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Sample records for antegrade colonic luminal

  1. Understanding Antegrade Colonic Enema (ACE) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enema (ACE) Surgery Menu Overview Procedure Details Risks / Benefits What is antegrade colonic enema (ACE) surgery? Antegrade ... Accepted Insurance Make a Donation Refer a Patient Phone Directory Blog, News & Mobile Apps Consult QD Health Essentials Newsroom Mobile Apps ...

  2. Antegrade Colonic Lavage in Acute Colonic Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michael E.; Johnson, Colin D.

    1986-01-01

    Conventional management of acute left sided colonic obstruction employs some form of proximal colostomy. Intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation relieves proximal faecal loading and may permit safer primary resection and anastomosis. The results of a pilot study are presented, and are shown to be favourable.

  3. Left-colon antegrade continence enema (LACE) procedure for fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Bernard M; De Ugarte, Daniel A; Atkinson, James B

    2003-12-01

    Antegrade continence enemas (ACE) are an efficacious therapeutic option for patients with fecal incontinence. The authors review their institution's experience with a variation of the Monti-Malone ACE procedure using the left colon as a source of an intestinal conduit and enema reservoir. From 2000 to 2002, 18 patients with fecal incontinence or intractable constipation underwent left-colon ACE (LACE) procedure. Concomitant Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy was performed in 15 patients and bladder augmentation in 9. The majority of patients had neural tube defects. A segment of left colon was tubularized, tunneled into the muscular wall of the distal colon, and exteriorized through the left upper quadrant or midabdomen. Stomal catherization and enema installation were started one month postoperatively. Fifteen patients (83%) achieved fecal continence, 2 remain incontinent of stool, and 1 experienced stomal closure (mean follow-up was 24 +/- 9 months). Two patients had stomal stenosis that required revision. The mean enema volume in patient's achieving continence was 360 +/- 216 mL, and the mean transit time was 18 +/- 12 minutes. LACE is an efficacious procedure for fecal incontinence that can be performed safely at the time of major urologic reconstruction. Administration of enemas into the left colon has several physiologic advantages that result in predictable bowel evacuation.

  4. Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radcliffe, B.C.; Nance, S.H.; Deakin, E.J.; Roediger, W.E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The disposition of intravenously or luminally administered nitrite across the colonic mucosa and its effect on ion movement into or from the colon was assessed in anesthetized Porton rats using the isolated colon instilled either with sodium chloride or sodium chloride with sodium butyrate. Ionic changes in the colon after intravenous injection of 10 μmol NaNO 2 were compared with those occurring after injection of 10 μmol NaCl. After intravenous administration of nitrite, both nitrite and nitrate appeared in the colonic instillate in a ratio of 1:1. Nitrite increased chloride absorption (110%) and bicarbonate production (20%) when 40 mM butyrate was included in the instillate. Net sodium absorption, measured in the whole colon, was unchanged. Intravenous nitrite had no effect on ionic movement in the absence of butyrate. When NaNO 2 was included luminally with the sodium chloride-butyrate instillate, bicarbonate production rate increased, but sodium and chloride absorption were unaffected. Nitrite concentration in the instillate decreased during the 40-min experimental period at a rate of 0.275 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 and nitrate appeared at a rate of 0.037 nmol·min -1 ·cm -2 . The authors conclude that nitrite stimulates bicarbonate production in the colon, probably by stimulating the oxidation by butyrate, the main source of CO 2 generation by the colonic mucosa

  5. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, François; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-15

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P diet, whereas the amount of butyrate in feces was increased (P diet consumption allows maintenance in the luminal butyrate concentration and thus its metabolism in colonocytes despite modified microbiota composition and increased substrate availability. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Xinxin; BLOUIN, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaig; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, Francois; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P < 0.05 or ...

  7. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie; Eklou, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Andriamihaja M, Davila A, Eklou-Lawson M, Petit N, Delpal S, Allek F, Blais A, Delteil C, Tome D, Blachier F. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 299: G1030-G1037, 2010. First published August 5, 2010; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00149.2010.-Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transf...

  8. Colon luminal content and epithelial cell morphology are markedly modified in rats fed with a high-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Davila, Anne-Marie; Eklou-Lawson, Mamy; Petit, Nathalie; Delpal, Serge; Allek, Fadhila; Blais, Anne; Delteil, Corine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2010-11-01

    Hyperproteic diets are used in human nutrition to obtain body weight reduction. Although increased protein ingestion results in an increased transfer of proteins from the small to the large intestine, there is little information on the consequences of the use of such diets on the composition of large intestine content and on epithelial cell morphology and metabolism. Rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein), and absorptive colonocytes were observed by electron microscopy or isolated for enzyme activity studies. The colonic luminal content was recovered for biochemical analysis. Absorbing colonocytes were characterized by a 1.7-fold reduction in the height of the brush-border membranes (P = 0.0001) after HP diet consumption when compared with NP. This coincided in the whole colon content of HP animals with a 1.8-fold higher mass content (P = 0.0020), a 2.2-fold higher water content (P = 0.0240), a 5.2-fold higher protease activity (P = 0.0104), a 5.5-fold higher ammonia content (P = 0.0008), and a more than twofold higher propionate, valerate, isobutyrate, and isovalerate content (P hyperproteic diet ingestion causes marked changes both in the luminal environment of colonocytes and in the characteristics of these cells, demonstrating that hyperproteic diet interferes with colonocyte metabolism and morphology. Possible causal relationships between energy metabolism, reduced height of colonocyte brush-border membranes, and reduced water absorption are discussed.

  9. Diets that differ in their FODMAP content alter the colonic luminal microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P; Christophersen, Claus T; Bird, Anthony R; Shepherd, Susan J; Gibson, Peter R; Muir, Jane G

    2015-01-01

    A low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides And Polyols) diet reduces symptoms of IBS, but reduction of potential prebiotic and fermentative effects might adversely affect the colonic microenvironment. The effects of a low FODMAP diet with a typical Australian diet on biomarkers of colonic health were compared in a single-blinded, randomised, cross-over trial. Twenty-seven IBS and six healthy subjects were randomly allocated one of two 21-day provided diets, differing only in FODMAP content (mean (95% CI) low 3.05 (1.86 to 4.25) g/day vs Australian 23.7 (16.9 to 30.6) g/day), and then crossed over to the other diet with ≥21-day washout period. Faeces passed over a 5-day run-in on their habitual diet and from day 17 to day 21 of the interventional diets were pooled, and pH, short-chain fatty acid concentrations and bacterial abundance and diversity were assessed. Faecal indices were similar in IBS and healthy subjects during habitual diets. The low FODMAP diet was associated with higher faecal pH (7.37 (7.23 to 7.51) vs. 7.16 (7.02 to 7.30); p=0.001), similar short-chain fatty acid concentrations, greater microbial diversity and reduced total bacterial abundance (9.63 (9.53 to 9.73) vs. 9.83 (9.72 to 9.93) log10 copies/g; pdiet. To indicate direction of change, in comparison with the habitual diet the low FODMAP diet reduced total bacterial abundance and the typical Australian diet increased relative abundance for butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa (median ratio 6.62; pDiets differing in FODMAP content have marked effects on gut microbiota composition. The implications of long-term reduction of intake of FODMAPs require elucidation. ACTRN12612001185853. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Dietary proline supplementation alters colonic luminal microbiota and bacterial metabolite composition between days 45 and 70 of pregnancy in Huanjiang mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yujiao; Guo, Qiuping; Yin, Yulong; Blachier, Francois; Kong, Xiangfeng

    2018-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with important changes in gut microbiota composition. Dietary factors may affect the diversity, composition, and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota. Among amino acids, proline is known to play important roles in protein metabolism and structure, cell differentiation, conceptus growth and development, and gut microbiota re-equilibration in case of dysbiosis. Dietary supplementation with 1% proline decreased ( P  spp. in distal colonic contents than that in the control group. The colonic contents of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens , Bifidobacterium sp., Clostridium coccoides , Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale , Clostridium leptum subgroup, Escherichia coli , Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , Fusobacterium prausnitzii , and Prevotella increased ( P  < 0.05) on d 70 of pregnancy as compared with those on d 45 of pregnancy. The colonic concentrations of acetate, total straight-chain fatty acid, and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the proline-supplemented group were lower ( P  < 0.05), and butyrate level ( P  = 0.06) decreased as compared with the control group. Almost all of the SCFA displayed higher ( P  < 0.05) concentrations in proximal colonic contents on d 70 of pregnancy than those on d 45 of pregnancy. The concentrations of 1,7-heptyl diamine ( P  = 0.09) and phenylethylamine ( P  < 0.05) in proximal colonic contents were higher, while those of spermidine ( P  = 0.05) and total bioamine ( P  = 0.06) tended to be lower in the proline-supplemented group than those in the control group. The concentrations of spermidine, spermine, and total bioamine in colonic contents were higher ( P  < 0.05) on d 70 of pregnancy than those measured on d 45 of pregnancy. In contrast, the concentration of phenylethylamine was lower ( P  < 0.05) on d 70 than on d 45 of pregnancy. These findings indicate that L -proline supplementation modifies both the colonic microbiota composition and the luminal

  11. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Percutaneous antegrade pyelgraphy guided by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gyoo; Chung, Chun Phil; Lee, Suk Hong; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1985-01-01

    The authors performed percutaneous antegrade pyelography guided by ultrasound on 33 patients, from June 1982 to October 1984, at the Department of Radiology, Busan National University Hospital. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Of the 31 cases, 17 cases (51.5%) were female and 16 cases (48.5%) were male, and age distribution was nearly even, but most prevalent age group was third decade. 2. Comparing intravenous pyelographic findings with ultrasonographic findings, pyelographically nonvisualized kidney 15 cases (45.5%) were hydronephrosis 12 cases, multiple cysts 2 cases, and intrarenal cystic mass 1 case, ultrasonographically. Pyelographically hydronephrosis 9 cases (27.3%) were all hydronephrosis, ultrasonographically. Intrarenal mass 5 cases (15.2%) were all intrarenal cystic mass, NVK with air kidney 1 case (3.0%) was air in perirenal space, partial NVK 1 case (3.0%) was perirenal fluid, suprarenal mass 1 case (3.0%) was suprarenal intrarenal and huge perirenal cystic masses, ultrasonographically. 3. On technical reliability of antegrade pyelography under ultrasound guide, 31 cases (93.9%) could be done fluid aspiration and visualization, and 2 cases (6.1%) could be only done fluid aspiration but failed visualization. 31 successful cases were visualization of collecting systems 23 cases, visualization of cyst 6 case, and visualization of perirenal space 2 cases. 2 partical successful cases were perirenal injection 1 case and parenchymal injection 1 case. 4. On fluid aspiration, 22 cases (66.7%) were clear, but 11 cases (33.3%) were not clear, which were pus 7 cases, turbid urine 2 cases, bloody urine 1 case, and bloody pus and air 1 case. 5. Comparing ultrasonographic findings with antegrade pyelographic findings, ultrasonographiclly hydronephrosis 21 cases revealed obstruction in 16 cases, antegrade pyelographicaaly, which were consisted of ureteral stricture 14 case, ureteral stone 1 case, and ureteral mass 1 case, non-obstruction in 4 cases, which

  13. Functional Outcomes of the Knee after Retrograde and Antegrade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of femur shaft fractures although retrograde technique is gaining acceptance. Although ... Antegrade group, while the rate of knee stiffness was higher in the retrograde .... reaching direct and indirect social economic effect within the society.

  14. Intraoperative colonic irrigation in the management of left sided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the safety and benefits of antegrade intraoperative colonic irrigation (lavage) and primary anastomosis, after colonic resection, in the treatment of left sided large bowel emergencies. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Setting: Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Participants: Thirty ...

  15. Extra-anatomical complications of antegrade double-J insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion of a double-J (JJ stent is a common procedure often carried out in the retrograde route by the urologists and the antegrade route by the radiologists. Reported complications include stent migration, encrustation, and fracture. Extra-anatomic placement of an antegrade JJ stent is a rare but infrequently recognized complication. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective audit of 165 antegrade JJ stent insertions performed over three consecutive years by a single interventional radiologist. All renal units were hydronephrotic at the time of nephrostomy. All procedures were performed under local anaesthetic with antibiotic prophylaxis. Results: Antegrade stent insertion was carried out simultaneously at the time of nephrostomy in 55 of the 165 cases (33%. The remainder were inserted at a mean of 2 weeks following decompression. In five (3% patients, who had delayed antegrade stenting following nephrostomy, the procedure was complicated by silent ureteric perforation and an extra-anatomic placement of the stent. These complications had delayed manifestations, which included two retroperitoneal abscesses, a pelvic urinoma, a case each of ureterorectal fistula, and ureterovaginal fistula. Risk factors for ureteric perforation include previous pelvic malignancy, pelvic surgery, pelvic radiation, and a history of ureteric manipulation. Conclusion: Antegrade ureteric JJ stenting is a procedure not without complications. Extra-anatomic placement of the antegrade stent is a hitherto the infrequently reported complication but needs a high index of suspicion to be diagnosed. Risk factors for ureteric perforation at the time of stent insertion have to be considered to prevent this potential complication.

  16. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  17. Antegrade jj stenting after percutaneous renal procedures: The ‘pull and push’ technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkal, Jaideep M.; Sharma, Elias

    2014-01-01

    A JJ stent is inserted antegradely after percutaneous renal procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for renal calculus disease, and for endopyelotomy for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. We describe a technique for antegrade stent insertion after PCNL. PMID:26413327

  18. Antegrade jj stenting after percutaneous renal procedures: The 'pull and push' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkal, Jaideep M; Sharma, Elias

    2015-06-01

    A JJ stent is inserted antegradely after percutaneous renal procedures like percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for renal calculus disease, and for endopyelotomy for pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction. We describe a technique for antegrade stent insertion after PCNL.

  19. Antegrade or Retrograde Accessory Pathway Conduction: Who Dies First?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hadid, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old man with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome due to a left-sided accessory pathway (AP was referred for catheter ablation. Whether abolition of antegrade and retrograde AP conduction during ablation therapy occurs simultaneously, is unclear. At the ablation procedure, radiofrequency delivery resulted in loss of preexcitation followed by a short run of orthodromic tachycardia with eccentric atrial activation, demonstrating persistence of retrograde conduction over the AP after abolition of its antegrade conduction. During continued radiofrequency delivery at the same position, the fifth non-preexcitated beat failed to conduct retrogradely and the tachycardia ended. In this case, antegrade AP conduction was abolished earlier than retrograde conduction.

  20. Retrograde vs. Antegrade Puncture for Infra-Inguinal Angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nice, C.; Timmons, G.; Bartholemew, P.; Uberoi, R.

    2003-01-01

    This study was done to compare antegrade punctures with a retrograde puncture technique for infrainguinal angioplasty. A group of 100 consecutive patients (71 men, 29 women) were randomized for antegrade puncture or retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery. Following retrograde puncture the guidewire was 'turned' and placed into the superficial femoral artery. The time for gaining access, screening time, radiation dose, patient height, weight and complications were recorded. All patients were reviewed the day after the procedure and within 3 months. Data from 46 patients (34 males and 12 females) in the retrograde group and 44 (28 males and 16 females) in the antegrade group were available for analysis. Mean procedure time,screening time, radiation dose, height and weight were 8.3 minutes(range 3-22), 2.1 minutes (0.3-6.5), 7950 mGy cm -2 (820-71250), 169 cm (149-204) and 79 kg (32-108) for retrograde puncture and 8 min (2-60), 0.7 min (0.0-3.2), 1069 mGycm -2 (0-15400), 169 cm (152-186) and 75 kg (39-125) for antegrade punctures, respectively. An average of 1.2 (1-2) punctures was required for retrograde and 1.75 (1-8) for antegrade. Seven small hematomas occurred with antegrade and three for retrograde puncture.Retrograde puncture is technically easier with a tendency to fewer complications but results in a higher radiation dose. This technique should be used in difficult patients at high risk of haematoma formation

  1. Combined antegrade and retrograde ureteral stenting: the rendezvous technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macri, A.; Magno, C.; Certo, A.; Basile, A.; Scuderi, G.; Crescenti, F.; Famulari, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ureteral stenting is a routine procedure in endourology. To increase the success rate in difficult cases, it may be helpful to use the rendezvous technique, a combined antegrade and retrograde approach. We performed 16 urological rendezvous in 11 patients with ureteral strictures or urologic lesions. The combined approach was successful in all patients, without morbidity or mortality. In our experience the rendezvous technique increased the success rate of antegrade ureteral stenting from 78.6 to 88.09% (p>0.05). This procedure is a valid option in case of failure of conventional ureteral stenting

  2. Antegrade pyelography in ureteric duplications with obstructed upper segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, R.I.; Kaufman, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous puncture under fluoroscopic control followed by antegrade pyelography was employed in three children, two of them neonates, suspected of having complete duplication of the ureter with obstructed upper segments on the basis of the excretory pyelographic and ultrasonographic findings. This simple, uncomplicated and definitive method confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated the course, termination and effects of the dilated ectopic ureter

  3. Appendicostomy irrigation for facilitating colonic evacuation in colostomy patients. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanagi, H; Koyama, K; Sato, Y; Takahashi, K

    1998-08-01

    A method for bowel irrigation through an appendicostomy (antegrade colonic enema) for patients with a left colostomy is described. The appendicostomy is easily constructed without morbidity. Irrigation through the appendicostomy is performed with minimum equipment, uses a small volume of irrigation water, and takes a relatively short time. This may improve colonic evacuation in patients with left colostomy.

  4. Ultrasound-guided antegrade pyelography of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernecke, K.; Heckemann, R.; Rehwald, U.; Ringert, R.H.; Essen Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The indications for, and technique of, ultrasound-guided antegrade pyelography of renal transplants are illustrated by eight patients. Because of the detailed anatomical information which the antegrade method provides, it is superior to other diagnostic methods for the investigation of ureteric obstruction or fistulae. The severity of renal pelvis dilatation as shown by sonography must not be taken as a criterian for the grade of obstruction, since transplants may show dilated collecting systems, even in the absence of obstruction. In our view, real time sonography with a suitable probe provides the best means of achieving successful puncture of the renal pelvis. The combination of ultrasound-guided puncture and radiological contrast examination of the ureter is the best diagnostic method available and lead, in all eight cases, to immediate and definitive treatment. (orig.)

  5. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riga, Celia V.; Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  6. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Given, M F

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent removal using a rigid alligator forceps. Twenty patients were included in our study. Indications for ureteric stent insertion included stone disease (n = 7), malignancy (n = 8) and transplant anastomotic strictures (n = 5). Stent retrieval was carried out for proximal stent placement\\/migration in seven patients and encrustation in the remaining 13. Twenty-two stents were successfully retrieved in 20 patients. There was one technical failure (5%). There were no major complications. We had four minor complications, which included nephrostomy site pain (n = 2), periprocedural sepsis (n = 1) and a small urinoma (n = 1). All patients settled with conservative management. Percutaneous radiologically guided antegrade ureteric stent removal with an alligator forceps is safe and effective, particularly when initial surgical removal has failed.

  7. Percutaneous nephrostomy and antegrade ureteral stenting: technique - indications - complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, Klaus A. [Klagenfurt General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Klagenfurt (Austria); Portugaller, Horst R. [University Hospital of Graz, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    In this review the technique, indication for and complications of percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade ureter stent insertion are described. In the majority of the cases PCN is performed to relieve urinary obstruction, which can be of benign or malignant nature. Another indication for PCN is for treatment of urinary fistulas. PCN can be performed under ultrasound and/or fluoroscopic guidance, with a success rate of more than 90%. The complication rate is approximately 10% for major and minor complications together and 4-5% for major complications only. Percutaneous antegrade double-J stent insertion usually is performed if retrograde ureter stenting has not been successful. However, especially in malignant obstructions, the success rate for antegrade stenting is higher than for retrograde transvesical double-J stent insertion. In the case of severe infection and bleeding after PCN JJ-stent insertion may be contraindicated so long as there is no sufficient concomitant drainage via a PCN. Lower urinary tract dysfunction should be excluded before stent placement. The complication rate is 2-4%. Consequent stent surveillance with regular stent exchange is mandatory. (orig.)

  8. Antegrade Ureteral Stenting is a Good Alternative for the Retrograde Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Rutger W; Weltings, Saskia; van Erkel, Arian R; Roshani, Hossain; Elzevier, Henk W; van Dijk, Lukas C; van Overhagen, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Double J (JJ) stents for treating obstructive ureteral pathology are generally inserted through a retrograde route with cystoscopic guidance. Antegrade percutaneous insertion using fluoroscopy can be performed alternatively but is less known. Indications, success rate and complications of antegrade ureteral stenting were evaluated. Data of consecutive patients in which antegrade ureteral stenting was performed were retrospectively analysed using the radiology information system and patient records. Patient characteristics, details of the antegrade JJ stent insertion procedure and registered complications were collected. Furthermore, it was investigated if prior to the antegrade procedure a retrograde attempt for JJ stent insertion was performed. Total 130 attempts for antegrade JJ stent insertion were performed in 100 patients. A percutaneous nephrostomy catheter had already been placed in the majority of kidneys (n = 109) for initial treatment of hydronephrosis. Most prevelant indication for a JJ stent was obstructive ureteral pathology due to malignancy (n = 63). A JJ stent was successfully inserted in 125 of 130 procedures. In 21 cases, previous retrograde ureteral stenting had failed but, subsequent antegrade ureteral stenting was successful. There were 8 procedure related complications; 6 infections, 1 false tract and 1 malposition. Antegrade percutaneous insertion of a JJ stent is a good alternative for retrograde insertion.

  9. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  10. Impact of Intestinal Microbiota on Intestinal Luminal Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kibe, Ryoko; Ooga, Takushi; Aiba, Yuji; Kurihara, Shin; Sawaki, Emiko; Koga, Yasuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    Low–molecular-weight metabolites produced by intestinal microbiota play a direct role in health and disease. In this study, we analyzed the colonic luminal metabolome using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry with time-of-flight (CE-TOFMS) —a novel technique for analyzing and differentially displaying metabolic profiles— in order to clarify the metabolite profiles in the intestinal lumen. CE-TOFMS identified 179 metabolites from the colonic luminal metabolome and 48 metabolites were present in significantly higher concentrations and/or incidence in the germ-free (GF) mice than in the Ex-GF mice (p metabolome and a comprehensive understanding of intestinal luminal metabolome is critical for clarifying host-intestinal bacterial interactions. PMID:22724057

  11. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma; Colon carcinoma ... eat may play a role in getting colon cancer. Colon cancer may be linked to a high-fat, ...

  12. Steerable antegrade stenting: a new trick of the trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Nagele

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Whereas a retrograde attempt to insert an indwelling stent is performed in lithotomy position, usually renal access is gained in a prone position. To overcome the time loss of patient repositioning, a renal puncture can be performed in a modified lithotomy position with torqued truncus and slightly elevated flank. There is a two-fold advantage of this position: transurethral and transrenal access can be obtained using a combined approach. In the present study, this simple technique is used to position a floppy guide wire through a modified needle directly through the renal pelvis into the ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The kidney is punctured in the modified lithotomy position under sonographic control using an initial three-part puncture needle. A floppy tip guide-wire is inserted into the collecting system via the needle after retrieving the stylet. The retracted needle is bent at the tip while the guide-wire is secured in the needle and the collecting system. The use of the floppy tip guide-wire helps to insert the curved needle back into the kidney pelvis, which becomes the precise guidance for the now steerable wire. The desired steerable stent is positioned under radiographic control in a retrograde fashion over the endoscopically harbored tip of the guide-wire. Two patient cohorts (newly described method and conventional method were compared. RESULTS: The presented steering procedure saves 16.5 mean minutes compared to the conventional antegrade stenting and 79.5 Euros compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The described combined antegrade-retrograde stent placement through a bent three-part puncture needle results in both clinical superiority (OR time, success rate and financial benefits.

  13. Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy of the left colon: a new technique for management of intractable constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, David J; Haddad, Munther; Geoghegan, Niamh; Clarke, Simon; Fell, John M

    2004-07-01

    The antegrade colonic enema is accepted as effective for management of intractable constipation in children when conventional bowel management has failed. This study describes experience with a new, minimally invasive technique, the distal antegrade colonic enema, which involves percutaneous endoscopic colostomy of the left colon. Fifteen children with refractory constipation and soiling who had radiographic evidence of megarectum and/or distal colonic delay were selected for the procedure. The junction of the descending and the sigmoid colon was identified colonoscopically, and the percutaneous endoscopic colostomy tube, through which antegrade distal colonic enema are administered, was inserted. Fourteen children underwent distal percutaneous endoscopic colostomy insertion. The median time required for the procedure was 30 minutes (20-50 minutes). Excluding one child (technical difficulties with percutaneous endoscopic colostomy placement), median post-procedural hospital stay was 4 days (2-27 days). Thirteen children were no longer soiling, and improvement in quality of life was reported at 2 months' follow-up. At 6 months' follow-up, 90% of children were clean during intervals between enemas. All children evaluated at 12 months' follow-up remained clean. Median duration of follow-up was 12.5 months (2-51 months). The distal percutaneous endoscopic colostomy is a simple alternative to established methods for delivery of antegrade enemas. It is less invasive and on reversal leaves only minor scarring.

  14. Paul Callaghan luminous moments

    CERN Document Server

    Callaghan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa

  15. Diffuse hemangioma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, J.; Caseiro-Alves, F.; Cruz, L.; Moreira, A.; Rebelo, O.

    1995-01-01

    We report two cases of diffuse hemangioma of the colon in adolescent patients. One patient had multiple phleboliths at the lower pelvis identified with plain radiographs of the abdomen. Several aspects were seen on double-contrast enema: luminal narrowing, colonic-wall thickening and submucosal colonic masses that changed in appearance with the degree of colonic distension. Angiography was inconclusive in one case. Use of CT and MR provided relevant information regarding the true extent of the disease, but MR was superior in demonstrating unequivocally the vascular nature of the lesions. (orig.)

  16. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-06-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  17. Preventing intra-urethral migration of a guidewire during antegrade placement of a JJ stent: a technical modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ankur; Gupta, Piyush; Dalela, Disha; Dalela, Diwakar

    2016-03-07

    A JJ stent is usually inserted in antegrade fashion after percutaneous renal surgery. We describe a new technical modification for antegrade stent insertion that prevents intraoperative intra-urethral migration of the guidewire and saves operative time and cost. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei

    2015-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA

  19. Profunda Anchor Technique for Ipsilateral Antegrade Approach in Endovascular Treatment of Superficial Femoral Artery Ostial Occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei, E-mail: druei@yahoo.com [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2015-04-15

    Endovascular treatment of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) is challenging in the presence of flush ostial occlusion. One of the main challenges is the availability of access sites for intervention. Contralateral retrograde femoral access followed by cross-over and antegrade intervention while commonly used, may not be feasible in cases of altered iliac anatomy (e.g. kissing iliac stents). Ipsilateral antegrade intervention using common femoral artery (CFA) access in these instances while possible is typically challenging due to inadequate working length of the CFA for interrogation of the SFA ostium, compounded by the lack of sheath stability. The “profunda anchor” technique uses a buddy wire in the profunda femoris artery (PFA) to stabilize the sheath and allow catheter manipulation for antegrade intervention at the level of the SFA ostium. The PFA is further used as a conduit for deployment of closure device to avoid interference with the treated SFA.

  20. The Malone antegrade continence enema for neurogenic and structural fecal incontinence and constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyle, M A; Kaji, D M; Duque, M; Wild, J; Galansky, S H

    1995-08-01

    Problems of fecal elimination are commonly encountered by the pediatric urologist and surgeon. The Malone antegrade continence enema has been described as a means to administer a large volume enema via a continent catheterizable appendicocecostomy, resulting in reliable fecal elimination. Of 22 patients undergoing this procedure 16 reported total continence 4 months or longer after surgery. Complications are relatively minor and tap water appears to be a safe solution for the antegrade continence enema. A nonrefluxing, imbricated appendicocecostomy is preferable to prevent cutaneous fecal or gas leaks.

  1. Luminance requirements for lighted signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Narendran, Nadarajah; Bullough, John D.

    2006-08-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is presently targeted to displace traditional light sources in backlighted signage. The literature shows that brightness and contrast are perhaps the two most important elements of a sign that determine its attention-getting capabilities and its legibility. Presently, there are no luminance standards for signage, and the practice of developing brighter signs to compete with signs in adjacent businesses is becoming more commonplace. Sign luminances in such cases may far exceed what people usually need for identifying and reading a sign. Furthermore, the practice of higher sign luminance than needed has many negative consequences, including higher energy use and light pollution. To move toward development of a recommendation for lighted signage, several laboratory human factors evaluations were conducted. A scale model of a storefront was used to present human subjects with a typical red channel-letter sign at luminances ranging from 8 cd/m2 to 1512 cd/m2 under four background luminances typical of nighttime outdoor and daytime inside-mall conditions (1, 100, 300, 1000 cd/m2), from three scaled viewing distances (30, 60, 340 ft), and either in isolation or adjacent to two similar signs. Subjects rated the brightness, acceptability, and ease of reading of the test sign for each combination of sign and background luminances and scaled viewing distances.

  2. Potassium secretion in mammalian distal colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial organs adjust the „inner milieu“ of the body and are crucial for all homeostatic processes. Epithelial transport of different solutes and water is regulated phenomena. The regulation processes include both long term hormonal regulation and short term local agonist mediated regulation....... This research project is the summary of 3 original papers addressing the functional role of different regulating factors on ion transport in mouse distal colon. The first paper addresses the effect of luminal nucleotides on electrogenic Na+ absorption. The distal colon, like the distal nephron is an aldosterone......-sensitive tissue and participates in the regulation of Na+ excretion. In the distal nephron it was found that luminal nucleotides inhibit ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption. Here it was addressed whether luminal nucleotides regulate Na+ absorption and if so, which of the known luminal P2 receptors are involved. Using...

  3. Antegrade balloon dilatation and ureteral stenting for the benign ureteral strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the role of antegrade balloon dilatation and ureteral stenting in benign ureteral strictures. Percutaneous antegrade balloon dilatation was attempted in 46 patients with benign ureteral strictures. The underlying causes of the strictures were urinary tract tuberculosis in 20 patients, congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction in eight, ureteroneocystostomy or ureteroileostomy state in five, postoperative or post-extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy state for ureteral calculi in eight, ureteral injury during surgery in four, and retroperitoneal fibrosis in one. Antegrade balloon dilatation was performed with initial technical success in 43 patients but the procedure was aborted in the remaining three with urinary tract tuberculosis due to the failure in passing a guidewire through the stenotic lesions. Intravenous urograms obtained 4-76 months after the procedure showed improvements in 76% (13/17) with urinary tract tuberculosis, in 63%(5/8) with congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction, in 88%(7/8) with strictures associated with ureteral calculi, and in 100%(4/4) with iatrogenic ureteral injury. The results were relatively poor in strictures of the ureteral anastomosis(1/5) and in ureteral strictures associated with retroperitoneal fibrosis (0/1). Antegrade balloon dilatation of the urinary tract combined with ureteral stenting was an effective technique for the management of the benign ureteral strictures

  4. Surgical thromboendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension using circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Dossche, KM; Morshuis, WJ; Knaepen, PJ; Schepens, MAAM

    The use of circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion is described in a 59-year-old man who underwent thrombendarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The postoperative course was uneventful. The described surgical technique may prevent the patient from

  5. Case series of ante-grade biliary stenting: An option during bile duct exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser Jalal

    Full Text Available Background: Managing choledochotomy after bile duct clearance is an ongoing debate. T-tube insertion is not without complication and morbidity, requires significant post-operative care. Primary closure alone can result in a high pressure biliary system and bile leak. The placement of an ante-grade stent through the choledochotomy prior to primary closure is an option for ensuring biliary drainage after bile duct exploration. We reviewed our series of open bile duct explorations, where an ante-grade stent was placed when managing choledochotomy. Methods: Patients who had ante-grade stent placement, all performed by same senior hepatobiliary surgeon, were identified retrospectively. Case note review was used to gather demographic, complication, length of stay, post-operative clinic visits and readmission data. Results: 22 (M:F, 7:15 patients with a median age of 64 years (22–82. The indication for surgical stone clearance was failed ERCP in 20.2 patients were not suitable for ERCP. The median post-operative stay was 8 days (379 with the abdominal drain remaining for a median of 4 days (137. 16 (73% patients had no complications. 4 (18% had bile leaks, 5 (22% wound infections, 1 (5% cholangitis and 1 (5% pancreatitis. All complications were Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or less. Conclusion: In situations where primary CBD closure is not safe due to concern over high pressure in the biliary tree the placement of ante-grade stent may be preferred to T-tube placement. Keywords: Choledocholithiasis, Ante-grade stenting, Choledochotomy

  6. Virulence of luminous vibrios to Artemia franciscana nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Rodriguez, S A; Roque, A; Lizarraga-Partida, M L; Guerra-Flores, A L; Gomez-Gill, B

    2003-02-27

    From healthy and diseased penaeid shrimp from Asia and the Americas, 25 luminous and 2 non-luminous bacterial strains were isolated, and 14 were phenotypically identified as Vibrio harveyi; 9 isolates produced significant mortalities (45 to 80%) in Artemia franciscana nauplii at inoculation densities of 10(5) to 10(6) CFU ml(-1) compared to the controls (unchallenged nauplii). The maximum number of bacteria ingested (bioencapsulated) by the Artemia nauplii varied from less than 10 to 10(3) CFU nauplius(-1) and no significant relationship was observed between the density of bacteria inoculated, the amount of bacteria ingested, and naupliar mortality. Significant correlations were obtained between naupliar mortality and production of proteases, phospholipases or siderophores, but not between mortality and lipase production, gelatinase production, hydrophobicity or hemolytic activity. The results suggest that virulence of the strains tested was more related to the production of particular exoenzymes than to the measured colonization factors.

  7. A Novel Risk Score in Predicting Failure or Success for Antegrade Approach to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusion: Antegrade CTO Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Serati, Ali Reza; Vakili, Hosein; Safi, Morteza; Parsa, Saeed Ali Pour; Saadat, Habibollah; Taherkhani, Maryam; Emami, Sepideh; Pedari, Shamseddin; Vatanparast, Masoomeh; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    Total occlusion of a coronary artery for more than 3 months is defined as chronic total occlusion (CTO). The goal of this study was to develop a risk score in predicting failure or success during attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO lesions using antegrade approach. This study was based on retrospective analyses of clinical and angiographic characteristics of CTO lesions that were assessed between February 2012 and February 2014. Success rate was defined as passing through occlusion with successful stent deployment using an antegrade approach. A total of 188 patients were studied. Mean ± SD age was 59 ± 9 years. Failure rate was 33%. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, bridging collaterals (OR = 6.7, CI = 1.97-23.17, score = 2), absence of stump (OR = 5.8, CI = 1.95-17.9, score = 2), presence of calcification (OR = 3.21, CI = 1.46-7.07, score = 1), presence of bending (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.28-6.10, score = 1), presence of near side branch (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.08-6.57, score = 1), and absence of retrograde filling (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.03-6.17, score = 1) were independent predictors of PCI failure. A score of 7 or more was associated with 100% failure rate whereas a score of 2 or less was associated with over 80% success rate. Most factors associated with failure of CTO-PCI are related to lesion characteristics. A new risk score (range 0-8) is developed to predict CTO-PCI success or failure rate during antegrade approach as a guide before attempting PCI of CTO lesions.

  8. Treatment of varicocele: a prospective randomized comparison of laparoscopy versus antegrade sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, T; Sulser, T; Suter, St; Gretener, H; Hauri, D

    2002-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic success, the morbidity and the costs of antegrade sclerotherapy versus laparoscopic varicocelectomy. Seventy-six consecutive varicocele patients were randomly assigned to two treatment arms. Preoperative and 3 month postoperative sperm density, motility and morphology were analysed. The diagnosis of the varicocele was established clinically and with Doppler ultrasonography. Fifty-eight patients treated by either of the two methods were followed up. The recurrence rate increased progressively with the size of the varicocele in both groups. The postoperative incidence of complications particularly hydrocele formation was significantly higher in the laparoscopic group. The costs of the disposable material for laparoscopic varicocelectomy was twice as high as for sclerotherapy. Antegrade sclerotherapy is the less invasive treatment method of male varicocele with lower costs and better outcome and should therefore be the preferred treatment method for male varicocele.

  9. Retrograde or antegrade double-pigtail stent placement for malignant ureteric obstruction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthappa, M.C.; Cowan, N.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimum approach for double-pigtail stent placement in malignant ureteric obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrograde stent placement was attempted in a consecutive series of patients presenting with malignant ureteric obstruction. If retrograde stent placement was unsuccessful, percutaneous nephrostomy was performed immediately followed by elective antegrade stent placement. Identical digital C-arm fluoroscopy for image-guidance and conditions for anaesthesia and analgesia were employed for both retrograde and antegrade procedures. Identical 8 Fr (20-26 cm) double-pigtail hydrophilic coated stents were used for each approach. RESULTS: Retrograde placement was attempted in 50 ureters in 30 patients {19 male, 11 female, average age 61.4 yr (range 29-90 yr)} over a 24-month period. The success rate for retrograde ureteric stent placement was 50% (n=25/50). Technical failures were due to failure to identify the ureteric orifice (n=22), failure to cross the stricture (n=1), failure to pass the stent (n=1) and failure to pass a 4 Fr catheter (n=1). Antegrade placement was attempted in 25 ureters with a success rate of 96% (n=24/25). Failure in the one case was due to inability to cross an upper third stricture secondary to pyeloureteritis cystica. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that retrograde route should be the initial approach if imaging shows no involvement of ureteric orifice (UO), when nephrostomy is technically very difficult or in cases of solitary kidney. The antegrade route is preferred if imaging shows tumour occlusion of the UO or if there is a tight stricture very close to the uretero-vesical junction (UVJ) making purchase within the ureter difficult for crossing the stricture

  10. Primary antegrade ureteric stenting: Prospective experience and cost-effectiveness analysis in 50 ureters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Gillian M.T.; Patel, Uday

    2001-07-01

    AIM: To evaluate the success rate and cost efficiency of primary antegrade ureteric stenting (antegrade ureteric stent insertion as a single procedure without preliminary drainage). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A policy of primary stenting was tested in 38 patients (50 ureters) with obstructive hydronephrosis, of acute or chronic onset and of benign or malignant origin. Patients with suspected pyonephrosis were excluded. Patients successfully primarily stented (group 1) were compared to a group stented as a traditional two-stage procedure (group 2). End point assessments were screening time, equipment used, procedure-related costs, bed occupancy and technical and clinical success rate. Using these cost and outcome measures, a cost-efficiency analysis was performed comparing the two strategies. RESULTS: 40/50 (80%) ureters were considered primary stent successes. The average procedure-related bed occupancy was 2 days (range 1-2 days). Simple equipment alone was successful in 16 cases. Van Andel dilatation catheters and peel-away sheaths were frequently used (23 ureters). Expensive equipment was rarely necessary (four cases) and average extra equipment cost was small (46 pounds/case). The mean screening time was similar for the two groups (13.5 min vs 15.3 min;P {>=} 0.05). There was a minimum saving of 800 pounds per successful primary stent. The cost-effectiveness of a primary antegrade stenting strategy was 1229 pounds vs 2093 pounds for secondary stenting. CONCLUSION: In carefully selected patients, the majority of obstructed ureters can be primarily stented using simple equipment. The reduced hospital stay and overall success rate significantly improves the cost competitiveness of antegrade ureteric stenting. Watson, G.M.T. and Patel, U. (2001)

  11. Comparison of Ultrasound-Guided and Fluoroscopy-Assisted Antegrade Common Femoral Artery Puncture Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, Michael M.; Goh, Gerard S.; Power, Sarah; Given, Mark F.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare the procedural time and complication rates of ultrasound-guided and fluoroscopy-assisted antegrade common femoral artery (CFA) puncture techniques.Materials and MethodsHundred consecutive patients, undergoing a vascular procedure for which an antegrade approach was deemed necessary/desirable, were randomly assigned to undergo either ultrasound-guided or fluoroscopy-assisted CFA puncture. Time taken from administration of local anaesthetic to vascular sheath insertion in the superficial femoral artery (SFA), patients’ age, body mass index (BMI), fluoroscopy radiation dose, haemostasis method and immediate complications were recorded. Mean and median values were calculated and statistically analysed with unpaired t tests.ResultsSixty-nine male and 31 female patients underwent antegrade puncture (mean age 66.7 years). The mean BMI was 25.7 for the ultrasound-guided (n = 53) and 25.3 for the fluoroscopy-assisted (n = 47) groups. The mean time taken for the ultrasound-guided puncture was 7 min 46 s and for the fluoroscopy-assisted technique was 9 min 41 s (p = 0.021). Mean fluoroscopy dose area product in the fluoroscopy group was 199 cGy cm{sup 2}. Complications included two groin haematomas in the ultrasound-guided group and two retroperitoneal haematomas and one direct SFA puncture in the fluoroscopy-assisted group.ConclusionUltrasound-guided technique is faster and safer for antegrade CFA puncture when compared to the fluoroscopic-assisted technique alone.

  12. Comparison of clinical outcomes between luminal invasive ductal carcinoma and luminal invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yayoi; Ishiguro, Junko; Kotani, Haruru; Hisada, Tomoka; Ichikawa, Mari; Gondo, Naomi; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Kondo, Naoto; Hattori, Masaya; Sawaki, Masataka; Fujita, Takashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Hiroji

    2016-03-25

    The pathological and clinical features of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) differ from those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Several studies have indicated that patients with ILC have a better prognosis than those with ductal carcinoma. However, no previous study has considered the molecular subtypes and histological subtypes of ILC. We compared prognosis between IDC and classical, luminal type ILC and developed prognostic factors for early breast cancer patients with classical luminal ILC. Four thousand one hundred ten breast cancer patients were treated at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital from 2003 to 2012. We identified 1,661 cases with luminal IDC and 105 cases with luminal classical ILC. We examined baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and prognostic factors of luminal ILC. The prognosis of luminal ILC was significantly worse than that of luminal IDC. The rates of 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 91.9% and 88.4% for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC, respectively (P = 0.008). The rates of 5-year overall survival (OS) were 97.6% and 93.1% for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC respectively (P = 0.030). Although we analyzed prognosis according to stratification by tumor size, luminal ILC tended to have worse DFS than luminal IDC in the large tumor group. In addition, although our analysis was performed according to matching lymph node status, luminal ILC had a significantly worse DFS and OS than luminal IDC in node-positive patients. Survival curves showed that the prognosis for ILC became worse than IDC over time. Multivariate analysis showed that ILC was an important factor related to higher risk of recurrence of luminal type breast cancer, even when tumor size, lymph node status and histological grade were considered. Luminal ILC had worse outcomes than luminal IDC. Consequently, different treatment approaches should be used for luminal ILC than for luminal IDC.

  13. Endoscopic dilation of complete oesophageal obstructions with a combined antegrade-retrograde rendezvous technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Reto; Meyenberger, Christa; Putora, Paul Martin; Albrecht, Franziska; Broglie, Martina Anja; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Sulz, Michael Christian

    2016-02-21

    To investigate the combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic rendezvous technique for complete oesophageal obstruction and the swallowing outcome. This single-centre case series includes consecutive patients who were unable to swallow due to complete oesophageal obstruction and underwent combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic dilation (CARD) within the last 10 years. The patients' demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, endoscopic therapy, adverse events, and outcomes were obtained retrospectively. Technical success was defined as effective restoration of oesophageal patency. Swallowing success was defined as either percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-tube independency and/or relevant improvement of oral food intake, as assessed by the functional oral intake scale (FOIS) (≥ level 3). The cohort consisted of six patients [five males; mean age 71 years (range, 54-74)]. All but one patient had undergone radiotherapy for head and neck or oesophageal cancer. Technical success was achieved in five out of six patients. After discharge, repeated dilations were performed in all five patients. During follow-up (median 27 mo, range, 2-115), three patients remained PEG-tube dependent. Three of four patients achieved relevant improvement of swallowing (two patients: FOIS 6, one patient: FOIS 7). One patient developed mediastinal emphysema following CARD, without a need for surgery. The CARD technique is safe and a viable alternative to high-risk blind antegrade dilation in patients with complete proximal oesophageal obstruction. Although only half of the patients remained PEG-tube independent, the majority improved their ability to swallow.

  14. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and antegrade biliary stenting: Leaving behind the Kehr tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Martínez-Baena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: single-stage laparoscopic surgery of cholelithiasis and associated common bile duct stones (CL-CBDS has shown similar results when compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with ERCP. Classically, choledochorrhaphy has been protected by a T-tube drain to allow external bypass of bile flow. However, its removal is associated with a significant complication rate. Use of antegrade biliary stents avoids T-tube removal associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to compare the results of choledochorrhaphy plus T-tube drainage versus antegrade biliary stenting in our series of laparoscopic common bile duct explorations (LCBDE. Material and methods: between 2004 and 2011, 75 patients underwent a LCBDE. Choledochorrhaphy was performed following Kehr tube placements in 47 cases and transpapillary biliary stenting was conducted in the remaining 28 patients. Results: postoperative hospital stay was shorter in the stent group (5 ± 10.26 days than in the Kehr group (12 ± 10.6 days, with a statistically significant difference. There was a greater trend to grade B complications in the stent group (10.7 vs. 4.3 % and to grade C complications in the Kehr group (6.4 vs. 3.6 %. There were 3 cases of residual common bile duct stones in the Kehr group (6.4 % and none in the stent group. Conclusions: antegrade biliary stenting following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for CL-CBDS is an effective and safe technique that prevents T-tube related morbidity.

  15. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures using antegrade nailing: functional outcome in the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Juan Martin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder outcomes and function after humeral shaft fractures treated with antegrade nailing. Thirty patients with acute humeral shaft fractures who underwent antegrade locked intramedullary nailing were retrospectively studied. Range of motion (ROM) of the affected shoulder was evaluated, comparing it with the nonaffected shoulder, radiologic position of the nails, complications, and need for a second surgery. The study enrolled 20 men and 10 women (average age, 41.9 years). The average follow-up was 35.8 months. The average shoulder elevation averaged 157°, internal rotation was variable (reaching the sacroiliac joint to T7), and external rotation averaged 75°. Elbow flexion-extension ROM averaged 133° (115°-145°). According to the Rodriguez-Merchan criteria, 12 patients achieved excellent results (40%), 7 good (20%), and 6 fair (23.3%); poor results were found in 5 cases (16.6%). Twelve patients achieved full mobility of the shoulder, whereas 18 had some loss of motion, with significant differences between the affected and nonaffected shoulders (P = .001). Decreased shoulder ROM is common after antegrade nailing of humeral shaft fractures. Avoidance of nail impingement can improve final outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The luminous and the grey

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, David

    2014-01-01

    Color surrounds us: the lush green hues of trees and grasses, the variant blues of water and the sky, the bright pops of yellow and red from flowers. But at the same time, color lies at the limits of language and understanding. In this absorbing sequel to Chromophobia-which addresses the extremes of love and loathing provoked by color since antiquity-David Batchelor charts color's more ambiguous terrain.   The Luminous and the Grey explores the places where color comes into being and where it fades away, probing when it begins and when it ends both in the imagination and in the material world.

  17. Does antegrade JJ stenting affect the total operative time during laparoscopic pyeloplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Çınar, Önder; Akdeniz, Ekrem

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to show the effect of retrograde JJ stenting and intraoperative antegrade JJ stenting techniques on operative time in patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty. A total of 34 patients were retrospectively investigated (15 male and 19 female) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Of the patients stentized under local anesthesia preoperatively, as a part of surgery, 15 were retrogradely stentized at the beginning of the procedure (Group 1), and 19 were antegradely stentized during the procedure (Group 2). A transperitoneal dismembered pyeloplasty technique was performed in all patients. The two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of complications, the mean total operative time, and the mean stenting times. The mean ages of the patients were 31.5±15.5 and 33.2±15.5 years (p=0.09), and the mean body mass indexes were 25.8±5.6 and 26.2.3±8.4 kg/m 2 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mean total operative times were 128.9±38.9 min and 112.7±21.9 min (p=0.04); the mean stenting times were 12.6±5.4 min and 3.5±2.4 min (p=0.02); and the mean rates of catheterization-to-total surgery times were 0.1 and 0.03 (p=0.01) in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean hospital stays and the mean anastomosis times were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). Antegrade JJ stenting during laparoscopic pyeloplasty significantly decreased the total operative time.

  18. Antegrade bowel intussusception after remote Whipple and Puestow procedures for treatment of pancreas divisum

    OpenAIRE

    Gigena, Manuel; Villar, Hugo V; Knowles, Negar G; Cunningham, John T; Outwater, Erik K; Leon Jr, Luis R

    2007-01-01

    To date, antegrade intussusception involving a Roux-en-Y reconstruction has been reported only once. We report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to an intussusception involving two Roux-en-Y limbs in a 40-year-old woman with a history of chronic pancreatitis due to pancreas divisum. Four years preceding this event, the patient had undergone a Whipple procedure, and three years prior to that, a Puestow operation. The patient was successfully treated with bowel resection and a side-to-side ...

  19. Antegrade bowel intussusception after remote Whipple and Puestow procedures for treatment of pancreas divisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigena, Manuel; Villar, Hugo V; Knowles, Negar G; Cunningham, John T; Outwater, Erik K; Leon, Luis R

    2007-11-28

    To date, antegrade intussusception involving a Roux-en-Y reconstruction has been reported only once. We report a case of acute bowel obstruction due to an intussusception involving two Roux-en-Y limbs in a 40-year-old woman with a history of chronic pancreatitis due to pancreas divisum. Four years preceding this event, the patient had undergone a Whipple procedure, and three years prior to that, a Puestow operation. The patient was successfully treated with bowel resection and a side-to-side anastomosis between the most distal aspect of the bowel and the most distal Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which preserved both Roux-en-Y reconstructions.

  20. Intraoperative bowel irrigation improves anastomotic collagen metabolism in the left-sided colonic obstruction but not covering colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraker, N; Bender, O; Memişoğlu, K; Yalçiner, A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of intraoperative colonic irrigation and proximal diverting end colostomy after segmental bowel resection in experimental left-colonic obstruction on anastomotic healing. Simple obstruction of descending colon was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 24 h we performed segmental colonic resection and anastomosis in the control group (n = 15); resection, anastomosis, and covering colostomy in the colostomy group (n = 14); resection and anastomosis after antegrade colonic lavage through cecum by using isotonic saline solution in the irrigation group (n = 13). In rats that were killed 7 days later anastomotic dehiscence and bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration at the anastomosis were measured. No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of anastomotic dehiscence, bursting site, or pressure. The hydroxyproline concentration was significantly higher in the irrigation group than the control group (P = 0.025) and the colostomy group (P = 0.029), but no difference was noted between the control group and the colostomy group. These findings suggest that intraoperative antegrade colonic irrigation in the acute left-sided colonic obstruction positively affects collagen metabolism at the anastomotic site; if the anastomosis is performed without bowel cleansing, covering colostomy does not improve collagen metabolism.

  1. Comparison of clinical outcomes between luminal invasive ductal carcinoma and luminal invasive lobular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yayoi; Ishiguro, Junko; Kotani, Haruru; Hisada, Tomoka; Ichikawa, Mari; Gondo, Naomi; Yoshimura, Akiyo; Kondo, Naoto; Hattori, Masaya; Sawaki, Masataka; Fujita, Takashi; Kikumori, Toyone; Yatabe, Yasushi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Hiroji

    2016-01-01

    The pathological and clinical features of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) differ from those of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Several studies have indicated that patients with ILC have a better prognosis than those with ductal carcinoma. However, no previous study has considered the molecular subtypes and histological subtypes of ILC. We compared prognosis between IDC and classical, luminal type ILC and developed prognostic factors for early breast cancer patients with classical luminal ILC. Four thousand one hundred ten breast cancer patients were treated at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital from 2003 to 2012. We identified 1,661 cases with luminal IDC and 105 cases with luminal classical ILC. We examined baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and prognostic factors of luminal ILC. The prognosis of luminal ILC was significantly worse than that of luminal IDC. The rates of 5-year disease free survival (DFS) were 91.9 % and 88.4 % for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC, respectively (P = 0.008). The rates of 5-year overall survival (OS) were 97.6 % and 93.1 % for patients with luminal IDC and luminal ILC respectively (P = 0.030). Although we analyzed prognosis according to stratification by tumor size, luminal ILC tended to have worse DFS than luminal IDC in the large tumor group. In addition, although our analysis was performed according to matching lymph node status, luminal ILC had a significantly worse DFS and OS than luminal IDC in node-positive patients. Survival curves showed that the prognosis for ILC became worse than IDC over time. Multivariate analysis showed that ILC was an important factor related to higher risk of recurrence of luminal type breast cancer, even when tumor size, lymph node status and histological grade were considered. Luminal ILC had worse outcomes than luminal IDC. Consequently, different treatment approaches should be used for luminal ILC than for luminal IDC. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885

  2. Colon interposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolauri, J.; Tampere Univ. Central Hospital; Paakkala, T.; Arajaervi, P.; Markkula, H.

    1987-01-01

    Colon interposition was carried out in 12 patients with oesophageal carcinoma and on 38 patients with benign oesophageal disease an average of 71 months before the radiographic examination. Various ischaemic changes including 'jejunization', loss of haustration and stricture formation were observed in 15 cases. In 12 patients one or several diverticula were seen in the colon graft. Reflux was observed in 17 cases in supine position. Double contrast technique in the examination of interposed colon is recommended. (orig.)

  3. Tips and tricks for antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions using the CrossBoss catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tak W; Diwan, Ravi; Ratcliffe, Justin A; Huang, Yili; Patri, Rahul; James, David; Liou, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Young, Bruce; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Daggubati, Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    To provide new strategies and techniques for the successful recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with the sole use of the CrossBoss catheter. In addition, some common CTO scenarios are illustrated in detail. CTOs are one of the most challenging complex coronary lesion subsets to intervene upon. Even with the innovation of specialized catheters, the success rate of antegrade recanalization remains low. Between June and December 2013, a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients who presented with a planned percutaneous intervention (PCI) of a CTO was performed. In all patients, the CrossBoss catheter was used. No additional reentry devices were necessary. Procedural success was defined as failure. The average fluoroscopy time was 45.9 minutes and the average amount of contrast use was 273.8 mL. No patient suffered a coronary perforation from the CrossBoss catheter. With increased experience using the CrossBoss catheter, the antegrade success rate of CTOs can be improved. Some tips include identifying the likely course of the artery with the aid of retrograde injection, proper guidewire selection and manipulation, and redirecting the CrossBoss catheter if there is substantial deviation from the original path.

  4. Colonic lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, M.S.; Khatri, A.R.; Quraishy, M.S.; Fatima, L.; Muzaffar, S.

    2003-01-01

    Lipoma of the colon is rare and may lead to intestinal obstruct. We have presented two cases of colonic lipoma. Both were elderly females, one presented with diarrhea and the other with sub-acute intestinal obstruction. After colonoscopy surgical removal was done. Histopathology revealed lipoma. (author)

  5. Colonic angiodysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, C.; Legmann, P.; Garnier, T.; Levesque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The main clinical, endoscopic and radiographic findings in thirty documented cases of colonic angiodysplasia or vacular ectasia are described. We emphasise the association with colonic diverticulosis and cardiovascular pathology, describe the histological changes, summarize the present physiopathological hypothesis, and consider the various therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  6. Colonic locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodou, D.

    2006-01-01

    The most effective screening method for colonic cancer is colonoscopy. However, colonoscopy cannot be easily embraced by the population because of the related pain intensity. Robotic devices that pull themselves forward through the colon are a possible alternative. The main challenge for such

  7. Functional Outcome After Antegrade Femoral Nailing : A Comparison of Trochanteric Fossa Versus Tip of Greater Trochanter Entry Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moein, Chloe Ansari; ten Duis, Henk-Jan; Oey, Liam; de Kort, Gerard; van der Meulen, Wout; Vermeulen, Karin; van der Werken, Christiaan

    Objectives: This study was performed to explore the relationship between entry point-related soft tissue damage in antegrade femoral nailing and the functional outcome in patients with a proximal third femoral shaft fracture. Design: Retrospective clinical trial. Setting: Level I university trauma

  8. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho [Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter.

  9. Retrograde endovenous laser ablation through saphenopopliteal junctional area for incompetent small saphenous vein; Comparison with antegrade approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Seok; Park, Sang Woo; Yun, Ik Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Song Am; Chee, Hyun Keun; Hwang, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retrograde endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and to compare it with the conventional antegrade EVLA for incompetent small saphenous vein (SSV). Small saphenous vein was cannulated via two approaches under ultrasound-guidance. One method involved puncturing the SSV cranially at mid-calf (the antegrade group). If the antegrade puncture into the SSV failed twice, the other approach for puncture was selected that involved puncturing the SSV toward the ankle (the retrograde group). Patients were evaluated in terms of technical and clinical success, closure rates of the SSV, and complications including pain, bruising, or paresthesia at all follow-up visits. The 1470 nm endovenous laser was used in all limbs. Technical success was seen in all limbs in both groups (100%). Closure rate in both groups showed about 95%, without significant difference (p = 0.685). Similar linear endovenous energy density was supplied during the EVLA in both groups (p = 0.876). Three frequent complications including bruising, pain, and paresthesia did not show statistical significance between groups (p = 0.465, 0.823, 1.000, respectively). Major complications were absent in both groups. The EVLA for the incompetent SSV using a retrograde approach is safe and effective and should be considered the alternative method if the antegrade access fails due to vasospasm or small SSV diameter

  10. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  11. Daylight calculations using constant luminance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betman, E. [CRICYT, Mendoza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to manually estimate daylight availability and to make daylight calculations using constant luminance curves calculated with local illuminance and irradiance data and the all-weather model for sky luminance distribution developed in the Atmospheric Science Research Center of the University of New York (ARSC) by Richard Perez et al. Work with constant luminance curves has the advantage that daylight calculations include the problem's directionality and preserve the information of the luminous climate of the place. This permits accurate knowledge of the resource and a strong basis to establish conclusions concerning topics related to the energy efficiency and comfort in buildings. The characteristics of the proposed method are compared with the method that uses the daylight factor. (author)

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE MOST LUMINOUS DUSTY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedman, Daniel W.; Houck, James R.

    2009-01-01

    A summary of mid-infrared continuum luminosities arising from dust is given for very luminous galaxies, L IR > 10 12 L sun , with 0.005 0.7 in the 9.7 μm silicate absorption feature (i.e., half of the continuum is absorbed) and having equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature ν (8 μm) for the most luminous obscured AGNs is found to scale as (1+z) 2.6 to z = 2.8. For unobscured AGNs, the scaling with redshift is similar, but luminosities νL ν (8 μm) are approximately three times greater for the most luminous sources. Using both obscured and unobscured AGNs having total infrared fluxes from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, empirical relations are found between νL ν (8 μm) and L IR . Combining these relations with the redshift scaling of luminosity, we conclude that the total infrared luminosities for the most luminous obscured AGNs, L IR (AGN obscured ) in L sun , scale as log L IR (AGN obscured ) = 12.3 ± 0.25 + 2.6(±0.3)log(1+z), and for the most luminous unobscured AGNs, scale as log L IR (AGN1) = 12.6(±0.15) + 2.6(±0.3)log(1+z). We previously determined that the most luminous starbursts scale as log L IR (SB) = 11.8 ± 0.3 + 2.5(±0.3)log(1+z), indicating that the most luminous AGNs are about 10 times more luminous than the most luminous starbursts. Results are consistent with obscured and unobscured AGNs having the same total luminosities with differences arising only from orientation, such that the obscured AGNs are observed through very dusty clouds which extinct about 50% of the intrinsic luminosity at 8 μm. Extrapolations of observable f ν (24 μm) to z = 6 are made using evolution results for these luminous sources. Both obscured and unobscured AGNs should be detected to z ∼ 6 by Spitzer surveys with f ν (24 μm) > 0.3 mJy, even without luminosity evolution for z > 2.5. By contrast, the most luminous starbursts cannot be detected for z > 3, even if luminosity evolution continues beyond z = 2.5.

  13. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing.

  14. The female geriatric proximal humeral fracture: protagonist for straight antegrade nailing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Kralinger, Franz S; Kapferer, Sebastian; Hengg, Clemens; Wambacher, Markus; Euler, Simon A

    2017-10-01

    Straight antegrade humeral nailing (SAHN) has become a standard technique for the surgical fixation of proximal humeral fractures, which predominantly affect elderly females. The nail's proximal anchoring point has been demonstrated to be critical to ensure reliable fixation in osteoporotic bone and to prevent iatrogenic damage to the superior rotator cuff bony insertion. Anatomical variations of the proximal humerus, however, may preclude satisfactory anchoring of the nail's proximal end and may bare the risk of rotator cuff violation, even though the nail is inserted as recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical suitability of proximal humeri of geriatric females aged 75 years and older for SAHN. Specifically, we sought to assess the proportion of humeri not anatomically amenable to SAHN for proximal humeral fracture. A total of 303 proximal humeri of 241 females aged 75 years and older (mean age 84.5 ± 5.0 years; range 75-102 years) were analyzed for this study. Multiplanar two-dimensional reformations (true ap, true lateral, and axial) were reconstructed from shoulder computed tomography (CT) data sets. The straight antegrade nail's ideal entry point, "critical point" (CP), and critical distance (CD; distance between ideal entry point and CP) were determined. The rate of proximal humeri not anatomically suitable for SAHN (critical type) was assessed regarding proximal reaming diameters of currently available straight antegrade humeral nails. Overall, 35.6% (108/303) of all proximal humeri were found to be "critical types" (CD straight antegrade nails currently in use. Moreover, 43.2% (131/303) of the humeri were considered "critical types" with regard to the alternatively used larger proximal reaming diameter of 11.5 mm. Mean CD was 9.0 ± 1.7 mm (range 3.5-13.5 mm) and did not correlate with age (r = -0.04, P = 0.54). No significant differences in CD and rate of "critical types" were found between left and right humeri

  15. Hybrid aortic repair with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castro-Madrazo, José Antonio; Rivas-Domínguez, Margarita; Fernández-Prendes, Carlota; Zanabili Al-Sibbai, Amer; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR. At three-year follow up, the patient is free of intervention-related complications.

  16. Peri-colonic haematoma following routine colonoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Felicity Page; Olfunso Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We present a case of an extra-luminal haematoma following routine colonoscopy. This case highlights an uncommon but potentially life threatening complication in which there is little published literature to date. Presentation of case: A 73 year old male presented with abdominal pain and a reduction in haemoglobin following an uneventful colonoscopy. The imaging had been required as part of colorectal cancer follow up. Initial differential diagnosis included colonic perforatio...

  17. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  18. Hypothermia and Selective Antegrade Cerebral Perfusion Is Safe for Arch Repair in Type A Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, W Brent; Leshnower, Bradley G; Hunting, John C; Binongo, Jose; Chen, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    Unilateral selective antegrade cerebral perfusion with moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest has been shown to be a safe and effective method of cerebral protection during surgery for acute type A dissection. This study evaluates the impact of this cerebral protection strategy on clinical outcomes after extended aortic arch reconstruction in patients undergoing emergent repair of acute type A dissection. A retrospective review from 2004 to 2016 at a US academic center of patients undergoing surgery for acute type A dissections using moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion was performed. Patient data were abstracted from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) institutional database and patient charts. Cohorts were established based on extent of arch replacement: a hemiarch group and a transverse arch group were created. Owing to a dearth of events, a risk score was estimated using a logistic regression model with 30-day mortality as outcome and preoperative variables as predictors, including non-STS variables such as malperfusion. Postoperative outcomes were then adjusted in subsequent regression analyses for the estimated risk score. In all, 342 patients met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis (299 hemiarch, 43 transverse arch). The mean age was 55.4 years and not different between groups (p = 0.79). Preoperative comorbidities, including prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, and renal failure, were also similar between groups (p > 0.2). Inhospital mortality was 11.7% for the entire cohort (11.7% hemiarch, 9.3% transverse arch; p = 0.60), and the permanent stroke rate was 7.3% (7.7% hemiarch, 4.3% transverse arch; p = 0.47). Median circulatory arrest time was 38.9 ± 19.2 minutes (35.0 ± 13.2 hemiarch, 65.1 ± 30.1 transverse arch; p optimal strategy for cerebral protection in this acute setting. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is the Routine Check Nephrostogram Following Percutaneous Antegrade Ureteric Stent Placement Necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, Keng Chuan; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; MM Htoo, Austin; HG Lo, Richard; Lin, Shueh En

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to review our experience with percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent (PAUS) placement and to determine if the routinely conducted check nephrostogram on the day following ureteric stent placement was necessary. Retrospective review of patients who had undergone PAUS placement between January 2004 and December 2005 was performed. There were 83 subjects (36 males, 47 females), with a mean age of 59.9 years (range, 22-94 years). Average follow-up duration was 7.1 months (range, 1-24 months). The most common indications for PAUS placement were ureteric obstruction due to metastatic disease (n = 56) and urinary calculi (n = 34). Technical success was 93.2% (96/103 attempts), with no major immediate procedure-related complications or mortalities. The Bard 7Fr Urosoft DJ Stent was used in more than 95% of the cases. Eighty-one of 89 (91.0%) check nephrostograms demonstrated a patent ureteric stent with resultant safety catheter removal. Three check nephrostograms revealed distal stent migration requiring repositioning by a goose-snare, while five others showed stent occlusion necessitating permanent external drainage by nephrostomy drainage catheter reinsertion. Following PAUS placement, the serum creatinine level improved or stabilized in 82% of patients. The serum creatinine outcome difference between the groups with benign and malignant indications for PAUS placement was not statistically significant (p = 0.145) but resolution of hydronephrosis was significantly better (p = 0.008) in patients with benign indications. Percutaneous antegrade ureteric stent placement is a safe and effective means of relief for ureteric obstruction. The check nephrostogram following ureteric stent placement was unnecessary in the majority of patients

  20. Dietary heme induces instantaneous oxidative stress but delayed cytotoxicity and compensatory hyperproliferation in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Rijnierse, A.; Wit, de Nicole; Boekschoten, Mark; Dekker, Jan; Schonewille, Arjan; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2013-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is compensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells, which was induced by a

  1. Research on the calibration methods of the luminance parameter of radiation luminance meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weihai; Huang, Biyong; Lin, Fangsheng; Li, Tiecheng; Yin, Dejin; Lai, Lei

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces standard diffusion reflection white plate method and integrating sphere standard luminance source method to calibrate the luminance parameter. The paper compares the effects of calibration results by using these two methods through principle analysis and experimental verification. After using two methods to calibrate the same radiation luminance meter, the data obtained verifies the testing results of the two methods are both reliable. The results show that the display value using standard white plate method has fewer errors and better reproducibility. However, standard luminance source method is more convenient and suitable for on-site calibration. Moreover, standard luminance source method has wider range and can test the linear performance of the instruments.

  2. Study on the Influence Factors of the Luminous Intensity of the Long Afterglow Luminous Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the time afterglow luminous powder, enhancement the brightness of luminous paint, this study explore affect long afterglow energy storage luminous paints brightness of the main factors. Luminous paints were prepared with rare earth aluminate long afterglow luminescent powder, first is luminous powder surface modification, then investigate the influence of light emitting powder content, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, nano alumina and other fillers on the luminescent properties of the paints. It was concluded that the water resistance of the luminescent powder is better and the brightness can be improved after the modification of anhydrous alcohol. The addition of nano-alumina can improve the brightness of the system, and can effectively enhance the hardness of the paints. In the paints, the two kinds of components of carbonate and titanium dioxide have little effect on the luminescent brightness of the painting.

  3. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail: guevarac@mir.wustl.edu; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail: elhilala@mir.wustl.edu; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: darcym@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  4. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  5. The Use of ExoSeal Vascular Closure Device for Direct Antegrade Superficial Femoral Artery Puncture Site Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, Uri, E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Khaitovich, Boris, E-mail: borislena@012.net.il [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Yakubovich, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Yakubovitch@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Bensaid, Paul, E-mail: paulbensaid@hotmail.com; Golan, Gil, E-mail: gilgolan201@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Silverberg, Daniel, E-mail: Daniel.Silverberg@sheba.health.gov.il [Tel-Aviv University, Vascular Surgery Department, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Affiliated to the Sackler School of Medicine (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of the ExoSeal vascular closure device (VCD) to achieve hemostasis in antegrade access of the superficial femoral artery (SFA).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the outcome of ExoSeal VCD used for hemostasis in 110 accesses to the SFA in 93 patients between July 2011 and July 2013. All patients had patent proximal SFA based on computer tomography angiography or ultrasound duplex. Arterial calcifications at puncture site were graded using fluoroscopy. The SFA was accessed in an antegrade fashion with ultrasound or fluoroscopic guidance. In all patients, 5–7F vascular sheaths were used. The ExoSeal VCD was applied to achieve hemostasis at the end of the procedure. All patients were clinically examined and had ultrasound duplex exam for any puncture site complications during the 24 h postprocedure.ResultsIn all procedures, the ExoSeal was applied successfully. We did not encounter any device-related technical failure. There were four major complications in four patients (3.6 %): three pseudoaneurysms, which were treated with direct thrombin injection, and one hematoma, which necessitated transfusion of two blood units. All patients with complications were treated with anticoagulation preprocedure or received thrombolytic therapy.ConclusionsThe ExoSeal VCD can be safely used for antegrade puncture of the SFA, with a high procedural success rate (100 %) and a low rate of access site complications (3.6 %)

  6. Dual-energy index value of luminal air in fecal-tagging computed tomography colonography: findings and impact on electronic cleansing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenli; Zhang, Da; Lee, June-Goo; Shirai, Yu; Kim, Se Hyung; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to measure the dual-energy index (DEI) value of colonic luminal air in both phantom and clinical fecal-tagging dual-energy computed tomography (CT) colonography (DE-CTC) images and to demonstrate its impact on dual-energy electronic cleansing. For the phantom study, a custom-ordered colon phantom was scanned by a dual-energy CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash; Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) at two photon energies: 80 and 140 kVp. Before imaging, the phantom was filled with a 300-mL mixture of simulated fecal materials tagged by a nonionic iodinated contrast agent at three contrast concentrations: 20, 40, and 60 mg/mL. Ten regions-of-interest (ROIs) were randomly placed in each of the colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, bony structure, and tagged material in each scan. For the clinical study, 22 DE-CTC (80 and 140 kVp) patient cases were collected, who underwent a low-fiber, low-residue diet bowel preparation and orally administered iodine-based fecal tagging. Twenty ROIs were randomly placed in each of the colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, abdominal soft tissue, and tagged fecal material in each scan. For each ROI, the mean CT values in both 80- and 140-kVp images were measured, and then its DEI was calculated. In the phantom study, the mean DEI values of luminal air were 0.270, 0.298, 0.386, and 0.402 for the four groups of tagging conditions: no tagged material and tagged with three groups of contrast concentrations at 20, 40, and 60 mg/mL. In the clinical study, the mean DEI values were 0.341, -0.012, -0.002, and 0.188 for colonic luminal air, abdominal fat, abdominal soft tissue, and tagged fecal material, respectively. In our study, we observed that the DEI values of colonic luminal air in DE-CTC images (>0.10) were substantially higher than the theoretical value of 0.0063. In addition, the observed DEI values of colonic luminal air were significantly higher than those of soft tissue. These findings have an important

  7. A pocket-sized luminance meter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1964-01-01

    In many case the light technician will feel the want of assessing the luminance of certain surfaces within his field of view in a quick and convenient manner. The measurement need not be very accurate, but it should be carried out with an apparatus so small that it can easily be taken along

  8. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  9. Popliteal versus tibial retrograde access for subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, W R; Yi, M Q; Min, T L; Feng, S N; Xuan, L Z; Xing, J

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to ascertain differences in benefit and effectiveness of popliteal versus tibial retrograde access in subintimal arterial flossing with the antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique. This was a retrospective study of SAFARI-assisted stenting for long chronic total occlusion (CTO) of TASC C and D superficial femoral lesions. 38 cases had superficial femoral artery lesions (23 TASC C and 15 TASC D). All 38 cases underwent SAFARI-assisted stenting. The ipsilateral popliteal artery was retrogradely punctured in 17 patients. A distal posterior tibial (PT) or dorsalis pedis (DP) artery was retrogradely punctured in 21 patients, and 16 of them were punctured after open surgical exposure. SAFARI technical success was achieved in all cases. There was no significant difference in 1-year primary patency (75% vs. 78.9%, p = .86), secondary patency (81.2% vs. 84.2%, p = .91) and access complications (p = 1.00) between popliteal and tibial retrograde access. There was statistical difference in operation time between popliteal (140.1 ± 28.4 min) and tibial retrograde access with PT/DP punctures after surgical vessel exposure (120.4 ± 23.0 min, p = .04). The SAFARI technique is a safe and feasible option for patients with infrainguinal CTO (TASC II C and D). The PT or DP as the retrograde access after surgical vessel exposure is a good choice when using the SAFARI technique. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Perineal colostomy with antegrade continence enemas as an alternative after abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, F; D'Hoore, A; Vanden Bosch, A

    2005-06-01

    Some young and active patients requiring abdominoperineal resection for rectum cancer ask for an alternative of an abdominal colostomy. We analysed the results after a combination of a perineal colostomy and antegrade continence enemas (ACE). Fifteen patients have been operated between 1999 and 2004. Follow-up was >six months in 12 patients with a mean of two years and with a maximum of 55 months. The QLQ-C30 (version 3) and CR 38 questionnaires of the EORTC have been used to evaluate quality of life aspects. Five out of 15 patients presented complications: infection of the caecal conduit (2), small bowel obstruction (1), prolapse of the perineal colostomy (1), eventration (1), urologic complications (2). ACE are still used by all patients. The volume needed was 400 ml and duration of irrigation was 30 minutes (15-45 minutes). The median score for faecal incontinence was 0 ; faecal pseudocontinence was obtained by 7/12 patients. The scores for all aspects of functioning were excellent, as well as the score for body image. The general health status and quality of life were estimated at 75% from normal value. The procedure is simple and can be performed in one operative session. A perineal colostomy with ACE seems to be a valuable and less expensive alternative for an abdominal colostomy, and certainly for total anorectal reconstruction.

  11. Antegrade continence enemas improve quality of life in patients with medically-refractory encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Joseph T; Simha, Sidd; Wild, Laurie C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Ehrlich, Peter F

    2017-05-01

    Fecal incontinence is a socially debilitating problem for many children. We hypothesized that in selected patients with medically-refractory encopresis, placement of an appendicostomy or cecostomy tube for administration of antegrade continence enemas (ACE) would improve quality of life (QOL). We reviewed all patients with encopresis who underwent appendicostomy or cecostomy placement from 2003 to 2014 at our institution. We contacted subjects' parents by phone and administered 3 surveys: a survey reflecting current stooling habits, a disease-specific QOL survey, and the PedsQL™ QOL survey. QOL surveys were completed twice by parents, once reflecting pre-operative QOL, then again reflecting current QOL. Pre-procedure and post-procedure scores were compared by paired t-test. Ten patients underwent appendicostomy/cecostomy for encopresis. Eight completed phone surveys. All procedures were performed laparoscopically. All patients experienced fecal soiling pre-operatively, whereas 5/8 surveyed patients (63%) noted complete resolution of soiling post-procedure (pencopresis, likely related to resolution of soiling. 4. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. After the honeymoon comes divorce: long-term use of the antegrade continence enema procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Pauniaho, Satu-Liisa; Baillie, Colin T; Turnock, Rick R; Coldicutt, Pat; Lamont, Graham L; Kenny, Simon E

    2009-06-01

    Having reported that 18% of children discontinue use of the antegrade continence enema (ACE) after 5 years, we aimed to determine long-term use after an ACE procedure. A postal/telephone questionnaire was conducted. Subjects were consecutive children undergoing an ACE between 1993 and 1999. Outcome measures were use of ACE, reasons for nonuse, complications, and overall satisfaction. Of 84 eligible subjects, data were available on 61 (73%) aged 22.4 years (15.5-35.1 years). Underlying diagnoses included spina bifida (n = 27), anorectal malformations (n = 18), constipation (n = 11), Hirschsprung's disease (n = 1), sacral agenesis (n = 2), and trauma/tumor (n = 2). Follow-up was 11.02 years (8.34-14.39 years). Thirty-six (59%) of 61 patients were still using their ACE. Reasons for nonuse were lack of effectiveness (n = 14), complications (n = 5), psychologic issues (n = 2), and poor compliance (n = 2). There was no association between diagnosis and nonuse (chi(2), P = .63). In those still using ACE, the overall satisfaction score was 4.1 (1-5). Several individuals reported feeling abandoned on becoming adults and losing the support they had in childhood. There is a late "failure" rate for the ACE procedure. However, satisfaction was high among those still using the ACE. This study further emphasizes the need for robust transitional care arrangements.

  13. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Extensive studies on occurrence, distribution and species composition of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea were carried out from various habitats. Luminous bacterial population was by far the highest in the environs of the Arabian Sea...

  14. Dietary heme mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, Noortje; Wit, de Nicole; Muller, Michael; Meer, van der Roelof

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  15. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome

  16. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A., E-mail: stepanovsa@tpu.ru; Yangyang, Ju [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lukash, V. S. [JSC Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, 99a Krasnoarmeyskaja St., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  17. Luminance-based specular gloss characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Leloup, Frédéric; Pointer, Michael R.; Dutré, Philip; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Gloss is a feature of visual appearance that arises from the directionally selective reflection of light incident on a surface. Especially when a distinct reflected image is perceptible, the luminance distribution of the illumination scene above the sample can strongly influence the gloss perception. For this reason, industrial glossmeters do not provide a satisfactory gloss estimation of high-gloss surfaces. In this study, the influence of the conditions of illumination on specular ...

  18. Luminance-based specular gloss characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Frédéric B; Pointer, Michael R; Dutré, Philip; Hanselaer, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Gloss is a feature of visual appearance that arises from the directionally selective reflection of light incident on a surface. Especially when a distinct reflected image is perceptible, the luminance distribution of the illumination scene above the sample can strongly influence the gloss perception. For this reason, industrial glossmeters do not provide a satisfactory gloss estimation of high-gloss surfaces. In this study, the influence of the conditions of illumination on specular gloss perception was examined through a magnitude estimation experiment in which 10 observers took part. A light booth with two light sources was utilized: the mirror image of only one source being visible in reflection by the observer. The luminance of both the reflected image and the adjacent sample surface could be independently varied by separate adjustment of the intensity of the two light sources. A psychophysical scaling function was derived, relating the visual gloss estimations to the measured luminance of both the reflected image and the off-specular sample background. The generalization error of the model was estimated through a validation experiment performed by 10 other observers. In result, a metric including both surface and illumination properties is provided. Based on this metric, improved gloss evaluation methods and instruments could be developed.

  19. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele repair is mainly indicated in young adult patients with clinical palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. Varicocele treatment is associated with a significant improvement in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and pregnancy rate. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS represented one of the main alternatives to the traditional inguinal or suprainguinal surgical ligation. This article reviews the use of ASS for varicocele treatment. We provide a brief overview of the history of the procedure and present our methods used in ASS. In addition, we review complication and success of ASS, including our own retrospective data of treating 674 patients over the last 17 years. Herein, we analyzed step by step the ASS technique and described our results with an original modified technique with a long follow-up. Between December 1997 and December 2014, we performed 674 ASS. Mean operative time was 14 min (range 9 to 50 min. No significant intraoperative complications were reported. Within 90 days from the procedure, postoperative complications were recorded in overall 49 (7.2% patients. No major complications were recorded. A persistent/recurrent varicocele was detected in 40 (5.9% cases. In 32/40 (80% cases, patients showed preoperative grade III varicoceles. In patients with a low sperm number before surgery, sperm count improved from 13 × 10 6 to 21 × 10 6 ml−1 (P < 0.001. The median value of the percentage of progressive motile forms at 1 h improved from 25% to 45% (P < 0.001. Percentage of normal forms increased from 17% before surgery to 35% 1 year after the procedure (P < 0.001. In the subgroup of the 168 infertile patients, 52 (31% fathered offspring at a 12-month-minimum follow-up. Therefore, ASS is an effective minimal invasive treatment for varicocele with low recurrence/persistence rate.

  20. Long-term follow-up of patients after antegrade continence enema procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Anees A; Fishman, Steven J; Bauer, Stuart B; Nurko, Samuel

    2011-05-01

    Antegrade continence enema (ACE) has become an important therapeutic modality in the treatment of intractable constipation and fecal incontinence. There are little data available on the long-term performance of the ACE procedure in children. A retrospective review of patients who underwent the ACE procedure was conducted. Irrigation characteristics and complications were noted. Outcome was assessed for individual encounters based on frequency of bowel movements, incontinence, pain, and predictability. One hundred seventeen patients underwent an ACE. One hundred five patients had at least 6 months of follow-up, and were included in the analysis. Diagnoses included myelodysplasia (39%), functional intractable constipation (26%), anorectal malformations (21%), nonrelaxing internal anal sphincter (7%), cerebral palsy (3%), and other diagnoses (4%). The average follow-up was 68 months (range 7-178 months). At the last follow-up, 69% of patients had successful bowel management. Of the 31% of patients who did not have successful bowel management, 20% were using the ACE despite suboptimal results, 10% required surgical removal, and 2% were not using the ACE because of behavioral opposition to it. Patients were started on normal saline, but were switched to GoLYTELY (PEG-3350 and electrolyte solution) if there was an inadequate response (61% at final encounter). Additives were needed in 34% of patients. The average irrigation dose was 23 ± 0.7 mL/kg. The average toilet sitting time was 51.7 ± 3.5 minutes, with infusions running for 12.1 ± 1.2 minutes. Stomal complications occurred in 63% (infection, leakage, and stenosis) of patients, 33% required surgical revision and 6% eventually required diverting ostomies. Long-term use of the ACE gives successful results in 69% of patients, whereas 63% had a stoma-related complication and 33% required surgical revision of the stoma.

  1. Aortic arch reconstruction: deep and moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, YanWen; Xiao, LiQiong; Yang, Ting; Wang, Lei; Chen, Xin

    2017-07-01

    To compare the effects of moderate and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) during aortic arch surgery in adult patients and to offer the evidence for the detection of the temperature which provides best brain protection in the subjects who accept aortic arch reconstruction surgery. A total of 109 patients undergoing surgery of the aortic arch were divided into the moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest group (Group I) and the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group (Group II). We recorded the data of the patients and their cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aortic clamping time, SACP time and postoperative anesthetized recovery time, tracheal intubation time, time in the intensive care unit (ICU) and postoperative neurologic dysfunction. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups. There were four patients who died in Group II and 1 patient in Group I. There were no significant differences in aortic clamping time of each group (111.4±58.4 vs. 115.9±16.2) min; SACP time (27.4±5.9 vs. 23.5±6.1) min of the moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest group and the deep hypothermic circulatory arrest group; there were significant differences in cardiopulmonary bypass time (207.4±20.9 vs. 263.8±22.6) min, postoperative anesthetized recovery time (19.0±11.1 vs. 36.8±25.3) hours, extubation time (46.4±15.1 vs. 64.4±6.0) hours; length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) (4.7±1.7 vs. 8±2.3) days and postoperative neurologic dysfunction in the two groups. Compared to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest can provide better brain protection and achieve good clinical results.

  2. Predictors of Interventional Success of Antegrade PCI for CTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jinglei; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Hui; Liu, Zaiyi; Qu, Yanji; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to identify significant lesion features of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) that predict failure of antegrade (A) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using pre-procedure coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) combined with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). The current predictors of successful A-PCI in the setting of CTOs are uncertain. Such knowledge might prompt early performance of a retrograde (R)-PCI approach if predictors of A-PCI failure are present. Consecutive patients confirmed to have at least 1 CTO of native coronary arteries underwent coronary CTA- and CCA-guided PCI in which computed tomography and fluoroscopic images were placed side by side before or during PCI. The study included 103 patients with 108 CTOs; 80 lesions were successfully treated with A-PCI and 28 lesions failed this approach, for an A-PCI success rate of 74%. A total of 15 of 28 failed cases underwent attempted R-PCI. Only 1 case also failed R-PCI; thus, the total PCI success rate was 87%. By multivariable analysis, the factors significantly predictive of failed A-PCI included negative remodeling (odds ratio [OR]: 137.82) and lesion length >31.89 mm on coronary CTA (OR: 7.04), and ostial or bifurcation lesions on CCA (OR: 8.02). R-PCI was successful in 14 of 15 patients (93.3%), in whom good appearance of the occluded distal segment and well-developed collateral vessels were present. Morphologic predictors of failed A-PCI on the basis of pre-procedure coronary CTA and CCA imaging may be identified, which may assist in determining which patients with CTO lesions would benefit from an early R-PCI strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of straight antegrade nailing in proximal humeral fractures: the rationale of the "proximal anchoring point".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Simon A; Petri, Maximilian; Venderley, Melanie B; Dornan, Grant J; Schmoelz, Werner; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Plecko, Michael; Kralinger, Franz S; Millett, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Varus failure is one of the most common failure modes following surgical treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Straight antegrade nails (SAN) theoretically provide increased stability by anchoring to the densest zone of the proximal humerus (subchondral zone) with the end of the nail. The aim of this study was to biomechanically investigate the characteristics of this "proximal anchoring point" (PAP). We hypothesized that the PAP would improve stability compared to the same construct without the PAP. Straight antegrade humeral nailing was performed in 20 matched pairs of human cadaveric humeri for a simulated unstable two-part fracture. Biomechanical testing, with stepwise increasing cyclic axial loading (50-N increments each 100 cycles) at an angle of 20° abduction revealed significantly higher median loads to failure for SAN constructs with the PAP (median, 450 N; range, 200-1.000 N) compared to those without the PAP (median, 325 N; range, 100-500 N; p = 0.009). SAN constructs with press-fit proximal extensions (endcaps) showed similar median loads to failure (median, 400 N; range, 200-650 N), when compared to the undersized, commercially available SAN endcaps (median, 450 N; range, 200-600 N; p = 0.240). The PAP provided significantly increased stability in SAN constructs compared to the same setup without this additional proximal anchoring point. Varus-displacing forces to the humeral head were superiorly reduced in this setting. This study provides biomechanical evidence for the "proximal anchoring point's" rationale. Straight antegrade humeral nailing may be beneficial for patients undergoing surgical treatment for unstable proximal humeral fractures to decrease secondary varus displacement and thus potentially reduce revision rates.

  4. Obesity: An Independent Risk Factor for Insufficient Hemostasis Using the AngioSeal Vascular Closure Device After Antegrade Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minko, Peter, E-mail: peterminko@yahoo.com; Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [University Hospital Saarland, Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics (Germany); Buecker, Arno [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods: In a prospective study, 120 consecutive patients underwent lower limb vascular intervention by an antegrade access to the common femoral artery (CFA). After intervention, a 6F (n = 88) or an 8F (n = 32) AngioSeal vascular closure device was used to achieve hemostasis. The technical success or the cause of failure was documented. In addition, the coagulation status (platelets, INR, prothrombin time, atrial thromboplastin time (PTT)), hypertonus, locoregional habitus of the groin, body mass index (BMI), presence of calcifications, and history of previous surgical interventions of the CFA were evaluated. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in 97 patients (81%). In 12 patients (10%), persistent bleeding of the puncture site required manual compression. In another nine patients (8%) a kink of the sheath obviated the passage of the collagen plug toward the vessel, and in two patients the anchor dislodged out of the vessel, requiring manual compression. There were no significant differences between the groups of successful and unsuccessful sealing regarding the mean platelets (241 vs. 254 * 10{sup 9}/l; P = 0.86), INR (1.06 vs. 1.02; P = 0.52), prothrombin time (90% vs. 90%; P = 0.86), and PTT (30 vs. 31 s; P = 0.82). However, unsuccessful sealing was more likely in obese patients with an increased BMI (26.6 vs. 28.8 kg/m{sup 2}; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for insufficient sealing using the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the CFA. In 8% of our patients, hemostasis could not be achieved due to kink of the flexible sheath.

  5. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  6. Routine Use of Surgical Retrograde Transtibial Endovascular Approach for Failed Attempts at Antegrade Recanalization of Chronic Peripheral Artery Total Occlusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, GangZhu; Zhang, FuXian, E-mail: gangzhuliang@126.com; Luo, XiaoYun; Zhang, ChangMing; Feng, YaPing; Niu, LuYuan; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Cheng, Long; Zhang, MingYi [Capital Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital (China)

    2016-12-15

    PurposeOur aim was to describe the technical aspects and clinical outcomes of an open surgical approach to retrograde transtibial endovascular therapy for recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) of peripheral arteries because of inability to acquire antegrade intravascular access across the occlusion.Materials and MethodsBetween January 2011 and May 2014, conventional antegrade revascularization failed in 15 limbs of 15 patients (11 males, 4 females) with complex CTOs. The mean age of the patients was 74 years (range 48–83 years). Five patients had severe claudication (Rutherford Category 3), and 10 patients had critical limb-threatening ischemia (Rutherford Categories 4–5). For each of these cases of antegrade failure, an open surgical exposure of the tibial or dorsalis pedis artery was used to allow a safe retrograde transtibial endovascular approach to recanalize the CTO.ResultsSurgical retrograde access from the tibial artery was achieved successfully in 14 of the 15 patients. In the 14 successful retrograde endovascular approaches, surgical retrograde transtibial access was achieved from the dorsalis pedis artery in 8 patients and from the posterior tibial artery in 6. The average time to obtain retrograde access was 5 min (range 2–11 min). No stenosis or occlusion occurred in the tibial or dorsalis pedis arteries used for the retrograde access sites during follow-up.ConclusionsRoutine surgical exposure can be a safe and an effective method for retrograde transtibial access to the more proximal occluded arterial segments in selected patients with CTO.

  7. Quality of life after antegrade intramedullary nail fixation of humeral fractures: a survey in a selected cohort of Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Luiz Fernando; Ejnisman, Benno; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Moises; Dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of humeral fractures remains controversial. Systematic reviews demonstrate similar results between dynamic compression plating and locked intramedullary nailing in the surgical treatment of these fractures. However, it appears that antegrade intramedullary nailing causes higher residual pain in the shoulder. The proposal of this work is to evaluate through the WORC protocol (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index) the consequences in the quality of life of patients submitted to osteosynthesis of the humerus with antegrade locked intramedullary nailing. This work is a cohort retrospective study in addition to the application of a questionnaire for self-rated quality of life with its 05 domains (WORC - Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index) for patients ( N  = 26) classified in the Trauma Sector of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Federal University of São Paulo (DOT/UNIFESP) submitted to Humerus Osteosynthesis with Antegrade Locked Intramedullary Nailing. There was also the inclusion of data related to the time since surgery, age, sex, surgical laterality, dominance among members and work leave, which were not considered in the original protocol. After, the data were statistically assessed to evaluate the association between numerical and categorical variables. The overall WORC score was 82.75 ± 17.00 (Mean ± SD) and was not different considering sex, age and postoperative period. Among the WORC domains, both Work and Sport / Recreation Protocols were the most unfavorable factors in the evaluation of patients. Although not statistically significant, those who had the procedure on the dominant side presented a lower quality of life score than those who had the surgery on the non-dominant side. Although non-significant again, those who were away from work had an overall lower quality of life score than those who were not. The WORC Quality of Life Protocol shows good results for evaluating patients submitted to humerus

  8. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  9. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  10. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, M., E-mail: phyrenmq@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rajendran, Reshmi [Lab of Molecular Imaging, Singapore Bioimaging Consotium, 11 Biopolis Way, 02-02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Ng, Mary [Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank [Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Jenner, Andrew Michael [Illawara Health and Medical Research Institute (IHMRI), University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  11. Influence of Spatial and Chromatic Noise on Luminance Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquilini, Leticia; Walker, Natalie A; Odigie, Erika A; Guimarães, Diego Leite; Salomão, Railson Cruz; Lacerda, Eliza Maria Costa Brito; Cortes, Maria Izabel Tentes; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Ventura, Dora Fix; Souza, Givago Silva

    2017-12-05

    Pseudoisochromatic figures are designed to base discrimination of a chromatic target from a background solely on the chromatic differences. This is accomplished by the introduction of luminance and spatial noise thereby eliminating these two dimensions as cues. The inverse rationale could also be applied to luminance discrimination, if spatial and chromatic noise are used to mask those cues. In this current study estimate of luminance contrast thresholds were conducted using a novel stimulus, based on the use of chromatic and spatial noise to mask the use of these cues in a luminance discrimination task. This was accomplished by presenting stimuli composed of a mosaic of circles colored randomly. A Landolt-C target differed from the background only by the luminance. The luminance contrast thresholds were estimated for different chromatic noise saturation conditions and compared to luminance contrast thresholds estimated using the same target in a non-mosaic stimulus. Moreover, the influence of the chromatic content in the noise on the luminance contrast threshold was also investigated. Luminance contrast threshold was dependent on the chromaticity noise strength. It was 10-fold higher than thresholds estimated from non-mosaic stimulus, but they were independent of colour space location in which the noise was modulated. The present study introduces a new method to investigate luminance vision intended for both basic science and clinical applications.

  12. Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Nakwon; Eom, Taekil; Gupta, Sachin K; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Jeong, Do-Youn; Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J; Unno, Tatsuya

    2017-11-28

    Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis. We investigated the influence of high-fat diets (HFD) and low-fiber diets (LFD), and loperamide (LPM) administration, on key bacteria and genes involved in reduction of butyrate synthesis in mice. MiSeq-based microbiota analysis and HiSeq-based differential gene analysis indicated that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in butyrate metabolism in each treatment. Dietary modulation depleted butyrate kinase and phosphate butyryl transferase by decreasing members of the Bacteroidales and Parabacteroides . The HFD also depleted genes involved in succinate synthesis by decreasing Lactobacillus . The LFD and LPM treatments depleted genes involved in crotonoyl-CoA synthesis by decreasing Roseburia and Oscilllibacter . Taken together, our results suggest that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in gut dysbiosis, and that selected treatments may be needed depending on the cause of gut dysfunction.

  13. A new interpretation of luminous blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothers, R.

    1976-01-01

    A major revision of current theoretical ideas about the brightest blue stars must be made if Carson's new radiative opacities are adopted in stellar models. Unlike earlier opacities, the new opacities exhibit a large ''bump'' due to CNO ionization, which leads to very strong central condensation, convective instability, and pulsational instability in hot, diffuse stellar envelopes (typically those in which L/M>10 3 solar units). Despite a number of theoretical uncertainties, the new picture of the structure of very luminous stars is reasonably successful in accounting for a variety of previously unexplained observations. Thus, the new stellar models for the phase of core hydrogen burning predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures (which are yet to be observationally confirmed) for O stars, and a spreading out of the main-sequence band in the H-R diagram toward luminous cool supergiants for masses higher than approx.20 M/sub sun/, beginning at M/sub v/=-4.5 and Sp=B1. They also predict slower surface rotations for O stars compared with B stars; and, in binary systems, slower apsidal motions, closer rotational-revolutional synchronism, and smaller orbital eccentricities. In massive X-ray binary systems, circular orbits and supergiant-like visual companions are expected to be quite common. Radial pulsations of the models have been calculated by employing linearized nonadiabatic pulsation theory. Long-period variability is predicted to exist for massive blue supergiants of luminosity class Ia. The new models for helium stars predict large radii and rather cool effective temperatures for Wolf-Rayet stars, as well as multimodal pulsational instability and, possibly, surface turbulence for these stars. Ultrashort-period variability, observed in many classes of hot luminous stars, may be due, in part, to high radial overtone pulsations (or, possibly, to nonradial pulsation or convective modes)

  14. Effects of absolute luminance and luminance contrast on visual search in low mesopic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mathew; Godde, Ben; Olk, Bettina

    2018-03-26

    Diverse adaptive visual processing mechanisms allow us to complete visual search tasks in a wide visual photopic range (>0.6 cd/m 2 ). Whether search strategies or mechanisms known from this range extend below, in the mesopic and scotopic luminance spectra (search in more complex-feature and conjunction-search paradigms. The results verify the previously reported deficiency windows defined by an interaction of base luminance and luminance contrast for more complex visual-search tasks. Based on significant regression analyses, a more precise definition of the magnitude of contribution of different contrast parameters. Characterized feature search patterns had approximately a 2.5:1 ratio of contribution from the Michelson contrast property relative to Weber contrast, whereas the ratio was approximately 1:1 in a serial-search condition. The results implicate near-complete magnocellular isolation in a visual-search paradigm that has yet to be demonstrated. Our analyses provide a new method of characterizing visual search and the first insight in its underlying mechanisms in luminance environments in the low mesopic and scotopic spectra.

  15. Standard deviation of luminance distribution affects lightness and pupillary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanari, Kei; Kaneko, Hirohiko

    2014-12-01

    We examined whether the standard deviation (SD) of luminance distribution serves as information of illumination. We measured the lightness of a patch presented in the center of a scrambled-dot pattern while manipulating the SD of the luminance distribution. Results showed that lightness decreased as the SD of the surround stimulus increased. We also measured pupil diameter while viewing a similar stimulus. The pupil diameter decreased as the SD of luminance distribution of the stimuli increased. We confirmed that these results were not obtained because of the increase of the highest luminance in the stimulus. Furthermore, results of field measurements revealed a correlation between the SD of luminance distribution and illuminance in natural scenes. These results indicated that the visual system refers to the SD of the luminance distribution in the visual stimulus to estimate the scene illumination.

  16. Luminance cues constrain chromatic blur discrimination in natural scene stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Rebecca J; McGraw, Paul V; Peirce, Jonathan W

    2013-03-22

    Introducing blur into the color components of a natural scene has very little effect on its percept, whereas blur introduced into the luminance component is very noticeable. Here we quantify the dominance of luminance information in blur detection and examine a number of potential causes. We show that the interaction between chromatic and luminance information is not explained by reduced acuity or spatial resolution limitations for chromatic cues, the effective contrast of the luminance cue, or chromatic and achromatic statistical regularities in the images. Regardless of the quality of chromatic information, the visual system gives primacy to luminance signals when determining edge location. In natural viewing, luminance information appears to be specialized for detecting object boundaries while chromatic information may be used to determine surface properties.

  17. SURVEY OF THE ENTOMOFAUNA THROUGH LUMINOUS TRAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Andrade Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for forest-based raw materials for energy, construction, paper pulp and the pressure to comply with legal requirements concerning environmental legislation, for example, the replacement of the permanent preservation area, legal reserve and recovery of degraded area, leads to encourage the production of healthy seedlings in a health status to do not compromise their future production. The present study aimed to survey the entomofauna population using the “Luiz de Queiroz” model of luminous trap, with white and red fluorescent lamps. The experiment was conducted at the nursery “Flora Sinop” in Sinop – MT. The survey was conducted weekly between the months of April to July 2010, totaling 4 months sand, 32 samples collected. The orders Hemiptera and Coleoptera showed the highest number of individuals captured, either in attraction with white or red light. It was captured 10.089 individuals, 9.339 collected under the influence of white light, representing 92,56%, and 750 with red light, only 7,44% of the total. The white light luminous trap possessed greater efficiency in the attraction of insects when compared with the red light trap.

  18. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI

  19. Target ballon-assisted antegrade and retrograde approach for recanalization of thrombosed fem-pop bypass graft using the outbreak catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jung Won; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwa; Yeom, Suk Keu; Cha, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention (SAFARI) technique is reportedly effective in severe peripheral vascular disease that cannot be treated with standard endovascular techniques including subintimal angioplasty. In this report, we used a target balloon with the Outback catheter to recanalize a thrombosed bypass graft that could not be treated successfully with SAFARI.

  20. The impact of antegrade intramedullary nailing start site using the SIGN nail in proximal femoral fractures: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Diab, Mohamed; Wu, Hao-Hua; Eliezer, Edmund; Haonga, Billy; Morshed, Saam; Shearer, David W

    2018-02-01

    In many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) SIGN nail is commonly used for antegrade femoral intramedullary (IM) nailing, using a start site either at the tip of the greater trochanter or piriformis fossa. While a correct start site is considered an essential technical step; few studies have evaluated the impact of using an erroneous start site. This is particularly relevant in settings with limited access to fluoroscopy to aid in creating a nail entry point. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of antegrade SIGN IM nailing start site on radiographic alignment and health-related quality of life. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients with proximal femur fractures (OTA 32, subtrochanteric zone) treated with antegrade IM SIGN nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute (MOI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled. Start site was determined on the immediate postoperative X-ray and was graded on a continuous scale based on distance of the IM nail center from the greater trochanteric tip. The primary outcome measurement was coronal alignment on the post-operative x-ray. The secondary outcomes were reoperation rates, RUST scores and EQ5D scores at one year follow-up. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. 50 of them (63.3%) had complete data at 1year and were included in the final data analysis. Of the fifty patients, nine (18%) had IM nails placed laterally, 26 (52%) medially and 15 (30%) directly over the tip of the greater trochanter. Compared to a start site at the tip or medial to the greater trochanter, a lateral start site was 9 times more likely to result in a varus malalignment (95% CI: 1.42-57.70, p=0.021). Lateral start site was associated with varus malalignment. Although lateral start site was not significantly associated with reoperation, varus deformity was associated with higher reoperation rates. Surgeons should consider avoiding a start site lateral to the tip of the greater trochanter or allow the nail to rotate to avoid

  1. Effects of single antegrade hot shot in comparison with no hot shot administration during coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Mirmohammadsadeghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Superior results will be achieved from cardiac surgery by minimizing the effect of ischemia/reperfusion injury during cross-clamping of the aorta. Different cardioplegia solutions have been introduced, but the optimum one is still ambiguous. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of single antegrade hot shot terminal warm blood cardioplegia (TWBC on patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. METHODS: In total, 2488 patients who had CABG surgery in Sina Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-control study. They were divided into two groups, those who received cold cardioplegia only and those who received a hot shot following cold cardioplegia. Demographics, and clinical data, such as; premature atrial contraction (PAC arrhythmia, diabetes treatment, and left ventricular ejection fraction (EF, were collected and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: There were significant differences found between subjects receiving antegrade hot shot based on direct current (DC shocks, with regard to; female, EF levels, diabetes treatment (P < 0.050. Those who did not receive the hot shot and were not diabetic received more DC shock (P = 0.019. The prevalence of subjects who did no need DC shock was significantly higher among male subjects who had good EF and acceptable diabetic treatment. Multiple logistic regression showed that PAC arrhythmia did not have a significant effect on receiving DC shock during CAGB [0.84 (0.25, 2.85, (P = 0.780]. Having poor EF increased the risk of receiving DC shock among subjects by 2.81 [(1.69, 4.69, (P ≤ 0.001] (P < 0.001. Among the diabetic subjects, receiving insulin decreased the risk of receiving DC shock by 0.54 (0.29, 0.98 (P = 0.042. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that single antegrade hot shot following cold cardioplegia was not particularly effective in the CABG group. TWBC will decrease the need for DC shock.   

  2. Chromatic blur perception in the presence of luminance contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2017-06-01

    Hel-Or showed that blurring the chromatic but not the luminance layer of an image of a natural scene failed to elicit any impression of blur. Subsequent studies have suggested that this effect is due either to chromatic blur being masked by spatially contiguous luminance edges in the scene (Journal of Vision 13 (2013) 14), or to a relatively compressed transducer function for chromatic blur (Journal of Vision 15 (2015) 6). To test between the two explanations we conducted experiments using as stimuli both images of natural scenes as well as simple edges. First, we found that in color-and-luminance images of natural scenes more chromatic blur was needed to perceptually match a given level of blur in an isoluminant, i.e. colour-only scene. However, when the luminance layer in the scene was rotated relative to the chromatic layer, thus removing the colour-luminance edge correlations, the matched blur levels were near equal. Both results are consistent with Sharman et al.'s explanation. Second, when observers matched the blurs of luminance-only with isoluminant scenes, the matched blurs were equal, against Kingdom et al.'s prediction. Third, we measured the perceived blur in a square-wave as a function of (i) contrast (ii) number of luminance edges and (iii) the relative spatial phase between the colour and luminance edges. We found that the perceived chromatic blur was dependent on both relative phase and the number of luminance edges, or dependent on the luminance contrast if only a single edge is present. We conclude that this Hel-Or effect is largely due to masking of chromatic blur by spatially contiguous luminance edges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad deIngeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, 1 University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jarrett, Thomas H. [Astronomy Department, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Petty, Sara M. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: Chao-Wei.Tsai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  4. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  5. Covariation of Color and Luminance Facilitate Object Individuation in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The ability to individuate objects is one of our most fundamental cognitive capacities. Recent research has revealed that when objects vary in color or luminance alone, infants fail to individuate those objects until 11.5 months. However, color and luminance frequently covary in the natural environment, thus providing a more salient and reliable…

  6. Luminous flux and colour maintenance investigation of integrated LED lamps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This article will present an investigation of the luminous flux and colour maintenance of white LED based retrofit lamps. The study includes 23 different types of integrated LED lamps, covering 18 directional and 5 non-directional. Luminous flux and colour data for operation up to 20000 h has been...

  7. Role of luminal nutrients and endogenous GLP-2 in intestinal adaptation to mid-small bowel resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahly, Elizabeth M; Gillingham, Melanie B; Guo, Ziwen

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal hyperpla......To elucidate the role of luminal nutrients and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in intestinal adaptation, rats were subjected to 70% midjejunoileal resection or ileal transection and were maintained with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or oral feeding. TPN rats showed small bowel mucosal...... rats was associated with a significant positive correlation between increases in plasma bioactive GLP-2 and proglucagon mRNA expression in the colon of TPN rats and ileum of orally fed rats. These data support a significant role for endogenous GLP-2 in the adaptive response to mid-small bowel resection...

  8. The Use of the “Preclosure” Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, C.; Pfiffner, R.; Husmann, M.; Pfammatter, T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide ® 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6–12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 ± 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the “preclose” technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  9. The Use of the 'Preclosure' Technique for Antegrade Aspiration Thrombectomy with Large Catheters in Acute Limb Ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, C., E-mail: claas_funke@hotmail.com; Pfiffner, R. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Husmann, M. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Angiology (Switzerland); Pfammatter, T. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to assess retrospectively short- and mid-term outcomes of the use of a suture-mediated closure device to close the antegrade access in patients undergoing percutaneous aspiration thrombectomy with large catheters for acute leg ischemia. Between November 2005 and February 2010, a suture-mediated active closure system (ProGlide{sup Registered-Sign} 6F, Abbott) was placed before arterial sheath (mean 9 F, range 6-12 F) introduction in 101 patients (74 men, 73 %, mean age 70.1 {+-} 12.6 years standard deviation). Data regarding mortality, complications, and factors contributing to vascular complications at the access site was collected for 6 month after the intervention to detect device-related problems. As a coincidence, 77 patients had follow-up visits for a duplex ultrasound. There were a total of 19 vascular complications (19 %) at the puncture site, all of which were of hemorrhagic nature and none of which consisted of vessel occlusion. Two major outcome complications (2 %) occurred. A retroperitoneal hematoma and a serious inguinal bleeding required additive treatment and did not result in permanent sequelae. Nine cases involved death of which eight were not attributable to the closure and one remained unclear. Successful closure was achieved in 95 patients (94 %); additional manual compression was sufficient in the majority of the remaining patients. Numerous factors contributing to vascular complications were encountered. With acceptable short- and mid-term outcomes, the 'preclose' technique can be a reliable option for the closure of a large antegrade femoral access even for patients at a high risk of vascular complications, such as those undergoing aspiration thrombectomy.

  10. Stimulatory action of itopride hydrochloride on colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Tadashi; Saito, Takaharu; Mizutani, Fujie; Yamauchi, Toshie; Iwanaga, Yuji

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effects of itopride hydrochloride (itopride, N-[4-[2-(dimethylamino)ethoxy]benzyl]-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide hydrochloride), a gastroprokinetic agent, on the colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo, in comparison with benzamides, cisapride hydrate (cisapride), and mosapride citrate (mosapride). Itopride stimulated both peristaltic and segmental motility induced by applying intraluminal pressure to the isolated guinea pig colon. Although cisapride and mosapride enhanced the segmental motility, they markedly reduced the peristaltic motility. In conscious dogs with implanted strain gauge force transducers, itopride stimulated contractile activity in the gastrointestinal tract from the stomach to the colon. Cisapride stimulated contractile activity in the gastric antrum, ileum, and ascending colon. Mosapride stimulated contractile activity only in the gastric antrum and ileum. In guinea pigs and rats, itopride accelerated colonic luminal transit. On the other hand, cisapride and mosapride failed to enhance colonic transit. These results demonstrate that itopride has a stimulatory action on colonic peristalsis, propelling colonic luminal contents, different from that of cisapride and mosapride. Therefore, itopride may be a useful drug for the treatment of functional bowel disorders such as functional constipation.

  11. Densities, cellulases, alginate and pectin lyases of luminous and other heterotrophic bacteria associated with marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Epiphytic luminous and non-luminous bacteria were determined quantitatively for eight intertidal algal species from rocky beaches of Goa and Lakshadweep coral reef lagoon. Luminous bacteria were present on all eight algal species and contributed 2...

  12. A Practical Device for Measuring the Luminance Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Kruisselbrink

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various applications in building lighting such as automated daylight systems, dynamic lighting control systems, lighting simulations, and glare analyzes can be optimized using information on the actual luminance distributions of the surroundings. Currently, commercially available luminance distribution measurement devices are often not suitable for these kind of applications or simply too expensive for broad application. This paper describes the development of a practical and autonomous luminance distribution measurement device based on a credit card-sized single-board computer and a camera system. The luminance distribution was determined by capturing High Dynamic Range images and translating the RGB information to the CIE XYZ color space. The High Dynamic Range technology was essential to accurately capture the data needed to calculate the luminance distribution because it allows to capture luminance ranges occurring in real scenarios. The measurement results were represented in accordance with established methods in the field of daylighting. Measurements showed that the accuracy of the luminance distribution measurement device ranged from 5% to 20% (worst case which was deemed acceptable for practical measurements and broad applications in the building realm.

  13. Ameboma: A Colon Carcinoma-Like Lesion in a Colonoscopy Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Cheng Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ameboma is a rare complication of amebic colitis presenting as a mass of granulation tissue with peripheral fibrosis and a core of inflammation related to amebic chronic infection. The initial presentations are usually obstruction and low gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common sites are the ascending colon and the cecum. It may mimic colon carcinoma, Crohn's disease, carcinoma of the colon, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tuberculosis, fungal infection, AIDS-associated lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma in colonoscopy findings. The therapeutic strategy should be combined with antibiotics for invasive dysentery and eradication of luminal cysts.

  14. Calibrating photometric redshifts of luminous red galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Budavari, Tamas; Schlegel, David J.; Bridges, Terry; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the construction of a photometric redshift catalogue of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), emphasizing the principal steps necessary for constructing such a catalogue: (i) photometrically selecting the sample, (ii) measuring photometric redshifts and their error distributions, and (iii) estimating the true redshift distribution. We compare two photometric redshift algorithms for these data and find that they give comparable results. Calibrating against the SDSS and SDSS–2dF (Two Degree Field) spectroscopic surveys, we find that the photometric redshift accuracy is σ~ 0.03 for redshifts less than 0.55 and worsens at higher redshift (~ 0.06 for z < 0.7). These errors are caused by photometric scatter, as well as systematic errors in the templates, filter curves and photometric zero-points. We also parametrize the photometric redshift error distribution with a sum of Gaussians and use this model to deconvolve the errors from the measured photometric redshift distribution to estimate the true redshift distribution. We pay special attention to the stability of this deconvolution, regularizing the method with a prior on the smoothness of the true redshift distribution. The methods that we develop are applicable to general photometric redshift surveys.

  15. The effect of chromatic and luminance information on reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donell, Beatriz M; Barraza, Jose F; Colombo, Elisa M

    2010-07-01

    We present a series of experiments exploring the effect of chromaticity on reaction time (RT) for a variety of stimulus conditions, including chromatic and luminance contrast, luminance, and size. The chromaticity of these stimuli was varied along a series of vectors in color space that included the two chromatic-opponent-cone axes, a red-green (L-M) axis and a blue-yellow [S - (L + M)] axis, and intermediate noncardinal orientations, as well as the luminance axis (L + M). For Weber luminance contrasts above 10-20%, RTs tend to the same asymptote, irrespective of chromatic direction. At lower luminance contrast, the addition of chromatic information shortens the RT. RTs are strongly influenced by stimulus size when the chromatic stimulus is modulated along the [S - (L + M)] pathway and by stimulus size and adaptation luminance for the (L-M) pathway. RTs are independent of stimulus size for stimuli larger than 0.5 deg. Data are modeled with a modified version of Pieron's formula with an exponent close to 2, in which the stimulus intensity term is replaced by a factor that considers the relative effects of chromatic and achromatic information, as indexed by the RMS (square-root of the cone contrast) value at isoluminance and the Weber luminance contrast, respectively. The parameters of the model reveal how RT is linked to stimulus size, chromatic channels, and adaptation luminance and how they can be interpreted in terms of two chromatic mechanisms. This equation predicts that, for isoluminance, RTs for a stimulus lying on the S-cone pathway are higher than those for a stimulus lying on the L-M-cone pathway, for a given RMS cone contrast. The equation also predicts an asymptotic trend to the RT for an achromatic stimulus when the luminance contrast is sufficiently large.

  16. Starclose SE® hemostasis after 6F direct antegrade superficial femoral artery access distal to the femoral head for peripheral endovascular procedures in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Kitrou, Panagiotis; Christeas, Nikolaos; Karnabatidis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Direct superficial femoral artery (SFA) antegrade puncture is a valid alternative to common femoral artery (CFA) access for peripheral vascular interventions. Data investigating vascular closure device (VCD) hemostasis of distant SFA 6F access are limited. We aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the Starclose SE® VCD for hemostasis, following direct 6F antegrade SFA access distal to the femoral head. This prospective, single-center study included patients who were not suitable for CFA puncture and were scheduled to undergo peripheral endovascular interventions using direct antegrade SFA 6F access, at least 2 cm below the inferior edge of femoral head. Hemostasis was obtained with the Starclose SE® VCD (Abbott Laboratories). Primary endpoints were successful hemostasis rate and periprocedural (30-day) major complication rate. Secondary endpoint was the rate of minor complications. Clinical and Doppler ultrasound follow-up was performed at discharge and at one month. Between September 2014 and August 2015, a total of 30 patients (21 male; 70.0%) with a mean body mass index of 41.2 kg/m2 were enrolled. Mean age was 72±9 years (range, 67-88 years). Most patients suffered from critical limb ischemia (87.1%) and diabetes (61.3%). Calcifications were present in eight cases (26.6%). Reason for direct SFA puncture was obesity (100%). Successful hemostasis was achieved in 100% of the cases. No major complications were noted after one-month follow-up. Minor complications included two <5 cm hematomas (6.6%) not necessitating treatment. In this prospective study, Starclose SE® VCD was safe and effective for hemostasis of antegrade direct SFA puncture. Uncomplicated hemostasis was achieved even in cases of puncturing 2 to 7 cm below the inferior edge of the femoral head.

  17. Management of Colonic Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingold, Daniel; Murrell, Zuri

    2012-01-01

    Colonic volvulus is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. It can affect all parts of the colon, but most commonly occurs in the sigmoid and cecal areas. This disease has been described for centuries, and was studied by Hippocrates himself. Currently, colonic volvulus is the third most common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide, and is responsible for ∼15% of large bowel obstructions in the United States. This article will discuss the history of colonic volvulus, and the predisposing factors that lead to this disease. Moreover, the epidemiology and diagnosis of each type of colonic volvulus, along with the various treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24294126

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with luminal Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziech, M.L.W.; Lavini, C.; Caan, M.W.A.; Nio, C.Y.; Stokkers, P.C.F.; Bipat, S.; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Nederveen, A.J.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively assess dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI as compared to conventional sequences in patients with luminal Crohn's disease. Methods: Patients with Crohn's disease undergoing MRI and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month had DCE-MRI (3T) during intravenous contrast injection of gadobutrol, single shot fast spin echo sequence and 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo sequence, a dynamic coronal 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient were performed before and after gadobutrol. Maximum enhancement (ME) and initial slope of increase (ISI) were calculated for four colon segments (ascending colon + coecum, transverse colon, descending colon + sigmoid, rectum) and (neo)terminal ileum. C-reactive protein (CRP), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), per patient and per segment Crohn's disease endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS) and disease duration were determined. Mean values of the (DCE-)MRI parameters in each segment from each patient were compared between four disease activity groups (normal mucosa, non-ulcerative lesions, mild ulcerative and severe ulcerative disease) with Mann–Whitney test with Bonferroni adjustment. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for continuous variables. Results: Thirty-three patients were included (mean age 37 years; 23 females, median CDEIS 4.4). ME and ISI correlated weakly with segmental CDEIS (r = 0.485 and r = 0.206) and ME per patient correlated moderately with CDEIS (r = 0.551). ME was significantly higher in segments with mild (0.378) or severe (0.388) ulcerative disease compared to normal mucosa (0.304) (p < 0.001). No ulcerations were identified at conventional sequences. ME correlated with disease duration in diseased segments (r = 0.492), not with CDAI and CRP. Conclusions: DCE-MRI can be used as a method for detecting Crohn's disease ulcerative lesions.

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with luminal Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziech, M.L.W., E-mail: m.l.ziech@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lavini, C., E-mail: c.lavini@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caan, M.W.A., E-mail: m.w.a.caan@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nio, C.Y., E-mail: C.Y.Nio@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stokkers, P.C.F., E-mail: p.stokkers@slaz.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sint Lucas Andreas Ziekenhuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Jan Tooropstraat 164, 1061 AE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bipat, S., E-mail: S.Bipat@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ponsioen, C.Y., E-mail: c.y.ponsioen@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nederveen, A.J., E-mail: a.j.nederveen@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, J., E-mail: j.stoker@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    Objectives: To prospectively assess dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI as compared to conventional sequences in patients with luminal Crohn's disease. Methods: Patients with Crohn's disease undergoing MRI and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month had DCE-MRI (3T) during intravenous contrast injection of gadobutrol, single shot fast spin echo sequence and 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo sequence, a dynamic coronal 3D T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient were performed before and after gadobutrol. Maximum enhancement (ME) and initial slope of increase (ISI) were calculated for four colon segments (ascending colon + coecum, transverse colon, descending colon + sigmoid, rectum) and (neo)terminal ileum. C-reactive protein (CRP), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), per patient and per segment Crohn's disease endoscopic index of severity (CDEIS) and disease duration were determined. Mean values of the (DCE-)MRI parameters in each segment from each patient were compared between four disease activity groups (normal mucosa, non-ulcerative lesions, mild ulcerative and severe ulcerative disease) with Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni adjustment. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for continuous variables. Results: Thirty-three patients were included (mean age 37 years; 23 females, median CDEIS 4.4). ME and ISI correlated weakly with segmental CDEIS (r = 0.485 and r = 0.206) and ME per patient correlated moderately with CDEIS (r = 0.551). ME was significantly higher in segments with mild (0.378) or severe (0.388) ulcerative disease compared to normal mucosa (0.304) (p < 0.001). No ulcerations were identified at conventional sequences. ME correlated with disease duration in diseased segments (r = 0.492), not with CDAI and CRP. Conclusions: DCE-MRI can be used as a method for detecting Crohn's disease ulcerative lesions.

  20. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Isaak, K. G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Petric, A. O. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Iwasawa, K. [ICREA and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Leech, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Sanders, D. B., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ∼ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ≲ J ≲ 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 (≡log R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  1. Production of L-Asparaginase by the marine luminous bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Fortythree strains of luminous bacteria, belonging to 4 species, (Vibrio harveyi, V. fischeri, Photobacterium leiognathi and P. phosphoreum) isolated from different marine samples, were examined for the production of L-asparaginase. Presence...

  2. Study on the luminous characteristics of a natural ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yuan, Ping; Cen, Jianyong; Liu, Guorong

    2018-02-01

    According to the optical images of the whole process of a natural ball lightning recorded by two slit-less spectrographs in the Qinghai plateau of China, the simulated observation experiment on the luminous intensity of the spherical light source was carried out. The luminous intensity and the optical power of the natural ball lightning in the wavelength range of 400-690 nm were estimated based on the experimental data and the Lambert-Beer Law. The results show that the maximum luminous intensity was about 1.24 × 105 cd in the initial stage of the natural ball lightning, and the maximum luminous intensity and the maximum optical power in most time of its life were about 5.9 × 104 cd and 4.2 × 103 W, respectively.

  3. Geometry of illumination, luminance contrast, and gloss perception

    OpenAIRE

    Leloup, Frédéric; Pointer, Michael R.; Dutré, Philip; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The influence of both the geometry of illumination and luminance contrast on gloss perception has been examined using the method of paired comparison. Six achromatic glass samples having different lightness were illuminated by two light sources. Only one of these light sources was visible in reflection by the observer. By separate adjustment of the intensity of both light sources, the luminance of both the reflected image and the adjacent off-specular surroundings could be individually varied...

  4. Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sacha M; Uludağ, Ozenç; El Naggar, Kadri; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor G

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic graciloplasty (DGP) improves anal continence and quality of life for most patients. However, in some patients, DGP fails and fecal incontinence is unsolved or only partially improved. Constipation is also a significant problem after DGP, occurring in 13-90%. Colonic irrigation can be considered as an additional or salvage treatment for defecation disorders after unsuccessful or partially successful DGP. In this study, the effectiveness of colonic irrigation for the treatment of persistent fecal incontinence and/or constipation after DGP is investigated. Patients with defecation disorders after DGP visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Maastricht were selected for colonic irrigation as additional therapy or salvage therapy in the period between January 1999 and June 2003. The Biotrol(R) Irrimatic pump or the irrigation bag was used for colonic irrigation. Relevant physical and medical history was collected. The patients were asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire about colonic irrigation. Forty-six patients were included in the study with a mean age of 59.3 +/- 12.4 years (80% female). On average, the patients started the irrigation 21.39 +/- 38.77 months after the DGP. Eight patients started irrigation before the DGP. Fifty-two percent of the patients used the irrigation as additional therapy for fecal incontinence, 24% for constipation, and 24% for both. Irrigation was usually performed in the morning. The mean frequency of irrigation was 0.90 +/- 0.40 times per day. The mean amount of water used for the irrigation was 2.27 +/- 1.75 l with a mean duration of 39 +/- 23 min. Four patients performed antegrade irrigation through a colostomy or appendicostomy, with good results. Overall, 81% of the patients were satisfied with the irrigation. Thirty-seven percent of the patients with fecal incontinence reached (pseudo-)continence, and in 30% of the patients, the constipation completely resolved. Side effects of the irrigation were

  5. Predicting daylight illuminance on inclined surfaces using sky luminance data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.H.W.; Lau, C.C.S.; Lam, J.C. [City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Building and Construction

    2005-07-01

    Daylight illuminance, particularly on vertical surfaces, plays a major role in determining and evaluating the daylighting performance of a building. In many parts of the world, however, the basic daylight illuminance data for various vertical planes are not always readily available. The usual method to obtain diffuse illuminance on tilted planes would be based on inclined surface models using data from the horizontal measurements. Alternatively, the diffuse illuminance on a sloping plane can be computed by integrating the luminance distribution of the sky 'seen' by the plane. This paper presents an approach to estimate the vertical outdoor illuminance from sky luminance data and solar geometry. Sky luminance data recorded from January 1999 to December 2001 in Hong Kong and generated by two well-known sky luminance models (Kittler and Perez) were used to compute the outdoor illuminance for the four principal vertical planes (N, E, S and W). The performance of this approach was evaluated against data measured in the same period. Statistical analysis indicated that using sky luminance distributions to predict outdoor illuminance can give reasonably good agreement with measured data for all vertical surfaces. The findings provide an accurate alternative to determine the amount of daylight on vertical as well as other inclined surfaces when sky luminance data are available. (author)

  6. Dynamics of backlight luminance for using smartphone in dark environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Nooree; Jang, Jiho; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong

    2014-02-01

    This study developed dynamic backlight luminance, which gradually changes as time passes for comfortable use of a smartphone display in a dark environment. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a user test was conducted to identify the optimal luminance by assessing the facial squint level, subjective glare evaluation, eye blink frequency and users' subjective preferences. Based on the results of the user test, the dynamics of backlight luminance was designed. It has two levels of luminance: the optimal level for initial viewing to avoid sudden glare or fatigue to users' eyes, and the optimal level for constant viewing, which is comfortable, but also bright enough for constant reading of the displayed material. The luminance for initial viewing starts from 10 cd/m2, and it gradually increases to 40 cd/m2 for users' visual comfort at constant viewing for 20 seconds; In the second stage, a validation test on dynamics of backlight luminance was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the developed dynamics. It involving users' subjective preferences, eye blink frequency, and brainwave analysis using the electroencephalogram (EEG) to confirm that the proposed dynamic backlighting enhances users' visual comfort and visual cognition, particularly for using smartphones in a dark environment.

  7. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  8. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  9. Advancing Our Understanding of the Etiologies and Mutational Landscapes of Basal Like, Luminal A, and Luminal B Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    will be further analyzed for effects on reading frame and protein structure and function using analysis and prediction tools such as PolyPhen and...luminal A, and luminal B tumors. Originally this study intended to include 900 newly diagnosed first primary triple negative (TN) invasive breast cancer...breast cancer risk factors. At the end of the interview participants will be asked to donate an oral tissue specimen for future genetic testing. Medical

  10. The role of luminance and chromatic cues in emmetropisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Frances J

    2013-05-01

    At birth most, but not all eyes, are hyperopic. Over the course of the first few years of life the refraction gradually becomes close to zero through a process called emmetropisation. This process is not thought to require accommodation, though a lag of accommodation has been implicated in myopia development, suggesting that the accuracy of accommodation is an important factor. This review will cover research on accommodation and emmetropisation that relates to the ability of the eye to use colour and luminance cues to guide the responses. There are three ways in which changes in luminance and colour contrast could provide cues: (1) The eye could maximize luminance contrast. Monochromatic light experiments have shown that the human eye can accommodate and animal eyes can emmetropise using changes in luminance contrast alone. However, by reducing the effectiveness of luminance cues in monochromatic and white light by introducing astigmatism, or by reducing light intensity, investigators have revealed that the eye also uses colour cues in emmetropisation. (2) The eye could compare relative cone contrast to derive the sign of defocus information from colour cues. Experiments involving simulations of the retinal image with defocus have shown that relative cone contrast can provide colour cues for defocus in accommodation and emmetropisation. In the myopic simulation the contrast of the red component of a sinusoidal grating was higher than that of the green and blue component and this caused relaxation of accommodation and reduced eye growth. In the hyperopic simulation the contrast of the blue component was higher than that of the green and red components and this caused increased accommodation and increased eye growth. (3) The eye could compare the change in luminance and colour contrast as the eye changes focus. An experiment has shown that changes in colour or luminance contrast can provide cues for defocus in emmetropisation. When the eye is exposed to colour

  11. Ultrasound-guided antegrade access during laparoscopic pyeloplasty in infants less than one year of age: A point of technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Ganpule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to urethras and ureters of infants may be hazardous and injurious through an endoscopic route. Placement and removal of stents in infants requires anaesthesia and access through these small caliber urethras. We describe our technique of placing antegrade splint during a laparoscopic pyeloplasty in these infants. Materials and Methods: An ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal access is obtained. Telescopic metal two part needle is passed into the kidney over a guide wire. A second guide wire is passed through the telescopic metal two part needle. The tract is dilated with 14 Fr screw dilator. Over one guide wire, a 5 Fr ureteric catheter is passed and coiled in the renal pelvis. Over the other wire, a 14 Fr malecot catheter is placed as nephrostomy. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty is then done. During pyelotomy, the ureteric catheter is pulled and advanced through the ureter before the pyeloplasty is completed. The ureteric catheter thus acts as a splint across the anastomosis. Ureteric catheter is removed on the 3 rd post operative day and nephrostomy is clamped. Nephrostomy is removed on 4 th post operative day if child is asymptomatic. The modified technique was successfully done in five patients aged less than one year old. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Post operative period was uneventful in all. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided ante grade nephroureteral ureteral splint for infant laparoscopic pyeloplasty is safe. It avoids the need for urethral instrumentation for insertion and removal of stents in these small patients.

  12. CT in colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Takashi; Kubo, Kozo; Ogawa, Hajime; Sato, Yukihiko; Tomita, Masayoshi; Hanawa, Makoto; Matsuzawa, Tohru; Nishioka, Ken

    1990-01-01

    CT pictures from 59 lesions of advanced colon cancer including rectal cancer were reviewed to evaluate a role of CT in preoperative staging diagnosis. CT findings were recorded following general rules for clinical and pathological studies on cancer of colon rectum and anus, proposed by Japanese society for cancer of colon and rectum. Tumors were detected in 90% of advanced colon cancers. Sensitivity in local extension (S factor) was 58.0%. Sensitivity in lymphonode involvement (N factor) was 50.0%. Sensitivity in final staging diagnosis, dividing colon cancer into two groups below st II and above st III, was 63.3%. Further study should be necessitated to provide useful information for preoperative staging diagnosis of colon cancer. (author)

  13. Luminally Acting Agents for Constipation Treatment: A Review Based on Literatures and Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of the most frequently reported gastrointestinal (GI disorders that negatively impacts quality of life and is associated with a significant economic burden to the patients and society. Traditional treatments including lifestyle modification and laxatives are often ineffective in the more severe forms of constipation and over the long term. New medications targeting at intestinal chloride channels and colonic serotonin receptors have been demonstrated effective in recent years. Emerging agents focusing on improving intestinal secretion and/or colonic motility have been shown effective in animal models and even in clinical trials. Recognization of the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs in intestine fluid secretion and motility modulation makes CFTR and CaCCs promising molecule targets for anti-constipation therapy. Although there are multiple choices for constipation treatment, there is still a recognized need for new medications in anti-constipation therapy. The present review covers the discovery of luminally acting agents for constipation treatment described in both patents (2011–present and scientific literatures.

  14. Surgery for luminal Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) require surgery. Indications for surgery include failure of medical treatment, bowel obstruction, fistula or abscess formation. The most common surgical procedure is resection. In jejunoileal CD, strictureplasty is an accepted surgical technique that relieves the obstructive symptoms, while preserving intestinal length and avoiding the development of short bowel syndrome. However, the role of strictureplasty in duodenal and colonic diseases remains controversial. In extensive colitis, after total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (IRA), the recurrence rates and functional outcomes are reasonable. For patients with extensive colitis and rectal involvement, total colectomy and end-ileostomy is safe and effective; however, a few patients can have subsequent IRA, and half of the patients will require proctectomy later. Proctocolectomy is associated with a high incidence of delayed perineal wound healing, but it carries a low recurrence rate. Patients undergoing proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis had poor functional outcomes and high failure rates. Laparoscopic surgery has been introduced as a minimal invasive procedure. Patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery have a more rapid recovery of bowel function and a shorter hospital stay. The morbidity also is lower, and the rate of disease recurrence is similar compared with open procedures. PMID:24415860

  15. An Act of Colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    When Gideon Welles, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, sat down to write his diary entry on September 26, 1862, his thoughts turned once more to colonization. President Lincoln was an ardent proponent of colonization, “the government-promoted settlement of black Americans in Africa or some other location....... Croix. Thus, when the Lincoln administration seriously considered colonization plans in 1862, Danish Charge d’Affaires Waldemar Raasløff offered free transport for freedmen to the Caribbean island, where there was a “distinct lack of laborers.” As a small first step towards colonization, Denmark...

  16. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  17. Feasibility of using automated insufflated carbon dioxide (CO2) for luminal distension in 3.0 T MR colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijta, F.M.; Nederveen, A.J.; Jensch, S.; Florie, J.; Bipat, S.; Paardt, M.P. van der; Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Primary aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of automated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) delivery as luminal distending agent in 3.0 T MR colonography. Materials and methods: Rectally insufflated CO 2 was evaluated in four groups with different bowel preparation (A–D). Bowel preparation regimes were: gadolinium-based tagging (A), bowel purgation (B), barium-based tagging (C) and iodine-based tagging (D). Supine (3D)T1w-FFE and (2D)T2w-SSFSE series were acquired. Each colon was divided into six segments (cecum S1–rectum S6). Two observers independently assessed the presence of artefacts, diagnostic confidence and segmental colonic distension. Also characteristics of the residual stool (presence, composition and signal-intensity) were assessed per segment. Discomfort was assessed with questionnaires. Results: Fourteen healthy subjects were included. Colonic distension by means of rectally insufflated CO 2 was not associated with susceptibility artefacts. Overall image quality was affected by the presence of bowel motion-related artefacts: none of the segments in 3DT1w-series and 10/84 (12%) colon segments in 2DT2w-series were rated artefact-free by both observers. Diagnostic confidence ratings were superior for the 2DT2w-SSFSE series. Overall bowel distension was rated adequate to optimal in 312/336 (93%) colon segments. Conclusion: MR colonography at 3.0 T using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for colonic distension is technically feasible. The presence of intraluminal CO 2 did not result in susceptibility artefacts, although overall image quality was influenced by artefacts.

  18. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen; Abel, Tom; KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-01-01

    leave the discussion of feedback to lecture notes by Ferrara and Salvaterra and by Madau and Haardt in this same book and focus only on the aspects of the formation of the first objects. The advent of cosmological numerical hydrodynamics in particular allow a fresh new look at these questions. Hence, these notes will touch on aspects of theoretical cosmology to chemistry, computer science, hydrodynamics and atomic physics. For further reading and more references on the subject we refer the reader to other relevant reviews such as Barkana and Loeb 2001, and more recently Ciardi and Ferrara 2004, Glover 2004 and Bromm and Larson 2004. In these notes, we try to give a brief introduction to only the most relevant aspects. We will start with a brief overview of the relevant cosmological concepts in section 2, followed by a discussion of the properties of primordial material (with particular emphasis to its cooling and its chemistry) in section 3. We will then review the technique and the results of numerical simulations in sections 4 and 5: the former will deal with detailed 3D simulations of the formation of gaseous clouds which are likely to transform into luminous objects, while the latter will examine results (mostly from 1D codes) about the modalities of such transformation. Finally, in section 6 we will critically discuss the results of the previous sections, examining their consequences and comparing them to our present knowledge of the universe

  19. Closing the mind's eye: incoming luminance signals disrupt visual imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sherwood

    Full Text Available Mental imagery has been associated with many cognitive functions, both high and low-level. Despite recent scientific advances, the contextual and environmental conditions that most affect the mechanisms of visual imagery remain unclear. It has been previously shown that the greater the level of background luminance the weaker the effect of imagery on subsequent perception. However, in these experiments it was unclear whether the luminance was affecting imagery generation or storage of a memory trace. Here, we report that background luminance can attenuate both mental imagery generation and imagery storage during an unrelated cognitive task. However, imagery generation was more sensitive to the degree of luminance. In addition, we show that these findings were not due to differential dark adaptation. These results suggest that afferent visual signals can interfere with both the formation and priming-memory effects associated with visual imagery. It follows that background luminance may be a valuable tool for investigating imagery and its role in various cognitive and sensory processes.

  20. Association of proteasomal activity with metastasis in luminal breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashova, E. E.; Fesik, E. A.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Chimotrypsin-like (ChTL) and caspase-like (CL) proteasomal activities were investigated in different variants of the tumor progression of luminal breast cancer. Patients with primary luminal breast cancer (n = 123) in stage T1-3N0-2M0 who had not received neoadjuvant treatment were included in this study. Proteasome ChTL and CL activities were determined in the samples of tumor and adjacent tissues. The coefficients of chymotrypsin-like (kChTL) and caspase-like (kCL) proteasome activity were also calculated as the ratio of the corresponding activity in the tumor tissue to activity in the adjacent tissue. ChTL, CL, kChTL and kCL in the tissues of luminal A and B breast cancer with lymphogenic metastasis were compared, and their association with hematogenous metastasis was evaluated. On the one hand, CL activity of proteasomes increased in luminal A breast cancer with extensive lymphogenic metastasis (N2), on the other hand it decreased in the luminal B subtype of cancer. The ratio of proteasomal activity in the tumor and adjacent tissues plays a significant role in the hematogenic pathway of breast cancer progression and is associated with poor metastatic-free survival.

  1. Symbiosis initiation in the bacterially luminous sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, P V; Gould, A L; Wittenrich, M L; Nakamura, M

    2012-09-01

    To determine how each new generation of the sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor acquires the symbiotic luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis, and when in its development the S. versicolor initiates the symbiosis, procedures were established for rearing S. versicolor larvae in an aposymbiotic state. Under the conditions provided, larvae survived and developed for 28 days after their release from the mouths of males. Notochord flexion began at 8 days post release (dpr). By 28 dpr, squamation was evident and the caudal complex was complete. The light organ remained free of bacteria but increased in size and complexity during development of the larvae. Thus, aposymbiotic larvae of the fish can survive and develop for extended periods, major components of the luminescence system develop in the absence of the bacteria and the bacteria are not acquired directly from a parent, via the egg or during mouth brooding. Presentation of the symbiotic bacteria to aposymbiotic larvae at 8-10 dpr, but not earlier, led to initiation of the symbiosis. Upon colonization of the light organ, the bacterial population increased rapidly and cells forming the light-organ chambers exhibited a differentiated appearance. Therefore, the light organ apparently first becomes receptive to colonization after 1 week post-release development, the symbiosis is initiated by bacteria acquired from the environment and bacterial colonization induces morphological changes in the nascent light organ. The abilities to culture larvae of S. versicolor for extended periods and to initiate the symbiosis in aposymbiotic larvae are key steps in establishing the experimental tractability of this highly specific vertebrate and microbe mutualism. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  3. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  4. Colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldombide, L.; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the diagnosis, therapy and monitoring of colon cancer. The techniques used are the endoscopy with biopsy in the pre and post operative colon surgery, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray studies of hemogram as well as liver and renal function

  5. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  6. Luminal progenitors restrict their lineage potential during mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Veronica; Dasti, Alessandro; Huyghe, Mathilde; Lafkas, Daniel; Laurent, Cécile; Reyal, Fabien; Fre, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The hierarchical relationships between stem cells and progenitors that guide mammary gland morphogenesis are still poorly defined. While multipotent basal stem cells have been found within the myoepithelial compartment, the in vivo lineage potential of luminal progenitors is unclear. Here we used the expression of the Notch1 receptor, previously implicated in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis, to elucidate the hierarchical organization of mammary stem/progenitor cells by lineage tracing. We found that Notch1 expression identifies multipotent stem cells in the embryonic mammary bud, which progressively restrict their lineage potential during mammary ductal morphogenesis to exclusively generate an ERαneg luminal lineage postnatally. Importantly, our results show that Notch1-labelled cells represent the alveolar progenitors that expand during pregnancy and survive multiple successive involutions. This study reveals that postnatal luminal epithelial cells derive from distinct self-sustained lineages that may represent the cells of origin of different breast cancer subtypes.

  7. Asymmetric effects of luminance and chrominance in the watercolor illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eCoia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when the enclosing line has greater contrast with the background than the line that induces the spreading color. In most prior experiments with watercolor spreading, the luminance of both lines has been lower than the background. An achromatic version of the illusion exists where a dark line will spread while being bounded by either a darker or brighter line. In a previous study we measured the strength of the watercolor effect in which the colored inducing line was isoluminant to the background, and found an illusion for both brighter and darker achromatic outer contours. We also found the strength of spreading is stronger for bluish (+S cone input colors compared to yellowish (-S cone input ones, when bounded by a dark line. The current study set out to measure the hue dependence of the watercolor illusion when inducing colors are flanked with brighter (increment as opposed to darker outer lines. The asymmetry in the watercolor effect with S cone input was enhanced when the inducing contrast was an increment rather than a decrement. Further experiments explored the relationship between the perceived contrast of these chromatic lines when paired with luminance increments and decrements and revealed that the perceived contrast of luminance increments and decrements is dependent on which isoluminant color they are paired with. In addition to known hue asymmetries in the watercolor illusion there are asymmetries between luminance increments and decrements that are also hue dependent. These latter asymmetries may be related to the perceived contrast of the hue/luminance parings.

  8. Asymmetric effects of luminance and chrominance in the watercolor illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Andrew J; Crognale, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    When bounded by a line of sufficient contrast, the desaturated hue of a colored line will spread over an enclosed area, an effect known as the watercolor illusion. The contrast of the two lines can be in luminance, chromaticity, or a combination of both. The effect is most salient when the enclosing line has greater contrast with the background than the line that induces the spreading color. In most prior experiments with watercolor spreading, the luminance of both lines has been lower than the background. An achromatic version of the illusion exists where a dark line will spread while being bounded by either a darker or brighter line. In a previous study we measured the strength of the watercolor effect in which the colored inducing line was isoluminant to the background, and found an illusion for both brighter and darker achromatic outer contours. We also found the strength of spreading is stronger for bluish (+S cone input) colors compared to yellowish (-S cone input) ones, when bounded by a dark line. The current study set out to measure the hue dependence of the watercolor illusion when inducing colors are flanked with brighter (increment) as opposed to darker outer lines. The asymmetry in the watercolor effect with S cone input was enhanced when the inducing contrast was an increment rather than a decrement. Further experiments explored the relationship between the perceived contrast of these chromatic lines when paired with luminance increments and decrements and revealed that the perceived contrast of luminance increments and decrements is dependent on which isoluminant color they are paired with. In addition to known hue asymmetries in the watercolor illusion there are asymmetries between luminance increments and decrements that are also hue dependent. These latter asymmetries may be related to the perceived contrast of the hue/luminance parings.

  9. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  10. External carotid compression: a novel technique to improve cerebral perfusion during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Hilary P; Ambrose, Emma; Moon, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) involving cannulation of either the axillary or innominate artery is a commonly used technique for maintaining cerebral blood flow (CBF) during the use of hypothermic cardiac arrest (HCA) for operations on the aortic arch. Nevertheless, asymmetrical CBF with hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere is a common occurrence during SACP. The purpose of this report is to describe an adjunctive maneuver to improve left hemispheric CBF during SACP by applying extrinsic compression to the left carotid artery. A 77-yr-old male patient with a history of aortic valve replacement presented for emergent surgical repair of an acute type A aortic dissection of a previously known ascending aortic aneurysm. His intraoperative course included cannulation of the right axillary artery, which was used as the aortic inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass and also allowed for subsequent SACP during HCA. After the onset of HCA, the innominate artery was clamped at its origin to allow for SACP. Shortly thereafter, however, the left-sided cerebral oxygen saturation (SrO2) began to decrease. Augmenting the PaO2, PaCO2 and both SACP pressure and flow failed to increase left hemispheric SrO2. Following the use of ultrasound guidance to confirm the absence of atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery, external pressure was applied partially compressing the artery. With the carotid compression, the left cerebral saturation abruptly increased, suggesting pressurization of the left cerebral hemispheric circulation and augmentation of CBF. Direct ultrasound visualization and cautious partial compression of the left carotid artery may address asymmetrical CBF that occurs with SACP during HCA for aortic arch surgery. This strategy may lead to improved symmetry of CBF and corresponding cerebral oximetry measurements during aortic arch surgery.

  11. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Luminous Bacteria Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryasheva, N.; Rozhko, T.; Alexandrova, M.; Vasyunkina, E.; Arkhipova, V.

    2011-01-01

    Marine luminous bacteria were used to monitor toxicity of alpha- (Am-241, U-235+238) and beta- (tritium) radionuclide solutions. Increase or inhibition of bacterial luminescence was observed under exposure to radionuclides. Radiation toxicity of Am and chemical toxicity of U were demonstrated. Effects of U were similar to those of stable heavy metals: sensitivity was about 10-5 M. Sensitivity of the bacteria to Am-241 was 300 Bq/L (10 -11 M). Inhibition of bacterial growth was observed under exposure to Am-241 and tritium. Role of peroxides and electron transfer processes in the effects of radionuclides on luminous bacteria is discussed.

  12. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  13. Retrograde pedal access with a 20-gauge intravenous cannula after failed antegrade recanalization of a tibialis anterior artery in a diabetic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel Colkesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde tibiopedal approach is being used frequently in below-the-knee vascular interventions. In patients with diabetic foot pathology, complex anatomy often requires a retrograde technique when the distal vascular anatomy and puncture site is suitable. The dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries can be punctured because of their relatively superficial position. We report a retrograde puncturing technique in patients with chronic total occlusions. After failed antegrade recanalization, puncturing and cannulation of a tiny dorsalis pedis artery with a narrow bore [20-gauge (0.8 mm] intravenous cannula is described.

  14. MicroRNA-200, associated with metastatic breast cancer, promotes traits of mammary luminal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cid, Lourdes; Pons, Mònica; Lozano, Juan José; Rubio, Nuria; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Soriano, Aroa; Paris-Coderch, Laia; Segura, Miquel F; Fueyo, Raquel; Arguimbau, Judit; Zodda, Erika; Bermudo, Raquel; Alonso, Immaculada; Caparrós, Xavier; Cascante, Marta; Rafii, Arash; Kang, Yibin; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; Weiss, Stephen J; Blanco, Jerónimo; Muñoz, Montserrat; Fernández, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2017-10-13

    MicroRNAs are critical regulators of gene networks in normal and abnormal biological processes. Focusing on invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC), we have found dysregulated expression in tumor samples of several microRNAs, including the miR-200 family, along progression from primary tumors to distant metastases, further reflected in higher blood levels of miR-200b and miR-7 in IDC patients with regional or distant metastases relative to patients with primary node-negative tumors. Forced expression of miR-200s in MCF10CA1h mammary cells induced an enhanced epithelial program, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, mammosphere growth and ability to form branched tubuloalveolar structures while promoting orthotopic tumor growth and lung colonization in vivo . MiR-200s also induced the constitutive activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling through downregulation of PTEN, and the enhanced mammosphere growth and ALDH activity induced in MCF10CA1h cells by miR-200s required the activation of this signaling pathway. Interestingly, the morphology of tumors formed in vivo by cells expressing miR-200s was reminiscent of metaplastic breast cancer (MBC). Indeed, the epithelial components of MBC samples expressed significantly higher levels of miR-200s than their mesenchymal components and displayed a marker profile compatible with luminal progenitor cells. We propose that microRNAs of the miR-200 family promote traits of highly proliferative breast luminal progenitor cells, thereby exacerbating the growth and metastatic properties of transformed mammary epithelial cells.

  15. THE UNUSUALLY LUMINOUS EXTRAGALACTIC NOVA SN 2010U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czekala, Ian; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Marion, G. H.; Margutti, R.; Challis, P.; Pastorello, A.; Botticella, M. T.; Ergon, M.; Sollerman, J.; Smartt, S.; Vinkó, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the unusual optical transient SN 2010U, including spectra taken 1.03 days to 15.3 days after maximum light that identify it as a fast and luminous Fe II type nova. Our multi-band light curve traces the fast decline (t 2 = 3.5 ± 0.3 days) from maximum light (M V = –10.2 ± 0.1 mag), placing SN 2010U in the top 0.5% of the most luminous novae ever observed. We find typical ejecta velocities of ≈1100 km s –1 and that SN 2010U shares many spectral and photometric characteristics with two other fast and luminous Fe II type novae, including Nova LMC 1991 and M31N-2007-11d. For the extreme luminosity of this nova, the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relationship indicates a massive white dwarf (WD) progenitor with a low pre-outburst accretion rate. However, this prediction is in conflict with emerging theories of nova populations, which predict that luminous novae from massive WDs should preferentially exhibit an alternate spectral type (He/N) near maximum light.

  16. Profile of a Growing Urban School: The Lumin Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Terry

    2015-01-01

    This fairytale-come-true began with an idealistic public school teacher just out of college who lived in the neighborhood of her students. In stages, working with a community organizing group consisting mainly of concerned parents, Terry Ford founded what is now called Lumin Education, a network of campuses serving more than six hundred children…

  17. SN 2010U: A LUMINOUS NOVA IN NGC 4214

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Helton, L. Andrew; Prieto, Jose L.; Rosenfield, Philip; Williams, Benjamin; Murphy, Jeremiah; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gilbert, Karoline; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Khan, Rubab; Szczygiel, Dorota; Mogren, Karen; Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The luminosity, light curve, post-maximum spectrum, and lack of a progenitor on deep pre-outburst images suggest that SN 2010U was a luminous, fast nova. Its outburst magnitude is consistent with that for a fast nova using the maximum magnitude-rate of decline relationship for classical novae.

  18. Might dark matter not be concentric with luminous matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chongming; Lu Tan.

    1986-12-01

    In this paper, an idea on dark matter nonconcentric with luminous matter is proposed. This case could influence the rotation curve of galaxy differently in its different direction. Recently, Rubin and Ford's observation on rotation curve of Hickson 88a has been explained by means of the idea. Some possible observational predictions have also been given. (author)

  19. Luminance compensation for AMOLED displays using integrated MIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vygranenko, Yuri; Fernandes, Miguel; Louro, Paula; Vieira, Manuela

    2017-05-01

    Active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes (AMOLEDs) are ideal for future TV applications due to their ability to faithfully reproduce real images. However, pixel luminance can be affected by instability of driver TFTs and aging effect in OLEDs. This paper reports on a pixel driver utilizing a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) sensor for luminance control of the OLED element. In the proposed pixel architecture for bottom-emission AMOLEDs, the embedded MIS sensor shares the same layer stack with back-channel etched a Si:H TFTs to maintain the fabrication simplicity. The pixel design for a large-area HD display is presented. The external electronics performs image processing to modify incoming video using correction parameters for each pixel in the backplane, and also sensor data processing to update the correction parameters. The luminance adjusting algorithm is based on realistic models for pixel circuit elements to predict the relation between the programming voltage and OLED luminance. SPICE modeling of the sensing part of the backplane is performed to demonstrate its feasibility. Details on the pixel circuit functionality including the sensing and programming operations are also discussed.

  20. Mechanical feedback in the molecular ISM of luminous IR galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loenen, A. F.; Spaans, M.; Baan, W. A.; Meijerink, R.

    Aims. Molecular emission lines originating in the nuclei of luminous infra-red galaxies are used to determine the physical properties of the nuclear ISM in these systems. Methods. A large observational database of molecular emission lines is compared with model predictions that include heating by UV

  1. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Gastric luminal epidermal growth factor is affected by diet | Iputo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Diet is an area of major interest to those investigating the causes of cancer of the oesophagus in the Transkei. This study looked at the associations between intragastric epidermal growth factor level, diet and intragastric pH. Setting and subjects. A dietary survey was co-ordinated with studies of gastric luminal ...

  3. Vocal Fold Epithelial Response to Luminal Osmotic Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Dry-air challenges increase the osmolarity of fluid lining the luminal surface of the proximal airway. The homeostasis of surface fluid is thought to be essential for voice production and laryngeal defense. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that viable vocal fold epithelium would generate a water flux to reduce an osmotic challenge (150…

  4. The predetermination of the luminance in tunnel entrances at day.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. & Oud, H.J.C.

    1988-01-01

    In tunnel lighting practice, only the scatter in the eye, in the windscreen of the car, and in the atmosphere need to be taken into account. For all practical day- time conditions, the required luminance in any portion of the tunnel can be assessed as being a constant fraction of this sum-

  5. Relationship between luminous fish and symbiosis. I. Comparative studies of lipopolysaccharides isolated from symbiotic luminous bacteria of the luminous marine fish, Physiculus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, T; Andoh, M; Fukasawa, S; Kurata, M

    1983-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between host and symbiosis in the luminous marine fish, Physiculus japonicus, the bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of symbiotic luminous bacteria were compared serologically and electrophoretically. Five symbiotic luminous bacteria (PJ strains) were separately isolated from five individuals of this fish species caught at three points, off the coasts of Chiba, Nakaminato, and Oharai. LPS preparations were made from these bacteria by Westphal's phenol-water method and highly purified by repeated ultracentrifugation. These LPSs contained little or no 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate and had powerful mitogenic activity. In sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, these PJ-1 to -5 LPSs were separated by their electrophoretic patterns into three groups; the first group included PJ-1 and PJ-4, the second group PJ-2 and PJ-3, and the third group PJ-5 alone. The results agreed with those of the double immunodiffusion test; precipitin lines completely coalesced within each group but not with other groups. In immunoelectrophoresis, one precipitin line was observed between anti PJ-2 LPS serum and PJ-5 LPS but the electrophoretic mobility of PJ-5 LPS was clearly different from that of the PJ-2 LPS group. Furthermore, in a 50% inhibition test with PJ-2 LPS by the passive hemolysis system, the doses of PJ-2 LPS, PJ-3 LPS, and PJ-5 LPS required for 50% inhibition (ID50) in this system were 0.25, 0.25, and 21.6 micrograms/ml for each alkali-treated LPS, respectively, and the ID50's of both PJ-1 LPS and PJ-4 LPS were above 1,000 micrograms/ml. These results indicate that PJ-5 LPS has an antigenic determinant partially in common with LPS from the PJ-2 group but not with LPS from the PJ-1 group and that the symbiotic luminous bacterium PJ-5 is more closely related to the PJ-2 group than to the PJ-1 group. These results show that the species Physiculus japonicus is symbiotically associated with at least three immunologically different

  6. Reproducibility of airway luminal size in asthma measured by HRCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Henderson, Robert J; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Holbrook, Janet T; Wise, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Brown RH, Henderson RJ, Sugar EA, Holbrook JT, Wise RA, on behalf of the American Lung Association Airways Clinical Research Centers. Reproducibility of airway luminal size in asthma measured by HRCT. J Appl Physiol 123: 876-883, 2017. First published July 13, 2017; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00307.2017.-High-resolution CT (HRCT) is a well-established imaging technology used to measure lung and airway morphology in vivo. However, there is a surprising lack of studies examining HRCT reproducibility. The CPAP Trial was a multicenter, randomized, three-parallel-arm, sham-controlled 12-wk clinical trial to assess the use of a nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device on airway reactivity to methacholine. The lack of a treatment effect of CPAP on clinical or HRCT measures provided an opportunity for the current analysis. We assessed the reproducibility of HRCT imaging over 12 wk. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated for individual airway segments, individual lung lobes, both lungs, and air trapping. The ICC [95% confidence interval (CI)] for airway luminal size at total lung capacity ranged from 0.95 (0.91, 0.97) to 0.47 (0.27, 0.69). The ICC (95% CI) for airway luminal size at functional residual capacity ranged from 0.91 (0.85, 0.95) to 0.32 (0.11, 0.65). The ICC measurements for airway distensibility index and wall thickness were lower, ranging from poor (0.08) to moderate (0.63) agreement. The ICC for air trapping at functional residual capacity was 0.89 (0.81, 0.94) and varied only modestly by lobe from 0.76 (0.61, 0.87) to 0.95 (0.92, 0.97). In stable well-controlled asthmatic subjects, it is possible to reproducibly image unstimulated airway luminal areas over time, by region, and by size at total lung capacity throughout the lungs. Therefore, any changes in luminal size on repeat CT imaging are more likely due to changes in disease state and less likely due to normal variability. NEW & NOTEWORTHY There is a surprising lack

  7. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seong-Min; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid c...

  8. SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL SELECTIVITY OF LUMINANCE VISION IN REEF FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike E Siebeck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luminance vision has high spatial resolution and is used for form vision and texture discrimination. In humans, birds and bees luminance channel is spectrally selective – it depends on the signals of the long-wavelength sensitive photoreceptors (bees or on the sum of long- and middle- wavelength sensitive cones (humans, but not on the signal of the short-wavelength sensitive (blue photoreceptors. The reasons of such selectivity are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the inputs of cone signals to high resolution luminance vision in reef fish. 16 freshly caught damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were trained to discriminate stimuli differing either in their colour or in their fine patterns (stripes vs. cheques. Three colours (‘bright green’, ‘dark green’ and ‘blue’ were used to create two sets of colour and two sets of pattern stimuli. The ‘bright green’ and ‘dark green’ were similar in their chromatic properties for fish, but differed in their lightness; the ‘dark green’ differed from ‘blue’ in the signal for the blue cone, but yielded similar signals in the long-wavelength and middle-wavelength cones. Fish easily learned to discriminate ‘bright green’ from ‘dark green’ and ‘dark green’ from ‘blue’ stimuli. Fish also could discriminate the fine patterns created from ‘dark green’ and ‘bright green’. However, fish failed to discriminate fine patterns created from ‘blue’ and ‘dark green’ colours, i.e. the colours that provided contrast for the blue-sensitive photoreceptor, but not for the long-wavelength sensitive one. High resolution luminance vision in damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, does not have input from the blue-sensitive cone, which may indicate that the spectral selectivity of luminance channel is a general feature of visual processing in both aquatic and terrestrial animals.

  9. Membranous IVC Obstruction Presenting with Antegrade/Retrograde Respiratory Flow in the Intrahepatic Segment in Doppler Imaging and Prostatic and Urethral Congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, Dinesh; Mistry, Kewal A.; Chadha, Veenal; Sharma, Sarthak; Morey, Parikshit D.; Suthar, Pokhraj P.; Patel, Dhruv G.

    2015-01-01

    Obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is infrequent, membranous obstruction of the IVC (MOIVC) being one of its rare causes. Early diagnosis is important, as it can lead to hepatic congestion, cirrhosis and Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and can predispose to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in severe cases. We report a case of membranous IVC obstruction at the junction of hepatic and suprahepatic segments in a young male with extensive collateralization and venous aneurysms. Unique findings involved antegrade and retrograde flow during respiration in the upper part of intrahepatic IVC proximal to a large collateral vein as well as prostatic and urethral congestion leading to intermittent urinary hesitancy, which have not yet been described in such cases. MOIVC is a rare cause of IVC obstruction with typical radiological features. Early diagnosis and management is required due to risk of cirrhosis and HCC. Antegrade and retrograde flow may be seen in incomplete MOIVC above the level of a large collateral vein and it may lead to prostatic and urethral congestion

  10. Definition of a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum by 3D technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoreng; Zhang, Sheng; Luo, Qiang; Fang, Jintao; Lin, Chaowen; Leung, Frankie; Chen, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to define a safe zone for antegrade lag screw fixation of fracture of posterior column of the acetabulum using a novel 3D technology. Pelvic CT data of 59 human subjects were obtained to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) models. The transparency of 3D models was then downgraded along the axial perspective (the view perpendicular to the cross section of the posterior column axis) to find the largest translucent area. The outline of the largest translucent area was drawn on the iliac fossa. The line segments of OA, AB, OC, CD, the angles of OAB and OCD that delineate the safe zone (ABDC) were precisely measured. The resultant line segments OA, AB, OC, CD, and angles OAB and OCD were 28.46mm(13.15-44.97mm), 45.89mm (34.21-62.85mm), 36.34mm (18.68-55.56mm), 53.08mm (38.72-75.79mm), 37.44° (24.32-54.96°) and 55.78° (43.97-79.35°) respectively. This study demonstrates that computer-assisted 3D modelling techniques can aid in the precise definition of the safe zone for antegrade insertion of posterior column lag screws. A full-length lag screw can be inserted into the zone (ABDC), permitting a larger operational error. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of Antegrade Pulmonary Artery Diastolic Velocity with Spontaneous Closure of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dawn M; Kaiser, Jeffrey R; Swearingen, Christopher; Malik, Sadia; Sachdeva, Ritu

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to determine echocardiographic parameters associated with spontaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. Retrospective demographic review and analysis of echocardiograms from 189 ELBW infants with suspected and confirmed hemodynamically significant PDA identified on an initial echocardiogram was performed. Comparison of echocardiographic parameters was made between infants with spontaneous closure versus those who received treatment. The mean birth weight (787 ± 142 vs. 724 ± 141 g, p = 0.04) and gestational age (27.4 ± 2.8 vs. 26.2 ± 1.6 weeks, p = 0.03) were higher in the spontaneous closure versus the treatment group. Antegrade pulmonary artery (PA) diastolic velocity was lower in infants with spontaneous PDA closure versus those who received treatment (0.15 ± 0.06 vs. 0.22 ± 0.12 m/s, p = 0.009). Heavier and more mature ELBW infants with a lower antegrade PA diastolic velocity were likely to have spontaneous closure of the PDA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Effects of Irradiation on bacterial atp luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Hua

    2010-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on cooled pork and chicken was detected with ATP luminous intensity method. The influences of other factors to ATP luminous intensity were also discussed. There was positive correlation between ATP standard concentration and ATP luminous intensity, and negative correlation between irradiation dosage and ATP luminous intensity. The trend of ATP luminous intensity of cooled pork and chicken after irradiation was inverse S, and the maximum ATP luminous intensity appeared at 6.0 kGy, and minimum at 4.0 and 8.0 kGy. Sterilized water and sterilized pork had no interference to ATP luminous intensity of the samples. There was significant positive correlation between E. coli 10003 concentration and ATP luminous intensity, the coefficient correlation was 0.9437. (authors)

  13. Polymers in the gut compress the colonic mucus hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sujit S; Preska Steinberg, Asher; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2016-06-28

    Colonic mucus is a key biological hydrogel that protects the gut from infection and physical damage and mediates host-microbe interactions and drug delivery. However, little is known about how its structure is influenced by materials it comes into contact with regularly. For example, the gut abounds in polymers such as dietary fibers or administered therapeutics, yet whether such polymers interact with the mucus hydrogel, and if so, how, remains unclear. Although several biological processes have been identified as potential regulators of mucus structure, the polymeric composition of the gut environment has been ignored. Here, we demonstrate that gut polymers do in fact regulate mucus hydrogel structure, and that polymer-mucus interactions can be described using a thermodynamic model based on Flory-Huggins solution theory. We found that both dietary and therapeutic polymers dramatically compressed murine colonic mucus ex vivo and in vivo. This behavior depended strongly on both polymer concentration and molecular weight, in agreement with the predictions of our thermodynamic model. Moreover, exposure to polymer-rich luminal fluid from germ-free mice strongly compressed the mucus hydrogel, whereas exposure to luminal fluid from specific-pathogen-free mice-whose microbiota degrade gut polymers-did not; this suggests that gut microbes modulate mucus structure by degrading polymers. These findings highlight the role of mucus as a responsive biomaterial, and reveal a mechanism of mucus restructuring that must be integrated into the design and interpretation of studies involving therapeutic polymers, dietary fibers, and fiber-degrading gut microbes.

  14. File list: His.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells mm9 All antigens Breast Luminal cells SRX213395,SRX2...13418,SRX213398,SRX213416 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Brs.10.AllAg.Luminal_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Brs.05.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.05.AllAg.Luminal_cells mm9 Histone Breast Luminal cells SRX213395,SRX213418...,SRX213416 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Brs.05.AllAg.Luminal_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells mm9 Histone Breast Luminal cells SRX213395,SRX213418...,SRX213416 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Brs.50.AllAg.Luminal_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Brs.20.AllAg.Luminal_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. Radiation exposure to dial painters from 3H luminous paint industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    Tritium is used as the active component in self-luminous paint. The paper describes in-vitro solubilisation study of luminous paint in blood serum. Besides urine samples of luminous paint workers and air samples of two watch factories were analysed for 3 H. The results of these analysis are also presented. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Conjunctions of colour, luminance and orientation: the role of colour and luminance contrast on saliency and proximity grouping in texture segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, U; Singer, W

    2000-01-01

    To examine whether perceptual grouping on the basis of orientation can be performed simultaneously with or only subsequently to grouping according to colour or luminance, we tested whether subjects are able to segregate arrays of texture elements that differ from surrounding elements by conjunctions of either (i) colour and orientation, or (ii) luminance contrast and orientation, or (iii) luminance contrast polarity and orientation. Subjects were able to use conjunctions between luminance and orientation for segregation but not conjunctions between colour or contrast polarity and orientation. Our results suggest that (i) in agreement with earlier findings, there seem to exist no specific conjunction detectors for colour and orientation or contrast polarity and orientation, and (ii) when orientation defined textures are to be distinguished by virtue of differences in luminance, colour, or contrast polarity, luminance provides a much stronger cue than colour or contrast polarity for saliency-based orientation grouping.

  2. Carotenoids and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Benson, J; Curtin, K; Ma, K N; Schaeffer, D; Potter, J D

    2000-02-01

    Carotenoids have numerous biological properties that may underpin a role for them as chemopreventive agents. However, except for beta-carotene, little is known about how dietary carotenoids are associated with common cancers, including colon cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between dietary alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin and the risk of colon cancer. Data were collected from 1993 case subjects with first primary incident adenocarcinoma of the colon and from 2410 population-based control subjects. Dietary data were collected from a detailed diet-history questionnaire and nutrient values for dietary carotenoids were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture-Nutrition Coordinating Center carotenoid database (1998 updated version). Lutein was inversely associated with colon cancer in both men and women [odds ratio (OR) for upper quintile of intake relative to lowest quintile of intake: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.04; P = 0.04 for linear trend]. The greatest inverse association was observed among subjects in whom colon cancer was diagnosed when they were young (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.92; P = 0.02 for linear trend) and among those with tumors located in the proximal segment of the colon (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91; P lettuce, tomatoes, oranges and orange juice, carrots, celery, and greens. These data suggest that incorporating these foods into the diet may help reduce the risk of developing colon cancer.

  3. Spatiotemporal Characteristics for the Depth from Luminance Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Matsubara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Images with higher luminance contrast tend to be perceived closer in depth. To investigate a spatiotemporal characteristic of this effect, we evaluated subjective depth of a test stimulus with various spatial and temporal frequencies. For the purpose, the depth of a reference stimulus was matched to that of the test stimulus by changing the binocular disparity. The results showed that the test stimulus was perceived closer with higher luminance contrast for all conditions. Contrast efficiency was obtained from the contrast that provided the subjective depth for each spatiotemporal frequency. The shape of the contrast efficiency function was spatially low-pass and temporally band-pass. This characteristic is different from the one measure for a detection task. This suggests that only subset of contrast signals are used for depth from contrast.

  4. Development and construction of a programmable generator of luminous impulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahuc, P.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction of an impulse generator, for light waves, designed to control the characteristics of a scintillator. In these detectors, a particle gives rise to the emission of a luminous signal, which must be transformed in an electrical signal. In the present work, photomultipliers are used as luminous-electrical signal converters. The principles of operation of a scintillator, of a scintillator connected with a photodiode, and of a scintillator connected with a photomultiplier are reviewed. The analysis of the performance and of the possibilies offered by the usual generators of light, show that more suitable solutions are required. The characteristics of the electroluminescent diodes, their performances, concerning light emission and power, are investigated. The principles, the operating conditions and the performances of a generator of light, applying electroluminescent diodes, are examined. The construction and the results obtained with a prototype are presented [fr

  5. Geometry of illumination, luminance contrast, and gloss perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Frédéric B; Pointer, Michael R; Dutré, Philip; Hanselaer, Peter

    2010-09-01

    The influence of both the geometry of illumination and luminance contrast on gloss perception has been examined using the method of paired comparison. Six achromatic glass samples having different lightness were illuminated by two light sources. Only one of these light sources was visible in reflection by the observer. By separate adjustment of the intensity of both light sources, the luminance of both the reflected image and the adjacent off-specular surroundings could be individually varied. It was found that visual gloss appraisal did not correlate with instrumentally measured specular gloss; however, psychometric contrast seemed to be a much better correlate. It has become clear that not only the sample surface characteristics determine gloss perception: the illumination geometry could be an even more important factor.

  6. An evaluation of organic light emitting diode monitors for medical applications: great timing, but luminance artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Taylor, Christopher; Bex, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    In contrast to the dominant medical liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors control the display luminance via separate light-emitting diodes for each pixel and are therefore supposed to overcome many previously documented temporal artifacts of medical LCDs. We assessed the temporal and luminance characteristics of the only currently available OLED monitor designed for use in the medical treatment field (SONY PVM2551MD) and checked the authors' main findings with another SONY OLED device (PVM2541). Temporal properties of the photometric output were measured with an optical transient recorder. Luminances of the three color primaries and white for all 256 digital driving levels (DDLs) were measured with a spectroradiometer. Between the luminances of neighboring DDLs, just noticeable differences were calculated according to a perceptual model developed for medical displays. Luminances of full screen (FS) stimuli were compared to luminances of smaller stimuli with identical DDLs. All measured luminance transition times were below 300 μs. Luminances were independent of the luminance in the preceding frame. However, for the single color primaries, up to 50.5% of the luminances of neighboring DDLs were not perceptually distinguishable. If two color primaries were active simultaneously, between 36.7% and 55.1% of neighboring luminances for increasing DDLs of the third primary were even decreasing. Moreover, luminance saturation effects were observed when too many pixels were active simultaneously. This effect was strongest for white; a small white patch was close to 400 cd/m(2), but in FS the luminance of white saturated at 162 cd/m(2). Due to different saturation levels, the luminance of FS green and FS yellow could exceed the luminance of FS white for identical DDLs. The OLED temporal characteristics are excellent and superior to those of LCDs. However, the OLEDs revealed severe perceptually relevant artifacts with

  7. A metaproteomic approach to study human-microbial ecosystems at the mucosal luminal interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Li

    Full Text Available Aberrant interactions between the host and the intestinal bacteria are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of many digestive diseases. However, studying the complex ecosystem at the human mucosal-luminal interface (MLI is challenging and requires an integrative systems biology approach. Therefore, we developed a novel method integrating lavage sampling of the human mucosal surface, high-throughput proteomics, and a unique suite of bioinformatic and statistical analyses. Shotgun proteomic analysis of secreted proteins recovered from the MLI confirmed the presence of both human and bacterial components. To profile the MLI metaproteome, we collected 205 mucosal lavage samples from 38 healthy subjects, and subjected them to high-throughput proteomics. The spectral data were subjected to a rigorous data processing pipeline to optimize suitability for quantitation and analysis, and then were evaluated using a set of biostatistical tools. Compared to the mucosal transcriptome, the MLI metaproteome was enriched for extracellular proteins involved in response to stimulus and immune system processes. Analysis of the metaproteome revealed significant individual-related as well as anatomic region-related (biogeographic features. Quantitative shotgun proteomics established the identity and confirmed the biogeographic association of 49 proteins (including 3 functional protein networks demarcating the proximal and distal colon. This robust and integrated proteomic approach is thus effective for identifying functional features of the human mucosal ecosystem, and a fresh understanding of the basic biology and disease processes at the MLI.

  8. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths. - Highlights: • Urban sky glow is interpreted in terms of city emission function. • Luminance function in a suburban zone is linked to the City Pattern. • Single scattering approximation is applicable in modeling urban sky glow. • Information on aerosols represents valuable inputs to the retrieval procedure. • Sky glow patterns vary with light source distribution and spectral emission

  9. Selected luminal mucosal complications of adult celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Hugh J FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Celiac disease is a gluten-dependent intestinal disorder that appears to be associated with several clinical conditions. Some involve the luminal mucosa of the stomach and intestinal tract and may, occasionally, complicate the course of celiac disease. Collagenous colitis has been associated with celiac disease and may lead to chronic diarrhea. Conversely, some of t...

  10. Underlying mechanisms of transient luminous events: a review

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Surkov; M. Hayakawa

    2012-01-01

    Transient luminous events (TLEs) occasionally observed above a strong thunderstorm system have been the subject of a great deal of research during recent years. The main goal of this review is to introduce readers to recent theories of electrodynamics processes associated with TLEs. We examine the simplest versions of these theories in order to make their physics as transparent as possible. The study is begun with the conventional mechanism for air breakdown at stratospheric...

  11. Enigmatic sub-luminous accreting neutron stars in our Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, R.

    2008-01-01

    During the last few years a class of enigmatic sub-luminous accreting neutron stars has been found in our Galaxy. They have peak X-ray luminosities (2-10 keV) of a few times 10(34) erg s(−1) to a few times 10(35) erg s(−1), and both persistent and transient sources have been found. I present a short

  12. Dynamic encoding of natural luminance sequences by LGN bursts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Lesica

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN of the thalamus, visual stimulation produces two distinct types of responses known as tonic and burst. Due to the dynamics of the T-type Ca(2+ channels involved in burst generation, the type of response evoked by a particular stimulus depends on the resting membrane potential, which is controlled by a network of modulatory connections from other brain areas. In this study, we use simulated responses to natural scene movies to describe how modulatory and stimulus-driven changes in LGN membrane potential interact to determine the luminance sequences that trigger burst responses. We find that at low resting potentials, when the T channels are de-inactivated and bursts are relatively frequent, an excitatory stimulus transient alone is sufficient to evoke a burst. However, to evoke a burst at high resting potentials, when the T channels are inactivated and bursts are relatively rare, prolonged inhibitory stimulation followed by an excitatory transient is required. We also observe evidence of these effects in vivo, where analysis of experimental recordings demonstrates that the luminance sequences that trigger bursts can vary dramatically with the overall burst percentage of the response. To characterize the functional consequences of the effects of resting potential on burst generation, we simulate LGN responses to different luminance sequences at a range of resting potentials with and without a mechanism for generating bursts. Using analysis based on signal detection theory, we show that bursts enhance detection of specific luminance sequences, ranging from the onset of excitatory sequences at low resting potentials to the offset of inhibitory sequences at high resting potentials. These results suggest a dynamic role for burst responses during visual processing that may change according to behavioral state.

  13. Method and apparatus for generating highly luminous flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, G.M.

    1992-05-12

    A combustion process and apparatus are provided for generating a variable high temperature, highly luminous flame with low NOx emission by burning gaseous and liquid materials with oxygen and air. More particularly, the invention provides a process in which there is initial control of fuel, oxygen, and air flows and the delivery of the oxidizers to a burner as two oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations (for example, pure oxygen and air, or oxygen and oxygen-enriched air). A first oxidizing gas containing a high oxygen concentration is injected as a stream into the central zone of a combustion tunnel or chamber, and part of the fuel (preferably the major part) is injected into the central pyrolysis zone to mix with the first oxidizing gas to create a highly luminous high-temperature flame core containing microparticles of carbon of the proper size for maximum luminosity and high temperature, and a relatively small amount of hydrocarbon radicals. In addition, part of the fuel (preferably the minor part) is injected in a plurality of streams about the flame core to mix with a second oxidizing gas (containing a lower oxygen concentration than the first oxidizing gas) and injecting the second oxidizing mixture about the flame core and the minor fuel flow to mix with the minor fuel flow. This creates a plurality of fuel-lean (oxygen-rich) flames which are directed toward the luminous flame core to form a final flame pattern having high temperature, high luminosity, and low NOx content. 6 figs.

  14. The Role of Luminance and Chromaticity on Symmetry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of luminance and chromaticity on symmetry detection with the noise masking paradigm. In each trial, a random dot noise mask was presented in both intervals. A symmetric target was randomly presented in one interval while a random dot control was presented in the other. The orientation of the symmetric axis of the target was either 45°or −45° diagonal. The task of the observer was to determine which interval contained a symmetric target. The dots in both the target and the mask was painted with 1 to 4 colors selected from white, black, red, green, blue and yellow. We measured the target density threshold at various noise densities. Our results showed that when the number of the colors in the images was equal, the thresholds were lower in the luminance conditions than in the chromaticity conditions. In addition, the thresholds decreased with the increment of the number of the colors in the images. This suggests that (1 the luminance symmetry detection mechanism is more sensitive than chromaticity one and (2 that, contrasted to the prediction of an uncertainty model, the diversity in color facilitates symmetry detection.

  15. Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Craig A; McLin, Leon N; Rickman, J Michael; Manka, Michael A; Garcia, Paul V; Kinerk, Wesley T; Smith, Peter A

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000  cd·m -2 ). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600  μW·cm -2 and were asked to recognize the orientation of optotypes at varying eccentricities up to 31.6 deg of visual angle from the laser axis. More than 40,000 data points were collected from 14 subjects (ages 23-64), and these were consolidated into a series of obscuration angles for comparison to a theoretical model of laser eye dazzle. Scaling functions were derived to allow the model to predict the effects of laser dazzle on vision more accurately by including the effects of ambient luminance and laser wavelength. The updated model provides an improved match to observed laser eye dazzle effects across the full range of conditions assessed. The resulting model will find use in a variety of laser safety applications, including the estimation of maximum dazzle exposure and nominal ocular dazzle distance values.

  16. Relationships between luminance and visual acuity in the rhesus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavonius, C. R.; Robbins, D. O.

    1973-01-01

    1. The ability of rhesus monkeys to detect the gap in Landolt ring test-objects that were presented against background luminances between 5 × 10-5 cd/m2 and 5 × 103 cd/m2 was compared with similar human data. 2. At high luminance-levels the acuity of human observers is slightly better than that of rhesus, but rhesus have better acuity at scotopic luminance-levels. Both species have distinct photopic and scotopic acuity functions that cross at 6 × 10-3 cd/m2. 3. The threshold for light detection is estimated to be the same for both species when specified in quanta incident on the retina. 4. It is concluded that the receptor and neural mechanisms that mediate visual-acuity function similarly in rhesus and man, and that the differences in acuity that were measured in the two species may be attributed to optical rather than to physiological factors. PMID:4199366

  17. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  18. Complicated colonic intussusception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manuscript deals with the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed large bowel obstruction. Per-rectal examination revealed a pedunculated lesion in the rectum; rigid sigmoidoscopy revealed a prolapsing pedunculated mass with a necrotic surface. The patient recovered well following anterior resection. Histology confirmed a pedunculated sub mucosal lipoma as the lead point for intussusception. Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of adult large bowel obstruction, and the preoperative clinical diagnosis of this condition can be difficult. Resection of the involved segment of the colon is the most appropriate choice of treatment in most such cases.

  19. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    , intestinal K+ losses caused by activated ion secretion may become life threatening. This topical review provides an update of the molecular mechanisms and the regulation of mammalian colonic K+ absorption and secretion. It is motivated by recent results, which have identified the K+ secretory ion channel...... regulated by hormones and adapts readily to changes in dietary K+ intake, aldosterone and multiple local paracrine agonists. In chronic renal insufficiency, colonic K+ secretion is greatly enhanced and becomes an important accessory K+ excretory pathway. During severe diarrheal diseases of different causes...

  20. Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianping, E-mail: jpzhanglzu@163.com [College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Wenbin [College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Cheng, Guoliang; Chen, Xiao [Shanghai Tianyi Electric Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201611 (China); Wu, Helen [School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Sydney 2751 (Australia); Herman Shen, M.-H. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode (OLED), three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress. Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED. The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. - Highlights: • We gain luminance decaying data by accelerated degradation tests on OLED. • The luminance decaying model objectively reveals the decaying law of OLED luminance. • The least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate Weibull parameters. • The plan designed for accelerated degradation tests proves to be feasible. • The accuracy of the OLED life and the luminance decaying fitting formula is high.

  1. Robust brightness enhancement across a luminance range of the glare illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hideki; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Koida, Kowa

    2016-01-01

    The glare illusion refers to brightness enhancement and the perception of a self-luminous appearance that occurs when a central region is surrounded by a luminance gradient. The center region appears to be a light source, with its light dispersing into the surrounding region. If the luminous edge is critical for generating the illusion, modulating the perceived luminance of the image, and switching its appearance from luminous to nonluminous, would have a strong impact on lightness and brightness estimation. Here, we quantified the illusion in two ways, by assessing brightness enhancement and examining whether the center region appeared luminous. Thus, we could determine whether the two effects occurred jointly or independently. We examined a wide luminance range of center regions, from 0 to 200% relative to background. Brightness enhancement in the illusion was observed for a wide range of luminances (20% to 200% relative to background), while a luminous-white appearance was observed when the center region luminance was 145% of the background. These results exclude the possibility that brightness enhancement occurs because the stimuli appear self-luminous. We suggest that restoring the original image intensity precedes the perceptual process of lightness estimation.

  2. Life prediction of OLED for constant-stress accelerated degradation tests using luminance decaying model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianping; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Guoliang; Chen, Xiao; Wu, Helen; Herman Shen, M.-H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to acquire the life information of organic light emitting diode (OLED), three groups of constant stress accelerated degradation tests are performed to obtain the luminance decaying data of samples under the condition that the luminance and the current are respectively selected as the indicator of performance degradation and the test stress. Weibull function is applied to describe the relationship between luminance decaying and time, least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate the shape parameter and scale parameter, and the life prediction of OLED is achieved. The numerical results indicate that the accelerated degradation test and the luminance decaying model reveal the luminance decaying law of OLED. The luminance decaying formula fits the test data very well, and the average error of fitting value compared with the test data is small. Furthermore, the accuracy of the OLED life predicted by luminance decaying model is high, which enable rapid estimation of OLED life and provide significant guidelines to help engineers make decisions in design and manufacturing strategy from the aspect of reliability life. - Highlights: • We gain luminance decaying data by accelerated degradation tests on OLED. • The luminance decaying model objectively reveals the decaying law of OLED luminance. • The least square method (LSM) is employed to calculate Weibull parameters. • The plan designed for accelerated degradation tests proves to be feasible. • The accuracy of the OLED life and the luminance decaying fitting formula is high

  3. Conjugation of metronidazole with dextran: a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control colonic distribution of the anti-amebic drug susceptible to metabolism by colonic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Yang, Yejin; Kim, Dohoon; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Jung, Yunjin

    2017-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTDZ), the drug of choice for the treatment of protozoal infections such as luminal amebiasis, is highly susceptible to colonic metabolism, which may hinder its conversion from a colon-specific prodrug to an effective anti-amebic agent targeting the entire large intestine. Thus, in an attempt to control the colonic distribution of the drug, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, MTDZ conjugated to dextran via a succinate linker (Dex-SA-MTDZ), was designed. Upon treatment with dextranase for 8 h, the degree of Dex-SA-MTDZ depolymerization (%) with a degree of substitution (mg of MTDZ bound in 100 mg of Dex-SA-MTDZ) of 7, 17, and 30 was 72, 38, and 8, respectively, while that of dextran was 85. Depolymerization of Dex-SA-MTDZ was found to be necessary for the release of MTDZ, because dextranase pretreatment ensures that de-esterification occurs between MTDZ and the dextran backbone. In parallel, Dex-SA-MTDZ with a degree of substitution of 17 was found not to release MTDZ upon incubation with the contents of the small intestine and stomach of rats, but it released MTDZ when incubated with rat cecal contents (including microbial dextranases). Moreover, Dex-SA-MTDZ exhibited prolonged release of MTDZ, which contrasts with drug release by small molecular colon-specific prodrugs, MTDZ sulfate and N -nicotinoyl-2-{2-(2-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-1-yl)ethyloxy}-d,l-glycine. These prodrugs were eliminated very rapidly, and no MTDZ was detected in the cecal contents. Consistent with these in vitro results, we found that oral gavage of Dex-SA-MTDZ delivered MTDZ (as MTDZ conjugated to [depolymerized] dextran) to the distal colon. However, upon oral gavage of the small molecular prodrugs, no prodrugs were detected in the distal colon. Collectively, these data suggest that dextran conjugation is a potential pharmaceutical strategy to control the colonic distribution of drugs susceptible to colonic microbial metabolism.

  4. MRI texture analysis in differentiating luminal A and luminal B breast cancer molecular subtypes - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holli-Helenius, Kirsi; Salminen, Annukka; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Koskivuo, Ilkka; Brück, Nina; Boström, Pia; Parkkola, Riitta

    2017-12-29

    The aim of this study was to use texture analysis (TA) of breast magnetic resonance (MR) images to assist in differentiating estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer molecular subtypes. Twenty-seven patients with histopathologically proven invasive ductal breast cancer were selected in preliminary study. Tumors were classified into molecular subtypes: luminal A (ER-positive and/or progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) -negative, proliferation marker Ki-67 MaZda. Texture parameters and tumour volumes were correlated with tumour prognostic factors. Textural differences were observed mainly in precontrast images. The two most discriminative texture parameters to differentiate luminal A and luminal B subtypes were sum entropy and sum variance (p = 0.003). The AUCs were 0.828 for sum entropy (p = 0.004), and 0.833 for sum variance (p = 0.003), and 0.878 for the model combining texture features sum entropy, sum variance (p = 0.001). In the LOOCV, the AUC for model combining features sum entropy and sum variance was 0.876. Sum entropy and sum variance showed positive correlation with higher Ki-67 index. Luminal B types were larger in volume and moderate correlation between larger tumour volume and higher Ki-67 index was also observed (r = 0.499, p = 0.008). Texture features which measure randomness, heterogeneity or smoothness and homogeneity may either directly or indirectly reflect underlying growth patterns of breast tumours. TA and volumetric analysis may provide a way to evaluate the biologic aggressiveness of breast tumours and provide aid in decisions regarding therapeutic efficacy.

  5. Large impacted upper ureteral calculi: A comparative study between retrograde ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy in the modified lateral position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufid, Kamal; Abbaka, Najib; Touiti, Driss; Adermouch, Latifa; Amine, Mohamed; Lezrek, Mohammed

    2013-07-01

    The treatment for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial, especially at institutions with limited resources. The aim of this study is to compare and to evaluate the outcome and complications of two main treatment procedures for impacted proximal ureteral calculi, retrograde ureterolithotripsy (URS), and percutaneous antegrade ureterolithotripsy (Perc-URS). Our inclusion criteria were solitary, radiopaque calculi, >15 mm in size in a functioning renal unit. Only those patients in whom the attempt at passing a guidewire or catheter beyond the calculus failed were included in this study. Between January 2007 and July 2011, a total of 52 patients (13 women and 39 men) with large impacted upper-ureteral calculi >15 mm and meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Of these, Perc-URS was done in 22 patients (group 1) while retrograde ureteroscopy was performed in 30 patients (group 2). We analyzed operative time, incidence of complications during and after surgery, the number of postoperative recovery days, median total costs associated per patient per procedure, and the stone-free rate immediately after 5 days and after 1 month. Bivariate analysis used the Student t-test and the Mann-Whitney test to compare two means and Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests to compare two percentages. The significance level was set at 0.05. The mean age was 42.3 years (range 22-69). The mean stone sizes (mm) were 34 ± 1.2 and 29.3 ± 1.8 mm in group 1 and 2, respectively. In the Perc-URS group, 21 patients (95.45%) had complete calculus clearance through a single tract in one session of percutaneous surgery, whereas in the URS group, only 20 patients (66.7%) had complete stone clearance (P = 0.007). The mean operative time was higher in the Perc-URS group compared to group 2 (66.5 ± 21.7 vs. 52.13 ± 17.3 min, respectively; P = 0.013). Complications encountered in group 1 included transient postoperative fever (2 pts) and simple urine outflow (2

  6. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  7. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  8. The usefulness of T2-weighted MR urography and contrast enhanced MR urography in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy: comparisonal study with antegrade pyelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Chang Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Jin, Kong Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Young Kon; Oh, Gyung Jae

    2002-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted magnetic resonance urography (MRU) for the depiction of obstruction and evaluation of the causes of obstructive uropathy with that of antegrade pyelography. Twenty-five patients with obstructive uropathy who underwent percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and antegrade pyelography( AGP) were included in the study. We performed MR urography, comprising half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) T2- weighted imaging and 3-D fast imaging with steady state precession (3-D FISP) T1-weighted imaging after gadolinium enhancement and compared the quality of the images of both the HASTE and 3-D FISP MRU technique in terms of their depiction of the dilated pelvocalyceal system, and the level, type, and causes of obstruction. In terms of anatomical depiction of the pelvocalyceal system (p=0.002) and the causes of obstruction (p=0.003). T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP was significantly better than T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence. Regarding level of obstruction, T2-weighted MRU using the HASTE sequence and contrast enhanced T1-weighted MRU using 3D-FISP showed an accuracy of 76% (19/25) and 84% (21/25), respectively. In terms of type of obstruction, the accuracy of T2-weighted MRU and T1-weighted CEMRU was 72% (18/25) and 88% (22/25), respectively. T2-weighted MRU and Ta-weighted CEMRU provided both anatomical information and that relating to impaired renal function. The two modelities played a complementary role and their use could decrease the unnecessary use of invasive diagnostic examination for the evaluation of obstructive uropathy

  9. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Schie, Bram van; Schoch, Eric; Hergan, Klaus; Graf, Nicole; Binkert, Christoph A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  10. Feasibility and Safety of Vascular Closure Devices in an Antegrade Approach to Either the Common Femoral Artery or the Superficial Femoral Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gutzeit@ksw.ch; Schie, Bram van, E-mail: Bram.vanschie@hotmail.com; Schoch, Eric, E-mail: eric.schoch@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland); Hergan, Klaus, E-mail: k.hergan@salk.at [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology (Austria); Graf, Nicole, E-mail: graf@biostatistics.ch; Binkert, Christoph A., E-mail: christoph.binkert@ksw.ch [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to analyze complications following antegrade puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using vascular closure systems (VCS). Methods: A single-center, retrospective study was performed after obtaining approval from the institutional review board and informed consent from all patients. At our center, the CFA or SFA are used for arterial access. All patients were evaluated clinically on the same day. If there was any suspicion of an access site problem, Duplex ultrasound was performed. Results: Access location was the CFA in 50 patients and the SFA in 130 patients. The sheath size ranged from 4F to 10F. Two patients had to be excluded because of lack of follow-up. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 162 of 178 cases (91 %). The following complications were observed in 16 patients (8.9 %): 4 pseudoaneurysms (2.2 %), 11 hematomas (6.2 %), and 1 vascular occlusion (0.5 %). The two pseudoaneurysms healed spontaneously, in one case an ultrasound-guided thrombin injection was performed, and one aneurysm was compressed manually. No further medical therapy was needed for the hematomas. The one vascular occlusion was treated immediately with angioplasty using a contralateral approach. No significant difference was noted between the CFA and the SFA group with respect to complications (p = 1.000). Conclusions: The use of closure devices for an antegrade approach up to 10F is feasible and safe. No differences in low complication rates were observed between CFA and SFA.

  11. Schwannoma of the Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are neoplasms originating from Schwann cells, which are the cells forming nerve sheaths. These neoplasms generally involve peripheral nerves. They rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract and primary colon involvement is extremely rare. The objective of the present paper was to present a case of primary schwannoma of the sigmoid colon, unassociated with von Recklinghausen disease, that was histopathologically confirmed by means of an immunohistochemical panel. The patient was a 71-year-old woman who had had rectal bleeding when evacuating, with pain and tenesmus, for 4 months. She underwent colonoscopy, which identified a raised submucous lesion of 2.8 cm in diameter, located in the sigmoid colon, 30 cm from the anal margin. During examination, loop polypectomy with lesion excision was performed. Histopathological evaluation showed that this was a tumor of stromal origin. Its resection margins were compromised by neoplasia, and colon resection by means of videolaparoscopy was indicated. Conventional histopathological examination using the hematoxylin-eosin technique suggested that the neoplasm was of mesenchymal origin. An immunohistochemical panel was run for etiological confirmation, using anti-CD34 antibodies, desmin, cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, cKit, chromogranin and S-100 protein. The panel showed intense immunoexpression of S-100 protein. Investigation of the proliferative activity rate using Ki-67 antibodies showed that there was a low rate of mitotic activity, thus confirming the diagnosis of primary benign schwannoma of the colon. The patient’s postoperative evolution was uneventful and she remains in good health, without signs of tumor recurrence, 15 months after surgical excision.

  12. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  13. Luminous bacteria cultured from fish guts in the Gulf of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makemson, J C; Hermosa, G V

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of culturable luminous bacteria in Omani market fish guts was correlated to habitat type amongst 109 species of fish. Isolated representative luminous bacteria were compared to known species using the Biolog system (95 traits/isolate) and cluster analysis, which showed that the main taxa present in fish guts were clades related to Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium species with sporadic incidence of P. phosphoreum. The luminous isolates from gut of the slip-mouth (barred pony fish), Leiognathus fasciatus, were mainly a type related to Photobacterium but phenotypically different from known species. These luminous gut bacteria were identical with the bacteria in the light organ, indicating that the light organ supplies a significant quantity of luminous bacteria to the gut. In many of the fish that lack light organs, luminous bacteria were also the dominant bacterial type in the gut, while in some others luminous bacteria were encountered sporadically and at low densities, reflecting the incidence of culturable luminous bacteria in seawater. Pelagic fish contained the highest incidence of culturable luminous bacteria and reef-associated fish the lowest. No correlation was found between the incidence of culturable luminous bacteria and the degree to which fish produce a melanin-covered gut. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Development of a LED based standard for luminous flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardinha, André; Ázara, Ivo; Torres, Miguel; Menegotto, Thiago; Grieneisen, Hans Peter; Borghi, Giovanna; Couceiro, Iakyra; Zim, Alexandre; Muller, Filipe

    2018-03-01

    Incandescent lamps, simple artifacts with radiation spectrum very similar to a black-body emitter, are traditional standards in photometry. Nowadays LEDs are broadly used in lighting, with great variety of spectra, and it is convenient to use standards for photometry with spectral distribution similar to that of the measured artifact. Research and development of such standards occur in several National Metrology Institutes. In Brazil, Inmetro is working on a practical solution for providing a LED based standard to be used for luminous flux measurements in the field of general lighting. This paper shows the measurements made for the developing of a prototype, that in sequence will be characterized in photometric quantities.

  15. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer.

  16. Psychophysical and physiological responses to gratings with luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; Sun, Hao; Lee, Barry B

    2012-02-01

    Gratings that contain luminance and chromatic components of different spatial frequencies were used to study the segregation of signals in luminance and chromatic pathways. Psychophysical detection and discrimination thresholds to these compound gratings, with luminance and chromatic components of the one either half or double the spatial frequency of the other, were measured in human observers. Spatial frequency tuning curves for detection of compound gratings followed the envelope of those for luminance and chromatic gratings. Different grating types were discriminable at detection threshold. Fourier analysis of physiological responses of macaque retinal ganglion cells to compound waveforms showed chromatic information to be restricted to the parvocellular pathway and luminance information to the magnocellular pathway. Taken together, the human psychophysical and macaque physiological data support the strict segregation of luminance and chromatic information in independent channels, with the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways, respectively, serving as likely the physiological substrates. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  17. Ascending colon rotation following patient positional change during CT colonography: a potential pitfall in interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the degree and pattern of ascending colonic rotation as patients moved from supine to prone positions during CTC. A search of our CTC and colonoscopy database found 37 patients (43 eligible lesions) who fulfilled the following criteria: colonoscopy-proven sessile polyps ≥6 mm in the straight mid-ascending colon, lesion visualisation in both supine and prone CTC, and optimal colonic distension. A coordinate system was developed to designate the polyp radial location ( ) along the luminal circumference, unaffected by rotation of the torso. The degree/direction of polyp radial location change (i.e. ascending colonic rotation) between supine and prone positions correlated with anthropometric measurements. Movement from supine to prone positions resulted in a change in the radial polyp location of between -23 and 79 (median, 21 ), demonstrating external rotation of the ascending colon in almost all cases (2 to 79 in 36/37 patients and 42/43 lesions). The degree/direction of rotation mildly correlated with the degree of abdominal compression in the anterior-posterior direction in prone position (r = 0.427 [P = 0.004] and r = 0.404 [P = 0.007]). The ascending colon was usually found to rotate externally as patients moved from supine to prone positions, partly dependent on the degree of abdominal compression. (orig.)

  18. Human colon tissue in organ culture: calcium and multi-mineral-induced mucosal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Michael K; Veerapaneni, Indiradevi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Naik, Madhav; Varani, James

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown that a multi-mineral extract from the marine red algae, Lithothamnion calcareum, suppresses colon polyp formation and inflammation in mice. In the present study, we used intact human colon tissue in organ culture to compare responses initiated by Ca(2+) supplementation versus the multi-mineral extract. Normal human colon tissue was treated for 2 d in culture with various concentrations of calcium or the mineral-rich extract. The tissue was then prepared for histology/immunohistochemistry, and the culture supernatants were assayed for levels of type I procollagen and type I collagen. At higher Ca(2+) concentrations or with the mineral-rich extract, proliferation of epithelial cells at the base and walls of the mucosal crypts was suppressed, as visualized by reduced Ki67 staining. E-cadherin, a marker of differentiation, was more strongly expressed at the upper third of the crypt and at the luminal surface. Treatment with Ca(2+) or with the multi-mineral extract influenced collagen turnover, with decreased procollagen and increased type I collagen. These data suggest that calcium or mineral-rich extract has the capacity to (1) promote differentiation in human colon tissue in organ culture and (2) modulate stromal function as assessed by increased levels of type I collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that human colon tissue in organ culture (supporting in vivo finding in mice) will provide a valuable model for the preclinical assessment of agents that regulate growth and differentiation in the colonic mucosa.

  19. Decreased colonization of fecal Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale species from ulcerative colitis patients in an in vitro dynamic gut model with mucin environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeiren, Joan; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Laukens, Debby; Vigsnaes, Louise Kristine; De Vos, Martine; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The mucus layer in the colon, acting as a barrier to prevent invasion of pathogens, is thinner and discontinuous in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent developed in vitro dynamic gut model, the M-SHIME, was used to compare long-term colonization of the mucin layer by the microbiota from six healthy volunteers (HV) and six UC patients and thus distinguish the mucin adhered from the luminal microbiota. Although under the same nutritional conditions, short-chain fatty acid production by the luminal communities from UC patients showed a tendency toward a lower butyrate production. A more in-depth community analysis of those microbial groups known to produce butyrate revealed that the diversity of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale and Clostridium leptum group, and counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were lower in the luminal fractions of the UC samples. Counts of Roseburia spp. were lower in the mucosal fractions of the UC samples. qPCR analysis for butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, responsible for butyrate production, displayed a lower abundance in both the luminal and mucosal fractions of the UC samples. The M-SHIME model revealed depletion in butyrate producing microbial communities not restricted to the luminal but also in the mucosal samples from UC patients compared to HV. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gamen, Roberto C.; Lajús, Eduardo Fernández [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata, CONICET–UNLP and Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata (Argentina); Morrell, Nidia I. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Barbá, Rodolfo H. [Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena (Chile); Angeloni, Rodolfo, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: eflajus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl, E-mail: rangelon@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-07-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca ii] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  1. The Highly Luminous Type Ibn Supernova ASASSN-14ms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallely, P. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations of the highly luminous Type Ibn supernova ASASSN-14ms, which was discovered on UT 2014-12-26.61 at $m_V \\sim 16.5$. With a peak absolute $V$-band magnitude brighter than $-20.5$, a peak bolometric luminosity of $1.7 \\times 10......^{44}$ ergs s$^{-1}$, and a total radiated energy of $2.1 \\times 10^{50}$ ergs, ASASSN-14ms is one of the most luminous Type Ibn supernovae yet discovered. In simple models, the most likely power source for this event is a combination of the radioactive decay of $^{56}$Ni and $^{56}$Co at late times...... and the interaction of supernova ejecta with the progenitor's circumstellar medium at early times, although we cannot rule out the possibility of a magnetar-powered light curve. The presence of a dense circumstellar medium is indicated by the intermediate-width He I features in the spectra. The faint ($m_g \\sim 21...

  2. Effect of americium-241 on luminous bacteria. Role of peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrova, M., E-mail: maka-alexandrova@rambler.r [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Rozhko, T. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Vydryakova, G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kudryasheva, N. [Siberian Federal University, Svobodny 79, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok 50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-04-15

    The effect of americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), an alpha-emitting radionuclide of high specific activity, on luminous bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum was studied. Traces of {sup 241}Am in nutrient media (0.16-6.67 kBq/L) suppressed the growth of bacteria, but enhanced luminescence intensity and quantum yield at room temperature. Lower temperature (4 {sup o}C) increased the time of bacterial luminescence and revealed a stage of bioluminescence inhibition after 150 h of bioluminescence registration start. The role of conditions of exposure the bacterial cells to the {sup 241}Am is discussed. The effect of {sup 241}Am on luminous bacteria was attributed to peroxide compounds generated in water solutions as secondary products of radioactive decay. Increase of peroxide concentration in {sup 241}Am solutions was demonstrated; and the similarity of {sup 241}Am and hydrogen peroxide effects on bacterial luminescence was revealed. The study provides a scientific basis for elaboration of bioluminescence-based assay to monitor radiotoxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides in aquatic solutions. - Highlights: {yields} Am-241 in water solutions (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) suppresses bacterial growth.{yields} Am-241 (A = 0.16-6.7 kBq/L) stimulate bacterial luminescence. {yields} Peroxides, secondary radiolysis products, cause increase of bacterial luminescence.

  3. Luminal digestion of lactoferrin in suckling and weanling rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, J.R.; Koldovsky, O.

    1987-01-01

    The development of luminal digestion of lactoferrin was evaluated in vitro by incubating 125 I-labeled lactoferrin with fluid flushed from the stomach and small intestine of 12-day-old suckling and 31-day-old weanling rats, followed by measurement of radioactivity in trichloroacetic acid-soluble material. Gastric hydrolysis of lactoferrin at pH 3.2 in the weanling was 20-fold greater than that in the suckling. In the small intestine at neutral pH, luminal degradation of lactoferrin was minimal in the suckling but increased significantly after weaning, with maximal degradative capacity demonstrable in the midjejunum. Sephadex G-75 chromatography of intestinal acid-soluble breakdown products revealed two peaks of radioactivity, each comprising 40-45% of the total product; analysis of intestinal acid-precipitable products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis yielded several discrete lower molecular weight species. Food deprivation for 12 h/100 g body wt decreased lactoferrin degradation in the weanling jejunum and midjejunum. The findings suggest that lactoferrin digestion may vary with respect to postnatal age of the organism, segment of the gastrointestinal tract, and dietary state. In the young animal, lactoferrin degradation is minimal, and consequently its potential for biological function may be high

  4. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Fernández Lajús, Eduardo; Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2017-07-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca II] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  5. Active Luminous Blue Variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Lajús, Eduardo Fernández; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Angeloni, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    We present extensive spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of two famous and currently highly active luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), together with more limited coverage of three further, lesser known members of the class. R127 was discovered as an Ofpe/WN9 star in the 1970s but entered a classical LBV outburst in or about 1980 that is still in progress, thus enlightening us about the minimum state of such objects. R71 is currently the most luminous star in the LMC and continues to provide surprises, such as the appearance of [Ca ii] emission lines, as its spectral type becomes unprecedentedly late. Most recently, R71 has developed inverse P Cyg profiles in many metal lines. The other objects are as follows: HDE 269582, now a “second R127” that has been followed from Ofpe/WN9 to A type in its current outburst; HDE 269216, which changed from late B in 2014 to AF in 2016, its first observed outburst; and R143 in the 30 Doradus outskirts. The light curves and spectroscopic transformations are correlated in remarkable detail and their extreme reproducibility is emphasized, both for a given object and among all of them. It is now believed that some LBVs proceed directly to core collapse. One of these unstable LMC objects may thus oblige in the near future, teaching us even more about the final stages of massive stellar evolution.

  6. Application of radioisotope for radio-luminous watch and clock industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, Japan became No. 1 watch and clock production country in the world, and has produced 88 million watches and 59 million clocks in 1980. About 65% of them were exported. The production of radio-luminous watches and clocks in 1980 was estimated as 13 million and 11 million, respectively, and has increased by 40% as compared with the previous year. In Japan, the law concerning the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes and others is applied to radio-luminous watches and clocks, because radioactive substances are contained in luminous paint, and the production is regulated by the law as unsealed RI-using establishments. The permitted establishments engaging in radio-luminous watches and clocks are 3 luminous paint makers, 9 painting works and 35 watch and clock assembling plants. The RI utilized for radio-luminous watches and clocks is limited to Pm-147 at present, and 3788 Ci was used in 1980. About 70 years have elapsed since luminous paint was used for watches and clocks for the first time. The ISO instituted the international standard on radio-luminous paint for watches and clocks in 1975. The beta-ray emitted by Pm-147 is shielded perfectly by glasses and cases, and only the dose of brems-strahlung X-ray is the problem. The radiation control in radio-luminous watch and clock plants is described. (Kako, I.)

  7. Identification of Different Classes of Luminal Progenitor Cells within Prostate Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Agarwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary prostate cancer almost always has a luminal phenotype. However, little is known about the stem/progenitor properties of transformed cells within tumors. Using the aggressive Pten/Tp53-null mouse model of prostate cancer, we show that two classes of luminal progenitors exist within a tumor. Not only did tumors contain previously described multipotent progenitors, but also a major population of committed luminal progenitors. Luminal cells, sorted directly from tumors or grown as organoids, initiated tumors of adenocarcinoma or multilineage histological phenotypes, which is consistent with luminal and multipotent differentiation potentials, respectively. Moreover, using organoids we show that the ability of luminal-committed progenitors to self-renew is a tumor-specific property, absent in benign luminal cells. Finally, a significant fraction of luminal progenitors survived in vivo castration. In all, these data reveal two luminal tumor populations with different stem/progenitor cell capacities, providing insight into prostate cancer cells that initiate tumors and can influence treatment response.

  8. Signal detectability of mammography depends on film-screen system and luminance of view box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Fumie; Ogura, Akio; Miyai, Akira

    2003-01-01

    High-density film and the high-luminance view-box system are being recommended for mammograms owing to the improved detection of masses. However, this system causes an increase in radiation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether the detection of masses would improve using the normal-luminance view box and normal-density film with different types of contrast systems. Low-contrast detection using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and high-contrast detection using an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom were evaluated for the following systems: high-density film and high-luminance view box, normal-density film and normal-luminance view box, and normal-density film with wide latitude and normal-luminance view box. The results showed no significant variation in the detectability of the system with high-density film and high-luminance view box and the normal-density film with wide latitude and normal-luminance view box. However, in terms of low-contrast visibility, the system using normal-density film and normal-luminance view box was significantly reduced in comparison with the others. Therefore, the system with normal-density film with wide latitude and the normal-luminance view box is recommended because of reduced radiation dose. (author)

  9. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Specific protein supplementation using soya, casein or whey differentially affects regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity in rats; implications for the treatment of gut injury and stimulating repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchbank, Tania; Mandir, Nikki; Calnan, Denis; Goodlad, Robert A; Podas, Theo; Playford, Raymond J

    2018-01-24

    Modulation of regional growth within specific segments of the bowel may have clinical value for several gastrointestinal conditions. We therefore examined the effects of different dietary protein sources on regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity as potential therapies. Rats were fed for 14 days on isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising elemental diet (ED) alone (which is known to cause gut atrophy), ED supplemented with casein or whey or a soya protein-rich feed. Effects on regional gut growth and intraluminal growth factor activity were then determined. Despite calorie intake being similar in all groups, soya rich feed caused 20% extra total body weight gain. Stomach weight was highest on soya and casein diets. Soya enhanced diet caused greatest increase in small intestinal weight and preserved luminal growth factor activity at levels sufficient to increase proliferation in vitro. Regional small intestinal proliferation was highest in proximal segment in ED fed animals whereas distal small intestine proliferation was greater in soya fed animals. Colonic weight and proliferation throughout the colon was higher in animals receiving soya or whey supplemented feeds. We conclude that specific protein supplementation with either soya, casein or whey may be beneficial to rest or increase growth in different regions of the bowel through mechanisms that include differentially affecting luminal growth factor bioactivity. These results have implications for targeting specific regions of the bowel for conditions such as Crohn's disease and chemotherapy.

  11. Colonic motility and enema spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Clark, A.G.; Reynolds, J.R.; Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelled enema solution was administered to eight healthy subjects, both in fasted and fed states. Enema spreading was monitored over a 4-h period using gamma scintigraphy and colonic motility was recorded simultaneously using a pressure sensitive radiotelemetry capsule. The rate and extent of enema dispersion were unaffected by eating. Spreading could be correlated with colonic motility and was inhibited by aboral propulsion of the colonic contents. (orig.)

  12. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and co...

  13. Comparison of luminance based metrics in different lighting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienold, J.; Kuhn, T.E.; Christoffersen, J.

    In this study, we evaluate established and newly developed metrics for predicting glare using data from three different research studies. The evaluation covers two different targets: 1. How well the user’s perception of glare magnitude correlates to the prediction of the glare metrics? 2. How well...... do the glare metrics describe the subjects’ disturbance by glare? We applied Spearman correlations, logistic regressions and an accuracy evaluation, based on an ROC-analysis. The results show that five of the twelve investigated metrics are failing at least one of the statistical tests. The other...... seven metrics CGI, modified DGI, DGP, Ev, average Luminance of the image Lavg, UGP and UGR are passing all statistical tests. DGP, CGI, DGI_mod and UGP have largest AUC and might be slightly more robust. The accuracy of the predictions of afore mentioned seven metrics for the disturbance by glare lies...

  14. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  15. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Carmen; Ingram, Grayson; Lu, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed. In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.

  16. Shock waves in luminous early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    Shock waves that occur in stellar atmospheres have their origin in some hydrodynamic instability of the atmosphere itself or of the stellar interior. In luminous early-type stars these two possibilities are represented by shocks due to an unstable radiatively-accelerated wind, and to shocks generated by the non-radial pulsations known to be present in many or most OB stars. This review is concerned with the structure and development of the shocks in these two cases, and especially with the mass loss that may be due specifically to the shocks. Pulsation-produced shocks are found to be very unfavorable for causing mass loss, owing to the great radiation efficiency that allows them to remain isothermal. The situation regarding radiatively-driven shocks remains unclear, awaiting detailed hydrodynamics calculations. 20 refs., 2 figs

  17. Motility and Chemotaxis Mediate the Preferential Colonization of Gastric Injury Sites by Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Eitaro; Closson, Chet; Matthis, Andrea L.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Engevik, Amy C.; Zavros, Yana; Ottemann, Karen M.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1) significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB) or chemotaxis (ΔcheY). ΔmotB (106) failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (106) colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites, and thereby biases

  18. Antibacterial marine bacterium deter luminous vibriosis in shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitory activity of a marine pigmented bacterium - Alteromonas sp. - isolated from Penaeus monodon Fabricius larva against pathogenic and environmental isolates of Vibrio harveyi was studied. All the isolates were inhibited to varying degrees by Alteromonas sp. in vitro. The antibacterial substance produced by the Alteromonas sp. was soluble in organic solvent and closely bound to the external surface of bacterial cells. The antibacterial Alteromonas sp., when allowed to colonize on shrimp...

  19. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RESULT. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old male with mucosa - associated lymphoid tissue. [MALT] lymphoma of the transverse colon, ascending colon and caecum. He presented with severe abdominal pains and a centrally located huge abdominal mass for which a surgical resection was done. Histologically.

  20. 10 CFR 30.19 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or..., krypton-85, or promethium-147. (a) Except for persons who manufacture, process, produce, or initially transfer for sale or distribution self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147...

  1. Independence and interaction of luminance and chromatic contributions to spatial hyperacuity performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2014-04-01

    Here we test interactions of luminance and chromatic input to spatial hyperacuity mechanisms. First, we tested alignment of luminance and chromatic gratings matched or mismatched in contrast polarity or grating type. Thresholds with matched gratings were low while all mismatched pairs were elevated. Second, we determined alignment acuity as a function of luminance or chromatic contrast alone or in the presence of constant contrast components of the other type. For in-phase components, performance followed the envelope of the more sensitive mechanism. However, polarity reversals revealed an asymmetric effect for luminance and chromatic conditions, which suggested that luminance can override chromatic mechanisms in hyperacuity; we interpret these findings in the context of spatial mechanisms.

  2. Colonic duplication in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baro, P.; Dario Casas, J.; Sanchez, D.

    1988-01-01

    A case of colonic duplication that was diagnosed radiologically in an adult is reported. A long duplicated segment below the normal transverse colon, with a wide anastomosis at the hepatic flexure level, was observed on barium enema. The rarity of this anomaly unassociated with other malformations is emphasized. (orig.)

  3. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2. Earliest human colonization of south Asia. The early human colonization of south Asia is represented largely by an abundance of stone tool assemblages. The oldest known tools ..... component among finished tools is conspicuous in the hinterland riverine ...... sativum), green gram (Vigna radiata), gram/chicken pea.

  4. Colonic Diverticulitis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kuo Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Diverticular disease of the colon is a disease that mainly affects the elderly and presents in 50–70% of those aged 80 years or older. The most common complication is colonic diverticulitis. Eighty percent of patients who present with colonic diverticulitis are aged 50 years and older. Diagnosis and treatment of colonic diverticulitis in the elderly is more difficult and complicated owing to more comorbid conditions. Computed tomography is recommended for diagnosis when colonic diverticulitis is suspected. Most patients admitted with acute colonic diverticulitis respond to conservative treatment, but 15–30% of patients require surgery. Because surgery for acute colonic diverticulitis carries significant rates of morbidity and mortality, conservative treatment is recommended in the elderly. Conservative treatment of colonic diverticulitis with antibiotics, bowel rest, possibly including parenteral alimentation, is usually applied for 1–2 weeks. In the absence of a response to conservative treatment, frequent recurrence or complications (abscesses, fistulas, bowel obstructions, and free perforations, surgery is indicated.

  5. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She developed severe upper abdominal pain after the ... non-surgical management of pancreatitis and associated complications, colonic perforation should be considered in patients who deteriorate ... To our knowledge this is the first case of a secure pre-operative diagnosis of colonic perforation due to to pancreatitis.

  6. Evaluation of an in vitro faecal degradation method for early assessment of the impact of colonic degradation on colonic absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannergren, Christer; Borde, Anders; Boreström, Cecilia; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Lindahl, Anders

    2014-06-16

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate an in vitro method to investigate bacterial-mediated luminal degradation of drugs in colon in humans. This would be a valuable tool for the assessment of drug candidates during early drug development, especially for compounds intended to be developed as oral extended release formulations. Freshly prepared faecal homogenate from healthy human volunteers (n=3-18), dog (n=6) and rat (colon and caecal content, n=3) was homogenised with 3.8 parts (w/w) physiological saline under anaerobical conditions. Four model compounds (almokalant, budesonide, ximelagatran and metoprolol) were then incubated (n=3-18) separately in the human faecal homogenate for up to 120min at 37°C. In addition, ximelagatran was also incubated in the faecal or colonic content from dog and rat. The mean (±SD) in vitro half-life for almokalant, budesonide and ximelagatran was 39±1, 68±21 and 26±12min, respectively, in the human faecal homogenate. Metoprolol was found to be stable in the in vitro model. The in vitro degradation data was then compared to literature data on fraction absorbed after direct colon administration in humans. The percentage of drug remaining after 60min of in vitro incubation correlated (R(2)=0.90) with the fraction absorbed from colon in humans. The mean in vitro half-life of ximelagatran was similar in human faeces (26±12min) and rat colon content (34±31min), but significantly (pdegradation in vivo was rapidly degraded in the faecal homogenates as well as quantitatively since a correlation was established between percentage degraded in vitro at 60min and fraction absorbed in the colon for the model drugs, which have no other absorption limiting properties. Also, the method is easy to use from a technical point of view, which suggests that the method is suitable for use in early assessment of colonic absorption of extended release formulation candidates. Further improvement of the confidence in the use of the

  7. Super-luminous Type II supernovae powered by magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Audit, Edouard

    2018-05-01

    Magnetar power is believed to be at the origin of numerous super-luminous supernovae (SNe) of Type Ic, arising from compact, hydrogen-deficient, Wolf-Rayet type stars. Here, we investigate the properties that magnetar power would have on standard-energy SNe associated with 15-20 M⊙ supergiant stars, either red (RSG; extended) or blue (BSG; more compact). We have used a combination of Eulerian gray radiation-hydrodynamics and non-LTE steady-state radiative transfer to study their dynamical, photometric, and spectroscopic properties. Adopting magnetar fields of 1, 3.5, 7 × 1014 G and rotational energies of 0.4, 1, and 3 × 1051 erg, we produce bolometric light curves with a broad maximum covering 50-150 d and a magnitude of 1043-1044 erg s-1. The spectra at maximum light are analogous to those of standard SNe II-P but bluer. Although the magnetar energy is channelled in equal proportion between SN kinetic energy and SN luminosity, the latter may be boosted by a factor of 10-100 compared to a standard SN II. This influence breaks the observed relation between brightness and ejecta expansion rate of standard Type II SNe. Magnetar energy injection also delays recombination and may even cause re-ionization, with a reversal in photospheric temperature and velocity. Depositing the magnetar energy in a narrow mass shell at the ejecta base leads to the formation of a dense shell at a few 1000 km s-1, which causes a light-curve bump at the end of the photospheric phase. Depositing this energy over a broad range of mass in the inner ejecta, to mimic the effect of multi-dimensional fluid instabilities, prevents the formation of a dense shell and produces an earlier-rising and smoother light curve. The magnetar influence on the SN radiation is generally not visible prior to 20-30 d, during which one may discern a BSG from a RSG progenitor. We propose a magnetar model for the super-luminous Type II SN OGLE-SN14-073.

  8. Colon-specific prodrugs of 5-radioiodo-2'-deoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowska-Kortylewicz, J.; Kortylewicz, Z.P.; Hoffman, D.; Winoto, A.; Lai, J.; Dalrymple, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    Two glycoside-based prodrugs, 125 IUdR-5'-β-D-glucopyranoside and 125 IUdR-5'-β-D-galactopyranoside, were synthesized. This selection was dictated by the abundance of appropriate enzymes in the GI tract of mice and similar levels of β-D-glycosidases in human and rodent large intestine. Studies to establish the ability of colonic microflora to release 125 IUdR were conducted in vitro and in Swiss Webster mice. Both prodrugs released 125 IUdR in the presence of the corresponding enzymes or the GI content homogenates in vitro, and in vivo. Luminal enzymes in the proximal and distal small intestine in mice degraded less than 10% of each prodrug whereas enzymes from the colonic/caecal lumen of mice released nearly 100% of 125 IUdR. 125 IUdR freed by bacterial glycosidases was stable in the GI content. No significant amounts of other metabolites or deiodination products were observed. Total radioactivity recovered as by-products was less than 10%. The efflux of prodrugs from the GI tract after oral administration in mice was slow and limited. Unlike 125 IUdR, prodrugs were not dehalogenated in vivo as indicated by biodistribution and imaging studies. (orig.)

  9. sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy and colonic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.; Merrick, M.V.; Palmer, K.R.; Millar, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sucralfate is an aluminium substituted disaccharide, binding at low pH to sites of ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Dawson et al (1985) reported that abdominal scans taken 12-24 hours after ingestion of sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate provide a range of normal appearances in healthy subjects and the pattern of ileal or colonic abnormalities in inflammatory bowel disease, surprising in view of the low binding affinity of sucralfate at ileonic pH. The authors have studied a series of 18 consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy preceded by sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy. In vitro tests of isotope binding to parent molecule and absence of gastric mucosal uptake show that the disappointing results were not due to disruption of the sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate complex. It is suggested that labelled sucralfate attaches to luminal contents rather than adhering to mucosa, supported by the caecal 'hot spots' found in patients shown to have caecal pooling at colonoscopy and by observations that the one poorly prepared patient with pronounced faecal retention at time of endoscopy also had increased retention of radioactivity throughout the colon in the absence of mucosal abnormality. (U.K.)

  10. Sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy and colonic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, A.; Merrick, M.V.; Palmer, K.R.; Millar, A.M.

    1987-09-05

    Sucralfate is an aluminium substituted disaccharide, binding at low pH to sites of ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Dawson et al (1985) reported that abdominal scans taken 12-24 hours after ingestion of sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate provide a range of normal appearances in healthy subjects and the pattern of ileal or colonic abnormalities in inflammatory bowel disease, surprising in view of the low binding affinity of sucralfate at ileonic pH. The authors have studied a series of 18 consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy preceded by sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy. In vitro tests of isotope binding to parent molecule and absence of gastric mucosal uptake show that the disappointing results were not due to disruption of the sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate complex. It is suggested that labelled sucralfate attaches to luminal contents rather than adhering to mucosa, supported by the caecal 'hot spots' found in patients shown to have caecal pooling at colonoscopy and by observations that the one poorly prepared patient with pronounced faecal retention at time of endoscopy also had increased retention of radioactivity throughout the colon in the absence of mucosal abnormality. (U.K.).

  11. Month-hour distributions of zenith luminance and diffuse illuminance in Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Alfonso; Gopinathan, Kannam K.; Robledo, Luis; Ruiz, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours are obtained from one year of data of zenith luminance measurements for cloudless, overcast and partly cloudy skies and also when the combined data for all sky types are considered. For many hours in different months, the overcast sky luminance values are roughly about three times the cloudless sky luminance values and one and a half times the partly cloudy sky values. The dependence of month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours on the ratio of global to extraterrestrial illuminance on a horizontal surface is also given. From equal mean zenith luminance contours, the approximate values of the mean zenith luminance for different sky conditions and different hours and months of the year can be easily obtained. Month-hour equal mean diffuse illuminance contours are obtained from diffuse illuminance measurements performed during the period 1992-1998. The dependence on solar altitude of the monthly average hourly values of diffuse illuminance is given and compared to the corresponding one obtained from data for Bet Dagan (Israel)

  12. Mixing of Chromatic and Luminance Retinal Signals in Primate Area V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Chen, Yao; Lashgari, Reza; Bereshpolova, Yulia; Swadlow, Harvey A; Lee, Barry B; Alonso, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Vision emerges from activation of chromatic and achromatic retinal channels whose interaction in visual cortex is still poorly understood. To investigate this interaction, we recorded neuronal activity from retinal ganglion cells and V1 cortical cells in macaques and measured their visual responses to grating stimuli that had either luminance contrast (luminance grating), chromatic contrast (chromatic grating), or a combination of the two (compound grating). As with parvocellular or koniocellular retinal ganglion cells, some V1 cells responded mostly to the chromatic contrast of the compound grating. As with magnocellular retinal ganglion cells, other V1 cells responded mostly to the luminance contrast and generated a frequency-doubled response to equiluminant chromatic gratings. Unlike magnocellular and parvocellular retinal ganglion cells, V1 cells formed a unimodal distribution for luminance/color preference with a 2- to 4-fold bias toward luminance. V1 cells associated with positive local field potentials in deep layers showed the strongest combined responses to color and luminance and, as a population, V1 cells encoded a diverse combination of luminance/color edges that matched edge distributions of natural scenes. Taken together, these results suggest that the primary visual cortex combines magnocellular and parvocellular retinal inputs to increase cortical receptive field diversity and to optimize visual processing of our natural environment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Luminance and chromatic contributions to a hyperacuity task: isolation by contrast polarity and target separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B

    2012-03-01

    Vernier thresholds are known to be elevated when a target pair has opposite contrast polarity. Polarity reversal is used to assess the role of luminance and chromatic pathways in hyperacuity performance. Psychophysical hyperacuity thresholds were measured for pairs of gratings of various combinations of luminance (Lum) and chromatic (Chr) contrast polarities, at different ratios of luminance to chromatic contrast. With two red-green gratings of matched luminance and chromatic polarity (+Lum+Chr), there was an elevation of threshold at isoluminance. When both luminance and chromatic polarity were mismatched (-Lum-Chr), thresholds were substantially elevated under all conditions. With the same luminance contrast polarity and opposite chromatic polarity (+Lum-Chr) thresholds were only elevated close to isoluminance; in the reverse condition (-Lum+Chr), thresholds were elevated as in the -Lum-Chr condition except close to equiluminance. Similar data were obtained for gratings isolating the short-wavelength cone mechanism. Further psychophysical measurements assessed the role of target separation with matched or mismatched contrast polarity; similar results were found for luminance and chromatic gratings. Comparison physiological data were collected from parafoveal ganglion cells of the macaque retina. Positional precision of ganglion cell signals was assessed under conditions related to the psychophysical measurements. On the basis of these combined observations, it is argued that both magnocellular, parvocellular, and koniocellular pathways have access to cortical positional mechanisms associated with vernier acuity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NCOA5 is correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiao-He; Huang, Du-Ping; Luo, Rong-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear receptor coactivator 5 (NCOA5) is known to modulate ERα-mediated transcription and has been found to be involved in the progression of several malignancies. However, the potential correlation between NCOA5 and clinical outcome in patients with luminal breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that NCOA5 was significantly up-regulated in luminal breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues both in validated cohort and TCGA cohort. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high NOCA5 expression had significantly lower overall survival (P = 0.021). Cox regression analysis indicated that the high NOCA5 expression was independent high risk factor as well as old age (>60) and HER-2 expression (P = 0.039; P = 0.003; P = 0.005; respectively). This study provides new insights and evidences that NOCA5 over-expression was significantly correlated with progression and prognosis in luminal breast cancer. However, the precise cellular mechanisms for NOCA5 in luminal breast cancer need to be further explored. - Highlights: • NCOA5 is significantly over-expressed in human luminal breast cancer tissues. • NOCA5 was involved in the progression of luminal breast cancer. • NCOA5 can predict the progression of luminal breast cancer.

  15. Signs of depth-luminance covariance in 3-D cluttered scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccia, Milena; Langer, Michael S

    2018-03-01

    In three-dimensional (3-D) cluttered scenes such as foliage, deeper surfaces often are more shadowed and hence darker, and so depth and luminance often have negative covariance. We examined whether the sign of depth-luminance covariance plays a role in depth perception in 3-D clutter. We compared scenes rendered with negative and positive depth-luminance covariance where positive covariance means that deeper surfaces are brighter and negative covariance means deeper surfaces are darker. For each scene, the sign of the depth-luminance covariance was given by occlusion cues. We tested whether subjects could use this sign information to judge the depth order of two target surfaces embedded in 3-D clutter. The clutter consisted of distractor surfaces that were randomly distributed in a 3-D volume. We tested three independent variables: the sign of the depth-luminance covariance, the colors of the targets and distractors, and the background luminance. An analysis of variance showed two main effects: Subjects performed better when the deeper surfaces were darker and when the color of the target surfaces was the same as the color of the distractors. There was also a strong interaction: Subjects performed better under a negative depth-luminance covariance condition when targets and distractors had different colors than when they had the same color. Our results are consistent with a "dark means deep" rule, but the use of this rule depends on the similarity between the color of the targets and color of the 3-D clutter.

  16. Influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer under phosphor layer on luminance and luminous efficiency characteristics in alternating-current plasma display panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon-Sang [School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Heung-Sik, E-mail: hstae@ee.knu.ac.kr [School of Electronics Engineering, College of IT Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Eun Young [Core Technology Lab., Corporate R and D Center, Samsung SDI Company Ltd., Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-29

    This paper examines the optical and discharge characteristics of alternating-current plasma display panel when adopting the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer is deposited under the phosphor layer by using the screen-printing method. The resulting changes in the optical and discharge characteristics, including the power consumption, color temperature, luminance, luminous efficiency, scanning electron microscopy image, and reflectance, are then compared for both cases with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer. As a result of optimizing the thicknesses between the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and phosphor layers, the luminance and luminous efficiency are improved by about 17% and 7%, respectively. - Highlights: • We examine characteristics of plasma display panel when adopting reflective layer. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer was deposited under the phosphor layer. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reflective layer with flaky shape is very effective in enhancing luminance.

  17. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are express...... discovered as an important signaling compartment in which local purinergic signaling determines an inhibitory tone for renal tubular transport. Blocking components of this system leads to tubular hyper-absorption, volume retention and elevated blood pressure.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...

  18. Green Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Device with High Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated the small molecule green fluorescent bottom-emission organic light emitting device (OLED with the configuration of glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc 25 nm/ N,N’-di(naphthalen-1-yl-N,N’-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB 45 nm/ tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3 60 nm/ Lithium fluoride (LiF 1 nm/Aluminum (Al 100 nm where CuPc and NPB are the hole injection layer and the hole transport layer, respectively. CuPc is introduced in this device to improve carrier injection and efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the turn-on voltage is 2.8 V with a maximum luminance of 23510 cd/m2 at 12 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are 4.8 cd/A at 100 cd/m2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3 V, respectively. The peak of electroluminance (EL spectrum locates at 530 nm which is typical emission peak of green light. In contrast, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device without CuPc are only 4.0 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3.6 V, respectively.

  19. Enhanced luminance for inorganic electroluminescent devices with a charged electret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Fang-Hsing, E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Kuo-Feng [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Display Technology Center/Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chien, Yu-Han; Chang, Chin-Chia; Chuang, Meng-Ying [Display Technology Center/Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-15

    This work proposes a novel inorganic electroluminescent (IEL) device with an electric field built-in (EFBI) technique to reduce its driving voltage and enhance its luminance. The EFBI technique was performed by charging an electret comprising a silicon dioxide film at different temperatures (25–150 °C) in powder electroluminescent (PDEL) devices. The driving voltage of the EFBI-PDEL device decreased by 61.4 V (or 20.5%) under the brightness of 269 cd/m{sup 2}, and its brightness increased by 128 cd/m{sup 2} (or 47%) at ac 300 V. The efficiency of the EFBI-PDEL device significantly increased by 0.827 lm/W (or 45.5%) at ac 300 V. The proposed EFBI-PDEL device has advantages of a low-temperature process and low cost, and potential for large-area display applications. -- Highlights: • An electric-field built-in powder electroluminescent (EFBI-PDEL) device is proposed. • The EFBI technique is performed by charging an electrets. • The driving voltage of the EFBI-PDEL device decreased by 20.5%. • The brightness of the EFBI-PDEL device increased by 47%. • The efficiency of the EFBI-PDEL device increased by 45.5%.

  20. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  1. Confirmation of the Luminous Blue Variable Status of MWC 930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Miroshnichenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present spectroscopic and photometric observations of the emission-line star MWC 930 (V446 Sct during its long-term optical brightening in 2006–2013. Based on our earlier data we suggested that the object has features found in Luminous Blue Variables (LBV, such as a high luminosity (~3 105 L⊙, a low wind terminal velocity (~140 km s−1, and a tendency to show strong brightness variations (~1 mag over 20 years. For the last ~7 years it has been exhibiting a continuous optical and near-IR brightening along with a change of the emission-line spectrum appearance and cooling of the star’s photosphere. We present the object’s V-band light curve, analyze the spectral variations, and compare the observed properties with those of other recognized Galactic LBVs, such as AG Car and HR Car. Overall we conclude the MWC 930 is a bona fide Galactic LBV that is currently in the middle of an S Dor cycle.

  2. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  3. Gemini Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous z~6 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    We present Gemini near-infrared spectroscopic observations of six luminous quasars at z=5.8$\\sim$6.3. Five of them were observed using Gemini-South/GNIRS, which provides a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.9--2.5 $\\mu$m in cross dispersion mode. The other source was observed in K band...... with Gemini-North/NIRI. We calculate line strengths for all detected emission lines and use their ratios to estimate gas metallicity in the broad-line regions of the quasars. The metallicity is found to be supersolar with a typical value of $\\sim$4 Z_{\\sun}, and a comparison with low-redshift observations...... shows no strong evolution in metallicity up to z$\\sim$6. The FeII/MgII ratio of the quasars is 4.9+/-1.4, consistent with low-redshift measurements. We estimate central BH masses of 10^9 to 10^{10} M_{\\sun} and Eddington luminosity ratios of order unity. We identify two MgII $\\lambda\\lambda$2796...

  4. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  5. The HR diagram for luminous stars in nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Due to the extreme faintness of stars in other galaxies it is only possible to sample the brightest stars in the nearest galaxies. The observations must then be compared with comparable data for the brightest stars, the supergiants and O-type stars, in the Milky Way. The data for the luminous stars are most complete for the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. The luminosities for the stars in our Galaxy are based on their membership in associations and clusters, and consequently are representative of Population I within approximately 3kpc of the Sun. The data for the stars in the LMC with spectral types O to G8 come from published observations, and the M supergiants are from the author's recent observations of red stars in the LMC. This is the first time that the M supergiants have been included in an HR diagram of the Large Cloud. The presence of the red stars is important for any discussion of the evolution of the massive stars. (Auth.)

  6. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S.; Nam, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4∝5 [μm], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  7. Tritium application: self-luminous glass tube(SLGT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.; Lee, S.K.; Chung, E.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, W.S. [Nuclear Power Lab., Korea Electric Power Research Inst. (KEPRI), Daejeon (Korea); Nam, G.J. [Engineering Information Technology Center, Inst. for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Kyonggi-do (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    To manufacture SLGTs (self-luminous glass tubes), 4 core technologies are needed: coating technology, tritium injection technology, laser sealing/cutting technology and tritium handling technology. The inside of the glass tubes is coated with greenish ZnS phosphor particles with sizes varying from 4{proportional_to}5 [{mu}m], and Cu, and Al as an activator and a co-dopant, respectively. We also found that it would be possible to produce a phosphor coated glass tube for the SLGT using the well established cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) bulb manufacturing technology. The conceptual design of the main process loop (PL) is almost done. A delicate technique will be needed for the sealing/cutting of the glass tubes. Instead of the existing torch technology, a new technology using a pulse-type laser is under investigation. The design basis of the tritium handling facilities is to minimize the operator's exposure to tritium uptake and the emission of tritium to the environment. To fulfill the requirements, major tritium handling components are located in the secondary containment such as the glove boxes (GBs) and/or the fume hoods. The tritium recovery system (TRS) is connected to a GB and PL to minimize the release of tritium as well as to remove the moisture and oxygen in the GB. (orig.)

  8. Effects of background and contour luminance on the hue and brightness of the Watercolor effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Peggy; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Devinck, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    Conjoint measurement was used to investigate the joint influences of the luminance of the background and the inner contour on hue- and brightness filling-in for a stimulus configuration generating a water-color effect (WCE), i.e., a wiggly bi-chromatic contour enclosing a region with the lower luminance component on the exterior. Two stimuli with the background and inner contour luminances covarying independently were successively presented, and in separate experiments, the observer judged which member of the pair's interior regions contained a stronger hue or was brighter. Braided-contour control stimuli that generated little or no perceptual filling-in were also used to assess whether observers were judging the interior regions and not the contours themselves. Three nested models of the contributions of the background and inner contour to the judgments were fit to the data by maximum likelihood and evaluated by likelihood ratio tests. Both stimulus components contributed to both the hue and brightness of the interior region with increasing luminance of the inner contour generating an assimilative filling-in for the hue judgments but a contrast effect for the brightness judgments. Control analyses showed negligible effects for the order of the luminance of the background or inner contour on the judgments. An additive contribution of both components was rejected in favor of a saturated model in which the responses depended on the levels of both stimulus components. For the hue judgments, increased background luminance led to greater hue filling-in at higher luminances of the interior contour. For the brightness judgments, the higher background luminance generated less brightness filling-in at higher luminances of the interior contour. The results indicate different effects of the inner contour and background on the induction of the brightness and coloration percepts of the WCE, suggesting that they are mediated by different mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  9. Optimal Solution Volume for Luminal Preservation: A Preclinical Study in Porcine Intestinal Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, M; Papurica, M; Jiga, L; Hoinoiu, B; Glameanu, C; Bresler, A; Patrut, G; Grigorie, R; Ionac, M; Hellström, M

    2016-03-01

    Rodent studies suggest that luminal solutions alleviate the mucosal injury and prolong intestinal preservation but concerns exist that excessive volumes of luminal fluid may promote tissue edema. Differences in size, structure, and metabolism between rats and humans require studies in large animals before clinical use. Intestinal procurement was performed in 7 pigs. After perfusion with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), 40-cm-long segments were cut and filled with 13.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 solution as follows: V0 (controls, none), V1 (0.5 mL/cm), V2 (1 mL/cm), V3 (1.5 mL/cm), and V4 (2 mL/cm). Tissue and luminal solutions were sampled after 8, 14, and 24 hours of cold storage (CS). Preservation injury (Chiu score), the apical membrane (ZO-1, brush-border maltase activity), and the electrolyte content in the luminal solution were studied. In control intestines, 8-hour CS in HTK solution resulted in minimal mucosal changes (grade 1) that progressed to significant subepithelial edema (grade 3) by 24 hours. During this time, a gradual loss in ZO-1 was recorded, whereas maltase activity remained unaltered. Moreover, variable degrees of submucosal edema were observed. Luminal introduction of high volumes (2 mL/mL) of PEG solution accelerated the development of the subepithelial edema and submucosal edema, leading to worse histology. However, ZO-1 was preserved better over time than in control intestines (no luminal solution). Maltase activity was reduced in intestines receiving luminal preservation. Luminal sodium content decreased in time and did not differ between groups. This PEG solution protects the apical membrane and the tight-junction proteins but may favor water absorption and tissue (submucosal) edema, and luminal volumes >2 mL/cm may result in worse intestinal morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influences of the colonic microbiome on the mucous gel layer in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lennon, Gráinne

    2014-04-01

    The colonic mucus gel layer (MGL) is a critical component of the innate immune system acting as a physical barrier to microbes, luminal insults, and toxins. Mucins are the major component of the MGL. Selected microbes have the potential to interact with, bind to, and metabolize mucins. The tolerance of the host to the presence of these microbes is critical to maintaining MGL homeostasis. In disease states such as ulcerative colitis (UC), both the mucosa associated microbes and the constituent MGL mucins have been shown to be altered. Evidence is accumulating that implicates the potential for mucin degrading bacteria to negatively impact the MGL and its stasis. These effects appear more pronounced in UC.   This review is focused on the host-microbiome interactions within the setting of the MGL. Special focus is given to the mucolytic potential of microbes and their interactions in the setting of the colitic colon.

  11. Immunohistochemical testing for Helicobacter Pylori existence in neoplasms of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Nurgul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a common pathogen, and its prevalence varies with socioeconomic conditions (10–80%. It has recently been recognized as a class I carcinogen in relation to gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in neoplasms of the colon by immunohistochemical methods. Methods The polypectomy materials of 51 patients (19 male and 32 female who had undergone colonoscopic polypectomy were retrieved for retrospective examination. The endoscopic size and colonic localization of the polyps were recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin stains were evaluated according to histological type and grade of dysplasia. Biopsy stains were immunohistochemically treated with Helicobacter pylori antibodies by the streptavidine-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Helicobacter pylori staining in the gastric mucosa was used as the control for the immunohistochemical method. Specimens were classified according to the presence of Helicobacter pylori under an optical microscope, and Helicobacter pylori positive specimens were stratified according to the respective staining pattern. Results Mean age was 61.88 ± 10.62 (40–82 years. Polyp sizes were 1.45 ± 0.92 (1–4 cm; and 25.5% of polyps were localized in the right colon, 68.6% in the left colon and 5.9% in the transverse colon. Presence of Helicobacter pylori was not correlated with localization (p > 0.05 or size of the polyps (p > 0.05. Eleven (21.6% of all specimens included in the study were Helicobacter pylori positive by immunohistochemical methods. Of the Helicobacter pylori positive specimens, the staining pattern was diffuse: Equivocal in 90.9%, nonspecific with a finely granular type concentrated on the luminal surface in 90.9%, dot-like granular in 54.5%, and spiral in 9.1%. Of the tubular polyps, 17.9% were H. pylori positive, and the staining pattern was equivocal in 100%, luminal in 85.7%, and dot-like granular in 57.1%. Of the

  12. Diverticulosis of colon: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Yul

    1972-01-01

    The authors reports 2 cases of diverticulosis involving the sacending colon and cecum: one, 55 year old, 85 kg Korean male admitted to Paik Hospital because of abdominal palm, constipation and tenderness in the right lower abdomen. The other, 48 year old, 78 kg male visited to our hospital for the routine examination. According to late European and American statistics, the colonic diverticulosis was discovered in late middle life about 20%, however, the incidence of colonic diverticulosis is rare in Korea. This paper presents a brief review of literature on the etiology, incidence and symptom

  13. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor. However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. PMID:25797264

  14. Colonic motility in proctalgia fugax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R F

    1979-10-06

    Intraluminal pressure recordings were obtained from the rectum and sigmoid colon in two patients experiencing attacks of proctalgia fugax. In each patient the pain appeared to result from contractions of the sigmoid colon, and not from spasm of the levator ani, rectal wall muscle, or anal sphincters, all of which have previously been suggested as the source of such pain. Proctalgia fugax therefore appears, at least in some patients, to be an unusual variant of the irritable bowel syndrome, in which pain is referred from the sigmoid colon to the rectum.

  15. Vasohibin-1 suppresses colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Han, Bing; Zhang, Qunyuan; Dou, Jie; Wang, Fang; Lin, Wenli; Sun, Yuping; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-04-10

    Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor.However, the clinical relevance of VASH1 in colon cancer and its regulations on cancer angiogenesis and cancer cell biological characteristics are still unknown. Here we showed that stromal VASH1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor size, advanced clinical stage and distant metastases in colon cancer patients. Overexpression of VASH1 in colon cancer cells induced apoptosis and senescence, inhibiting cancer cell growth and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In addition, knockdown of VASH1 in cancer cells promoted cell growth, adhesion and migration in vitro, and enhanced tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo.

  16. Dietary heme-mediated PPARα activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Ijssennagger

    Full Text Available Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome analysis of mucosa of heme-fed mice showed, besides stress- and proliferation-related genes, many upregulated lipid metabolism-related PPARα target genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PPARα in heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia. Male PPARα KO and WT mice received a purified diet with or without heme. As PPARα is proposed to protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, we hypothesized that the absence of PPARα leads to more surface injury and crypt hyperproliferation in the colon upon heme-feeding. Heme induced luminal cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation and colonic hyperproliferation and hyperplasia to the same extent in WT and KO mice. Transcriptome analysis of colonic mucosa confirmed similar heme-induced hyperproliferation in WT and KO mice. Stainings for alkaline phosphatase activity and expression levels of Vanin-1 and Nrf2-targets indicated a compromised antioxidant defense in heme-fed KO mice. Our results suggest that the protective role of PPARα in antioxidant defense involves the Nrf2-inhibitor Fosl1, which is upregulated by heme in PPARα KO mice. We conclude that PPARα plays a protective role in colon against oxidative stress, but PPARα does not mediate heme-induced hyperproliferation. This implies that oxidative stress of surface cells is not the main determinant of heme-induced hyperproliferation and hyperplasia.

  17. High-protein diet differently modifies intestinal goblet cell characteristics and mucosal cytokine expression in ileum and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Liu, Xinxin; Descatoire, Véronique; Desclée de Maredsous, Caroline; Davila, Anne-Marie; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that high-protein (HP) diet ingestion causes marked changes in the luminal environment of the colonic epithelium. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of such modifications on small intestinal and colonic mucosa, two segments with different transit time and physiological functions. Rats were fed with either normal protein (NP; 14% protein) or HP (53% protein) isocaloric diet for 2 weeks, and parameters related to intestinal mucous-secreting cells and to several innate/adaptive immune characteristics (myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine and epithelial TLR expression, proportion of immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues) were measured in the ileum and colon. In ileum from HP animals, we observed hyperplasia of mucus-producing cells concomitant with an increased expression of Muc2 at both gene and protein levels, reduction of mucosal myeloperoxidase activity, down-regulation of Tlr4 gene expression in enterocytes and down-regulation of mucosal Th cytokines associated with CD4+ lymphocyte reduction in mesenteric lymph nodes. These changes coincided with an increased amount of acetate in the ileal luminal content. In colon, HP diet ingestion resulted in a lower number of goblet cells at the epithelial surface but increased goblet cell number in colonic crypts together with an increased Muc3 and a slight reduction of Il-6 gene expression. Our data suggest that HP diet modifies the goblet cell distribution in colon and, in ileum, increases goblet cell activity and decreases parameters related to basal gut inflammatory status. The impact of HP diet on intestinal mucosa in terms of beneficial or deleterious effects is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  19. Sequential changes in luminal microflora and mucosal cytokine expression during developing of colitis in HLA-B27/beta2-microglobulin transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K; Andoh, A; Sato, H; Araki, Y; Tanaka, M; Tsujikawa, T; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-11-01

    Transgenic rats expressing HLA-B27 and human beta2-microglobulin (HLA-B27 rats) spontaneously develop chronic colitis resembling human inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the sequential changes in the luminal bacterial flora and mucosal cytokine mRNA expression in this model. HLA-B27 rats were maintained in a specific pathogen-free environment, and luminal microflora was evaluated by standard bacterial culture technique. The expression of mucosal cytokine mRNA was analysed by RT-PCR methods. Clinical symptoms of colitis appeared at 8 weeks of age. The total number of obligate anaerobes was higher than those of facultative anaerobes during the experimental period. At 6 weeks of age, the colonization of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. was already detectable at high concentrations, whereas Clostridium spp. and Eubacterium spp. were not detected. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-Ibeta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) appeared at 8 weeks of age, and these were detectable until 17 weeks. A similar pattern was observed in the expression of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-gamma). On the other hand, the expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) was weak. IL-4 mRNA expression was weakly detectable only at 6 and 8 weeks of age. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-beta mRNA was scarcely detectable throughout the experimental period. The development of colitis may be mediated by both the predominant expression of Th1 cytokines and the weakness of Th2 cytokine expression in the mucosa. The colonization of anaerobic bacteria, especially Bacteroides spp., may be initiating and promoting these cytokine responses.

  20. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    It stands out the man's paper in the deterioration of the soil and in the phenomenon of the desertization, the conflicts of the use of the soil in the country and the underestimate that it is made of this resource in the environmental analysis. The man's relationships are discussed with the earth and the problem of the soils of the Colombian Orinoquia is examined in terms of the excess of toxic elements as To the, Fe and Mn and the other elements like P, S, Ca, Mg, K, B, and Zn. It is examined the degradation and poverty of the organic complex of the soil, the physical degradation and chemistry and their susceptibility to the erosion, as well as the excess conditions and deficit of humidity. It is recognized that it lacks calibration of the analytic methods for the soils oxisoils of the Orinoquia and the Amazonia. The importance of the soils of the humid tropic is stood out as seat of colonization that have failed when not having an appropriate technology for its handling that it forces to undertake systems of migratory agriculture and to the transformation of the forest in prairie, phenomenon that comes accompanied by the degradation of the soils, illicit cultivations, social conflicts and alteration of the essential ecological processes for the survival

  1. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Multidetector CT of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.

    2003-01-01

    Multidetector technology, enabling faster imaging, higher spatial resolution and reduction in radiation dose, increases the role of CT in colonic diagnostic. The higher spatial resolution in the z-direction also changes the way to analyze the images. Instead of reading axial sections, now the colon can be systematically assessed in 3D by scrolling through multiplanar reconstructions or in CT colonography by virtual endoscopy. With ongoing improvements in computer-aided diagnosis CT colonography becomes an alternative to fiberoptic colonocopy for screening (http://www.multiorganscreening.org). In this article we propose a CT examination protocol for the colon, describe the typical imaging findings of different colonic diseases, and summarize the current status of CT colonography. (orig.)

  3. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for women and 2 drinks per day for men DO NOT smoke You can also have genetic testing done to assess your risk for colon cancer. If you have a strong family history of the disease, talk with your ...

  4. Colon Cleansing: Health or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cramps Dizziness Dehydration Bowel perforation Infection Depletion of probiotics, sodium and potassium Kidney damage Plus, colon cleansing ... goodbye to bacon, sausage, deli meats and hot dogs. Cancer-causing substances form when meats are preserved. ...

  5. Effect of reducing abdominal compression during prone CT colonography on ascending colonic rotation during supine-to-prone positional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jong eon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Hyun Jin; KIm, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of reduced abdominal compression in prone position on ascending colonic movement during supine-to-prone positional change during CT colonography (CTC). Eighteen consecutive patients who had undergone prone CTC scanning with cushion blocks placed under the chest and hip/thigh to reduce abdominal compression and had confirmed sessile polyps ≥ 6 mm in the well-distended, straight, mid-ascending colon, were included. Radial location along the ascending colonic luminal circumference (°) was measured for 24 polyps and 54 colonic teniae on supine and prone CTC images. The supine-to-prone change ranging between -180° and +180° (- and + for internal and external colonic rotations, respectively), was determined. In addition, possible causes of any ascending colonic rotations were explored. Abdominal compression during prone CTC scanning completely disappeared with the use of cushion blocks in 17 of 18 patients. However, some degrees of ascending colonic rotation were still observed, with the radial location changes of -22° to 61° (median, 13.9°) for the polyps and similar degrees for teniae. Fifty-four percent and 56% of polyps and teniae, respectively, showed changes > 10°. The radial location change of the polyps was significantly associated with the degree of anterior shift of the small bowel and mesentery (r = 0.722, p < 0.001) and the degree of posterior displacement of the ascending colon (r = 0.566, p = 0.004) during supine-to-prone positional change. Ascending colonic rotation upon supine-to-prone positional change during CTC, mostly in the form of external rotation, is not eliminated by removing abdominal compression in prone position

  6. Operative factors associated with short-term outcome in horses with large colon volvulus: 47 cases from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L M; Fogle, C A; Baker, W T; Hughes, F E; Law, J M; Motsinger-Reif, A A; Blikslager, A T

    2015-05-01

    There is an important need for objective parameters that accurately predict the outcome of horses with large colon volvulus. To evaluate the predictive value of a series of histomorphometric parameters on short-term outcome, as well as the impact of colonic resection on horses with large colon volvulus. Retrospective cohort study. Adult horses admitted to the Equine and Farm Animal Veterinary Center at North Carolina State University, Peterson and Smith and Chino Valley Equine Hospitals between 2006 and 2013 that underwent an exploratory coeliotomy, diagnosed with large colon volvulus of ≥360 degrees, where a pelvic flexure biopsy was obtained, and that recovered from general anaesthesia, were selected for inclusion in the study. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between signalment, histomorphometric measurements of interstitium-to-crypt ratio, degree of haemorrhage, percentage loss of luminal and glandular epithelium, as well as colonic resection with short-term outcome (discharge from the hospital). Pelvic flexure biopsies from 47 horses with large colon volvulus were evaluated. Factors that were significantly associated with short-term outcome on univariate logistic regression were Thoroughbred breed (P = 0.04), interstitium-to-crypt ratio >1 (P = 0.02) and haemorrhage score ≥3 (P = 0.005). Resection (P = 0.92) was not found to be associated significantly with short-term outcome. No combined factors increased the likelihood of death in forward stepwise logistic regression modelling. A digitally quantified measurement of haemorrhage area strengthened the association of haemorrhage with nonsurvival in cases of large colon volvulus. Histomorphometric measurements of interstitium-to-crypt ratio and degree of haemorrhage predict short-term outcome in cases of large colon volvulus. Resection was not associated with short-term outcome in horses selected for this study. Accurate quantification of mucosal haemorrhage at the time of surgery may

  7. Guidewire and microcatheter utilization patterns during antegrade wire escalation in chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from a contemporary multicenter registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatasakis, Aris; Tarar, Muhammad Nauman J; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Alaswad, Khaldoon; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A; Wyman, R Michael; Lombardi, William L; Grantham, J Aaron; Kandzari, David E; Lembo, Nicholas J; Moses, Jeffrey W; Kirtane, Ajay J; Parikh, Manish; Garcia, Santiago; Doing, Anthony; Pershad, Ashish; Shah, Alpesh; Patel, Mitul; Bahadorani, John; Shoultz, Charles A; Danek, Barbara A; Thompson, Craig A; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2017-03-01

    We sought to describe contemporary guidewire and microcatheter utilization for antegrade wire escalation (AWE) during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Equipment utilization for AWE has been variable and evolving over time. We examined device utilization during 694 AWE attempts in 679 patients performed at 15 experienced US centers between May 2012 and April 2015. Mean age was 65.6 ± 9.7 years, and 85% of the patients were men. Successful wiring occurred in 436 AWE attempts (63%). Final technical and procedural success was 91% and 89%, respectively. The mean number of guidewire types used for AWE was 2.2 ± 1.4. The most frequently used guidewire types were the Pilot 200 (Abbott Vascular, 56% of AWE procedures), Fielder XT (Asahi Intecc, 45%), and the Confianza Pro 12 (Asahi Intecc, 28%). The same guidewires were the ones that most commonly crossed the occlusion: Pilot 200 (36% of successful AWE crossings), Fielder XT (20%), and Confianza Pro 12 (11%). A microcatheter or over-the-wire balloon was used for 81% of AWE attempts; the Corsair microcatheter (Asahi Intecc) was the most commonly used (44%). No significant association was found between guidewire type and incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Our contemporary, multicenter CTO PCI registry demonstrates that the most commonly used wires for AWE are polymer-jacketed guidewires. "Stiff" and polymer-jacketed guidewires appear to provide high crossing rates without an increase in MACE or perforation, and may thus be considered for upfront use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Antegrade versus retrograde cerebral perfusion for hemiarch replacement with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest: does it matter? A propensity-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Asvin M; Hanna, Jennifer M; Schechter, Matthew A; Englum, Brian R; Castleberry, Anthony W; Gaca, Jeffrey G; Hughes, G Chad

    2014-12-01

    The choice of cerebral perfusion strategy for aortic arch surgery has been debated, and the superiority of antegrade (ACP) or retrograde (RCP) cerebral perfusion has not been shown. We examined the early and late outcomes for ACP versus RCP in proximal (hemi-) arch replacement using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed for all patients undergoing elective and nonelective hemiarch replacement at a single referral institution from June 2005 to February 2013. Total arch cases were excluded to limit the analysis to shorter DHCA times and a more uniform patient population for whom clinical equipoise regarding ACP versus RCP exists. A total of 440 procedures were identified, with 360 (82%) using ACP and 80 (18%) using RCP. The endpoints included 30-day/in-hospital and late outcomes. A propensity score with 1:1 matching of 40 pre- and intraoperative variables was used to adjust for differences between the 2 groups. All 80 RCP patients were propensity matched to a cohort of 80 similar ACP patients. The pre- and intraoperative characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups after matching. No differences were found in 30-day/in-hospital mortality or morbidity outcomes. The only significant difference between the 2 groups was a shorter mean operative time in the RCP cohort (P = .01). No significant differences were noted in late survival (P = .90). In proximal arch operations using DHCA, equivalent early and late outcomes can be achieved with RCP and ACP, although the mean operative time is significantly less with RCP, likely owing to avoidance of axillary cannulation. Questions remain regarding comparative outcomes with straight DHCA and lesser degrees of hypothermia. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary closure in colon trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Aragón, Luis Enrique; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Vaca-Pérez, Enrique; Belmares-Taboada, Jaime Arístides; Ortiz-Castillo, Fátima de Guadalupe; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín

    2009-01-01

    Primary repair of colon injuries is an accepted therapeutic option; however, controversy persists regarding its safety. Our objective was to report the evolution and presence of complications in patients with colon injury who underwent primary closure and to determine if the time interval (>6 h), degree of injury, contamination, anatomic site injured, PATI (Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index) >25, and the presence of other injuries in colon trauma are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This was a prospective, observational, longitudinal and descriptive study conducted at the Central Hospital "Dr. Ignacio Morones Prieto," San Luis Potosí, Mexico, from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. We included patients with abdominal trauma with colon injury subjected to surgical treatment. chi(2) was used for basic statistical analysis. There were 481 patients with abdominal trauma who underwent surgery; 77(16.1%) had colon injury. Ninety percent (n = 69) were treated in the first 6 h; 91% (n = 70) were due to penetrating injuries, and gunshot wound accounted for 48% (n = 37). Transverse colon was the most frequently injured (38%) (n = 29). Grade I and II injuries accounted for 75.3% (n = 58). Procedures included primary repair (76.66 %) (n = 46); resection with anastomosis (8.3%) (n = 5); and colostomy (15%) (n = 9). Associated injuries were present in 76.6% (n = 59). There was some degree of contamination in 85.7% (n = 66); 82.8% (58) had PATI colon injury. Primary repair is a safe procedure for treatment of colon injuries. Patients with primary repair had lower morbidity (p <0.009). Surgery during the first 6 h (p <0.006) and in hemodynamically stable patients (p <0.014) had a lower risk of complications.

  10. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  11. Underlying mechanisms of transient luminous events: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient luminous events (TLEs occasionally observed above a strong thunderstorm system have been the subject of a great deal of research during recent years. The main goal of this review is to introduce readers to recent theories of electrodynamics processes associated with TLEs. We examine the simplest versions of these theories in order to make their physics as transparent as possible. The study is begun with the conventional mechanism for air breakdown at stratospheric and mesospheric altitudes. An electron impact ionization and dissociative attachment to neutrals are discussed. A streamer size and mobility of electrons as a function of altitude in the atmosphere are estimated on the basis of similarity law. An alternative mechanism of air breakdown, runaway electron mechanism, is discussed. In this section we focus on a runaway breakdown field, characteristic length to increase avalanche of runaway electrons and on the role played by fast seed electrons in generation of the runaway breakdown. An effect of thunderclouds charge distribution on initiation of blue jets and gigantic jets is examined. A model in which the blue jet is treated as upward-propagating positive leader with a streamer zone/corona on the top is discussed. Sprite models based on streamer-like mechanism of air breakdown in the presence of atmospheric conductivity are reviewed. To analyze conditions for sprite generation, thunderstorm electric field arising just after positive cloud-to-ground stroke is compared with the thresholds for propagation of positively/negatively charged streamers and with runway breakdown. Our own estimate of tendril's length at the bottom of sprite is obtained to demonstrate that the runaway breakdown can trigger the streamer formation. In conclusion we discuss physical mechanisms of VLF (very low frequency and ELF (extremely low frequency phenomena associated with sprites.

  12. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SPITZER-SELECTED LUMINOUS STARBURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N.; Beelen, A.; Dole, H.; Lagache, G.; Lonsdale, C.; Polletta, M.; Greve, T. R.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Bell, T. A.; Cox, P.; De Breuck, C.; Farrah, D.; Menten, K. M.; Owen, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present SHARC-2 350 μm data on 20 luminous z ∼ 2 starbursts with S 1.2 m m > 2 mJy from the Spitzer-selected samples of Lonsdale et al. and Fiolet et al. All the sources were detected, with S 350 μ m > 25 mJy for 18 of them. With the data, we determine precise dust temperatures and luminosities for these galaxies using both single-temperature fits and models with power-law mass-temperature distributions. We derive appropriate formulae to use when optical depths are non-negligible. Our models provide an excellent fit to the 6 μm-2 mm measurements of local starbursts. We find characteristic single-component temperatures T 1 ≅ 35.5 ± 2.2 K and integrated infrared (IR) luminosities around 10 12.9±0.1 L sun for the SWIRE-selected sources. Molecular gas masses are estimated at ≅4 x 10 10 M sun , assuming κ 850 μ m = 0.15 m 2 kg -1 and a submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG)-like gas-to-dust mass ratio. The best-fit models imply ∼>2 kpc emission scales. We also note a tight correlation between rest-frame 1.4 GHz radio and IR luminosities confirming star formation as the predominant power source. The far-IR properties of our sample are indistinguishable from the purely submillimeter-selected populations from current surveys. We therefore conclude that our original selection criteria, based on mid-IR colors and 24 μm flux densities, provides an effective means for the study of SMGs at z ∼ 1.5-2.5.

  13. Endo-luminal grafting for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weiguo; Wang Yuqi; Chen Fuzhen; Ye Jianrong; Wang Jianhua; Yan Zhiping; Cheng Jiemin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary clinical results of endovascular procedures for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in a prospective study. Methods: Six patients (average age 70 years, range 56 to 78) with infrarenal AAA were enrolled in Shanghai Zhongshan hospital from February 1998 to February 1999. Computed tomography and angiography were done in every patient for measurement of the length, diameter, and angulation of the proximal and distal AAA necks, aneurysm sac, and common and external iliac arteries. The average diameter of the aneurysm was 6.3 cm (range 4.6 cm to 8.0 cm). The mean proximal neck diameter was 2.0 cm (range 1.8 cm to 2.2 cm) and proximal neck length was 3.0 cm (range 2.5 cm to 3.5 cm). All patients were treated with the endo-luminal grafting for exclusion of AAA. Results: Two tubular and 4 bifurcated endo-grafts were used. All endo-graft procedures were completed successfully. One patient died of renal failure 72 hours after the procedure because of the prolonged operative time and excessive contrast medium. Aortography after the procedure showed the AAA were excluded by endo-graft and no endo-leak in the proximal or distal connections was detected. The patients could take meal and were ambulatory on the first and second postoperative day, respectively. Clinical success (aneurysm exclusion with no death or endo-leak) at 30 days was 83.3%. In the 24 months follow-up in 5 cases, no migration, endo-leak, and increasing aneurysm size were detected with spiral CT or color Duplex ultrasound. Conclusion: Based on initial results and a short term mean follow-up period of 24 months, the endovascular treatment of AAA with stent-graft system is feasible and safe. Further study will be required to observe the long term result in the exclusion of AAA

  14. Luciferase inactivation in the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, C A; Baldwin, T O

    1981-06-01

    Luciferase was rapidly inactivated in stationary-phase cultures of the wild type of the luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, but was stable in stationary-phase cultures of mutants of V. harveyi that are nonluminous without exogenous aldehyde, termed the aldehyde-deficient mutants. The inactivation in the wild type was halted by cell lysis and was slowed or stopped by O2 deprivation or by addition of KCN and NaF or of chloramphenicol. If KCN and NaF or chloramphenicol were added to a culture before the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation did not occur. However, if these inhibitors were added after the onset of luciferase inactivation, then luciferase inactivation continued for about 2 to 3 h before the inactivation process stopped. The onset of luciferase inactivation in early stationary-phase cultures of wild-type cell coincided with a slight drop in the intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) level from a relatively constant log-phase value of 20 pmol of ATP per microgram of soluble cell protein. Addition of KCN and NaF to a culture shortly after this drop in ATP caused a rapid decrease in the ATP level to about 4 pmol of ATP per microgram whereas chloramphenicol added at this same time caused a transient increase in ATP level to about 25 pmol/microgram. The aldehyde-deficient mutant (M17) showed a relatively constant log-phase ATP level identical with that of the wild-type cells, but rather than decreasing in early stationary phase, the ATP level increased to a value twice that in log-phase cells. We suggest that the inactivation of luciferase is dependent on the synthesis of some factor which is produced during stationary phase and is itself unstable, and whose synthesis is blocked by chloramphenicol or cyanide plus fluoride.

  15. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  16. The watercolor effect: quantitative evidence for luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Delahunt, Peter B; Hardy, Joseph L; Spillmann, Lothar; Werner, John S

    2005-05-01

    When a dark chromatic contour delineating a figure is flanked on the inside by a brighter chromatic contour, the brighter color will spread into the entire enclosed area. This is known as the watercolor effect (WCE). Here we quantified the effect of color spreading using both color-matching and hue-cancellation tasks. Over a wide range of stimulus chromaticities, there was a reliable shift in color appearance that closely followed the direction of the inducing contour. When the contours were equated in luminance, the WCE was still present, but weak. The magnitude of the color spreading increased with increases in luminance contrast between the two contours. Additionally, as the luminance contrast between the contours increased, the chromaticity of the induced color more closely resembled that of the inside contour. The results support the hypothesis that the WCE is mediated by luminance-dependent mechanisms of long-range color assimilation.

  17. Measuring high-resolution sky luminance distributions with a CCD camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohsing, Korntip; Schrempf, Michael; Riechelmann, Stefan; Schilke, Holger; Seckmeyer, Gunther

    2013-03-10

    We describe how sky luminance can be derived from a newly developed hemispherical sky imager (HSI) system. The system contains a commercial compact charge coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a fish-eye lens. The projection of the camera system has been found to be nearly equidistant. The luminance from the high dynamic range images has been calculated and then validated with luminance data measured by a CCD array spectroradiometer. The deviation between both datasets is less than 10% for cloudless and completely overcast skies, and differs by no more than 20% for all sky conditions. The global illuminance derived from the HSI pictures deviates by less than 5% and 20% under cloudless and cloudy skies for solar zenith angles less than 80°, respectively. This system is therefore capable of measuring sky luminance with the high spatial and temporal resolution of more than a million pixels and every 20 s respectively.

  18. SI 1985 No. 1048 - The Radioactive Substances (Luminous Articles) Exemption Order 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Order, which came into force on 17 September 1985, is concerned with exemptions and exclusions under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 in respect of radioactive luminous instruments and indicators. (NEA) [fr

  19. Grain formation in the expanding gas flow around cool luminous stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of solid particles in interstellar space has been revealed by the extinction of starlight in UV, visible and IR. The important sources of interstellar grains are considered to be cool luminous mass loss stars. (author)

  20. Distribution and species composition of planktonic luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    Distribution of the total viable heterotrophic bacteria and the luminous bacteria in the neretic and oceanic waters of the west coast of India was studied. Counts of viable heterotrophs fluctuated widely, generally with a decrease in their number...

  1. An Assessment of Luminance Imbalance with ANVIS at an Army Helicopter Training Airfield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLean, William

    1997-01-01

    One of the casual factors listed in a 1996 mid-air collision between two Australian Army helicopters in formation was a speculation of possible luminance imbalance between the right and left channels...

  2. Distribution of luminous bacteria and bacterial luminescence in the equatorial region of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Chandramohan, D.

    to that of seawater, was noticed from the zooplankton samples. This may be due to the autoinduction of luciferase synthesis or the accumulation of autoinducer in the luminous microflora living in close association with zooplankton...

  3. The effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ya-Hsien

    2017-11-01

    This study explored and identified the effects of luminance contrast, colour combinations, font, and search time on brand icon legibility. A total of 108 participants took part in the experiment. As designed, legibility was measured as a function of the following independent variables: four levels of luminance contrast, sixteen target/background colour combinations, two fonts, and three search times. The results showed that a luminance contrast of 18:1 provided readers with the best legibility. Yellow on black, yellow on blue, and white on blue were the three most legible colour combinations. One of this study's unique findings was that colour combinations may play an even more important role than luminance contrast in the overall legibility of brand icon design. The 12-s search time corresponded with the highest legibility. Arial font was more legible than Times New Roman. These results provide some guidance for brand icon and product advertisement design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonic diverticulosis is not a risk factor for colonic adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Dong, Lemei; Zippi, Maddalena; Stock, Simon; Geng, Wujun; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2018-01-01

    Colonic diverticulosis may represent a risk factor for colonic adenomas by virtue of the fact that evolving data suggest that these 2 conditions may share common risk factors such as Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity. This study aims to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and colonic adenomas in mainland China. We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients who underwent colonoscopic examination between October 2013 and December 2014 in a university hospital in mainland China. Age, gender, colonic adenomas, advanced adenomas, and distribution of diverticulosis were recorded during the procedures. Multivariate logistic regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations between the prevalence of diverticulosis and age, sex, and presence of colonic adenomas and advanced adenomas. A total of 17,456 subjects were enrolled. The prevalence of colonic diverticulosis and adenoma was 2.4% and 13.2%, respectively. With regard to distribution of diverticula, most (365/424, 86.1%) were right-sided. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that age and male gender were independent risk factors for adenoma and advanced adenoma. There was no relationship between diverticulosis or location of diverticulosis and presence of adenoma and advanced adenoma adjusting by age and gender. In a stratified analysis according to age and gender, similar results were also noted. There was no statistical relationship between diverticulosis and the risk of adenoma and advanced adenoma. Our results may not be generalized to the Western population due to the fact that left-sided diverticular cases were very small in our study.

  5. High luminous flux from single crystal phosphor-converted laser-based white lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Cantore, Michael; Pfaff, Nathan; Farrell, Robert M.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD

  6. Transferable chloramphenicol resistance determinant in luminous Vibrio harveyi from penaeid shrimp Penaeus monodon larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangapalam Jawahar Abraham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant luminous Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from Penaeus monodon larvae were screened for the possession of transferable resistance determinants. All the strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and the determinant coding for chloramphenicol resistance was transferred to Escherichia coli at frequencies of 9.50x10-4 to 4.20x10-4. The results probably suggest the excessive use of chloramphenicol in shrimp hatcheries to combat luminous vibriosis.

  7. The impact of luminance on tonic and phasic pupillary responses to sustained cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Vachon, François; Dehais, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Pupillary reactions independent of light conditions have been linked to cognition for a long time. However, the light conditions can impact the cognitive pupillary reaction. Previous studies underlined the impact of luminance on pupillary reaction, but it is still unclear how luminance modulates the sustained and transient components of pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the luminance on these two components under sustained cognitive load. Fourteen participants performed a novel working memory task combining mathematical computations with a classic n-back task. We studied both tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response under low (1-back) and high (2-back) working memory load and two luminance levels (gray and white). We found that the impact of working memory load on the tonic pupil diameter was modulated by the level of luminance, the increase in tonic pupil diameter with the load being larger under lower luminance. In contrast, the smaller phasic pupil response found under high load remained unaffected by luminance. These results showed that luminance impacts the cognitive pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter (phasic pupil response) being modulated under sustained (respectively, transient) cognitive load. These findings also support the relationship between the locus-coeruleus system, presumably functioning in two firing modes - tonic and phasic - and the pupil diameter. We suggest that the tonic pupil diameter tracks the tonic activity of the locus-coeruleus while phasic pupil response reflects its phasic activity. Besides, the designed novel cognitive paradigm allows the simultaneous manipulation of sustained and transient components of the cognitive load and is useful for dissociating the effects on the tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Colonization and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, E.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental results of the colonization, process and their consequences are analyzed in the local, national and international order, the activities through which the acts on the means and the nature of these. It is examined the meaning of the sustainable development, the phenomenon of the exhaustion of the ecosystems and their responsible ones. It discusses the importance of the Orinoquia in the mark of the environmental problems in the international order, the region has been intensely exploded by means of intensive production systems, what has led to the exhaustion of these areas in the world environment. The colonist's paper is exposed in the environmental deterioration, in front of the function of the tropical humid forest and it confirms a focus that it approaches the environmental problem from a perspective that makes emphasis in the social component of that problem, in opposition to the conservators where the ecosystem is the only valid reason and the social groups that intervene him, they should simply disappear. It is necessary the necessity to focus of integral way, the colonist's nature like element of a social group, the list that completes in the mark of the nation and their development model, the political economic system and the nationality inside which makes their economic decisions and of production. It is recognized that they are not enough solutions of technical order to impact on the use and sustainable handling of the Orinoquia, but rather it should be contemplated the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of the problem simultaneously, as well as the growing and resolved participation of the social group in their group

  9. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Joseph B J; Lajczak, Natalia K; Kelly, Orlaith B; O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Giddam, Ashwini K; Ní Gabhann, Joan; Franco, Placido; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Jefferies, Caroline A; Keely, Simon; Roda, Aldo; Keely, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Ward JB, Lajczak NK, Kelly OB, O'Dwyer AM, Giddam AK, Ní Gabhann J, Franco P, Tambuwala MM, Jefferies CA, Keely S, Roda A, Keely SJ. Ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid exert anti-inflammatory actions in the colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 312: G550-G558, 2017. First published March 30, 2017; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00256.2016.-Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise a group of common and debilitating chronic intestinal disorders for which currently available therapies are often unsatisfactory. The naturally occurring secondary bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has well-established anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions and may therefore be effective in treating IBD. We aimed to investigate regulation of colonic inflammatory responses by UDCA and to determine the potential impact of bacterial metabolism on its therapeutic actions. The anti-inflammatory efficacy of UDCA, a nonmetabolizable analog, 6α-methyl-UDCA (6-MUDCA), and its primary colonic metabolite lithocholic acid (LCA) was assessed in the murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mucosal injury. The effects of bile acids on cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, Il-1β, and IFN-γ) release from cultured colonic epithelial cells and mouse colonic tissue in vivo were investigated. Luminal bile acids were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. UDCA attenuated release of proinflammatory cytokines from colonic epithelial cells in vitro and was protective against the development of colonic inflammation in vivo. In contrast, although 6-MUDCA mimicked the effects of UDCA on epithelial cytokine release in vitro, it was ineffective in preventing inflammation in the DSS model. In UDCA-treated mice, LCA became the most common colonic bile acid. Finally, LCA treatment more potently inhibited epithelial cytokine release and protected against DSS-induced mucosal inflammation than did UDCA. These studies identify a new role for the primary metabolite of UDCA, LCA, in preventing colonic

  10. Mercury-free electrodeless discharge lamp: effect of xenon pressure and plasma parameters on luminance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazri Dagang Ahmad; Kondo, Akira; Motomura, Hideki; Jinno, Masafumi

    2009-01-01

    Since there is much concern about environmental preservation, the authors have paid attention to the uses of mercury in lighting application. They have focused on the application of the xenon low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) discharge in developing cylindrical type mercury-free light sources. ICP can be operated at low filling gas pressures and demonstrates significant potential in producing high density plasma. Xenon pressure was varied from 0.1 to 100 Torr and the lamp luminance was measured. The gas pressure dependence shows an increase in luminance at pressures below 1 Torr. In order to clarify this behaviour, measurement of plasma parameters was carried out using the double probe method and its relation to lamp luminance is discussed. As the gas pressure is decreased (from 1 to 0.01 Torr), the electron temperature increases while the electron density decreases while at the same time the lamp luminance increases. There are several factors that are believed to contribute to the increase in luminance in the very low pressure region. Increases in luminance are considered to be due to the electron-ion recombination process which brings a strong recombination radiation in continuum in the visible region and also due to the effect of stochastic heating.

  11. Nonlinear mapping of the luminance in dual-layer high dynamic range displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Gabriele; Ramponi, Giovanni; Bonfiglio, Silvio; Albani, Luigi

    2009-02-01

    It has long been known that the human visual system (HVS) has a nonlinear response to luminance. This nonlinearity can be quantified using the concept of just noticeable difference (JND), which represents the minimum amplitude of a specified test pattern an average observer can discern from a uniform background. The JND depends on the background luminance following a threshold versus intensity (TVI) function. It is possible to define a curve which maps physical luminances into a perceptually linearized domain. This mapping can be used to optimize a digital encoding, by minimizing the visibility of quantization noise. It is also commonly used in medical applications to display images adapting to the characteristics of the display device. High dynamic range (HDR) displays, which are beginning to appear on the market, can display luminance levels outside the range in which most standard mapping curves are defined. In particular, dual-layer LCD displays are able to extend the gamut of luminance offered by conventional liquid crystals towards the black region; in such areas suitable and HVS-compliant luminance transformations need to be determined. In this paper we propose a method, which is primarily targeted to the extension of the DICOM curve used in medical imaging, but also has a more general application. The method can be modified in order to compensate for the ambient light, which can be significantly greater than the black level of an HDR display and consequently reduce the visibility of the details in dark areas.

  12. Near-field visual acuity of pigeons: effects of head location and stimulus luminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodos, W; Leibowitz, R W; Bonbright, J C

    1976-03-01

    Two pigeons were trained to discriminate a grating stimulus from a blank stimulus of equivalent luminance in a three-key chamber. The stimuli and blanks were presented behind a transparent center key. The procedure was a conditional discrimination in which pecks on the left key were reinforced if the blank had been present behind the center key and pecks on the right key were reinforced if the grating had been present behind the center key. The spatial frequency of the stimuli was varied in each session from four to 29.5 lines per millimeter in accordance with a variation of the method of constant stimuli. The number of lines per millimeter that the subjects could discriminate at threshold was determined from psychometric functions. Data were collected at five values of stimulus luminance ranging from--0.07 to 3.29 log cd/m2. The distance from the stimulus to the anterior nodal point of the eye, which was determined from measurements taken from high-speed motion-picture photographs of three additional pigeons and published intraocular measurements, was 62.0 mm. This distance and the grating detection thresholds were used to calculate the visual acuity of the birds at each level of luminance. Acuity improved with increasing luminance to a peak value of 0.52, which corresponds to a visual angle of 1.92 min, at a luminance of 2.33 log cd/m2. Further increase in luminance produced a small decline in acuity.

  13. Study of luminous emissions associated to electron emissions in radiofrequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maissa, S.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates luminous emissions simultaneously to electron emissions and examines their features in order to better understand the field electron emission phenomenon. A RF cavity, operating at room temperature and in pulsed mode, joined to a sophisticated experimental apparatus has been especially developed. The electron and luminous emissions are investigated on cleaned or with metallic, graphitic and dielectric particles contaminated RF surfaces in order to study their influence on these phenomena. During the surface processing, unstable luminous spots glowing during one RF pulse are detected. Their apparition is promoted in the vicinity of the metallic particles or scratches. Two hypotheses could explain their origin: the presence of micro-plasmas associated to electronic explosive emission during processing or the thermal radiation of the melted metal during this emission. Stable luminous spots glowing during several RF pulses are also detected and appear to increase on RF surfaces contaminated with dielectric particles, leading to strong and explosive luminous emissions. Two interpretations are considered: the initiation of surface breakdowns on the dielectric particles or the heating by the RF field at temperatures sufficiently intense to provoke their thermal radiation then their explosion. Finally a superconducting cavity has been adapted to observe luminous spots, which differ from the former ones bu their star shape and could be associated to micro-plasmas, revealed by the starbursts observed on superconducting cavity walls. (author)

  14. Competition between color and luminance for target selection in smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Montagnini, Anna; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-11-24

    Visual processing of color and luminance for smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements was investigated using a target selection paradigm. In two experiments, stimuli were varied along the dimensions color and luminance, and selection of the more salient target was compared in pursuit and saccades. Initial pursuit was biased in the direction of the luminance component whereas saccades showed a relative preference for color. An early pursuit response toward luminance was often reversed to color by a later saccade. Observers' perceptual judgments of stimulus salience, obtained in two control experiments, were clearly biased toward luminance. This choice bias in perceptual data implies that the initial short-latency pursuit response agrees with perceptual judgments. In contrast, saccades, which have a longer latency than pursuit, do not seem to follow the perceptual judgment of salience but instead show a stronger relative preference for color. These substantial differences in target selection imply that target selection processes for pursuit and saccadic eye movements use distinctly different weights for color and luminance stimuli.

  15. Effect of different infusion regimens on colonic motility and efficacy of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattuso, J M; Kamm, M A; Myers, C; Saunders, B; Roy, A

    1996-10-01

    The colonic motility response and short-term clinical effectiveness of colonic irrigation was studied in five patients with an end-colostomy, each of whom was studied on up to six occasions, using volumes of 500 and 1500 ml water infused under gravity and over a period of 2.5 and 5 min with a pump. The median baseline colonic luminal pressure was 14 cmH2O and rose to 42 cmH2O with a 500-ml infusion, and to 74 cmH2O with a 1500-ml infusion. Irrigation induced high-pressure (over 200 cmH2O) propagated waves which caused the efflux of colonic contents. These were more numerous after a 1500- than a 500-ml infusion (median 4.5 versus 2.0 respectively). There was no difference between the two volumes infused in the incidence of colostomy break-through before subsequent irrigation. Colostomy irrigation with 500-1500 ml water appears to produce intracolonic pressure rises that are safe. These volumes can be infused rapidly under gravity alone.

  16. Epithelial response to a high-protein diet in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Armand, Lucie; Grauso, Marta; Jaffrézic, Florence; Laloë, Denis; Moroldo, Marco; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-01-31

    High-protein diets (HPD) alter the large intestine microbiota composition in association with a metabolic shift towards protein degradation. Some amino acid-derived metabolites produced by the colon bacteria are beneficial for the mucosa while others are deleterious at high concentrations. The aim of the present work was to define the colonic epithelial response to an HPD. Transcriptome profiling was performed on colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an isocaloric normal-protein diet (NPD) for 2 weeks. The HPD downregulated the expression of genes notably implicated in pathways related to cellular metabolism, NF-κB signaling, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and cellular adhesion in colonocytes. In contrast, the HPD upregulated the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and chemical barrier function. These changes at the mRNA level in colonocytes were not associated with detrimental effects of the HPD on DNA integrity (comet assay), epithelium renewal (quantification of proliferation and apoptosis markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot) and colonic barrier integrity (Ussing chamber experiments). The modifications of the luminal environment after an HPD were associated with maintenance of the colonic homeostasis that might be the result of adaptive processes in the epithelium related to the observed transcriptional regulations.

  17. Relationship of the luminous bacterial symbiont of the Caribbean flashlight fish, Kryptophanaron alfredi (family Anomalopidae) to other luminous bacteria based on bacterial luciferase (luxA) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G

    1990-01-01

    Flashlight fishes (family Anomalopidae) have light organs that contain luminous bacterial symbionts. Although the symbionts have not yet been successfully cultured, the luciferase genes have been cloned directly from the light organ of the Caribbean species, Kryptophanaron alfredi. The goal of this project was to evaluate the relationship of the symbiont to free-living luminous bacteria by comparison of genes coding for bacterial luciferase (lux genes). Hybridization of a lux AB probe from the Kryptophanaron alfredi symbiont to DNAs from 9 strains (8 species) of luminous bacteria showed that none of the strains tested had lux genes highly similar to the symbiont. The most similar were a group consisting of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio splendidus and Vibrio orientalis. The nucleotide sequence of the luciferase alpha subunit gene luxA) of the Kryptophanaron alfredi symbiont was determined in order to do a more detailed comparison with published luxA sequences from Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio fischeri and Photobacterium leiognathi. The hybridization results, sequence comparisons and the mol% G + C of the Kryptophanaron alfredi symbiont luxA gene suggest that the symbiont may be considered as a new species of luminous Vibrio related to Vibrio harveyi.

  18. MN112: a new Galactic candidate luminous blue variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.; Sholukhova, O.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Zharova, A. V.

    2010-06-01

    We report the discovery of a new Galactic candidate luminous blue variable (cLBV) via detection of an infrared circular nebula and follow-up spectroscopy of its central star. The nebula, MN112, is one of many dozens of circular nebulae detected at 24μm in the Spitzer Space Telescope archival data, whose morphology is similar to that of nebulae associated with known (c)LBVs and related evolved massive stars. Specifically, the core-halo morphology of MN112 bears a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebula associated with the Galactic cLBV GAL079.29+00.46, which suggests that both nebulae might have a similar origin and that the central star of MN112 is an LBV. The spectroscopy of the central star showed that its spectrum is almost identical to that of the bona fide LBV PCygni, which also supports the LBV classification of the object. To further constrain the nature of MN112, we searched for signatures of possible high-amplitude (>~1mag) photometric variability of the central star using archival and newly obtained photometric data covering a 45-yr period. We found that the B magnitude of the star was constant within error margins, while in the I band the star brightened by ~=0.4mag during the last 17 yr. Although the non-detection of large photometric variability leads us to use the prefix `candidate' in the classification of MN112, we remind the readers that the long-term photometric stability is not unusual for genuine LBVs and that the brightness of PCygni remained relatively stable during the last three centuries. Partially based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); fabrika@sao.ru (SF); olga@sao.ru (OS); berdnik@sai.msu.ru (LNB); cher@sai.msu.ru (AMC); alla@sai.msu.ru (AVZ)

  19. Enfermedad Diverticular del Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo López Escobar

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los divertículos del colon han sido reconocidos por varios observadores desde hace más de un siglo, pero en su mayor parte se trataba de casos aislados, hoy se la considera como la enfermedad del siglo XX, la de la era moderna y de los países industrializados y de avanzada tecnología (5,18,33.

    Según el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (11, divertículo, del latín, diverticulum, quiere decir desviación de un camino; y desde el punto de vista anatómico, apéndice hueco y terminado en fondo de saco. (Gráfica No. 1.

    Goligher (17 lo define como la “posada al borde del camino, probablemente un lugar, a menudo, de mala reputación”.

    Historia

    Según Hackford (18, el proceso fué descrito brevemente por Littre a comienzos del siglo XVIII; pero se le atribuye a Cruveilhier la primera descripción como proceso patológico en 1849, quien, además, mencionó: “encontramos, no rara vez, en el sigmoide, entre las bandas de fibras musculares longitudinales, una serie de pequeños tumores piriformes oscuros, que están formados por hernias de la mucosa a través de brechas en la capa muscular” (17.

    Fleischman en 1815 hizo la primera observación de la enfermedad y empleó el término divertículo (45.

    Rokitansky en 1.849, habló de una enfermedad adquirida y consideró que su causa consistía en la constipación (45.

    Virchowen 1853 describió la perisigmoiditis (45.

    En 1859 Sidney Jones informó de una fístula colo-vesical debida a diverticulitis (5,45.

    Loomis en 1870 describe una peritonitis como resultante de una diverticulitis (45.

    En 1877 Ball describió la anatomía patológica de la enfermedad y presentó dos casos de fístula colovesical debidas a diverticulitis (9. Cripps en 1.888 popularizó la colostomía de desviación como tratamiento para la fístula colovesical(18...

  20. Percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess: is colon resection necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Willis, David J; Madoff, Robert D; Rothenberger, David A; Kwaan, Mary R; Belzer, George E; Melton, Genevieve B

    2013-05-01

    Recurrent diverticulitis has been reported in up to 30% to 40% of patients who recover from an episode of colonic diverticular abscess, so elective interval resection is traditionally recommended. The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of patients who underwent percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess without subsequent operative intervention. This was an observational study. This investigation was conducted at a tertiary care academic medical center and a single-hospital health system. Patients treated for symptomatic colonic diverticular abscess from 2002 through 2007 were included. The primary outcomes measured were complications, recurrence, and colectomy-free survival. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscesses. Thirty-two patients (15%) did not undergo subsequent colonic resection. Abscess location was pelvic (n = 9) and paracolic (n = 23), the mean abscess size was 4.2 cm, and the median duration of percutaneous drainage was 20 days. The comorbidities of this group of patients included severe cardiac disease (n = 16), immunodeficiency (n = 7), and severe pulmonary disease (n = 6). Freedom from recurrence at 7.4 years was 0.58 (95% CI 0.42-0.73). All recurrences were managed nonoperatively. Recurrence was significantly associated with an abscess size larger than 5 cm. Colectomy-free survival at 7.4 years was 0.17 (95% CI 0.13-0.21). This study was limited by its retrospective, nonexperimental design and short follow-up. In selected patients, observation after percutaneous drainage of colonic diverticular abscess appears to be a safe and low-risk management option.

  1. Complete colonic duplication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 -day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies.

  2. DACH1: its role as a classifier of long term good prognosis in luminal breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond G Powe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oestrogen receptor (ER positive (luminal tumours account for the largest proportion of females with breast cancer. Theirs is a heterogeneous disease presenting clinical challenges in managing their treatment. Three main biological luminal groups have been identified but clinically these can be distilled into two prognostic groups in which Luminal A are accorded good prognosis and Luminal B correlate with poor prognosis. Further biomarkers are needed to attain classification consensus. Machine learning approaches like Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs have been used for classification and identification of biomarkers in breast cancer using high throughput data. In this study, we have used an artificial neural network (ANN approach to identify DACH1 as a candidate luminal marker and its role in predicting clinical outcome in breast cancer is assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A reiterative ANN approach incorporating a network inferencing algorithm was used to identify ER-associated biomarkers in a publically available cDNA microarray dataset. DACH1 was identified in having a strong influence on ER associated markers and a positive association with ER. Its clinical relevance in predicting breast cancer specific survival was investigated by statistically assessing protein expression levels after immunohistochemistry in a series of unselected breast cancers, formatted as a tissue microarray. RESULTS: Strong nuclear DACH1 staining is more prevalent in tubular and lobular breast cancer. Its expression correlated with ER-alpha positive tumours expressing PgR, epithelial cytokeratins (CK18/19 and 'luminal-like' markers of good prognosis including FOXA1 and RERG (p<0.05. DACH1 is increased in patients showing longer cancer specific survival and disease free interval and reduced metastasis formation (p<0.001. Nuclear DACH1 showed a negative association with markers of aggressive growth and poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Nuclear DACH1 expression

  3. Computer-assisted three-dimensional correlation between the femoral neck-shaft angle and the optimal entry point for antegrade nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastopoulos, George; Chissas, Dionisios; Dourountakis, Joseph; Ntagiopoulos, Panagiotis G; Magnisalis, Evaggelos; Asimakopoulos, Antonios; Xenakis, Theodore A

    2010-03-01

    Optimal entry point for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing (IMN) remains controversial in the current medical literature. The definition of an ideal entry point for femoral IMN would implicate a tenseless introduction of the implant into the canal with anatomical alignment of the bone fragments. This study was undertaken in order to investigate possible existing relationships between the true 3D geometric parameters of the femur and the location of the optimum entry point. A sample population of 22 cadaveric femurs was used (mean age=51.09+/-14.82 years). Computed-tomography sections every 0.5mm for the entire length of femurs were produced. These sections were subsequently reconstructed to generate solid computer models of the external anatomy and medullary canal of each femur. Solid models of all femurs were subjected to a series of geometrical manipulations and computations using standard computer-aided-design tools. In the sagittal plane, the optimum entry point always lied a few millimeters behind the femoral neck axis (mean=3.5+/-1.5mm). In the coronal plane the optimum entry point lied at a location dependent on the femoral neck-shaft angle. Linear regression on the data showed that the optimal entry point is clearly correlated to the true 3D femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.7310) and the projected femoral neck-shaft angle (R(2)=0.6289). Anatomical parameters of the proximal femur, such as the varus-valgus angulation, are key factors in the determination of optimal entry point for nailing. The clinical relevance of the results is that in varus hips (neck-shaft angle shaft angle between 120 degrees and 130 degrees , the optimal entry point lies just medially to the trochanter tip (at the piriformis fossa) and the use of stiff implants is safe. In hips with neck-shaft angle over 130 degrees the anatomical axis of the canal is medially to the base of the neck, in a "restricted area". In these cases the entry point should be located at the insertion of the

  4. Prospective comparative study of brain protection in total aortic arch replacement: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion or selective antegrade cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Y; Minatoya, K; Tagusari, O; Ando, M; Nagatsuka, K; Kitamura, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of total aortic arch replacement using two different methods of brain protection, particularly with respect to neurologic outcome. From June 1997, 60 consecutive patients who underwent total arch replacement through a midsternotomy were alternately allocated to one of two methods of brain protection: deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP: 30 patients) or with selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SCP: 30 patients). Preoperative and postoperative (3 weeks) brain CT scan, neurological examination, and cognitive function tests were performed. Serum 100b protein was assayed before and after the cardiopulmonary bypass, as well as 24 hours and 48 hours after the operation. Hospital mortality occurred in 2 patients in the RCP group (6.6%) and 2 in the SCP group (6.6%). New strokes occurred in 1 (3.3%) of the RCP group and in 2 (6.6%) of the SCP group (p = 0.6). The incidence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in the RCP group than in the SCP group (10, 33.3% vs 4, 13.3%, p = 0.05). Except in patients with strokes, S-100b values showed no significant differences in the two groups (RCP: SCP, prebypass 0.01+/-0.04: 0.05+/-0.16, postbypass 2.17+/-0.94: 1.97+/-1.00, 24 hours 0.61+/-0.36: 0.60+/-0.37, 48 hours 0.36+/-0.45: 0.46+/-0.40 microg/L, p = 0.7). There were no intergroup differences in the scores of memory decline (RCP 0.74+/-0.99; SCP 0.55+/-1.19, p = 0.6), orientation (RCP 1.11+/-1.29; SCP 0.50+/-0.76, p = 0.08), or intellectual function (RCP 1.21+/-1.27; SCP 1.05+/-1.15, p = 0.7). Both methods of brain protection for patients undergoing total arch replacement resulted in acceptable levels of mortality and morbidity. However, the prevalence of transient brain dysfunction was significantly higher in patients with the RCP.

  5. The Economics of Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orangio, Guy R

    2018-04-01

    The economic burden of cancer on the national health expenditure is billions of dollars. The economic cost is measured on direct and indirect medical costs, which vary depending on stage at diagnosis, patient age, type of medical services, and site of service. Costs vary by region, physician behavior, and patient preferences. When analyzing the economic burden of survivors of colon cancer, we cannot forget the societal burden. Post-acute care and readmissions are major economic burdens. People with colon cancer have to be followed for their lifetime. Economic models are being studied to give cost-effective solutions to this problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  7. MALToma of the Transverse colon, Ascending colon and Caecum: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The stomach is the most common site formucosa - associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphoma (MALToma). MALToma of the colon is a rare occurrence. It is on this background that we report this case. Methods The case records a patient with a MALT lymphoma and a review of the literature on the subject ...

  8. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  9. Glossiness and perishable food quality: visual freshness judgment of fish eyes based on luminance distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Takuma; Masuda, Tomohiro; Utsumi, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo; Wada, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effects of statistics of luminance distribution on visual freshness perception using pictures which included the degradation process of food samples. However, these studies did not examine the effect of individual differences between the same kinds of food. Here we elucidate whether luminance distribution would continue to have a significant effect on visual freshness perception even if visual stimuli included individual differences in addition to the degradation process of foods. We took pictures of the degradation of three fishes over 3.29 hours in a controlled environment, then cropped square patches of their eyes from the original images as visual stimuli. Eleven participants performed paired comparison tests judging the visual freshness of the fish eyes at three points of degradation. Perceived freshness scores (PFS) were calculated using the Bradley-Terry Model for each image. The ANOVA revealed that the PFS for each fish decreased as the degradation time increased; however, the differences in the PFS between individual fish was larger for the shorter degradation time, and smaller for the longer degradation time. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted in order to determine the relative importance of the statistics of luminance distribution of the stimulus images in predicting PFS. The results show that standard deviation and skewness in luminance distribution have a significant influence on PFS. These results show that even if foodstuffs contain individual differences, visual freshness perception and changes in luminance distribution correlate with degradation time.

  10. Measurement of luminance noise and chromaticity noise of LCDs with a colorimeter and a color camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, H.; Dallas, W. J.; Krupinski, E. A.; Redford, Gary R.

    2007-09-01

    This communication focuses on physical evaluation of image quality of displays for applications in medical imaging. In particular we were interested in luminance noise as well as chromaticity noise of LCDs. Luminance noise has been encountered in the study of monochrome LCDs for some time, but chromaticity noise is a new type of noise which has been encountered first when monochrome and color LCDs were compared in an ROC study. In this present study one color and one monochrome 3 M-pixel LCDs were studied. Both were DICOM calibrated with equal dynamic range. We used a Konica Minolta Chroma Meter CS-200 as well as a Foveon color camera to estimate luminance and chrominance variations of the displays. We also used a simulation experiment to estimate luminance noise. The measurements with the colorimeter were consistent. The measurements with the Foveon color camera were very preliminary as color cameras had never been used for image quality measurements. However they were extremely promising. The measurements with the colorimeter and the simulation results showed that the luminance and chromaticity noise of the color LCD were larger than that of the monochrome LCD. Under the condition that an adequate calibration method and image QA/QC program for color displays are available, we expect color LCDs may be ready for radiology in very near future.

  11. Luminance gradient at object borders communicates object location to the human oculomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpeläinen, Markku; Georgeson, Mark A

    2018-01-25

    The locations of objects in our environment constitute arguably the most important piece of information our visual system must convey to facilitate successful visually guided behaviour. However, the relevant objects are usually not point-like and do not have one unique location attribute. Relatively little is known about how the visual system represents the location of such large objects as visual processing is, both on neural and perceptual level, highly edge dominated. In this study, human observers made saccades to the centres of luminance defined squares (width 4 deg), which appeared at random locations (8 deg eccentricity). The phase structure of the square was manipulated such that the points of maximum luminance gradient at the square's edges shifted from trial to trial. The average saccade endpoints of all subjects followed those shifts in remarkable quantitative agreement. Further experiments showed that the shifts were caused by the edge manipulations, not by changes in luminance structure near the centre of the square or outside the square. We conclude that the human visual system programs saccades to large luminance defined square objects based on edge locations derived from the points of maximum luminance gradients at the square's edges.

  12. The effects of luminance contribution from large fields to chromatic visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Rafal M; Duncan, Chad S; Crognale, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Though useful from a clinical and practical standpoint uniform, large-field chromatic stimuli are likely to contain luminance contributions from retinal inhomogeneities. Such contribution can significantly influence psychophysical thresholds. However, the degree to which small luminance artifacts influence the chromatic VEP has been debated. In particular, claims have been made that band-pass tuning observed in chromatic VEPs result from luminance intrusion. However, there has been no direct evidence presented to support these claims. Recently, large-field isoluminant stimuli have been developed to control for intrusion from retinal inhomogeneities with particular regard to the influence of macular pigment. We report here the application of an improved version of these full-field stimuli to directly test the influence of luminance intrusion on the temporal tuning of the chromatic VEP. Our results show that band-pass tuning persists even when isoluminance is achieved throughout the extent of the stimulus. In addition, small amounts of luminance intrusion affect neither the shape of the temporal tuning function nor the major components of the VEP. These results support the conclusion that the chromatic VEP can depart substantially from threshold psychophysics with regard to temporal tuning and that obtaining a low-pass function is not requisite evidence of selective chromatic activation in the VEP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accurate method for luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients measurements in sunglasses lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.

    2018-02-01

    The international standard ISO 12312-1 proposes transmittance tests that quantify how dark sunglasses lenses are and whether or not they are suitable for driving. To perform these tests a spectrometer is required. In this study, we present and analyze theoretically an accurate alternative method for performing these measurements using simple components. Using three LEDs and a four-channel sensor we generated weighting functions similar to the standard ones for luminous and traffic lights transmittances. From 89 sunglasses lens spectroscopy data, we calculated luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients using our obtained weighting functions and the standard ones. Mean-difference Tukey plots were used to compare the results. All tested sunglasses lenses were classified in the right category and correctly as suitable or not for driving. The greatest absolute errors for luminous transmittance and red, yellow, green and blue signal detection quotients were 0.15%, 0.17, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.18, respectively. This method will be used in a device capable to perform transmittance tests (visible, traffic lights and ultraviolet (UV)) according to the standard. It is important to measure rightly luminous transmittance and relative visual attenuation quotients to report correctly whether or not sunglasses are suitable for driving. Moreover, standard UV requirements depend on luminous transmittance.

  14. Characteristics of estrogen-induced peroxidase in mouse uterine luminal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellinck, P.H.; Newbold, R.R.; McLachlan, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Peroxidase activity in the uterine luminal fluid of mice treated with diethylstilbestrol was measured by the guaiacol assay and also by the formation of 3H2O from [2-3H]estradiol. In the radiometric assay, the generation of 3H2O and 3H-labeled water-soluble products was dependent on H2O2 (25 to 100 microM), with higher concentrations being inhibitory. Tyrosine or 2,4-dichlorophenol strongly enhanced the reaction catalyzed either by the luminal fluid peroxidase or the enzyme in the CaCl2 extract of the uterus, but decreased the formation of 3H2O from [2-3H]estradiol by lactoperoxidase in the presence of H2O2 (80 microM). NADPH, ascorbate, and cytochrome c inhibited both luminal fluid and uterine tissue peroxidase activity to the same extent, while superoxide dismutase showed a marginal activating effect. Lactoferrin, a major protein component of uterine luminal fluid, was shown not to contribute to its peroxidative activity, and such an effect by prostaglandin synthase was also ruled out. However, it was not possible to exclude eosinophil peroxidase, brought to the uterus after estrogen stimulation, as being the source of peroxidase activity in uterine luminal fluid

  15. Evolving colon injury management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lauren T; Gillern, Suzanne M; Vertrees, Amy E

    2013-02-01

    The colon is the second most commonly injured intra-abdominal organ in penetrating trauma. Management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 200 years. Traumatic colon injuries can have a wide spectrum of severity, presentation, and management options. There is strong evidence that most non-destructive colon injuries can be successfully managed with primary repair or primary anastomosis. The management of destructive colon injuries remains controversial with most favoring resection with primary anastomosis and others favor colonic diversion in specific circumstances. The historical management of traumatic colon injuries, common mechanisms of injury, demographics, presentation, assessment, diagnosis, management, and complications of traumatic colon injuries both in civilian and military practice are reviewed. The damage control revolution has added another layer of complexity to management with continued controversy.

  16. Colon Trauma: Evidence-Based Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ryo; Logue, Alicia J; Muir, Mark T

    2018-01-01

    Colon injury is not uncommon and occurs in about a half of patients with penetrating hollow viscus injuries. Despite major advances in the operative management of penetrating colon wounds, there remains discussion regarding the appropriate treatment of destructive colon injuries, with a significant amount of scientific evidence supporting segmental resection with primary anastomosis in most patients without comorbidities or large transfusion requirement. Although literature is sparse concerning the management of blunt colon injuries, some studies have shown operative decision based on an algorithm originally defined for penetrating wounds should be considered in blunt colon injuries. The optimal management of colonic injuries in patients requiring damage control surgery (DCS) also remains controversial. Studies have recently reported that there is no increased risk compared with patients treated without DCS if fascial closure is completed on the first reoperation, or that a management algorithm for penetrating colon wounds is probably efficacious for colon injuries in the setting of DCS as well.

  17. Conservative management of colonic injury during percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Elghoneimy

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... Patients' records were searched for the occurrence of colonic injury. Records were ... tion to opacify the system and the percutaneous renal access was .... identify the presence of a retrorenal colon, yet the rarity of such a.

  18. Prehistoric human colonization of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    J. Biosci. | Vol. 26 | No. 4 | Suppl. | November 2001. V N Misra. 492 ... humans differ from the other apes in their upright posture, ... characterized by Levallois flakes and blades and by the ... and the coastal region running parallel to them, northeast ..... November 2001. Prehistoric human colonization of India. 497. Figure 1.

  19. Acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beese, M.; Heller, M.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological correlate to the pseudo-obstruction of the colon is not specific, but it does supply a pointer to the disease of it shows dilation of the caecum, colon ascendens and colon transversum with air-pockets and reflected imaging as well as a usually not dilated colon descendens with remarkably little air. To make the diagnosis quite sure we must exclude intestinal obstruction by using X-ray contrast media or by coloscopy. (orig./GDG) [de

  20. Laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmora, O; Bar-Dayan, A; Khaikin, M; Lebeydev, A; Shabtai, M; Ayalon, A; Rosin, D

    2010-03-01

    Laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma is technically demanding and was excluded from most of the large trials of laparoscopic colectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and outcome of laparoscopic resection of carcinoma of the transverse colon. A retrospective review was performed to identify patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These patients were compared to patients who had laparoscopic resection for right and sigmoid colon carcinoma. In addition, they were compared to a historical series of patients who underwent open resection for transverse colon cancer. A total of 22 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for transverse colon carcinoma. Sixty-eight patients operated for right colon cancer and 64 operated for sigmoid colon cancer served as comparison groups. Twenty-four patients were identified for the historical open group. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4.5% of patients with transverse colon cancer compared to 5.9% (P = 1.0) and 7.8% (P = 1.0) of patients with right and sigmoid colon cancer, respectively. The early postoperative complication rate was 45, 50 (P = 1.0), and 37.5% (P = 0.22) in the three groups, respectively. Conversion was required in 1 (5%) patient in the laparoscopic transverse colon group. The conversion rate and late complications were not significantly different in the three groups. There was no significant difference in the number of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups. Operative time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic transverse colectomy group when compared to all other groups (P = 0.001, 0.008, and transverse colectomy, respectively). The results of laparoscopic colon resection for transverse colon carcinoma are comparable to the results of laparoscopic resection of right or sigmoid colon cancer and open resection of transverse colon carcinoma. These results suggest that laparoscopic resection of transverse

  1. The time course of color- and luminance-based salience effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Dombrowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Salient objects in the visual field attract our attention. Recent work in the orientation domain has shown that the effects of the relative salience of two singleton elements on covert visual attention disappear over time. The present study aims to investigate how salience derived from color and luminance differences affects covert selection. In two experiments, observers indicated the location of a probe which was presented at different stimulus-onset-asynchronies after the presentation of a singleton display containing a homogeneous array of oriented lines and two distinct color singletons (Experiment 1 or luminance singletons (Experiment 2. The results show that relative singleton salience from luminance and color differences, just as from orientation differences, affects covert visual attention in a brief time span after stimulus onset. The mere presence of an object, however, can affect covert attention for a longer time span regardless of salience.

  2. Luminous quasars do not live in the most overdense regions of galaxies at z ˜ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Toshikawa, Jun; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Overzier, Roderik; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Marinello, Murilo; Tanaka, Masayuki; Niino, Yuu; Ishikawa, Shogo; Onoue, Masafusa; Ichikawa, Kohei; Akiyama, Masayuki; Coupon, Jean; Harikane, Yuichi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2018-01-01

    We present the cross-correlation between 151 luminous quasars (MUV 4 σ. The distributions of the distances between quasars and the nearest protoclusters and the significance of the overdensity at the positions of quasars are statistically identical to those found for g-dropout galaxies, suggesting that quasars tend to reside in almost the same environment as star-forming galaxies at this redshift. Using stacking analysis, we find that the average density of g-dropout galaxies around quasars is slightly higher than that around g-dropout galaxies on 1.0-2.5 pMpc scales, while at anti-correlated with overdensity. These findings are consistent with a scenario in which luminous quasars at z ˜ 4 reside in structures that are less massive than those expected for the progenitors of today's rich clusters of galaxies, and possibly that luminous quasars may be suppressing star formation in their close vicinity.

  3. Luminance and image quality analysis of an organic electroluminescent panel with a patterned microlens array attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hoang Yan; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Ho, Yu-Hsuan; Fang, Jheng-Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lee, Jiun-Haw; Lin, Jia-Rong; Wei, Mao-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    Luminance and image quality observed from the normal direction of a commercial 2.0 inch panel based on organic electroluminescence (OEL) technology attached to regular and patterned microlens array films (MAFs) were studied and analyzed. When applying the regularly arranged MAF on the panel, a luminance enhancement of 23% was observed, accompanied by a reduction of the image quality index as low as 74%. By removing the microlenses on the emitting areas, the patterned MAF enhances the luminance efficiency of the OEL by 52% keeping the image quality index of the display as high as 94%, due to the effective light extraction in the glass substrate being less than the critical angle. 3D simulation based on a ray-tracing model was also established to investigate the spatial distribution of light rays radiated from an OEL pixel with different microstructures which showed consistent results with the experimental results

  4. Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-05-01

    I will review observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources (ULXs; Lx > 1E39 erg/s), in particular those observations that have helped reveal the nature of these curious objects. Some recent observations suggest that ULXs are a heterogenous class. Although ULX phenomenology is not fully understood, I will present some examples from the (possibly overlapping) sub-classes. Since ULXs are the most luminous objects in starburst galaxies, they, and ``normal'' luminous black-hole high-mass X-ray binaries are intimately tied to the global galaxian X-ray-star-formation connection. Further work is needed to understand how ULXs form, and how they are associated with the putative population of intermediate-mass black holes.

  5. Environmental radioactive monitoring, evaluation and protection in luminous workshops of a factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hanbin; Xiang Ming; Tan Jianzu

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescent technique is often used to display instrumental indicator in the dark environment. Luminous workshops of a factory smear and depict the glassware by means of fluorescent power with adulterated radioactive matter. Because of adulterated radioactive matters such as 226 Ra, 40 K emit alpha-ray,beta-ray and gamma-ray, while they decay spontaneously, and high dose or cumulative radiation can damage human body in different degrees. Therefore, any radioactive damage to human body caused by over-safety dose should be prevented strictly during the working. To ensure health and safety of working staff in luminous workshop and the public, it is necessary to regularly have radioactive monitoring and evaluation to luminous workshop and its surrounding environment. Through the environment radioactive monitoring, the authors analyze its environmental radioactive level,and try to find out the possible problems so as to propose some protective measures for personal health. (authors)

  6. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  7. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  8. Optimal combination of illusory and luminance-defined 3-D surfaces: A role for ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Brittney; Wilcox, Laurie M; Murray, Richard F

    2018-04-01

    The shape of the illusory surface in stereoscopic Kanizsa figures is determined by the interpolation of depth from the luminance edges of adjacent inducing elements. Despite ambiguity in the position of illusory boundaries, observers reliably perceive a coherent three-dimensional (3-D) surface. However, this ambiguity may contribute additional uncertainty to the depth percept beyond what is expected from measurement noise alone. We evaluated the intrinsic ambiguity of illusory boundaries by using a cue-combination paradigm to measure the reliability of depth percepts elicited by stereoscopic illusory surfaces. We assessed the accuracy and precision of depth percepts using 3-D Kanizsa figures relative to luminance-defined surfaces. The location of the surface peak was defined by illusory boundaries, luminance-defined edges, or both. Accuracy and precision were assessed using a depth-discrimination paradigm. A maximum likelihood linear cue combination model was used to evaluate the relative contribution of illusory and luminance-defined signals to the perceived depth of the combined surface. Our analysis showed that the standard deviation of depth estimates was consistent with an optimal cue combination model, but the points of subjective equality indicated that observers consistently underweighted the contribution of illusory boundaries. This systematic underweighting may reflect a combination rule that attributes additional intrinsic ambiguity to the location of the illusory boundary. Although previous studies show that illusory and luminance-defined contours share many perceptual similarities, our model suggests that ambiguity plays a larger role in the perceptual representation of illusory contours than of luminance-defined contours.

  9. SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BRAIN METASTASIZING IN PATIENTS WITH LUMINAL SUBTYPE OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Balkanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than half of female patients with breast cancer are diagnosed with a  luminal subtype of the disease; however, specific characteristics of its metastases to the brain have been not well studied, unlike those of HER2 positive and triple negative subtypes. Aim: A  comparative analysis of characteristics of metastatic brain lesions in patients with luminal breast cancer. Materials and methods: The time from surgery for breast cancer to the first recurrence and to metastatic brain lesions (assessed by contrast-enhanced MRI imaging was measured in 41 patients with luminal subtype of breast cancer (median age, 49.5±9.6  years, depending on a  diameter of the primary tumor and numbers of involved axillary lymph nodes. Results: The time interval to occurrence of brain metastases in luminal subtype of breast cancer is not associated with the size of the tumor. If≥4  axillary lymph nodes are involved (N2–3, brain metastases are identified much earlier (p<0.05 than in patients with N0–1 (34.5±23.9 months and 62.7±50 months, respectively. Neither the size nor the involvement of axillary lymph nodes has any impact on the rates of metastatic lesion to the brain during the first recurrence. Conclusion: Brain metastases occur at a much shorter time in those patients of luminal subtype of breast cancer who have metastases in≥4  axillary lymph nodes. Brain metastases develop in 50% of patients with the first recurrence of the luminal subtype of breast cancer.

  10. ["Glare vision". I. Physiological principles of vision change with increased test field luminance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, B; Ochsner, H; Zrenner, E

    1992-02-01

    Clinical tests of visual acuity are an important measure of visual function. However visual acuity is usually determined only in narrow range of luminance levels between 160 and 320 cd/m2; therefore losses of visual acuity in other ranges of light intensity can not be detected. In a distance of 80 cm from the patients eyes, Landolt rings of varying sizes were presented on a small test field whose light intensity can be varied between 0.1 and 30,000 cd/m2. Thereby an acuity-luminance-function can be obtained. We studied such functions under different conditions of exposure time both with constant and with increasing luminance of the test field. We found that persons with normal vision can increase their visual acuity with increasing test field luminance up to a range of 5000 cd/m2. The maximum values of visual acuity under optimal lightening conditions lie (varying with age) between 2.2 and 0.9. Under pathological conditions visual acuity falls at high luminances accompanied by sensations of glare. Tests of glare sensitivity as a function of exposure time showed 4 sec to be a critical time of exposure since after 4 sec normal persons just reach their maximum visual acuity at high luminances. The underlying physiological mechanisms lead us to suppose that patients with neuronal light adaptation disturbances display a greater visual loss as a result of decreased time of exposure than those with disturbances in the ocular media. Visual acuity as well as the capacity to increase the patients visual acuity under optimal conditions of lighting were both found to be strongly age-dependent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Treatment of Postoperative Leaks of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract with Colonic Self-Expandable Metal Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paula; Castanheira, António; Martins, Diana; Pinho, Juliana; Araújo, Ricardo; Cancela, Eugénia; Ministro, Paula; Silva, Américo

    2017-07-01

    The use of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) for the treatment of postoperative leaks of the upper gastrointestinal tract is already established. However, there are discrepancies between the relatively small caliber of the esophageal stents available and the postsurgical luminal size, which may determine an inadequate juxtaposition. As colonic stents have a bigger diameter, they might be more adequate. Additionally, stents with a larger diameter might have a lower risk of migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and complications associated with the use of colonic fully covered SEMS (FSEMS) in the treatment of postoperative leaks in critical patients. All patients with postoperative leaks of the upper gastrointestinal tract treated with colonic stents (Hanarostent® CCI) between 2010 and 2013 were retrospectively included. Four patients with postoperative leaks were treated with colonic SEMS. The underlying surgeries were a gastric bypass, an esophagogastrectomy for Boerhaave syndrome, a primary repair of esophagopleural fistula due to Boerhaave syndrome, and an esophagectomy due to esophageal cancer. The leaks were detected on average 17 days after the initial surgery. All patients needed admission to a critical care unit after index surgery. Stent placement was technically feasible in all patients. The median residence time of the stents was 7 weeks, and no complications were verified when they were removed. There were no cases of stent migration. The treatment was successful in all patients, with complete healing of the leaks. The placement of colonic FSEMS seems to be successful and safe in the treatment of postoperative leaks of the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Immunoelectron microscopic localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigens in normal and neoplastic urothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P D; Nathrath, W B; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscope cytochemistry was carried out on 2% paraformaldehyde fixed, 50 mu sections of normal urothelium and bladder carcinoma cells in culture using antisera raised in rabbits to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal "broad spectrum" keratin and calf urothelial "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) Both the unconjugated and indirect immunoperoxidase-DAB techniques were used before routine embedding. The localisation of both keratin and luminal epithelial antigen (LEA) was similar in normal and neoplastic cells and reaction product was associated not only with tonofilaments but also lining membrane vesicles and on fine filaments in the cytoplasmic ground substance.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Progesterone Receptor–Positive Tumor Cells Within Immunohistochemically Defined Luminal A Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie Chon U.; Martín, Miguel; Parker, Joel S.; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Tyldesley, Scott; Gelmon, Karen; Bernard, Philip S.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Perou, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Current immunohistochemical (IHC)-based definitions of luminal A and B breast cancers are imperfect when compared with multigene expression-based assays. In this study, we sought to improve the IHC subtyping by examining the pathologic and gene expression characteristics of genomically defined luminal A and B subtypes. Patients and Methods Gene expression and pathologic features were collected from primary tumors across five independent cohorts: British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) tamoxifen-treated only, Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama 9906 trial, BCCA no systemic treatment cohort, PAM50 microarray training data set, and a combined publicly available microarray data set. Optimal cutoffs of percentage of progesterone receptor (PR) –positive tumor cells to predict survival were derived and independently tested. Multivariable Cox models were used to test the prognostic significance. Results Clinicopathologic comparisons among luminal A and B subtypes consistently identified higher rates of PR positivity, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negativity, and histologic grade 1 in luminal A tumors. Quantitative PR gene and protein expression were also found to be significantly higher in luminal A tumors. An empiric cutoff of more than 20% of PR-positive tumor cells was statistically chosen and proved significant for predicting survival differences within IHC-defined luminal A tumors independently of endocrine therapy administration. Finally, no additional prognostic value within hormonal receptor (HR) –positive/HER2-negative disease was observed with the use of the IHC4 score when intrinsic IHC-based subtypes were used that included the more than 20% PR-positive tumor cells and vice versa. Conclusion Semiquantitative IHC expression of PR adds prognostic value within the current IHC-based luminal A definition by improving the identification of good outcome breast cancers. The new proposed IHC-based definition of luminal A

  14. The most luminous type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei of the Swift/ BAT catalog : Are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Rudolf Erik; Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Wong, Ivy; Schawinski, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of the most luminous obscured AGN of the Swift/BAT 70 month catalog, which is based on an all-sky survey in the 14 – 195 keV energy range. This survey identified 838 AGN. Excluding Blazars and AGN close ( |gb| BAT 70 month catalog and from a specific observation campaign in order to analyze the relationship of their luminosity to black hole mass and their Eddington ratios. We discuss whether these most luminous type 2 AGN have common characteristics, which differentiate them from all the type 2 AGN in the 70 month catalog.

  15. Endoscopic visualization of luminal organ and great vessels with three dimensional CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Amemiya, Ryuta; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Thirty cases examined by three dimensional CT scanner (3DCT) are reported. The observation of inner view using 3DCT were performed in 12 large vessels with vascular disorder, 10 pulmonary bronchi with lung cancer and 8 common bile ducts involved obstructive disease. In order to visualize interface of the lumen, a new software, which was developed by HITACHI MEDICO Inc., was used. In all cases but one the inner view of the luminal organ was clearly demonstrated as 3D images and it was possible to judge some changes of luminal interface involved by the diseases. The 3DCT endoscopic image might be useful as a new endoscopic technique without fiberscopy. (author)

  16. Classification of radioactive self-luminous light sources - approved 1975. NBS Handbook 116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The standard establishes the classification of certain radioactive self-luminous light sources according to radionuclide, type of source, activity, and performance requirements. The objectives are to establish minimum prototype testing requirements for radioactive self-luminous light sources, to promote uniformity of marking such sources, and to establish minimum physical performance for such sources. The standard is primarily directed toward assuring adequate containment of the radioactive material. Testing procedures and classification designations are specified for discoloration, temperature, thermal shock, reduced pressure, impact, vibration, and immersion. A range of test requirements is presented according to intended usage and source activity

  17. Light production in the luminous fishes Photoblepharon and Anomalops from the Banda Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneda, Y; Tsuji, F I

    1971-07-09

    The unresolved mechanism of light production in Photoblepharon and Anomalops has been reinvestigated in fresh and preserved material. Based on biochemical evidence obtained with emulsions and cell-free extracts of the organs, especially the stimulation of light with reduced flavin mononucleotide, and on electron microscopy of organ sections showing the presence of numerous bacteria, we conclude that the light is produced by symbiotic luminous bacteria. Because of the continuing failure to cultivate the luminous bacteria and because of their morphology, we suggest that the bacteria are of a primitive type called bacteroids.

  18. Motility and chemotaxis mediate the preferential colonization of gastric injury sites by Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Aihara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1 significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB or chemotaxis (ΔcheY. ΔmotB (10(6 failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (10(6 colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites

  19. Control of Colon Cancer Progression by the Colon Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Award  Number:    W81XWH-­14-­1-­0235   TITLE:      Control of Colon Cancer Progression by the Colon Microbiome PRINCIPAL  INVESTIGATOR:    Frank  J... Microbiome Table  of  Contents   Page   1. Introduction………………………………………………………….4 2. Keywords…………………………………………………………….5 3. Accomplishments………..…………………………………………5

  20. Transverse loop colostomy and colonic motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F; Ringressi, M N; Maltinti, G; Bechi, P

    2014-11-01

    The motility of the defunctionalized colon, distal to transverse loop colostomy, has never been studied "in vivo." The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of transverse loop colostomy on colonic motility. Thirteen patients were examined before stoma closure by means of clinical evaluation and colonic manometry; we studied both the right and distal colon in both fasting and fed patients in order to detect motor activity. Quantitative and qualitative manometric analyses showed that the diverted colon had motor activity even if no regular colonic motor pattern was observed. The spreading of aboral propagated contractions (PCs) was sometimes recorded from the right colon to the distal colon. The response of the proximal and distal colon to a standard meal, when compared to fasting values, increased more than 40 and 35 %, respectively. Stool and gas ejections from the colostomy were never related to a particular type of colonic motility: Motor quiescence such as PCs was chaotically related to stool escape. In conclusion, motility of the defunctionalized colon is preserved in patients with transverse loop colostomy.

  1. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  2. Schwannoma of the sigmoid colon

    OpenAIRE

    Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Yaz, Müjgan; Gündüz, Umut rıza

    2015-01-01

    Colonic schwannomas are very rare gastrointestinal tumours originating from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Primary schwannomas of the lower gastrointestinal tract are very rare and usually benign in nature. However, if they are not surgically removed, malign degeneration can occur. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman who presented to our clinic with rectal bleeding and constipation. She underwent a lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. A mass subtotally obstructing the lum...

  3. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rio, Rute; Sim?es-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, M?rio-Jorge; Azevedo, ?lvaro; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with n...

  4. 10 CFR 32.101 - Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....101 Schedule B—prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. An applicant for a... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft. 32.101 Section 32.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES...

  5. 10 CFR 32.22 - Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85 or... containing tritium, krypton-85 or promethium-147: Requirements for license to manufacture, process, produce... self-luminous products containing tritium, krypton-85, or promethium-147, or to initially transfer such...

  6. The ER stress sensor PERK luminal domain functions as a molecular chaperone to interact with misfolded proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Jingzhi; Sha, Bingdong

    2016-11-29

    PERK is one of the major sensor proteins which can detect the protein-folding imbalance generated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It remains unclear how the sensor protein PERK is activated by ER stress. It has been demonstrated that the PERK luminal domain can recognize and selectively interact with misfolded proteins but not native proteins. Moreover, the PERK luminal domain may function as a molecular chaperone to directly bind to and suppress the aggregation of a number of misfolded model proteins. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the PERK luminal domain can interact directly with misfolded proteins to induce ER stress signaling. To illustrate the mechanism by which the PERK luminal domain interacts with misfolded proteins, the crystal structure of the human PERK luminal domain was determined to 3.2 Å resolution. Two dimers of the PERK luminal domain constitute a tetramer in the asymmetric unit. Superimposition of the PERK luminal domain molecules indicated that the β-sandwich domain could adopt multiple conformations. It is hypothesized that the PERK luminal domain may utilize its flexible β-sandwich domain to recognize and interact with a broad range of misfolded proteins.

  7. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, R; Simões-Silva, L; Garro, S; Silva, M-J; Azevedo, Á; Sampaio-Maia, B

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment.

  8. CT staging of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dighe, S. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton SM5 2TT (United Kingdom); Swift, I. [Department of Surgery, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon CR7 7YE (United Kingdom); Brown, G. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton SM5 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gina.brown@rmh.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Computer tomography (CT) has been the principal investigation in the staging of colon cancers. The information obtained with routine CT has been limited to identifying the site of the tumour, size of the tumour, infiltration into surrounding structures and metastatic spread. The Foxtrot trial National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) has been specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment in colon cancers by using preoperative chemotherapy with or without an anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody to improve outcome in high-risk operable colon cancer. Patients are selected based on their staging CT examination. The criteria for poor prognosis are T4 and T3 tumours with more than 5 mm extramural depth. Thus the success of the trial would depend upon the confidence of the radiologist to identify the patients that would receive the neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this review is to explain the process of identifying high-risk features seen on the staging CT images. This will help to identify a cohort of patients that could truly benefit from neoadjuvant strategies.

  9. CT staging of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dighe, S.; Swift, I.; Brown, G.

    2008-01-01

    Computer tomography (CT) has been the principal investigation in the staging of colon cancers. The information obtained with routine CT has been limited to identifying the site of the tumour, size of the tumour, infiltration into surrounding structures and metastatic spread. The Foxtrot trial National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) has been specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant treatment in colon cancers by using preoperative chemotherapy with or without an anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody to improve outcome in high-risk operable colon cancer. Patients are selected based on their staging CT examination. The criteria for poor prognosis are T4 and T3 tumours with more than 5 mm extramural depth. Thus the success of the trial would depend upon the confidence of the radiologist to identify the patients that would receive the neoadjuvant treatment. The aim of this review is to explain the process of identifying high-risk features seen on the staging CT images. This will help to identify a cohort of patients that could truly benefit from neoadjuvant strategies

  10. A complex dissected chronic occlusion: targeted balloon dilatation of false lumen to access true lumen, combined localized subintimal tracking and reentry, parallel wire, contralateral injection and a useful antegrade lumen re-entry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Tam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusion (CTO angioplasty is one of the most challenging procedures remaining for the interventional operator. Recanalizing CTOs can improve exercise capacity, symptoms, left ventricular function and possibly reduce mortality. Multiple strategies such as escalating wire, parallel wire, seesaw, contralateral injection, subintimal tracking and re-entry (STAR, retrograde wire techniques (controlled antegrade retrograde subintimal tracking, CART, reverse CART, confluent balloon, rendezvous in coronary, and other techniques have all been described. Selection of the most appropriate approach is based on assessment of vessel course, length of occluded segment, presence of bridging collaterals, presence of bifurcating side branches at the occlusion site, and other variables. Today, with significant operator expertise and the use of available techniques, the literature reports a 50-95% success rate for recanalizing CTOs.

  11. Contributions of contour frequency, amplitude, and luminance to the watercolor effect estimated by conjoint measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Peggy; Devinck, Frédéric; Dojat, Michel; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2014-04-10

    The watercolor effect is a long-range, assimilative, filling-in phenomenon induced by a pair of distant, wavy contours of different chromaticities. Here, we measured joint influences of the contour frequency and amplitude and the luminance of the interior contour on the strength of the effect. Contour pairs, each enclosing a circular region, were presented with two of the dimensions varying independently across trials (luminance/frequency, luminance/amplitude, frequency/amplitude) in a conjoint measurement paradigm (Luce & Tukey, 1964). In each trial, observers judged which of the stimuli evoked the strongest fill-in color. Control stimuli were identical except that the contours were intertwined and generated little filling-in. Perceptual scales were estimated by a maximum likelihood method (Ho, Landy, & Maloney, 2008). An additive model accounted for the joint contributions of any pair of dimensions. As shown previously using difference scaling (Devinck & Knoblauch, 2012), the strength increases with luminance of the interior contour. The strength of the phenomenon was nearly independent of the amplitude of modulation of the contour but increased with its frequency up to an asymptotic level. On average, the strength of the effect was similar along a given dimension regardless of the other dimension with which it was paired, demonstrating consistency of the underlying estimated perceptual scales.

  12. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with luminal Crohn's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziech, M. L. W.; Lavini, C.; Caan, M. W. A.; Nio, C. Y.; Stokkers, P. C. F.; Bipat, S.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; Nederveen, A. J.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively assess dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-)MRI as compared to conventional sequences in patients with luminal Crohn's disease. Methods: Patients with Crohn's disease undergoing MRI and ileocolonoscopy within 1 month had DCE-MRI (3T) during intravenous contrast injection of

  13. First observations of transient luminous events in Indian sub-continent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Veenadhari, B.

    2014-01-01

    The article offers information on the initial observations of flashes of lightning discharge observed above thunderstorms. It mentions that the transient luminous events (TLE) are classified on the basis of their geometrical shape and luminosity into Sprites, Halos and Blue Starters. It also focu...

  14. A Semi-Automatic, Remote-Controlled Video Observation System for Transient Luminous Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    In support for global ELF/VLF observations, HF measurements in France, and conjugate photometry/VLF observations in South Africa, we developed and operated a semi-automatic, remotely controlled video system for the observation of middle-atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). Installed...

  15. The galactic luminous supersoft X-ray source RXJ0925.7-4758 / MR ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandita Prodhani

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... White dwarf; luminous supersoft X-ray source; luminosity; absorption edge. PACS Nos 97.80.Jp; 97.10.Ri; 98.35.Mp; 97.80.Fk. 1. Introduction. For the last few decades, Einstein observatory, Roent- gen Satellite (ROSAT), ASCA, CHANDRA, XMM-. Newton, SWIFT, SUZAKU and other ingenious devices.

  16. 78 FR 29391 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC; Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... only temporary relief from the applicable regulation and the licensee has made good faith efforts to... only temporary relief from the regulations of 10 CFR 50.71(e)(3)(iii). Luminant has made good faith... applicable regulation and the licensee has made good faith efforts to comply with the regulation'' (10 CFR 50...

  17. Maturation of polarization and luminance contrast sensitivities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartron, Lelia; Dickel, Ludovic; Shashar, Nadav; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie

    2013-06-01

    Polarization sensitivity is a characteristic of the visual system of cephalopods. It has been well documented in adult cuttlefish, which use polarization sensitivity in a large range of tasks such as communication, orientation and predation. Because cuttlefish do not benefit from parental care, their visual system (including the ability to detect motion) must be efficient from hatching to enable them to detect prey or predators. We studied the maturation and functionality of polarization sensitivity in newly hatched cuttlefish. In a first experiment, we examined the response of juvenile cuttlefish from hatching to the age of 1 month towards a moving, vertically oriented grating (contrasting and polarized stripes) using an optomotor response apparatus. Cuttlefish showed differences in maturation of polarization versus luminance contrast motion detection. In a second experiment, we examined the involvement of polarization information in prey preference and detection in cuttlefish of the same age. Cuttlefish preferentially chose not to attack transparent prey whose polarization contrast had been removed with a depolarizing filter. Performances of prey detection based on luminance contrast improved with age. Polarization contrast can help cuttlefish detect transparent prey. Our results suggest that polarization is not a simple modulation of luminance information, but rather that it is processed as a distinct channel of visual information. Both luminance and polarization sensitivity are functional, though not fully matured, in newly hatched cuttlefish and seem to help in prey detection.

  18. Modulation of visual cortical excitability by working memory: effect of luminance contrast of mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira eCattaneo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Although much is known about the impact of stimulus properties such as luminance contrast, spatial frequency and orientation on visually evoked neural activity, much less is known about how they modulate neural activity when they are properties of a mental image held in working memory (WM. Here we addressed this question by investigating how a parametric manipulation of an imagined stimulus attribute affects neuronal excitability in the early visual cortex. We manipulated luminance contrast, a stimulus property known to strongly affect the magnitude of neuronal responses in early visual areas. Luminance contrast modulated neuronal excitability, as assessed by the frequency of phosphenes induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with the exact nature of this modulation depending on TMS intensity. These results point to a strong overlap in the neuronal processes underlying visual perception and mental imagery: not only does WM maintenance selectively engage neurons which are tuned to the maintained attribute (as has previously been shown, but the extent to which those neurons are activated depends on the luminance contrast (as is the case with visually-evoked responses. From a methodological viewpoint, these results suggest that assessment of visual cortical excitability using TMS is affected by the TMS intensity used to probe the neuronal population.

  19. Informational primacy of visual dimensions: specialized roles for luminance and chromaticity in figure-ground perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, N; Melara, R D

    2001-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the distinct contributions of two visual dimensions to figure-ground segregation. In each experiment, pattern identification was assessed by asking observers to judge whether a near-threshold test pattern was the same or different in shape to a high-contrast comparison pattern. A test pattern could differ from its background along one dimension, either luminance (luminance tasks) or chromaticity (chromaticity tasks). In each task, performance in a baseline condition, in which the test pattern was intact, was compared with performance in each of several degradation conditions, in which either the contour or the surface of the figure was degraded, using either partial occlusion (Experiment 1) or ramping (Experiments 2 and 3) of figure-ground differences. In each experiment, performance in luminance tasks was worst when the contour was degraded, whereas performance in chromaticity tasks was worst when the surface was degraded. This interaction was found even when spatial frequencies were fixed across test patterns by low-pass filtering. The results are consistent with a late (postfiltering) dual-mechanism system that processes luminance information to extract boundary representations and chromaticity information to extract surface representations.

  20. Visual memory for random block patterns defined by luminance and color contrast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, FW; Greenlee, MW

    2000-01-01

    We studied the ability of human subjects to memorize the visual information in computer-generated random block patterns defined either by luminance contrast, by color contrast, or by both. Memory performance declines rapidly with increasing inter-stimulus interval, showing a half-life of

  1. Luminal Cells Are Favored as the Cell of Origin for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu A. Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell types of origin for cancer has important implications for tumor stratification and personalized treatment. For prostate cancer, the cell of origin has been intensively studied, but it has remained unclear whether basal or luminal epithelial cells, or both, represent cells of origin under physiological conditions in vivo. Here, we use a novel lineage-tracing strategy to assess the cell of origin in a diverse range of mouse models, including Nkx3.1+/−; Pten+/−, Pten+/−, Hi-Myc, and TRAMP mice, as well as a hormonal carcinogenesis model. Our results show that luminal cells are consistently the observed cell of origin for each model in situ; however, explanted basal cells from these mice can generate tumors in grafts. Consequently, we propose that luminal cells are favored as cells of origin in many contexts, whereas basal cells only give rise to tumors after differentiation into luminal cells.

  2. Defining optimal duration and predicting benefit from chemotherapy in patients with luminal-like subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Christopher D; Sanna, Giuseppina; Siclari, Olimpia; Biganzoli, Laura; Di Leo, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    The molecular subtypes of breast cancer have individual patterns of behaviour, prognosis and sensitivity to treatment, with subsequent implications for the choice of, or indeed role for adjuvant therapy. The luminal A and B subtypes make up the majority of breast cancers, but despite sharing expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER), they are molecularly distinct. It follows then that they would have different sensitivities to chemotherapy. Clinically, luminal A disease has a better prognosis than luminal B, and may not derive significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. However no prospective trials have specifically investigated the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in each subtype, nor do we know if certain agents are more or less effective. This paper will briefly summarise the role of molecular profiles in assessing the need for chemotherapy and predicting its effectiveness, followed by an assessment of the relative value of newer anthracycline- or taxane-containing regimes in the luminal-like subtypes, providing a review of retrospective analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. UVB-activated psoralen reduces luminal narrowing after balloon dilation because of inhibition of constrictive remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrée, Jop; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Velema, Evelyn; Smeets, Mirjam; de Kleijn, Dominique; Borst, Cornelius

    2002-01-01

    In this study we have explored the potential of PUVB (8-MOP + UVB) therapy for the reduction of luminal narrowing after arterial injury. In 15 rabbits, balloon dilation of iliac arteries was performed. In 20 arteries, dilation was combined with the delivery of pulsed ultraviolet light B (UVB)

  4. Cloning and characterization of luciferase from a Fijian luminous click beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Luminous click beetle is distributed almost exclusively in Central and South America with a single genus in Melanesia. Among these click beetles, the description of Melanesian species has been fragmentary, and its luciferase gene and phylogenetic relation to other click beetles still remain uncertain. We collected a living luminous click beetle, Photophorus jansonii in Fiji. It emits green-yellow light from two spots on the pronotum and has no ventral luminous organ. Here, we cloned a luciferase gene from this insect by RT-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity of ~85% to the luciferases derived from other click beetle species. The luciferase of the Fijian click beetle was produced as a recombinant protein to characterize its biochemical properties. The Km for D-luciferin and ATP were 173 and 270 μm, respectively. The luciferase was pH-insensitive and the spectrum measured at pH 8.0 showed a peak at 559 nm, which was in the range of green-yellow light as seen in the luminous spot of the living Fijian click beetle. The Fijian click beetle luciferase was assigned to the Elateridae clade by a phylogenetic analysis, but it made a clearly different branch from Pyrophorus group examined in this study. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  5. High luminous flux from single crystal phosphor-converted laser-based white lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Cantore, Michael

    2015-12-14

    The efficiency droop of light emitting diodes (LEDs) with increasing current density limits the amount of light emitted per wafer area. Since low current densities are required for high efficiency operation, many LED die are needed for high power white light illumination systems. In contrast, the carrier density of laser diodes (LDs) clamps at threshold, so the efficiency of LDs does not droop above threshold and high efficiencies can be achieved at very high current densities. The use of a high power blue GaN-based LD coupled with a single crystal Ce-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) sample was investigated for white light illumination applications. Under CW operation, a single phosphor-converted LD (pc-LD) die produced a peak luminous efficacy of 86.7 lm/W at 1.4 A and 4.24 V and a peak luminous flux of 1100 lm at 3.0 A and 4.85 V with a luminous efficacy of 75.6 lm/W. Simulations of a pc-LD confirm that the single crystal YAG:Ce sample did not experience thermal quenching at peak LD operating efficiency. These results show that a single pc-LD die is capable of emitting enough luminous flux for use in a high power white light illumination system.

  6. What causes IOR? Attention or perception? - manipulating cue and target luminance in either blocked or mixed condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Heinke, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the performance disadvantage when detecting a target presented at a previously cued location. The current paper contributes to the long-standing debate whether IOR is caused by attentional processing or perceptual processing. We present a series of four experiments which varied the cue luminance in mixed and blocked conditions. We hypothesised that if inhibition was initialized by an attentional process the size of IOR should not vary in the blocked condition as participants should be able to adapt to the level of cue luminance. However, if a perceptual process triggers inhibition both experimental manipulations should lead to varying levels of IOR. Indeed, we found evidence for the latter hypothesis. In addition, we also varied the target luminance in blocked and mixed condition. Both manipulations, cue luminance and target luminance, affected IOR in an additive fashion suggesting that the two stimuli affect human behaviour on different processing stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of feeding on luminal pH and morphology of the gastroesophageal junction of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessler, Scott M; Secor, Stephen M

    2012-10-01

    At the gastroesophageal junction, most vertebrates possess a functional lower esophageal sphincter (LES) which may serve to regulate the passage of liquids and food into the stomach and prevent the reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus. Snakes seemingly lack an LES and consume meals large enough to extend anteriorly from the stomach into the esophagus thereby providing the opportunity for the reflux of gastric juices. To explore whether snakes experience or can prevent gastric reflux, we examined post-feeding changes of luminal pH of the distal esophagus and stomach, the fine scale luminal pH profile at the gastroesophageal junction, and the morphology of the gastroesophageal junction for the Burmese python (Python molurus), the African brown house snake (Lamprophis fuliginosus), and the diamondback water snake (Nerodia rhombifer). For each species fasted, there was no distension of the gastroesophageal junction and only modest changes in luminal pH from the distal esophagus into the stomach. Feeding resulted in marked distension and changes in tissue morphology of the gastroesophageal junction. Simultaneously, there was a significant decrease in luminal pH of the distal esophagus for pythons and house snakes, and for all three species a steep gradient in luminal pH decreasing across a 3-cm span from the distal edge of the esophagus into the proximal edge of the stomach. The moderate acidification of the distal most portion of the esophagus for pythons and house snakes suggests that there is some anterior movement of gastric juices across the gastroesophageal junction. Given that this modest reflux of gastric fluid is localized to the most distal region of the esophagus, snakes are apparently able to prevent and protect against acid reflux in the absence of a functional LES. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Low luminance/eyes closed and monochromatic stimulations reduce variability of flash visual evoked potential latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visual evoked potentials are useful in investigating the physiology and pathophysiology of the human visual system. Flash visual evoked potential (FVEP, though technically easier, has less clinical utility because it shows great variations in both latency and amplitude for normal subjects. Aim: To study the effect of eye closure, low luminance, and monochromatic stimulation on the variability of FVEPs. Subjects and Methods: Subjects in self-reported good health in the age group of 18-30 years were divided into three groups. All participants underwent FVEP recording with eyes open and with white light at 0.6 J luminance (standard technique. Next recording was done in group 1 with closed eyes, group 2 with 1.2 and 20 J luminance, and group 3 with red and blue lights, while keeping all the other parameters constant. Two trials were given for each eye, for each technique. The same procedure was repeated at the same clock time on the following day. Statistical Analysis: Variation in FVEP latencies between the individuals (interindividual variability and the variations within the same individual for four trials (intraindividual variability were assessed using coefficient of variance (COV. The technique with lower COV was considered the better method. Results: Recording done with closed eyes, 0.6 J luminance, and monochromatic light (blue > red showed lower interindividual and intraindividual variability in P2 and N2 as compared to standard techniques. Conclusions: Low luminance flash stimulations and monochromatic light will reduce FVEP latency variability and may be clinically useful modifications of FVEP recording technique.

  10. Cinematography of weakly - luminous transient phenomena using image converters; Cinematographie de phenomenes transitoires faiblement lumineux a l'aide d'amplificateurs de luminance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenin, P.; Jacquot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Services de Physique Appliquee, Service d' Ionique Generale

    1966-07-01

    After a review on the physical of optical informations emitted by a light source of weak intensity and short duration, the authors describe a high gain device by associating two image converters. The present specifications are given in the domain of high speed cinematography and spectrometry. (authors) [French] Apres avoir rappele la limitation d'origine physique du nombre d'informations optiques en provenance d'une source lumineuse de faible intensite et de courte duree, on decrit un appareillage a haut gain associant deux amplificateurs de luminance. On donne les performances actuelles du dispositif dans le domaine de la cinematographie et de la spectrometrie ultra-rapides. (auteurs)

  11. Metaproteomics of Colonic Microbiota Unveils Discrete Protein Functions among Colitic Mice and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Clara; Stupp, Gregory S; Su, Andrew I; Wolan, Dennis W

    2018-02-01

    Metaproteomics can greatly assist established high-throughput sequencing methodologies to provide systems biological insights into the alterations of microbial protein functionalities correlated with disease-associated dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota. Here, the authors utilize the well-characterized murine T cell transfer model of colitis to find specific changes within the intestinal luminal proteome associated with inflammation. MS proteomic analysis of colonic samples permitted the identification of ≈10 000-12 000 unique peptides that corresponded to 5610 protein clusters identified across three groups, including the colitic Rag1 -/- T cell recipients, isogenic Rag1 -/- controls, and wild-type mice. The authors demonstrate that the colitic mice exhibited a significant increase in Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and show that such alterations in the microbial communities contributed to the enrichment of specific proteins with transcription and translation gene ontology terms. In combination with 16S sequencing, the authors' metaproteomics-based microbiome studies provide a foundation for assessing alterations in intestinal luminal protein functionalities in a robust and well-characterized mouse model of colitis, and set the stage for future studies to further explore the functional mechanisms of altered protein functionalities associated with dysbiosis and inflammation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  13. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to the colon based on the most current research. However, management of traumatic colon injuries remains a challenge and continues to be associated with significant morbidity. Familiarity with the different methods to the approach and management of colonic injuries will allow surgeons to minimize unnecessary complications and mortality. PMID:24294119

  14. Complications of acromegaly: thyroid and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Shimon, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    In acromegaly the long-term exposure to high growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels may result in specific complications in different human organs, including the thyroid gland and the colon. We will review here the evidence available regarding the characteristic thyroid and colon complications in acromegaly. This review summarizes the published data observing noncancerous structural abnormalities (thyroid nodules, colonic polyps) and thyroid and colon cancer in patients diagnosed with acromegaly. Thyroid micro-carcinomas are probably over-diagnosed among acromegalic patients. In regard to colon cancer, there is no sufficient data to suggest that colon cancer risk is higher in acromegaly compared to the general population.

  15. Image diagnostic of colonic diseases - controversial questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Rizov, A.; Stancheva, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the system of colonic diseases' diagnostic algorithm, fibrocolonoscopy (FCS) is defined as 'Golden Standard'. By this reason some X-ray diagnostic methods - irrigography, etc. are currently not being used in a number of health institutions. The aim of this study is a comparative analysis of FCS and irrigography diagnostic efficacy in various colonic diseases. For 10-years period, in cooperation with a gastroenterologist-gastroscopist, 2151 patients with various colonic diseases were evaluated by FCS and irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics/when necessary. Advantage of FCS was established in diagnosing diseases with patho-morfologic changes on the inner surface of the colon - benign and malignant neoplastic processes, chronic inflammatory diseases, etc. At the same time functional changes - irritated colon syndrome, changes in defecation act, etc., are not an object of diagnosis through FCS. Correction in colonic diseases diagnostic algorithm is necessary. FCS should be mandatory. If result is negative - irrigography with pharmaco-diagnostics should be done. (authors)

  16. Historical and Current Trends in Colon Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Causey, Marlin Wayne; Rivadeneira, David E.; Steele, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the evolution of the evaluation and management of colonic trauma, as well as the debate regarding primary repair versus fecal diversion. Their evidence-based review covers diagnosis, management, surgical approaches, and perioperative care of patients with colon-related trauma. The management of traumatic colon injuries has evolved significantly over the past 50 years; here the authors describe a practical approach to the treatment and management of traumatic injuries to th...

  17. Perforated Solitary Diverticulitis of the Ascending Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    postoperative day 6. DISCUSSION Diverticuli of the right colon exist in approximately 1% to 5% of patients with diverticular disease .1-3 They are...ORIGINAL REPORTS Perforated Solitary Diverticulitis of the Ascending Colon CPT David S. Kauvar, MC, USA, MAJ, Jayson Aydelotte, MC, USA, and MAJ...Michael Harnisch, MC, USA Department of Surgery, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas KEY WORDS: solitary colon diverticulum

  18. Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Muneera R.

    2017-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestines may involve either the small bowel or colon. In the pediatric population, small bowel volvulus is more common, while in the adult population, colonic volvulus is more often seen. The two most common types of colonic volvulus include sigmoid and cecal volvulus. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative, otherwise bowel ischemia may ensue. Treatment often involves emergent surgical exploration and bowel resection. PMID:28144211

  19. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, S; Karnak, I; Ciftci, A O; Senocak, M E; Tanyel, F C; Büyükpamukçu, N

    2006-06-01

    Vaginal construction is necessary for the patients with aplasia of Mullerian ducts, testicular feminisation and androgen insensitivity syndromes. Many methods of vaginal construction have been described. We report here the outcomes of six adolescent patients who underwent sigmoid colon vaginoplasty with special emphasis on the surgical technique and outcomes. Between 1990 and 2003, six patients underwent sigmoid vaginoplasty after a diagnosis of 5alpha-reductase deficiency (n = 3), testicular feminisation (n = 2) or vaginal atresia (n = 1). The mean age was 16 years (13 to 18). Wide spectrum antibiotics and whole-gut preparation were used in all cases. A 15-20 cm segment of sigmoid colon was pulled through the retrovesical tunnel. The proximal end was closed in two layers in patients with 5alpha-reductase deficiency and with testicular feminisation. A distal anastomosis was carried out to the opening made on the vaginal plate (5alpha-reductase deficiency) or on the tip of the shallow rudimentary vagina (testicular feminisation). The sigmoid segment was interposed between the blind end of the atretic vagina and the perineum in the patient with vaginal atresia. Patients were instructed to perform daily vaginal irrigation. The neovagina was examined and calibrated under anaesthesia. No routine vaginal dilatation was recommended. All but one patient had an uneventful postoperative period and were discharged within 7-8 days. All patients had an excellent cosmetic result with an appropriate vaginal length. One of the patients experienced late stenosis of the introitus which responded to dilatations. Mucus discharge was not a significant problem. The patient with vaginal atresia (Bardet-Biedl syndrome) experienced deep vein thrombosis, renal failure and sepsis, resulting in death. Sigmoid colon vaginoplasty is a special procedure which appears appropriate for the construction of a new vagina in children. A sigmoid colon neovagina meets all necessary criteria after a

  20. Genomic priming of the antisecretory response to estrogen in rat distal colon throughout the estrous cycle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, Fiona

    2009-11-01

    The secretion of Cl(-) across distal colonic crypt cells provides the driving force for the movement of fluid into the luminal space. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in secretion in females, which is dependent on the novel protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) isozyme and PKA isoform I targeting of KCNQ1 channels. This sexual dimorphism in the E2 response is associated with a higher expression level of PKC delta in female compared with the male tissue. The present study revealed the antisecretory response is regulated throughout the female reproductive (estrous) cycle and is primed by genomic regulation of the kinases. E2 (1-10 nm) decreased cAMP-dependent secretion in colonic epithelia during the estrus, metestrus, and diestrus stages. A weak inhibition of secretion was demonstrated in the proestrus stage. The expression levels of PKC delta and PKA fluctuated throughout the estrous cycle and correlated with the potency of the antisecretory effect of E2. The expression of PKC delta and PKA were up-regulated by estrogen at a transcriptional level via a PKC delta-MAPK-cAMP response element-binding protein-regulated pathway indicating a genomic priming of the antisecretory response. PK Cdelta was activated by the membrane-impermeant E2-BSA, and this response was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The 66-kDa estrogen receptor-alpha isoform was present at the plasma membrane of female colonic crypt cells with a lower abundance found in male colonic crypts. The study demonstrates estrogen regulation of intestinal secretion both at a rapid and transcriptional level, demonstrating an interdependent relationship between both nongenomic and genomic hormone responses.

  1. Self-renewing Monolayer of Primary Colonic or Rectal Epithelial CellsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Three-dimensional organoid culture has fundamentally changed the in vitro study of intestinal biology enabling novel assays; however, its use is limited because of an inaccessible luminal compartment and challenges to data gathering in a three-dimensional hydrogel matrix. Long-lived, self-renewing 2-dimensional (2-D tissue cultured from primary colon cells has not been accomplished. Methods: The surface matrix and chemical factors that sustain 2-D mouse colonic and human rectal epithelial cell monolayers with cell repertoires comparable to that in vivo were identified. Results: The monolayers formed organoids or colonoids when placed in standard Matrigel culture. As with the colonoids, the monolayers exhibited compartmentalization of proliferative and differentiated cells, with proliferative cells located near the peripheral edges of growing monolayers and differentiated cells predominated in the central regions. Screening of 77 dietary compounds and metabolites revealed altered proliferation or differentiation of the murine colonic epithelium. When exposed to a subset of the compound library, murine organoids exhibited similar responses to that of the monolayer but with differences that were likely attributable to the inaccessible organoid lumen. The response of the human primary epithelium to a compound subset was distinct from that of both the murine primary epithelium and human tumor cells. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a self-renewing 2-D murine and human monolayer derived from primary cells can serve as a physiologically relevant assay system for study of stem cell renewal and differentiation and for compound screening. The platform holds transformative potential for personalized and precision medicine and can be applied to emerging areas of disease modeling and microbiome studies. Keywords: Colonic Epithelial Cells, Monolayer, Organoids, Compound Screening

  2. Candidate luminal B breast cancer genes identified by genome, gene expression and DNA methylation profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Cornen

    Full Text Available Breast cancers (BCs of the luminal B subtype are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+, highly proliferative, resistant to standard therapies and have a poor prognosis. To better understand this subtype we compared DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs, DNA promoter methylation, gene expression profiles, and somatic mutations in nine selected genes, in 32 luminal B tumors with those observed in 156 BCs of the other molecular subtypes. Frequent CNAs included 8p11-p12 and 11q13.1-q13.2 amplifications, 7q11.22-q34, 8q21.12-q24.23, 12p12.3-p13.1, 12q13.11-q24.11, 14q21.1-q23.1, 17q11.1-q25.1, 20q11.23-q13.33 gains and 6q14.1-q24.2, 9p21.3-p24,3, 9q21.2, 18p11.31-p11.32 losses. A total of 237 and 101 luminal B-specific candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs presented a deregulated expression in relation with their CNAs, including 11 genes previously reported associated with endocrine resistance. Interestingly, 88% of the potential TSGs are located within chromosome arm 6q, and seven candidate oncogenes are potential therapeutic targets. A total of 100 candidate oncogenes were validated in a public series of 5,765 BCs and the overexpression of 67 of these was associated with poor survival in luminal tumors. Twenty-four genes presented a deregulated expression in relation with a high DNA methylation level. FOXO3, PIK3CA and TP53 were the most frequent mutated genes among the nine tested. In a meta-analysis of next-generation sequencing data in 875 BCs, KCNB2 mutations were associated with luminal B cases while candidate TSGs MDN1 (6q15 and UTRN (6q24, were mutated in this subtype. In conclusion, we have reported luminal B candidate genes that may play a role in the development and/or hormone resistance of this aggressive subtype.

  3. Assessment of atherosclerotic luminal narrowing of coronary arteries based on morphometrically generated visual guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Kellough, David A; Allenby, Patricia; Blower, Luke E; Hammond, Scott H; Allenby, Greg M; Buja, L Maximilian

    Determination of the degree of stenosis of atherosclerotic coronary arteries is an important part of postmortem examination of the heart, but, unfortunately, estimation of the degree of luminal narrowing can be imprecise and tends to be approximations. Visual guides can be useful to assess this, but earlier attempts to develop such guides did not employ digital technology. Using this approach, we have developed two computer-generated morphometric guides to estimate the degree of luminal narrowing of atherosclerotic coronary arteries. The first is based on symmetric or eccentric circular or crescentic narrowing of the vessel lumen and the second on either slit-like or irregularly shaped narrowing of the vessel lumens. Using the Aperio ScanScope XT at a magnification of 20× we created digital whole-slide images of 20 representative microscopic cross sections of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, stained with either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or Movat's pentachrome stain. These cross sections illustrated a variety of luminal profiles and degrees of stenosis. Three representative types of images were selected and a visual guide was constructed with Adobe Photoshop CS5. Using the "Scale" and "Measurement" tools, we created a series of representations of stenosis with luminal cross sections depicting 20%, 40%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% occlusion of the LAD branch. Four pathologists independently reviewed and scored the degree of atherosclerotic luminal narrowing based on our visual guides. In addition, digital technology was employed to determine the degree of narrowing by measuring the cross-sectional area of the 20 microscopic sections of the vessels, first assuming no narrowing and then comparing this to the percent of narrowing determined by precise measurement. Two of the observers were very experienced general autopsy pathologists, one was a first-year pathology resident on his first rotation on the autopsy service, and the fourth observer was a

  4. Colonic diseases: The value of US examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerweger, Alois

    2007-01-01

    The colon is affected by a number of diseases, mainly inflammatory, ischemic, and neoplastic conditions. Depending upon clinical indications endoscopy, US, CT, or other radiological methods are used for evaluation. The fact that US is frequently used as the initial imaging method in patients with non-specific clinical symptoms allows for greater influence in further diagnostic evaluation and with treatment, provided the investigator is familiar with the features of different intestinal diseases. This article will describe the anatomical characteristics of the colon, the US technique for examination of the colon, and the typical US features of the more common diagnoses of the colon

  5. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  6. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  7. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  8. Relation between acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity in canine gastric mucosa: Effects of salicylate and prostaglandin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The stomach is thought to be protected from luminal acid by a gastric mucosal barrier that restricts the diffusion of acid into tissue. This study tested the hypothesis that the hydrophobic luminal surface of canine gastric mucosa incubated in Ussing chambers, impedes the back-diffusion of luminal acid into the tissue. Isolated sheets of mucosa were treated with cimetidine to inhibit spontaneous acid secretion, and incubated under conditions that prevented significant secretion of luminal bicarbonate. By measuring acid loss from the luminal compartment using the pH-stat technique, acid back-diffusion was continuously monitored; potential difference (PD) was measured as an index of tissue viability. Tissue luminal surface hydrophobicity was estimated by contact angle analysis at the end of each experiment. Addition of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E 2 to the nutrient compartment enhanced luminal surface hydrophobicity, but did not reduce acid back-diffusion in tissues that maintained a constant PD. 10 mM salicylate at pH 4.00 in the luminal compartment reduced surface hydrophobicity, but this decrease did not occur if 1 ug/ml prostaglandin was present in the nutrient solution. Despite possessing relatively hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surface properties, respectively, acid back-diffusion in the absence of salicylate was not significantly different between these two groups. Neither group maintained a PD after incubation with salicylate. Lastly, radiolabeled salicylate was used to calculate the free (non-salicylate associated) acid loss in tissues incubated with salicylate and/or prostaglandin. No significant correlation was found between free acid back-diffusion and luminal surface hydrophobicity. These data do not support the hypothesis that acid back-diffusion in impeded by the hydrophobic surface presented by isolated canine gastric mucosa

  9. Immunohistochemical localisation of keratin and luminal epithelial antigen in myoepithelial and luminal epithelial cells of human mammary and salivary gland tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathrath, W B; Wilson, P D; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to human 40-63 000 MW epidermal keratin, one batch with restricted distribution of reactivity from an initial (aK1) and one with "broad spectrum" distribution of reactivity from a late bleeding (aK), and to "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) were applied to formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of human normal and neoplastic mammary and salivary glands using an indirect immunoperoxidase method. aK1 reacted with myoepithelial cells, aLEA with luminal epithelial cells and aK with both cell types in normal mammary and salivary gland. In breast carcinomas the majority of intraluminal and infiltrating carcinoma cells reacted with aLEA but not with aK1 which reacted only with surrounding myoepithelial cells. aK reacted with both myoepithelial cells and with intraluminal and infiltrating tumour cells. In the salivary gland adenomas the majority of cells reacted with aK, and those cells arranged in a tubular fashion reacted with aLEA.

  10. Essential role of the electroneutral Na+-HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1 in murine duodenal acid-base balance and colonic mucus layer build-up in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anurag Kumar; Xia, Weiliang; Riederer, Brigitte; Juric, Marina; Li, Junhua; Zheng, Wen; Cinar, Ayhan; Xiao, Fang; Bachmann, Oliver; Song, Penghong; Praetorius, Jeppe; Aalkjaer, Christian; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-04-15

    Duodenal epithelial cells need efficient defence strategies during gastric acidification of the lumen, while colonic mucosa counteracts damage by pathogens by building up a bacteria-free adherent mucus layer. Transport of HCO3(-) is considered crucial for duodenal defence against acid as well as for mucus release and expansion, but the transport pathways involved are incompletely understood. This study investigated the significance of the electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 for duodenal defence against acid and colonic mucus release. NBCn1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of duodenal villous enterocytes and of colonic crypt cells, with predominant expression in goblet cells. Duodenal villous enterocyte intracellular pH was studied before and during a luminal acid load by two-photon microscopy in exteriorized, vascularly perfused, indicator (SNARF-1 AM)-loaded duodenum of isoflurane-anaesthetized, systemic acid-base-controlled mice. Acid-induced HCO3(-) secretion was measured in vivo by single-pass perfusion and pH-stat titration. After a luminal acid load, NBCn1-deficient duodenocytes were unable to recover rapidly from intracellular acidification and could not respond adequately with protective HCO3(-) secretion. In the colon, build-up of the mucus layer was delayed, and a decreased thickness of the adherent mucus layer was observed, suggesting that basolateral HCO3(-) uptake is essential for optimal release of mucus. The electroneutral Na(+)-HCO3(-) cotransporter NBCn1 displays a differential cellular distribution in the murine intestine and is essential for HCO3(-)-dependent mucosal protective functions, such as recovery of intracellular pH and HCO3(-) secretion in the duodenum and secretion of mucus in the colon.

  11. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Paul W.; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; Van Den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; Van Es, Johan H.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic

  12. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary pattern and colonic diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    To assess the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis. High-fiber diet does not prevent diverticulosis occurrence, and results about prevention/treatment of diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still conflicting.No association was seen between nut, corn or popcorn consumption and occurrence of diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis.It seems to be a mild association between high alcohol intake and diverticulosis occurrence, whereas alcohol dependence seems to show lower risk of in-hospital mortality due to acute diverticulitis.Higher red-meat consumption shows mild increased risk of acute diverticulitis, especially when consumed as unprocessed red meat (defined as consumption of 'beef or lamb as main dish', 'pork as main dish', 'hamburger' and 'beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish'); higher consumption of poultry (viz. white meat) was not associated with risk of acute diverticulitis.Finally, higher fish intake was associated with reduced risk of diverticulitis in age-adjusted model, but not after further adjustment for other potential confounders. Current literature data about the role of dietary pattern on the occurrence of colonic diverticulosis, diverticular disease and acute diverticulitis are still too conflicting.

  14. Compact RGBY light sources with high luminance for laser display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Katrin; Blume, Gunnar; Werner, Nils; Müller, André; Sumpf, Bernd; Pohl, Johannes; Feise, David; Ressel, Peter; Sahm, Alexander; Bege, Roland; Hofmann, Julian; Jedrzejczyk, Daniel; Tränkle, Günther

    2018-02-01

    Watt-class visible laser light with a high luminance can be created with high-power GaAs-based lasers either directly in the red spectral region or using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) for the colors in the blue-yellow spectral region. The concepts and results of red- and near infrared-emitting distributed Bragg reflector tapered lasers and master oscillator power amplifier systems as well as their application for SHG bench-top experiments and miniaturized modules are presented. Examples of these high-luminance light sources aiming at different applications such as flying spot display or holographic 3D cinema are discussed in more detail. The semiconductor material allows an easy adaptation of the wavelength allowing techniques such as six-primary color 3D projection or color space enhancement by adding a fourth yellow color.

  15. Colour and luminance contrasts predict the human detection of natural stimuli in complex visual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas E; Rojas, Bibiana; Mappes, Johanna; Rautiala, Petri; Kemp, Darrell J

    2017-09-01

    Much of what we know about human colour perception has come from psychophysical studies conducted in tightly-controlled laboratory settings. An enduring challenge, however, lies in extrapolating this knowledge to the noisy conditions that characterize our actual visual experience. Here we combine statistical models of visual perception with empirical data to explore how chromatic (hue/saturation) and achromatic (luminant) information underpins the detection and classification of stimuli in a complex forest environment. The data best support a simple linear model of stimulus detection as an additive function of both luminance and saturation contrast. The strength of each predictor is modest yet consistent across gross variation in viewing conditions, which accords with expectation based upon general primate psychophysics. Our findings implicate simple visual cues in the guidance of perception amidst natural noise, and highlight the potential for informing human vision via a fusion between psychophysical modelling and real-world behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Automatic Supervision of Temperature, Humidity, and Luminance with an Assistant Personal Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart environments and Ambient Intelligence (AmI technologies are defining the future society where energy optimization and intelligent management are essential for a sustainable advance. Mobile robotics is also making an important contribution to this advance with the integration of sensors and intelligent processing algorithms. This paper presents the application of an Assistant Personal Robot (APR as an autonomous agent for temperature, humidity, and luminance supervision in human-frequented areas. The robot multiagent capabilities allow gathering sensor information while exploring or performing specific tasks and then verifying human comfortability levels. The proposed methodology creates information maps with the distribution of temperature, humidity, and luminance and interprets such information in terms of comfort and warns about corrective actuations if required.

  17. The Dichotomous Cosmology with a Static Material World and Expanding Luminous World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The dichotomous cosmology is an alternative to the expanding Universe theory, and consists of a static matter Universe, where cosmological redshifts are explained by a tired-light model with an expanding luminous world. In this model the Hubble constant is also the photon energy decay rate, and the luminous world i s expanding at a constant rate as in de Sitter cosmology for an empty Universe. The present model explains both the luminosity distance versus redshift relationship of supernovae Ia, and ageing of spectra observed with the stretching of supernovae light curves. Furthermore, it is consistent with a radiation energy density factor (1 + z 4 inferred from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation.

  18. Hot spots effect on infrared spectral luminance emitted by carbon under plasma particles impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchambre, E.; Reichle, R.; Mitteau, R.; Missirlian, M.; Gobin, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the last Tore Supra campaigns, an anomalous deformation in the near infrared spectrum of radiation has been observed on neutralizer underneath the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) on which we observed the growth of carbon layer. The consequence is the difficulty to asses the surface temperature of the components and the power loaded. Laboratory experiment has been performed, using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ions source, to reproduce, characterize and explain this phenomenon. The luminance emitted by Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) and pyrolytic graphite, have been observed under 95 keV of H+ bombardments. The amplitude of the deformation was found to depend on the type of material used and the power density of the incident power loaded. This paper presents the possible hot spots explanation. The experimental luminance deformation is reproduced and these results are validated using a thermal model of dust in radiate equilibrium. (authors)

  19. Luciferase genes cloned from the unculturable luminous bacteroid symbiont of the Caribbean flashlight fish, Kryptophanaron alfredi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, M G; Cohn, D H

    1986-01-01

    Light organs of anomalopid (flashlight) fish contain luminous bacteroids that have never been cultured and, consequently, have been difficult to study. We have characterized the luciferase (lux) region of DNA extracted from light organs of the Caribbean flashlight fish Kryptophanaron alfredi by hybridization of cloned Vibrio harveyi lux genes to restriction-endonuclease-digested, light organ DNA. Comparison of the hybridization pattern of light organ DNA with that of DNA of a putative symbiotic isolate provides a method for identifying the authentic luminous symbiont regardless of its luminescence, and was used to reject one such isolate. Light organ DNA was further used to construct a cosmid clone bank and the luciferase genes were isolated. Unlike other bacterial luciferase genes, the genes were not expressed in Escherichia coli. When placed under the control of the E. coli trp promoter, the genes were transcribed but no luciferase was detected, suggesting a posttranscriptional block to expression.

  20. Radioisotope treatment for benign strictures of non-vascular luminal organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Tissue hyperplasia in one of the most frequently encountered complications when self-expanding stents are placed in benign non-vascular luminal organ strictures, thus causing of the lumen. The investigators postulated that ionizing irradiation could be applied to prevent restenosis caused by tissue hyperplasia in non-vascular luminal organs as it reduced coronary or peripheral arterial narrowing successfully. The authors combined β-irradiation using 188 Re-MAG 3 solution with balloon for animal and clinical studies because this new treatment approach had the advantages such as low penetration depth of β-ray, self-centering irradiation, and mechanical effect of balloon dilation over using γ-irradiation with afterloading devices. In this article, the concept and mechanism of radioisotope balloon dilation, and animal and clinical studies using radioisotope balloon dilation are reviewed

  1. Observations of Intermediate-mass Black Holes and Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-12-01

    I will review various observations that suggest that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ˜102-104 M⊙ exist in our Universe. I will also discuss some of the limitations of these observations. HST Observations of excess dark mass in globular cluster cores suggest IMBHs may be responsible, and some mass estimates from lensing experiments are nearly in the IMBH range. The intriguing Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs, or IXOs) are off-nuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities LX ≳ 1039 erg s-1. ULXs are typically rare (1 in every 5 galaxies), and the nature of their ultra-luminous emission is currently debated. I will discuss the evidence for IMBHs in some ULXs, and briefly outline some phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss future observations that can be made to search for IMBHs.

  2. Luminal flow amplifies stent-based drug deposition in arterial bifurcations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya B Kolachalama

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of arterial bifurcation lesions using drug-eluting stents (DES is now common clinical practice and yet the mechanisms governing drug distribution in these complex morphologies are incompletely understood. It is still not evident how to efficiently determine the efficacy of local drug delivery and quantify zones of excessive drug that are harbingers of vascular toxicity and thrombosis, and areas of depletion that are associated with tissue overgrowth and luminal re-narrowing.We constructed two-phase computational models of stent-deployed arterial bifurcations simulating blood flow and drug transport to investigate the factors modulating drug distribution when the main-branch (MB was treated using a DES. Simulations predicted extensive flow-mediated drug delivery in bifurcated vascular beds where the drug distribution patterns are heterogeneous and sensitive to relative stent position and luminal flow. A single DES in the MB coupled with large retrograde luminal flow on the lateral wall of the side-branch (SB can provide drug deposition on the SB lumen-wall interface, except when the MB stent is downstream of the SB flow divider. In an even more dramatic fashion, the presence of the SB affects drug distribution in the stented MB. Here fluid mechanic effects play an even greater role than in the SB especially when the DES is across and downstream to the flow divider and in a manner dependent upon the Reynolds number.The flow effects on drug deposition and subsequent uptake from endovascular DES are amplified in bifurcation lesions. When only one branch is stented, a complex interplay occurs - drug deposition in the stented MB is altered by the flow divider imposed by the SB and in the SB by the presence of a DES in the MB. The use of DES in arterial bifurcations requires a complex calculus that balances vascular and stent geometry as well as luminal flow.

  3. Intratumoral estrogen production and actions in luminal A type invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mayu; Miki, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Minoru; Hata, Shuko; Yoda, Tomomi; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Sagara, Yasuaki; Rai, Yoshiaki; Ohi, Yasuyo; Tamaki, Kentaro; Ishida, Takanori; Suzuki, Takashi; Ouchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-02-01

    The great majority of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is estrogen-dependent luminal A type carcinoma but the details of estrogen actions and its intratumoral metabolism have not been well studied compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We first immunolocalized estrogen-related enzymes including estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1/2, and aromatase. We then evaluated the tissue concentrations of estrogens in ILC and IDC and subsequently estrogen-responsive gene profiles in these tumors in order to explore the possible differences and/or similarity of intratumoral estrogen environment of these two breast cancer subtypes. The status of STS and 17βHSD1 was significantly lower in ILCs than IDCs (p = 0.022 and p < 0.0001), but that of EST and 17βHSD2 vice versa (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0106). In ILCs, tissue concentrations of estrone and estradiol were lower than those in IDCs (p = 0.0709 and 0.069). In addition, the great majority of estrogen response genes tended to be lower in ILCs. Among those genes above, FOXP1 was significantly higher in ILCs than in IDCs (p = 0.002). FOXP1 expression was reported to be significantly higher in relapse-free IDC patients treated with tamoxifen. Therefore, tamoxifen may be considered an option of endocrine therapy for luminal A type ILC patients. This is the first study to demonstrate the detailed and comprehensive status of intratumoral production and metabolism of estrogens and the status of estrogen response genes in luminal A-like ILC with comparison to those in luminal A-like IDCs.

  4. The uncultured luminous symbiont of Anomalops katoptron (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) represents a new bacterial genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Dunlap, Paul V

    2011-12-01

    Flashlight fishes (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae) harbor luminous symbiotic bacteria in subocular light organs and use the bacterial light for predator avoidance, feeding, and communication. Despite many attempts anomalopid symbionts have not been brought into laboratory culture, which has restricted progress in understanding their phylogenetic relationships with other luminous bacteria, identification of the genes of their luminescence system, as well as the nature of their symbiotic interactions with their fish hosts. To begin addressing these issues, we used culture-independent analysis of the bacteria symbiotic with the anomalopid fish, Anomalops katoptron, to characterize the phylogeny of the bacteria and to identify the genes of their luminescence system including those involved in the regulation of luminescence. Analysis of the 16S rRNA, atpA, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA genes resolved the A. katoptron symbionts as a clade nested within and deeply divergent from other members of Vibrionaceae. The bacterial luminescence (lux) genes were identified as a contiguous set (luxCDABEG), as found for the lux operons of other luminous bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis based on the lux genes confirmed the housekeeping gene phylogenetic placement. Furthermore, genes flanking the lux operon in the A. katoptron symbionts differed from those flanking lux operons of other genera of luminous bacteria. We therefore propose the candidate name Candidatus Photodesmus (Greek: photo = light, desmus = servant) katoptron for the species of bacteria symbiotic with A. katoptron. Results of a preliminary genomic analysis for genes regulating luminescence in other bacteria identified only a Vibrio harveyi-type luxR gene. These results suggest that expression of the luminescence system might be continuous in P. katoptron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hybrid metal grid-polymer-carbon nanotube electrodes for high luminance organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, F Laurent M; Dabera, G Dinesha M R; Lai, Khue T; Mills, Christopher A; Rozanski, Lynn J; Silva, S Ravi P

    2014-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) incorporating grid transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) with wide grid line spacing suffer from an inability to transfer charge carriers across the gaps in the grids to promote light emission in these areas. High luminance OLEDs fabricated using a hybrid TCE composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS PH1000) or regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)-wrapped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (rrP3HT-SWCNT) in combination with a nanometre thin gold grid are reported here. OLEDs fabricated using the hybrid gold grid/PH1000 TCE have a luminance of 18 000 cd m −2 at 9 V; the same as the reference indium tin oxide (ITO) OLED. The gold grid/rrP3HT-SWCNT OLEDs have a lower luminance of 8260 cd m −2 at 9 V, which is likely due to a rougher rrP3HT-SWCNT surface. These results demonstrate that the hybrid gold grid/PH1000 TCE is a promising replacement for ITO in future plastic electronics applications including OLEDs and organic photovoltaics. For applications where surface roughness is not critical, e.g. electrochromic devices or discharge of static electricity, the gold grid/rrP3HT-SWCNT hybrid TCE can be employed. (paper)

  6. Radiation properties of two types of luminous textile devices containing plastic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selm, Bärbel; Rothmaier, Markus

    2007-05-01

    Luminous textiles have the potential to satisfy a need for thin and flexible light diffusers for treatment of intraoral cancerous tissue. Plastic optical fibers (POF) with diameters of 250 microns and smaller are used to make the textiles luminous. Usually light is supplied to the optical fiber at both ends. On the textile surface light emission occurs in a woven structure via damaged straight POFs, whereas the embroidered structure radiates the light out of macroscopically bent POFs. We compared the optical properties of these two types of textile diffusers using red light laser for the embroidery and light emitting diode (LED) for the woven structure as light sources, and found efficiencies for the luminous areas of the two samples of 19 % (woven) and 32 % (embroidery), respectively. It was shown that the efficiency can be greatly improved using an aluminium backing. Additional scattering layers lower the fluence rate by around 30 %. To analyse the homogeneity we took a photo of the illuminated surface using a 3CCD camera and found, for both textiles, a slightly skewed distribution of the dark and bright pixels. The interquartile range of brightness distribution of the embroidery is more than double as the woven structure.

  7. Effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on luminous marine bacteria: radiation hormesis and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryasheva, N.S.; Rozhko, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper summarizes studies of effects of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides (americium-241, uranium-235+238, and tritium) on marine microorganisms under conditions of chronic low-dose irradiation in aqueous media. Luminous marine bacteria were chosen as an example of these microorganisms; bioluminescent intensity was used as a tested physiological parameter. Non-linear dose-effect dependence was demonstrated. Three successive stages in the bioluminescent response to americium-241 and tritium were found: 1 – absence of effects (stress recognition), 2 – activation (adaptive response), and 3 – inhibition (suppression of physiological function, i.e. radiation toxicity). The effects were attributed to radiation hormesis phenomenon. Biological role of reactive oxygen species, secondary products of the radioactive decay, is discussed. The study suggests an approach to evaluation of non-toxic and toxic stages under conditions of chronic radioactive exposure. - Highlights: • Luminous bacteria demonstrate nonlinear dose-effect relation in radioactive solutions. • Response to low-dose radiation includes 3 stages: threshold, activation, inhibition. • ROS are responsible for low-dose effects of alpha-emitting radionuclides. • Luminous marine bacteria are a convenient tool to study radiation hormesis

  8. Luminance and chromatic signals interact differently with melanopsin activation to control the pupil light response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Pablo A; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) express the photopigment melanopsin. These cells receive afferent inputs from rods and cones, which provide inputs to the postreceptoral visual pathways. It is unknown, however, how melanopsin activation is integrated with postreceptoral signals to control the pupillary light reflex. This study reports human flicker pupillary responses measured using stimuli generated with a five-primary photostimulator that selectively modulated melanopsin, rod, S-, M-, and L-cone excitations in isolation, or in combination to produce postreceptoral signals. We first analyzed the light adaptation behavior of melanopsin activation and rod and cones signals. Second, we determined how melanopsin is integrated with postreceptoral signals by testing with cone luminance, chromatic blue-yellow, and chromatic red-green stimuli that were processed by magnocellular (MC), koniocellular (KC), and parvocellular (PC) pathways, respectively. A combined rod and melanopsin response was also measured. The relative phase of the postreceptoral signals was varied with respect to the melanopsin phase. The results showed that light adaptation behavior for all conditions was weaker than typical Weber adaptation. Melanopsin activation combined linearly with luminance, S-cone, and rod inputs, suggesting the locus of integration with MC and KC signals was retinal. The melanopsin contribution to phasic pupil responses was lower than luminance contributions, but much higher than S-cone contributions. Chromatic red-green modulation interacted with melanopsin activation nonlinearly as described by a "winner-takes-all" process, suggesting the integration with PC signals might be mediated by a postretinal site.

  9. Clustering Batik Images using Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm Based on Log-Average Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanmorino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Batik is a fabric or clothes that are made ​​with a special staining technique called wax-resist dyeing and is one of the cultural heritage which has high artistic value. In order to improve the efficiency and give better semantic to the image, some researchers apply clustering algorithm for managing images before they can be retrieved. Image clustering is a process of grouping images based on their similarity. In this paper we attempt to provide an alternative method of grouping batik image using fuzzy c-means (FCM algorithm based on log-average luminance of the batik. FCM clustering algorithm is an algorithm that works using fuzzy models that allow all data from all cluster members are formed with different degrees of membership between 0 and 1. Log-average luminance (LAL is the average value of the lighting in an image. We can compare different image lighting from one image to another using LAL. From the experiments that have been made, it can be concluded that fuzzy c-means algorithm can be used for batik image clustering based on log-average luminance of each image possessed.

  10. An analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog: comparisons with Monte Carlo computations and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillade, Frédéric; Dumont, Eric; Belin, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We propose an analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog and derive an expression for the visibility signal-to-noise ratio as a function of meteorological visibility distance. The model uses single scattering processes. It is based on the Mie theory and the geometry of the optical device (emitter and receiver). In particular, we present an overlap function and take the phase function of fog into account. The results of the backscattered luminance obtained with our analytical model are compared to simulations made using the Monte Carlo method based on multiple scattering processes. An excellent agreement is found in that the discrepancy between the results is smaller than the Monte Carlo standard uncertainties. If we take no account of the geometry of the optical device, the results of the model-estimated backscattered luminance differ from the simulations by a factor 20. We also conclude that the signal-to-noise ratio computed with the Monte Carlo method and our analytical model is in good agreement with experimental results since the mean difference between the calculations and experimental measurements is smaller than the experimental uncertainty

  11. A CANDIDATE FOR THE MOST LUMINOUS OB ASSOCIATION IN THE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mubdi; Matzner, Christopher; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2011-01-01

    The Milky Way harbors giant H II regions, which may be powered by star complexes more luminous than any known Galactic OB association. Being across the disk of the Galaxy, however, these brightest associations are severely extinguished and confused. We present a search for one such association toward the most luminous H II region in the recent catalog by Murray and Rahman, which, at ∼9.7 kpc, has a recombination rate of ∼7 x 10 51 s -1 . Prior searches have identified only small-scale clustering around the rim of this shell-like region, but the primary association has not previously been identified. We apply a near-infrared color selection and find an overdensity of point sources toward its southern central part. The colors and magnitudes of these excess sources are consistent with O- and early B-type stars at extinctions 0.96 K < 1.2, and they are sufficiently numerous (406 ± 102 after subtraction of field sources) to ionize the surrounding H II region, making this a candidate for the most luminous OB association in the Galaxy. We reject an alternate theory, in which the apparent excess is caused by localized extinction, as inconsistent with source demographics.

  12. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  13. Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Yohei; Radisky, Derek; Boudreau, Rosanne; Simian, Marina; Stevens, Mary E.; Oka, Yumiko; Takebe, Kyoko; Niwa, Shinichiro; Bissell, Mina J.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that epimorphin, a protein expressed on the surface of myoepithelial and fibroblast cells of the mammary gland, acts as a multifunctional morphogen of mammary epithelial cells. Here, we present the molecular mechanism by which epimorphin mediates luminal morphogenesis. Treatment of cells with epimorphin to induce lumen formation greatly increases the overall expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) and alters the relative expression of its two principal isoforms, LIP and LAP. These alterations were shown to be essential for the morphogenetic activities, as constitutive expression of LIP was sufficient to produce lumen formation, while constitutive expression of LAP blocked epimorphin-mediated luminal morphogenesis. Furthermore, in a transgenic mouse model in which epimorphin expression was expressed in an apolar fashion on the surface of mammary epithelial cells, we found increased expression of C/EBPbeta, increased relative expression of LIP to LAP, and enlarged ductal lumina. Together, our studies demonstrate a role for epimorphin in luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta expression

  14. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Norihisa; Chou, Yu-Chien; Galvez, Jose J; Candia, Paola de; Cardiff, Robert D; Benezra, Robert; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2003-01-01

    The family of inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id) proteins is known to regulate development in several tissues. One member of this gene family, Id-1, has been implicated in mammary development and carcinogenesis. Mammary glands contain various cell types, among which the luminal epithelial cells are primarily targeted for proliferation, differentiation and carcinogenesis. Therefore, to assess the precise significance of Id-1 in mammary biology and carcinogenesis, we examined its cellular localization in vivo using immunohistochemistry. Extracts of whole mammary glands from wild type and Id-1 null mutant mice, and tissue sections from paraffin-embedded mouse mammary glands from various developmental stages and normal human breast were subjected to immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. In both these procedures, an anti-Id-1 rabbit polyclonal antibody was used for detection of Id-1. In immunoblot analyses, using whole mammary gland extracts, Id-1 was detected. In immunohistochemical analyses, however, Id-1 was not detected in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands during any stage of development, but it was detected in vascular endothelial cells. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands

  15. Luminal and basolateral uptake of insulin in isolated perfused, proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.; Nielsen, J.T.; Christensen, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was performed to quantitate compare the luminal and the peritubular uptake of 125 I-insulin in isolated, perfused, proximal tubules from rabbit kidneys. 125 I-insulin was added in physiological concentrations to either the perfusate or the bath fluid for 30 min. The luminal uptake in 30 min averaged 0.76 pg/mm at physiological concentrations and 18.0 pg/mm at high insulin concentrations. About 15-41% of the absorbed insulin was digested and 125 I-insulin at physiological and high concentrations in the bath was 0.136 and 0.318 pg, respectively. The data indicates that insulin is bound/absorbed at the basolateral membranes both by a saturable specific mechanism and a nonspecific, nonsaturable mechanism. The basolateral absorption constituted 15.2 and 1.8% of the total tubular extraction of insulin at physiological and high insulin concentrations, respectively. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that, after luminal as well as basolateral endocytosis, insulin was exclusively accumulated in endocytic vacuoles and lysosomes

  16. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. V. The Upper HR Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Hahn, David [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C. [Barber Observatory, University of Illinois, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    We present HR diagrams for the massive star populations in M31 and M33, including several different types of emission-line stars: the confirmed luminous blue variables (LBVs), candidate LBVs, B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. We estimate their apparent temperatures and luminosities for comparison with their respective massive star populations and evaluate the possible relationships of these different classes of evolved, massive stars, and their evolutionary state. Several of the LBV candidates lie near the LBV/S Dor instability strip that supports their classification. Most of the B[e] supergiants, however, are less luminous than the LBVs. Many are very dusty with the infrared flux contributing one-third or more to their total flux. They are also relatively isolated from other luminous OB stars. Overall, their spatial distribution suggests a more evolved state. Some may be post-RSGs (red supergiants) like the warm hypergiants, and there may be more than one path to becoming a B[e] star. There are sufficient differences in the spectra, luminosities, spatial distribution, and the presence or lack of dust between the LBVs and B[e] supergiants to conclude that one group does not evolve into the other.

  17. Imaging of total colonic Hirschsprung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; DiPietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a functional obstruction of the bowel caused by the absence of intrinsic enteric ganglion cells. The diagnosis of total colonic HD (TCHD) based on contrast enemas is difficult in newborns because radiological findings vary. To evaluate the radiographic and contrast enema findings in patients with pathologically proven TCHD. From 1966 to 2007, 17 records from a total of 31 patients with TCHD were retrospectively evaluated for diameter and shape of the colon, diameter of the small bowel, bowel wall contour, ileal reflux, abdominal calcifications, pneumoperitoneum, filling defects, transitional zones and rectosigmoid index. Three colonic patterns of TCHD were found: microcolon, question-mark-shape colon and normal caliber colon. Additional findings included spasmodic colon, ileal reflux, delayed evacuation and abdominal calcifications. Colonic transitional zones were found in eight patients with TCHD. The diagnosis of TCHD is difficult to establish by contrast enema studies. The length of the aganglionic small bowel and the age of the patient can influence the radiological findings in TCHD. The transitional zone and the rectosigmoid index can be false-positive in TCHD. The colon can appear normal. Consider TCHD if the contrast enema study is normal but the patient remains symptomatic and other causes of distal bowel obstruction have been excluded. (orig.)

  18. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  19. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  20. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barros, Mónica; Coant, Nicolas; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Wada, Masayuki; Snider, Ashley J; Truman, Jean-Philip; Wu, Bill X; Furuya, Hideki; Clarke, Christopher J; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Ghaleb, Amr; Yang, Vincent W; Obeid, Lina M; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2016-12-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid metabolism, especially ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate, have been linked to colon cancer, suggesting that enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism may emerge as novel regulators and targets in colon cancer. Neutral ceramidase (nCDase), a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that hydrolyzes ceramide into sphingosine, is highly expressed in the intestine; however, its role in colon cancer has not been defined. Here we show that molecular and pharmacological inhibition of nCDase in colon cancer cells increases ceramide, and this is accompanied by decreased cell survival and increased apoptosis and autophagy, with minimal effects on noncancerous cells. Inhibition of nCDase resulted in loss of β-catenin and inhibition of ERK, components of pathways relevant for colon cancer development. Furthermore, inhibition of nCDase in a xenograft model delayed tumor growth and increased ceramide while decreasing proliferation. It is noteworthy that mice lacking nCDase treated with azoxymethane were protected from tumor formation. Taken together, these studies show that nCDase is pivotal for regulating initiation and development of colon cancer, and these data suggest that this enzyme is a suitable and novel target for colon cancer therapy.-García-Barros, M., Coant, N., Kawamori, T., Wada, M., Snider, A. J., Truman, J.-P., Wu, B. X., Furuya, H., Clarke, C. J., Bialkowska, A. B., Ghaleb, A., Yang, V. W., Obeid, L. M., Hannun, Y. A. Role of neutral ceramidase in colon cancer. © FASEB.

  1. Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital segmental dilatation of the colon is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in neonates. We report a case of congenital segmental dilatation of the colon and highlight the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of this entity. Proper surgical treatment was initiated on the basis of preoperative radiological ...

  2. Incidence of retrorenal colon during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balasar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate retrorenal colon incidence in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL interventions made in our clinic. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 804 PNL patients, accumulated over a 7 year period (2006-2012, was surveyed. The patient files were reviewed retrospectively, and only those who had abdominal computed tomography (CT images before PNL intervention were included in the study. In the CT images, the position of both the ascending and descending colon in relation to the right and left kidneys were evaluated. Results According to our hospital reports, 394 patients with CT images were included in the present study 27 patients (6.9% had retrorenal colon, of which 18 (4.6% were on the left side, 4 (1.0% on the right side and 5 (1.3% had bilateral retrorenal colons. Colonic perforation complication was seen only in two patients and the colonic perforation rate was 0.3%. These two cases had no CT images. Conclusions PNL, in the process of becoming the standard treatment modality, is a safe and reliable technique for renal stone treatment. Colonic injury should be taken into consideration during PNL interventions of the lower pole of the kidney (especially on the left side due to the location of retrorenal colon.

  3. The colon shuffle : A modified urinary diversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R. P.; Mertens, L. S.; Meinhardt, W.; Verwaal, V. J.; Dik, P.; Horenblas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the results of a urinary diversion in patients who already have a colostomy or simultaneously require a (rectum) colon resection. The diversion is created from the distal part of the transected colon with a simultaneously created new colostomy contra-laterally (if necessary). This

  4. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.S.; Satchidanand, S.; Wesp, E.H.; State Univ. of New York, Buffalo

    1981-01-01

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding. (orig.)

  5. Colonic ischemic necrosis following therapeutic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, S S; Satchidanand, S; Wesp, E H

    1981-07-15

    Transcatheter embolization of the middle colic artery for diverticular bleeding was followed by ischemic necrosis in the transverse colon at the site of previous anastomosis and stricture formation. This is a potential complication of intra-arterial embolization for colonic bleeding.

  6. A prognostic analysis of 895 cases of stage III colon cancer in different colon subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Sai; Deng, Ganlu; Wu, Xiaoling; He, Jingxuan; Pei, Haiping; Shen, Hong; Zeng, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Stage III colon cancer is currently treated as an entity with a unified therapeutic principle. The aim of the retrospective study is to explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of site-specific stage III colon cancers and the influences of tumor location on prognosis. Eight hundred ninety-five patients with stage III colon cancer treated with radical operation and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) were divided into seven groups according to colon segment (cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon). Expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was examined by immunohistochemistry. We assessed if differences exist in patient characteristics and clinic outcomes between the seven groups. There were significant differences in tumor differentiation (P Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P colon. Cox regression analyses identified that tumor location was an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Stage III colon cancer located proximally carried a poorer survival than that located distally. Different efficacies of FOLFOX adjuvant chemotherapy may be an important factor affecting survival of site-specific stage III colon cancers.

  7. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuo Hirata; Yuko Kawakami; Nagisa Kinjo; Susumu Arakald; Tetsu Arakaki; Akira Hokama; Fukunori Kinjo; Jim Fujita

    2008-01-01

    AIM: TO evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with ahistory of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex.RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7).CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without.

  8. Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Domajnko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9×8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.

  9. Association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Yuko; Kinjo, Nagisa; Arakaki, Susumu; Arakaki, Tetsu; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 672 consecutive patients who underwent total colonoscopy between August 2006 and April 2007 at Nishinjo Hospital, Okinawa, Japan. Patients with a history of any of the following were excluded from the study: previous polypectomy, colonic resection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The association between colonic polyps and diverticular disease was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Prevalence of colonic polyps in all patients with diverticular disease was significantly higher than that in those without diverticular disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.7). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that patients with diverticular disease have a higher risk of colonic polyps compared to those without. PMID:18416471

  10. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  11. High-Risk Premenopausal Luminal A Breast Cancer Patients Derive no Benefit from Adjuvant Cyclophosphamide-based Chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torsten O; Jensen, Maj-Brit; Burugu, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Luminal A breast cancers have better prognosis than other molecular subtypes. Luminal A cancers may also be insensitive to adjuvant chemotherapy, although there is little high-level evidence to confirm this concept. The primary hypothesis in this formal prospective-retrospective analysis...... was to assess interaction between subtype (Luminal A vs. other) and treatment (chemotherapy vs. not) for the primary endpoint (10-year invasive disease-free survival) of a breast cancer trial randomizing women to adjuvant chemotherapy, analyzed in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using the Wald...... interval (CI), 0.53-2.14; P = 0.86], whereas patients with non-luminal A subtypes did (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38-0.66; P breast cancers did not benefit from adjuvant...

  12. The Research Search For The Least Beneficial Overcast Sky And Progress In Defining Its Luminance Gradation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittler R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently illuminance levels under ISO/CIE homogeneous standard sky types were characterised in their relative terms after ISO/CIE (2004, 2003 standardised as normalised by the luminance in the zenith. Sky luminance and horizontal illuminance based on the gradation and scattering indicatrix functions, including the extreme overcast cases frequently encountered in nature, were recently determined in absolute physical units of luminance in kilocandles per meter square and of illuminance in kilolux. The historical search to find energy and visibility critical sky luminance distributions shows a progression of steps in studying the worst or critical overcast situations. That progression has enabled the determination and evaluation of interior illuminance for comparison of the merits of dual daylighting and artificial lighting under established criteria for comfortable visibility.

  13. Effects of luminal flow and nucleotides on [Ca(2+)](i) in rabbit cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Craig B; Leite, Maurilo; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Satlin, Lisa M

    2002-09-01

    Nucleotide binding to purinergic P2 receptors contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological functions in renal epithelial cells. Whereas P2 receptors have been functionally identified at the basolateral membrane of the cortical collecting duct (CCD), a final regulatory site of urinary Na(+), K(+), and acid-base excretion, controversy exists as to whether apical purinoceptors exist in this segment. Nor has the distribution of receptor subtypes present on the unique cell populations that constitute Ca(2+) the CCD been established. To examine this, we measured nucleotide-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in fura 2-loaded rabbit CCDs microperfused in vitro. Resting [Ca(2+)](i) did not differ between principal and intercalated cells, averaging approximately 120 nM. An acute increase in tubular fluid flow rate, associated with a 20% increase in tubular diameter, led to increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in both cell types. Luminal perfusion of 100 microM UTP or ATP-gamma-S, in the absence of change in flow rate, caused a rapid and transient approximately fourfold increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in both cell types (P < 0.05). Luminal suramin, a nonspecific P2 receptor antagonist, blocked the nucleotide- but not flow-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients. Luminal perfusion with a P2X (alpha,beta-methylene-ATP), P2X(7) (benzoyl-benzoyl-ATP), P2Y(1) (2-methylthio-ATP), or P2Y(4)/P2Y(6) (UDP) receptor agonist had no effect on [Ca(2+)](i). The nucleotide-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients were inhibited by the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor blocker 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, thapsigargin, which depletes internal Ca(2+) stores, luminal perfusion with a Ca(2+)-free perfusate, or the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine. These results suggest that luminal nucleotides activate apical P2Y(2) receptors in the CCD via pathways that require both internal Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular Ca(2+) entry. The flow-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i) is

  14. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  15. Magnetomotive colon elastography: preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, A. Colello; Grillo, F.W.; Sampaio, D.R.T.; Carneiro, A.A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide and early diagnosis reduces morbidity. The standard preventive exams methods are uncomfortable for the patient, invasive, and /or are ionizing. Here, we evaluate the potential of magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) as a new, minimally invasive CRC screening technique. We developed a hybrid transducer (comprised of an ultrasound probe and a magnetic coil system) to construct relative elastography maps in a paraffin phantom with isoechoic inclusions. The electromagnetic component of our system manipulated ferromagnetic fluid located inside of our synthetic colon, and the captured ultrasound images were used to produce relative elastography maps. The MMUS images reveal by otherwise invisible structures based on differences in stiffness. Ultrasound elastography (relative) images by MMUs technique complements usual preventive CRC exams, is minimally invasive, has relative low cost when compared with others image methods. Also is fast diagnose and more comfortable for patient which prevents withdrawal of the screening. (author)

  16. Colon and rectal cancer survival by tumor location and microsatellite instability: the Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Lindor, Noralane M; Jenkins, Mark A; Baron, John A; Win, Aung Ko; Gallinger, Steven; Gryfe, Robert; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-08-01

    Cancers in the proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum are frequently studied together; however, there are biological differences in cancers across these sites, particularly in the prevalence of microsatellite instability. We assessed the differences in survival by colon or rectal cancer site, considering the contribution of microsatellite instability to such differences. This is a population-based prospective cohort study for cancer survival. This study was conducted within the Colon Cancer Family Registry, an international consortium. Participants were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Information on tumor site, microsatellite instability, and survival after diagnosis was available for 3284 men and women diagnosed with incident invasive colon or rectal cancer between 1997 and 2002, with ages at diagnosis ranging from 18 to 74. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios for the association between all-cause mortality and tumor location, overall and by microsatellite instability status. Distal colon (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71) and rectal cancers (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81) were associated with lower mortality than proximal colon cancer overall. Compared specifically with patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting no/low microsatellite instability, patients with distal colon and rectal cancers experienced lower mortality, regardless of microsatellite instability status; patients with proximal colon cancer exhibiting high microsatellite instability had the lowest mortality. Study limitations include the absence of stage at diagnosis and cause-of-death information for all but a subset of study participants. Some patient groups defined jointly by tumor site and microsatellite instability status are subject to small numbers. Proximal colon cancer survival differs from survival for distal colon and rectal cancer in a manner apparently dependent on microsatellite instability status. These

  17. Contribution of a luminance-dependent S-cone mechanism to non-assimilative color spreading in the watercolor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Eiji; Kuroki, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    In the watercolor configuration composed of wavy double contours, both assimilative and non-assimilative color spreading have been demonstrated depending on the luminance conditions of the inner and outer contours (IC and OC, respectively). This study investigated how the induced color in the watercolor configuration was modulated by combinations of the IC and the OC color, particularly addressing non-assimilative color spreading. In two experiments, the IC color was fixed to a certain color and combined with various colors selected from a hue circle centered at the background white color. Color spreading was quantified with a chromatic cancelation technique. Results showed that both the magnitude and the apparent hue of the color spreading were largely changed with the luminance condition. When the IC contrast (Weber contrast of the IC to the background luminance) was smaller in size than the OC contrast (higher IC luminance condition), the color spreading was assimilative. When the luminance condition was reversed and the IC contrast was greater than the OC contrast (lower IC luminance condition), the color spreading was non-assimilative and yellowish. When the color spreading was analyzed in terms of cone-opponent excitations, the results were consistent with the interpretation that the color spreading is explainable by a combination of chromatic diffusion from the IC and chromatically opponent induction from the OC. The color spreading in the higher IC luminance condition mainly reflected the chromatic diffusion by both (L-M) and S cone-opponent mechanisms. The non-assimilative color spreading in the lower IC luminance condition mostly reflected S-cone mediated opponent induction and the contribution of -S inducing mechanisms was differentially large. These findings provided several constraints on possible visual mechanisms underlying the watercolor effect.

  18. Contribution of a luminance-dependent S-cone mechanism to non-assimilative color spreading in the watercolor configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji eKimura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the watercolor configuration composed of wavy double contours, both assimilative and non-assimilative color spreading have been demonstrated depending on the luminance conditions of the inner and outer contours (IC and OC, respectively. This study investigated how the induced color in the watercolor configuration was modulated by combinations of the IC and the OC color, particularly addressing non-assimilative color spreading. In two experiments, the IC color was fixed to a certain color and combined with various colors selected from a hue circle centered at the background white color. Color spreading was quantified with a chromatic cancellation technique. Results showed that both the magnitude and the apparent hue of the color spreading were largely changed with the luminance condition. When the IC contrast (Weber contrast of the IC to the background luminance was smaller in size than the OC contrast (higher IC luminance condition, the color spreading was assimilative. When the luminance condition was reversed and the IC contrast was greater than the OC contrast (lower IC luminance condition, the color spreading was non-assimilative and yellowish. When the color spreading was analyzed in terms of cone-opponent excitations, the results were consistent with the interpretation that the color spreading is explainable by a combination of chromatic diffusion from the IC and chromatically opponent induction from the OC. The color spreading in the higher IC luminance condition mainly reflected the chromatic diffusion by both (L–M and S cone-opponent mechanisms. The non-assimilative color spreading in the lower IC luminance condition mostly reflected S-cone mediated opponent induction and the contribution of -S inducing mechanisms was differentially large. These findings provided several constraints on possible visual mechanisms underlying the watercolor effect.

  19. A longitudinal study of perceptual grouping by proximity, luminance and shape in infants at two, four and six months

    OpenAIRE

    Farran, E. K.; Brown, J. H.; Cole, V. L.; Houston-Price, C.; Karmiloff-Smith, A.

    2008-01-01

    Grouping by luminance and shape similarity has previously been demonstrated in neonates and at 4 months, respectively. By contrast, grouping by proximity has hitherto not been investigated in infancy. This is also the first study to chart the developmental emergence of perceptual grouping longitudinally. Sixty-one infants were presented with a matrix of local stimuli grouped horizontally or vertically by luminance, shape or proximity at 2, 4, and 6 months. Infants were exposed to each set of ...

  20. Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Yong; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1982-01-01

    Necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon, known also as obstructive colitis, is a disorder characterized by anulceration and inflammation of the colon proximal to an obstructive lesion, especially carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, and in rare instance, leads to acute gangrene of the colon. The authors analyzed radiologic findings in four cases of necrotizing colitis associated with carcinoma of the colon. Barium enema disclosed mucosal edema, nodular filling defects, irregularity of the colonic contour and typical thumbprinting appearance of involved colon proximal to an obstructing carcinoma of the colon. The mechanism of necrotizing colitis was briefly reviewed

  1. Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter for short-chain fatty acids, is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon that protects against colitis and colon cancer under low-fibre dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ashish; Sivaprakasam, Sathish; Bhutia, Yangzom D; Boettger, Thomas; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2015-07-15

    Mammalian colon harbours trillions of bacteria under physiological conditions; this symbiosis is made possible because of a tolerized response from the mucosal immune system. The mechanisms underlying this tolerogenic phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we show that Slc5a8 (solute carrier gene family 5a, member 8), a Na(+)-coupled high-affinity transporter in colon for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate, plays a critical role in this process. Among various immune cells in colon, dendritic cells (DCs) are unique not only in their accessibility to luminal contents but also in their ability to induce tolerogenic phenotype in T-cells. We found that DCs exposed to butyrate express the immunosuppressive enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2), promote conversion of naive T-cells into immunosuppressive forkhead box P3(+) (FoxP3(+)) Tregs (regulatory T-cells) and suppress conversion of naive T-cells into pro-inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells. Slc5a8-null DCs do not induce IDO1 and Aldh1A2 and do not generate Tregs or suppress IFN-γ-producing T-cells in response to butyrate. We also provide in vivo evidence for an obligatory role for Slc5a8 in suppression of IFN-γ-producing T-cells. Furthermore, Slc5a8 protects against colitis and colon cancer under conditions of low-fibre intake but not when dietary fibre intake is optimal. This agrees with the high-affinity nature of the transporter to mediate butyrate entry into cells. We conclude that Slc5a8 is an obligatory link between dietary fibre and mucosal immune system via the bacterial metabolite butyrate and that this transporter is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon linked to dietary fibre content. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  2. Visual sensitivity for luminance and chromatic stimuli during the execution of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doris I; Schütz, Alexander C; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2017-07-01

    Visual sensitivity is dynamically modulated by eye movements. During saccadic eye movements, sensitivity is reduced selectively for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli and largely unaffected for high-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli (Nature 371 (1994), 511-513). During smooth pursuit eye movements, sensitivity for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is moderately reduced while sensitivity for chromatic and high-spatial frequency luminance stimuli is even increased (Nature Neuroscience, 11 (2008), 1211-1216). Since these effects are at least partly of different polarity, we investigated the combined effects of saccades and smooth pursuit on visual sensitivity. For the time course of chromatic sensitivity, we found that detection rates increased slightly around pursuit onset. During saccades to static and moving targets, detection rates dropped briefly before the saccade and reached a minimum at saccade onset. This reduction of chromatic sensitivity was present whenever a saccade was executed and it was not modified by subsequent pursuit. We also measured contrast sensitivity for flashed high- and low-spatial frequency luminance and chromatic stimuli during saccades and pursuit. During saccades, the reduction of contrast sensitivity was strongest for low-spatial frequency luminance stimuli (about 90%). However, a significant reduction was also present for chromatic stimuli (about 58%). Chromatic sensitivity was increased during smooth pursuit (about 12%). These results suggest that the modulation of visual sensitivity during saccades and smooth pursuit is more complex than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Composition of Colonic Commensal Bacteria According to Anatomical Localization in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a multistage disease resulting from complex factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, chronic inflammation, diet, and lifestyle. Recent accumulating evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is a new and important player in the development of CRC. Imbalance of the gut microbiota, especially dysregulated gut bacteria, contributes to colon cancer through mechanisms of inflammation, host defense modulations, oxidative stress, and alterations in bacterial-derived metabolism. Gut commensal bacteria are anatomically defined as four populations: luminal commensal bacteria, mucus-resident bacteria, epithelium-resident bacteria, and lymphoid tissue-resident commensal bacteria. The bacterial flora that are harbored in the gastrointestinal (GI tract vary both longitudinally and cross-sectionally by different anatomical localization. It is notable that the translocation of colonic commensal bacteria is closely related to CRC progression. CRC-associated bacteria can serve as a non-invasive and accurate biomarker for CRC diagnosis. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the oncogenic roles of gut bacteria with different anatomical localization in CRC progression.

  4. Squid-derived chitin oligosaccharides are a chemotactic signal during colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Mark J; Schaefer, Amy L; Brennan, Caitlin A; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Deloney-Marino, Cindy R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2012-07-01

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae ("vibrios"), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone.

  5. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thomas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8 and p27(Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  7. Emergency management of acute colonic cancer obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainant, A

    2012-02-01

    Emergency management of obstructing colonic cancer depends on both tumor location and stage, general condition of the patient and surgeon's experience. Right sided or transverse colon obstructing cancers are usually treated by right hemicolectomy-extended if necessary to the transverse colon-with primary anastomosis. For left-sided obstructing cancer, in patients with low surgical risk, primary resection and anastomosis associated with on-table irrigation or manual decompression can be performed. It prevents the confection of a loop colostomy but presents the risk of anastomotic leakage. Subtotal or total colectomy allows the surgeon to encompass distended and fecal-loaded colon, and to perform one-stage resection and anastomosis. Its disadvantage is an increased daily frequency of stools. It must be performed only in cases of diastatic colon perforation or synchronous right colonic cancer. In patients with high surgical risk, Hartmann procedure must be preferred. It allows the treatment of both obstruction and cancer, and prevents anastomotic leakage but needs a second operation to reverse the colostomy. Colonic stenting is clinically successful in up to 90% in specialized groups. It is used as palliation in patients with disseminated disease or bridge to surgery in the others. If stent insertion is not possible, loop colostomy is still indicated in patients at high surgical risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Massive Submucosal Ganglia in Colonic Inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naemi, Kaveh; Stamos, Michael J; Wu, Mark Li-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    - Colonic inertia is a debilitating form of primary chronic constipation with unknown etiology and diagnostic criteria, often requiring pancolectomy. We have occasionally observed massively enlarged submucosal ganglia containing at least 20 perikarya, in addition to previously described giant ganglia with greater than 8 perikarya, in cases of colonic inertia. These massively enlarged ganglia have yet to be formally recognized. - To determine whether such "massive submucosal ganglia," defined as ganglia harboring at least 20 perikarya, characterize colonic inertia. - We retrospectively reviewed specimens from colectomies of patients with colonic inertia and compared the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in this setting to the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in a set of control specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - Seven of 8 specimens affected by colonic inertia harbored 1 to 4 massive ganglia, for a total of 11 massive ganglia. One specimen lacked massive ganglia but had limited sampling and nearly massive ganglia. Massive ganglia occupied both superficial and deep submucosal plexus. The patient with 4 massive ganglia also had 1 mitotically active giant ganglion. Only 1 massive ganglion occupied the entire set of 10 specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - We performed the first, albeit distinctly small, study of massive submucosal ganglia and showed that massive ganglia may be linked to colonic inertia. Further, larger studies are necessary to determine whether massive ganglia are pathogenetic or secondary phenomena, and whether massive ganglia or mitotically active ganglia distinguish colonic inertia from other types of chronic constipation.

  9. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-10-01

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Rheinanthrone, a metabolite of sennoside A, triggers macrophage activation to decrease aquaporin-3 expression in the colon, causing the laxative effect of rhubarb extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Risako; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Nagoya, Chika; Takayama, Tomoko; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Ishii, Makoto; Ueda, Harumi; Ochiai, Wataru; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-27

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is expressed in mucosal epithelial cells in the colon and is important for regulating fecal water content. We examined the role of AQP3 in the laxative effect of rhubarb extract. After orally administering rhubarb extract or its major component (sennoside A) to rats, the fecal water content, AQP3 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the colon were examined. The mechanism by which sennoside A decreases the expression of AQP3 was examined using the human colon cancer HT-29 cells and macrophage-derived Raw264.7 cells. During diarrhea by rhubarb extract administration, the PGE2 levels in the colon increased while the AQP3 expression significantly decreased. Similar changes were also observed when sennoside A was administered. When sennoside A or its metabolites, rheinanthrone and rhein were added to Raw264.7 cells, a significant increase in the PGE2 concentration was observed only in cells treated with rheinanthrone. Fifteen minutes after adding PGE2 to the HT-29 cells, the AQP3 expression decreased to approximately 40% of the control. When pretreated with indomethacin, sennoside A neither decreased the AQP3 expression nor induced diarrhea. Sennoside A may decrease AQP3 expression in the colon to inhibit water transport from the luminal to the vascular side, leading to a laxative effect. The decreases in the levels of AQP3 are caused by rheinanthrone, which is a metabolite of sennoside A, this metabolite activates the macrophages in the colon and increases the secretion of PGE2; PGE2 acts as a paracrine factor and decreases AQP3 expression in colon mucosal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Mery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71 and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84, respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29 for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10 for distal colon cancer (DCC. An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  12. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  13. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  14. CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hwa; Ham, Su Yeon; Whang, Kang Ik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the CT findings of acute right colonic diverticulitis, and to determine the difference between these and published reports describing left colonic, especially sigmoid, diverticulitis. Inflamed diverticula were visible in all cases, and were solitary. Nine cases occurred in the ascending colon and four in the cecum; in particular, eleven occurred around the ileocecal valve. In three cases, the inflamed diverticulum was less than 1 cm in diameter; in five cases, 1-2 cm; in three, 2-3 cm, and in two, 3-4 cm. These were able to be classified into two major forms. In three cases it was nodular with hyperattenuation and some inhomogeneity, and ten shows the target form with thick walls and a central cavity. In five of these target lesions, the wall pattern was partially or completely inhomogeneous, or multilayered. The material filling the central cavity were gas in five cases, fecalith in two, and fluid in three. Abnormal pericoloic fat infiltrations were seen in twelve cases (92%), segmental colonic wall thickening in eleven (85%), other not-inflamed diverticula in five (38%), mesenteric lymph node enlargement in three (23%), free pericecal fluid collection in three (23%), and perirenal fascial thickening in two (15%). The complications such as remote abscess cavity, colonic obstruction, fistula or perforation were not found. On barium colon study, diverticulitis was in all cases confirmed by the presence of barium in the deformed diversiculum. Among CT findings for acute right colonic diverticulitis, the most important and pathognomonic is inflamed diverticula; the forms of these vary, and include gangrenous diverticulitis. The CT findings of early right colonic diverticulitis in Koreans might not, however, reveal the complications which sigmoid diverticulitis frequently involves; in patients with right lower quadrant pain imaging studies are performed promptly, and for the mesentery, the anatomical base between right and

  15. Effect of complex polyphenols on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderni, G; Remy, S; Cheynier, V; Morozzi, G; Dolara, P

    1999-06-01

    Complex polyphenols and tannins from wine (WCPT) are being considered increasingly as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, since epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming a high amount of polyphenols in the diet may have a lower incidence of some types of cancer. We studied the effect of WCPT on a series of parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in rats. WCPT were administered to F344 rats at a dose of 14 or 57 mg/kg/d, mixed with the diet. The higher dose is about ten times the exposure to polyphenols of a moderate drinker of red wine. In rats treated with WCPT, we measured fecal bile acids and long chain fatty acids, colon mucosa cell proliferation, apoptosis and, after administration of colon carcinogens, the number and size of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and nuclear aberrations. Colon mucosa proliferation was not varied by chronic administration (90 d) of WCPT (14 or 57 mg/kg/d). The highest dose of WCPT decreased the number of cells in the colon crypts, but did not increase apoptosis. WCPT (57 mg/kg) administered before or after the administration of azoxymethane (AOM) did not vary the number or multiplicity of ACF in the colon. The number of nuclear aberrations (NA) in colon mucosa was studied after administration of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo (4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), colon-specific carcinogens which require metabolic activation. The effect of DMH and IQ was not varied by pre-feeding WCPT (57 mg/kg) for 10 d. Similarly, the levels of total, secondary bile acids and long chain fatty acids did not varied significantly in animals fed WCPT for 90 d. WCPT administration does not influence parameters related to colon carcinogenesis in the rat.

  16. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders; Andersen, Fahimeh; Fischer, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in several tumors, but it has not been elucidated in colon cancer. The present phase II trial addressed the issue in high-risk patients selected by computed tomography (CT) scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with resectable colon cancer...... 32% (p = 0.005) translating into a three-year DFS of 94% versus 63% (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer is feasible and the results suggest that a major part of the patients can be spared adjuvant chemotherapy. Validation in a randomized trial is warranted....

  18. Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy for adenocarcinomaof the body of the pancreas in a patient with portal annular pancreas, aberrant hepatic artery, and absence of the celiac trunk: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao; Wu, Pengfei; Chen, Jianmin; Lu, Zipeng; Chen, Lei; Wei, Jishu; Guo, Feng; Cai, Baobao; Yin, Jie; Xu, Dong; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Portal annular pancreas is a rare anatomic variation, where the uncinated process of the pancreas connects with the dorsal pancreas and the pancreas tissue encases the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV) or splenic vein (SV). Malignancies are quite uncommon in the patients, who have an annular pancreas especially portal annular pancreas. Ectopic common hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk (CT) are the other infrequent abnormalities. A 74-year-old man suffered from upper abdominal and back pain. Contrast enhanced computed tomography indicated a low-density mass in the body of the pancreas. Pathological report showed adenocarcinoma of the body of pancreas after radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS). In the operation, we found the superior vein and portal vein was surrounded by the pancreatic tissue. The left gastric artery and splenic artery originated respectively from abdominal aorta, and celiac trunk was not viewed. In addition, the common hepatic artery was a branch from the superior mesenteric artery. In general, this is a novel clinical case of pancreatic carcinoma happening in the portal annular pancreas which was accompanied with aberrant hepatic artery and absence of the celiac trunk at the same time. Confronted with the pancreatic neoplasms, the possibility of coexistent annular pancreas and arterial variations should be considered.

  19. Fabrication of nerve guidance conduit with luminal filler as scaffold for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranilla, Charito T.; Wach, Rodoslaw; Ulanski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a serious health concern for society, affecting trauma patients, many of whom acquire life-long disability. The gold standard of treatment for peripheral nerve injury is the use of nerve grafts, wherein nerve autograft or allograft is used to bridge the gap in the damaged nerve. Nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) are an attractive alternative to nerve autografts for aiding in the regeneration of peripheral nerve tissue. NGCs are small cylinders or tubes composed of either natural or synthetic biomaterials that are used to axon regeneration. The ends of the damaged nerve are inserted into either end of the cylinder and the NGC acts both as a connecting bridge for the severed nerve ends as well as a protective shelter for the regenerating nerve. This study aims at fabricating nerve guidance conduits with luminal structure based on synthetic biodegradable and biocompatible polymers such as poly (trimethylene carbonate ) (PTMC), poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (caprolactone) (PCL). Initial base materials for fabrication were PLA acid tubes compared to PCL tubes when prepared by spray and dip-coating methods. The morphology of the tubes where examined by SEM and results showed better porosity of PLA acid tubes compared to PCL tubes when prepared by spraying technique. Poly(lactic acid) was then blended with poly(trimethylene carbonate) at a ratio of 1:4 (5% total polymer content) for further fabrication. Electron beam radiation (25 and 50 kGy) was employed for sterilization and the changes in properties induced by irradiation in comprising polymers were evaluated. The wettability, mechanical thermal properties were not significantly changed by irradiation.In a separate experiment, synthesis of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel crosslinked by electron beam radiation was studied to create a luminal filler for PTMC-PLA tubes. Based on proper viscosity of solution before crosslinking, sufficient gel fraction and swelling, 10% w/v concentration of

  20. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.