WorldWideScience

Sample records for antacids

  1. Antacid activity of Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Charlotte Bremer; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). RESULTS: Both CaCO3 and L. aestuans had a significant better ability than water to neutralise an artificial stomach acid. 666mg plant material together with CaCO3 compared to CaCO3 alone showed approximately the same neutralisation time. When mixing 1332mg plant material......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew (Urticaceae) was historically ingested together with chalk by pregnant women in Ghana when suffering from heartburn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antacid activity of the aerial parts of L. aestuans. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... with CaCO3 the neutralisation time was significantly higher than for CaCO3 alone and exhibited an antacid profile that was able to maintain the neutralising activity one pH-unit higher for an extended period of time. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that L. aestuans showed an antacid activity when...

  2. Effects of antacids and food on absorption of famotidine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, J H; Chremos, A N; Kanovsky, S M; Schwartz, S.; Yeh, K C; Kann, J

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a high potency antacid and food on the bioavailability of famotidine was studied in 17 healthy volunteers in an open randomized three-way cross-over trial. After an overnight fast, famotidine was administered to each subject as follows: 40 mg famotidine orally alone; 40 mg orally with antacid; and 40 mg orally with a standard breakfast. Coadministration of the antacid caused a small but significant reduction in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of famotidine from 81.1 +/- ...

  3. 21 CFR 331.30 - Labeling of antacid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... doctor or pharmacist before use if you are 1 presently taking a prescription drug. Antacids may interact... out of the reach of children.” (g) (h) The word “doctor” may be substituted for the word...

  4. Use of antacids, alginates and proton pump inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders; Reimer, Christine; Bytzer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Both over-the-counter medicine, such as antacids or alginates, and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are used for treating acid-related disorders. We sought to describe what characterizes users of these different medicines, including long-term PPI users within the general population. METHOD......: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an internet panel representative of the Danish adult population in 2012. Data queried included antacid/alginate and PPI use, reason for therapy, co-medication, and presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Long-term PPI use was defined as using PPI ≥1.......6%; 6.2% were defined as long-term PPI users. Antacid/alginate users were younger, used less co-medication, had most often started on therapy because of reflux symptoms, and had less often ongoing symptoms. Risk of long-term PPI use appeared to be increased in male gender, by renewing PPI prescription...

  5. Lack of Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Linezolid and Antacid in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Grunder, Gabriela; Zysset-Aschmann, Yvonne; Vollenweider, Florence; Maier, Thomas; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Drewe, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    Several antibiotics show significant pharmacokinetic interactions when they are given orally concomitantly with antacids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of antacid (containing magnesium) on the pharmacokinetics of linezolid. A single dose of 600 mg linezolid was given orally alone and 10 min after administration of the antacid Maalox 70mVal, which contains 600 mg magnesium hydroxide and 900 mg aluminum hydroxide, to nine healthy males and nine healthy females in a cro...

  6. Study of as-synthesized and calcined hydrocalumites as possible antacid agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carlos F Linares; Freddy Ocanto; Pablo Bretto; Maricela Monsalve

    2014-06-01

    A hydrocalumite-type solid was synthesized by the homogeneous co-precipitation method by using Ca and Al nitrate solutions in a basic medium (NaOH). This solid was calcined at 700 and 900 °C, respectively. Then, solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT–IR spectroscopy and BET surface area measurements. Finally, these solids were tested as antacids by using a synthetic gastric juice. Results showed that calcined samples were able to neutralize the synthetic gastric juice in more extension as an as-synthesized hydrocalumite; however, the last solid showed better conditions as a potential antacid.

  7. Effect of an antacid containing magnesium and aluminum on absorption, metabolism, and mechanism of renal elimination of pefloxacin in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehde, U; Sörgel, F.; Stephan, U.; W. SCHUNACK

    1994-01-01

    The effects of an antacid containing magnesium and aluminum hydroxide on the pharmacokinetics of pefloxacin in 10 healthy volunteers were investigated. In a randomized crossover design, each subject received an oral dose of 400 mg of pefloxacin either with or without multiple doses of the antacid. The concentrations of pefloxacin and its metabolites in plasma and urine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography assays. We found that coadministration of magnesium and aluminum hy...

  8. Non-chewable antacid formulations: Effect of different disintegrating agents on their acid Neutralization properties

    OpenAIRE

    Gadad A; Dandagi P; Mastiholimath V; Patil M; Rasal V; Dasankoppa F

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present work is to develop non-chewable antacid tablets using different disintegrating agents viz., microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate (Primogel ®), and cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cros-car-mellose sodium ®). These agents were used alone, and in combinations, both 50% intra-granularly, and 50% extra-granularly. To cover all these variables in the formulations, seven different formulations were designed. Use of different d...

  9. Risk factors for healing of duodenal ulcer under antacid treatment: do ulcer patients need individual treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Massarrat, S; Müller, H. G.; Schmitz-Moormann, P

    1988-01-01

    In order to identify the risk factors affecting the healing of duodenal ulcer, a clinical trial with effective dose of antacid was carried out in 53 patients. Duration of ulcer history, number of relapses, duration of the last and present relapse, number, duration and severity of pain attacks in the present ulcer relapse, pain radiation to back, vomiting, appetite, smoking habit, intake of analgesics and previous haemorrhage were registered. Number of ulcers, ulcer depth, bublar narrowing, er...

  10. Antacid effects of Chinese herbal prescriptions assessed by a modified artificial stomach model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Hsiu; Wu; I-Chin; Chen; Lih-Chi; Chen

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To assess the antacid effects of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions,Si-Jun-Zi-Tang(SJZT) and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San(SLBZS).METHODS:Decoctions of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions,SJZT and SLBZS,were prepared according to Chinese original documents.The pH of the prescription decoctions and their neutralizing effects on artif icial gastric acids were determined and compared with water and the active controls,sodium bicarbonate and colloidal aluminum phosphate.A modified model of Vatier's artificia...

  11. Taking antacids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart disease. You are on a low-sodium diet. You are already taking calcium. You are taking other medicines every day. You have had kidney stones. Alternate Names Heartburn - self-care References Ferrandino MN, ...

  12. Apoptosis Induced in The Brain and Liver of Fetuses And Placenta of Irradiated Pregnant Rats Treated With Antacid Containing Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in antacid medicine which frequently used by pregnant women. It is of great importance to increase the knowledge about its harmful effects on the fetuses. The present study clarified that administration of antacid containing Al and/or exposure to gamma radiation induced maternal and fetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered antacid containing Al on the gestational days 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th and 17th at a dose of 4.5 mg/g and exposed to whole body fractionated gamma radiation (2 Gy) at a dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on gestational days 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th of pregnancy. Morphological, biochemical and molecular changes were studied. The investigation was carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20th day of gestation). Antacid containing Al and/or radiation induced growth retardation, intrauterine death, malformations and embryonic resorption. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as glutathione content in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses and placenta of pregnant rats were used as sensitive parameters to evaluate tissues damage. Antacid containing Al and/or radiation treatment resulted in decreased total protein content in the maternal placenta tissue. Moreover, the elevation in the lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde; MDA) was accompanied with decline in the glutathione content (GSH) in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses. The activity of a key enzyme of apoptosis namely the caspase-3 was analyzed, which its activation represent a point of no return in apoptosis induction. Apoptosis was confirmed by another important hallmark of programmed cell death such as the DNA fragmentation. Treatment with antacid containing Al and/or gamma irradiation significantly increased caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in maternal placental tissue and fetal brain and liver tissues as compared to control animals. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that the deleterious

  13. Evaluation of Antacid Activity of Microemulsion Formulation of Blend of Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Mazumder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are having wide range of biological activity is used to achieve therapeutic effects. These are volatile substances sensitive to oxygen, light, moisture and heat. In the present study microemulsion formulation was prepared using a blend of essential oil contains cardamom, coriander, fennel, caraway, ajowan and peppermint oil, water and non ionic surfactant tween 20 and cosurfactant as ethanol. Each essential oil was extracted from dried seed by steam distillation and characterized by Headspace Gas chromatography use of a marker compound which was linalool for coriander oil, cineol for cardamom oil, anethol for fennel oil, carvone for caraway oil, thymol for ajowan oil and menthol for peppermint oil. The marker compound was characterized using mass spectroscopy. Microemulsion of oil showed higher stability with droplet size in the range of 110-410nm. The product then screened for in vitro antacid properties which showed significant positive response.

  14. Very-low dose antacid in treatment of duodenal ulcer. Comparison with cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaterka, S; Cordeiro, F; Lyra, L G; Toletino, M M; Miszputen, S J; Jorge, J L; Silva, E P; Vieira, F E; Modena, J L; Massuda, H K

    1991-10-01

    Antacid (AA) in a very low dose (88 mmol/day) was compared to the standard 800-mg dose of cimetidine in healing duodenal ulcers. The influence of sex, age, symptom duration at entry, night pain, smoking, coffee consumption, and alcohol on ulcer healing was studied. The antacid was given in two different schedules: group I--20 ml 1 hr after breakfast and at bedtime; group II--10 ml 1 hr after breakfast and lunch and 20 ml at bedtime. Cimetidine (group III) was given in two divided doses: 400 mg 1 hr after breakfast and 400 mg at bedtime. Endoscopic control was performed after four weeks and, if necessary, after eight weeks of treatment. The healing rate after four weeks of treatment was, respectively, for groups I, II, and III, 45.5%, 55.8%, and 69.4% (group I = group II, and group III different from groups I and II). After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate was 61.5%, 80.8%, and 88.0% for groups I, II, and III, respectively (group II = group III, and group I different from groups II and III). Except for group I, smoking did not influence healing rate. Age, sex, symptoms at entry, night pain, and coffee consumption did not influence the treatment results. The authors concluded that the very low dose of magaldrate (88 mmol/day), when administered in three divided doses (10 ml after breakfast and lunch and 20 ml at bedtime) for eight weeks was as effective as 800 mg of cimetidine (400 mg twice a day) in healing duodenal ulcer. PMID:1914758

  15. Antacid Use and De Novo Brain Metastases in Patients with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Who Were Treated Using First-Line First-Generation Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mu Chen

    Full Text Available Antacid treatments decrease the serum concentrations of first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, although it is unknown whether antacids affect clinical outcomes. As cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of TKIs are much lower than serum concentrations, we hypothesized that this drug-drug interaction might affect the prognosis of patients with de novo brain metastases.This retrospective study evaluated 269 patients with EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC who had been diagnosed between December 2010 and December 2013, and had been treated using first-line first-generation EGFR-TKIs. Among these patients, we identified patients who concurrently used H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs as antacids. Patients who exhibited >30% overlap between the use of TKIs and antacids were considered antacid users.Fifty-seven patients (57/269, 21.2% were antacid users, and antacid use did not significantly affect progression-free survival (PFS; no antacids: 11.2 months, H2RAs: 9.4 months, PPIs: 6.7 months; p = 0.234. However, antacid use significantly reduced overall survival (OS; no antacids: 25.0 months, H2RAs: 15.5 months, PPIs: 11.3 months; p = 0.002. Antacid use did not affect PFS for various metastasis sites, although antacid users with de novo brain metastases exhibited significantly shorter OS, compared to non-users (11.8 vs. 16.3 months, respectively; p = 0.041. Antacid use did not significantly affect OS in patients with bone, liver, or pleural metastases.Antacid use reduced OS among patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC who were treated using first-line first-generation EGFR-TKIs, and especially among patients with de novo brain metastases.

  16. Non-chewable antacid formulations: Effect of different disintegrating agents on their acid Neutralization properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadad A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work is to develop non-chewable antacid tablets using different disintegrating agents viz., microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate (Primogel ®, and cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cros-car-mellose sodium ®. These agents were used alone, and in combinations, both 50% intra-granularly, and 50% extra-granularly. To cover all these variables in the formulations, seven different formulations were designed. Use of different disintegrating agents have shown varying effect on disintegration time and pattern. The disintegration time for formulation I and III did not comply with the official disintegration test in distilled water, as well as in simulated gastric fluid. All formulations, except formulation I and III, showed nearly equivalent to 30 min of Rosset-Rice time for neutralization. The graphical representation shows that when the base is available in full strength, it neutralizes the acid at a faster rate, and then the amount of base goes on reducing progressively, resulting in decrease in the rate of neutralization. Based on′t′ values, formulation II and VI show that the theoretical acid-consuming capacity, and the observed acid- consuming capacity values are almost equal.

  17. Assessment of in vitro Antacid Activity of Different Root Extracts of Tephrosia purpurea (L) Pers by Modified Artificial Stomach Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandhya S; Venkata Ramana K; Vinod K R; Chaitanya Rsnakk

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present investigation is to rule out the antacid activity of Tephrosiapurpurea root by in vitro method using a self fabricated and modified artificial stomach model. The reason for selecting in vitro method was to minimize the usage of experimental animals. Method:In this work we have used air bubbles from an aerator to mimic the peristaltic movements of stomach. Sodium bicarbonate and water were used as reference and control respectively. The parameters evaluated were neutralizing effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity and effect of temperature on pH. We evaluated the potency of the plant by extracting with three solvents in increasing order of polarity. Results: The neutralization effect, duration of neutralization effect and capacity were found to be higher for methanol root extract than sodium bicarbonate, whereas ethyl acetate and chloroform extract produced moderately good response but less when compared to standard drug but higher than water. Conclusion: Hence this plant can be an effective alternative for sodium bicarbonate which is reported to have side effects like edema n the feet, alteration in systemic pH, belching etc.

  18. Norfloxacin interaction with antacids and minerals.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N R; Kara, M; Hasinoff, B B; Haddara, W M; McKay, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The urinary excretion of norfloxacin was measured in eight healthy volunteers after its co-administration with a variety of over-the-counter preparations, each containing a different metal ion. Commonly used doses of ferrous sulphate, zinc sulphate, aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide reduced the 24 h urinary excretion of norfloxacin by 50 to 90%. Bismuth subsalicylate had no significant effect. In vitro experiments demonstrated the formation of complexes between norfloxacin and iron,...

  19. Effect of food and various antacids on the absorption of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Lam, S; Paull, P; Wade, D

    1987-09-01

    1 Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of tenoxicam 20 mg on six occasions separated by 3 weeks. 2 The six occasions were: fasted overnight; postprandial; fasting and 15 ml aluminium hydroxide gel; postprandial and 15 ml aluminium hydroxide gel; fasting and 15 ml aluminium and magnesium hydroxide gel; postprandial and 15 ml aluminium and magnesium hydroxide gel. 3 Twenty plasma samples were collected over 15 days following dosing with tenoxicam. 4 The following kinetic parameters for plasma tenoxicam were compared: peak concentrations, time taken to reach peak concentrations, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and half-life of elimination. 5 Food lengthened the time taken to reach peak tenoxicam concentrations (5.82 +/- 4.6 vs 1.84 +/- 1.0 h in the fasting state; P less than 0.02) and marginally reduced the peak concentrations achieved. AUC was not affected by any of the different regimens. 6 These effects of food on tenoxicam bioavailability are unlikely to be of clinical significance during chronic dosing with the drug. PMID:3499163

  20. Calcium citrate without aluminum antacids does not cause aluminum retention in patients with functioning kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Wabner, C. L.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Copley, J. B.; Pak, L.; Poindexter, J. R.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that calcium citrate might enhance aluminum absorption from food, posing a threat of aluminum toxicity even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore measured serum and urinary aluminum before and following calcium citrate therapy in patients with moderate renal failure and in normal subjects maintained on constant metabolic diets with known aluminum content (967-1034 mumol/day, or 26.1-27.9 mg/day, in patients and either 834 or 1579 mumol/day, or 22.5 and 42.6 mg/day, in normal subjects). Seven patients with moderate renal failure (endogenous creatinine clearance of 43 ml/min) took 50 mmol (2 g) calcium/day as effervescent calcium citrate with meals for 17 days. Eight normal women received 25 mmol (1 g) calcium/day as tricalcium dicitrate tablets with meals for 7 days. In patients with moderate renal failure, serum and urinary aluminum were normal before treatment at 489 +/- 293 SD nmol/l (13.2 +/- 7.9 micrograms/l) and 767 +/- 497 nmol/day (20.7 +/- 13.4 micrograms/day), respectively. They remained within normal limits and did not change significantly during calcium citrate treatment (400 +/- 148 nmol/l and 600 +/- 441 nmol/day, respectively). Similarly, no significant change in serum and urinary aluminum was detected in normal women during calcium citrate administration (271 +/- 59 vs 293 +/- 85 nmol/l and 515 +/- 138 vs 615 +/- 170 nmol/day, respectively). In addition, skeletal bone aluminum content did not change significantly in 14 osteoporotic patients (endogenous creatinine clearance of 68.5 ml/min) treated for 24 months with calcium citrate, 10 mmol calcium twice/day separately from meals (29.3 +/- 13.9 ng/mg ash bone to 27.9 +/0- 10.4, P = 0.727). In them, histomorphometric examination did not show any evidence of mineralization defect. Thus, calcium citrate given alone without aluminum-containing drugs does not pose a risk of aluminum toxicity in subjects with normal or functioning kidneys, when it is administered on an empty stomach at a recommended dose of 20 mmol calcium/day.

  1. Effect of food and various antacids on the absorption of tenoxicam.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R O; Lam, S.; Paull, P; Wade, D.

    1987-01-01

    1 Twelve healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of tenoxicam 20 mg on six occasions separated by 3 weeks. 2 The six occasions were: fasted overnight; postprandial; fasting and 15 ml aluminium hydroxide gel; postprandial and 15 ml aluminium hydroxide gel; fasting and 15 ml aluminium and magnesium hydroxide gel; postprandial and 15 ml aluminium and magnesium hydroxide gel. 3 Twenty plasma samples were collected over 15 days following dosing with tenoxicam. 4 The following kinetic parame...

  2. Evaluation of Antacid Activity of Microemulsion Formulation of Blend of Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Joydeep Mazumder; Devender Pathak; Rachna Kumria

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are having wide range of biological activity is used to achieve therapeutic effects. These are volatile substances sensitive to oxygen, light, moisture and heat. In the present study microemulsion formulation was prepared using a blend of essential oil contains cardamom, coriander, fennel, caraway, ajowan and peppermint oil, water and non ionic surfactant tween 20 and cosurfactant as ethanol. Each essential oil was extracted from dried seed by steam distillation and characteriz...

  3. Quality control of antacid preparations: Up-dating the RIGO-method using standard USP dissolution test apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    van Riet-Nales DA; van Aalst P; Kaste D de; Derks HJGM; LGO

    1998-01-01

    In 1976 bleek uit de literatuur, dat de werkzaamheid van een antacidum werd bepaald door de neutralizatiesnelheid, de maximaal bereikte pH en de werkingsduur. Een pharmacopee methode die met deze drie criteria rekening hield, ontbrak. Het RIGO ontwikkelde daarom een methode voor de in-vitro bepaling van de activiteit van antacida, inclusief specificaties, die met deze criteria rekening hield. De effectiviteit van een antacidum werd in Nederland voldoende geacht door het College ter Beoordelin...

  4. Ciprofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are taking antacids containing aluminum hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta, Tums, others); didanosine (Videx); calcium, iron, zinc, or vitamin supplements; or sucralfate (Carafate), ...

  5. Drug: D03238 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nts 234 Antacids 2343 Aluminum-containing agents D03238 Hydrotalcite (JAN/INN) Anat...07038 Antiulcer drugs Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 2 Agents affecting individual organs 23 Digestive organ age

  6. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  7. Abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What makes the pain better? For example, drinking milk, having a bowel movement, or taking an antacid? What medications are you taking? OTHER MEDICAL HISTORY Have you had a recent injury? Are you ...

  8. Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as lactose, the sugar found in milk and milk products. Some people may have diarrhea if they eat certain types of sugar substitutes in excessive quantities. Reaction to medicines. Antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids containing magnesium can all cause ...

  9. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana;

    2001-01-01

    such as antihistamines, antibiotics, antacids, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and gynecologic drugs. Thus, for the latter drug groups the prescription database may provide an incomplete identification of exposure. Neither data source is unbiased regarding actual drug intake. Nevertheless, our...

  10. Perbedaan Efektifitas Antasida, Ranitidin Dan Omeprazol Dalam Pencegahan Perdarahan Saluran Cerna Bagian Atas Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Terjadinya Pneumonia Serta Outcome Penderita Stroke Akut.

    OpenAIRE

    Batubara, Chairil Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of acute stroke complications. Giving an antacid, ranitidine or omeprazole may prevent UGIB, but may increase the occurrence of pnumonia, thus it will affect the outcome of acute stroke patients. Objective: This study aimed to determine the differences in the effectiveness of antacids, ranitidine and omeprazole in the prevention of UGIB and its influence on the occurrence of pneumonia and acute stroke patient outcomes. Methodolog...

  11. Hypercalcemia and alkalosis due to the milk-alkali syndrome: a case report and review.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorino, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    At one time, when antacids were the primary medical means of treating peptic ulcer disease, the milk-alkali syndrome was not an uncommon cause of hypercalcemia. The simultaneous occurrence of hypercalcemia, alkalosis, and renal failure, in conjunction with the appropriate history of ingestion fof antacids, was suggestive of the syndrome. With the advent of antisecretory therapy, however, the milk-alkali syndrome has become an uncommon diagnosis. I report a case of milk-alkali syndrome and rev...

  12. Drug: D01167 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01167 Drug Magnesium ... oxide (JP16/USP); Magmitt (TN) MgO 39.98 40.3044 D01167.gif Pharmaceutic a ... an agents 234 Antacids 2344 Inorganic salts D01167 Magnesium ... oxide (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical ( ... UGS FOR ACID RELATED DISORDERS A02A ANTACIDS A02AA Magnesium ... compounds A02AA02 Magnesium ... oxide D01167 Magnesium ...

  13. Use of 111In-labeled alginate to study the pH dependence of alginic acid anti-esophageal reflux barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixtures of alginic acid and antacid, when given orally, react with gastric acid to form a viscous barrier (raft) which floats on the surface of the gastric contents. 111In was used to label magnesium alginate in order to study the effect of gastric acidity on the extent of formation of the raft. In vitro, acid concentrations less than 0.05 N diminished raft formation. In vivo, raft formation was significantly better in normal subjects who ingested dilute acid with the labeled alginate/antacid than in subjects who ingested the labeled alginate/antacid with plain water. Gastric emptying of the labeled alginate was also slowed by the presence of acidified gastric contents. These results suggest that the formation of an effective alginic acid antireflux barrier requires acidic gastric contents. (author)

  14. A RP-LC method with evaporative light scattering detection for the assay of simethicone in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas E; Liu, Tina X; Miao, William G; Edwards, Alison; Elliss, Russell

    2002-09-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the determination of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) component of Simethicone, which is used as an anti-foaming agent in pharmaceutical formulations. The method involves acidification to neutralise antacid components of the formulation, then a single extraction of the PDMS with dichloromethane. This is followed by separation with a reversed-phase column using an acetonitrile-chloroform solvent gradient, and quantification by an evaporative light scattering detector. An assay precision of 3% was achieved in intraday and interday determinations. No interference was found from the aluminium and magnesium hydroxide components of antacid formulations. PMID:12191712

  15. Tackling Social Media: Educating Student-Athletes about Using These Channels Responsibly Can Protect Reputations--Theirs and the Institution's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Broaching the subject of student-athletes on social media is liable to cause many institutional leaders, communications officers, and athletics directors to reach for the antacid. The speed and reach of social media, particularly Twitter, combined with the youth and bravado of student-athletes can damage reputations and tarnish university brands…

  16. Indigestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meal. Relax and get rest if indigestion is caused by stress. Avoid aspirin and other NSAIDs. If you must ... 2011:chap 139. Read More Abdominal bloating Belching Depression - overview Fiber Heart attack Nausea and vomiting - adults Stress and your health Patient Instructions Taking antacids Update ...

  17. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling... low phosphate diet to prevent formation of phosphate urinary stones, through the reduction...

  18. Longitudinal study of influence of Helicobacter pylori on current risk of duodenal ulcer relapse. The Hvidovre Ulcer Project Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Franzmann, M B; Holst, C;

    1992-01-01

    acid output, time of healing of the preceding ulcer, treatment of the present ulcer (cimetidine, antacids, or no treatment), or type and degree of gastritis. Thus, although H. pylori is prevalent in patients with duodenal ulcer disease, the present study indicates that H. pylori does not have a...

  19. DRUG-INTERACTIONS WITH QUINOLONE ANTIBACTERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWERS, JRBJ

    1992-01-01

    The quinolone antibacterials are prone to many interactions with other drugs. Quinolone absorption is markedly reduced with antacids containing aluminium, magnesium and/or calcium and therapeutic failure may result. Other metallic ion-containing drugs, such as sucralfate, iron salts, and zinc salts,

  20. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... acid regurgitate back into the esophagus, a burning feeling is felt near the heart. This feeling is known as heartburn. Antacids may be used ... stomach juices less acidic, therefore reducing the burning feeling felt in the esophagus. If heartburn becomes frequent ...

  1. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate ab

  2. Drug: D04839 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04839 Drug Magnesium ... silicate (JP16/NF); Florisil Pharmaceutic aid [tablet excipient] ATC code: ... UGS FOR ACID RELATED DISORDERS A02A ANTACIDS A02AA Magnesium ... compounds A02AA05 Magnesium ... silicate D04839 Magnes ... erals/Electrolytes Electrolyte/Mineral Replacement Magnesium ... D04839 Magnesium ... silicate (JP16/NF) CAS: 1343-88-0 ...

  3. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, T. H.; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I R

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).

  4. Drug: D01446 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01446 Drug Magnesium ... carbonate (JP16/USP); Magnesium ... carbonate (TN) CO3. Mg. xH2O D01446.gif An ... an agents 234 Antacids 2344 Inorganic salts D01446 Magnesium ... carbonate (JP16/USP) 235 Purgatives, clysters 2355 ... Inorganic salts D01446 Magnesium ... carbonate (JP16/USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemic ...

  5. A case of radiation gastroduodenitis caused by 60Co-irradiation therapy for hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 56-year-old man with hepatoma, who had been treated with total 3,960 rad of 60Co-irradiation 2 months previously, was readmitted to the hospital because of fever and anemia. Following admission, he passed tarry stools every day. Barium meal examination revealed esophageal varices and erosive gastritis of the antrum. At endoscopy, many hemorrhagic erosions were found in the gastric antrum and the first part of duodenum, which were located in the irradiation area. Since repeated blood transfusion failed to improve anemia, a complete fasting with intravenous hyperalimentation and antacid therapy were started. Two months later, feeding was started and thereafter continued without any appreciable GI bleeding or worsening of anemia. Endoscopic examination at this time revealed only a few erosions scattered over the edematous antral mucosa as well as the proximal duodenum. IVH, antacids and abstinence from food seem to be an effective measure in the treatment of radiation injury of the gut. (author)

  6. Drug: D00932 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00932 Drug Precipitated calcium carbonate (JP16); Calcium carbonate, precipitated ...idual organs 21 Cardiovascular agents 219 Miscellaneous 2190 Miscellaneous D00932 Precipitated calcium carbo...nate (JP16); Calcium carbonate, precipitated (JAN); Calcium carbonate (USP) 23 Digestive organ agents 234 An...tacids 2344 Inorganic salts D00932 Precipitated calcium carbonate (JP16); Calcium carbonate, precip...cium compounds A02AC01 Calcium carbonate D00932 Precipitated calcium carbonate (J

  7. Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: case experience of the California Poison Control System.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abri, SA; Kearney, T

    2013-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases i...

  8. Current Medical Management of Peptic Ulcer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lukie, Bryan E.

    1989-01-01

    Peptic ulceration occurs when the digestive action of gastric secretions overcomes gastroduodenal mucosal defences. The therapeutic strategy used to correct this imbalance uses drugs that either reduce gastric secretion or increase mucosal resistance. Traditional therapies of dietary manipulation and antacid administration no longer play major roles in peptic ulcer therapy. Uncomplicated peptic ulcers respond quite well to drug treatment, although recurrences are common and may require long-t...

  9. Cimetidine-associated patent ductus arteriosus is mediated via a cytochrome P450 mechanism independent of H2 receptor antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Robert B.; Shah, Lisa P.; Poole, Stanley D.; Ehinger, Noah J.; Brown, Naoko; Shelton, Elaine L.; Slaughter, James C.; Baldwin, H. Scott; Paria, Bibhash C.; Reese, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common problem in preterm infants. The antacid cimetidine is a potent antagonist of the H2 histamine receptor but also inhibits certain cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), which may affect DA patency. We examined whether cimetidine contributes to PDA and is mediated by CYP inhibition rather than H2 blockade. Analysis of a clinical trial to prevent lung injury in premature infants revealed a significant association between cimetidine treatment...

  10. Medication bezoar: Intestinal obstruction by an Isocal bezoar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medications may occasionally obstruct the gastrointestinal tract by virtue of their physical mass. Obturative obstruction of the alimentary tract is reportedly caused by an increasing number of medications, including hydroscopic bulk laxatives, cholestyramine, nonabsorbable antacids, and vitamin C tablets. Inspissated Isocal tube feedings caused jejunal obstruction in a postoperative patient. Medication bezoars are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that may result in significant patient morbidity, including bowel necrosis, perforation, and peritonitis. The radiographic appearance may mimic an abdominal abscess. (orig.)

  11. When Coke Is Not Hydrating

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaa Aldeen, Mohammed; Talibmamury, Nibras; Alalusi, Sumer; Nadham, Omar; Omer, Abdel Rahman; Smalligan, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old African American man was admitted with 4 days of back pain, nausea and vomiting, and low urine output. There was no history of fever, dysuria, frequency, hesitancy, viral symptoms, trauma, rash, or constipation. Despite his past medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia he denied taking any medications for 18 months, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, or antacids. He denied smoking and alcohol but admitted to cocaine use. ...

  12. Drug: D04393 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04393 Mixture, Drug Aluminum hydroxide, dried - magnesium hydroxide mixt; Aluminum hydroxide... - magnesium hydroxide mixt; Maalox (TN); Sakloft (TN) (Aluminum hydroxide, dried [DR:D02416] | Aluminum hydroxide... [DR:D02416]), Magnesium hydroxide [DR:D00731] Therapeutic category: 2349 Use of granules fo...r suspension: Aluminium hydroxide, dride Use of liquid: Aluminum hydroxide Therap... 234 Antacids 2349 Others D04393 Aluminum hydroxide, dried - magnesium hydroxide mixt PubChem: 17398090 ...

  13. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

    OpenAIRE

    Yukio Homma; Akira Ishikawa; Kanami Takaya; Teruaki Kobayashi; Yorito Nose; Toshikazu Sato; Satoru Taguchi

    2013-01-01

    Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilep...

  14. Health-Behavior Induced Disease: Return of the Milk-Alkali Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Joseph B.; Patel, Rajendrakumar M.; Julka, Karan; Parish, David C.

    2007-01-01

    The milk-alkali syndrome is a well-documented consequence of excessive calcium and alkali intake first recognized in association with early 20th century antacid regimens. The syndrome became rare after widespread implementation of modern peptic ulcer disease therapies. With recent trends in osteoporosis therapy coupled with widely available calcium-containing supplements, the milk-alkali syndrome has reemerged as an important clinical entity. Our case illustrates a patient who self-medicated ...

  15. Left main stem/LCA arising from right coronary sinus with an interarterial course

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed, Mohammad; Raza, Ali; Minhaj, Tariq; Houghton, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented to the accident and emergency department with central chest pain for the past 4 months. She described the pain as severe, retrosternal, intermittent, indigestion/burning type, with radiations to the left arm. She had used antacids with no relief. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, left mastectomy for breast cancer, hypercholesterolaemia and osteoarthritis. Her medications included anastrazole, ind...

  16. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Sangita; Benedict Stephen H; Lynch Sharon G; LeVine Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activ...

  17. Recurrent severe vomiting due to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-ying; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Zhou-wen; Fang, Li-zheng

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis may present in many ways; severe vomiting as a prominent symptom of thyrotoxicosis is uncommon. In this paper, we report a 24-year-old Chinese male with hyperthyroidism who presented with recurrent severe vomiting. The patient had had intermittent vomiting for seven years and had lost approximately 15 kg of weight. Gastroscopic examinations revealed chronic gastritis and one occasion peptic ulcer. He was treated with antacid and proton pump inhibitors, but his symptoms had no r...

  18. Associations between Acetaminophen Use during Pregnancy and ADHD Symptoms Measured at Ages 7 and 11 Years

    OpenAIRE

    John M. D. Thompson; Waldie, Karen E; Wall, Clare R.; Murphy, Rinky; Mitchell, Edwin A; ,

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. Methods Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics) were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and AD...

  19. [Nondrug methods in the combined treatment of peptic ulcer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiareva, I I; Kharchenko, N V

    1992-09-01

    Use of treatment complexes including non-drug methods (auricular acupuncture, pathogenetic dietotherapy, ILBR) or reduced doses of modern pharmacopreparations allowed to achieve rapid clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with ulcer disease. Simultaneously occurs normalization of the aggressive and defensive properties of the gastric juice, immunological, microcirculatory changes in the body and gastroduodenal mucosa. The vascular laser blood radiation reduced antacid dose and pathogenetic dietotherapy. PMID:1481513

  20. The evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux before and after medical therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal scintigraphy is a quantitative technique that can be employed to detect and quantitate gastroesophageal reflux before and after the application of therapeutic modalities, including change in body position, bethanechol, atropine, antacids, and antacid-alginate compounds. Five groups of 10-15 patients each were studied before and after using each therapeutic modality and before and after atropine. The results were compared to the patient's symptomatology and to the acid reflux test. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed following oral administration of 300 microCi 99mTc-sulfur colloid in 300 ml acidified orange juice. Thirty-second gamma camera images were obtained as the gastroesophageal gradient was increased from approximately 10 to 35 mm Hg at 5 mm Hg increments using an inflatable abdominal binder. Data were processed using a digital computer. Reflux was reduced by change in position from recumbent to upright, and by the use of subcutaneous bethanechol, oral antacid, or oral antacidalginate compound. Atropine increased reflux. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy is more sensitive than fluoroscopy, correlates well with clinical symptomatology, and is a reliable and convenient technique for the quantitative estimation of reflux before and after therapy

  1. On the absorption of drugs using chronic dog ileal loop method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukan, M; Bezek, S; Trnovec, T; Gabauer, I; Styk, J

    1994-01-01

    The absorption rate of three model drugs, i.e., pentacaine (highly lipophilic), stobadine (moderately lipophilic) and acetylsalicylic acid (hydrophilic), was studied using the chronic dog ileal loop method. The drugs were dissolved either in 0.9% unbuffered solution of NaCl or in antacid mixture. When using 0.9% NaCl, the half-lives of absorption (t1/2 (dis)) of pentacaine and stobadine were (mean +/- SD) 23.2 +/- 7.8 min and 20.8 +/- 7.2 min, respectively. For stobadine a good agreement was found between its t1/2 (dis) from the ileum and its absorption half-life determined from blood concentrations after oral administration to dogs. The absorption of acetylsalicylic acid accounted for only 10-20% of the dose introduced into the loop over 45 min; thus, a reliable value of t1/2 (dis) could not be determined. The administration of unbuffered solution of NaCl into the loop was accompanied by rapid increase of pH from acidic to basic value. The antacid mixture failed to affect the absorption rate of the drugs studied. Sampling from the ileum was limited to 35-55 min due to rapid absorption of water. These results suggest that: 1) measurement of the absorption rate of some drugs, e.g., stobadine, by using the chronic dog ileal loop method may adequately predict their absorption rate after peroral administration to the dog, 2) interactions of antacids with drug absorption in the ileum may not play a significant role because of the strong buffering capacity of the ileum, and 3) rapid absorption of water from the ileum does not allow to reliably determine the value of t1/2 (dis) for slowly absorbed drugs. PMID:7837833

  2. Effect of ayurvedic medicines on beta-glucuronidase activity of Brunner's glands during recovery from cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadar, T S; Pillai, M M

    1989-11-01

    Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase activity in the Brunner's glands. It can be concluded that Ayurvedic medicines used do not act as antacid but improve the secretory status of Brunner's glands involved in the protection against duodenal ulcer. PMID:2620935

  3. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares: síntese, estrutura, propriedades e aplicações

    OpenAIRE

    Crepaldi Eduardo Luis; Valim João Barros

    1998-01-01

    The layered double hydroxides, known as anionic clays and represented by the general formula [M2+1-x M3+x (OH) 2]x+ Am-x/m·nH 2O, are a group of materials which are of much interest currently. They present a variety of potential applications as adsorbents, catalysts and catalyst support, ion-exchangers, antacids and as a polymer stabilizer. It is possible to obtain a broad variety of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), depending on the identity and ratio of the cations M2+ and M3+, as well as t...

  4. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares: síntese, estrutura, propriedades e aplicações Layered double hydroxides: structure, synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Luis Crepaldi; João Barros Valim

    1998-01-01

    The layered double hydroxides, known as anionic clays and represented by the general formula [M2+1-x M3+x (OH) 2]x+ Am-x/m·nH 2O, are a group of materials which are of much interest currently. They present a variety of potential applications as adsorbents, catalysts and catalyst support, ion-exchangers, antacids and as a polymer stabilizer. It is possible to obtain a broad variety of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), depending on the identity and ratio of the cations M2+ and M3+, as well as t...

  5. Drug: D00731 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00731 Drug Magnesium hydroxide (JAN/USP); Magnesia, [Milk of] (USP); Milmag (TN); ...organic salts D00731 Magnesium hydroxide (JAN/USP); Magnesia, [Milk of] (USP) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemica...02A ANTACIDS A02AA Magnesium compounds A02AA04 Magnesium hydroxide D00731 Magnesium hydroxide...04B UROLOGICALS G04BX Other urologicals G04BX01 Magnesium hydroxide D00731 Magnesium hydroxide (JAN/USP) USP...ctrolyte/Mineral Replacement Magnesium D00731 Magnesium hydroxide (JAN/USP) CAS: 1309-42-8 PubChem: 7847796

  6. Drug: D02416 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02416 Drug Dried aluminum hydroxide gel (JP16); Dried aluminum hydroxide gel fine ...granules (JP16); Aluminum hydroxide, dried (USP); Aluminum hydroxide (USP); ALterna GEL (TN); Dialume (TN) A...ffecting individual organs 23 Digestive organ agents 234 Antacids 2343 Aluminum-containing agents D02416 Dried aluminum hydroxide... gel (JP16); Dried aluminum hydroxide gel fine granules (JP16); Aluminum hydroxide, dried (USP); Aluminum hydrox...AB Aluminium compounds A02AB01 Aluminium hydroxide D02416 Aluminum hydroxide, dried (JP16/USP); Aluminum hydroxide

  7. Channel capacity study of underwater wireless optical communications links based on Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channel capacity of ocean water is limited by propagation distance and optical properties. Previous studies on this problem are based on water-tank experiments with different amounts of Maalox antacid. However, propagation distance is limited by the experimental set-up and the optical properties are different from ocean water. Therefore, the experiment result is not accurate for the physical design of underwater wireless communications links. This letter developed a Monte Carlo model to study channel capacity of underwater optical communications. Moreover, this model can flexibly configure various parameters of transmitter, receiver and channel, and is suitable for physical underwater optical communications links design. (paper)

  8. Baking soda: a potentially fatal home remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M H; Wason, S; Gonzalez del Rey, J; Benfield, M

    1995-04-01

    We present a case of a six-week-old infant who developed life-threatening complications after unintentional sodium bicarbonate intoxication. Baking soda was being used by the mother as a home remedy to "help the baby burp." A review of the literature regarding the use (or misuse) of baking soda follows. Our patient, along with the other noted case reports, emphasizes the need for warnings on baking soda products whose labels recommend its use as an antacid. Poisonings must be high in the differential diagnosis of any patient, regardless of age, who presents with altered mental status or status epilepticus. PMID:7596870

  9. Left main stem/LCA arising from right coronary sinus with an interarterial course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleed, Mohammad; Raza, Ali; Minhaj, Tariq; Houghton, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented to the accident and emergency department with central chest pain for the past 4 months. She described the pain as severe, retrosternal, intermittent, indigestion/burning type, with radiations to the left arm. She had used antacids with no relief. Her medical history included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, left mastectomy for breast cancer, hypercholesterolaemia and osteoarthritis. Her medications included anastrazole, indapamide, perindopril, aspirin, clopidogrel, atorvastatin, salbutamol and atrovent inhalers. She was a non-smoker and vegetarian. Two brothers each had a myocardial infarction when in their early 40s. PMID:25015164

  10. Longitudinal study of influence of Helicobacter pylori on current risk of duodenal ulcer relapse. The Hvidovre Ulcer Project Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Franzmann, M B; Holst, C;

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-four patients with duodenal ulcer were followed up longitudinally for 2 years after initial ulcer healing. Endoscopy including biopsy of the antral mucosa was performed every 3rd month and whenever clinical symptoms of relapse occurred. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in the biopsy...... acid output, time of healing of the preceding ulcer, treatment of the present ulcer (cimetidine, antacids, or no treatment), or type and degree of gastritis. Thus, although H. pylori is prevalent in patients with duodenal ulcer disease, the present study indicates that H. pylori does not have a...... substantial note in the precipitation of active duodenal ulcer....

  11. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Maher M. Al-Dabbas; Khalid Al-Ismail; Ruba A. Taleb; Salam Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC) values of 5% (dry matter) aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine) and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem) were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97), intermed...

  12. Pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Saša M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach diseases have an important place in the clinical pathology of dogs. Etiological factors can be nutritive, chemical, or infective, but treatment implies certain common general principles and a certain number of therapy protocols which are most often used. On the other hand, a part of the medicines used in the pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs are taken from the palette of medicines intended for human use, so that a regular dosage and regime of implementation are the main precondition for the success of the applied therapy. Drugs used in the treatment of stomach diseases include antiemetics, prokinetics, antacids, mucoprotectives, anticholinergics, H2-antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, semisynthetic derivatives of prostaglandin E1, and others. The therapy of stomach diseases implies the simultaneous application of several drugs from different pharmacodynamic groups (for instance, an antiemetic, a prokinetic, an antacid, and an Hg antagonist or a proton pump inhibitor when it is necessary to establish a correct regime of implementation because of possible interaction, which will also be discussed in this work.

  13. Cimetidine-associated patent ductus arteriosus is mediated via a cytochrome P450 mechanism independent of H2 receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Robert B; Shah, Lisa P; Poole, Stanley D; Ehinger, Noah J; Brown, Naoko; Shelton, Elaine L; Slaughter, James C; Baldwin, H Scott; Paria, Bibhash C; Reese, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common problem in preterm infants. The antacid cimetidine is a potent antagonist of the H2 histamine receptor but it also inhibits certain cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), which may affect DA patency. We examined whether cimetidine contributes to PDA and is mediated by CYP inhibition rather than H2 blockade. Analysis of a clinical trial to prevent lung injury in premature infants revealed a significant association between cimetidine treatment and PDA. Cimetidine and ranitidine, both CYP inhibitors as well as H2 blockers, caused relaxation of the term and preterm mouse DA. CYP enzymes that are inhibited by cimetidine were expressed in DA subendothelial smooth muscle. The selective CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole induced greater DA relaxation than cimetidine, whereas famotidine and other H2 antagonists with less CYP inhibitory effects caused less dilation. Histamine receptors were developmentally regulated and localized in DA smooth muscle. However, cimetidine caused DA relaxation in histamine-deficient mice, consistent with CYP inhibition, not H2 antagonism, as the mechanism for PDA. Oxygen-induced DA constriction was inhibited by both cimetidine and famotidine. These studies show that antacids and other compounds with CYP inhibitory properties pose a significant and previously unrecognized risk for PDA in critically ill newborn infants. PMID:23454087

  14. An oral sodium citrate-citric acid non-particulate buffer in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptfleisch, J J; Payne, K A

    1996-11-01

    We have investigated the effect on the pH of the gastric fluid of a single dose of sodium citrate 0.3 mol litre-1 (antacid) and a solution containing sodium citrate dehydrate (100 mg ml-1) with citric acid monohydrate (66 mg ml-1) (buffer). The dose for both solutions was 0.4 ml kg-1 via a nasogastric tube. Each group comprised 10 patients undergoing neurosurgical operations of 5-7 h duration. A control group of 10 patients received no gastric solution. The pH of the gastric aspirate was measured hourly using a Metrohm 632 digital pH meter (Synectics Medical, Sweden). Mean baseline gastric pH was 2.64 (SD 1.71). In the control group, pH increased to 4.4 (1.51) at 5 h, returning to baseline at 7 h. In the antacid group, pH increased to 6.11 (0.47) at 15 min and decreased to 3.70 (1.94) at 7 h (P 0.01). Total mean gastric aspirate was 0.5 ml kg-1. PMID:8957982

  15. Potential immunological consequences of pharmacological suppression of gastric acid production in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Sangita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Corticosteroids are standard treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing acute relapse. Because dyspeptic pain is a common side effect of this intervention, patients can be given a histamine receptor-2 antagonist, proton pump inhibitor or antacid to prevent or ameliorate this disturbance. Additionally, patients with multiple sclerosis may be taking these medications independent of corticosteroid treatment. Interventions for gastric disturbances can influence the activation state of the immune system, a principal mediator of pathology in multiple sclerosis. Although histamine release promotes inflammation, activation of the histamine receptor-2 can suppress a proinflammatory immune response, and blocking histamine receptor-2 with an antagonist could shift the balance more towards immune stimulation. Studies utilizing an animal model of multiple sclerosis indicate that histamine receptor-2 antagonists potentially augment disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis. In contrast, proton pump inhibitors appear to favor immune suppression, but have not been studied in models of multiple sclerosis. Antacids, histamine receptor-2 antagonists and proton pump inhibitors also could alter the intestinal microflora, which may indirectly lead to immune stimulation. Additionally, elevated gastric pH can promote the vitamin B12 deficiency that patients with multiple sclerosis are at risk of developing. Here, we review possible roles of gastric acid inhibitors on immunopathogenic mechanisms associated with multiple sclerosis.

  16. Sucralfate for radiation mucositis: results of a double-blind randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine if addition of the ulcer-coating polysaccharide sucralfate could improve symptomatic relief of radiation mucositis over a popular combination of antacid, diphenhydramine, and viscous lidocaine alone. Methods and Materials: A double-blind study was conducted in which nurses and pharmacists coded patient groups and distributed medication in a manner blinded to both the patients and physicians. Eligible patients receiving radiation to the head and neck and/or chest sites that included the esophagus were randomized to a standard combination of antacid, diphenhydramine, and viscous lidocaine vs. the same solution plus sucralfate. Eligible patients were those receiving >40 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction, one fraction/day, five fractions/week. Participating patients were stratified between chest, small field head and neck, and large field head and neck. The observations and smears for Candidiasis screening. Medication was prescribed when the patient became symptomatic and concomitant use of other locally effective nonstudy agents was not allowed. The ability to eat various consistency of foods was graded 0-5, with 5 indicating no compromise of ability to ingest a food compared to baseline. Statistical analysis included mean + SD for food and soreness scores, paired t-test, and two-way analyses of variance to evaluate effects of site and treatment group on the changes in scores. Results: Over 2 years, 111 patients were entered. Because some withdrew and others did not require medication, results are presented for evaluable patients in each category. Mild adverse effects from the medication solution (usually mouth discomfort) were reported by <10% of patients in each treatment group among 106 patients evaluable for toxicity. There was a comparable incidence of mild-moderate mucositis for the two treatment groups. Severe mucositis was noted in two patients of the standard medication group and none among patients receiving sucralfate. The groups were comparable

  17. PREVENTION OF THROMBOSES IN ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Valeryevna Kondratyeva

    2009-09-01

    Patients with antiphospholipid (aPL antibodies and venous thromboses need long-term moderate-intensity warfarin therapy. Patients with ischemic strokes without other indications for the use of anticoagulants may be given either warfarin or ASA. In the latter case, there is no need for laboratory control or an individual dose adjustment. The primary prevention of thromboses in the presence of aPL is also performed with ASA. When pregnancy occurs, women with obstetric manifestations of APS may be given small-dose ASA in combination with heparins. To reduce the risk of hemorrhages, warfarin dosage adjustment is initiated with the minimum doses (<5 mg/day. Novel ASA formulations, such as ASA with the unabsorbed antacid magnesium hydroxide, have been developed to prevent gastrointestinal tract complications.

  18. Evaluation of anti-GERD activity of gastro retentive drug delivery system of itopride hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Trilochan; Panda, Prasana K; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2010-08-01

    The present work describes the formulation and evaluation of the gastroretentive system of Itopride hydrochloride. In this research, we have formulated floating hydrogel-based microspheres employing calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) as a gas forming agent dispersed in alginate matrix. In vitro characterizations such as drug content, particle size, and drug release were carried out. GI motility was determined by administration of charcoal meal to rats. Results demonstrated that prepared microspheres were spherical in shape with smooth surface, good loading efficiency, and excellent buoyancy. The gastro retentive dosage form of itiopride demonstrated significant antacid, anti-ulcer, and anti-GERD activity after 12 hours in comparison with the conventional dosage form. PMID:20515421

  19. ASSESSMENT OF INFLUENCE OF DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX ON COURSE OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUJABAR AKHMATKHODJAEV

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the role and significance of duodenogastric bile reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Intraesophageal and intragastric pHmetric investigations, as well as biochemical studies of gastric contents were carried out. Antacid dysfunction of the stomach as a result of hypergastrinemia is conditioned by biochemical characteristics of duodenogastric bile refluctant which contains high concentrations of toxic bile acids, trypsin, lysolecithin, as well as by high phospholipase activity of refluctant, and by the reduction of such factors of cytoprotection as sIgA and phospholipids. Duodenogastric reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease often develops because of the presence of associated biliary and pancreatic pathologies with bacterial overgrowth syndrome.

  20. Double-blind clinical, endoscopic and histological comparison of hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension and magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in the treatment of symptomatic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobden, I; McMahon, M J; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1981-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized trial was undertaken to compare the clinical, endoscopic and histological response to 6-weeks' treatment with hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension or magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide suspension in 36 patients with symptomatic gastritis. Significantly more patients (P less than 0.05) showed symptomatic improvement in the antacid-treated group than in the hydrotalcite/dimethicone-treated group and more had a reduction in histological inflammatory scores (P less than 0.01), although there was little correlation between histology and symptoms. There was no evidence from this study that the bile acid binding and anti-foaming properties of hydrotalcite/dimethicone suspension were of any benefit in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gastritis. PMID:7267678

  1. Hidróxidos duplos lamelares: síntese, estrutura, propriedades e aplicações Layered double hydroxides: structure, synthesis, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luis Crepaldi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The layered double hydroxides, known as anionic clays and represented by the general formula [M2+1-x M3+x (OH 2]x+ Am-x/m·nH 2O, are a group of materials which are of much interest currently. They present a variety of potential applications as adsorbents, catalysts and catalyst support, ion-exchangers, antacids and as a polymer stabilizer. It is possible to obtain a broad variety of layered double hydroxides (LDHs, depending on the identity and ratio of the cations M2+ and M3+, as well as the interlamelar anion. The aim of this review is to give out some information about this class of materials, concerning to the synthesis, characterization, properties and applications.

  2. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

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    Satoru Taguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilepsy. The supposed mechanism is that zonisamide induces urine alkalinization and then promotes crystallization of urine components such as calcium phosphate by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase in renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we report a case of silicate urolithiasis during long-term treatment with zonisamide without magnesium trisilicate intake and discuss the etiology of the disease by examining the silicate concentration in his urine.

  3. Synthesis, Luminescent Properties of aza-Boron-Diquinomethene Difluoride Complexes and Their Application for Fluorescent Security Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Long; Liu, Rui; Shi, Hong; Wang, Qiang; Song, Guangliang; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yuan, Shidong; Zhu, Hongjun

    2016-03-01

    Two aza-boron-diquinomethene (aza-BODIQU) complexes bearing phenyl and carbazyl substituents were synthesized and characterized. Their photophysical properties were investigated systematically via spectroscopic and theoretical methods. Both complexes exhibit strong (1)π-π* transition absorptions (λ(abs) = 400-540 nm) and intense fluorescent emissions (λ(em) = 440-600 nm, Φ(PL) = 0.93 and 0.78) in CH2Cl2 solution and in solid state at room temperature. Compared to the complex with phenyl groups, the complex bearing carbazyl groups shows significant bathochromic shift in both absorption and emission. This could be attributed to the larger π-electron conjugation of the carbazole unit and intramolecular charge transfer feature from carbazole to aza-BODIQU component. In addition, the complexes exhibit intense photoluminescence and good stability on antacid, anti-alkali and stability in printing ink samples, which makes them potential dopants for the application of fluorescent security inks. PMID:26596734

  4. Cobalamin Deficiency in Elderly Patients: A Personal View

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    Emmanuel Andrès

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency is particularly common in the elderly (>65 years of age but is often unrecognized because its clinical manifestations are subtle; however, they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. In the elderly, the main causes of cobalamin deficiency are pernicious anemia and food-cobalamin malabsorption. Food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome is a disorder characterized by the inability to release cobalamin from food or its binding proteins. This syndrome is usually caused by atrophic gastritis, related or unrelated to Helicobacter pylori infection, and long-term ingestion of antacids and biguanides. Management of cobalamin deficiency with cobalamin injections is currently well documented but new routes of cobalamin administration (oral and nasal are being studied, especially oral cobalamin therapy for food-cobalamin malabsorption.

  5. Use of drugs during lactation by users of a basic health UNIT

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    Luana Soriano Mota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the drugs used during lactation acompanhadas among women in a primary care unit. Quantitative study carried out with 132 lactating mothers of a basic health unit. Data were collected through a questionnaire with objective questions and subjective August-October 2011. The nursing mothers used medication along the breast feeding 105 (80%, while 27 (20% did not use any kind of medication. The drugs most commonly cited as the use were: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory 82 (58%, contraceptives 16 (11%, antianemics 14 (11%, antibiotics 12 (9%, antihypertensive 5 (4%​​, antacids 3 (2%, among others 9 (6%. Of the mothers 77 (58.3% breastfeeding women reported not having received counseling. Medication use by nursing mothers may have repercussions for the baby because the drugs are excreted in breast milk.

  6. Gastric emptying for solids in patients with duodenal ulcer before and after highly selective vagotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of 31 duodenal ulcer patients (23 males and 8 females), who underwent a highly selective vagotomy, gastric emptying characteristics of a solid meal, labeled with [99mTc]stannous colloid, were assessed before, two weeks and six months after operation. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy and x-ray; failure of treatment with H2 antagonists or antacids during 1-18 (mean 5) years was the direct indication for operative treatment. A temporary delay in gastric emptying is noted two weeks after operation (T1/2: 124 vs 57 min). After six months, gastric emptying time has practically normalized. It appears that this is the result of the preservation of the antropyloric vagal nerve supply. In these patients, a 10% recurrence rate is noted, comparable to the results in the literature. Highly selective vagotomy proves to be a safe and effective procedure with few side effects. It does not impair gastric motility

  7. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. PMID:26523769

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux: clinical presentations, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, W E; Craven, M A; Allen, C J

    1986-11-15

    Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux occurs daily in an estimated 7% of adults and weekly or monthly in 29%. Untreated it can lead to esophageal erosions, ulceration and stricture formation. The pathogenesis is often multifactorial: defects in the function of the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal clearance mechanisms and gastric emptying combine to produce frequent lengthy periods during which the lower esophagus is bathed in regurgitated acid. In most patients reflux disease is easily recognized as recurrent heartburn, regurgitation or dysphagia, or a combination. When acute chest pain or respiratory illness is the primary presenting complaint the patient needs particularly careful investigation to determine whether the symptoms are due to a primary cardiac or respiratory condition, are secondary to gastroesophageal reflux alone or represent a combination of disorders. Endoscopy with biopsy and long-term pH monitoring are the most reliable ways of determining whether reflux disease is present. Additional investigations, such as exercise testing, cardiac catheterization or inhalation challenge, may be needed in patients with cardiac or respiratory symptoms. Treatment should follow a stepped-care approach and in most patients should begin with changes in lifestyle, including dietary manipulation, reducing alcohol and cigarette consumption, and raising the head of the bed, together with appropriate use of antacids or alginate-antacid combinations. H2-receptor antagonists and agents to improve both gastric emptying and the tone of the lower esophageal sphincter may be added in sequence. Most patients will respond well to this regimen. Surgery should be considered only for those with intractable symptoms or with complications (e.g., stricture formation, bleeding, development of dysplastic epithelium in those with Barrett's esophagus, or secondary pulmonary disease that does not respond to medical management). It is successful in 85% of well-selected patients and

  9. Does Ramadan Fasting Increase duodenal ulcer perforation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are obliged to fast. Prolonged fasting increase gastric acid and pepsin levels, which promote the risk of duodenal ulcer perforation (DUP. Effects of Ramadan fasting on DUP have not been thoroughly studied yet, and the limited number of studies investigating the impact of Ramadan fasting on DUP yielded discrepant results. This study aimed to evaluate DUP frequency during Ramadan 2011-2015 and compare it with other months. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 82 patients undergoing surgery due to DUP during July 2011-September 2015. The demographics, history of addiction, use of nonsteroidal and antiinflammatory drugs, previous history of acid peptic disease, as well as complications and outcomes of treatment were recorded and analyzed, and the obtained results were compared between Ramadan and other lunar months. Results: The majority of patients were male (86.6%, 71 patients, with a mean age of 43.9±16.5 years (age range: 20-75 years. Male to female ratio was 6:1. Cases with less than 30 years of age were less frequent (22%, 18 patients. DUP was more frequent during Rajab with nine cases (11%, while during Ramadan, six cases were reported, the difference between Ramadan and other months regarding the incidence of DUP was not significant (P=0.7. Risk factors such as smoking (60% and addiction (44%; especially to crystal and crack were noted. Consumption of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in 20 (24% patients, and use of antacids in 17 (25% patients. Distribution of DUP in different blood types was as follows: O+=41%, A+=28%, B+=23%, AB=5%, and O-=3%; moreover, post-operative Helicobacter pylori antibody was present in 67% of the patients. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting did not escalate DUP incidence, and those with DUP risk factors can fast with the use of antacids.

  10. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the [(13)C]-pantoprazole breath test after co-administration of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following percutaneous coronary intervention and correlation to platelet reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Adrien; Modak, Anil; Déry, Ugo; Roy, Mélanie; Rinfret, Stéphane; Bertrand, Olivier F; Larose, Éric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Barbeau, Gérald; Gleeton, Onil; Nguyen, Can Manh; Proulx, Guy; Noël, Bernard; Roy, Louis; Paradis, Jean-Michel; De Larochellière, Robert; Déry, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is used for the prevention of cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These agents increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. To prevent these events, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are routinely prescribed. It has been reported that with the exception of pantoprazole and dexlanzoprazole, PPIs can impede conversion of clopidogrel by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) to its active metabolite, a critical step required for clopidogrel efficacy. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenotype) and its correlation with platelet reactivity following PPI therapy has not yet been fully described. In this study we attempted to determine if the [ (13)C]-pantoprazole breath test (Ptz-BT) can evaluate changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenoconversion) following the administration of PPI in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated with DAPT after PCI. Thirty (30) days after successful PCI with stent placement, 59 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of the Influence of Statins and Proton Pump Inhibitors on Clopidogrel Antiplatelet Effects (SPICE) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930670) were recruited to participate in this sub study. Patients were randomized to one of 4 antacid therapies (omeprazole, esomeprazole. pantoprazole or ranitidine). Subjects were administered the Ptz-BT and platelet function was evaluated by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and light transmittance aggregometry before and 30 d after treatment with antacid therapy. Patients randomized to esomeprazole and omeprazole had greater high on-treatment platelet reactivity and lowering of CYP2C19 enzyme activity at Day 60 after 30 d of PPI therapy. Patients randomized to ranitidine and pantoprazole did not show any changes in platelet activity or CYP 2C19 enzyme activity. In patients treated with esomeprazole and omeprazole, changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity

  11. Contribution of N-Nitrosamines and Their Precursors to Domestic Sewage by Greywaters and Blackwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2015-11-17

    N-nitrosamines and their precursors are significant concerns for water utilities exploiting wastewater-impacted water supplies, particularly those practicing potable reuse of wastewater. Previous efforts to identify specific precursors in municipal wastewater accounting for N-nitrosamine formation have met with limited success. As an alternative, we quantified the relative importance of greywater (i.e., shower, kitchen sink, bathroom washbasin, and laundry) and blackwater (i.e., urine and feces) streams in terms of their loadings of ambient specific and total N-nitrosamines and chloramine-reactive and ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors to domestic sewage. Accounting for the volume fractions of individual greywater and blackwater streams, laundry water represented the most significant source of N-nitrosamines and their precursors, followed by shower water and urine. Laundry water was particularly important for ozone-reactive N-nitrosamine precursors, accounting for ∼99% of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors and ∼69% of precursors for other uncharacterized N-nitrosamines. For the other greywater streams, consumer products contributed additional N-nitrosamines and precursors, but the remarkable uniformity across different products suggested the importance of common macroconstituents. The consumption of a standard dose of the antacid ranitidine substantially increased NDMA and its chloramine-reactive precursors in urine. Nevertheless, nearly 40% of the American population would need to consume ranitidine daily to match the NDMA loadings from laundry water. PMID:26496512

  12. Levothyroxine absorption in health and disease, and new therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, G; Mangiola, F; Di Rienzo, T A; Bibbò, S; Franceschi, F; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, A

    2014-01-01

    Levothyroxine therapy is used in case of deficiency of the thyroid hormones in the human organism. Many conditions, either physiological or paraphysiological or clearly pathological, can alter the levothyroxine absorption in the human body. Levothyroxine absorption can indeed be impaired by age, patient's compliance, fasting, the intake of certain foods (such as dietary fibers, grapes, soybeans, papaya and coffee) or by some drugs (such as proton-pump inhibitors, antacids, sucralfate, et cetera). Additionally, many gastrointestinal diseases, such as the conditions that disrupt the integrity of the intestinal barrier and the diseases that impair gastric acidity, may alter the bioavailability of levothyroxine. Since the enormous, widespread diffusion of thyroid diseases, a large number of patients have to face such issues. Therefore, the development of new levothyroxine oral formulations, other than solid tablets, may represent an interesting therapeutic approach, at the same time simple and effective, to face this problem. Recently, two different levothyroxine formulations have been proposed: the liquid formulation and the softgel formulation. Such formulations represent an innovative, effective and cheap therapeutic approach to hypothyroid patient with problems of impaired absorption of levothyroxine. PMID:24610609

  13. Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Murphy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a disorder in which reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications and which affects health-related quality of life. It is one of the commonest disorders and appears to be increasing in incidence. The mechanisms leading to reflux are complex and multifactorial. The lower oesophageal sphincter (LES is an important part of the gastro-oesophageal barrier. Transient LES relaxations (TLESRs lead to reflux as these vagally mediated motor patterns cause relaxation of the LES and also result in oesophageal shortening and inhibition of the crural diaphragm. Heartburn and regurgitation are the characteristic symptoms of GERD. A clinical diagnosis of GERD can be made with typical symptoms. Oesophagitis is seen in a minority of patients with GERD. Lifestyle modification is widely advocated for patients with GERD. For short-term relief of symptoms of mild GERD, antacids/alginates are frequently used but they do not heal oesophagitis. Both histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA and proton pump inhibitors (PPI have been shown to heal and prevent relapse of oesophagitis, although PPIs have been shown to be superior. The PPIs are the recommended first-line therapy for erosive oesophagitis and initial management of non-erosive reflux disease. Maintenance PPI therapy should be given to patients with oesophagitis, those who have recurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of medication and for those with complications of GERD.

  14. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of gallic acid derivatives in aluminum hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preservatives are added to most of the pharmaceutical preparations to prevent them from deterioration throughout their shelf life. Literature reveals that the common synthetic preservatives have many limitations, such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side-effects. Aim: The aim of this study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring gallic acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of gallic acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, {aluminum hydroxide gel-USP (United States Pharmacopoeia} against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized gallic acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Associations between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms measured at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M D Thompson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to replicate and extend the recently found association between acetaminophen use during pregnancy and ADHD symptoms in school-age children. METHODS: Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study, a longitudinal study of 871 infants of European descent sampled disproportionately for small for gestational age. Drug use during pregnancy (acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, and antibiotics were analysed in relation to behavioural difficulties and ADHD symptoms measured by parent report at age 7 and both parent- and child-report at 11 years of age. The analyses included multiple covariates including birthweight, socioeconomic status and antenatal maternal perceived stress. RESULTS: Acetaminophen was used by 49.8% of the study mothers during pregnancy. We found significantly higher total difficulty scores (Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire parent report at age 7 and child report at age 11 if acetaminophen was used during pregnancy, but there were no significant differences associated with any of the other drugs. Children of mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy were also at increased risk of ADHD at 7 and 11 years of age (Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strengthen the contention that acetaminophen exposure in pregnancy increases the risk of ADHD-like behaviours. Our study also supports earlier claims that findings are specific to acetaminophen.

  16. A prospective, randomized study of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients using a closed vs. open suction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Botura Leite; Diccini, Solange

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in intubated and extended mechanically ventilated patients having endotracheal suctioning by an open vs. closed suction method aiming to decrease nosocomial pneumonia. Twenty-four (51.1%) patients received open-tracheal suction and 23 (48.9%) received closed-tracheal suction. The inclusion criteria were: surgical and medical patients older than 13 years, undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Additional data were gathered using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, and details on smoking, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, previous lung disease, and previous use of antibiotics, steroids, H2 antagonists and antacids. Among the 24 patients having open-tracheal suction, 11 developed nosocomial pneumonia while of the 23 patients undergoing closed-tracheal suction, seven developed infection (P = 0.278). Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia were not significantly different between the two groups. In the final logistical regression model the following variables remained: groups (open and closed) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.014; confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.416; P = 0.014] and use of prior antibiotics (OR = 2.297; CI = 1.244-4.242; P = 0.008). Use of a closed suction system did not decrease the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia when compared with the open system. The exogenous risk factors were the most important for acquiring this infection. PMID:12790861

  17. Evaluation of preservative effectiveness of p-coumaric acid derivatives in aluminium hydroxide gel-USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Khatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deterioration of pharmaceutical preparations due to growth of microorganisms is a great challenge and need of preservation becomes very important. Literature reports about various problems associated with the existing synthetic preservatives such as development of microbial resistance (in due course of time and several serious side effects. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find out new preservatives synthesized from natural sources, which may have better efficiency than the existing synthetic preservatives. The derivatives of naturally occurring p-coumaric acid were subjected for their preservative efficacy study. Their preservative efficiency was evaluated and compared with the standard parabens. Materials and Methods: The selected amide, anilide and ester derivatives of p-coumaric acid were subjected to preservative efficacy testing in an official antacid preparation, (aluminium hydroxide gel-USP against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger as representative challenging microorganisms as per USP 2004 guidelines. Results: The selected derivatives were found to be effective against all selected strains and showed preservative efficacy comparable to that of standard and even better in case E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger. The 8-hydroxy quinoline ester derivative showed better preservative efficacy than standard as well as other derivatives. Conclusion: The newly synthesized p- coumaric acid preservatives were found to be effective in the proposed pharmaceutical preparation (Aluminium Hydroxide Gel - USP. Also, the synthesized preservatives have shown comparative and even better efficacy than the existing parabens and hence they have potential for use in pharmaceutical preparations.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  19. Gastroprotective effects of essential oil from Protium heptaphyllum on experimental gastric ulcer models in rats

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    Deborah A. O. Valim Araujo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcers are a common disorder of the entire gastrointestinal tract, its etiology has not been completely elucidated. The basic physiopathological of peptic ulcers result from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive factor and cytoprotective factors. The treatment of this disease is usually done with antacids or proton pump, but are currently being used plants derivated compounds. We evaluated the gastroprotective properties and its possible mechanisms of action of the essential oil from Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. Marchand, Burseraceae (BB. The formation of ulcers, were evaluated in three experimental models, through the induction of gastric lesions by ethanol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetic acid. The mechanisms of action were evaluated through the pylorus ligature experiment, western blot, GSH, GR, SOD, GPx, MDA and MPO activities. BB significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced by the three different models, increased the GSH and GR levels and maintained the same levels of SOD and GPx of the sham group, inhibited MPO and MDA, did not produce significant modification in gastric juice content and showed increased COX-2 and EGF. BB exerts its gastroprotective activity, possibly, by increasing COX-2 and EGF expression and due to its possible antioxidant property.

  20. Eosinophilic esophagitis: asthma of the esophagus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amindra S; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is rapidly emerging as a distinct disease entity in both pediatric and adult gastroenterology. The typical clinical presentation includes solid food dysphagia in young men who have an atopic predisposition. Food impaction necessitating endoscopic intervention is common. EE should be suspected, in particular, in patients with unexplained dysphagia or those with no response to antacid or anti-acid secretory therapy. Careful endoscopic and radiographic examinations reveal furrows, corrugations, rings, whitish plaques, fragile crêpe paper-like appearance, and a small-caliber esophagus. Mucosal erosion in the distal esophagus, characteristic to reflux esophagitis, is absent in EE. Marked eosinophil infiltration in the esophageal epithelia (>20 eosinophils per high-power field) is the diagnostic hallmark. Food antigens and aeroallergens may play a role in the pathogenesis of EE. The mechanisms may be dependent or independent of immunoglobulin E. Elimination diets, systemic and topical corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and, most recently, an anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibody have been used to treat EE. EE likely represents another example of eosinophil-associated inflammation of epithelia at the interface between external and internal milieu, similar to bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. This review summarizes recent progress in the diagnosis and management of EE and discusses future research directions. PMID:15224275

  1. Macrolide antibacterials. Drug interactions of clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosensteil, N A; Adam, D

    1995-08-01

    Macrolide antibiotics can interact adversely with commonly used drugs, usually by altering metabolism due to complex formation and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and enterocytes. In addition, pharmacokinetic drug interactions with macrolides can result from their antibiotic effect on microorganisms of the enteric flora, and through enhanced gastric emptying due to a motilin-like effect. Macrolides may be classified into 3 different groups according to their affinity for CYP3A4, and thus their propensity to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Troleandomycin, erythromycin and its prodrugs decrease drug metabolism and may produce drug interactions (group 1). Others, including clarithromycin, flurithromycin, midecamycin, midecamycin acetate (miocamycin; ponsinomycin), josamycin and roxithromycin (group 2) rarely cause interactions. Azithromycin, dirithromycin, rikamycin and spiramycin (group 3) do not inactivate CYP3A4 and do not engender these adverse effects. Drug interactions with carbamazepine, cyclosporin, terfenadine, astemizole and theophylline represent the most frequently encountered interactions with macrolide antibiotics. If the combination of a macrolide and one of these compounds cannot be avoided, serum concentrations of concurrently administered drugs should be monitored and patients observed for signs of toxicity. Rare interactions and those of dubious clinical importance are those with alfentanil and sufentanil, antacids and cimetidine, oral anticoagulants, bromocriptine, clozapine, oral contraceptive steroids, digoxin, disopyramide, ergot alkaloids, felodipine, glibenclamide (glyburide), levodopa/carbidopa, lovastatin, methylprednisolone, phenazone (antipyrine), phenytoin, rifabutin and rifampicin (rifampin), triazolam and midazolam, valproic acid (sodium valproate) and zidovudine. PMID:7576262

  2. Epigastric Distress Caused by Esophageal Candidiasis in 2 Patients Who Received Sorafenib Plus Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Weng, Meng-Tzu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lu, Yueh-Feng; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Sorafenib followed by fractionated radiotherapy (RT) has been shown to decrease the phagocytic and candidacidal activities of antifungal agents due to radiosensitization. Moreover, sorafenib has been shown to suppress the immune system, thereby increasing the risk for candida colonization and infection. In this study, we present the 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients suffered from epigastric distress caused by esophageal candidiasis who received sorafenib plus RT.Two patients who had received sorafenib and RT for HCC with bone metastasis presented with hiccups, gastric ulcer, epigastric distress, anorexia, heart burn, and fatigue. Empiric antiemetic agents, antacids, and pain killers were ineffective at relieving symptoms. Panendoscopy revealed diffuse white lesions in the esophagus. Candida esophagitis was suspected. Results of periodic acid-Schiff staining were diagnostic of candidiasis. Oral fluconazole (150 mg) twice daily and proton-pump inhibitors were prescribed. At 2-weak follow-up, esophagitis had resolved and both patients were free of gastrointestinal symptoms.Physicians should be aware that sorafenib combined with RT may induce an immunosuppressive state in patients with HCC, thereby increasing their risk of developing esophagitis due to candida species. PMID:26986168

  3. [Therapy of duodenal ulcer and pyloric ulcer with 800 mg cimetidine nightly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, K; Hentschel, E; Weiss, W; Kratochvil, P; Brandstätter, G; Menthe, W; Okulski, G

    1986-04-18

    The efficacy of cimetidine 400 mg b.i.d. as compared with a single evening dose 800 mg was evaluated in a single-blind multicentre trial involving 86 patients with endoscopically proven duodenal or pyloric ulcer. After four weeks of treatment the healing rates were 64.4% (29/45) with 400 mg cimetidine twice daily and 78% (32/41) with 800 mg nocte; after eight weeks the corresponding rates were 77.7% (35/45) and 85.3% (35/41). Administration of 800 mg cimetidine every evening is, consequently, at least as effective as a twice-daily regimen. In the second half of the treatment period it was significantly more effective in reducing pain and antacid consumption. The single noctural dose takes the pathogenetic importance of overnight gastric acidity into consideration, entails a simplification of therapy and may improve patient compliance. It should, therefore, take preference over the conventional twice-daily regimen. PMID:3521103

  4. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: estudo da imunidade intestinal em camundongos C57Bl/6j experimentalmente vacinados com taquizoitos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  5. Ivor-Lewis oesophagogastrectomy with Roux-en-Y duodenal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J; Forbat, E; Botha, A

    2016-02-01

    Oesophagectomies and gastrectomies are performed predominantly for the treatment of malignant disease. However, in this case series, we describe three patients with benign disease who had a laparoscopic oesophagogastrectomy with gastroduodenal detachment and Roux-en-Y biliary diversion, and discuss the operative feasibility and consequent patient outcomes. Our aim was to modify the procedure using an established reconstruction already practised in gastric and bariatric surgery, thereby preventing operative sequelae that lead to a poor quality of life (eg reflux oesophagitis and vomiting). During the first postoperative year, our first two patients experienced weight loss, indigestion and lower bowel symptoms with no apparent improvement in gastric function compared with a standard gastric tube pull-up reconstruction. In the longer term, in both patients, the gastric tube interpositions appeared to function well and there was no evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, delayed gastric emptying or troublesome indigestion. Our third patient, who had lifelong severe reflux symptoms, was eating normally three months after the operation with no need for antacid medication. We therefore conclude that laparoscopic Ivor-Lewis oesophagogastrectomy with Roux-en-Y bypass is a more complex reconstruction with added risks but may in the long term result in better overall outcomes and satisfaction for patients, particularly those with benign disease. PMID:26741669

  6. Formulation and Optimization of Raft Forming Chewable Tablet Containing Lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasharath M. Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lafutidine is a new histamine H2- receptor antagonist having biological half-life of 1.92 h. Due to its selective absorption from upper part of gastrointestinal tract the gastroretentive drug delivery is desired in order to enhance its bioavailability. The aim of research was to formulate chewable tablets of lafutidine along with raft forming agent, antacid and gas generating agent. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and evaluated for raft strength, acid neutralization capacity, weight variation, % drug content, and in vitro drug release. Various raft-forming agents were used in preliminary screening. A 32 full factorial design was used for optimization in present study. Amount of calcium carbonate and ratio of sodium alginate to pectin were used as independent variables while raft strength and acid neutralizations capacity were used as dependent variables. Batch F8 was selected as optimized formulation based on maximum raft strength and good acid neutralization capacity. Drug-excipients compatibility study showed no interaction between drug and excipients. Stability study of the optimized formulation showed that the tablets were stable at accelerated environmental conditions for 1 month. It was concluded that raft forming chewable tablets prepared using an optimum amount of sodium alginate, pectin and calcium carbonate could be an efficient dosage form in the treatment of gastro oesophageal reflux disease.

  7. 255Gy irradiated tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii induce intestinal immune response in C57BL/6J immunized by oral route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxoplasmosis, a prevalent widespread infection in man and animals, occurs mainly through ingestion of water and food contaminated with oocyst from cat feces, causing usually benign disease in humans, except in intrauterine fetal infection or in immunodeficient patients. We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the ME-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felids. (author)

  8. [Gastroesophageal reflux disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis and drug therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boermeester, M A; van Sandick, J W; van Lanschot, J J; Boeckxstaens, G E; Tytgat, G N; Obertop, H

    1998-06-01

    The principal mechanism leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux is an increased frequency of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations; other factors are oesophageal hypersensitivity to gastric juice, hiatus hernia, and possible duodenal reflux. Patients with classical symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation may be treated pharmaceutically combined with life style counselling. If the symptoms have not improved after 6 to 12 weeks, endoscopical examination is performed and, if necessary, 24-hour pH monitoring, barium radiographing and manometry. In the case of atypical symptoms such as dysphagia, laryngitis, asthma and chest pain, there is more reason to pursue diagnostic testing. In patients with dysphagia endoscopy is indicated to exclude malignancy. Drug treatment can be subdivided into antacids, H2 receptor antagonists, cytoprotective agents, prokinetics and proton pump inhibitors. In general practice a step-up approach to treatment is preferable, while for specialist treatment a stepdown approach is more (cost-)effective. Drawbacks of medical treatment are considerable frequency of recurrence of oesophagitis, persistence of regurgitation in 'volume refluxers' and controversial data on the possible development of (pre)malignant lesions of oesophagus and stomach. Surgical treatment is a good alternative for patients with persistent severe regurgitation during medical therapy and for young patients who prefer surgery to lifelong medication. Patients with Barrett's oesophagus should undergo regular endoscopic biopsy surveillance. PMID:9752035

  9. Oral dosing with papaya latex is an effective anthelmintic treatment for sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnan Alison A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine proteinases in papaya latex have been shown to have potent anthelmintic properties in monogastric hosts such as rodents, pigs and humans, but this has not been demonstrated in ruminants. Methods In two experiments, sheep were infected concurrently with 5,000 infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and 10,000 infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and were then treated with the supernatant from a suspension of papaya latex from day 28 to day 32 post-infection. Faecal egg counts were monitored from a week before treatment until the end of the experiment and worm burdens were assessed on day 35 post-infection. Results We found that the soluble fraction of papaya latex had a potent in vivo effect on the abomasal nematode H. contortus, but not on the small intestinal nematode T. colubriformis. This effect was dose-dependent and at tolerated levels of gavage with papaya latex (117 μmol of active papaya latex supernatant for 4 days, the H. contortus worm burdens were reduced by 98%. Repeated treatment, daily for 4 days, was more effective than a single dose, but efficacy was not enhanced by concurrent treatment with the antacid cimetidine. Conclusions Our results provide support for the idea that cysteine proteinases derived from papaya latex may be developed into novel anthelmintics for the treatment of lumenal stages of gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep, particularly those parasitizing the abomasum.

  10. Effects of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility in patients with reflux oesophagitis: a 24 hour ambulatory combined pH and manometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, W; Emde, C; Weber, B; Armstrong, D; Bettschen, H U; Huber, T; Scheurer, U; Blum, A L; Halter, F; Merki, H S

    1993-08-01

    The effect of ranitidine and cisapride on acid reflux and oesophageal motility was investigated in 18 patients with endoscopically verified erosive reflux oesophagitis. Each patient was treated with placebo, ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) plus cisapride (20 mg twice daily) in a double blind, double dummy, within subject, three way cross over design. Oesophageal acidity and motility were monitored under ambulatory conditions for 24 hours on the fourth day of treatment, after a wash out period of 10 days during which patients received only antacids for relief of symptoms. Acid reflux was monitored by a pH electrode located 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Intraoesophageal pressure was simultaneously recorded from four transducers placed 20, 15, 10, and 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter. Upright reflux was three times higher than supine reflux (median (range) 13.3 (3.7-35.0)% v 3.7 (0-37.6)% of the time with pH upright reflux (p conventional dose of ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) can be improved to more than 60% by combination with cisapride (20 mg twice daily). The cisapride induced increase in oesophageal contractile force and propagation velocity seems to enhance the clearance of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Combination of a histamine H2 receptor antagonist with a prokinetic agent may therefore provide an alternative treatment for reflux oesophagitis. PMID:8174947

  11. A survey on Candida colonization prevalence in patients with gastritis, duodenitis and peptic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "S.J. Hashemi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prolonged antiacid and antibiotic usage in gasterointestinal diseases may predispose candidial colonization in GI tract. In order to isolate and diagnose of candida infections in patients with gastritis, duodenitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, this study have been planned. Methods: We studied 300 biopsy specimens of patients referred to hospital, 51.7% of the patients were male and the others were female. The isolated fungi were identified by direct examination and culture of specimens. Results: Forthy four cases of yeasts were isolated in this investigation. Isolated yeasts have been identified as follows: 26 cases of C.albicance , I case C.tropicalis, 2 cases of C.krusei, and finally 1 case of unknown yeast. Conclusion: All the patients had a positive history of long lasting antacid taking for gastric ulser or gastritis. Candidiasis must be investigated in patients with gastritis, duodenitis and gastric ulcer, who are refractory to classic therapies and also in patients who have the chronic disease .

  12. Risks of Using Bedside Tests to Verify Nasogastric Tube Position in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Ni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasogastric (NG tubes are commonly used for enteral feeding. Complications of feeding tube misplacement include malnutrition, pulmonary aspiration, and even death. We built a Bayesian network (BN to analyse the risks associated with available bedside tests to verify tube position. Evidence on test validity (sensitivity and specificity was retrieved from a systematic review. Likelihood ratios were used to select the best tests for detecting tubes misplaced in the lung or oesophagus. Five bedside tests were analysed including magnetic guidance, aspirate pH, auscultation, aspirate appearance, and capnography/colourimetry. Among these, auscultation and appearance are non-diagnostic towards lung or oesophagus placements. Capnography/ colourimetry can confirm but cannot rule out lung placement. Magnetic guidance can rule out both lung and oesophageal placement. However, as a relatively new technology, further validation studies are needed. The pH test with a cut-off at 5.5 or lower can rule out lung intubation. Lowering the cut-off to 4 not only minimises oesophageal intubation but also provides extra safety as the sensitivity of pH measurement is reduced by feeding, antacid medication, or the use of less accurate pH paper. BN is an effective tool for representing and analysing multi-layered uncertainties in test validity and reliability for the verification of NG tube position. Aspirate pH with a cut-off of 4 is the safest bedside method to minimise lung and oesophageal misplacement.

  13. Management of hypophosphatemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, C. W.; Johnson, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    The etiology, clinical presentation, and management of hypophosphatemia are reviewed. Phosphorus is a major intracellular anion and plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiologic functions. Approximately 60 to 90% of the 1 to 1.5 g of daily dietary phosphorus intake is absorbed, and of that amount, about two thirds is excreted in the urine. The overall incidence of hypophosphatemia is about 2 to 3% of all hospitalized patients. Factors associated with hypophosphatemia include phosphate-binding antacid therapy, nasogastric suction, liver disease, sepsis, alcoholism, and acidosis associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. Patients receiving parenteral nutrient solutions were also at higher risk for hypophosphatemia before the routine supplementation of these formulations with phosphate. Patients with hypophosphatemia may be asymptomatic or may experience weakness, malaise, anorexia, bone pain, and respiratory arrest. The major systems involved include the neuromuscular, hematologic, and skeletal systems. Phosphorus-containing products used to treat hypophosphatemia are a combination of monobasic and dibasic phosphate salts. Therefore, it is essential to calculate doses in millimoles rather than milligrams or milliequivalents to more accurately reflect the phosphorus concentration and to avoid potentially serious dosage errors. Normal daily requirements are readily maintained by dietary sources of phosphorus such as milk products or may be supplemented by phosphate-containing products administered orally or intravenously. Since phosphorus is a key factor in many organ systems, it is essential to monitor serum phosphorus concentrations in patients at risk for hypophosphatemia.

  14. Clinical analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Qu Deng; Yong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical analysis associated pneumonia in elderly ventilator. Methods:Through January 2011 to December 2013 in our hospital 165 cases of ventilator therapy in elderly patients with clinical data were retrospectively analyzed, discussed ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly risk factors, clinical symptoms, and the distribution of pathogens analysis of drug resistance.Results: The patient's age, sex, APACHE score, the incidence of aspiration, sedation and antacids, ventilator time were higher in patients (P<0.05); pathogens of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly by high to low order of Pseudomonas aerations, Acinetobacter sop, etc.; pathogens commonly used in clinical antimicrobial drug resistance is higher.Conclusion:Take the risk factors associated pneumonia ventilator for elderly corresponding measures to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, which Gram-negative bacteria as cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the elderly is an important pathogen occurs, the clinical course of treatment should be combined with a reasonable choice of antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  15. Where c-14 urea breath tests lie in nuclear medicine. The detection of H pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 20th century, ulcers have been believed to be caused by stress and dietary factors. Treatment had focussed on hospitalisation, bed rest, and prescription of special bland foods. Later on, gastric acid was blamed for ulcer disease. Antacids and medication that block acid production became the standard of therapy. Despite this treatment, there seemed to be a high recurrence of ulcers. In 1982 a pair of Australian physicians Robin Warren and Barry Marshall were first to identify a link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ulcers, concluding that bacterium, not stress or diet, causes ulcers. However, the medical community was slow to accept their findings. It was not until 1994 that a Health Consensus Development Conference concluded that there was a strong association between H. pylori and ulcer diseases also recommending ulcer patients with H. pylori infection be treated with antibiotics. The paper discusses several tests, which have become available to medical staff in the detection of H. pylori. Sensitivity, specificity, relatively inexpensive ease of use and patient compliance are factors of a good diagnostic test. Copyright (2000) ANZ Nuclear Medicine

  16. Effect of sucralfate on gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients may have accelerated gastric emptying (GE) suggesting that there is an increase in unbuffered gastric acid reaching the duodenum contributing to DU disease. Aluminum-containing antacids were shown to delay GE. The authors' aim was to investigate whether another aluminum-containing compound, Sucralfate, affects GE in normal and DU patients. Nine normal volunteers and 10 patients with documented DU disease were studied. For each test the subject ingested a meal composed of chicken liver Tc-99m-S-C mixed with beef stew and eaten with 4 oz. of water labelled with 100μCi of III-in-DTPA. On two separate days, subjects received 1 gram of Sucralfate (190 mg of aluminum per gram) or placebo in a randomized double-blind fashion one hour prior to the test meal. GE of liquids and solids in normal subjects was not significantly changed by Sucralfate. Sucralfate in the DU patients significantly slowed liquid emptying in the initial 40 min and solid food throughout the study compared to placebo (p<0.05). This paper summarizes that; GE of solids but not liquids is accelerated in DU patients compared to normal subjects; and sucralfate delays GE of both liquid and solid components of a meal in DU patients but has no effect on GE in normals. The authors conclude that a slowing of gastric emptying possibly mediated by aluminum ions, may be one mechanism by which Sucralfate enhances healing and decreases recurrence of DU

  17. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  18. 影响慢性胃炎发展为胃癌的相关因素分析%Analysis of related factors in the development of chronic gastritis to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the related factors in the development of chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, and to explore effective preventive measures. Methods Ninety-two patients with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in our hospital from November 2011 to November 2014 were selected as observation group. And 92 patients who were diag-nosed with only chronic gastritis by gastroscope and pathological examination during the same period were selected as control group. The influence factors in the development of chronic gastritis to gastric cancer were analyzed by single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results The related factors included pickles, hot food, mildew foods, fried foods, smoking, drinking, breakfast, diet, daily salt intake, intermittent use of acid and antacid drugs, history of digestive disease (P<0.05). Taking the above factors into logistic multivariate regression analysis, the result showed that pickles, mildew food, fried food, irregular diet, a history of digestive disease were risk factors in the development of chronic gastritis to gastric cancer, and that continuous use of acid and antacid drugs were protection factors (P<0.05). Conclusion The development of chronic gastritis to gastritis cancer is mainly related to eating habits, history of diges-tive disease. Good diet can reduce the risk of cancer in patients with chronic gastritis.%目的:研究慢性胃炎发展为胃癌的影响因素,探讨有效的预防措施。方法选择2011年11月至2014年11月在我院接受治疗的慢性胃炎合并胃癌患者92例作为观察组。选取同期经胃镜和病理学检查确诊为慢性胃炎的患者92例作为对照组。用单因素分析和Logistic回归分析慢性胃炎发展为胃癌的影响因素。结果慢性胃炎发展为胃癌与腌菜、烫食、霉变食品、油炸食品饮酒、吸烟、早餐、饮食规律、每日摄盐量、间断使用抑酸和制酸药物、消化道病史等因素有关(P<0.05)。将上

  19. Societal Burden and Correlates of Acute Gastroenteritis in Families with Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pijnacker, Roan; Heusinkveld, Moniek; Enserink, Remko; Zuidema, Rody; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infection morbidity remains high amongst preschool children in developed countries. We investigated the societal burden (incidence, healthcare utilization, and productivity loss) and correlates of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in families with preschoolers. Monthly for 25 months, 2000 families reported AGE symptoms and related care, productivity loss, and risk exposures for one preschooler and one parent. Amongst 8768 child-parent pairs enrolled, 7.3% parents and 17.4% children experienced AGE (0.95 episodes/parent-year and 2.25 episodes/child-year). Healthcare utilization was 18.3% (children) and 8.6% (parents), with 1.6% children hospitalized. Work absenteeism was 55.6% (median 1.5 days) and day-care absenteeism was 26.2% (median 1 day). Besides chronic enteropathies, antacid use, non-breastfeeding, and toddling age, risk factors for childhood AGE were having developmental disabilities, parental occupation in healthcare, multiple siblings, single-parent families, and ≤12-month day-care attendance. Risk factors for parental AGE were female gender, having multiple or developmentally-disabled day-care-attending children, antimicrobial use, and poor food-handling practices. Parents of AGE-affected children had a concurrent 4-fold increased AGE risk. We concluded that AGE-causing agents spread widely in families with preschool children, causing high healthcare-seeking behaviours and productivity losses. Modifiable risk factors provide targets for AGE-reducing initiatives. Children may acquire some immunity to AGE after one year of day-care attendance. PMID:26917406

  20. Acid-Base Buffering Properties of Five Legumes and Selected Food in vitro

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    Maher M. Al-Dabbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: in vitro acid-Buffering Capacity (BC values of 5% (dry matter aqueous homogenized suspension of five legumes (broad bean, lentils, chickpea, kidney bean and lupine and of selected antacid home preparations (cow's milk, almond, peanut, licorice, carob and lettuce stem were investigated within and among samples from their respective initial pH until pH was decreased to 1.5. BC was the highest for cow's milk, carob, licorice and lettuce stem (BC values 1.65-1.97, intermediate for almond and peanut (BC values, 1.37-1.64 and the lowest for selected legumes (0.84-1.36. Approach: The purpose of this study was to measure in vitro the buffering capacity potential of legumes and other foods commonly used in Jordan as heartburn remedies to determine the ability of these products to de-acidify, neutralize acid, or increase pH levels of an acid and a base solution. Results: BC of the studied legumes showed positive and strong correlations, with protein, aspartic and glutamic amino acids contents (R = 0.95, 0.94, 0.89, respectively and relatively weak correlation with phosphorus content (R = 0.38. Conclusion/Recommendations: The differences in BC within and among studied samples were largely due to the differences in their chemical compositions. Protein, fiber, ash, organic acids and aspartic and glutamic acids contents and alkalinity of ashes showed significant BC, while high fat content in almond and peanut failed to show considerable BC.

  1. Sporadic salmonellosis in Lower Saxony, Germany, 2011-2013: raw ground pork consumption is associated with Salmonella Typhimurium infections and foreign travel with Salmonella Enteritidis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenbacher-Riefler, S; Ziehm, D; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A; Pulz, M; Dreesman, J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate risk factors for sporadic salmonellosis, for each notified case four randomly selected population controls matched for age, sex and geographical region were interviewed via self-administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression analysis of 285 matched pairs revealed significant associations for raw ground pork consumption [odds ratio (OR) 6·0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·8-20·1], taking antacids (OR 5·8, 95% CI 1·4-24·5), eating meat outside the home (OR 5·7, 95% CI 2·2-14·6) and daily changing or cleaning of dishcloth (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2-3·9). Animal contact and ice cream consumption were negatively associated with salmonellosis (OR 0·5, 95% CI 0·2-1 and OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·1-0·6, respectively). S. Typhimurium infections were significantly associated with raw ground pork consumption (OR 16·7, 95% CI 1·4-194·4) and S. Enteritidis infections with having travelled abroad (OR 9·7, 95% CI 2·0-47·3). Raw egg consumption was not a risk factor, substantiating the success of recently implemented national control programmes in the poultry industry. Unexpectedly, hygienic behaviour was more frequently reported by cases, probably because they overestimated their hygiene precautions retrospectively. Although animal contact might enhance human immunocompetence, underreporting of salmonellosis by pet owners could have occurred. Eating raw pork products is the major risk factor for sporadic human S. Typhimurium infections in Lower Saxony. PMID:25626727

  2. Study on Drug Prescribing Pattern in Dengue Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital – A tool to teach Clinical Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Atif Beg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim: Dengue fever (DF is the most common arboviral infection of mankind gaining global attention. Data about drug usage patterns in DF in India are lacking.The present study was undertaken to analyze drug utilization pattern of dengue infections to teach certain basic skills to MBBS students which will form an integral component of practising rational therapeutics. Methods: A total no of 122 cases were followed up by the 5th semester 2nd Professional undergraduate students in the department of pharmacology at hospital wards of SGRRIM &HS, Dehradun from June 2012 to July 2014. Patients were analysed on various parameters using WHO drug use indicators and National List of Essential Medicines. Results: A total of 122 prescriptions were analyzed. Male:Female ratio was (72.95%, 27.05% Age wise distribution of patients was done: 0-15 years were 9 (7.34%, 16-30 years were 45(36.88%, 31-45 years were 46(37.70%, 46-60 years were 18 (14.75% and >60 years were 4 (3.28%. A total of 614 drugs were prescribed. 169(27.52% antimicrobials, 99(16.12% antipyretics, 91(14.82% antacids, 65(10.59% multivitamins, 55(8.96% antiemetics and 135(21.99% in miscellaneous category were prescribed. 243(40.23% oral drugs and 361(59.77% injectable drugs were prescribed. 5.03 drugs per prescription were prescribed. 377(62.42% drugs were prescribed from National Essential Medicine List.100% drugs were prescribed by brand names. Conclusion: Majority of the drugs were prescribed from national essential medicine list. As the incidence of DF is increasing with epidemics, the demand for specific treatment guidelines is in great need.

  3. 255Gy irradiated tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii induce intestinal immune response in C57BL/6J immunized by oral route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez; Alves, Janaina Baptista [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Parasitoses Sistemicas]. E-mail: hiramoto@usp.br; Carmo, Claudia Villano do; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de [Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Protozoologia]. E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a prevalent widespread infection in man and animals, occurs mainly through ingestion of water and food contaminated with oocyst from cat feces, causing usually benign disease in humans, except in intrauterine fetal infection or in immunodeficient patients. We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the ME-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 10{sup 7} 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felids. (author)

  4. Towards safer and more predictable drug treatment--reflections from studies of the First BCPT Prize awardee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2012-03-01

    This MiniReview is a personal recollection of selected research topics, which the author in collaboration with colleagues has studied, aiming to improve the predictability of drug therapy. In early studies, we found bi- and trivalent cations to reduce the absorption of various tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. Certain antacids elevated the bioavailability of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and sulphonylureas. Various brands of phenytoin tablets revealed great differences in their bioavailability, causing clinical consequences. Numerous factors affecting the antidotal effect of activated charcoal were also studied, with charcoal compared to other gastrointestinal decontamination methods, including ipecac and gastric lavage. Effect of age and diseases on the pharmacokinetics of drugs was a research topic. Acute sotalol intoxications revealed its QT-prolonging properties, and even small mixed overdoses of moclobemide with serotonergic drugs proved fatal. Itraconazole and other potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 could drastically increase exposure to drugs like midazolam, triazolam, buspirone, lovastatin, simvastatin and oxycodone, whereas rifampicin greatly reduced their plasma concentrations. A change from potent inhibition to induction caused a 400-fold change in the exposure to oral midazolam. CYP2C8 was revealed to be crucial in the metabolism and interactions of several drugs. Many interactions affecting statins are CYP3A4-mediated, but transporters are important in certain interactions. Tizanidine is very susceptible to CYP1A2 inhibition. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice can raise or lower exposure to different drugs. Both drug interactions and pharmacogenetics can modify the activity of cell membrane transporters and cause variability in the pharmacokinetics of and response to their substrate drugs. PMID:22348413

  5. Drug utilization pattern in outpatient department of Government Medical College and C.P.R. Hospital, Kolhapur

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    Rama R. Bhosale

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug utilization studies are used to analyze different aspects of the use of drugs and to implement methods of improving therapeutic quality. This study was conducted to study drug prescription pattern in outpatient department of Government Medical College and C.P.R. Hospital, Kolhapur which is one of the important medical college in western Maharashtra. Methods: One thousand prescriptions were screened & analyzed as per the study parameters from OPD of Government Medical College & C.P.R. Hospital, Kolhapur. Study parameters like demographic profile of the patient like age, sex and diagnosis were recorded. Also groups of drugs commonly prescribed, number of drugs per patient, drug profile and drawbacks of prescription if any were recorded and analyzed. Results: Most common group of drugs prescribed by physicians was Analgesics (32.83%, followed by Antimicrobials (22.82%, Multivitamins (16.42% and Antacids (9.14%. The average number of drugs prescribed per patient was four; the average number of analgesic was one. The incidence of polypharmacy was common occurrence and some prescriptions had small drawbacks like absence of diagnosis, absence of doctor’s signature, etc. Conclusions: We conclude that most of the prescriptions which were analyzed at R.C.S.M. Government Medical College and C.P.R. Hospital, Kolhapur, were according to the standard norms of WHO prescriptions and also most of the drugs prescribed were from the list of essential drug list. But still there is scope for improvement in prescription pattern. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 403-406

  6. Current and Prospective Pharmacotherapies in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

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    Long Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is very common and is a costly problem to manage. The annual direct cost for managing the disease is estimated to be more than $9 billion dollars in the USA. In western populations, 25% of people over age 30 report having heartburn at least once a month, 12% at least once per week, and 5% describe daily symptoms. However, the prevalence of the disease tends to be underestimated, with unrecognized GERD occurring in more than 50% of patients seen in general practice for unrelated conditions. GERD is defined as symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux of gastric contents against the gradient of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES pressure into the distal esophagus, leading to impaired quality of life and other complications. The disease is thought to be caused by reduced pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES and delayed gastric emptying. It is well-recognized that GERD is associated with a variety of clinical syndromes and that it is frequently a chronic condition, often requiring long-term maintenance therapy. It can be subdivided into erosive esophagitis (EE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD. Patients with NERD have no mucosal breaks in the esophagus, but have typical reflux symptoms. The spectrum of upper gastrointestinal complications of GERD includes erosive esophagitis, stricture and Barrett’s esophagus, which may increase the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Treatment options available for GERD range from over-the-counter (OTC antacids to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs and anti-reflux endoscopic procedures and surgery. This article will review each of the pharmacotherapeutic options, including new developments in proton pump inhibitor isomers, potassium competitive acid blockers and endoscopic therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  7. Drogas antituberculose: interações medicamentosas, efeitos adversos e utilização em situações especiais - parte 2: fármacos de segunda linha Antituberculosis drugs: drug interactions, adverse effects, and use in special situations - part 2: second line drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Abdo Arbex

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos principais do tratamento da tuberculose são curar o paciente e minimizar a possibilidade de transmissão do bacilo para indivíduos saudáveis. Reações adversas ou interações das drogas antituberculose entre si e com outros fármacos podem causar modificação ou descontinuação da terapêutica. Descrevemos os mecanismos gerais de ação, absorção, metabolização e excreção dos medicamentos utilizados no tratamento da tuberculose multidroga resistente (aminoglicosídeos, fluoroquinolonas, cicloserina/terizidona, etionamida, capreomicina e ácido para-aminossalicílico. Descrevemos as reações adversas e as interações (com medicamentos, alimentos e antiácidos assim como a abordagem mais adequada para situações especiais, como gravidez, amamentação, insuficiência hepática e renal.The main objectives of tuberculosis therapy are to cure the patients and to minimize the possibility of transmission of the bacillus to healthy subjects. Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs or drug interactions (among antituberculosis drugs or between antituberculosis drugs and other drugs can make it necessary to modify or discontinue treatment. We describe the general mechanism of action, absorption, metabolization, and excretion of the drugs used to treat multidrug resistant tuberculosis (aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, cycloserine/terizidone, ethionamide, capreomycin, and para-aminosalicylic acid. We describe adverse drug reactions and interactions (with other drugs, food, and antacids, as well as the most appropriate approach to special situations, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, liver failure, and kidney failure.

  8. A low cost method to produce a gaseous environment for the isolation of Helicobacter pylori Un método de bajo costo para producir el ambiente gaseoso para el aislamiento de Helicobacter pylori

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    Francisco Hernández

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A low cost method (LCM to produce a gaseous environment for the isolation of Helicobacter pylori, was compared with the standard Gas Park system. The LCM uses a carbonated antacid tablet, a plastic bag with tap water, a candle, and a wide-mouthed glass jar provided with a tight-fitting metalic screw cap and a rubber gasket. Antral gastric biopsies from 153 cases were incubated by duplicate on blood agar plates and treated with the two methods. In 95 cases the agent was isolated from both, and only from the standard method in 10 cases; the opposite condition was found in five cases, and 43 were negative. That difference is not significant (Pearson's X²= 93.25 p > 0,05Se comparó un método de bajo costo (MBC para producir el ambiente gaseoso para el aislamiento de Helicobacter pylori, con el sistema estándar de gas Pak. El MBC usa una tableta carbonata de antiácido, una bolsa plástica con agua, una candela y un frasco de vidrio con boca ancha, provisto de tapa metálica de rosca con empaque de hule. Las biopsias de antro de 153 pacientes se inocularon por duplicado en platos de agar sangre y se incubaron bajo los dos sistemas. En 195 casos el agente se aisló de ambos platos, y sólo del incubado bajo el método estándar en diez casos; la condición opuesta se presentó en cinco casos; 43 casos fueron negativos. Esa diferencia no es significativa (X² de Pearson = 93,25 p > 0,05

  9. Hypercalcemia Associated with Calcium Supplement Use: Prevalence and Characteristics in Hospitalized Patients

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    Maria C. Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ingestion of large amounts of milk and antacids to treat peptic ulcer disease was a common cause of hypercalcemia in the past (the “milk-alkali syndrome”. The current popularity of calcium and supplements has given rise to a similar problem. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of hypercalcemia induced by calcium intake (“calcium supplement syndrome”; or CSS in hospitalized patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective; electronic health record (EHR-based review of patients with hypercalcemia over a 3-year period. Diagnosis of CSS was based on the presence of hypercalcemia; a normal parathyroid hormone (PTH level; renal insufficiency; metabolic alkalosis; a history of calcium intake; and documented improvement with treatment. Results: Of the 72 patients with non-PTH mediated hypercalcemia; 15 (20.8% satisfied all the criteria for the diagnosis of CSS. Calcium; vitamin D; and multivitamin ingestion were significantly associated with the diagnosis (p values < 0.0001; 0.014; and 0.045 respectively; while the presence of hypertension; diabetes; and renal insufficiency showed a trend towards statistical significance. All patients received intravenous fluids; and six (40% received calcium-lowering drugs. The calcium level at discharge was normal 12 (80% of patients. The mean serum creatinine and bicarbonate levels decreased from 2.4 and 35 mg/dL on admission respectively; to 1.6 mg/dL and 25.6 mg/dL at discharge respectively. Conclusion: The widespread use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation can manifest as hypercalcemia and worsening of kidney function in susceptible individuals. Awareness among health care professionals can lead to proper patient education regarding these health risks.

  10. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Concepts of Proton Pump Inhibitors as Antifibrotic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebre, Yohannes T; Raghu, Ganesh

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of abnormal acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in matched control subjects. Several studies demonstrated that more than one-third of patients with IPF have abnormal esophageal acid exposures. In addition, many of these studies indicate that the majority of patients with IPF have silent reflux with no symptoms of GER. Findings of abnormal reflux persist in a large proportion of patients with IPF placed on antacid therapy such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). This seemingly paradoxical observation suggests that either patients with IPF are somehow resistant to PPI-based intervention or PPIs are inherently unable to suppress acid GER. By contrast, patients with IPF who undergo Nissen fundoplication surgery are effectively relieved from the complications of GER, and retrospective studies suggest improved lung function. Retrospective, anecdotal data suggest a beneficial role of PPIs in IPF including stabilization of lung function, reduction in episodes of acute exacerbation, and enhanced longevity. The recent evidence-based guidelines for treatment of IPF approved conditional recommendation of PPIs for all patients with IPF regardless of their GER status. Recently, we have reported that PPIs possess antiinflammatory and antifibrotic activities by directly suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, profibrotic proteins, and proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Our study provides an alternative explanation for the beneficial effect of PPIs in IPF. In this Perspective, we reviewed emerging progress on antifibrotic effect of PPIs using IPF as a disease model. In addition, we summarized surgical and pharmacological interventions for GER and their downstream effect on lung physiology. PMID:27110898

  11. Over-the-Counter Medication Use, Perceived Safety, and Decision-Making Behaviors in Pregnant Women

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    Katie L. Kline, Pharm.D. Candidate 2011

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine which over-the-counter (OTC medications women are using during pregnancy, and to assess patients’ perceived safety of these medications. In addition, the decision-making process utilized by pregnant women when choosing OTC drug therapy was explored, including sources of information and recommendation. The subjects included pregnant women 18 years and older. Subjects were solicited as a convenience sample by providing surveys in two urban women’s clinic waiting rooms. Of the 61 respondents, 96.3% had used an OTC medication, herbal, or vitamin during their current pregnancy. The most common products included prenatal vitamins, acetaminophen, cough drops, antacids, calcium, vitamin D, and DHA. The majority of women surveyed regarded over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and herbals as “safe, but would talk to a healthcare professional before using.” The most utilized sources of drug information during pregnancy were a physician (68.9%, midwife (55.7%, and the Internet (44.3%. There were an equal number of respondents obtaining general OTC information from apharmacist as from their family and friends (26.2%. Almost all subjects had used an over-the-counter medication during their pregnancy and the majority considered OTCs safe after first consulting a healthcare professional. Although a high percentage of subjects have obtained their information and recommendations from healthcare professionals, a very small proportion of subjects had utilized a pharmacist as a resource. Being drug experts and easily accessible members of the healthcare team, pharmacists have a responsibility to aid the obstetric population in the appropriate and safe use of over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and herbals during pregnancy.

  12. Intern’s knowledge of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics at Puducherry: a cross-sectional study

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    Nitya S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internship is the intermediate period between under-graduation and general practice. The dexterity of health professional relies upon prescribing practices. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT is a crucial discipline for interns to acquire safe and rational prescription of drugs. Cultivating sound knowledge about CPT during under graduation is, henceforth, mandatory. Aims and objectives: 1.To assess whether the undergraduate CPT teaching and internship training had prepared interns adequately for safe and rational prescription. 2.To assess the awareness and reporting of adverse drug reaction (ADR. Methods: 110 interns were enrolled after obtaining informed written consent. A structured questionnaire was given to them including basic demographic information, undergraduate CPT teaching, experience of ADR and any deficiency in the under-graduate CPT teaching. Results: Response rate was 91 % in which 53 were males and 47 females. 81 considered themselves aware of CPT. 56% & 57% interns were able to prescribe drug safely and rationally respectively. Without supervision, they were confident to prescribe antacids (93%, vitamins and minerals (90%, NSAIDS (85%, antihistamines (82%, antibiotics (75%, antiemetics (62% and antiasthmatics (52%. Only 22% had reported ADR and opined that it could lead to hospitalization (51%, prolonged hospital stay (33%, morbidity (16% and death (21%. According to interns, the topics where more emphasis needed were ADR, dosage calculation, pediatric and emergency medicine and therapeutic drug monitoring during undergraduate CPT teaching. Conclusion: CPT teaching should be improved at undergraduate level for safe and rational prescribing including ADR monitoring, ADR reporting and dosage calculation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 622-628

  13. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF SELF-MEDICATION PRACTICES AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG HOUSEWIVES IN RURAL AREAS OF ERNAKULAM DISTRICT

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    Kesley Elsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Self-medication can be defined as obtaining and consuming drugs without the advice of a physician. There is a lot of public and professional concern about the irrational use of drugs in Self Medication. Even if self-medication helps in reducing the burden on the health care system to a certain extent, it can lead to severe problems like antimicrobial resistance and addictions. This study will provide useful insight on the reasons for which patients resort to this practice and might help the policy makers and regulatory authorities to streamline the process of drug regulations and safety issues of over-the-counter drugs. This study also focuses on the attitude of people, who follow the practice of self-medication. Self-medication in modern pharmaceuticals seems to be a field in which information is scarce and to the best of our knowledge there is limited research conducted to reveal the extent of this problem in our community. OBJECTIVE To find out the prevalence of self-medication among housewives and to study the associated factors in rural areas of Ernakulum district. METHODOLOGY The rural areas selected for the study was the field areas of MOSC Medical College, Kolencherry; 163 subjects were studied (With P=71% from a study conducted on self-medication practices in coastal regions of South India. 1 . Cluster sampling was used to select subjects and data was collected using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire from those who signed the informed written consent. Data was entered using EPI INFO software and analysis was done using appropriate statistical tools. (Prevalence, probabilities, confidence limits were calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of self-medication among housewives was 57.67% and included analgesics (81.9%, antacids (31.91% and antibiotics were only used by 4.26%.

  14. Study of polypharmacy and associated problems among elderly patients

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    Shalini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at the assessment of prescribing pattern for elderly patients, since they are more prone to prescription of multiple medications. The prescription of multiple medications leads to polypharmacy, more adverse drug reactions and non-adherence to treatment. The study was conducted on OPD basis in a rural health centre for a period of six months. Information pertaining to the age, sex, religion, monthly income, education level, any previous illnesses, or any chronic diseases, any drug treatment, adherence to the treatment, and self medication or non-allopathic treatment was collected. The study included 310 elderly patients, among which 51.9% were males and 48.1% were females. The prevalence of polypharmacy was 25.20%, more among elderly men (26.10% than women (24.20%, the odds ratio (OR was 1.11. The major fraction 35.81% of the patients was in the age group of 60-64 years. Only 59.3% were literate. 64.41% belonged to lower socioeconomic status. The cardiovascular diseases 139 (44.83 % followed by arthritis 121 (39.03%, and diabetes 58 (18.71% were the most common ailments. Anti-hypertensive drugs were prescribed in 26.13%, analgesics/antipyretics in 19.68%, and anti-diabetic drugs in 18.71%. Non-adherence to therapy was seen in 49.68%. Self medication habits were seen in 23.90% patients, who most commonly used analgesics/antipyretics and antacids/anti-ulcer drugs. Polypharmacy is very common among elderly and interventions to improve the optimal use of medication in elderly could lead to reduction in the problems associated with polypharmacy.

  15. Perioperative fasting and children: A review article

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    Bahareh Imani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the present knowledge on the aspects of preoperative fasting with the assessment of the evidence quality. A systematic research was conducted in electronic databases in order to identify trials published between 1990 and 2014 concerning preoperative fasting, early resumption of oral intake and the effects of oral carbohydrate mixtures on gastric emptying and postoperative recovery. The publications were classified in terms of their evidence level, scientific validity and clinical relevance. The key recommendations are that children be encouraged to drink clear fluids within up to 2 hours before elective surgery (including Caesarean section and all but one member of the guideline groups consider that tea or coffee, with milk added (up to about one fifth of the total volume, are still clear fluids .Furthermore, solid food consumption should be prohibited for up to 6 hours before elective surgery for children. However, patients should not have their operation cancelled or delayed only because they are chewing gums or sucking a boiled sweet immediately prior to the induction of anaesthesia. These recommendations also apply to those patients with obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux and diabetes. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of antacids, metoclopramide or H2-receptor antagonists before elective surgery in non-obstetric patients. Infants should be fed before elective surgery. Breast milk is considered a safe option for up to 4 hours and other kinds of milk for up to 6 hours. The present review takes into account the safety and possible benefits of preoperative carbohydrates while offering advice on the postoperative resumption of oral intake.

  16. Effect of famotidine on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor

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    Upreti VV

    2013-04-01

    underlying conditions (eg, achlorhydria, or by gastrointestinal pH-mediated effects of other histamine H2-receptor antagonists, antacids, or proton pump inhibitors. Given that famotidine is also an inhibitor of the human organic cation transporter (hOCT, these results indicate that apixaban pharmacokinetics are not influenced by hOCT uptake transporter inhibitors. Overall, these results support that apixaban can be administered without regard to coadministration of gastric acid modifiers. Keywords: apixaban, factor Xa inhibitor, famotidine, H2-receptor antagonists, hOCT inhibitor, drug–drug interaction

  17. Prevalence of symptoms of gastroesopahgeal reflux in a cohort of Saudi Arabians: A study of 1265 subjects

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    Majid A Almadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the general population of the capital city of Riyadh and to assess its association with other factors including age, smoking, body mass index (BMI, asthma, as well as the presence of other co-morbid diseases. Materials and Methods: We used the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire (GerdQ for diagnosing GERD, based on a GerdQ score of 8 or more. Riyadh was divided into four quadrants, and from each area, a single shopping mall was chosen randomly to conduct our surveys. Data collected included age, sex, history of smoking, history of asthma or any other medical condition, dietary habits, monthly household income, history and frequency of heartburn, epigastric pain, regurgitation of food, nausea, sleep disturbance from heartburn, the use of common over-the-counter antacids for the control of their symptoms, and their height and weight. Results: Over a 4-week period from the 19 December 2012 to 17 January 2013, a total of 1265 individuals were included in the survey. The mean age was 29.97 ± 11.58 years. Females formed 67.81% of the respondents and 62.73% had one or more episodes of heartburn per week. Based on a cutoff GERDQ score of 8, the prevalence of GERD in the surveyed population was 45.4%. GERD was more prevalent in older individuals (mean age 31.9 vs. 30.0 years, P < 0.001 and in those with a higher BMI (27.29 vs. 26.31 kg/m 2 , P = 0.02. There was no difference between males (45.43% and females (45.13% (P = 0.92; there was a trend of a higher prevalence in smokers (51.63% vs. 44.41%, but it did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09. Conclusion: Symptoms suggestive of GERD as determined by the translated GerdQ are prevalent among this study population.

  18. Perioperative fasting in adults and children: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ian; Kranke, Peter; Murat, Isabelle; Smith, Andrew; O'Sullivan, Geraldine; Søreide, Eldar; Spies, Claudia; in't Veld, Bas

    2011-08-01

    This guideline aims to provide an overview of the present knowledge on aspects of perioperative fasting with assessment of the quality of the evidence. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify trials published between 1950 and late 2009 concerned with preoperative fasting, early resumption of oral intake and the effects of oral carbohydrate mixtures on gastric emptying and postoperative recovery. One study on preoperative fasting which had not been included in previous reviews and a further 13 studies published since the most recent review were identified. The searches also identified 20 potentially relevant studies of oral carbohydrates and 53 on early resumption of oral intake. Publications were classified in terms of their evidence level, scientific validity and clinical relevance. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network scoring system for assessing level of evidence and grade of recommendations was used. The key recommendations are that adults and children should be encouraged to drink clear fluids up to 2 h before elective surgery (including caesarean section) and all but one member of the guidelines group consider that tea or coffee with milk added (up to about one fifth of the total volume) are still clear fluids. Solid food should be prohibited for 6 h before elective surgery in adults and children, although patients should not have their operation cancelled or delayed just because they are chewing gum, sucking a boiled sweet or smoking immediately prior to induction of anaesthesia. These recommendations also apply to patients with obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux and diabetes and pregnant women not in labour. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of antacids, metoclopramide or H2-receptor antagonists before elective surgery in non-obstetric patients, but an H2-receptor antagonist should be given before elective caesarean section, with an intravenous H2-receptor antagonist given prior to emergency

  19. Does Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer prevent gastric cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katsuhiro Mabe; Mikako Takahashi; Haruhumi Oizumi; Hideaki Tsukuma; Akiko Shibata; Kazutoshi Fukase; Toru Matsuda; Hiroaki Takeda; Sumio Kawata

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori ) eradication therapy for treatment of peptic ulcer on the incidence of gastric cancer. METHODS: A multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted between November 2000 and December 2007 in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The study included patients with H pylori -positive peptic ulcer who decided themselves whether to receive H pylori eradication (eradication group) or conventional antacid therapy (non-eradication group). Incidence of gastric cancer in the two groups was determined based on the results of annual endoscopy and questionnaire surveys, as well as Yamagata Prefectural Cancer Registry data, and was compared between the two groups and by results of H pylori therapy. RESULTS: A total of 4133 patients aged between 13 and 91 years (mean 52.9 years) were registered, and 56 cases of gastric cancer were identified over a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. The sex- and age-adjusted incidence ratio of gastric cancer in the eradication group, as compared with the non-eradication group, was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.28-1.19) and ratios by follow-up period (< 1 year, 1-3 years, > 3 years) were 1.16 (0.27-5.00), 0.50 (0.17-1.49), and 0.34 (0.09-1.28), respectively. Longer follow-up tended to be associated with better prevention of gastric cancer, although not to a significant extent. No significant difference in incidence of gastric cancer was observed between patients with successful eradication therapy (32/2451 patients, 1.31%) and those with treatment failure (11/639 patients, 1.72%). Among patients with duodenal ulcer, which is known to be more prevalent in younger individuals, the incidence of gastric cancer was significantly less in those with successful eradication therapy (2/845 patients, 0.24%) than in those with treatment failure (3/216 patients, 1.39%). CONCLUSION: H pylori eradication therapy for peptic ulcer patients with a mean age of 52.9 years at registration did not significantly decrease the

  20. Drogas antituberculose: interações medicamentosas, efeitos adversos e utilização em situações especiais - parte 1: fármacos de primeira linha Antituberculosis drugs: drug interactions, adverse effects, and use in special situations - part 1: first-line drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Abdo Arbex

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos principais do tratamento da tuberculose são curar o paciente e minimizar a possibilidade de transmissão do bacilo para indivíduos saudáveis. Reações adversas ou interações das drogas antituberculose entre si e com outros fármacos podem causar modificação ou descontinuação da terapêutica. Revisamos sucintamente o novo tratamento farmacológico da tuberculose introduzido pelo Ministério da Saúde do Brasil em 2009 e mostramos os mecanismos gerais de ação, absorção, metabolização e excreção dos medicamentos utilizados no esquema básico. Descrevemos as reações adversas e as interações (com medicamentos, alimentos e antiácidos assim como a abordagem mais adequada para situações especiais, como gravidez, amamentação, insuficiência hepática e renal. Também descrevemos os mecanismos pelos quais as interações das drogas antituberculose do esquema básico podem causar hepatite medicamentosa e as possíveis alternativas nessa situação.The main objectives of tuberculosis therapy are to cure the patients and to minimize the possibility of transmission of the bacillus to healthy subjects. Adverse effects of antituberculosis drugs or drug interactions (among antituberculosis drugs or between antituberculosis drugs and other drugs can make it necessary to modify or discontinue treatment. We briefly review the new guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of tuberculosis, introduced by the Brazilian National Ministry of Health in 2009, and describe the general mechanism of action, absorption, metabolization, and excretion of the first-line drugs used in the basic regimen. We describe adverse drug reactions and interactions (with other drugs, food, and antacids, as well as the most appropriate approach to special situations, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, liver failure, and kidney failure. We also describe the mechanisms by which the interactions among the antituberculosis drugs used in the basic regimen

  1. Serotonin receptor 3A polymorphism c.-42C > T is associated with severe dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobbee Diederick E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between anxiety and depression related traits and dyspepsia may reflect a common genetic predisposition. Furthermore, genetic factors may contribute to the risk of having increased visceral sensitivity, which has been implicated in dyspeptic symptom generation. Serotonin (5-HT modulates visceral sensitivity by its action on 5-HT3 receptors. Interestingly, a functional polymorphism in HTR3A, encoding the 5-HT3 receptor A subunit, has been reported to be associated with depression and anxiety related traits. A functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT, which terminates serotonergic signalling, was also found associated with these psychiatric comorbidities and increased visceral sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome, which coexistence is associated with higher dyspeptic symptom severity. We investigated the association between these functional polymorphisms and dyspeptic symptom severity. Methods Data from 592 unrelated, Caucasian, primary care patients with dyspepsia participating in a randomised clinical trial comparing step-up and step-down antacid drug treatment (The DIAMOND trial were analysed. Patients were genotyped for HTR3A c.-42C > T SNP and the 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 5-HTT promoter (5-HTTLPR. Intensity of 8 dyspeptic symptoms at baseline was assessed using a validated questionnaire (0 = none; 6 = very severe. Sum score ≥20 was defined severe dyspepsia. Results HTR3A c.-42T allele carriers were more prevalent in patients with severe dyspepsia (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06-2.20. This association appeared to be stronger in females (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.25-3.39 and patients homozygous for the long (L variant of the 5-HTTLPR genotype (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.01-3.94. Females with 5-HTTLPR LL genotype showed the strongest association (OR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.37-8.90. Conclusions The HTR3A c.-42T allele is associated with severe dyspeptic symptoms. The stronger association among

  2. Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Future Challenges

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    K Eftekhari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs are a common problem in children. These disorders in children are classified into the following categories according to the ROME III classification: Functional Dyspepsia, Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, Abdominal Migraines, Childhood Functional abdominal pain (FAP, Childhood functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional constipation. FGIDs are diagnosed based on history and normal physical examination provided that there is no evidence of underlying disease such as anatomical abnormalities, infectious, inflammatory and malignancies. This group of poorly defined diseases represent a huge treatment challenge to the specialist, because, until now there is no therapy that has been effective in improving the symptoms. FGIDs also cause deep family problems as the disease interrupts their routine and positive response to treatment is rarely seen. On the other hand there is no objective document of the disease neither endoscopic, radiologic nor pathologic. Therapeutic strategies of FGIDs are: education and parent's assurance, detection and modifying physical and psychological stress, dietary intervention, pharmacological treatment, psychotherapy and other complementary medical treatments. Some foods may trigger the illness such as coffee, fatty foods and spicy foods, therefore they should be avoided. Lactose-free diet cannot improve symptoms of FGIDs, except in children with lactose intolerance. The beneficial effect of fiber supplement in children with FGIDs remains unknown but it has been useful in adults with IBS. Probiotics have potential efficacy in treating IBS but the efficacy in children with FGIDs remains uncertain and needs to be further studied. In patients with severe symptoms, pharmacological agents can be effective. These drugs include Antacids, Prokinetics, Anticholinergic, Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAS and Serotonergic agents (Agonists and anti agonists. Psychotherapy in FAP and IBS is

  3. 肺癌患者术后院内肺部感染的相关因素分析%Risk Factors of Postoperative Nosocomial Pneumonia after Lung Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常涛; 张铸

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors of postoperative nosocomial pneumonia in patients after lung cancer surgery, and propose corresponding preventive measures. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical records of 720 patients who underwent surgical resection for lung cancer in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between June 2003 and June 2012. There were 460 males and 260 females with their average age of 60.37(17 to 83) years. Univariate analysis and multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate independent risk factors of postoperative nosocomial pneumonia in patients after lung cancer surgery. Results Univariate analysis showed that postoperative nosocomial pneumonia was related to 9 risk factors: age eld than 60 years (χ2=26.67, P=0.000), diabetes mellitus (DM,χ2=34.46, P=0.000), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, χ2=59.30, P=0.000), long-term history of heavy smoking (χ2= 10.40, P=0.001), duration of antacid therapy (χ2=7.69, P=0.006), operation time χ2=38.12, P=0.000), surgical strategy (χ2=4.22, P=0.040), duration of mechanical ventilation (χ2=21.86, P=0.000), and significant incision pain χ2=19.69, P=0.000), while preoperative lung function, antibiotic prophylaxis and intraopera-tive blood loss were not related to postoperative nosocomial pneumonia. Multivariate analysis showed that 8 factors were independent risk factors of postoperative nosocomial pneumonia including age eld than 60 years (χ2=5.43, P=0.020), DM χ2=8.61, P=0.003), COPD(χ2=9.15, P=0.002), long-term history of heavy smoking (χ2=5.48, P=0.019), long-term antacid therapy (χ2= 13.21, P=0.000), operation time (χ2=5.36, P=0.021), duration of mechanical ventilation (χ2=5.72, P=0.017), and significant incision pain (χ2=3.87, P=0.049). Conclusion Patients after lung cancer surgery are susceptible to postoperative nosocomial pneumonia. Proper preventive measures targeting at the characteristics and

  4. Etiology and Risk Factors of Acute Gastroenteritis in a Taipei Emergency Department: Clinical Features for Bacterial Gastroenteritis

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    Chao-Chih Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The causative pathogen is rarely identified in the emergency department (ED, since the results of cultures are usually unavailable. As a result, antimicrobial treatment may be overused. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathogens, risk factors of acute gastroenteritis, and predictors of acute bacterial gastroenteritis in the ED. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study of 627 stool samples and 612 matched pairs. Results: Viruses (41.3% were the leading cause of gastroenteritis, with noroviruses (32.2% being the most prevalent, followed by bacteria (26.8% and Giardia lamblia (12.4%. Taking antacids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57–6.53, household members/classmates with gastroenteritis (aOR 4.69; 95% CI, 2.76–7.96, attending a banquet (aOR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.64–3.20, dining out (aOR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13–2.54, and eating raw oysters (aOR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.61–5.94 were highly associated with gastroenteritis. Elders (aOR 1.04; 05% CI, 1.02–1.05, those with CRP >10 mg/L (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62, or those who were positive for fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.15–3.62 or fecal occult blood (aOR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.03–3.77 were more likely to be hospitalized in ED. In addition, presence of fecal leukocytes (time ratio [TR] 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06–1.41, abdominal pain (TR 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07–1.41, and frequency of vomiting (TR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.98 were significantly associated with the duration of acute gastroenteritis. Presence of fecal leukocytes (aOR 2.08; 95% CI, 1.42–3.05, winter season (aOR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28–0.74, frequency of diarrhea (aOR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.01–2.83, and eating shrimp or crab (aOR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.05–2.23 were highly associated with bacterial gastroenteritis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the final model was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55–0.63. Conclusions: Acute bacterial gastroenteritis was highly associated with

  5. When Coke Is Not Hydrating: Cocaine-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaa Aldeen, Mohammed; Talibmamury, Nibras; Alalusi, Sumer; Nadham, Omar; Omer, Abdel Rahman; Smalligan, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old African American man was admitted with 4 days of back pain, nausea and vomiting, and low urine output. There was no history of fever, dysuria, frequency, hesitancy, viral symptoms, trauma, rash, or constipation. Despite his past medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia he denied taking any medications for 18 months, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, or antacids. He denied smoking and alcohol but admitted to cocaine use. No significant FH. Physical examination results were as follows: BP 235/125 mm Hg, heart rate 90 beats/min, temperature 98°F, O2 saturation normal; lungs and heart normal, abdomen soft but bilateral costovertebral angle tenderness. Neurological examination was normal. Laboratory tests yielded the following results: creatinine (Cr) 10.5 mg/dL (1.2 mg/dL in 2010), blood urea nitrogen 63 mg/dL, glucose 151 mg/dL, Ca 9.4 mg/dL, PO4 6.1 mg/dL, Hgb 15 g/dL, white blood cells (WBC) 9100, platelets 167 000, amylase/lipase normal, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) normal, bilirubin 1.4 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 39 IU/L, creatine phosphokinase 127 µg/L. Hepatic panel, C- and P-ANCA (cytoplasmic- and perinuclear-antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies, respectively), anti-GBM (anti-glomerular basement membrane), antimyeloperoxidase, antinuclear antibody, and Helicobacter pylori were all negative. C3, C4 normal, urinalysis: 2+ blood, no white blood cells or eosinophils, no casts, no albumin, negative for nitrate/leukocyte esterase and bacteria. Imaging: chest radiograph, abdominal radiograph, computed tomography of the abdomen, electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiography were all normal. Course. The patient's urine output declined from 700 to 400 cm(3)/d and the on third day he required hemodialysis with Cr 14 mg/dL. Renal biopsy showed typical findings of interstitial nephritis. The patient was dialyzed for 10 days and responded to steroids and went

  6. When Coke Is Not Hydrating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibmamury, Nibras; Alalusi, Sumer; Nadham, Omar; Omer, Abdel Rahman; Smalligan, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old African American man was admitted with 4 days of back pain, nausea and vomiting, and low urine output. There was no history of fever, dysuria, frequency, hesitancy, viral symptoms, trauma, rash, or constipation. Despite his past medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia he denied taking any medications for 18 months, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, or antacids. He denied smoking and alcohol but admitted to cocaine use. No significant FH. Physical examination results were as follows: BP 235/125 mm Hg, heart rate 90 beats/min, temperature 98°F, O2 saturation normal; lungs and heart normal, abdomen soft but bilateral costovertebral angle tenderness. Neurological examination was normal. Laboratory tests yielded the following results: creatinine (Cr) 10.5 mg/dL (1.2 mg/dL in 2010), blood urea nitrogen 63 mg/dL, glucose 151 mg/dL, Ca 9.4 mg/dL, PO4 6.1 mg/dL, Hgb 15 g/dL, white blood cells (WBC) 9100, platelets 167 000, amylase/lipase normal, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) normal, bilirubin 1.4 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 39 IU/L, creatine phosphokinase 127 µg/L. Hepatic panel, C- and P-ANCA (cytoplasmic– and perinuclear–antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies, respectively), anti-GBM (anti–glomerular basement membrane), antimyeloperoxidase, antinuclear antibody, and Helicobacter pylori were all negative. C3, C4 normal, urinalysis: 2+ blood, no white blood cells or eosinophils, no casts, no albumin, negative for nitrate/leukocyte esterase and bacteria. Imaging: chest radiograph, abdominal radiograph, computed tomography of the abdomen, electrocardiography, and transthoracic echocardiography were all normal. Course. The patient’s urine output declined from 700 to 400 cm3/d and the on third day he required hemodialysis with Cr 14 mg/dL. Renal biopsy showed typical findings of interstitial nephritis. The patient was dialyzed for 10 days and responded to steroids

  7. Analysis of drug use for treating peptic ulcer in our hospital during 2008-2010%2008-2010年我院抗消化性溃疡用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒晓科; 脱鸣富; 王奕玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查分析我院2008-2010年抗消化性溃疡药使用情况,为临床合理用药、药品采购提供参考.方法:收集2008-2010年我院药品出库数据,采用Microsoft Excel 2000统计分析方法.按抗消化性溃疡的药物类别、品种、剂型、国产或进口、使用进口药的医生职称来统计药物销售金额,DDDs及用药频度.结果:我院抗消化性溃疡药以质子泵抑制剂(PPI)为主,片剂和注射剂是常用给药形式,国产药占主导地位,初级职称医生使用进口药品较多.在常用药中,PPI类的兰索拉唑片、注射用泮托拉唑钠和注射用奥美拉唑;H2受体拮抗剂类的复方盐酸雷尼替丁胶囊;抗酸药类的铝碳酸镁咀嚼片;胃黏膜保护剂类的胶体果胶铋胶囊和复方谷酰胺颗粒的DDDs和销售金额较高.结论:PPI及国产药是我院抗消化性溃疡用药的主体.但是日用费用相对较高,存在一定大处方现象.%Objective: To investigate and analyze the use of peptic ulcer medicines in our hospital during 2008 -2010, providing reference for the clinically rational use of drugs and drug procurement. Methods: The drug outbound data in our hospital during 2008 -2010 were collected, and the Microsoft excel was used for statistical a-nalysis. The drug classes, drug varieties, dose forms, domestic and imported, use of imported drugs by different title doctors, statistics of the drug sales amount, DDDs and drug use frequency were analyzed. Results: H+ pump inhibitors was the priority of peptic ulcer medicines in our hospital, tablet and injection were the commonly used dose forms, domestic medicines were dominant, and primary title doctors used more imported drugs. The frequently used drugs included the H + pump inhibitors (lansoprazole tablets, and pantoprazole and omeprazole injections) , the H2 receptor antagonists ( compound ranitidine hydrochloride capsules) , the antacids like aluminum magnesium carbonate chewable tablets, and the

  8. Effect of antidepressant treatment on water load test and cortisol changes in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that patients with functional dyspepsia have experiences social life stress events, and accompanied by psychological disorders, mainly manifested as depression and anxiety.Mental factors can lead to excessive gastrointestinal consensual reaction, and result in different brain-gut axis disturbance, and then cause the gastrointestinal sensorimotor abnormality and endocrine changes.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of antidepressant treatment on the changes of water load and serum cortisol in patients with functional dyspepsia, and analyze the therapeutic mechanism.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: The First Affiliated Hospital o Zhengzhou University.PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five patients with functional dyspepsia accompanied by depression were selected from the Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from July 2004 to July 2006, and they were 25 - 65 years of age, and their disease courses ranged 1 - 10 years. They were all accorded with the diagnostic standards for Rome Ⅱ functional dyspepsia functional dyspepsia. As the patients' will, they were divided into treatment group (n =30, 12 males and 18 females) and control group (n =15, 6 males and 9 females), and there were no significant differences in the data between the two groups (P > 0.05). The programs were discussed and agreed by the committee of medical ethics of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Informed contents were obtained from all the patients.METHODS: In the treatment group, the patients were treated with venlafaxine sustained release capsule (75 mg per day), and those with sleep disorder were added by benzodiazepines (alprazolam). In the control group, the patients were given routine treatments of antacid, prokinetics, etc. Before and after 8-week treatment, the following examinations were performed: ① The gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed according to the symptoms; ② The severity of

  9. Evaluation of geochemical characteristics and health effects of some geophagic clays southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, A S; Olajide-Kayode, J O; Abimbola, A F

    2014-12-01

    , hypertension and cardiac failure with minor cases of respiratory tract infections. The high concentrations of the PHEs may be responsible for or contribute in part to the prevalence of hypertension, cardiac failures and gastrointestinal problems within the study areas. Though the kaolinite present in the geophagic clays makes them suitable for use as traditional antacids; however, the toxic trace element concentrations and significant quartz content will most likely mask the beneficial effects of such kaolinite. PMID:24817614

  10. ICU呼吸机相关肺炎防治的临床研究%Clinical Research on Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣兵

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨重症加强治疗病房(Intensive Care Unit,ICU)呼吸机相关肺炎(ventilator-associated pneumonia,VAP)的发病机制、易感致病因素及防护措施。方法回顾性分析本院ICU收治的112例呼吸机使用患者,收集患者临床详细资料,同时收集患者的口咽部、声门下分泌物、呼吸道痰液以及胃液进行培养和药敏检测,分析VAP的病源和危险因素,探讨其防治措施。结果 VAP患者的病原菌主要为G-菌,年龄、患者身体素质、呼吸机持续时间、口腔洁净度、鼻胃管是否滞留、糖皮质激素、制酸剂、抗菌药物的使用等为其易感因素。结论菌群易位或比例失调是VAP发病的主要机制,胃-咽-下呼吸道的逆行感染为VAP的重要感染途径,此外,还受患者年龄、体质及药物使用等影响,可以通过调控其易感因素有效控制VAP的发病率。%Objective To investigate the pathogenesis, pathogenic factors, and protective measures of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in ICU. Methods Study on 112 patients with VAP in ICU, collected their age, sex, duration of ventilation, surgery and medication; then collected the secretions of oropharyngeal and subglottic, respiratory mucus and gastric juice with a quantitative method cultured and their antibiotic susceptibility was detected. Analysed the source of the disease and risk factors of VAP, and its prevention measures. Results Pathogenic bacteria of VAP in ICU mostly were G-, the predisposing factors were age, the physical of Patients, ventilator duration, oral cleanliness, nasogastric tube is stranded, corticosteroids, antacids, use of antimicrobial drugs. Conclusion The pathogenesis of VAP is bacterial translocation or imbalance, the important route of infection is retrograde infection of stomach-pharynx-the lower respiratory tract. In addition, the patient's age, physical fitness, and drug use are influencing factors. By regulating the

  11. Vitamin C improves the apparent absorption of levothyroxine in a subset of patients receiving this hormone for primary hypothyroidism La vitamina C mejora la absorción aparente de levotiroxina en ciertos pacientes que reciben esta hormona por hipotiroidismo primario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Antúnez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As in some patients with hypothyroidism, because of unknown reasons, large doses of levothyroxine are required to achieve a therapeutic endpoint, and preliminary observations have indicated that an hypoacidic gastric environment is associated with a reduction in levothyroxine bioavailability, and that co-administration of vitamin C might enhance absorption of certain drugs, we assessed whether this effect would be obtained taking levothyroxine with vitamin C. Design: We studied 28 patients (24 women and 4 men, age range 26-76 years; mean 48.0 ±17.75 treated with levothyroxine at doses of >1.70 µg/kg but failing to achieve their target TSH level. During the control period, each patient had at least two determinations of TSH indicating inadequate dosage. Interfering factors that could alter levothyroxine absorption such as celiac disease, calcium, iron, or antacid use, among others, and non-compliance were excluded. During the study period, the patients continued on the same dose of levothyroxine but took the tablet with 1 g of vitamin C in 200 cc of tap water, instead of the same volume of water alone. Serum TSH levels were prospectively measured 6-8 weeks after starting co-administration with vitamin C, and two months later. Main outcome: After six-eight weeks of taking levothyroxine with vitamin C, serum TSH decreased in all 28 patients (average reduction 69.79 ±22.19 %, and the target or desired level of TSH was achieved in 19/28 patients. The difference between TSH levels before and after treatment with vitamin C was significant: Basal TSH (IFMA was 9.01 ±5.51 mIU/L vs. a mean TSH on vitamin C treatment of 2.27 ±1.61mIU/L (pComo algunos pacientes con hipotiroidismo requieren altas dosis de levotiroxina para lograr el objetivo terapéutico, y existen observaciones de que el medio gástrico hipoacídico se asocia a reducción en la biodisponibilidad de la levotiroxina, y que la coadministración de vitamina C puede mejorar la absorción de

  12. Analysis of the risk factors of gastrointesital esophageal reflux disease and its clinical features.%胃食管反流病相关危险因素及诊疗特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋绚; 王淑杰; 张素巧; 李萌; 李加宁; 吕宗昌; 刘玉兰

    2011-01-01

    GERD cases,29. 6% had pharyngeal and respiratory symptoms, significantly higher than non-GERD cases (x2 = 37. 6, P < 0. 01). 26. 3% GERD cases took antacid drugs,9. 3% of which took proton pump inhibitors,and 40% cases were not satisfied with the treatment. 7 years later,307 cases received follow-up 7 years later. 44. 0% of the GERD cases still suffered from significant symptoms. Conclusion GERD is common in GI department of comprehensive hospitals. Olde age, physical work and excessive drinking are risk factors of GERD. Symptoms of GERD are hard to control and mostly combining with extra-esophageal manifestations, and would last for years in half of the cases.

  13. Inhibition of gastric acid secretion by a standardized aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth and underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, C; Cysneiros, R M; Tanae, M M; Torres, L M B; Lima-Landman, M T R; Lapa, A J

    2008-06-01

    F were assayed on gastric acid secretion of pylorus-ligated mice, on acute models of gastric mucosal lesions, and on rabbit gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase preparations. Intraduodenal injection of AE or BuF (0.5-2.0g/kg, i.d) produced a dose-related decrease of the basal gastric acid secretion in 4-h pylorus-ligated mice. At 1.0g/kg, BuF decreased the volume (28%) and total acidity (33%) of the basal acid secretion, and reversed the histamine (2.5mg/kg, s.c.)- or bethanecol (1.0mg/kg, s.c.)-induced acid secretion to basal values, indicating inhibition of the gastric proton pump. Pretreatment of mice with the BuF (0.05-0.5g/kg, p.o.) protected against gastric mucosal lesions induced by 75% ethanol, indomethacin (30mg/kg, s.c.) or restraint at 4 degrees C. BuF also decreased the gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro proportionately to the concentration (IC(50)=58.8microg/ml). The compounds isolated from BuF, consisting mainly of cathechins, procyanidins and flavonoids [Tanae, M.M., Lima-Landman, M.T.R., De Lima, T.C.M., Souccar, C., Lapa, A.J., 2007. Chemical standardization of the aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii Sneth endowed with antihypertensive, bronchodilator, antacid secretion and antidepressant-like activities. Phytomedicine 14, 309-313], inhibited the in vitro gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase activity at equieffective concentrations to that of BuF. The results indicate that C. glazioui constituents inhibit the gastric proton pump; this effect may account for the effective antisecretory and antiulcer activities of the standardized plant extract. PMID:18462931

  14. Varnish XT和ICON渗透树脂对釉质龋白斑微硬度的影响%Effect of Varnish XT and ICON resin infiltration treatment on the microhardness of white spot lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭静; 赵晓一; 吴佩玲

    2014-01-01

    to fil the region of enamel demineralization and prevent further development of lesions. OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of two minimaly invasive surgical treatment materials, Varnish XT and ICON penetrating resin, on the microhardness of enamel caries white spot. METHODS:Totaly 100 incisors of cows were selected, embedded with ethoxyline resin and polished. The lip side facing down served as the observation side. An area of at least 6 mm×10 mm on the enamel face was exposed, and there were five regions from incisal to dental cervix, A, B, C, D, E. After demineralization liquid for artificial caries, no treatment was adopted in region A, treatment with Varnish XT was for region B, treatment with ICON penetrating resin for region C, treatment with fluoride for region D, and region E was sealed with antacid nail. Surface micro-hardness was detected. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: After demineralization, surface micro-hardness of regions A, B, C, D decreases remarkably as compared with region E (P B and D for surface micro-hardness with statistical significance (P 0.05). ICON resin infiltration, Varnish XT and fluoride have obvious improvement effects on surface micro-hardness, and ICON resin infiltration is superior to Varnish XT and fluoride.

  15. Prevalência do uso de medicamentos na gravidez e relações com as características maternas Prevalence of use of medicines during pregnancy and its relationship to maternal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila R O Gomes

    1999-06-01

    growing use of industrially produced medicines even during the female reprodutive cycle. During pregnancy two organisms are exposed to the effects of medicines but in the foetus this may result in toxicities with possible irreversible lesions. The present study aims at verifying the prevalence of the use of medicines during pregnancy in the studied population and its relationship with maternal characteristics, the pharmacological groups used and the source of prescription. METHODS: The use of medication was evaluated among 1,620 women that gave birth in five public, private and contracted hospitals in the city of S. Paulo between July and September 1993. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The relation between maternal schooling and kind of assistance in hospitals has revealed social inequality in the access to the several kinds of delivery assistance services. The prevalence of use of at least one medicine was 97.6% with an average of 4.2 drugs per woman. The prevalence of use of drugs by medical prescription and self-medication were 94.9% and 33.5%, respectively. The most used medications, excluding vitamins, mineral salts and vaccines, were analgesics, antacids, antispasmodics and antemetics. Users of the largest number of medicines were, characteristically, over 29, married, of university level, salaried workers and had access to private health services. Medical assistance had a facilitating role in access to the use of drugs during the gestational period of the population studied. Women need to be made aware of the potential risks they expose their foetuses to when using so many medicines. Physicians should reflect on their role in contributing to the solution to this problem.

  16. Estoque domiciliar de medicamentos na comunidade ibiaense acompanhada pelo Programa Saúde da Família, em Ibiá-MG, Brasil Drug storage at home in the community assisted by the Family Health Programme in Ibiá, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ângela Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    á, state of Minas Gerais. The purpose was to describe users' characteristics, storage conditions, therapeutic classes and pharmaceutical forms, the origin of the drugs, as well as the cost of the drugs provided by the Public Health System. A total number of 285 households were visited from July to September 2004. It was verified that the average number of drugs per household was 8.4 and that 93.5% of the surveyed families had at least one sort of drug in stock. The most stored drugs were: analgesics (11.15%, diuretics (6.42%, antibacterials for systemic use (5.82%, anti-inflamatory drugs (5.08% and antacids (4.10%. Although there is a considerable number of drugs stored in the households, the number of drugs without prescription coming from the Public Health System was small. This is a good consequence of the Pharmaceutical Assistance services in the municipality. On the other hand, it was prescription (self-medication. In addition, 18.5% of the drugs were no longer valid for use. Part of the drug storage at home results from prescriptions in amounts that are higher than what is necessary for treatment (20.0%, from non-completion of the prescribed treatment (17.0% and from acquisition of drugs for self-medication (9.0%.The study suggests the need to educate users in relation to drugs utilization and storage, and the need to systematize data records in order to manage the resources more efficiently, which will lead to adequate decisions related to the Pharmaceutical Assistance policy.

  17. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  18. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    compare results with their classmates by use of a flip chart on which the results are summarized. Their purpose the first week is to identify one or two classmates who share the same sample. The second week, authentic samples are provided, and the teams identify their common unknown by comparison of its properties with the knowns. We encourage final comparison to be on a quantitative basis. 2. In "Properties of Antifreeze-Water Mixtures", each student is assigned a weight percent and prepares a mixture of ethylene glycol and water of that composition. He or she then measures its initial boiling point, density, and viscosity (falling ball method). The class data are entered into spreadsheets and printouts of all class data are provided before the students leave. The second week, they are given an unknown mixture and determine its composition by whatever measurements they choose to use, in comparison with the aggregated class data. Despite large scatter in the class data, 80% of the students identify the unknown composition to within 5%. 3. In the three-week group of exercises dealing with aspirin, students synthesize a sample of aspirin the first week by a standard method. During the next two weeks, they analyze their product and commercial samples by two different methods, which allows comparison of convenience and reliability of the two methods as well as comparison of the samples themselves. Similarly, two complementary methods are used in determining calcium in antacids later on. 4. In "Identification of Plastics", plastic packaging materials, identified initially by their recycling codes, are characterized according to density, solubility, and responses to heating. The behavioral profiles are then used to identify unknown plastic samples. 5. Similarly, in "Textiles and Dyeing", samples of six common fibers, both natural and human-made, are subjected to a battery of tests involving elemental composition, chemical behavior, solubility in organic solvents, and response