    Previous research on place attachment has tended to focus on attachment formation, with relatively little attention given to factors that disrupt or interfere with formed place attachments. Interferences to attachments are a worthy research area for two reasons: 1) The factors of place attachment are often more salient when being disrupted, and 2) place attachment...

  5. Antenatal maternal education for improving postnatal perineal healing for women who have birthed in a hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Sonia M; Moore, Zena Eh

    2017-12-04

    rate, re-attendance or re-admission to hospital, pain, health-related quality of life, maternal bonding, and negative emotional experiences. Further study is warranted in this area given the significant physical, psychological and economic impact of perineal wounds, and the large proportion of childbearing women who have experienced a postnatal wound. The benefits of any future research in this field would be maximised by incorporating women in a range of socio-economic groups, and with a range of healthcare options. This research could take both a qualitative and a quantitative approach and examine the outcomes identified in this review in order to assess fully the potential benefits of a tailored antenatal package, and to make recommendations for future practice. There is currently no evidence to inform practice in this regard.

  6. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  7. Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  9. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  10. Wordsworthian Emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2010-01-01

    As a great poet in British Romanticism.Wordsworth is not the practioner of an artistic craft designed tO satisfy "taste" of a literary connoisseur.He is,instead."a man speaking to men" with his uniqueness in emotion.This paper tempts to demonstrate how Wordsworth conveys emotion with poetic language.Wordsworthian "emotion recollected in tranquility" is simple,pure and genuine,which is the true art in wordsworth's poems.

  11. Attachment and Chronic Pain in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa J. Donnelly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although attachment theory is not new, its theoretical implications for the pediatric chronic pain context have not been thoroughly considered, and the empirical implications and potential clinical applications are worth exploring. The attachment framework broadly focuses on interactions between a child’s developing self-regulatory systems and their caregiver’s responses. These interactions are believed to create a template for how individuals will relate to others in the future, and may help account for normative and pathological patterns of emotions and behavior throughout life. This review outlines relevant aspects of the attachment framework to the pediatric chronic pain context. The theoretical and empirical literature is reviewed regarding the potential role of attachment-based constructs such as vulnerability and maintaining factors of pediatric chronic pain. The nature and targets of attachment-based pediatric interventions are considered, with particular focus on relevance for the pediatric chronic pain context. The potential role of attachment style in the transition from acute to chronic pain is considered, with further research directions outlined.

  12. "I just feel like I am broken. I am the worst pregnant woman ever": A qualitative exploration of the "at odds" experience of women's antenatal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra A; Bogossian, Fiona; Morawska, Alina; Wittkowski, Anja

    2017-06-01

    Advances in perinatal mental health research have provided valuable insights around risk factors for the overall development of maternal distress. However, there is still a limited understanding of the experience of women struggling emotionally during pregnancy. We explored how women view, experience, and interpret psychological distress antenatally. Eighteen Australian women participated in in-depth interviews that were analyzed thematically within a critical realist theoretical framework. We present and situate the current findings within the dominant discourse of the good mother, which arguably promotes guilt and stigma and results in women self-labeling as bad mothers.

  13. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  14. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors among antenatal women in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Pratap; Ahmad Nadeem Aslami; Manjushri; Narayan Prasad Sahu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in antenatal women has remained a contentious issue in Indian subcontinent. Bad obstetric history (BOH) is specific to women of childbearing age and can be caused by infection with Toxoplama gondii. In Jharkhand, scarce data exist for the roles of toxoplasmosis in the aetiology of adverse pregnancy outcome. Aim: To study the sero-epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending antenatal clinic of a tertiary car...

  15. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2

  16. Attachment and Family Processes in Children's Psychological Adjustment in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  17. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup

    2015-01-01

    of small group antenatal education on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists as to whether antenatal education in small classes is effective in regard to obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. We recommend updating this review following the emergence of well......, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. METHODS...

  18. The Early Attachment Experiences are the Roots of Psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetrapal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review proposes the ‘attachment and the deficient hemispheric integration hypothesis’ as explanation for psychopathy. The hypothesis states that since secure attachment to the parents is essential for the proper development of both the hemispheres in children, psychopaths with histories of neglect and abuse are unable to develop efficient interaction of both the hemispheres, important for emotional processing and regulation. Various studies have shown that without an efficient interaction between the two hemispheres psychopaths fail to perform adequately on tasks that require both language abilities and non-verbal emotional processing. The hypothesis also explains why psychopaths will perform inefficiently in conditions that selectively prime the left hemisphere resources as these people would have learnt to rely more on the language based mode of this hemisphere. The childhood of psychopaths is marked by insecure attachment with their parents where the parents fail to respond to the needs of the pre-verbal infant thus leading to improper development of the right hemisphere abilities, one of which is decoding and showing appropriate non-verbal emotional signals resembling a pattern shown by the parents. The hypothesis is useful in explaining different findings on laterality in psychopathy as well as answering the nature-nurture debate of the disorder. Research carried out under the proposed framework can be helpful in understanding the nature of the disorder which will be ultimately useful in the prevention of its full blown manifestation.

  19. Quality of antenatal care provided by nurse midwives in an Urban health centre with regard to low-risk antenatal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Angeline Pricilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:India contributes to 19% of the global maternal deaths. Good quality antenatal care can prevent maternal deaths by early detection of complications and maintaining maternal health. There are few studies documenting quality of antenatal care in India. This study aimed to document the antenatal services provided by nurse midwives to low-risk pregnant mothers from an urban population. Aims: The primary objective was to describe the quality of the antenatal care provided by nurse midwives of an urban health centre with regard to low-risk mothers. The secondary objective was to document the maternal and early neonatal outcomes of the enrolled mothers during the period of study. Methods: This prospective cohort study was done on 200 pregnant women who had antenatal care by nurse midwives between April 2014 and November 2014. The quality of care was assessed by a checklist adapted from World Health Organization (WHO. Results: We report that the quality of antenatal care for all domains was above 90% except for the health education domain, which was poor with regard to breastfeeding and family planning in the enrolled 200 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our study concluded that trained nurse midwives when regularly monitored, audited and linked with reliable referral facilities can deliver good quality antenatal care.

  20. Adult Attachment Style and Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Mario; Callari, Antonio; Pini, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016. We started with 1992 because, as far as we know, there are no published studies exploring the relationship between suicide and insecure attachment before that year. We considered reports published on the relationship between attachment style and suicidality. We applied several combinations of the following search terms: attachment, adult attachment style and suicidality, suicide, suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior or suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. We selected only English language studies. Research suggests that insecure attachment style, mostly anxious, and unresolved traumas are associated with an increased suicide risk. Few studies prospectively examined clinical course, comorbid psychiatric disorders, familial suicidality or other psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to highlight the nature of the link between attachment and suicidality. The presence of suicidal ideation and attempts might be a consequence of an underlying interaction between the emergence of psychiatrics symptoms, and the long-lasting presence of inadequate patterns of attachment. Within this context, Separation Anxiety Disorder, categorized in the DSM-5 as a condition not confined to childhood but as an anxiety disorder that may occur through the entire lifespan, might be the a key for the comprehension of this link. From a neurobiological point of view, the role of oxytocin remains unclear.

  1. Attachment, attractiveness, and social interaction: a diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, M C; Reis, H T; Shaver, P R

    1996-10-01

    To what extent are attachment styles manifested in natural social activity? A total of 125 participants categorized as possessing secure, avoidant, or anxious-ambivalent attachment styles kept structured social interaction diaries for 1 week. Several theoretically important findings emerged. First, compared with secure and anxious-ambivalent persons, avoidant persons reported lower levels of intimacy, enjoyment, promotive interaction, and positive emotions, and higher levels of negative emotions, primarily in opposite-sex interactions. Analyses indicated that avoidant persons may structure social activities in ways that minimize closeness. Second, secure people differentiated more clearly than either insecure group between romantic and other opposite-sex partners. Third, the subjective experiences of anxious-ambivalent persons were more variable than those of the other groups. Finally, the authors examined and rejected the possibility that attachment effects might be confounded with physical attractiveness. These findings suggest that feeling and behaviors that arise during spontaneous, everyday social activity may contribute to the maintenance of attachment styles in adulthood.

  2. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...

  3. Pain and emotion: a biopsychosocial review of recent research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Mark A; Cohen, Jay L; Borszcz, George S; Cano, Annmarie; Radcliffe, Alison M; Porter, Laura S; Schubiner, Howard; Keefe, Francis J

    2011-09-01

    Research on emotion and pain has burgeoned. We review the last decade's literature, focusing on links between emotional processes and persistent pain. Neurobiological research documents the neural processes that distinguish affective from sensory pain dimensions, link emotion and pain, and generate central nervous system pain sensitization. Psychological research demonstrates that greater pain is related to emotional stress and limited emotional awareness, expression, and processing. Social research shows the potential importance of emotional communication, empathy, attachment, and rejection. Emotions are integral to the conceptualization, assessment, and treatment of persistent pain. Research should clarify when to eliminate or attenuate negative emotions, and when to access, experience, and express them. Theory and practice should integrate emotion into cognitive-behavioral models of persistent pain. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Parents of Children with ASD Experience More Psychological Distress, Parenting Stress, and Attachment-Related Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited study of the relationship between child attachment and caregiver wellbeing amongst children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined self-reported child attachment quality alongside caregivers' report of their own psychological distress, parenting stress and attachment style, amongst 24 children with high-functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (ASD; aged 7-14 years) and 24 typically developing children (aged 7-12 years), and their primary caregiver. Children with ASD were no less secure, but their caregivers were more stressed and reported more attachment-related anxiety, compared to typically developing dyads. Child attachment security was related to caregiver psychological distress and attachment style, but only amongst typically developing children. Impacts of emotion processing impairments on caregiver-child relationships in ASD are discussed.

  5. Prematuridad extrema y uso materno de corticoides antenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Acosta Díaz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el uso de corticoides antenatal en las madres con amenaza de parto pretérmino y el efecto sobre los recién nacidos prematuros extremos, se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, y analítico entre todos los niños nacidos vivos con edad gestacional menor de 31 semanas y peso inferior a 1 500 g, ocurridos en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Provincial Docente "Justo Legón Padilla" de Pinar del Río, desde enero de 1997 hasta julio de 1998. Se estudiaron los 53 niños con estas características. Los datos que se obtuvieron se depositaron en base de datos; para el procesamiento estadístico, se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado, con un nivel de significación de p In order to evaluate the antenatal use of adrenal cortex hormones in mothers with preterm delivery threat and its effect on extreme premature infants, it was conducted a prospective, longitudinal and analytical study among the live births with gestational age under 31 weeks and a weight lower than 1 500 g registered at "Justo Legón Padilla" Provincial Gynecoobstetric Teaching Hospital, in Pinar del Río, from January, 1997, to July, 1998. 53 children with these characteristics were studied. The collected data were entered in databases. The chi square test with a level of significance of p<0.05 was used for the statistical processing. Steroids were administered to 32 mothers. A statistically significant reduction of the hyaline membrane disease, the use of ventilation, the complications and mortality was observed with the antenatal use of maternal adrenal cortex hormones. There were no statistically significant differences between the study and the control group as regards sex, mean gestational age (29.0/28.9 weeks and weights (1207.9/1180.0 g.

  6. Looking beyond Maternal Sensitivity: Mother-Child Correlates of Attachment Security among Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Aesha; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Halliburton, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined correlates of attachment security among children with intellectual disabilities in urban India. Survey and observational data were gathered from 47 children, mothers, and teachers on children's attachment security, adaptive functioning, and mother-child emotional availability. The data were analyzed to examine whether child…

  7. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care.

  8. Determinants of folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    1999-06-01

    Although recommendations on folic acid use were issued by health authorities in a number of countries in the early 1990s, uptake of peri-conceptional folic acid is still disappointingly low. Regardless of food fortification policies, folic acid promotion will probably be required in most countries to optimize folate levels among women of child-bearing age. The aim of this study was to examine folic acid knowledge and use, and their determinants among antenatal women in the east of Ireland in 1997.

  9. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  10. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  11. Neural response during the activation of the attachment system in patients with borderline personality disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buchheim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD are characterized by emotional instability, impaired emotion regulation and unresolved attachment patterns associated with abusive childhood experiences. We investigated the neural response during the activation of the attachment system in BPD patients compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven female patients with BPD without posttraumatic stress disorder and seventeen healthy female controls matched for age and education were telling stories in the scanner in response to the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System, an eight-picture set assessment of adult attachment. The picture set includes theoretically-derived attachment scenes, such as separation, death, threat and potential abuse. The picture presentation order is designed to gradually increase the activation of the attachment system. Each picture stimulus was presented for two minutes. Analyses examine group differences in attachment classifications and neural activation patterns over the course of the task. Unresolved attachment was associated with increasing amygdala activation over the course of the attachment task in patients as well as controls. Unresolved controls, but not patients, showed activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the rostral cingulate zone. We interpret this as a neural signature of BPD patients’ inability to exert top-down control under conditions of attachment distress. These findings point to possible neural mechanisms for underlying affective dysregulation in BPD in the context of attachment trauma and fear.

  12. Emotion and Prejudice: Specific Emotions Toward Outgroups

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This research draws on ideas about emotion-related appraisal tendencies to generate and test novel propositions about intergroup emotions. First, emotion elicited by outgroup category activation can be transferred to an unrelated stimulus (incidental emotion effects). Second, people predisposed toward an emotion are more prejudiced toward groups that are likely to be associated with that emotion. D...

  13. Emotional Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Christensen, Sverre Riis; Lundsteen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Recent neurological research has pointed to the importance of fundamental emotional processes for most kinds of human behaviour. Measures of emotional response tendencies towards brands seem to reveal intangible aspects of brand equity, particularly in a marketing context. In this paper a procedure...... for estimating such emotional brand equity is presented and findings from two successive studies of more than 100 brands are reported. It demonstrates how changes that occur between two years are explainable in terms of factors identifiable in the markets, and that the measures otherwise are stable over time...

  14. Attachment to God, religious tradition, and firm attributes in workplace commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Blake Victor

    2017-01-01

    Research on organizational commitment suggests there is an association between American theists' emotional attachment to God and their emotional commitment to the workplace. A sense of divine calling has been shown to partially mediate this association but, beyond that, little is known. The purpose of this study is to shed further light on the relationship between secure attachment to God and affective organizational commitment. I do so by testing whether the employee's religious tradition is associated with affective organizational commitment and whether the employee's firm attributes moderate the relationship between attachment to God and organizational commitment. Results suggest that: 1) Catholics evince higher levels of organizational commitment than Evangelicals, and 2) firm size significantly moderates the relationship between attachment to God and organizational commitment across religious affiliations.

  15. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.

  16. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-01-01

    This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  17. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  18. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  19. Antenatal small-class education versus auditorium-based lectures to promote positive transitioning to parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2017-01-01

    Prospective parents widely use education to gain information about, e.g., labour and parenting skills. It is unknown if antenatal education in small classes is more beneficial for parenting stress and parenting alliance compared with other types of antenatal education. In the present randomised t...

  20. (HIV) infection among pregnant women in an antenatal clinic in Port

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women attending ante-natal clinic in Nigeria are routinely screened for HIV/AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted between 2000 and 2004 to investigate the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Braithwalte Memorial Hospital (BMH), Port ...

  1. On-site screening for maternal syphilis in an antenatal clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Study objective. To determine the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test as performed on site in an antenatal clinic to facilitate immediate diagnosis and treatment of maternal syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal ...

  2. On-site screening for maternal syphilis in an antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study objective. To determine the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test as performed on site in an antenatal clinic to facilitate immediate diagnosis and treatment of maternal syphilis. Design. Open, descriptive study. Setting. Antenatal clinic ...

  3. Integrating couple relationship education in antenatal education - A study of perceived relevance among expectant Danish parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...

  4. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  5. The relation of attachment security status to effortful self-regulation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2018-05-01

    Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  7. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, K.A. [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital and Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Foresterhill, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: k.duncan@nhs.net

    2007-02-15

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is {>=} 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of {>=} 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate.

  9. Factors Affecting Antenatal Corticosteroid Administration from the Obstetricians’ Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Kurtoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the factors affecting antenatal corticosteroid administration from the obstetricians’ viewpoint. STUDY DESIGN: The pregnant women who delivered between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation were divided into two groups: Group 1, pregnant patients given corticosteroid therapy; Group 2, pregnant patients who were not given corticosteroid therapy. The indications for delivery, gestational week at administration, dosing, residence and manner of transfer of the patients to the tertiary center, and the interval between admission to hospital and delivery were evaluated. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who received antenatal corticosteroid treatment was 68.4%, whereas 31.6% of the pregnant women didn’t receive corticosteroid therapy. The most common indications for preterm delivery were preterm labor and severe preeclampsia. The interval between admission to hospital and delivery was significantly higher in group 1. CONCLUSION: Even though obstetricians are aware of the importance of corticosteroid treatment in preterm deliveries, indications for impending delivery can affect administration of the therapy.

  10. Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation; the long-term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was twofold: first to provide data for more accurate counselling of parents with regard to prognosis, and second, to ensure that by following a policy of selective micturating cystourethography (MCUG), significant pathology is not missed, in particular vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). (MCUG is only undertaken if the renal pelvic diameter (RPD) is ≥ 10 mm or if there is calyceal or ureteric dilatation.) Material and methods: Data were collected prospectively over a 6-year period. Pre and postnatal imaging findings were collected for all infants in whom a RPD of ≥ 5 mm was identified at any gestational age. The imaging records of all patients were reviewed in 2005 for evidence of pathology detected after re-presentation with symptoms. The age range at review varied from 2-8 years. Results: Complete data were available in 527 infants. The risk of significant pathology was related to the degree of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation varying from 6% for a RPD of 5 mm at 20 weeks gestation to 38% at 10mm. At 28-33 weeks gestation the risk varied from 5% at 5 mm to 15% at 10 mm. Subsequent imaging record review revealed only one patient with grade II VUR in the study population not picked up by our selective MCUG policy. Conclusion: The present study provides prognostic information that can be given to parents both antenatally and postnatally, and reassurance that a selective MCUG policy is appropriate

  11. Intellectual emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev, Igor A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory of O.K. Tikhomirov, the phenomenon of the acute emotional regulation of productive thinking was justified. This regulation is realized by means of the elaboration of the axiological profile of cognition. The following definition of intellectual emotions can be given: intellectual emotions are the appraisals of specific cognitive objects — contradictions, assumptions, probabilities, and the intermediate and final results of operations. The main aspect of the method used in the research consisted of the synchronous registration of an external (tactile elaboration of problems, skin galvanic response and verbal utterances regarding tasks to be completed in a game of chess. The principle position in Tikhomirov`s group is the following: intellectual emotions represent not only the energetic resource or catalysts for the thinking process, but also the determinants of its structure.

  12. Rational emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshulam, Meir; Winter, Eyal; Ben-Shakhar, Gershon; Aharon, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    We present here the concept of rational emotions: Emotions may be directly controlled and utilized in a conscious, analytic fashion, enabling an individual to size up a situation, to determine that a certain "mental state" is strategically advantageous and adjust accordingly. Building on the growing body of literature recognizing the vital role of emotions in determining decisions, we explore the complementary role of rational choice in choosing emotional states. Participants played the role of "recipient" in the dictator game, in which an anonymous "dictator" decides how to split an amount of money between himself and the recipient. A subset of recipients was given a monetary incentive to be angry at low-split offers. That subset demonstrated increased physiological arousal at low offers relative to high offers as well as more anger than other participants. These results provide a fresh outlook on human decision-making and contribute to the continuing effort to build more complete models of rational behavior.

  13. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  14. Minimal impact by antenatal subpatent P. falciparum infections on delivery outcomes in Malawian women: a cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Steve M; Madanitsa, Mwayiwawo; Thwai, Kyaw-Lay; Khairallah, Carole; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; vanEijk, Anna; Mwapasa, Victor; terKuile, Feiko; Meshnick, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal malaria screening with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and treatment only of RDT-positive women may potentially prevent low birthweight resulting from malaria. The consequences of subpatent antenatal infections below the detection limit of RDTs are incompletely understood. In Malawi, pregnant women of any gravidity were tested at each antenatal visit for P. falciparum using RDT and PCR and followed until delivery. Associations between antenatal infections and delivery outcomes were as...

  15. The Relationship between Maternal-Fetal Attachment and Mother-Infant Attachment Behaviors in Primiparous Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Taffazoli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Mother-infant bonding and interactions after childbirth are shaped by maternal-fetal attachment during pregnancy. Although many studies have shown the positive correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors, some controversial studies have shown otherwise. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between maternal-fetal attachment and mother-infant attachment behaviors in primiparous women. Methods:This descriptive correlational study was conducted on 100 primiparous women, referring to the selected heath care centers of Mashhad. Data were collected using Cranley's maternal–fetal attachment scale, Avant’s mother-infant attachment tool, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, and a demographic/obstetric questionnaire including demographic data, obstetric information, delivery outcomes, and postpartum data. Pregnant women with a gestational age of 35-41 weeks, who met the inclusion criteria, completed Cranley's questionnaire, as well as the demographic/obstetric questionnaire. Four and eight weeks after delivery, the subjects were asked to complete the Edinburgh questionnaire and postpartum information; then, they were asked to breastfeed their infants on a chair in a quiet place for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the mothers’ behaviors toward their neonates. For data analysis, descriptive and analytical tests were performed, using SPSS version 16. Results: There was a direct positive relationship between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ emotional behaviors toward infants four and eight weeks after delivery. However, four and eight weeks after childbirth, no significant correlation was found between maternal-fetal attachment and mothers’ caring behaviors. Conclusion: According to the findings, maternal-fetal attachment is one of the most important factors for mother-infant attachment. These findings could be applied for enriching mother-infant attachment

  16. Socio-emotional factors in alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Deyashini Lahiri Tikka; Daya Ram; Indu Dubey; Sai Krishna Tikka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score

  17. Emotional Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Filipa; Arriaga, Patrícia; Adrião, Joana; Lopes, Ricardo; Esteves, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research on the psychology of gaming has examined the negative and positive outcomes of playing video games. Thus far, a variety of affective phenomena have been investigated. In this chapter we will continue this exploration by examining the emotions elicited by the act of playing video games. Because the study of emotions must rely on different type of methods, including subjective self-reports (e.g., description of feelings), neuropsychophysiological measurements ...

  18. Attachment and amae: a comparative study of mother-child close relationships in Japan and Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory addresses the young child’s biological and psychological need to elicit their mother’s protection and care, and seeks to explain the emotional bond that forms between them in the early years of life. Several researchers have pointed out that the Western concept of attachment might be less relevant for Japanese parent-child dyads because Japanese child-rearing ideals are based on the concept of ‘amae’ (emotional one-ness between mother and child), whereas attac...

  19. Social-Emotional Development in Children and Youth Who Are Deafblind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Timothy S.; Schmittel, Megan C.

    2016-01-01

    Social-emotional development is important to personal adjustment and well-being. Little has been written about social-emotional development in children and youth who are deafblind. The authors discuss factors in typical social-emotional development--attachment, empathy, and friendships--and how they may be challenged in children who are deafblind.…

  20. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions.

  1. The effect of secure attachment state and infant facial expressions on childless adults’ parental motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (Mage=19.22, 118 males, 100 females were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components a liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; b representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and c evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the liking of infants, the second and third components entail the wanting of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions.

  2. Early Initiation of Antenatal Care and Factors Associated with Early Antenatal Care Initiation at Health Facilities in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengesha Boko Geta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is care given to pregnant mothers to timely identify and mitigate pregnancy related problems that can harm mother or fetus. Most of Ethiopian mothers present late for ANC. The aim of this paper was to assess determinants of early antenatal care initiation among pregnant women. Mothers attending Shebedino District Health Centers for ANC between January 12 and February 18, 2015, were invited to the study. Multistage sampling technique and structured questionnaire were used to collect data by trained data collectors. Univariate and bivariate analysis were conducted to study the association between explanatory and outcome variable. Out of 608 women, 132 [21.71%] had their first ANC within the recommended time [before or at 3 months]. Media access [AOR = 2.11 95% CI 1.00, 3.22], knowledge about the correct time of ANC booking [AOR = 4.49 95% CI 2.47, 6.16], and having been advised to book within 12 weeks [AOR = 4.14 95% CI 3.80, 5.21] were determinants of first-trimester booking. Health professionals and care providers should provide full information, advice, and appropriate care about early ANC for every eligible mother.

  3. Positive emotions, spirituality and the practice of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, George E

    2008-01-01

    THIS PAPER PROPOSES THAT EIGHT POSITIVE EMOTIONS: awe, love (attachment), trust (faith), compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology; rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection.Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions rather than focusing only on negative emotions.

  4. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-José; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmann, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants' attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described "social aversion network" including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG) specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants' avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the "social aversion network", namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of

  5. Dismissing attachment characteristics dynamically modulate brain networks subserving social aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Linda eKrause

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person’s ‘Inner Working Model’. Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest fMRI-experiment, presenting auditory narratives prototypical of dismissing attachment representations to investigate their effect on 23 healthy males. We then examined effects of participants’ attachment style and childhood trauma on brain state changes using seed-based functional connectivity (FC analyses, and finally tested whether subjective differences in responsivity to narratives could be predicted by baseline network states. In comparison to a baseline state, we observed increased FC in a previously described ‘social aversion network’ including dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC and left anterior middle temporal gyrus (aMTG specifically after exposure to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. Increased dACC-seeded FC within the social aversion network was positively related to the participants’ avoidant attachment style and presence of a history of childhood trauma. Anxious attachment style on the other hand was positively correlated with FC between the dACC and a region outside of the ‘social aversion network’, namely the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which suggests decreased network segregation as a function of anxious attachment. Finally, the extent of subjective experience of friendliness towards the dismissing narrative was predicted by low baseline FC-values between hippocampus and inferior parietal lobule. Taken together, our study demonstrates an activation of networks related to social aversion in terms of increased connectivity after listening to insecure-dismissing attachment narratives. A causal interrelation of brain state changes and subsequent changes in social reactivity was further supported by our observation of direct

  6. Antenatal antioxidant treatment with melatonin to decrease newborn neurodevelopmental deficits and brain injury caused by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suzanne L; Yawno, Tamara; Alers, Nicole O; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Supramaniam, Veena G; VanZyl, Niel; Sabaretnam, Tharani; Loose, Jan M; Drummond, Grant R; Walker, David W; Jenkin, Graham; Wallace, Euan M

    2014-04-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a serious pregnancy complication associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality, and ultimately with long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. No intervention currently exists that can improve the structure and function of the IUGR brain before birth. Here, we investigated whether maternal antenatal melatonin administration reduced brain injury in ovine IUGR. IUGR was induced in pregnant sheep at 0.7 gestation and a subset of ewes received melatonin via intravenous infusion until term. IUGR, IUGR + melatonin (IUGR + MLT) and control lambs were born naturally, neonatal behavioral assessment was used to examine neurological function and at 24 hr after birth the brain was collected for the examination of neuropathology. Compared to control lambs, IUGR lambs took significantly longer to achieve normal neonatal lamb behaviors, such as standing and suckling. IUGR brains showed widespread cellular and axonal lipid peroxidation, and white matter hypomyelination and axonal damage. Maternal melatonin administration ameliorated oxidative stress, normalized myelination and rescued axonopathy within IUGR lamb brains, and IUGR + MLT lambs demonstrated significant functional improvements including a reduced time taken to attach to and suckle at the udder after birth. Based on these observations, we began a pilot clinical trial of oral melatonin administration to women with an IUGR fetus. Maternal melatonin was not associated with adverse maternal or fetal effects and it significantly reduced oxidative stress, as evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde levels, in the IUGR + MLT placenta compared to IUGR alone. Melatonin should be considered for antenatal neuroprotective therapy in human IUGR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Applying mobile phones in healthcare is increasingly prioritized to strengthen healthcare systems. Antenatal care has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and improve newborns’ survival but this benefit may not be realized in sub-Saharan Africa where the attendance and quality of care is declining. We evaluated the association between a mobile phone intervention and antenatal care in a resource-limited setting. We aimed to assess antenatal care in a comprehensive way taking into consideration utilisation of antenatal care as well as content and timing of interventions during pregnancy. Methods This study was an open label pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with primary healthcare facilities in Zanzibar as the unit of randomisation. 2550 pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at selected primary healthcare facilities were included at their first antenatal care visit and followed until 42 days after delivery. 24 primary health care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text-message and voucher component. Primary outcome measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. Results The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal care attendance. In the intervention group 44% of the women received four or more antenatal care visits versus 31% in the control group (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.03-5.55). There was a trend towards improved timing and quality of antenatal care services across all secondary outcome measures although not statistically significant. Conclusions The wired mothers’ mobile phone intervention significantly increased the proportion of women receiving the recommended four antenatal care

  8. Child's Attachment to Mother as the Basis of Mental Development Typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. Burmenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of the attachment system (child-mother interactions in development of a wide spectrum of individual personality characteristics. Emotional attachment of the child to mother is considered as a complicated system of internal regulation and a basis of typology of mental development. Results of a series of empirical studies show the connection between the type of attachment, formed at the early stages of child development, and characteristics of his/her autonomy, consciousness (self-concept and self-esteem and empathy in preschool and middle childhood.

  9. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholst, Sonja; Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have examined the relative contribution of insecure attachment and negative parental rearing behaviors on childhood anxiety, but none have examined if insecure attachment mediates the association between negative parental rearing behavior and anxiety. The present study investigated...... the direct, as well as the indirect, relation between attachment to parents, parental rearing behaviors and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 1134 normal developing children and adolescent. Attachment relation was measured by the Security Scale (SEC), negative parental rearing behavior was measured...... by the Rearing Behavior Questionnaire (RBQ), and anxiety was assessed using the Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R). We found, in accordance with previous research, that insecure attachment, maternal rejection and overprotection, each accounted for a significant proportion...

  10. Neural basis of attachment-caregiving systems interaction:insights from neuroimaging

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    Delia eLenzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The attachment and the caregiving system are complementary systems which are active simultaneously in infant and mother interactions. This ensures the infant survival and optimal social, emotional and cognitive development. In this brief review we first define the characteristics of these two behavioral systems and the theory that links them, according to what Bowlby called the attachment-caregiving social bond (Bowlby, 1969. We then follow with those neuroimaging studies that have focused on this particular issue, i.e. those which have studied the activation of the careging system in women (using infant stimuli and have explored how the individual attachment model (through the Adult Attachment Interview modulates its activity. Studies report altered activation in limbic and prefrontal areas and in basal ganglia and hypothalamus/pituitary regions. These altered activations are thought to be the neural substrate of the attachment-caregiving systems interaction.

  11. Relation between premorbid personality and patterns of emotion expression in mid- to late-stage dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magai, C; Cohen, C I; Culver, C; Gomberg, D; Malatesta, C

    1997-11-01

    Twenty-seven nursing home patients with mid- to late-stage dementia participated in a study of the relation between preillness personality, as indexed by attachment and emotion regulation style, and current emotional behavior. Preillness measures were completed by family members and current assessments of emotion were supplied by nursing home aides and family members; in addition, emotion was coded during a family visit using an objective coding system for facial emotion expressions. Attachment style was found to be related to the expression of positive affect, with securely attached individuals displaying more positive affect than avoidantly attached individuals. In addition, high ratings on premorbid hostility were associated with higher rates of negative affect and lower rates of positive affect. These findings indicate that premorbid aspects of personality show continuity over time, even in mid- to late-stage dementia.

  12. Adult Romantic Attachment and Couple Conflict Behaviors: Intimacy as a Multi-Dimensional Mediator

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    Tina D. Du Rocher Schudlich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated associations between adult romantic attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors and the potential mediating role of intimacy. A community sample of 74 couples reported on their attachment security style on the Attachment Style Measure (ASM (Simpson, 1990 and on multiple dimensions of intimacy on the Personal Assessment of Intimacy in Relationships (PAIR (Schaefer & Olson, 1981. Couples’ conflict behaviors were assessed via behavioral observations and coded for positive and negative dimensions of conflict. Path analyses indicated numerous actor and partner effects in the links between attachment, intimacy, and conflict. For men, both avoidant and anxious attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For women though, both secure and avoidant attachment styles were predictive of their own and their partner’s intimacy. For men, all domains of intimacy were predictive of their own or their partner’s conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy was predictive of conflict behaviors. All domains of men’s intimacy emerged as significant mediators of associations between attachment and couples’ conflict behaviors. For women, only emotional intimacy mediated these associations. Implications for the treatment of relationally-discordant couples are discussed.

  13. Attachment and callous-unemotional traits in children with early-onset conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John

    2012-08-01

    Antisocial children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits appear to be disconnected from other people's emotions; although little is known about their experience of the parent-child emotional bond. This study examined parent-child attachment relationships and levels of CU traits in conduct-problem children. Attachment classifications in boys (M = 6.31 years) with disruptive behaviour disorders were assessed using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. Multiple informants rated children's CU traits. Independent of severity of conduct problems, high levels of CU traits were associated with more insecure attachment; specifically, disorganised attachment representations; however, CU traits were not associated with avoidant representations. Among conduct-problem children, those higher on CU traits appear to be at increased risk of experiencing disruptions in parent-child attachment relationships; attachment may be an important area for treatment and prevention efforts for CU traits in young children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. EXAMINING PARENTS' ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT STYLES AND DEPRESSIVE AND ANXIETY SYMPTOMS AS PREDICTORS OF CAREGIVING EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine

    2016-09-01

    Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. The Relationship of Adult Attachment Theory and Affect Regulation Strategies to Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolya Calisir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the attachment theory which is also known as an affect regulation theory, internal working models that are constituted by the interaction between primary care giver and infant in the early period of life. These working models plays an important role how the infant gives a meaning to the world and himself/ herself and it determines the individual’s personality development and by the way the probable psychopathologies that can be observed in the future like depression. In relation with this, many of the empirical studies in the adult literature states on how internal models and cognitive representations have an influence on emotional reactions. According to various studies, reporting different attachment styles and individuals who has probably different internal models, differs in each others’ emotional reactions and how they behave according to these reactions. In view of attachment literature, individual makes a decision in terms of making affect regulation for maintaining proximity seeking and this process evokes the activation of secondary attachment strategies which are named as hyper and deactivating strategies. From the framework of this review, the relationship between major depression and adult attachment styles, affect regulation strategies is examined. Firstly, Bowlby’s attachment theory is mentioned shortly and adult attachment styles are introduced. Secondly, affect regulation strategies, which are thought to be related with major depression as a mood disorder are identified and finally, the empirical research findings relevant to the topic are represented.

  16. A qualitative study of attachment relationships in ASD during middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Belinda M; Newman, Louise K; Gray, Kylie M; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2017-02-01

    Although research has indicated that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display normative attachment behaviours, to date there has been limited qualitative research exploring these relationships. This study aimed to describe qualitative features of the child-caregiver attachment relationship in children with ASD. Primary caregivers to 26 children with ASD (aged 7-14 years) and 23 typically developing children (aged 7-13 years) were administered the Disturbances of Attachment Interview (Smyke & Zeanah, 1999) to elicit descriptions of children's attachment behaviours. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts indicated that while children with ASD demonstrated a range of normative attachment behaviours, they displayed impairments in the use of the caregiver as a secure base and co-regulating agent. ASD-associated impairments in emotion processing, sharing/reciprocity, and emotion co-regulation, as well as the caregiver's experience, were important in understanding attachment relationships in ASD. Findings highlight the need to consider the bidirectional nature of the attachment relationship in ASD.

  17. EFL Learners' Home Culture Attachment and their Attitudes towards English Language Learning: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sharifi Feriz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to examine home culture attachment construct and its underlying variables among Iranian English as Foreign Language learners as well as their attitudes towards English language learning. Pearson correlation is used with a sample of 411 English major university students from different provinces in Iran, mainly Khorasan Razavi, Khoran Jonoubi and Sistan Baluchestan participated in this study. As for the quantitative phase of data collection, the study employed home culture attachment and attitude towards English language learning questionnaires. The reliability and validity of these questionnaires are reported. A home culture attachment model and an attitude model are also developed and tested using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that all three subscales of attitudes (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive are positive and significant predictors of students' western attachment. From three subscales of attitude, only behavioral attitude is negative and significant predictors of students' religious attachment. In addition, Iranian attachment is influenced by cognitive attitudes and emotional attitudes. Besides, cognitive attitude is a positive and significant predictor of students' cultural attachment. It is also found that, artistic attachment is influenced by behavioral attitudes and emotional attitudes. Finally, the pedagogical implications are discussed in light of foreign language achievement.

  18. The secure base script and the task of caring for elderly parents: implications for attachment theory and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cory K; Waters, Harriet Salatas; Hartman, Marilyn; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Miklowitz, David J; Waters, Everett

    2013-01-01

    This study explores links between adults' attachment representations and the task of caring for elderly parents with dementia. Participants were 87 adults serving as primary caregivers of a parent or parent-in-law with dementia. Waters and Waters' ( 2006 ) Attachment Script Assessment was adapted to assess script-like attachment representation in the context of caring for their elderly parent. The quality of adult-elderly parent interactions was assessed using the Level of Expressed Emotions Scale (Cole & Kazarian, 1988 ) and self-report measures of caregivers' perception of caregiving as difficult. Caregivers' secure base script knowledge predicted lower levels of negative expressed emotion. This effect was moderated by the extent to which participants experienced caring for elderly parents as difficult. Attachment representations played a greater role in caregiving when caregiving tasks were perceived as more difficult. These results support the hypothesis that attachment representations influence the quality of care that adults provide their elderly parents. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  20. Before we begin. The importance of antenatal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Mary

    2012-04-01

    A review of the impact of universal antenatal education found that group based programmes which promote the transition to parenthood by focusing on relationships (between the couple and with the baby), and which are participative and build social support, are most likely to be effective (McMillan et al 2009). An Expert Reference Group convened by the Department of Health has designed a Preparation for Birth and Beyond programme to incorporate the evidence about what works and which draws on neurology, sociology and psychology including theories about fetal programming, social capital, self-efficacy, adult learning and health promotion. Learning from the Family Nurse Partnership, the PBB programme builds on parents' strengths and their intrinsic motivation to be the best parents they can for their children.

  1. Features of Joint Capsule Formation After Antenatal Action of Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Fedotchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using morphometric, histological, histochemical and statistical methods, we have investigated the dynamics of hip joint capsule formation in white laboratory rats during the postnatal period after intrefetal introduction of antigen. It is found that antenatal effect of antigen leads to an increase in the number of lymphocytes, in particular PNA+, in joint capsule. Against this background, we observed an increase in the proportion of cells, the basic substance and elastic fibers, while reducing the content of collagen fibers, violations in polysaccharides and fibroblasts distribution that indicates the development of dysplastic processes in the hip joint and can be regarded as the leading factor of coxarthrosis development. Experimentally, we have detected arachnodactylia as a visual clinical manifestation of dysplasia.

  2. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  3. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2009-11-15

    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  4. Is voiding cystourethrogram necessary in all cases of antenatal hydronephrosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydronephrosis is the most common genitourinary anomaly as detected on obstetric ultrasonography and the incidence of associated vesicoureteral reflux is around 10-12%. There is inconsistency in the literature regarding which child should under go a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG in cases of antenatal hydronephrosis (AHN. Besides, there is a scarcity of prospective studies to demonstrate the risk of varying degree of AHN, associated reflux and their long-term impact on the kidneys. The present analysis suggests that children with AHN should undergo an ultrasound within the first month of life and further course of action should be decided on the basis of the individual case. Children with persistent moderate to severe AHN should undergo a VCUG and a functional study.

  5. A case of antenatal Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Cheong, Hae Il; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2010-10-01

    Bartter syndrome type IV, also known as Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness (BSND), is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the BSND gene, which encodes barttin, an accessory subunit of chloride channels located in the kidney and inner ear. Patients with BS IV have a highly variable clinical phenotype. This report concerns a Korean male patient with antenatal Bartter syndrome due to a homozygous BSND p.G47R mutation, who presented with severe perinatal symptoms followed by a relatively benign course with preserved renal function after early infancy. In addition, the clinical features and the laboratory data of the patient were compared with those of previously reported patients with the same mutation.

  6. Health education during antenatal care: the need for more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Ateeq MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A Al-Ateeq,1 Amal A Al-Rusaiess21College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and Primary Health Care, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: The aim of health education during ante natal is to provide advice, education, ­reassurance and support, to address and treat the minor problems of pregnancy, and to provide effective screening during the pregnancy. Exploring current practices in this regard revealed the need for more organized educational activities to ensure high quality and clients satisfaction. Keywords: antenatal care, health education, pregnant women, postpartum, misconceptions

  7. Selective processing of threatening information: effects of attachment representation and anxiety disorder on attention and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, Ingeborg A; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; de Ruiter, Corine; Brosschot, Jos F

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the mental representation of attachment on information processing, 28 anxiety disorder outpatients, as diagnosed by the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Revised, were administered the Adult Attachment Interview and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. They also completed an emotional Stroop task with subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, a free recall memory task, and a recognition test. All tasks contained threatening, neutral, and positively valenced stimuli. A nonclinical comparison group of 56 participants completed the same measures. Results on the Stroop task showed color-naming interference for threatening words in the supraliminal condition only. Nonclinical participants with insecure attachment representations showed a global response inhibition to the Stroop task. Clinical participants with secure attachment representations showed the largest Stroop interference of the threatening words compared to the other groups. Results on the free recall task showed superior recall of all types of stimuli by participants with secure attachment representations. In the outpatient group, participants with secure attachment representations showed superior recall of threatening words on the free recall task, compared to insecure participants. Results on the recognition task showed no differences between attachment groups. We conclude that secure attachment representations are characterized by open communication about and processing of threatening information, leading to less defensive exclusion of negative material during the attentional stage of information processing and to better recall of threatening information in a later stage. Attachment insecurity, but not the type of insecurity, seems a decisive factor in attention and memory processes.

  8. Programming effects of antenatal corticosteroids exposure in male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mário; Leão, Pedro; Rodrigues, Ana-João; Pêgo, José-Miguel; Cerqueira, João-José; Sousa, Nuno

    2011-07-01

    Brain regions implicated in sexual behavior begin to differentiate in the last trimester of gestation. Antenatal therapy with corticosteroids is often used in clinical practice during this period to accelerate lung maturation in preterm-risk pregnancies. Clinical and animal studies highlighted major behavioral impairments induced later in life by these treatments, especially when synthetic corticosteroids are used. To evaluate the implications of acute prenatal treatment with natural vs. synthetic corticosteroids on adult male rat sexual behavior and its neurochemical correlates. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats were injected with dexamethasone (DEX-1 mg/kg), corticosterone (CORT-25 mg/kg), or saline on late gestation (pregnancy days 18 and 19). Following this brief exposure to corticosteroids, we assessed the sexual behavior of the adult male progeny and subsequently associated these behaviors with the levels of catecholamines and mRNA of dopamine and androgen receptors (AR) in brain regions relevant for sexual behavior. Sexual behavior of adult male offspring was assessed by exposure to receptive females. This was associated with serum testosterone levels and levels of catecholamines (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography) and dopamine and AR mRNA expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) in brain regions implicated in sexual behavior. Prenatal DEX exposure resulted in a decreased number and increased mounts and intromissions latencies in adulthood. These findings were associated with decreased levels of serum testosterone and increased hypothalamic expression of AR mRNA. DEX animals also displayed lower dopamine levels and higher dopamine receptor mRNA expression both in hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The milder phenotype of CORT animals was associated only with decreased dopamine levels in NAcc. Antenatal corticotherapy programs adult male sexual behavior through changes in specific neuronal and endocrine mediators

  9. The Impact of Antenatal Depression on Perinatal Outcomes in Australian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Eastwood

    Full Text Available In Australia, there is limited evidence on the impact of antenatal depression on perinatal outcomes. This study investigates the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and key perinatal outcomes, including birth weight, gestational age at birth, breastfeeding indicators and postnatal depressive symptoms.A retrospective cohort of mothers (N = 17,564 of all infants born in public health facilities within South Western Sydney Local Health District and Sydney Local Health District in 2014, in the state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia, was enumerated from routinely collected antenatal data to investigate the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Antenatal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Logistic regression models that adjusted for confounders were conducted to determine associations between antenatal depressive symptoms and low birth weight, early gestational age at birth (<37 weeks, breast feeding indicators and postnatal depressive symptoms.The prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 7.0% in the cohort, and was significantly associated with postnatal depressive symptoms [Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR = 6.4, 95% CI: 4.8-8.7, P<0.001]. Antenatal depressive symptoms was associated with a higher odds of low birth weight [AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, P = 0.003] and a gestational age at birth of <37 weeks [AOR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7, P = 0.018] compared to women who reported lower EPDS scores in antenatal period. Antenatal depressive symptoms were not strongly associated with non-exclusive breast feeding in the early postnatal period.Maternal depressive symptoms in the antenatal period are strongly associated with postnatal depressive symptoms and adverse perinatal outcomes in Australian infants. Early identification of antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms, and referral for appropriate

  10. Attachment for mass exchange apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimenko, M.Z.; Maksimenko, M.M.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    An attachment is proposed which contains a cylindrical housing in which the windows are profiled with inward bent windows. In order to improve the effectiveness of the attachment by increasing its surface, and mobility, the ends of the housing are equipped with inner annular partitions with radial cross sections. The sections of the partitions between them are bent inwards towards the forming housing in series, from the side of each section. The inward-bent sections of the partitions and the edges are directed to one side or to different sides.

  11. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  12. Attachment Theory: Progress and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, R. M. P.; Roisman, G. I.

    2017-01-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of ...

  13. Fostering engagement during termination: Applying attachment theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2017-03-01

    Therapists often struggle to determine the most important things to focus on during termination. Reviewing the treatment, identifying plans for the future, summarizing positive gains, and saying goodbye receive the most attention. Despite our best intentions, termination can end up becoming intellectualized. Attachment theory and recent developments in neuroscience offer us a road map for facilitating endings that address client's underlying relational needs, direct us to foster engagement, and help us facilitate new relational experience that can be transformative for clients. We argue that endings in therapy activate client's and therapist's attachments and these endings trigger emotion regulating strategies that can elicit client's engagement or more defensiveness. The current paper will highlight through de-identified case examples how clients automatically respond termination and how therapists can foster rich relational experiences in the here-and-now that clients can take with them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Variability of femoral muscle attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, G N; Brand, D; Freitag, S; Lierse, W; Schneider, E

    1996-09-01

    Analytical and experimental models of the musculoskeletal system often assume single values rather than ranges for anatomical input parameters. The hypothesis of the present study was that anatomical variability significantly influences the results of biomechanical analyses, specifically regarding the moment arms of the various thigh muscles. Insertions and origins of muscles crossing or attaching to the femur were digitized in six specimens. Muscle volumes were measured; muscle attachment area and centroid location were computed. To demonstrate the influence of inter-individual anatomic variability on a mechanical modeling parameter, the corresponding range of muscle moment arms were calculated. Standard deviations, as a percentage of the mean, were about 70% for attachment area and 80% for muscle volume and attachment centroid location. The resulting moment arms of the m. gluteus maximus and m. rectus femoris were especially sensitive to anatomical variations (SD 65%). The results indicate that sensitivity to anatomical variations should be analyzed in any investigation simulating musculoskeletal interactions. To avoid misinterpretations, investigators should consider using several anatomical configurations rather than relying on a mean data set.

  15. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  16. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachme...

  17. Self-concept in institutionalized children with disturbed attachment: The mediating role of exploratory behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacaru, V S; Sterkenburg, P S; Schuengel, C

    2018-05-01

    Self-concept is seen as both an outcome of sociocognitive and emotional development, and a factor in social and mental health outcomes. Although the contribution of attachment experiences to self-concept has been limited to quality of primary attachment relationships, little is known of the effects of disturbed attachment on self-concept in institutionalized children. Thus, the current study examined associations between disturbed attachment behaviours in institutionalized children and self-concept, testing limited exploration as an explanatory factor. Thirty-three institutionalized children, aged 4-12, participated in a multimethod and multi-informant assessment of disturbed attachment behaviours (i.e., Disturbances of Attachment Interview and Behavioral Signs of Disturbed Attachment in Young Children), self-concept (i.e., Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children), and exploratory behaviours (i.e., Student Exploratory Behaviours Observation Scale). Analyses were conducted using bootstrapping techniques. Global self-concept converged with teacher-rated children's self-concept, except for physical competence domain. Disturbed attachment behaviours were identified in 62.5% of the children, and this was associated with lower levels of exploration and lower scores on self-concept, compared with children without disturbed attachment behaviours. Furthermore, exploratory behaviours mediated the effects of disturbed attachment behaviours on self-concept. Institution-reared children with disturbed attachment behaviours were likely to have a negative perception of self and one's own competences. Limited exploratory behaviours explained this linkage. Targeting disordered attachment in children reared in institutions and their caregivers should become a high priority as a means for preventing socioemotional development issues. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is n...

  19. A Theoretical Assessment on Emotional Intelligence as a Competitive Managerial Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Hacioglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion as the main motive underlying the human behaviors is a conceptthat has been researched by many disciplines in the social sciences. Derivingfrom behavioral studies on emotions, Emotional Intelligence as acritical concept in organizational behavior studies is attached to theassestment of employee motivation and performance drivers. In this study, atheoretical framework for the emotional intelligence in workplace has beenassessed. The major contribution of the concept in competitive business strategiesfrom managerial scope has been evaluated.

  20. Children's Attachment-Related Narratives Following US Gulf Coast Hurricanes: Linkages with Understanding and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy; Buchanan, Teresa K.; Verbovaya, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The central focus of this study was the perceptions of emotional security among 64 elementary school-aged children exposed to the hurricanes that affected the US Gulf Coast in 2005. Specifically, we examined the representational qualities of attachment, exploration, and caregiving as assessed with a narrative story-stem task in relation to…