WorldWideScience

Sample records for ansto

  1. The priorities for ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Australia's major centre of expertise in nuclear science, technology and its applications, ANSTO's priorities take account of the stated strategic and tactical needs of its various stakeholders, which in turn are considered as the Government (as owner), industry - including the health sector, the academic and research community and the public at large. Its priorities also take account of the opportunities perceived by its own staff in the light of the organisation's strengths, the activities of the international scientific, technology and industry community and a rapidly changing socioeconomic environment where environmental management and social accountability are becoming as important as fiscal responsibility and accountability

  2. ANSTO - achievements and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the opening keynote address to the conference, Professor Helen Garnett, Executive Director of ANSTO, outlined the Organisation's main achievements and its future directions. In the ten years which have elapsed since its inception in 1987, ANSTO has evolved into a forward thinking, proactive nuclear science and technology Organisation. Its vision for the future is for nuclear science and technology to be accepted as benefiting all Australians and for ANSTO to be acknowledged as the premier nuclear science and technology organisation within the Asia Pacific Region. At the same time the organisation has continually reviewed and evaluated what it was doing and how it was doing. At the end of its first decade, it has enhanced the productivity from its research and development activities, received a positive evaluation on the impact that the application of this knowledge is having on the minerals and other industrial sectors, and focussed its research and development into a few areas where substantial teams of ANSTO staff, working cooperatively with staff from universities, other national organisations and industry, can have significant impact. ANSTO now has four parallel activities: the conduct of research and development, the provision of expert technical advice, the operation of national nuclear facilities and the commercial marketing of products and services. The recent announcement by Australian Government to replace HIFAR reactor with a leading medium flux reactor facility, will enable ANSTO to develop world class capability in selected areas of neutron science and to became an acknowledged regional centre, particular in cold neutron science

  3. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  4. ANSTO - Program of Research 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report outlines the planned research and development activities for 1994-1995 in five major research units: Advanced Materials, Applications of Nuclear Physics, Biomedicine and Health, Environmental Sciences and the Safety and Reliability Centre. A list of recent publication originated from ANSTO`s scientific and engineering activities is also included. ills.

  5. ANSTO. Annual Report 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Organizational highlights during the period under review could be summarised as follow: ANSTO`s mission review identified three main objectives for the organization, namely, support for the Government`s nuclear policies; contribution towards industrial competitiveness and innovation; and the development of a high quality nuclear science base through maintenance of unique facilities and expertise to which academic institutions and other scientific organizations can have access. ANSTO became full partner in the Australian Centre for mine site rehabilitation research. An innovative arsenic treatment process was developed by ANSTO scientists through the Cooperative Research Centre for waste management and Pollution Control Ltd. Record sales by Australian Radioisotopes were announced, while the National Medical Cyclotron met most of Australia`s needs for cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals, thus reducing reliance on imports. New strategies for Communications and Information Management have been developed as an essential element in supporting ANSTO`s scientific and commercial activities. The Government reaffirmed its support for the concept of Triennium Funding for ANSTO, which provided financial certainty and facilitated longer planning of resource allocations. ills., tabs.

  6. ANSTO. Annual report 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks and activities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) are reviewed. Five priority areas of research have been identified which warrant the investment of resources in order to achieve national priorities: advanced ceramics, crystal and molecular structures, processing and utilisation of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals waste management. The main achievements are briefly outlined. Detailed financial statements are also included. External revenues from the private sector represented 77% of the total revenue while export earnings were 6.3%. ANSTO has achieved a revenue level of 30.3% of its total appropriation, well ahead of the timetable set by Government for revenue earning by ANSTO. tabs., ills

  7. ANSTO strategic plan 1988-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Strategic Plan outlines the development of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation in the five year period 1988/89-1992/93. Its formulation is a continuation of the corporate planning process, initiated after the promulgation of the ANSTO Act in April 1987, which culminated in the publication of the ANSTO Corporate Plan, 1987. The Plan constitutes the basis for the development of business plans for each sector of the Organisation

  8. AMS radiocarbon chemistry at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demystify the `black box` of AMS chemistry. For many, a sample is sent and eventually a date is received. Little is known of what happens to the sample beyond that it is treated chemically and then measured in the tandem accelerator. In this overview I will discuss the fate of your radiocarbon samples once they have arrived here at ANSTO with a focus on the chemistry. The AMS measurement of radiocarbon samples has been discussed previously (Lawson 1999). There are three main aims when it comes to the chemistry: 1) to remove extraneous carbon, ie contamination, 2) to convert the carbon to a form suitable for measurement in the tandem accelerator and 3) not to contaminate the sample while doing 1 and 2. Before measurement the sample goes through a number of distinct stages, these being registration, pretreatment, carbon extraction, graphitisation and pressing. Of these I am going to deal mainly with the pretreatment stage, as it is at this stage that contamination is removed for which the accuracy of the final measurement is dependant 12 refs.

  9. AMS radiocarbon chemistry at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to demystify the 'black box' of AMS chemistry. For many, a sample is sent and eventually a date is received. Little is known of what happens to the sample beyond that it is treated chemically and then measured in the tandem accelerator. In this overview I will discuss the fate of your radiocarbon samples once they have arrived here at ANSTO with a focus on the chemistry. The AMS measurement of radiocarbon samples has been discussed previously (Lawson 1999). There are three main aims when it comes to the chemistry: 1) to remove extraneous carbon, ie contamination, 2) to convert the carbon to a form suitable for measurement in the tandem accelerator and 3) not to contaminate the sample while doing 1 and 2. Before measurement the sample goes through a number of distinct stages, these being registration, pretreatment, carbon extraction, graphitisation and pressing. Of these I am going to deal mainly with the pretreatment stage, as it is at this stage that contamination is removed for which the accuracy of the final measurement is dependant

  10. ANSTO's future plans for nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are four key themes in ANSTO's future plans for nuclear science and technology: 1) ANSTO plans for the future - within its established 'core business areas', following a rigorous process, and incorporating extensive interaction with organisations around Australia and overseas. 2) The replacement research reactor (RRR) - a Major National Research Facility and the cornerstone of ANSTO's future activities. 3) A number of business development initiatives that have been launched by ANSTO over the past year, under the banner of Good science is good business at ANSTO. 4) ANSTO involvement in the national research priorities that the Prime Minister announced last December, in particular, by pursuing new research in the security and forensics area; its contribution to the 'Safeguarding Australia' national research priority. The Replacement Research Reactor now under construction will make an enormous difference to the work that ANSTO can undertake, and that others can perform using ANSTO's facilities

  11. ANSTO - program of research 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direction and priorities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) research program are outlined. During the period under review. Many of the initiatives of previous years come to fruition, adding significant strength and dimension to the Organisation's research capabilities. The advent of Australian Supercomputing Technology, a joint venture between Fujitsu Australia and ANSTO, will enable the grand challenges of computational science to underpin Ansto research generally but specifically in environmental science. The development of the accelerator mass spectrometry facilities on the tandem accelerator supported new initiatives in environmental research and management. The National Medical Cyclotron opens a new era in radiopharmaceutical research and development. Finally, the recently commissioned hot isostatic press provides a unique national resource for the development of new ceramics and their applications. The direction and priorities of Ansto's research program are determined through a combination of external and internal review. The Program Advisory Committees provide external evaluation against national objectives. New Committees have been formed and membership reflects the national and international nature of the ANSTO research programs. ills

  12. ANSTO. Annual Report 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organizational highlights during the period under review could be summarised as follow: ANSTO's mission review identified three main objectives for the organization, namely, support for the Government's nuclear policies; contribution towards industrial competitiveness and innovation; and the development of a high quality nuclear science base through maintenance of unique facilities and expertise to which academic institutions and other scientific organizations can have access. ANSTO became full partner in the Australian Centre for mine site rehabilitation research. An innovative arsenic treatment process was developed by ANSTO scientists through the Cooperative Research Centre for waste management and Pollution Control Ltd. Record sales by Australian Radioisotopes were announced, while the National Medical Cyclotron met most of Australia's needs for cyclotron produced radiopharmaceuticals, thus reducing reliance on imports. New strategies for Communications and Information Management have been developed as an essential element in supporting ANSTO's scientific and commercial activities. The Government reaffirmed its support for the concept of Triennium Funding for ANSTO, which provided financial certainty and facilitated longer planning of resource allocations. ills., tabs

  13. Licensing of ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a general description of the licensing of the 20 MW Pool-type Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) currently being built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at their Lucas Heights site. The following aspects will be addressed: 1) The influence of ARPANSA's (the Australian regulator) Regulatory Assessment Principles and Design Criteria on the design of the RRR. 2) The Site Licence Application, including the EIS and the supporting siting documentation. 3) The Construction Licence Application, including the PSAR and associated documentation. 4) The review process, including the IAEA Peer Review and the Public Submissions as well as ARPANSA's own review. 5) The interface between ANSTO, INVAP and ARPANSA in relation to the ongoing compliance with ARPANS Regulation 51 and 54. 6) The future Operating Licence Application, including the draft FSAR and associated documentation. These aspects are all addressed from the point of view of the licensee ANSTO and the RRR Project. Particular emphasis will be given to the way in which the licensing process is integrated into the overall project program and how the licensing and regulatory regime within Australia influenced the design of the RRR. In particular, the safety design features that have been incorporated as a result of the specific requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator will be briefly described. The paper will close with a description of how the RRR meets, and in many aspects exceeds the requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator. (author)

  14. ANSTO - Annual Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of achievements during 1996-1997 at the Australian Nuclear Science and technology (ANSTO) include: release of the new ANSTO Strategic Plan for the period till June 2000 and the establishment of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Board. In accordance with the Strategic Plan, ANSTO has continued to focus its activities in six core business areas. The major outcomes and outputs of this work are outlined. The majority of ANSTO strategic research was directed at several topics launched during the year, including: international cooperative research to enhance safety of nuclear facilities and safeguards for nuclear materials, environmental dynamics, global climate change, radioactive waste management, ecological sustainability of the mining and mineral industries, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the 21st century and the design and process of novel interfaces. During the year major upgrades were made to he National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) and the Australian National Tandem Accelerator for Applied Research (ANTARES). The Annual Report documents the uses of these facilities by universities, industry, medicine and Government. Details are also provided of the organization development and support which support the core scientific areas. The financial statement for the year under review is also included

  15. ANSTO - Program of Research 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report outlines the planned research and development activities for 1994-1995 in five major research units: Advanced Materials, Applications of Nuclear Physics, Biomedicine and Health, Environmental Sciences and the Safety and Reliability Centre. A list of recent publication originated from ANSTO's scientific and engineering activities is also included. ills

  16. ANSTO - Annual Report 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Highlights of achievements during 1996-1997 at the Australian Nuclear Science and technology (ANSTO) include: release of the new ANSTO Strategic Plan for the period till June 2000 and the establishment of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Board. In accordance with the Strategic Plan, ANSTO has continued to focus its activities in six core business areas. The major outcomes and outputs of this work are outlined. The majority of ANSTO strategic research was directed at several topics launched during the year, including: international cooperative research to enhance safety of nuclear facilities and safeguards for nuclear materials, environmental dynamics, global climate change, radioactive waste management, ecological sustainability of the mining and mineral industries, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the 21st century and the design and process of novel interfaces. During the year major upgrades were made to he National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) and the Australian National Tandem Accelerator for Applied Research (ANTARES). The Annual Report documents the uses of these facilities by universities, industry, medicine and Government. Details are also provided of the organization development and support which support the core scientific areas. The financial statement for the year under review is also included tabs, ills, figs.

  17. ANSTO. Annual report 1991-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and investment at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) has continued to be focussed on providing facilities that are of the world standard. The opening of the tandem accelerator and the supercomputing facility are examples of this commitment. The opening of the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) in March 1992 provides Australia with new capabilities in nuclear medicine since it produces radiopharmaceuticals which complements those produced by the HIFAR research reactor. The objectives and research projects of Advanced Materials, Application of Nuclear Physics, Biomedicine and Health, Environmental Science, Industrial Technology, the NMC, Nuclear Technology and ANSTO Engineering programs are presented. The financial statement for the year under review is also presented. tabs. ills

  18. Spent fuel storage and transportation - ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. Australia has no power reactors and only one operating research reactor so that a reprocessing plant in Australia is not an economic proposition. The HEU fuel for HIFAR is manufactured at Dounreay using UK or US origin enriched uranium. Spent fuel was originally sent to Dounreay, UK for reprocessing but this plant was shutdown in 1998. ANSTO participates in the US Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel Return program and also has a contract with COGEMA for the reprocessing of non-US origin fuel

  19. ANSTO - Program of Research 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1993-1994 Program of Research outlines ANSTO's scientific activities in four key research areas, Advanced Materials, Application of Nuclear Physics, Biomedicine and Health and Environmental Science. The effort has been channeled into applied research and development in partnership with industry and appropriate national and international institutions and into interdisciplinary strategic research projects to enhance the scientific base of the key research activities. A list of scientific publications originated from these program areas is also included. ills

  20. A new neutron reflectometer at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Neutron reflectometry is a rapidly expanding technique that is finding use in the study of interfacial regions of materials, as well as chemical processes occurring at interfaces. Examples of systems investigated using neutron reflectometry include thin-film multilayer systems (such as GMRs), Langmuir-Blodgett films, lipid bilayers, absorption and ordering of surfactant molecules. In October 1997 the Beam Facilities Consultative Group was established by ANSTO to advise on areas of research to be conducted at the new (2005) replacement research reactor and to propose a suite of neutron beam instruments. At the Group's conclusion in April 1998 they identified that neutron reflectometry and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) should share the highest priority out of the suite of cold neutron instruments at the facility. ANSTO recognised the need to develop expertise in and promote the use of neutron reflectometry in Australia prior to the building and operation of the new facility. In addition the instrument will be used for development and characterisation of neutron optical components for the new facility. Funding has been allocated by ANSTO, AINSE and an ARC RIEF grant to commence building a neutron reflectometer at HIFAR. It is to be installed on the 6HGR10 beam hole with a variable wavelength monochromator system. It is envisaged that the instrument may ultimately be transferred to the guide hall of the new facility. The basic design of the reflectometer to be installed at HIFAR will be presented along with projected instrumental specifications

  1. Status of ANSTO Mo-99 production using LEU targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) has produced Mo-99 using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) UO2 targets for nearly thirty years. The Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) provides ANSTO with a good opportunity to review and improve the current Mo-99 production process. Uranium target design improvements were performed through a collaborative effort with Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the RERTR program. The ANSTO program was focused on identifying a manufacturer for LEU foil targets. To this end, ANSTO contracted CERCA to develop the methods for LEU foil target manufacture. This paper, presents the latest results and conclusions of this program. (author)

  2. ANSTO. Annual Report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific highlights during 1993-1994 financial year at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) as outlined in the Annual Report include: a new Synroc facility was commissioned to provide microsphere feedstocks and confirmed the choice of the dry precursor route for the Synroc conceptual plant; joint research in plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) with the Technical University of Clausthal, Germany; the design and manufacture of a prototype ceramic knee prosthesis; international collaboration established in the use of accelerator techniques to measure aerosol pollution; the discovery of new low temperature phases of palladium deuteride which crystal structures were determined using neutron scattering; elucidate the controversial age of the Venafro Chessmen using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Achievements in the biomedical fields included: the successful clinical evaluation of 123I-iododexetimide in patients with Alzheimer's disease or frontal lobe epilepsy and the completed clinical trial of technetium-99m 3B6/22 antibody for the diagnosis of lung cancer. ANSTO has also completed two studies on the treatment of contaminated wastes arising from the flooding of uranium mines in Germany and advised the German Ministry of Economics on treatment options, developed new processes for the production of high purity cerium compounds from monazite concentrates and a computer software to assess the likelihood of a pollution release from the failure of industrial equipment and containment or clean-up systems. Details are also given of the Corporate and Information Services activities. The financial statements for the year under review is included. ills., tabs

  3. The ANSTO waste management action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    ANSTO`s Waste Management Action Plan is a five-year program which addresses legacy issues that have arisen from the accumulation of radioactive wastes at Lucas Heights over the last forty years. Following an extensive review of waste management practices, a detailed Action Plan was prepared involving seventeen projects in the areas of solid wastes, liquid wastes, control of effluents and emissions, spent reactor fuel and organisational issues. The first year of the Waste Management Action Plan has resulted in significant achievements, especially in the areas of improved storage of solid wastes, stabilisation of uranium scrap, commissioning and operation of a scanning system for low-level waste drums, treatment of intermediate-level liquid wastes and improvements in the methods for monitoring of spent fuel storage facilities. The main goal of the Waste Management Action Plan is to achieve consistency, by the year 2000, with best practice as identified in the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and Guidelines currently under development by the IAEA. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. ANSTO. Annual Report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    Scientific highlights during 1993-1994 financial year at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) as outlined in the Annual Report include: a new Synroc facility was commissioned to provide microsphere feedstocks and confirmed the choice of the dry precursor route for the Synroc conceptual plant; joint research in plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) with the Technical University of Clausthal, Germany; the design and manufacture of a prototype ceramic knee prosthesis; international collaboration established in the use of accelerator techniques to measure aerosol pollution; the discovery of new low temperature phases of palladium deuteride which crystal structures were determined using neutron scattering; elucidate the controversial age of the Venafro Chessmen using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Achievements in the biomedical fields included: the successful clinical evaluation of {sup 123}I-iododexetimide in patients with Alzheimer`s disease or frontal lobe epilepsy and the completed clinical trial of technetium-99m 3B6/22 antibody for the diagnosis of lung cancer. ANSTO has also completed two studies on the treatment of contaminated wastes arising from the flooding of uranium mines in Germany and advised the German Ministry of Economics on treatment options, developed new processes for the production of high purity cerium compounds from monazite concentrates and a computer software to assess the likelihood of a pollution release from the failure of industrial equipment and containment or clean-up systems. Details are also given of the Corporate and Information Services activities. The financial statements for the year under review is included. ills., tabs.

  5. CERCA Mo-99 annular cans target manufacturing development for ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has historically produced fission product Mo-99 using Low enrichment Uranium (LEU) UO2 targets for nearly thirty years. The Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) will provide an ideal opportunity to review and improve the current ANSTO Mo-99 production process. This paper presents the developmental and commercialisation efforts performed by CERCA for implementing LEU targetry developed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). (author)

  6. ANSTO Strategic Plan 2000/2001 - 2004/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new five-year plan outlines strategies to prepare ANSTO for the opportunities provided by the replacement research reactor, building on the successes of its predecessor plan in reforming the organisation.The Strategic Plan focuses on the innovation process itself as a driver of future prosperity. It embodies the Commonwealth Government's emphasis on an outputs and outcomes framework to deliver results, and to further strengthen accountability in light of the significant research investment at ANSTO. A balanced Scorecard approach of driving strategic and business processes through four different perspectives will ensure the efficient achievement of relevant results. ANSTO is responsible for delivering specific scientific services and products to government, industry, academia and other research organisations. Activities are grouped into five externally focused core business areas.These are the areas through which ANSTO will develop new knowledge, deliver quality services, support business opportunities and ensure that nuclear science and technology and related capabilities provide an innovative impetus to benefit society. A separate internal stream provides support for organisational development. The challenge of the next five years is to streamline the innovation process to improve delivery of results. ANSTO is a knowledge-based organisation with the major strengths being its people, a multidisciplinary approach to its operation, and its facilities.Through a collaborative effort driven by this strategic plan, ANSTO will be able to deliver new and exciting outcomes that can be put into practice by participants and clients across Australia. ANSTO's strategic direction, as presented in this plan, is owned by the Board and staff

  7. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  8. ANSTO's waste forms for the 31. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO waste form development for high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications, particularly problematic niche wastes that do not readily lend themselves to direct vitrification. Integration of waste form chemistry and processing method is emphasised. Some longstanding misconceptions about titanate ceramics are dealt with. We have a range of titanate-bearing waste form products aimed at immobilisation of tank wastes and sludges, actinide-rich wastes, INEEL calcines and Na-bearing liquid wastes, Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels, Mo-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels, partitioned Cs-rich wastes, and 99Tc. Waste form production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting, and these are strongly integrated into waste form design. Speciation and leach resistance of Cs and alkalis in cementitious products and geo-polymers are being studied. Recently we have embarked on studies of candidate inert matrix fuels for Pu burning. We also have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the waste forms in regard to crystal chemistry, dissolution behaviour in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and optimum processing techniques. (authors)

  9. ANSTO RRR simulator for operating personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the ANSTO RRR reactor training simulator (RTS) design are presented. The simulator use is for operating personnel training and it is as a full-scope, training oriented, plant-specific and partial control room replica. It consists of a cluster of interconnected computers running several software modules, such as the Simulator Human-Machine Interface (SHMI), the Instructor Station (IS), the Simulation Manager (SM) and the Model Manager (MM). The scope of the Plant Mathematical Model (PMM) is such that the trainee is required to take the same actions on the simulator to conduct an evolution as on the reactor, using the reference plant operating procedures. The scope of the simulation permits conduct of all of the evolutions required until a stable condition is reached. All the systems relevant to the plant normal evolutions, and to the malfunctions defined in the design basis accident (DBA) list, are included. Within these systems both the variables connected to the plant SCADA and the local variables are included, leading to several thousands input-output variables in the PMM. Some modelling approaches and performance tests for both normal evolutions and malfunctions are presented. (author)

  10. The ANSTO waste management action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's Waste Management Action Plan is a five-year program which addresses legacy issues that have arisen from the accumulation of radioactive wastes at Lucas Heights over the last forty years. Following an extensive review of waste management practices, a detailed Action Plan was prepared involving seventeen projects in the areas of solid wastes, liquid wastes, control of effluents and emissions, spent reactor fuel and organisational issues. The first year of the Waste Management Action Plan has resulted in significant achievements, especially in the areas of improved storage of solid wastes, stabilisation of uranium scrap, commissioning and operation of a scanning system for low-level waste drums, treatment of intermediate-level liquid wastes and improvements in the methods for monitoring of spent fuel storage facilities. The main goal of the Waste Management Action Plan is to achieve consistency, by the year 2000, with best practice as identified in the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and Guidelines currently under development by the IAEA

  11. International nuclear information system (INIS) at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: INIS is the world-leading information system in the field of nuclear science and technology. It is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with 103 Member States and 19 international organisations. It contains over 2 million bibliographic references (1970-present) and a unique collection of scientific and technical reports, conference papers, dissertations, patents and others documents, known as the grey literature. ANSTO hosts the Australian INIS Centre, which is responsible for the collection and processing of the Australian material for inclusion in the database as well as dissemination of INIS output products in Australia. Through its participation in INIS Australia gains access to the result of billions of dollars of nuclear-related R and D from around the world, and promote nuclear scientific and technical developments in Australia to the international science community. A particular case is presented, which illustrates how INIS could be used to evaluate the research effort in nuclear science and technology. Citation analysis, usually based on journals indexed by Institute for Scientific Information, measures the impact of the research or rather the usefulness of research to other scientists doing related work. However, a bibliometric analysis of this kind will not be representative of the whole research effort in the field of nuclear science and technology where a relatively high proportion of the output (45%) is captured in the non-journal literature. Publication counts based upon all publications indexed in the INIS database, enables us to obtain statistics and scientific indicators regarding the overall research effort, trends and gaps within this particular field. Average productivity counts and time series analysis (1976-2000) give a glimpse into the Australia's performance in the sub-fields of Nuclear Chemistry, Nuclear Physics, Materials Science and Nuclear Medicine. It shows that Australia's share of

  12. ANSTO strategic plan 1996/1997-1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This Strategic Plan for ANSTO is the result of major reviews of its processes, capabilities, activities, performance and structures. It responds to the views of its stakeholders to provide Australia with the capacity to benefit from the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Five core areas are identified. Within these areas, the quality services are being delivered and the development of knowledge has the potential for generating future economic benefits, as well as for sustaining essential nuclear-related capabilities. In addition, the strategic plan provides the framework through which ANSTO will provide specific, on demand scientific services to government, industry, academia and research organisations. The plan sets out objectives and strategies which the Board and ANSTO staff believe will ensure that the organisation will continue to fulfil its mission. The plan also identifies the planning processes and the mechanisms for performance evaluation

  13. ANSTO strategic plan 1996/1997-1999/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Strategic Plan for ANSTO is the result of major reviews of its processes, capabilities, activities, performance and structures. It responds to the views of its stakeholders to provide Australia with the capacity to benefit from the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Five core areas are identified. Within these areas, the quality services are being delivered and the development of knowledge has the potential for generating future economic benefits, as well as for sustaining essential nuclear-related capabilities. In addition, the strategic plan provides the framework through which ANSTO will provide specific, on demand scientific services to government, industry, academia and research organisations. The plan sets out objectives and strategies which the Board and ANSTO staff believe will ensure that the organisation will continue to fulfil its mission. The plan also identifies the planning processes and the mechanisms for performance evaluation

  14. Radiation processing and high-dose dosimetry at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Technology group at ANSTO is part of the Physics Division and provides services and advice in the areas of gamma irradiation and high-dose dosimetry. ANSTO's irradiation facilities are designed for maximum dose uniformity and provide a precision irradiation service unique in Australia. Radiation Technology makes and sells reference and transfer standard dosimeters which are purchased by users and suppliers of commercial irradiation services in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region. A calibration service is also provided for dosimeters purchased from other suppliers

  15. ANSTO RRR simulator for operating personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The ANSTO RRR simulator design for operating personnel training is presented. This simulator is being developed using FARSim and can be classified as follows: Full-scope: the scope of the mathematical model is deep enough to present in the simulated control room the same set of variables as in the real plant control room; Training oriented: Real-time simulation is accomplished to perform satisfactory operators training, meaning that tendency and timing of critical variables and events correspond to equivalent variables and events in the real plant; Plant-specific: The mathematical model corresponds to the ANSTO RRR plant specifically; Partial replica: The control room is only partially replicated. A software version simulates hardware components like buttons, switches and keys. The simulator consists of a cluster of interconnected computers running the Simulator Human- Machine Interface (SHMI), the Instructor Station (IS), the Simulation Manager (SM) and the Model Manager (MM) processes. These are physically located on the Trainee Desk, on the Instructor Desk and on the Simulation Computers Rack. On the trainee desk, two graphical stations are used to display plant mimics of the main systems. These stations use the Foxboro WP70 configuration, similar to the platform used in the RRR Main Console. An additional graphical interface with touch-screen capabilities is used to emulate the hard components of the Main Console (push buttons, switches, keys). On the instructor desk a workstation is used for control and administration of the simulation progress (Instructor Station), and a graphical station is used to inspect the simulated process information (Instructor Display Station), using the same software as the SHMI stations. The main functions that the instructor performs using the Instructor Station are: Load plant initial conditions. Run (start) the simulation. Freeze (pause) the simulation. Restart the simulation. Store snapshots. Backtrack the simulation

  16. ANSTO strategic plan.. an update 1991/2-1995/6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's research priorities have been reassesed and determined within the national context. This involve a close association with industry, academia and the general community. Seventy percent of ANSTO's research is applied and is market driven, while thirty percent is longer term and basic research and addresses national economic and environmental objectives as determined by the Government. ills

  17. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2005-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2005 to June 2006. Estimated effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. The maximum potential dose was 23% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The median tritium concentrations detected in groundwater and surface waters at the LHSTC were typically less than 2% of those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of -1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  18. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2004-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of ANSTO's environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) sites, from July 2004 to June 2005. Effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially affected by routine airborne emissions from the LHSTC were less than 0.005 mSv/year. This estimated maximum potential dose is less than 24% of the ANSTO ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv/year, and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv/year that is recommended by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The effective doses to the critical group of members of the public potentially exposed to routine liquid effluent releases from the LHSTC have been realistically estimated as a quarter (or less) of the estimated doses to the critical group for airborne releases. The levels of tritium detected in groundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than those set out in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below both the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and Sydney Water limits for acceptance of trade wastewater to sewer. Results of environmental monitoring at both ANSTO sites confirm that the facilities continue to be operated well within regulatory limits. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose of ∼1.5 mSv/year experienced by members of the Australian public

  19. A review of vacuum ARC ion source research at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C. [ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    1996-08-01

    The authors talk briefly describes the history and current status of vacuum arc ion source research at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In addition, the author makes some mention of the important role of previous Vacuum Arc Ion Source Workshops in fostering the development of this research field internationally. During the period 1986 - 89, a type of plasma centrifuge known as a vacuum arc centrifuge was developed at ANSTO as part of a research project on stable isotope separation. In this device, a high current vacuum arc discharge was used to produce a metal plasma which was subsequently rotated in an axial magnetic field. The high rotational speeds (10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6} rad sec{sup {minus}1}) achievable with this method produce centrifugal separation of ions with different mass:charge ratios such as isotopic species. The first portent of things to come occurred in 1985 when Dr. Ian Brown visited ANSTO`s Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and presented a talk on the metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source which had only recently been invented by Brown and co-workers, J. Galvin and R. MacGill, at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. For those of us involved in vacuum arc centrifuge research, this was an exciting development primarily because the metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source was common to both devices. Thus, a type of arc, which had since the 1930`s been extensively investigated as a means of switching high current loads, had found wider application as a useful plasma source.

  20. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  1. Low enrichment Mo-99 target development program at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO, formerly AAEC) has been producing fission product Mo-99 in HIFAR, from the irradiation of Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) UO2 targets, for nearly thirty years. Over this period, the U-235 enrichment has been increased in stages, from natural to 1.8% to 2.2%. The decision to provide Australia with a replacement research reactor (RRR) for HIFAR has created an ideal opportunity to review and improve the current Mo-99 production process from target design through to chemical processing and waste management options. ANSTO has entered into a collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (RERTR) to develop a target using uranium metal foil with U-235 enrichment of less than 20% The initial focus has been to demonstrate use of LEU foil targets in HIFAR, using existing irradiation methodology. The current effort focussed on designing a target assembly with optimised thermohydraulic characteristics to accommodate larger LEU foils to meet Mo-99 production needs. The ultimate goal is to produce an LEU target suitable for use in the Replacement Research Reactor when it is commissioned in 2005. This paper reports our activities on: - The regulatory approval processes required in order to undertake irradiation of this new target; -Supporting calculations (neutronics, computational fluid dynamics) for safety submission; - Design challenges and changes to prototype irradiation; - Trial irradiation of LEU foil target in HIFAR; - Future target and rig development program at ANSTO. (author)

  2. A review of vacuum ARC ion source research at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors talk briefly describes the history and current status of vacuum arc ion source research at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In addition, the author makes some mention of the important role of previous Vacuum Arc Ion Source Workshops in fostering the development of this research field internationally. During the period 1986 -89, a type of plasma centrifuge known as a vacuum arc centrifuge was developed at ANSTO as part of a research project on stable isotope separation. In this device, a high current vacuum arc discharge was used to produce a metal plasma which was subsequently rotated in an axial magnetic field. The high rotational speeds (105 - 106 rad sec-1) achievable with this method produce centrifugal separation of ions with different mass:charge ratios such as isotopic species. The first portent of things to come occurred in 1985 when Dr. Ian Brown visited ANSTO's Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and presented a talk on the metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source which had only recently been invented by Brown and co-workers, J. Galvin and R. MacGill, at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. For those of us involved in vacuum arc centrifuge research, this was an exciting development primarily because the metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source was common to both devices. Thus, a type of arc, which had since the 1930's been extensively investigated as a means of switching high current loads, had found wider application as a useful plasma source

  3. Radioactive waste management at ANSTO - Managing current and historic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) carries out nuclear research and development at Lucas Heights about 40 km southeast of Sydney, Australia. The 10 MW heavy water research reactor (HIFAR) has operated at Lucas Heights site for over 40 years with associated radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities and a wide range of nuclear science and technology R and D is carried out. Most of the radioactive waste generated by these activities is stored at the site. Following a review of ANSTO's waste management facilities and practices in 1996, an integrated five-year Waste Management Action Plan (WMAP) was established to address legacy issues and ensure that ANSTO waste management met international standards. Topics undertaken under the Waste Management Action Plan (WMAP) included construction and operation of improved storage facilities for low-level solid radioactive waste, better monitoring of storage facilities for spent research reactor fuel and intermediate level liquid wastes, development of processes to convert liquid and solid wastes into forms more suitable for long term storage and disposal, improved characterisation of wastes and development of a database for radioactive waste. (author)

  4. Neutron beam facilities at the Replacement Research Reactor, ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exciting development for Australia is the construction of a modern state-of-the-art 20-MW Replacement Research Reactor which is currently under construction to replace the aging reactor (HIFAR) at ANSTO in 2006. To cater for advanced scientific applications, the replacement reactor will provide not only thermal neutron beams but also a modern cold-neutron source moderated by liquid deuterium at approximately -250 deg C, complete with provision for installation of a hot-neutron source at a later stage. The latest 'supermirror' guides will be used to transport the neutrons to the Reactor Hall and its adjoining Neutron Guide Hall where a suite of neutron beam instruments will be installed. These new facilities will expand and enhance ANSTO's capabilities and performance in neutron beam science compared with what is possible with the existing HIFAR facilities, and will make ANSTO/Australia competitive with the best neutron facilities in the world. Eight 'leading-edge' neutron beam instruments are planned for the Replacement Research Reactor when it goes critical in 2006, followed by more instruments by 2010 and beyond. Up to 18 neutron beam instruments can be accommodated at the Replacement Research Reactor, however, it has the capacity for further expansion, including potential for a second Neutron Guide Hall. The first batch of eight instruments has been carefully selected in conjunction with a user group representing various scientific interests in Australia. A team of scientists, engineers, drafting officers and technicians has been assembled to carry out the Neutron Beam Instrument Project to successful completion. Today, most of the planned instruments have conceptual designs and are now being engineered in detail prior to construction and procurement. A suite of ancillary equipment will also be provided to enable scientific experiments at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields. This paper describes the Neutron Beam Instrument Project and gives

  5. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the 46th Annual Report of ANSTO or its predecessor, AAEC outlining the quality services being delivered and the development of knowledge in areas where ANSTO`s nuclear science and technology and related capabilities are of strategic and technical benefit. ANSTO is reporting against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives, outcomes and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff

  6. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2001 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC-controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2001 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2001 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This is well below the ALARA objective of 0.02 mSv per year for off-site doses that ANSTO has set and much lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv per year (above natural background and medical doses) and the natural background dose in Australia of 1.5 mSv per year (Webb et al; 1999). It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  7. ANSTO radon monitoring within the WMO global atmosphere watch programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview of results from the ANSTO radon programmes at the Cape Grim (Tasmania) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii), World Meteorological Organisation Global Atmosphere Watch stations it presented. At Cape Grim, a 100 mBq m3 threshold on radon concentration observations has proven to be a suitable criterion for Baseline monitoring. Furthermore, analysis of the Cape Grim Baseline radon data has enabled the characterisation of the oceanic radon flux over the Southern Ocean Cape Grim fetch region. Radon observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory, in conjunction with back trajectory analysis, have helped to identify the source regions of the most pervasive pollution events in the atmosphere of the Pacific Basin. The seasonal variability in the strength of terrestrial influence on Pacific air masses has also been characterised

  8. ANSTO and CSIRO: supporting the medical devices and sensors industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have provided support to the Medical Devices and Sensors Industry in Australia for many years. In particular the Institute of Materials and Engineering Science at ANSTO and CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology have worked independently and jointly on a number of projects to provide technical services and support to small to medium sized companies. A recent venture to capture their capabilities in the WTIA's Medical Devices and Sensors Industry Sectoral Project, part of the WTIA National Diffusion Networks Project, has produced substantial technical and financial gains for its participants. The aim of this article is to highlight the infrastructure and capabilities that ANSTO and CSIRO can provide to component manufacturers and industry clusters that offer a range of manufacturing processes needed for medical devices and sensors. Several case studies illustrate how ANSTO and CSIRO have provided support to the medical devices industry

  9. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 46th Annual Report of ANSTO or its predecessor, AAEC outlining the quality services being delivered and the development of knowledge in areas where ANSTO's nuclear science and technology and related capabilities are of strategic and technical benefit. ANSTO is reporting against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives, outcomes and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff

  10. COGEMA-ANSTO management of the acceptance process of HIFAR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. In 1999, ANSTO signed a contract with COGEMA for the management of all non-US origin spent fuel, and two shipments to La Hague have been completed to date. Prior to a fuel shipment, ANSTO provides COGEMA with the spent fuel characteristics. Together with ANSTO, COGEMA has developed criteria for acceptance of HIFAR spent fuel at La Hague. These include visual inspections, testing of fuel that may be unsound, and a final check of a gas sample drawn from a filled transport cask. (author)

  11. High-dose dosimetry at ANSTO: quality assurance, calibration and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A overview of the techniques used by ANSTO's high-dose dosimetry laboratory is given, commencing with a description of the facilities operated and the nature of the services provided. The dosimetry systems used by ANSTO are detailed along with their applications. Techniques used for calibration of dosimeters and radiation sources are given, including traceability and measurement uncertainty considerations. Quality assurance aspects of the dosimetry service are discussed. (author)

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of environmental surveillance and effluent monitoring conducted in the calendar year 2000 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 2000 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 2000 were estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1 % of the 1 milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  13. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the 1 millisievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at ANSTO sites, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in 1999 at the two sites owned and operated by ANSTO, at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC). All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from LHSTC controlled airborne discharges were estimated for 1999 using the PC-Cream atmospheric dispersion and dosimetry code. The potential effective doses to the public in 1999 were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for all receptor locations on the LHSTC 1.6 km buffer zone boundary or beyond. This value represents 1% of the I milli sievert (mSv) per year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the LHSTC site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year. It is concluded that there is no impact on the health of the community, staff or the environment as a consequence of operations at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre or the National Medical Cyclotron (authors)

  15. Environmental and Effluent Monitoring at ANSTO Sites, 2002-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of environmental and effluent monitoring at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) and the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) from January 2002 to June 2003. Potential effective dose rates to the general public from airborne discharges from the LHSTC site were less than 0.01 mSv/year, well below the 1 mSv/year dose rate limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the Australian National Occupational Health and Safety Commission. The effective dose rates to hypothetical individuals potentially exposed to radiation in routine liquid effluent discharges from the LHSTC were recently calculated to be less than 0.001 mSv/year. This is much less than dose rates estimated for members of public potentially exposed to airborne emissions. The levels of tritium detected in roundwater and stormwater at the LHSTC were less than the Australian drinking water guidelines. The airborne and liquid effluent emissions from the NMC were below the ARPANSA-approved notification levels and NSW EPA limits, respectively. ANSTO's routine operations at the LHSTC and the NMC make only a very small addition to the natural background radiation dose experienced by members of the Australian public. (authors)

  16. ANSTO's waste forms for the 31. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, E.R.; Begg, B. D.; Day, R. A.; Moricca, S.; Perera, D. S.; Stewart, M. W. A.; Carter, M. L.; McGlinn, P. J.; Smith, K. L.; Walls, P. A.; Robina, M. La

    2004-07-01

    ANSTO waste form development for high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications, particularly problematic niche wastes that do not readily lend themselves to direct vitrification. Integration of waste form chemistry and processing method is emphasised. Some longstanding misconceptions about titanate ceramics are dealt with. We have a range of titanate-bearing waste form products aimed at immobilisation of tank wastes and sludges, actinide-rich wastes, INEEL calcines and Na-bearing liquid wastes, Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels, Mo-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels, partitioned Cs-rich wastes, and {sup 99}Tc. Waste form production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting, and these are strongly integrated into waste form design. Speciation and leach resistance of Cs and alkalis in cementitious products and geo-polymers are being studied. Recently we have embarked on studies of candidate inert matrix fuels for Pu burning. We also have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the waste forms in regard to crystal chemistry, dissolution behaviour in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and optimum processing techniques. (authors)

  17. The rotamak - contributions from ANSTO and Flinders University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The investigation of plasma/field configurations of the compact torus variety is of current interest in the field of fusion research. Two configurations of this genre are the field reversed configuration (FRC), which does not have an externally applied toroidal magnetic field, and the spherical tokamak (ST) which possesses such a field. Both of these compact torus concepts, as studied outside Australia, suffer from the very serious disadvantage that they are inherently pulsed devices; the toroidal plasma current is not maintained indefinitely. The rotamak is a compact torus configuration having the unique and distinctive feature that the toroidal plasma current is driven in a steady-state, non-inductive fashion by means of the application of a rotating magnetic field. In its basic form, the rotamak is operated as an FRC. However, by means of a simple modification, a steady toroidal magnetic field can be added to the basic rotamak apparatus and the configuration then becomes that of an ST. The rotamak concept was conceived and developed in Australia and the bulk of investigations in this field, both theoretical and experimental, have been undertaken at Flinders University (1979-1998) and AAEC/ANSTO (1982-1988). This talk will cover the history of the project in this country, will dwell on the marvelous interaction which flourished between the two research groups and will finish with the news that the rotamak concept has been enthusiastically embraced by fusion research teams in the United States

  18. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's main activities and outputs during the year under review (1 July 2000- 30 June 2001) are presented in this report. Highlights include: the replacement research reactor project, to be completed in 2005, proceeded on schedule and within budget, a great deal of effort has been expended on the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the reactor, as well as the review of the detailed engineering design; the fifth shipment of spent fuel was made successfully, so that more than half of the spent fuel accumulated over the entire lifetime of HIFAR has now been shipped overseas; radiopharmaceutical sales reached $17.9 million, a $2 million increase over the previous year. Another milestone this year, not only for ANSTO but Australia as a whole, was the entry into force in January of an Integrated Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. ANSTO, together with the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office have led the world on the implementation of integrated safeguards, and other countries are now following. In the health sector, ANSTO's reputation and capabilities continued to grow with Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for FDGenTM, a metabolic tracer used in the diagnosis of the staging of cancer in cardiac imaging and the imaging of certain neurological conditions. In the field of strategic research, the use of neutron scattering techniques to understand the structure of a range of materials from charcoal to polymers has yielded significant results. In response to funding challenges, the organisation increased external earnings, improved efficiencies and reduced expenditure on research and development. With regard to revenue, ANSTO generated $35.8 million (1999-2000, $32.2 million) from external services, representing 29.5% of total income, excluding capital use charge. With the aim of establishing an appropriate base for the future, ANSTO undertook an output pricing review with the Department of Finance. This review concluded that the price for operating

  19. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details outcomes, achievements and work underway. It has been a year of significant advancement with the awarding by ARPANSA in April of the Licence to Construct the Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights after almost 10 years of substantiation and approval processes. Other operational highlights during the year included: the award of several facility licences by ARPANSA under their new procedures, including a licence for the ongoing operation of the HIFAR reactor and radiopharmaceutical production; the launch by the ANSTO business unit ARI in April 2002 of LeukoScan, a technetium-99m labelled diagnostic radiopharmaceutical for imaging infection; maintenance of Australia's leading role in the development of new nuclear safeguards procedures by cooperating with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to become the first country to adopt integrated safeguards; formal accreditation of ANSTO as a member of the IAEA's Network of Analytical Laboratories, the network that supports the international nuclear safeguards program; construction of a purpose-built waste treatment and packaging facility to enable state-of-the-art processing for ANSTO's low level radioactive waste in preparation for removal to the national low-level radioactive waste repository. Scientific highlights included: ANSTO's development of two new technologies that will lead to cleaner and more environmentally sustainable operations for uranium processors; new methods for depositing ceramics coatings at low temperatures for applications ranging from fibre optic communications to corrosion and scratch resistance; ANSTO sustaining its position as a world leader in carbon dating samples following the introduction of new sample preparation procedures that dramatically reduce the influence of background levels on the result and studies that provided information relating to the management and sustainable development of fishing and mining in the marine environment. ANSTO scientists, in

  20. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1999, ANSTO's most important project - the Replacement Research Reactor Project received unanimous approval from the bipartisan Public Works Committee. During the year, the Replacement Research Reactor project reached the stage where the Argentine company INVAP S.E. was selected as the preferred tenderer for the design, construction, commissioning and demonstration of performance. INVAP's Australian alliance partners are John Holland Construction and Engineering Pty Ltd and Evans Deakin Industries Ltd. The tendering process was independently audited and confirmed to be of the highest standard. ANSTO's expertise in waste management extends to mine products, and it was invited to become a Research Member of the International Network for Acid Prevention (INAP) Ltd. INAP is an industry-based initiative that aims to coordinate research and development in the management of sulphidic mine wastes. ANSTO scientists were amongst the first to accurately determine the contribution of fossil fuel to the global atmospheric methane budget, methane being second in importance only to carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas.Technology developed by ANSTO, under the auspices of the CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control, for removing arsenic from water without employing strong chemical oxidants was successfully demonstrated in the western United States, where new regulations will require dramatically lower arsenic levels in drinking water. A provisional patent was lodged for the use of sol-gel matrices for the encapsulation and controlled-release of pharmaceuticals. A research partnership involving the University of Sydney and the Sydney Cancer Centre has subsequently been established to facilitate pre-clinical studies of the suitability of the technology as a targeted delivery system for tumour treatments. A major initiative during the year was the introduction of the Learning Environment for New Strategies (LENS) Program. Phase 1 of this teamwork and cultural change

  1. VEGA, STAR, SIRIUS and ANTARES – from 1 to 10 MV: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is recognized as one of the most significant advances in analytical isotope research in the 20th century. Since the 1980’s its impact in all subjects related to the study of planet Earth has been immeasurable. Commensurate with all these advances, numerous revolutions have occurred in AMS technology with the continual drive to reduce complexity, and improve performance. The ANSTO AMS Facility has and is contributing to this process. We have recently acquired two new NEC AMS systems at 1 MV (VEGA) and a 6 MV (SIRIUS) NEC plus a full suite of new sample preparation laboratories for actinides and cosmogenics. This seminar will provide an overview of the new ANSTO Centre for Accelerator Science and also some novel applications of in-situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in landscape change and glaciology. (author)

  2. Up-coming polarised neutron capabilities on ANSTO instruments using polarised 3He neutron spin filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commissioning works are underway at ANSTO's OPAL reactor for using polarised 3He based neutron polarisers and polarization analysers for polarised neutron experimental works. This is a joint project of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Institute Laue Langevin (ILL) to equip 6 OPAL neutron scattering instruments with polarised neutron capabilities for magnetism research. With the new capabilities, the magnetic signals from the sample's magnetic structures and magnetic excitations will clearly be identified. On the diffractometer Wombat, this will provide the location, magnitude and directions of the magnetic moments at the molecular scale. On reflectometer Platypus, this will resolve the magnetic profile into the depth of a magnetic thin-film. On SANS Quokka, this will identify the magnetic structure of nano-scale magnetic particles. And on inelastic-scattering,thg instruments Taipan Pelican and Sika this will measure the strength and polarization of the magnetic excitations The use to more instruments, including the Laue diffractometer Koala and new instruments are being explored. A 3He gas polarizing station that uses the Metastable Exchange Optical Pumping method has been built and installed at ANSTO. It has reached 72% 'He polarization in polariser and analyser cells at a 1.2 bar-litre production. The polarisers and analysers are being commissioned and tested on the instruments. In this presentation, we will illustrate how polarised neutrons can be used for magnetism research. The latest status of the commissioning works will be presented.

  3. Establishing a process for handling radiation protection and ALARA reviews of projects at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the exciting world of emerging opportunities, establishing new projects are often synonymous with a rollercoaster ride. Even in the best circumstances there is always something lost along the way. Very often this will be the small crack that might lead to the large break a few generations down the line. With the big focus on new developments at ANSTO, it has become necessary to have Radiation Protection Advisors who will be available to provide the inputs and expertise needed to influence the designs in the earliest phases of development. Specifically looking at designs where there might be no operational experience available, judgement has to be made on best engineering practise and taking into account best estimate values for the radiological exposures related to the design. A special process is being developed to highlight the inputs needed from the designers and engineers in every phase of the design process. This process establishes the steps to be followed by the Radiation Protection Advisors in performing radiation protection reviews and identifies the outputs for every phase. They are crucial in declaring design baselines and proceeding to the next phase of the project design. These reviews of the design, operation and maintenance of the systems and components is done taking into consideration international guidelines for good radiation protection and nuclear engineering practise with regards to material composition, system design, layout, operation, maintenance and waste minimisation. The aim is to integrate this process into the overall ANSTO project management process. It will be done by applying it to the various ANSTO capital expenditure and other projects which may be in various stages of development. This will help to identify process shortcomings and to measure its efficiency. Ultimately it will be tested in its entirety from the Concept to the Detail design phase and help to provide baseline information and reasoning throughout the facility

  4. Minimisation of noble gas discharge from 99Mo production at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applied Waste Research is an approved activity within the ANSTO operational plan. The objective of the activity is to conduct innovative research in radwaste minimisation, develop network based real-time monitoring, develop radwaste inventory and provide a vehicle for the commercialisation of techniques in waste immobilisation. One of the major tasks within the program is to develop real-time monitoring systems for the measurement of noble gas and radioiodine discharges from facilities such as the 99Mo production plant. This continues the work initiated under the Waste Management Action Plan project where major gains in radioactive noble gas discharges were made, for example, 85 % reduction in all Xe discharges. (author)

  5. The reasons why the CEO of ARPANSA issued the Licence to ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the process of assessment, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of ARPANSA has reached the conclusion that ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) design would result in a reactor that could be operated safely. Of fundamental importance is that its core can be shutdown by gravity operated systems. That is, it is relying on laws of nature, without any other form of intervention. The reactor also has important safety features built into it that meet international best practice in radiation protection and nuclear safety. It has two separate and diverse shutdown systems that can operate to shut down the reactor in any abnormal occurrence. The ability of these systems to achieve the necessary shutdown in a whole range of potential accident scenarios was a central focus of the safety assessment that made. In reaching this decision, consideration was given to the issues of spent fuel and radioactive waste management. These were very major issues in the public's mind as they were the subject of the great majority of public submissions received and considered. ANSTO's proposed route for dealing with spent fuel is that it will be shipped to France for reprocessing in the COGEMA facility at La Hague. The waste from this reprocessing would be returned to Australia as vitrified waste, suitable for long term storage.This is a viable and acceptably safe strategy. As a fall back option, ANSTO relies on its contract with the Argentinean company, Investigacion Aplicada (INVAP) that requires INVAP to find an alternative route for the processing of the RRR spent fuel into an acceptable waste form for its storage in Australia. The amount of spent fuel ultimately is not very large and does not need the enormous processing facilities that exist in France and the United Kingdom for the reprocessing of fuel from power reactors in Europe and Japan. The issue of the long term storage of the intermediate level waste arising from the processing of spent fuel is also debated. The

  6. Automation of the ANSTO working standard of measurement for the activity of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANSTO working standard ion chamber is used routinely for the standardisation of a range of gamma emitting radio-isotopes. The ion chamber has recently been automated by replacing the AAEC type 292 Recycling Discriminator, timer module and model 43 teletype printer with the HP86B computer, HP-59501B voltage programmer and HP-6181C current source. The program 'MEASION', running on the Deltacom IBM AT clone, calculates the radioactivity, with full error statements, from the ion chamber measurements. Each of these programs is listed and discussed. 13 refs., 5 figs., tabs

  7. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Annual Report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1998/1999 Annual Report summarises ANSTO's performance and progress made on several major infrastructure projects and its research and development program. On 3 May 1999, the Government announced its support for a Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights; the site licence has been granted by ARPANSA and the request for tender distributed to four pre qualified vendors. A significant effort during the year under review was directed towards the Replacement Research Reactor Project. Main objectives and achievements are also reported against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff. The organization has developed its 1999/2000 Operational Plan predominantly on a project-based approach

  8. Neutron scattering science at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering science at ANSTO is integrated into a number of fields in the Australian scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor are well advanced. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. A brief overview will be presented of all the instruments presently available at ANSTO with emphasis on the SANS instrument. This will be followed by a description of the replacement research reactor and its instruments. (author)

  9. Neutron scattering science at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Robert [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    Neutron scattering science at ANSTO is integrated into a number of fields in the Australian scientific and industrial research communities. The unique properties of the neutron are being used to investigate problems in chemistry, materials science, physics, engineering and biology. The reactor HIFAR at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation research laboratories is the only neutron source in Australia suitable for neutron scattering science. A suite of instruments provides a range of opportunities for the neutron scattering community that extends throughout universities, government and industrial research laboratories. Plans to replace the present research reactor with a modern multi-purpose research reactor are well advanced. The experimental and analysis equipment associated with a modern research reactor will permit the establishment of a national centre for world class neutron science research focussed on the structure and functioning of materials, industrial irradiations and analyses in support of Australian manufacturing, minerals, petrochemical, pharmaceuticals and information science industries. A brief overview will be presented of all the instruments presently available at ANSTO with emphasis on the SANS instrument. This will be followed by a description of the replacement research reactor and its instruments. (author)

  10. ANSTO training for radiological emergency preparedness and response in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the collaborative and systematic approach to training for nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response and the outcomes of this work with ANSTO's South East Asian counterparts in Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The standards and criteria being applied are discussed, along with the methods, design and conduct of workshops, table-top and field exercises. The following elements of this training will be presented: (a) identifying the priority areas for training through needs analysis; (b) strengthening individual professional expertise through a structured approach to training; and (c) enhancing individual Agency and National nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response arrangements and capabilities. Whilst the work is motivated by nuclear security concerns, the implications for effective and sustainable emergency response to any nuclear or radiological incidents are noted.

  11. Portfolio of recent climate change studies utilizing AMS at ANTARES, ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to the measurement of the radionuclides 14C, 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl has dramatically increased our understanding of factors that affect climate and has led to a greater understanding of natural processes. Using the ANTARES AMS facility at ANSTO we are able to analyse samples containing as few as 105 atoms of these radionuclides. Cosmogenic radionuclides produced by the interaction of cosmic rays with the upper atmosphere and exposed surface rocks are stored in natural archives. By measuring small variations in the concentrations of these isotopes over time, information can be inferred about the systems governing these changes. Over the last four years we have undertaken a broad range of climate change and environmental studies, based on the ultra-sensitive technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Some specific examples of projects investigating the ice sheet at Law Dome, Antarctica and minerals extracted from geological surface formations will be given

  12. Nuclear Security Research at ANSTO: Advances in Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) supports Australia’s nuclear security needs by providing trusted advice to government, supplying technical expertise and operational support and undertaking scientific research to support the next generation of innovation. In the past 10 years ANSTO’s notable achievements in nuclear security have included international leadership in the establishment of the scientific discipline of nuclear forensics, profiling of Australia’s uranium ore concentrates, development of border security technologies, such as the AUS series X-ray Test Pieces and radionuclide identification algorithms, as well as the provision of advice and analytical services to government and partner agencies. This presentation will outline ANSTO’s current work, progress and recent successes in nuclear forensics and nuclear detection. (author)

  13. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few μm. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials

  14. Review of the ANSTO submission on the site geological investigations for the RRR at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and ANSTO's Consolidated Seismic Report were reviewed by ARPANSA's Regulatory Branch, and by an IAEA consultant to ARPANSA. It included a recommendation by the IAEA Peer Review Team (June 2001) that an additional study be undertaken for the Lucas Heights site in accordance with IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S1. In particular this related to regional and local investigations to determine whether there exists a potential for surface faulting at the site area, to formulate the investigations that should be used to determine whether or not any faults in the area should be considered capable. The CEO of ARPANSA requested ANSTO to undertake such a task. The reviews that have been undertaken by experts from Geoscience Australia and the IAEA expert contracted by ARPANSA give confidence that the seismic design of the reactor structures, systems, and components important for safety should not be affected by the fault through the excavations for the foundations of the reactor building. The basis is the conclusions reached by these experts that the fault discovered is very old and not capable under either the USNRC Criteria or the IAEA Criteria. It is not now active, has not been active in the geologically recent past and is unlikely to re-activate within the foreseeable lifespan of the proposed facility. Consequently, this pre-existing fault presents no greater risk than the surrounding unfaulted material. Thus, the replacement reactor need not be designed for such displacement. The existence of this 'incapable' fault does not impact on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment from which the seismic design basis for the reactor was derived. Therefore, the existing design response spectrum accepted in the Regulatory Assessment Report as the basis for seismic design of structures, systems and components, and approved in the Construction Licence, has not changed and remains adequately conservative with regard to vibratory motion at the site

  15. Characterisation of a ΔE-E particle telescope using the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor planar processing technology has spurned the development of novel radiation detectors with applications in space, high energy physics, medical diagnostics, radiation protection and cancer therapy. The ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, which allows a wide range of ions to be focused into spot sizes of a few micrometers in diameter, has proven to be an essential tool for characterising these detectors using the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) imaging technique. The use of different ions and the wide range of available energies on the heavy ion microprobe, allows the testing of these devices with ionising particles associated with different values of linear energy transfer (LET). Quadruple coincidence measurements have been used to map the charge collection characteristics of a monolithic ΔE-E telescope. This was done through simultaneous measurement of the spatial coordinates of the microbeam relative to the sample and the response of both detector elements. The resulting charge collection maps were used to better understand the functionality of the device as well as to ascertain ways in which future device designs could be modified to improve performance

  16. Characterisation of a {delta}E-E particle telescope using the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au; Reinhard, Mark [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Prokopovich, Dale [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Ionescu, Mihail [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Cohen, David D. [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, PMB 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Rosenfeld, Anatoly B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wroe, Andrew [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Lerch, Michael L.F. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, NSW 2522 (Australia); Fazzi, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Pola, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133, Milan (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133, Milan (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Semiconductor planar processing technology has spurned the development of novel radiation detectors with applications in space, high energy physics, medical diagnostics, radiation protection and cancer therapy. The ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, which allows a wide range of ions to be focused into spot sizes of a few micrometers in diameter, has proven to be an essential tool for characterising these detectors using the Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) imaging technique. The use of different ions and the wide range of available energies on the heavy ion microprobe, allows the testing of these devices with ionising particles associated with different values of linear energy transfer (LET). Quadruple coincidence measurements have been used to map the charge collection characteristics of a monolithic {delta}E-E telescope. This was done through simultaneous measurement of the spatial coordinates of the microbeam relative to the sample and the response of both detector elements. The resulting charge collection maps were used to better understand the functionality of the device as well as to ascertain ways in which future device designs could be modified to improve performance.

  17. The environmental radiological atmospheric impact modelling system (ERAIMS) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision-makers managing the emergency response to an actual or potential release of airborne radionuclides from the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC) require real-time estimates of the trajectory and dispersion of any released radionuclides. Complex terrain surrounding the LHSTC has an impact on the downwind trajectory and atmospheric dispersion of released radionuclides. Under certain atmospheric conditions, the released cloud could be transported into the valley without direct impact on the nearest population. This entrapment in the steep sided, narrow valley, might mean that the cloud could remain more concentrated and cause impacts on more distant receptor populations down the valley. Alternatively, the cloud could disperse directly across the valley to the nearest residential population without any significant entrainment into, or impact, on the valley. The Environmental Radiological Atmospheric Impact Modelling System (ERAIMS) is a realtime response model which has been developed for the LHSTC. It estimates downwind impacts based on a pre-set source term, prevailing meteorological conditions which are measured every 15 minutes, receptor characteristics and exposure pathways. This paper describes the total system, from collection and calibration of meteorological data, to the running of the models in the ANSTO emergency response facility and display of data for controllers of any emergency. The current assessment of different atmospheric dispersion models available for use in this facility will also be discussed in terms of atmospheric tracer studies conducted in the region and International Best Practice. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  18. Recently commissioned time-of-flight small angle neutron scattering machine at ANSTO: Capabilities and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and technology Organization (ANSTO) successfully operates one SANS instrument Quokka and recently commenced commissioning of the second SANS instrument, Bilby. The Bilby is Time-of-Flight instrument built on reactor neutron source. The instrument is scheduled to be in user operation in the second half of the year 2015. The design (in particular, set-up of four choppers which similar to that design for D33 instrument at ILL) opens possibility to vary wavelength resolution in the wide range (from 4% to 30%) satisfying various scientists’ requirements. Two arrays of position sensitive detectors in combination with utilizing of wide wavelength range (from ~3Å to ~20Å) provide capability to collect scattering data of wide angular range without changing experimental set-up. Offered instrument design opens possibility to collect scattering from a wide range of samples, with a unique capability to record fast kinetics data. Additional hardware add-on will allow to use instrument in slit mode and therefore get data at very low Q (~2·10-4Å-1). The presentation will be focused on general concept and unique features of the new SANS instrument, as well as first results of instrument commissioning.

  19. The small angle neutron scattering instrument on the HIFAR reactor (ANSTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) instrument on ANSTO's HIFAR reactor is a conventional design with a number of unique features. The instrument has a 5 m collimation length and sample-to-detector distance range of 1.5 - 5 m. The monochromator and first section of the collimator are located within the reactor containment building, and the second section of the collimator, the sample position and the detector system are located in an external, purpose-built laboratory. The monochromator is a double multilayer system in a dog-leg configuration that is efficient (>90%) at selecting the required neutron wavelength, and efficient at rejecting all other wavelengths, as well as fast neutrons and γ-radiation. At present, the multilayer monochromators are single d-spacing, planar geometry used in reflection mode, and d-spacing in the range 40 - 120 Angstroms will permit the selection of neutron wavelength and wavelength spread over a considerable range (λ 2 - 8 Angstroms andΔλ/λ 10 - 20%). Future developments in multilayer monochromators will enable beam focussing, polarised beam production and additional wavelength spread control. The large 64 x 64cm2 active area position sensitive detector (PSD) was designed and constructed at ANSTO in collaboration with BNL and ILL. The detector is a multi-wire proportional chamber of conventional design with greater than 60% detection efficiency and a spatial resolution of 5 mm. The gas mixture is 190 kPa 3 He plus 100 kPa CF4, and the neutron energy resolution on the anode grid is typically 15% (fwhm). The location of a neutron detection event within the active volume is determined by the wire-by-wire method: the spatial resolution (5 x 5mm2) is thereby defined by the wire geometry. The charge induced in the 128 x 128 cathode grids is processed by 16-channel charge-sensitive preamplifier/amplifier/comparator modules developed with a channel sensitivity of 0.1V/fC, noise linewidth of 0.4fC (fwhm) and channel

  20. Regulatory review methods: Review of ANSTO application for a facility licence to operate the OPAL research reactor in Australia. Case study: Review of operational readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the review methods used by assessors of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) in advising the CEO of ARPANSA on the application to by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) for a facility licence authorising it to operate the OPAL reactor. It focuses on an aspect of that review that considered the operational readiness demonstrated by ANSTO in relation to the OPAL reactor. The review involved the systematic audit and assessment of the OPAL Business Management System against a comprehensive set of guidelines which were previously available to ANSTO. Assessment was also undertaken against international standards, principally the IAEA Safety Series. The paper concludes that there is benefit to the assessment of nuclear and radiation safety of a regulator gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the business management system implemented by the operating organisation. This benefit extends beyond the licensing decision into operation using targeted inspection and informed application of regulatory check and balances. (author)

  1. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Kathleen, E-mail: kw@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Jeffries, Cy M.; Knott, Robert B.; Sokolova, Anna [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Jacques, David A. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Duff, Anthony P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2015-10-21

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users.

  2. Exploring the structure of biological macromolecules in solution using Quokka, the small angle neutron scattering instrument, at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is widely used to extract structural parameters, shape and other types of information from a vast array of materials. The technique is applied to biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution to reveal information often not accessible by other techniques. SANS measurements on biomolecules present some particular challenges however, one of which is suitable instrumentation. This review details SANS experiments performed on two well-characterised globular proteins (lysozyme and glucose isomerase) using Quokka, the recently commissioned SANS instrument at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The instrument configuration as well as data collection and reduction strategies for biological investigations are discussed and act as a general reference for structural biologists who use the instrument. Both model independent analysis of the two proteins and ab initio modelling illustrate that Quokka-SANS data can be used to successfully model the overall shapes of proteins in solution, providing a benchmark for users

  3. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  4. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with 14C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for 14C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent's indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  5. Regulatory review methods: review of the ANSTO application for a facility licence to operate the OPAL research reactor in Australia: Case study review of operational readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will examine the review methods used by assessors of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in advising the CEO of ARPANSA on the application by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) for a facility licence authorising it to operate the OPAL reactor. In particular it will focus on an aspect of that review that considered the operational readiness demonstrated by ANSTO in relation to the OPAL reactor as an aspect of the review of safety of the OPAL reactor. The review of operational readiness examined the extent to which the managerial, procedural and administrative controls that were proposed for the reactor were appropriate and the extent to which they demonstrated underlying support for the operation of the reactor. The review utilised guidance from International Atomic Energy Agency documents on the operations of research reactors and also an internal ARPANSA regulatory guide that has been based on a review of current international best practice in nuclear safety in this area. The review in particular focused on the adequacy and maturity of the information on matters such as effective control, safety management, radiation protection, radioactive waste management, ultimate disposal, security and emergency planning in relation to the OPAL reactor. The paper will focus in particular on the manner in which each of these plans and arrangements were reviewed and the overall importance that was placed on this review in the regulatory decision making process undertaken by ARPANSA. Key themes that will also be explored in the paper are: - The development and implementation of ARPANSA regulatory guidance, its basis in key international guidance and its use in undertaking regulatory reviews; - The importance of key safety management plans and the review of those plans in establishing regulatory confidence in the operator. - The importance of open and questioning safety management policy and procedures, with the

  6. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Australia. Ion beam analysis and X ray methods at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Menai, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization techniques such as Particle Induced X ray Emission (PIXE), Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE), Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) have been developed individually and applied quantitatively for many years at ANSTO for both thick and thin samples. All these techniques rely on MeV ions from low to medium positive ion accelerators. PIXE and PIGE are used for elemental analysis and RBS is used for depth profiling of elements in environmental, geological and functional materials samples. All these accelerator based ion beam analysis characterization techniques are non-destructive, afford a high sensitivity, are suitable for most elements in the periodic table and provide short measurement times. It is well established that PIXE is mostly used for elements with atomic numbers above Al. In addition, when used in conjunction with appropriate X ray filters, the contributions of dominant elements can be diminished, and thus enhancing the sensitivity for trace elements. For medium proton energies of a few MeV created by common ion beam accelerators, the PIGE technique is mostly suitable for light element analysis, like Li, Mg, Na and Al, where the cross sections for gamma ray production tend to be larger. On the other hand, RBS is ideally suited for determining the depth distributions of trace elements heavier than the major constituents of the matrix or the substrate or for determining absolute matrix compositions for light elements such as carbon, nitrogen or oxygen. It is possible to use a combination of PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously, as a single stand-alone package for quantitative elemental analysis. This integrated capability takes advantage of the strength of each individual technique, providing a better tool for characterization of materials. Each technique provides unique sample matrix information which can be iteratively feed back into the quantitative concentration estimates to produce more reliable results. In addition, this tool is

  7. Report on the ANSTO application for a licence to construct a Replacement Research Reactor, addressing seismic analysis and seismic design accident analysis, spent fuel and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Report of the Nuclear Safety Committee (NSC) covers specific terms of reference as requested by the Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA. The primary issue for the Working Group(WG) consideration was whether ANSTO had demonstrated: (i) that the overall approach to seismic analysis and its implementation in the design is both conservative and consistent with the international best practice; (ii) whether the full accident analysis in the Probabilistic Safety Assesment Report (PSAR) satisfies the radiation dose/frequency criteria specified in ARPANSA's regulatory assessment principle 28 and the assumptions used in the Reference Accident for the siting assessment have been accounted for in the PSAR; and (iii) the adequacy of the strategies for managing the spent fuel as proposed to be used in the Replacement Research Reactor and other radioactive waste (including emissions, taking into account the ALARA criterion) arising from the operation of the proposed replacement reactor and radioisotope production. The report includes a series of questions that were asked of the Applicant in the course of working group deliberations, to illustrate the breadth of inquiries that were made. The Committee noted that replies to some questions remain outstanding at the date of this document. The NSC makes a number of recommendations that appear in each section of the document, which has been compiled in three parts representing the work of each group. The NSC notes some lack of clarity in what was needed to be considered at this approval stage of the project, as against information that would be required at a later stage. While not in the original work plan, recent events of September 11, 2001 also necessitated some exploration of issues relating to construction security. Copyright (2002) Commonwealth of Australia

  8. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  9. ANSTO program of research 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1989-1990 Program of Research of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization identifies the diversity of the organisation's current activities and the role of nuclear science and technology in achieving national goals. Major program areas continue to be biomedicine and health, advanced materials, applications of nuclear physics, environmental science, isotope technology and nuclear technology. Each project in a particular program area is defined in terms of background, objectives recent work and achievements, work planned and resources. External advisory committees which provide advice on research priorities, are viewed as a fundamental part of the ongoing evaluation process of the organization activities in response to changing priorities in industry, government and the community it serves

  10. Plan for Moata reactor decommissioning, ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Moata' is an Argonaut type 100 kW reactor that was operated by Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for 34 years from 1961 to 1995. It was initially used as a reactor-physics research tool and a training reactor but the scope of operations was extended to include activation analysis and neutron radiography from the mid 1970s. In 1995, the Moata reactor was shutdown on the grounds that its continued operation could no longer be economically justified. All the fuel (HEU) was unloaded to temporary storage and secured in 1995, followed by drainage of the demineralised water (primary coolant) from the reactor in 1996 and complete removal of electrical cables in 1998. The Reactor Control Room has been renovated into a modern laboratory. The reactor structure is still intact and kept under safe storage. Various options for decommissioning strategies have been considered and evaluated. So far, 'Immediate Dismantling' is considered to be the most desirable option, however, the timescale for actual dismantling needs to take account of the establishment of the national radioactive repository. This paper describes the dismantling options and techniques considered along with examples of other dismantling projects overseas. (author)

  11. ANSTO. Annual Report 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant events and achievements highlighted in the Annual Reports include: the Research Reactor Review, increase of external revenues by 12.5%, sales of Australian radioisotopes amounting to $8.5 M, regulatory approval for production of thallium-201 in National Medical Cyclotron, completion of first contracts with Wismut GmbH in Germany, production of a database of content of atmospheric particulate matter in air over NSW, word-wide licence agreement signed for further commercialization of blood clot radiopharmaceuticals, collaborative agreement signed with SURPAC Int. for development of geochemical speciation software, complete design of rings in HIFAR for silicon doping. ills., tabs

  12. Methods for conduct of atmospheric tracer studies at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perfluorocarbon atmospheric tracer system has been developed to investigate atmospheric dispersion processes in the region surrounding the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. This report discusses the tracer release, sampling and analysis methods

  13. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  14. The radiation damage in silicon diodes induced by stray fast neutrons from the ANSTO Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense flux of fast neutrons are produced during routine isotope production runs at the National Medical Cyclotron. These stray neutrons induce irreversible displacement damage in the semiconductor devices, the vital building blocks of the various electronic instruments used in the facility. This poster highlights the results of the radiation hardness investigation study of commercial silicon diodes undertaken at the Health Physics laboratory of the National Medical Cyclotron

  15. Quality management for laboratories using nuclear and isotopic techniques. The ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental studies are being used to assess the impact of current and past activities on the environment, and the potential impact of future activities on the environment. Laboratories use nuclear and isotopic techniques for research, the provision of analytical services, the provision of calibration services, the provision of calibration standards or a mixture of these activities on a national, regional or international basis. The need will increase for laboratories to be able to provide confidence that the laboratory's test results and reports can be independently assessed and verified in accordance with the requirements given in ISO-9000 and ISO/IEC Guide 25. The paper looks at reasons for implementing a management system, the process and some of the experiences from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation. The decision to develop, implement and maintain a management system that meets the requirements is influenced by a number of external and internal reasons. Regardless of the approach actually used to prepare the procedures and instructions and implement the quality system, a plan is required that provides resources and target dates for preparation and achievement of each phase of the system's implementation. Implementation of the system requires the procedures and instructions to be actually put to use in their real work environment. The implementation process needs to be monitored by progress meetings comparing planned objectives against actual achievements. Without full and frank audits and management reviews there is a danger that the system's procedures, instructions and forms will not reflect what is done and the system can become a millstone for the organization rather than an asset. (author)

  16. Characterisation of the neutron field at the ANSTO instrument calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the free field (direct) and scattered components of neutron field in a calibration room was essential to obtain an accurate response of the neutron monitor under testing. The free field fluence response and the fractional room return scatter, caused by the interaction of neutron fluence with the room structure, were determined. The fluence response was 1.21Ox 10-4 j μSv/h per n/m2; and the neutron field has a fractional room scatter of 0.044 at 1 m and increases linearly versus square of distance. The standard calibration methods, described by ISO-l0647, IAEA-TR285, NCRP-112 and NPL-RS(EXT)5, were utilized in this characterisation and gave comparable results. The shadow-shield (truncated cone) were found more suitable to describe the neutron field compared with the other methods e.g. the polynomial fitting, semi-empirical due to the fact of the size, shape of the ICF room and source/monitor positions. Nevertheless; all methods resulted in good response curves with correlation coefficients of fitting greater than 0.97. The shadow shield consisted of two stacked conical sections. The first section was made from iron of 200mm height and the second section was a hollow and made from aluminium of 350mm height. The hollow section was then filled with neutron-moderating/absorbing materials i.e. water solution of LiBr 24% w/w. A performance test was conducted on the shield and gave a very satisfactory result e.g. the readings of fluence response to the free field neutron did follow the inverse square law with correlation >=0.999. It is worth noticing that at the completion of this characterisation and report, the calibration results with the Physikalische-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany became available. As a result, the neutron characterisation at ICF calibration room did agree with the BTP calibration within five percent. Consequently, the neutron field in ICF rig calibration room is now traceable to BTP standard laboratory in Germany. Also, this agreement confirms the integrity of the current neutron source e.g. anisotropy stability, which should save substantial cost and efforts in replacing the source or sending it overseas for re-certification

  17. Final Report on Evaluating Residual Stresses and Internal Defects in Nuclear Materials at the Opal Reactor at ANSTO, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with developing capabilities in characterizing materials of relevance to the nuclear energy sector with neutron beams. A number of measurements were; residual stress measurements on a fusion first wall candidate composite material and a Zircaloy vessel which contains the cold neutron source. Texture measurements were made on 3 Zircaloy samples from reactor components. Planned SANS measurements were not possible as the instrument was not available. The neutron imaging instrument Dingo was constructed, commissioned, and is now operating. (author)

  18. The development of Dy-HMA at ANSTO: a new radiotherapeutic agent for the treatment of arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation synovectomy is a rapid alternative to surgical synovectomy and is more comfortable for the patient. With radiation synovectomy, a beta-emitting radionuclide is injected into the synovial sac of the joint and the radiation painlessly destroys the inflamed tissue. The major disadvantage with the use of radionuclides for synovectomy is the leakage of radioactivity from the injected point to other organs, particularly the regional leg lymph nodes. Dysprosium-165 has a much shorter half-life of 2.3 hours, which provides two significant advantages. Any leakage of activity will have a reduced effect on other organs and patients can be treated in one day instead of the three days that it requires 90Y to decay to acceptable levels. Scientists at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories have recently developed a simple and rapid method for the production of a 165Dy product based solely on dysprosium hydroxide macroaggregates, Dy-HMA, with the majority of particles in the 3-5 μm range. Dy-HMA is a sterile suspension in saline at a pH in the range 10.5-12 and can be used up to nine house after preparation. Subsequent animal tests indicated minimal leakage of radioactivity from injected animal joints. 7 refs., 1 tab

  19. Applications of cosmogenic radio-isotopes, 10Be, 26Al and 36CI in the Earth Sciences using AMS at ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides (CRN) is dominated by cosmic ray interaction in the upper atmosphere. Through atmospheric transport and precipitation, they become distributed over the Earth's surface, and participate in various geochemical and geophysical global processes. An alternate production mode of CRNs is in the Earth's lithosphere, particularly in exposed rocks and surfaces. The production rate of these in-situ produced CRNs depends primarily on the reaction mode and type of target material. Although production is small - a few tens of atoms per gram per year - the built-up in concentration even after a few thousand years of exposure can be measured using the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Concentrations of in situ nuclides in the near-surface zone allows a 'surface exposure history' to be estimated resulting in a measure of exposure ages and erosion rates. With a range in half-lives from 0.3-1.5 Ma, in-situ produced CRNs are ideally suited as geochronometers and tracers in Quaternary geomorphology related to paleoclimate change. This paper will briefly outline principles and techniques of 10Be, 26AI and 36CI in-situ methods and describe Some of the above projects related to the unique geomorphology of the Australian and Antarctic continents

  20. Qualitätsmanagement für Kunst- und Museumsbibliotheken – ein Anstoß für Krankenhausbibliotheken?! [Quality management in art libraries – a starting point for patient libraries?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangl, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Short abstract of the quality management and certification procedure, developed by art and museum libraries to be seen as a starting point of similar projects in patient libraries? [german] Qualitätsmanagement für Krankenhausbibliotheken – das Verfahren der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Kunst- und Museumsbibliotheken (AKMB als Vorbild?

  1. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...) research reactor fuel clad in aluminum, from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation... Aires, Argentina. The material, which is currently located at ANSTO's OPAL reactor, will be...

  2. Nuclear research centres in the 21st century: The Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main mandate of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is to provide benefits of nuclear science and technology to a variety of applications in agriculture, medicine and industry. It is expected that HIFAR reactor, which will complete 47 years of operation, will be replaced by a new multipurpose reactor in 2005. ANSTO also has a strong programme on accelerators for producing medical radioisotopes and for physics research. In the area of environment, ANSTO's programme includes isotope studies related to global climate change, pollution monitoring, and coastal and marine chemistry. ANSTO would continue to work for the improvement of the quality of life of all Australians. (author)

  3. Isotopes and inventories - lesson learnt two years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, ANSTO delivered a paper at ARPS that discussed how organisations had a need to consolidate, identify, and categorise their radioactive materials. We saw examples of how sources where incorrectly stored, unidentified, poorly shielded, and in need of organisation and inventory. Two years on, ANSTO has carried out a number of projects assisting organisations who have requested help. During this period a number of radiological challenges have presented themselves. The inventory system designed by ANSTO has now been further developed, and some basic measurement methodologies have been improved. This paper describes ANSTO's more recent experiences, lessons learned, and findings during the work of consolidating organisations' legacy radioactive materials.

  4. Green light for Australian/French nuclear science partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO CEO Dr Adi Paterson was in Paris in March to sign an agreement with his counterpart, Professor Bernard Bigot, head of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), under with ANSTO and CEA will partner more widely in research areas such as nuclear medicine, life sciences, radiation therapy, safety and radiological protection.

  5. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation strategy review recommendations. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1994 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO)'s Board initiated a comprehensive five month review which purpose was to develop a mission for ANSTO and thus define its role both domestically and internationally. The review took into account the needs of ANSTO stakeholders, analysed ANSTO capabilities as well as available international opportunities. Outcomes of the review included an assessment of the priorities and needs of stakeholders, an understanding of how these needs can be meet, and the resulting resource implications. ANSTO's major mission objectives, as defined in the consultants's report should be: to support the Government's nuclear policies (this objective is paramount), support industrial competitiveness and innovation through technology transfer, as well as to maintain a high quality nuclear science base and to enable academic institutions and other science organizations to perform research by providing access to unique facilities and expertise. The consultants also made recommendations on appropriate management arrangements for ANSTO, an implementation plan, progress milestones and operational targets. Details of the relevance-excellence analysis, commercial customer analysis and justification for recommended activity action imperatives are presented in the appendices. 48 figs

  6. Nuclear research in the tertiary sector: the role of AINSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering is a national organisation with a 45 year track record of collaboration and facilitation of the interaction of universities and one of the major Publicly Funded Research Agencies, ANSTO. AINSE supports research and training in fields that utilise the techniques and instrumentation of nuclear physics. AINSE currently has 37 Australian university members as well as the University of Auckland and the New Zealand Institute for Geological and Nuclear Sciences. Income is primarily obtained from members in the form of membership fees, ANSTO and a Commonwealth government contribution (also paid through ANSTO). Each university pays in proportion to the benefit received and the aggregate university augmented by equal contributions from ANSTO and the Federal Government (through ANSTO). This is seen as an essential element of this model which allows individual researchers to access the facilities irrespective of any funding from other major funding bodies. The replacement reactor for HIFAR will bring further impetus to AINSE collaborations with ANSTO. The new Tandetron accelerator that will come on-line this year is another collaborative AINSE initiative with ANSTO. Its use as an accelerator mass-spectrometer will provide a state-of-the art facility for dating and general ion-beam analysis experiments. AINSE supports research projects over a very wide range of disciplines, ranging from biomedical science/biotechnology, environmental science, material properties and engineering, archaeology and geosciences to material structure and dynamics. AINSE currently supports over 200 active projects

  7. Annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This First Annual Report of the Safety Review Committee describes the Committee's operations for the year ending 30 June 1988. The Committee was established on 27 April 1987 in accordance with Section 26 of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Act. The report provides an overview of ANSTO's Lucas Heights site, its facilities and resources and the potential of its operations for off-site consequences. The safety of the HIFAR and MOATA reactors, the HIFAR refurbishing program, the management of radioactive wastes, and occupational health and safety are discussed as well as the regulatory environment in which ANSTO operates

  8. Australian Nuclear Association David Culley award for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This project follows from the school's development of the principles of stress / strain relationships in materials, Bragg's Law, and the wave and penetration properties of neutrons. It is expected to lead to a set of experiments to be carried out at the HIFAR research reactor facilities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) using neutron diffraction to demonstrate applied stress and residual stress within examples of engineering structural component sections. Prior to the visit of the students to ANSTO, the topic of radiation safety is to be addressed by staff from ANSTO Health and Safety Division. A report will be provided covering the project's results and calculations

  9. Computer analysis of thermal hydraulics for nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives an overview of ANSTO's capability and recent research and development activities in thermal hydraulic modelling for nuclear reactor safety analysis, particularly for our research reactor, HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) and its intended replacement, the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR). Several tools contribute to ANSTO's capability in thermal hydraulic modelling, including RELAP (developed in US) - a code for reactor system thermal-hydraulic analysis; CFS (developed in UK) - a general computational fluid dynamics code , which was used for thermal hydraulic analysis in reactor fuel elements; and HIZAPP (developed at ANSTO) - for coupling neutronics with thermal-hydraulics for reactor transient analysis

  10. The 1998 calibration of Australian secondary standards of exposure and absorbed dose at 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New calibration factors are reported for several of the ionization chambers maintained at the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) and at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) as Australian secondary standards of exposure/air kerma and absorbed dose at 60Co. These calibration factors supplement or replace the calibration factors given in earlier reports. Updated 90Sr reference source data are given for the ARL chambers, and for two of the ANSTO chambers. These results confirm the stability of the secondary standards. A re-calibration of the ANSTO reference electrometer is reported. This was carried out using an improved method, which is fully described

  11. Development of the national radionuclide dose calibrator standardisation service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) acts as agent for the CSIRO Division of Applied Physics. ANSTO maintains the Australian primary standard of measurement for activity. The standard includes all nuclear medicine gamma emitters and a new standard for pure positron emitters. All radionuclide dose calibrators require calibration report. To satisfy the requirements of section 10 of the National Measurement Act, hospital departments and practices using radionuclide dose calibrators must ensure that they are traceable to the Australian primary standard of measurement. Each requires a current calibration report determined by ANSTO. For this reason, ANSTO has developed the National Radionuclide Dose Calibrator Standardisation Service, which activities are briefly presented. A list of publications by the Radiation Standards Laboratory is also included. 21 refs., 4 figs

  12. Annual report 1988-1989. Implementing strategies for change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the research and commercial activities of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In line with its strategic plan, ANSTO has been restructured into two major components: Scientific and Commercial areas plus small Corporate and External Affairs groups. Considerable progress was made to reorientate the research and development program to contain a 70/30 percent mixture of tactical applications oriented research and longer term strategic projects, aimed at identifying new, potentially commercial areas. Description of scientific and commercial activities relating to biomedicine and health, isotope technology, nuclear physics applications and environmental science are provided. Services such as engineering, computing, material testing ,information and ANSTO's involvement in regional and international technical co-operation programs are briefly outlined. Details are also given of the ANSTO revenue, expenditure, expenses and capital work. Ills

  13. Progress with the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction of the new Australian Research Reactor, the replacement for the now 46 year old HIFAR research reactor, is approximately 80% completed. Construction of the reactor facility began in April 2002 at ANSTO's Lucas Heights site near Sydney and commissioning is still on track for late 2005. Some details of the progress of construction and licensing and an outline of ANSTO research related to the use of Zircaloy-4 in the core region and reflector vessel of the reactor are given. (author)

  14. Monitoring and reviewing research reactor safety in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th research reactors operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) comprise the 10 MW reactor HIFAR and the 100 kW reactor Moata. Although there are no power reactors in Australia the problems and issues of public concern which arise in the operation of research reactors are similar to those of power reactors although on a smaller scale. The need for independent safety surveillance has been recognized by the Australian Government and the ANSTO Act, 1987, required the Board of ANSTO to establish a Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) with responsibility to the Minister for monitoring and reviewing the safety of nuclear plant operated by ANSTO. The Executive Director of ANSTO operates HIFAR subject to compliance with requirements and arrangements contained in a formal Authorization from the Board of ANSTO. A Ministerial Direction to the Board of ANSTO requires the NSB to report to him, on a quarterly basis, matters relating to its functions of monitoring and reviewing the safety of ANSTO's nuclear plant. Experience has shown that the Authorization provides a suitable framework for the operational requirements and arrangements to be organised in a disciplined and effective manner, and also provides a basis for audits by the NSB by which compliance with the Board's safety requirements are monitored. Examples of the way in which the NSB undertakes its monitoring and reviewing role are given. Moata, which has a much lower operating power level and fission product inventory than HIFAR, has not been subject to a formal Authorization to date but one is under preparation

  15. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  16. Nuclear Safety Bureau. Annual Report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the year the Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) continued its regulatory approach to monitor and review the safety of nuclear plant operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). This included an ongoing regime of safety audits against the authorised arrangements in ANSTO's safety documentation and the bureau's expectations for nuclear plant drawn from international best practice. The NSB invited the participation of officers of the Australian Radiation Laboratory in these audits. Aspects of ANSTO's operation of nuclear plant reviewed by the NSB included training and accreditation of operations staff, abnormal occurrences, modifications to plant and emergency arrangements and exercises for the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre. Audits of HIFAR were also conducted on operating logs, radiation protection and radioactive discharges. Based on the reviews and audits conducted by the NSB, and ANSTO's actions in responding to the bureau's requests and requirements for actions, the NSB concluded that ANSTO's nuclear plant operated safely throughout the year, and that risks to on-site personnel and the public were maintained at acceptably low levels

  17. Safety Features of the Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a general description of the development and application of basic safety criteria and the implementation of specific safety features in the design of the 20 MW pool-type research reactor currently being built by INVAP for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). A summary of the results of the preliminary deterministic safety analysis and the probabilistic safety assessment prepared by INVAP on ANSTO's behalf are presented as part of demonstrating the robustness of the design to the wide range of postulated initiating events considered. The paper also briefly describes the licensing process with respect to the way in which the licensing and regulatory regime within Australia influenced the design of the replacement research reactor (RRR). In particular, the reasoning for safety design features that have been incorporated as a result of the specific requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator is described. (author)

  18. Using nuclear technology for peace and environment...with open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the formation of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) in 1987, research was oriented towards the long term. There were no formal project objectives and little project accountability. Under the new organization, all projects are measured on the basis of cost and timeliness, as well as on the achievement of the research objectives. To assist in the implementation of this new objectives ANSTO is introducing a new financial information management system (FIMS). In addition to its main functions, the system will serve as the vehicle for software development in areas such as artifical intelligence and in text facilities for the Ingres database, and will be vital in the development of the Business and Technology Park aimed to provide a means for emerging technology-based Australian industries to have access to the resources of ANSTO. ills

  19. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, NSW. Statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This submission demonstrates the manner in which the replacement research reactor project is to be undertaken in accordance with all relevant Commonwealth requirements and standards. Successive submissions to Government have shown that the construction and operation of the replacement reactor will result in a range of significant benefits to Australia in the areas of health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and in industrial applications. ANSTO is confident that the construction and operation of the replacement research reactor will: meet the identified needs for an ongoing neutron source for Australia into the next century in a cost-effective manner; be effectively managed to ensure that the project is delivered to the agreed schedule and budget; involve an effective community consultation process with ongoing community consultation a feature of ANSTO's approach; will have negligible environmental and public health implications taking account of the environmental management measures and commitments made by ANSTO in the Environmental Impact Statement and the stringent licensing arrangement by ARPANSA

  20. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization. Annual Report 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The report provides an overview of the outcomes achieved and the current activities of ANSTO related to its core business activities. The core business of ANSTO were identified as follows: international strategic relevance of nuclear science; core facilities operation and development; applications of nuclear science and technology to the understanding of natural processes; treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry and organizational development and support. The report also include specific reporting against those performance indicators that were negotiated with the Government as part of the Triennium Funding Agreement and are regarded as appropriate for science agencies or for ANSTO specifically. Contains a glossary and an detailed index. tables., figures.

  1. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization. Annual Report 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides an overview of the outcomes achieved and the current activities of ANSTO related to its core business activities. The core business of ANSTO were identified as follows: international strategic relevance of nuclear science; core facilities operation and development; applications of nuclear science and technology to the understanding of natural processes; treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry and organizational development and support. The report also include specific reporting against those performance indicators that were negotiated with the Government as part of the Triennium Funding Agreement and are regarded as appropriate for science agencies or for ANSTO specifically. Contains a glossary and an detailed index. tables., figures

  2. Applications of neutron powder diffraction in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the applications of neutron powder diffraction in materials science. The technique is introduced with particular attention to comparison with the X-ray powder diffraction technique to which it is complementary. The diffractometers and special environment ancillaries operating around the HIFAR research reactor at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) are described. Applications of the technique which the advantage of the unique properties of thermal neutrons have been selected from recent materials studies undertaken at ANSTO

  3. Annual Report 1989-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period under review, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) sought to identify the most appropriate commercial vehicle, from joint ventures to licensing agreements, to transfer its technology to private enterprise. That vehicle, the Industrial Technology Program covers projects such as neutron radiography, safety and rehability studies and quality assurance. The Annual Report outlines the main research projects, the people involved and their achievements as well as future trends. ANSTO's external revenue reached 24% of recurrent appropriation, well on the way of the 30% target by the end of the 1992-1993 financial year. tabs., ills

  4. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia; Transport de combustible use en provenance d'Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  5. Program of research 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1 July 1988, the research activities of ANSTO have reorganised into five programs: advanced materials; applications of nuclear physics; environmental science; applications of radioisotopes and radiation; biomedicine and health. This structure not only groups the main research activities but also identifies the underpinning of ANSTO's commercial activities. This document describes the projects to be undertaken in the 1988-89 financial year. Each project in a particular program area is defined in terms of background, objective, recent work and achievements, work planned, resources and the project manager is identified. Research is also undertaken in areas of the operational activities of the organisation and these also are detailed

  6. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Act 1987 - No 3 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Act (ANSTO Act) is to establish a successor to the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) set up under the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The Act provides for a new Organization with functions which, according to Government policy, better reflect the directions in which Australia's principal research organization should tend in that area, namely realignment of AAEC activities away from work on the nuclear fuel cycle, towards greater emphasis on applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture, science, commerce, etc. ANSTO is prohibited from undertaking any R and D into the design and production of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. (NEA)

  7. The preparation of radioactive sources with radioactivities of less than 110 kilobecquerels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the various radioactive sources prepared in the ANSTO Radioisotope Standards Laboratory and the procedures associated with their preparation. ANSTO is authorised by CSIRO to maintain the Commonwealth standard of activity of radionuclides. Counting sources are required for the standardisation of solutions of radionuclides. Calibration sources are required for equipment used to detect radioactivity, such as gamma-ray spectrometers, and can be supplied to clients in other organisations. The maximum radioactivity supplied is 110 kBq. 7 refs., 65 figs

  8. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  9. ISO 9001 accreditation in an R and D environment - Is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is Australia's national nuclear organisation and its centre of Australian nuclear expertise. ANSTO is in the process of replacing its 1950's, 15 MW, high flux (up to 1015 n cm-2 s-1) reactor with a new reactor which will allow it to continue its cutting edge nuclear science and radiopharmaceutical production well into the 21st century. A ministerial requirement for licensing the facility is ISO 9001 accreditation of its quality management system. The accreditation process has been staggered at ANSTO. Individual divisions are attaining ISO 9001 accreditation separately, leading up to site-wide accreditation of an overarching ANSTO Business Management System. ANSTO Environment is the largest multidisciplinary environmental research group in Australia and the largest R and D unit at ANSTO, comprising around 150 biologists, chemists, engineers, geophysicists, meteorologists, microbiologists, oceanographers, physicists, and technicians. ANSTO Environment operates and maintains a wide range of advanced nuclear and analytical facilities including three particle accelerators, a 10 MV Tandem accelerator, a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and a newly acquired 2MV HVEE tandetron; a high current 50 kV Metal Vapour Vacuum Arc Ion Implantation (MEVVA) Facility; a ANSTO key facilities and environmental management for Australian nuclear industry Nuclear-based tools for environmental sustainability and climate change Cleaner technology for the minerals processing industry Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS); and many other laboratory and field-based facilities. The objective of ANSTO Environment is to carry out a problem-focused, balanced program of strategic and applied research and development, using its nuclear science-based core expertise and closely-related techniques, to: - assist the Commonwealth Government to further its national and international initiatives, and to protect and conserve the natural

  10. Animals in nuclear research: where ethics and expediency meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has a direct involvement in nuclear medicine, microbiological and environmental studies which utilise animals in the research work. The opposition to experiments on animals is briefly discussed. The Australia codes of practice for the care and use of animals for experimental purposes are outlined

  11. Regional cooperation to reduce the safety and security risks of Orphan radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project, in cooperation with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), has initiated a program to reduce the safety and security risks of orphan radioactive sources in the Philippines. Collaborative work commenced in February 2006 during the Regional Orphan Source Search and Methods Workshop, co-hosted by ANSTO and the US National Nuclear Security Administration. Further professional development activities have occurred following requests by PNRI to ANSTO to support improvements in PNRI's capability and training programs to use a range of radiation survey equipment and on the planning and methods for conducting orphan source searches. The activities, methods and outcomes of the PNRI-ANSTO cooperative program are described, including: i.) Delivering a training workshop which incorporates use of source search and nuclide identification equipment and search methodology; and train-the-trainer techniques for effective development and delivery of custom designed training in the Philippines; ii.) Support and peer review of course work on Orphan Source Search Equipment and Methodology developed by PNRI Fellows; iii.) Supporting the delivery of the inaugural National Training Workshop on Orphan Source Search hosted by PNRI in the Philippines; iv.) Partnering in searching for orphan sources in Luzon, Philippines, in May 2007. The methods employed during these international cooperation activities are establishing a new model of regional engagement that emphasises sustainability of outcomes for safety and security of radioactive sources. (author)

  12. Planning for decommissioning of Hifar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10MW HIFAR research reactor since 1958. In addition to its role in research, the reactor provides radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and is a major supplier of NTD silicon for the semi-conductor industry. It is anticipated that HIFAR will finally shut down operations in December 2006. Although ANSTO has successfully decommissioned MOATA and undertaken other smaller decommissioning projects the proposed HIFAR decommissioning project will be the largest ever undertaken by ANSTO. ANSTO faces a number of challenges in HIFAR's final year of operation. These include: the establishment of a modern decommissioning strategy in the absence of a long-term nuclear waste repository management facility or waste acceptance criteria for the material generated by the decommissioning; the impact of the impeding closure of the facility on staff morale and retention of key staff; and to meet the our customer's needs up to the final closure. These challenges are compounded by competition for skilled resources required to commission the new research reactor (OPAL) and the need to continue to supply radioisotopes. Important 'lessons in progress' that will be discussed in this paper include staffing the decommissioning team, maintenance of a strong safety culture during final stages of operation, working towards regulatory approval for decommissioning and strategies for knowledge retention. (author)

  13. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (Transitional Provisions) Act 1987 - No 4 of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act implements certain transitional provisions consequent to the enactment of the ANSTO Act 1987. The legislation provides for the continuation of the body corporate from its present form as the Australian Atomic Energy Commission to the new body corporate, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization. (NEA)

  14. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, NSW. Statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This submission demonstrates the manner in which the replacement research reactor project is to be undertaken in accordance with all relevant Commonwealth requirements and standards. Successive submissions to Government have shown that the construction and operation of the replacement reactor will result in a range of significant benefits to Australia in the areas of health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and in industrial applications. ANSTO is confident that the construction and operation of the replacement research reactor will: meet the identified needs for an ongoing neutron source for Australia into the next century in a cost-effective manner; be effectively managed to ensure that the project is delivered to the agreed schedule and budget; involve an effective community consultation process with ongoing community consultation a feature of ANSTO`s approach; will have negligible environmental and public health implications taking account of the environmental management measures and commitments made by ANSTO in the Environmental Impact Statement and the stringent licensing arrangement by ARPANSA 24 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  16. Thermoluminescence detection of irradiated herbs and spices: an Australasian trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is generally regarded as the detection method offering most promise for irradiated herbs and spices. The method has been developed in several laboratories, especially in the United Kingdom and Germany. This paper describes a double blind trial of the method carried out by two Australasian laboratories (GNS and ANSTO). (author)

  17. The use of radioisotopes in human experiments: comments in response to recent media articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent newspaper articles question the propriety and ethical foundation of early experimental programs in which radioisotopes were administered to human subjects. This paper describes the relevant activities of ANSTO's predecessor, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, and provides an historical background to these and subsequent events

  18. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  19. Regional cooperation to reduce the safety and security risks of orphan radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project, in cooperation with the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), has initiated a program to reduce the safety and security risks of orphan radioactive sources in the Philippines. Collaborative work commenced in February 2006 during the Regional Orphan Source Search and Methods Workshop, co-hosted by ANSTO and the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration. Further professional development activities have occurred following requests by PNRI to ANSTO to support improvements in PNRI's capability and training programs to use a range of radiation survey equipment and on the planning and methods for conducting orphan source searches. The activities, methods and outcomes of the PNRI-ANSTO cooperative program are described, including: i. Delivering a training workshop which incorporates use of source search and nuclide identification equipment and search methodology; and train-the-trainer techniques for effective development and delivery of custom designed training in the Philippines; ii. Support and peer review of coursework on Orphan Source Search Equipment and Methodology developed by PNRI Fellows; iii. Supporting the delivery of the inaugural National Training Workshop on Orphan Source Search hosted by PNRI in the Philippines; iv. Partnering in searching for orphan sources in Luzon, Philippines, in May 2007. The methods employed during these international cooperation activities are establishing a new model of regional engagement that emphasises sustainability of outcomes for safety and security of radioactive sources. (author)

  20. Report on polarised and inelastic cold neutron scattering at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANSTO's Instrument Workshop on Polarised and Inelastic Cold Neutron Scattering, was held at Lucas Heights on 27-28 January. 30 participants attended, from 6 Australian Universities, 3 ANSTO Divisions, and 5 overseas countries in Asia, Europe and North America. All participants had the opportunity to give their vision for work in 2005 and beyond. The recommendation was that ANSTO proceed with a monochromator/ shield/ polariser system and appropriate dance floor on a cold guide, in such a way that alternative secondary spectrometers (3-axis, LONGPOL-type, reflectometry) can be installed. If the National Science Council of Taiwan proceeds with its cold 3-axis project, ANSTO should then implement the LONGPOL / polarised-beam reflectometry option. If not, ANSTO should implement the cold 3-axis spectrometer. The workshop came to the following additional conclusions: There was a strong sense that any 3-axis spectrometer should have a multi-analyser/multidetector combination, or at least an upgrade path to this. At this stage, there is no case for 2 cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometers at the RRR. The desired Q-range is 0.02-5 Angstroms-1; with an energy transfer range of 20 μeV - 15 meV. The instrument is likely to run unpolarised for 2/3 of the time and polarised for the remainder, and the instrument(s) should be designed to allow easy changeover between polarised and unpolarised operation. We expect roughly equal interest/demand in studying single crystals, powders, surfaces/interfaces and naturally disordered systems. There was a strong sense that the facility should eventually have a cold-neutron time-of-flight spectrometer of the IN5 or IN6 type, with a polarised incident beam option, and designed in such a way that polarisation analysis could be implemented if inexpensive large-area analysers become available. This should be a high priority for the next wave of instruments that ANSTO plans to build after 2005

  1. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent`s response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO`s view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  2. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.-M.M., E-mail: AnneMarie.Williams@utas.edu.au [School of Medicine, Private Bag 34, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001 (Australia); Siegele, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  3. Invited Article: Polarization ``Down Under'': The polarized time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T.; Klose, F.; Le Brun, A. P.; Füzi, J.; Brule, A.; Nelson, A.; Holt, S. A.; James, M.

    2012-08-01

    This review presents the implementation and full characterization of the polarization equipment of the time-of-flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The functionality and efficiency of individual components are evaluated and found to maintain a high neutron beam polarization with a maximum of 99.3% through polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors. Neutron spin-flippers with efficiencies of 99.7% give full control over the incident and scattered neutron spin direction over the whole wavelength spectrum available in the instrument. The first scientific experiments illustrate data correction mechanisms for finite polarizations and reveal an extraordinarily high reproducibility for measuring magnetic thin film samples. The setup is now fully commissioned and available for users through the neutron beam proposal system of the Bragg Institute at ANSTO.

  4. Program of research - 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990-1991 Program of Research reflects the fundamental changes within the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) over the past three years as it has oriented itself towards being a more commercially driven organization, an organization responding to market demands and pressures. From July 1, 1990 several key projects have been linked together in the new Industrial Technology Program. The Program encompasses projects that have real potential to earn revenue for ANSTO and make measurable improvements in efficiency and productivity for Australian companies. The Isotope Technology project is researching and transferring to industry radioisotope technology for tracing the effectiveness of plant processes, the movement of materials within blast furnaces and leakages and outages in plant pipework. The two important newcomers are the Quality Technology Centre and the Safety and Reliability group. Details about project leaders, project titles and objectives are provided. ills

  5. AINSE - The years between 1988 and 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper traces the history of AINSE between the years 1988 and 1998. It was a time of great change for AINSE. At the beginning of this period the Government implemented major structural reforms of the higher education system and new mechanisms for research infrastructure support followed a year later. This culminated in 1993 with a major restructuring of AINSE which had continued with little change since its inception in 1958. This was followed in 1994 with a comprehensive review and reorganisation of ANSTO, which also had a significant effect on AINSE. These events will be described and will include some of AINSE, considerable achievements and successes which saw the organisation, in partnership with ANSTO, in a strong position at the end of this ten year period

  6. The importance of HIFAR to nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its official opening on 26 January 1960, the HIFAR research reactor operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at Lucas Heights near Sydney has been used to support an expanding nuclear medicine market. HIFAR has characteristics which make it very suitable for this role and the effect has been to make ANSTO the dominant supplier of reactor-based radiopharmaceuticals in Australia and a significant exporter. While HIFAR has capacity to support limited increased production, its future requires government decisions. The author concluded that the absence of an operational research reactor in Australia and the lack of another local source of neutrons could directly affect the practice of nuclear medicine in the country and the level of presently increasing exports

  7. Decommissioning and dismantling of the national medical cyclotron - a radiation protection perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Medical Cyclotron at Camperdown Sydney ceased operations in October 2009 after producing medical isotopes for application in nuclear medicine for approximately 19 years. ANSTO commenced the decommissioning and dismantling of the cyclotron in January 2011 after approval was given by ARPANSA following a detailed submission process. The radiation protection aspects of the decommissioning and dismantling of the 30 Mev National Medical Cyclotron by ANSTO and external contractors are described in this paper. This includes the preparation of a radiation protection plan, activation analysis of the cyclotron and its components and estimating individual and collective doses from available radiological data. The paper will also look at the planning and risk assessment of various work tasks performed, health physics monitoring and controls (both physical and administrative) and a review of individual and collective doses received during the dismantling process. Finally we will go through the challenges, issues and a review of the outcomes.

  8. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment

  9. Neutron-rich radioisotope production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses Australia's Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) and the applications of the range of radioisotopes it will produce. The ANSTO's RRR will produce radioisotopes that have medical., industrial and environmental applications. Medicinal radioisotopes would provide the nuclear medicine physicians and oncologists with the necessary tool to non-invasively diagnose and cure diseases, ranging from cancer to infections. Industrial radioisotopes provide the industrial community with high technology tools to evaluate and assess the status of high reliability equipment with respect to safety and functionality in a non-destructive modality. The current commercial radioisotope sources include 60Co, 169Yb and 192Ir with source strengths limited by the HlFAR neutron flux and capacity. These sources are primarily used for industrial X ray moisture, level and thickness gauging. The RRR will allow expansion of the commercial source strengths and allow ANSTO to meet the growing commercial Australasian market for radioactive sources

  10. The importance of project networking for the replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the HIFAR research reactor was commissioned in 1958 it was both constructed and regulated by the then Australian Atomic Energy Commission. The situation now is much more complicated, with an independent regulator, The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and oversight by national security agencies and the Australian Safeguards and Non proliferation Organisation (ASNO). In July 2000 ANSTO contracted INVAP SE a suitably qualified and experienced nuclear organisation based in Argentina to provide the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR). INVAP subcontracted an Australian entity, a joint venture between John Holland and Evans Deakin Industries (JHEDI) to provide resources in Australia. There is an international network of over 100 subcontractors providing services, products and materials to INVAP and JHEDI and a significant number of contractors providing project support services to ANSTO. The interaction of all these entities to provide the RRR is a significant networking challenge, involving a complex network of legal, contractual and functional relationships and communication processes

  11. Installation and validation of MCNP-4A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCNP-4A is a multi-purpose Monte Carlo program suitable for the modelling of neutron, photon, and electron transport problems. It is a particularly useful technique when studying systems containing irregular shapes. MCNP has been developed over the last 25 years by Los Alamos, and is distributed internationally via RSIC at Oak Ridge. This document describes the installation of MCNP-4A (henceforth referred to as MCNP) on the Silicon Graphics workstation (bluey.ansto.gov.au). A limited number of benchmarks pertaining to fast and thermal systems were performed to check the installation and validate the code. The results are compared to deterministic calculations performed using the AUS neutronics code system developed at ANSTO. (author)

  12. Annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this thirtieth year of operation, the Institute's twenty constituent organisations were eighteen Australian universities, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Through 1987-88, AINSE's operations supported research and training in the nuclear field, assisted the application of nuclear techniques in science, engineering and industrial technology, and assisted the universities and similar organisations in using the reactors, accelerators and other special facilities within the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories

  13. National Legislative and Regulatory Activities

    OpenAIRE

    OECD; Nuclear Energy Agency

    2007-01-01

    Argentina Amendment to the Criminal Code (2004) Australia Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Amendment Act (2006) Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management Legislation Amendment Act (2006) Finland Amendments to the Radiation Act and Radiation Decree (2005) France Decree on Securing Financing for Nuclear Charges (2007) Decree Licensing the Construction of the Basic Nuclear Installation “Flamanville 3” Comprising an EPR Reactor (2007) Germany Amendment to the Act on ...

  14. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  15. Nuclear Safety Bureau. Annual Report 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with its legislative functions, during the year the Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) continued to monitor and review the safety of nuclear plant operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), to provide advice to the Commonwealth and to participate in national and international fora on nuclear safety and regulatory matters. ANSTO completely revised and published two major items of the reactor safety documentation, following NSB review and agreement. They provide substantial additions to the safety knowledge of the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) and practical improvements to the safety of its operations. In order to monitor ANSTO's nuclear plant, bureau officers attended, as observers, the accreditation interviews of all key reactor operating personnel and also attended meetings of the liaison committee, which coordinates involvement of local, State and Commonwealth agencies in emergency arrangements for the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC). The bureau also reviewed a submission from ANSTO for the siting of the proposed reactor against the bureau's siting assessment principles, which include, in part, that the calculated consequences of a hypothetical accident at a proposed facility satisfy the bureau's siting criteria. It was concluded that, in principle, a modern pool reactor with a power level of 20 MW, located safely at the Lucas Heights site, could meet the bureau's radiological siting criteria. From 1 July 1997, the NSB is designated a Competent Authority, under the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978, for the land transport of radioactive material undertaken by the Commonwealth. During the year, the NSB has also reviewed its hypothetical accident and radiological criteria for assessing the suitability of Australian ports for visits by nuclear powered warships

  16. The fourth conference on nuclear science and engineering in Australia, 2001. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference, with the theme 'New Nuclear Century' consists of invited papers supported by contributed posters on the following topics: nuclear research and ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor; Australian uranium resources; radioactive waste management; low-level radiation, radiation protection, nuclear safety, the environment and sustainable development; application of nuclear energy in Nuclear Medicine, non-destructive testing; nuclear science and technology for the future and nuclear education

  17. Nuclear wastes and its entry into the country through an unconstitutional contractual association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzes, vis a vis the art. 41 of the Argentine Constitution and the national law 25.108 on radioactive wastes, the contractual and commercial relation between INVAP S.E of Argentina and ANSTO of Australia for the construction of a research reactor. He concludes that the possibility of the treatment of the spent fuels in Argentina for final disposal in Australia, may violate the Argentine regulations and proposes public hearings to debate the question

  18. Distribution and Solubility of Radionuclides and Neutron Absorbers in Waste Forms for Disposition of Plutonium Ash and Scraps, Excess Plutonium, and Miscellaneous Spent Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial goal of this project was to investigate the solubility of radionuclides in glass and other potential waste forms for the purpose of increasing the waste loading in glass and ceramic waste forms. About one year into the project, the project decided to focus on two potential waste forms - glass at PNNL and initiate ceramics at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  19. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and 133Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of 133Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 x 1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 x 1016 to 2.4 x 1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 x 1013 to 3.7 x 1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases

  20. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO`s engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  2. Licensing of the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)'s Replacement Research Reactor has been submitted to a comprehensive licensing process of which peer review has been a fundamental part. Following Australian Regulation, an application for a site licence was the first step supported by an Environmental Impact Statement approved by The Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and a Reference Accident Analysis. After the site licence had been granted and the contract awarded to the Designer and Constructor, INVAP S.E:, a 2500 page Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was submitted by ANSTO to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), which conducted its review. ARPANSA requested that the PSAR be also reviewed by an experts mission from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The PSAR was also reviewed by the Argentine Regulatory Body, it was submitted to public examination in Australia and it was reviewed by international experts hired as consultants by several Australian organisations. A public forum was also held in Sydney. The Regulator, the applicant and the Designer-Constructor maintained constant interaction during the whole process, so that questions, comments and observations that arose from the review of the PSAR were fed back to the designers. This process allowed for a robust, safe design enriched by the results of the safety analysis and review process. (author)

  3. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 μm particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs

  4. Annual report of the Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some scientific achievements and advisory activities of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), during the year are highlighted, including: development of a standardised assessment protocol for estimating the levels of radiofrequency radiation as a function of distance from mobile phone base stations; advice to Australian Customs on high energy X-ray beam facilities; advice on the health risks of naturally occurring radioactivity in relation to emissions from the BHP Sinter Plant in Wollongong; participation in the National Repository Advisory Committee and National Store Advisory Committee dealing with radioactive waste management for Australia; several publications of work associated with assessment of exposures to ultraviolet radiation. Three personal UV dosimetry projects have been organised or commenced in collaboration with health-related organisations. The licensing of the existing nuclear installations at ANSTO was a major activity during the year. There were some difficulties in obtaining and making public sufficient information to allow adequate public comment on the proposals. In the case of the HIFAR facility, the ARPANSA licence was replacing a regulatory system administered by the former Nuclear Safety Bureau, but it was still a challenge to demonstrate through a safety evaluation report that it met the statutory conditions required for issuing a licence under the ARPANS Act and ARPANS Regulations. For the other nuclear facilities, they were being brought within a formal regulatory process for the first time. The licences now issued include additional conditions requiring the licence holder to provide improved documentation and justification of safety practices. One of the roles inherited by ARPANSA from the Nuclear Safety Bureau is the monitoring of the operations of the ANSTO nuclear plant. From its monitoring over the year, ARPANSA has concluded that overall ANSTO's nuclear plant continued to be operated safely during

  5. A simple method for the verification of clearance levels for non-radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's radiopharmaceutical production laboratories generate 25 m3 of solid waste per month. Most of this waste is not radioactive. Up until recently the non-radioactive waste was cleared from the controlled area and stored for 10 halflives prior to disposal as normal solid refuse. To eliminate the storage and ''double handling'' of the large quantities of non-radioactive waste a simple clearance method was devised to allow direct disposal. This paper describes how clearance levels were determined. Here the term ''clearance level'' is used as a general term for the release of material regardless of whether it was previously subject to regulatory control. This contrasts with the IAEA definition of a clearance level and highlights a potential problem with the implementation of exemption levels to keep material out of regulatory control and the use of clearance levels to allow removal of materials from regulatory control. Several common hand held contamination monitors were tested to determine their limits of detection and ability to meet these clearance levels. The clearance method includes waste segregation and size limitation features to ensure the waste is monitored in a consistent manner, compatible with the limits of detection. The clearance levels achieved were subsequently found to be compatible with some of the unconditional clearance levels in IAEA-TECDOC-855 and the measurement method also meets the required features of that document. The ANSTO non-radioactive waste clearance system has been in operation for more than 12 months and has proved simple and effective to operate. Approximately 12m3 of the solid waste is now been treated directly as normal solid refuse. This paper describes the ANSTO clearance system, the contamination monitor tests and details practical problems associated with the direct monitoring of solid waste, including averaging of the activity in the package. The paper also briefly highlights the potential problem with the use of exempted

  6. Radionuclide separations in the nuclear fuel cycle development and application of micro and meso porous inorganic ion-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: From the mining of uranium-containing ores to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, separations technologies play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and viability of the nuclear fuel cycle. With respect to proposed Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC), the integral role of separations is no different with solvent extraction and pyroelectrometalurgical processing dominating efforts to develop a sustainable and publicly acceptable roadmap for nuclear power in the next 100 years. An often forgotten or overlooked separation technology is ion-exchange, more specifically, inorganic ion-exchangers. This is despite the fact that these materials offer the potential advantages of process simplicity; exceptional selectivity against high background concentrations of competing ions; and the possibility of a simple immobilization route for the separated radionculides. ANSTO's principal interest in inorganic ion-exchange materials in recent years has been the development of an inorganic ion-exchanger for the pretreatment of acidic legacy 9 Mo production waste to simultaneously remove radiogenic cesium and strontium. Radiogenic cesium and strontium comprise the majority of activity in such waste and may offer increased ease in the downstream processing to immobilise this waste in a Synroc wasteform. With the reliance on separations technologies in all current ANFC concepts, and the recent admission of ANSTO to the European Commissions EUROPART project, the development of new inorganic ion-exchangers has also expanded within our group. This presentation will provide a background of the fundamentals of inorganic and composite inorganic-organic ion-exchange materials followed by specific discussion of some selected inorganic and composite ion-exchange materials being developed and studied at ANSTO. The detailed structural and ion-exchange chemistry of these materials will be discussed and note made of how such materials could benefit any of the

  7. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  8. Proceedings of the 4th Australian experimental high energy physics meeting and workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4th Annual Meeting of the Australian High Energy Physics Consortium was held at ANSTO on the 11th and 12th of December, with a workshop on software development and applications held at the University f Sydney on the 13th. A wide range of talks on the progress of NOMAD and ATLAS experiments and related research were presented, plus talks on heavy ion physics which is also carried out in collaboration with CERN. Extended abstracts of the presentations are included in this volume

  9. Combining computational modelling with radioisotope technology for a more cost- effective and time-efficient method of solving industrial and medical diagnostic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some work on computational modelling for industrial operations and processes will be presented, for example, the modelling of fly-ash flow and the associated prediction of erosion in power utility boilers. The introduction and use of new formulations of encapsulated radioisotopes, currently being research at ANSTO, will open up further possibilities for the utilisation of radiotracer applications for a wider range of validation work not only in industrial but also in medical investigations. Applications of developed models to solving industrial problems will also be discussed in the paper

  10. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop's program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants

  11. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  12. Intercomparison of ionisation chamber measurements from {sup 125}I seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Building 23, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); E-mail: jbd@ansto.gov.au; Enari, K.F. [Cancer Care Centre, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217 (Australia); Baldock, C. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    The reference air kerma rates of a set of individual {sup 125}I seeds were calculated from current measurements of a calibrated re-entrant ionisation chamber. Single seeds were distributed to seven Australian brachytherapy centres for the same measurement with the user's instrumentation. Results are expressed as the ratio of the reference air kerma rate measured by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) to the reference air kerma rate measured at the centre. The intercomparison ratios of all participants were within {+-}5% of unity.

  13. Development of customised environmental chambers for time-resolved in situ diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to mitigate the expense and broaden the applicability of customised environment chambers, researchers at the University of Melbourne and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) have designed and are currently commissioning a modular reaction chamber, capable of separating the necessities of diffraction methodologies from those of the desired sample environment. The In Situ Reaction Chamber (ISRC) abstracts many of the details intrinsic to the diffractometer, allowing users to design inexpensive environmental inserts that may be readily customised to their individual needs. The first insert to be developed for use with the ISRC is a high temperature furnace capable of providing an oxidising sample environment up to 16000C.

  14. Research Reactors that Look Similar But are Quite Different

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 1997, the 22 MW ETRR-2 was started up and in November 2001, the 20 MW design, offered by INVAP, was selected by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) to be the new replacement research reactor. Overall, both reactors generate practically the same power and the primary cooling system presents similarities that can be considered as the use of a proven technique. However, the required core configuration introduces some important challenges in the design. The paper is intended to show the experience of INVAP in the thermal-hydraulic design of two 'similar' research reactors specified with different requirements and fulfilling the same safety standards. (author)

  15. The application of nuclear localisation technologies in environmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear and related localisation technologies at ANSTO have been applied to a range biological matrices, in relation to specific environmental questions. Several of these applications are summarised, including the localization of lead and other elements in crocodile osteoderms and validation of bivalve shell micro-laminations as archival monitors of pollution signals. The co-location of Ca and its metabolic analogue Ra-226 led to further development of a theoretical model of bioaccumulation of alkaline-earth and other elements in the tissue of Australian freshwater bivalves under natural conditions, which were not appreciably altered by uranium mining in the region

  16. The National Medical Cyclotron - An Australian experience in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) in the early 1990's was the practical outcome of a vision, held by nuclear medicine professionals, to complement the available neutron-rich radionuclides produced in Australia, with neutron-deficient radionuclides. The NMC is operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in collaboration with the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH) in Sydney where the PET department is able to use the short-lived radiotracers to good advantage. Neutron-deficient radionuclides, are also produced by the NMC laboratories. The cyclotron-generated radionuclides are used in over 70,000 patient studies per year

  17. Bals, Christoph/Hamm, Horst/ Jerger, Ilona/Milke i.A. von Germanwatch (Hg): Die Welt am Scheideweg: Wie retten wir das Klima? (2008), Reinbek: Rowohlt, 318 S. [...] [Sammelrezension

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Asit

    2009-01-01

    Sammelrezension zu: 1. Bals, Christoph/Hamm, Horst/ Jerger, Ilona/Milke i.A. von Germanwatch (Hg): Die Welt am Scheideweg: Wie retten wir das Klima? (2008), Reinbek: Rowohlt, 318 S., ISBN: 978-3-498-00653-2. 2. Berg, Christian/Hartung, Manuel J.: Welt retten für Einsteiger. 30 Gründe für ein gutes Gewissen(2007). München: dtv, 180 S., ISBN: 978-3-423-24649-1. 3. Brot für die Welt/eed/BUND (Hg): Zukunftfähiges Deutschland in einer globalisierten Welt. Ein Anstoß zur gesellschaftlichen Debatte....

  18. Heterogeneous Catalysis under pressure - In-situ neutron diffraction under industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describes the application of a tubular reactor that allows in-situ neutron diffraction on working catalysts at high pressures. The designed reactor enables the application to a sample of industrially-relevant reaction conditions, i.e., in a temperature range up to 330° C and 60 bar pressure, coupled with online gas-analysis. Application of the cell is demonstrated by ammonia synthesis over a commercial catalyst with diffraction data obtained from the high-resolution powder diffractometer, Echidna, at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, ANSTO.

  19. The evolving role of radiotracing in integrated coastal zone management investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the off-shore radiotracing program at ANSTO. Special reference is made to the impact that sophisticated numerical modelling is making to the design of tracer studies underpinning engineering and environmental investigations in the coastal zone. Much of the research is designed to reduce the freedom modellers have in setting parameter values. Emphasis being placed on studying of the fate and behaviour of particulates and cohesive sediments, on measuring the impact of wind fields on transport and on obtaining field measurements of model parameters such as hydrodynamic shear stress. (author)

  20. RadCon: Parameter report focusing on Tropical and Subtropical environments in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models to simulate the transfer of radionuclides through air, water and terrestrial ecosystems have been developed and used regularly over the last 20 years. RadCon was developed as a simple model to assess the radiological consequences, as dose, to humans of short-term depositions of radionuclides. Internal exposure via inhalation and ingestion are included in this model as well as external exposure from the passing cloud (cloud shine) and from radioactivity deposited on the ground (ground shine).Initially, the RadCon model will deal with the Australian and South East Asian region but flexibility has been incorporated into the design to allow application in other regions. In a manner similar to a geographic information system, the display of input and output data allows quick access to the results, both numerically and graphically. Coloured concentration gradients, stepping through time, are superimposed on the area of interest to present atmospheric and ground concentrations of the radionuclides and, after the calculations, human dose. The model has portability across computer platforms.This report summarises the parameters and some of the transfer factors underlying the calculations. While the focus was on the tropical and subtropical regions in Australia, for many parameters the values may only have been available for temperate regions, in which case this has been used as the default value. The parameter flexibility is a major aspect of this model and a report to describe the editor has been written (Crawford and Domel, ANSTO/M-129). The aim of this document is to chronologically expand on the formulae and parameter tables presented in the Technical Guide (Crawford et al., ANSTO/E-744, May 2000). The two documents should be read together with the Technical Guide presenting the mathematical computations and this report presenting some of the input values used to calculate the end-point results from the computations. A User Guide to assist in the implementation

  1. Erinnerung und Geschichte – Ein früher Bericht aus dem Frauen-KZ Moringen 1936/37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Schikorra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Erinnerungsbericht von Gabriele Herz ist einerseits bedeutsam wegen der Beschreibung individuelle Erfahrungen und der Einnahme einer persönlichen Perspektive. Andererseits stellt er ein bedeutendes Dokument für die Geschichtsschreibung zu frühen Konzentrationslagern dar, und hier insbesondere zu den Verfolgungserfahrungen jüdischer Frauen im Deutschland der 30er Jahre. In der äußerst aufschlussreichen Einleitung der Historikerin Jane Caplan, die den Anstoß für die Herausgabe dieses einzigartigen Dokuments gab, wird die Komplexität des Erinnerungszeugnisses von Gabriele Herz aufgezeigt und gewürdigt.

  2. Rotamak equilibrium calculations using the PEST code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of the equilibrium part of the Princeton equilibrium and stability code PEST to model rotamak equilibria with an applied toroidal magnetic field. An overview of the code is provided, together with a list of required input data. The simulation of a range of equilibria measured in the ANSTO rotamak shows that the rotamak approximately satisfies magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium. Of particular interest is the presence of large diamagnetic poloidal current about the magnetic axis which produces a peak in the plasma pressure on the magnetic axis. For a low toroidal field, however, poloidal current of opposite direction is simultaneously driven on flux surfaces distant from the magnetic axis, producing paramagnetism

  3. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The appendices contains additional relevant information on: Environment Australia EIS Guidelines, composition of the Study Team, Consultation Activities and Resuits, Relevant Legislation and Regulatory Requirements, Exampies of Multi-Purpose Research Reactors, Impacts of Radioactive Emissions and Wastes Generated at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, Technical Analysis of the Reference Accident, Flora and Fauna Species Lists, Summary of Environmental Commitments and an Outline of the Construction Environmental Management Plan Construction Environmental Management Plan figs., ills., refs. Prepared for Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  4. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  5. Carbon monoxide migratory insertion - A comparison of cationic and neutral palladium(II) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the use of ANSTO's resources and expertise and with support from AINSE, we have carried out extensive computer modelling on the mechanism of the palladium catalysed carbonylation reaction, a process which is used industrially in the conversion of carbon monoxide into biodegradable polymers. In this project, experimental and theoretical work has focussed on using Pd(II) complexes containing pyridine carboxylate ligands (NC5H4COO) to explore the fundamental mechanistic steps. The results for subsequent steps in the catalytic cycle are presented and their implication for the design of more efficient catalysts are discussed

  6. An historical review and perspective of AINSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophel, T.R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics

    1998-12-31

    Full text: ANSTO was formed in 1958 as a cooperative venture of modest scope, involving the newly established AAEC (created by the Atomic Energy Act of 1953 with facilities at Lucas Heights being formally opened in 1955) and the eight universities that existed at the time. Research emphasis was very much nuclear, with the two reactors MOATA and HIFAR and possible future nuclear energy developments defining it. Two accelerators, added in the early sixties - the 3 MV Van de Graaff and the 1.3 MV electron machine, were to sustain those original activities of the AAEC. It would probably be true to say that AINSE in those early days placed much importance on the general support of nuclear science throughout Australia, whereas now of course the facilitation of the use of ANSTO facilities has become the main function. Thereafter, both AINSE and the AAEC have undergone dramatic change. The number of universities expanded to 19 in the late sixties, along with more support and encouragement for research at both the new institutions and the original group of eight. University use of Lucas Heights facilities, through the agency of AINSE, expanded and began to diversify somewhat into other disciplines - a trend that has continued apace ever since. In the nineties, the Dawkins revolution led to a doubling of the number of tertiary institutions, so that once again AINSE experienced a quantum jump in size, with of course matching complexity. In parallel, AAEC broadened its activities to embrace a wide range of nuclear and energy related areas, though basic research began to taper off. Finally, the organization was given a new charter in 1985 and re-named ANSTO. A much expanded university system, the `new` ANSTO, the rise of economic rationalism and the creation of the Australian Research Council have combined to provide a succession of challenges to AINSE. From the original small, club-like beginning with narrow interests, AINSE has emerged with more than a four-fold increase in

  7. Spent HIFAR fuel elements behaviour under extended dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously unpublished observations of the behaviour of HIFAR spent fuel under extended dry storage conditions are reported. The two fuel elements EC802 (Mark III type) were irradiated in 1966, first examined in hot cells in 1967 and again examined in hot cells in 1983 following 16 years of stage, 11 years of which were in the ANSTO engineered dry storage facility. The elements showed negligible deterioration over this extended dry storage period, lending considerable confidence to the viability of dry storage technologies for the long term storage of spent aluminium clad research reactor fuels. 1 tab., 1 fig., 17 ills

  8. SIMS applications workshop. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first ANSTO/AINSE SIMS Workshop drew together a mixture of Surface Analysis experts and Surface Analysis users with the concept that SIMS analysis has to be enfolded within the spectrum of surface analysis techniques and that the user should select the technique most applicable to the problem. With this concept in mind the program was structured as sessions on SIMS Facilities; Applications to Mineral Surfaces; Applications to Biological Systems, Applications to Surfaces as Semi- conductors, Catalysts and Surface Coatings; and Applications to Ceramics

  9. Relevant thermal-hydraulic aspects in the design of the RRR (Replacement Research Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description of the main thermal-hydraulic features and challenges of the Replacement Research Reactor, for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), is presented. Different hydraulic and thermal-hydraulic aspects are considered, core cooling during full power operation and the way it affects the design, design criteria, engineered safety features and computational tools, amongst others. A special section is devoted to the thermal-hydraulic aspects inside the reflector tank, as well as the cooling of irradiation facilities, particularly, the Molybdenum production facility. (author)

  10. The fifth conference on nuclear science and engineering in Australia, 2003. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the fifth Nuclear Science and Engineering in Australia conference was 'Building on 100 years of Nuclear Science and Technology'. During the six main sessions the following topics were presented: Nuclear research and progress on major nuclear facilities, including the ANSTO Research Replacement Reactor, the Australian synchrotron and irradiation facilities; Uranium and waste management; Radiation Protection and Nuclear safety; Safeguards and Security; Nuclear Power in the Asia/Pacific region and prospects for Australia. The opening address, given by Mr Peter McGauran, Minister for Science was followed by Dr Robin Batterham, Australian Chief Scientist's introductory address. Papers included in the handbook were separately indexed

  11. Climate activities in Australia 2001 : a report on Australian participation in international scientific climate programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth report reviews the most recent Australian achievements in climate science, focussing on the two years since the last report. After a brief review of the processes which determine the broad features of Australia's climate, including its extreme variability, and an overview of Australian climate from 1999 to 2001, this report summarises the organisational arrangements for WCP-related activities in Australia and provides a chapter by chapter summary of recent Australian activities in: climate data and monitoring (Chapter 2); climate applications and services (Chapter 3); climate impact assessment and response strategy development (Chapter 4); climate research (Chapter 5); support of the implementation of the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) which is being developed internationally to underpin the various objectives of the WCP (Chapter 6); support of the preparation of the Third Assessment Report, and other reports, of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (Chapter 7). As improved advances in computing and communications continues to make climate information more accessible, an increasing number of government agencies, research institutes and private concerns are applying this information to improve understanding, sustainable management practices and productivity. Thus, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) contributes to climate research, drawing on its unique expertise in identifying and tracking radionuclides. Jointly with CSIRO, Bureau of Meteorology and other organisations, ANSTO's research has enabled measurements of gaseous exchanges and refined dates in palaeoclimatic events

  12. Application of sensitive and supersensitive radon detectors for radon flux density and radon concentration in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a review of principles and operational parameters of the latest instrumental development in sensitive and high sensitive radon detectors at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The focus is on advances in measurement technology of radon concentration in air and radon flux density. Two areas in which ANSTO is actively involved are discussed. The first area concerns radon in air monitoring at Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station. Results recorded at the Station with a supersensitive radon detector characterised by lower limit of detection down to few mBq m-3 with time resolution better than 90 minutes are presented to illustrate importance of the technique in global monitoring of airborne pollution. The second area concerns estimates of radon and thoron fluxes from large geographical areas. This is illustrated by results obtained during an Australia-wide survey of radon fluxes and from thoron flux measurements around the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. The radon flux estimates from Australia come from a coarse net of spot measurements combined with data from aerial gamma surveys. It is argued that as radon global flux and air concentration estimates improve, the data will provide progressively more stringent tests of global air transport models. (author)

  13. Sodium-rich wastes: challenges, analysis and performance - 59316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The immobilisation of radioactive waste is of fundamental importance to its safe management. By changing the form of the waste, chemically and/or physically, it is possible to minimise the escape of radionuclides to the biosphere. Sodium-rich wastes can be particularly problematic to immobilise. The high solubility of sodium in both acidic and alkaline water makes it particularly challenging to maintain as a structural component within the wasteform matrix. Glass and glass-ceramic waste-forms have been developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) that immobilise sodium-rich wastes (up to 7 M NaOH) in accordance with US Department of Environment regulations. While traditional chemical and structural analyses such as powder infra-red spectroscopy, thermal gravimetry and x-ray diffraction have been employed in this development, additional data from neutron- and X-ray micro-focus tomography are also presented. These techniques were used to quantify phase volume percentage and size distribution data to further elucidate structural information and matrix uniformity. This work presents the ANSTO experience of sodium-rich wastes: the process involved from laboratory design with key results, to upscale considerations and challenges. (authors)

  14. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO's engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Annual Report 1994-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early years of the operation of HIFAR, restrictions on land use outside of the 1.6 km exclusion zone around the reactor were proposed to the NSW Government. Subsequently, the restrictions were considered to be unnecessary. During the year under review, the Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) reconsidered this issue, using its revised safety assessment policy, and concluded that the advice on land use provided previously was appropriate. Although the NSB is satisfied that HIFAR can be operated safely it believes that upgrading of safety systems will be necessary, for a significant extension of life, by about 2003. Legislation provides the NSB with the power to place restrictions on the operation of reactors operated by ANSTO. The NSB reports that, following a review of the issues reported and as a result of its audits, reviews and inspections, the safety of operation of ANSTO's nuclear plant was satisfactory during the year. In consultation with the Commonwealth, States and Territories, the NSB also contributes to the safety programs for visits by nuclear powered warships to Australia by analysing potential accidents and reviewing emergency plans for visits. During the year the NSB activities included the design and distribution of a computer code as an aid to emergency planning, updating port safety assessments and reviews of accident criteria in collaboration with a national committee for radiation protection. The NSB concluded that the current safety assessment methods and procedures are appropriate to ensure adequate safety standards for visits by nuclear powered warships. tabs., ills

  16. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body

  17. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  18. AINSE's future role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AINSE (Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering) was created in 1958 as a consortium of nine universities and the then Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) to develop research projects associated with the use of atomic energy. In 1999 AINSE remains strong, but has increased its membership to include 35 Australian universities and 1 New Zealand university. AINSE's role has been to facilitate access by researchers in universities to the facilities of the ANSTO Laboratories. Over the years the emphasis of the research projects themselves has shifted from those related to nuclear physics and the solution of problems associated with the development of nuclear energy, to projects where the emphasis is on the application of nuclear and nuclear related techniques to problems in a wide range of areas, including biomedical science and the environment. AINSE has reached a 40-year milestone and is about to enter the next millennium (and the next 40 years) at a time when ANSTO will host a new and modern reactor and the application of basic sciences to the biological areas is tipped to become the major focus of scientific discovery. Increasingly the environment becomes a source of major concern for everyone and the subject of a large component of research. The challenge for AINSE is to retain existing interests and expertise, but to also develop new ways in which nuclear science can be applied to these exciting and expanding areas of research

  19. Assessing and improving the safety culture of non-power nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and application of safety culture principles has understandably focused on nuclear power plant and fuel cycle facilities and has been based on studies in Europe, North America, Japan and Korea. However, most radiation injuries and deaths have resulted from the mishandling of radioactive sources, inadvertent over-exposure to X-rays and critically incidents, unrelated to nuclear power plant. Within the Forum on Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), Australia has been promoting initiatives to apply safety culture principles across all nuclear and radiation application activities and in a manner that is culturally appropriate for Asian countries. ANSTO initiated a Safety Culture Project in 1996 to develop methods for assessing and improving safety culture at nuclear and radiation installations other than power reactors and to trial these at ANSTO and in the Asian region. The project has sensibly drawn on experience from the nuclear power industry, particularly in Japan and Korea. There has been a positive response in the participating countries to addressing safety culture issues in non-power nuclear facilities. This paper reports on the main achievements of the project. Further goals of the project are also identified. (author)

  20. International Nuclear Event Scale and its application in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of the INES is to facilitate communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public, in relation to such events. Events involving nuclear or radiological safety are classified as a series of levels from Level 0, for events of no safety significance, to Level 7 for major accidents, e.g the Chernobyl accident. In 1992 the IAEA published an INES Users' manual to provide comprehensive guidance in application of the INES to events; the revised Users' Manual is now at the final draft stage within the IAEA. From the beginning of 1991 the Nuclear Safety Bureau (NSB) assigned levels on the INES on a trial basis to events at ANSTO's reactors. ANSTO formally assigns INES levels to HIFAR Abnormal Occurrences and provided this information on a quarterly basis to the NSB prior to the establishment of ARPANSA. The NSB reviewed these ratings and mentioned them in its Quarterly Report to the Minister for Health. In 1998 the NSB applied to the IAEA for Australia to join the INES Information Service on an interim basis and Australia was added to the list of countries participating in the Service. Copyright (2000) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  1. Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety (consequential amendments) Bill 1998. Explanatory memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this Bill is to make consequential changes to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Act 1987 (the ANSTO Act) and to provide for transitional arrangements to cover the operation of controlled facilities and the handling of radiation sources while applications for licences to cover these facilities and activities are being made under the proposed Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 (the ARPANS Act) For this purpose, the Bill: (a) repeals Parts VI and VII A of the ANSTO Act under which, respectively, the Safety Review Committee and the Nuclear Safety Bureau are established, as the functions of the Committee and Bureau will be transferred to the CEO of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, established under the ARPANS Act; (b) makes transitional arrangements for the transfer of the assets and liabilities of the Nuclear Safety Bureau to the Commonwealth, and confers on the CEO of ARPANSA the powers of the Director of the Nuclear Safety Bureau in relation to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation during the transitional period before the offenses provisions commence to operate under the ARPANS Act; (c) repeals the Environment Protection (Nuclear Codes) Act 1978. That Act provides for the development and endorsement of Codes of Practice which will be undertaken under the auspices of ARPANSA; (d) provides that Commonwealth entities have a transition period of 6 months after the ARPANS Act commences to apply for a licence to authorize specified activities under that Act

  2. Report on the results of the safety culture survey conducted in PNRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An initial safety culture survey was conducted in the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Sixty six (66) questionnaires as given in A. Adams and A. Williamson's Measurement of Safety Culture in the Nuclear Industry, UNSW, July 1999 were distributed to the different units of PNRI. The number of sets of survey sheets distributed to the different units corresponded to the number of personnel in the unit based on the information obtained from them. Results were obtained from only 33 respondents. ANSTO has been requested to analyze the results of this survey. While waiting for the results from ANSTO, we attempted to proceed with this analysis in order to learn and practice applying the procedure based on the reference cited above.The respondents from the PNRI showed on the overall neutral views towards safety and their work. Although a minority showed positive responses to safety while a small minority showed negative responses. A remarkable result is that all respondents show strong concern over the welfare of the institute, indicating that there is still a good chance for safety culture to be developed positively among the employees given the proper strategies for motivation. (author)

  3. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been producing 99Mo since 1967 for medical use of its decay product 99mTe. This early generation development of fission product 99Mo uses low enriched 235U as dioxide, nitric acid dissolution of the irradiated pellets and recovery of molybdenum by adsorption onto alumina. Increasing production over this period since the late 1960's has led to the accumulation of stored liquid waste in specifically designed storage tanks. ANSTO investigated a number of options to treat this liquid waste culminating in the development, commissioning and operation of a two-stage evaporation process with an intervening chemical treatment step. The need for chemical destruction of the low level of contained ammonia, as nitrate, arose due to the past practice of incorporating a small volume of ammoniacal condensate with the acid waste. This ammoniacal waste is no longer added to the acidic waste, but the need to remove ammonia from the historic waste has led to the development of a novel technique to destroy the ammonia content in the liquid. The liquor is reduced to a crystalline solid with the elimination of water and acid that can be treated by conventional means. (author)

  4. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium ore deposits, such as Koongarra in the Northern Territory of Australia, with their inventory of radionuclides provide researchers with excellent systems with which to study radionuclide migration over very long timescale. The current project, which is sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, is funded by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Inspectorate, the UKDOE and the USNRC. The project has been recently extended until 31 august 1992. ANSTO is the managing participant. Experimental and modelling tasks of the project consider the original weatering of the Koongarra region, the alteration of the host rock and primary uranium ore, groundwater flow and migration pathways, rock/groundwater interactions, radionuclide transport and the formation and continued development of the secondary mineralization. The overall objective is to produce a reliable and realistic model for the radionuclide migration within geological environments relevant to the assessment of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. An outline of technical programs is given followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks. These reports have been separately indexed

  5. The third conference on nuclear science and engineering in Australia, 1999. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Association has organised this third Conference in a biennial series with the theme: 'A Nuclear Renaissance'. The theme is based on our perception that nuclear science and technology is on the threshold of a major expansion after a period which many thought was the onset of the Dark Ages after the old Australian Atomic Energy Commission was abolished in 1987. Fortunately, nuclear science and technology was not abolished and the AAEC was replaced by the government with ANSTO, which the government has continued to support strongly. The most recent expression of this support has been the approval of nearly $300 millions in investment in a major Replacement Research Reactor to be operational in about 2005, and the establishment of the new regulatory body ARPANSA. The conference aims to review all of the major nuclear issues of importance to Australia as we enter the 21st Century. These include: uranium mining and upgrading; the management of nuclear waste; the plans for the future by the government's major nuclear research laboratory, operated by ANSTO, including plans for constructing a major Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, the status of safeguards and nuclear regulation in Australia now that the government has set up the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, and the many and varied applications of nuclear science in Australia. The conference also presents the plans for nuclear research by the universities through the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and features in particular the work at the Australian National University in Canberra

  6. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  7. Regulatory Management of Research Reactor Spent Fuel Facilities in Australia- Managing a Cropping Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is responsible for the regulation of nuclear installations in Australia under the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency Act 1998 (the Act) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999 (the Regulations). Nuclear Installations covered by the Act include research reactors, radioisotope production facilities, waste management facilities and fuel management facilities. All of Australia's existing nuclear installations are under the control of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). There are two shut down research reactors that have been principally responsible for Australia's volume of spent fuel. ANSTO operated 10 MW HIFAR for about fifty years. ANSTO also operated an Argonaut type 100 kW reactor (MOATA) for about 34 years with HEU fuel. In the case of the HIFAR reactor the spent fuel arising from operation included both HEU and LEU fuel assemblies. The volume of LEU was much smaller since LEU fuel was only used in HIFAR reactor from 2004 till the time of its final shutdown in early 2007. ANSTO's new 20 MW OPAL research reactor utilises LEU, hence, future volumes of LEU will be greater. The major function of the ANSTO fuel management facility is passive, that is the safe storage of new and spent fuel in engineered purpose-built facilities. The Fuel Management facilities (known as Fuel Operations) principally comprise: the Spent Fuel Wet Stores; the Active Handling Pond where loading of casks with spent fuel takes place for off-site transport, High Activity Handling Cells used for inspecting spent fuel elements, or the handling of other radioactive items; and, the Nuclear Materials Vault and Store used for storing new HIFAR fuel and other fissile material. All of these facilities are located at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (near Sydney). This works describes the regulatory approach in managing

  8. Proposed replacement nuclear research reactor, Lucas Heights, NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 17 February 1999, the House of Representatives referred to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works for consideration and report the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. The Committee received a written submission from ANSTO and took evidence from ANSTO officials at public hearings held at Parliament House. It has also received submissions and took evidence from a number of organisations and individuals. Prior to the first day of public hearings, the Committee undertook an extensive inspection of the facilities at Lucas Heights. The Committee's main conclusion and recommendations are as follows: 1) A need exists to replace HIFAR with a modern research reactor. The need for the replacement of HIFAR arises as a consequence of national interest considerations, research and development requirements and the need to sustain the local production of radiopharmaceuticals.The comparative costs of locating the replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights or a green fields site favour the former by a considerable margin. The refurbishing HIFAR of would not provide an enhancement of its research and operational capabilities which are considered by the scientific community to be limited. Such limitations have led to a reduction in national research and development opportunities. It is estimated that the new national research reactor must be operational some time before HIFAR is decommissioned. Provided all recommendations and commitments contained in the Environment Assessment Report are implemented during construction and commissioning and for the expected life of the research reactor, the Committee believes, based on the evidence, that all known risks have been identified and their impact on public safety will be as low as technically possible. It is recommended that during the licensing, construction and commissioning phases ANSTO should provide the Committee with six-monthly reports on progress and that removal of

  9. Strange bedfellows: The curious case of STAR and Moata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.M., E-mail: ams@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia); Levchenko, V.A.; Malone, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The 2 MV tandem accelerator named 'STAR' was installed at ANSTO in 2003 and commissioned in 2004. It is used for ion beam analysis (IBA) and for radiocarbon measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Convenient space for the accelerator was found in the same building occupied by the decommissioned Argonaut-class nuclear reactor 'Moata'; the name derives from the aboriginal word for 'fire stick' or 'gentle fire', appropriate for a 100 kW research reactor. This reactor operated between 1961 and 1995. In 2007 ANSTO's Engineering Division assembled a team to dismantle and remove the reactor structure, along with its 12.1 tonnes of graphite reflector. The removal and remediation was completed in November 2010 and has won the team a number of prestigious awards. The entire operation was conducted inside a negatively-pressurised double-walled vinyl tent. An air curtain was positioned around the reactor core. The exhaust air from the tent passed through 2-stage HEPA filters before venting through an external stack. Neither ANSTO staff nor contractors received any significant radiation dose during the operation. Given the sensitivity of STAR for detection of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ({approx}10{sup -16}) and the numerous routes for production of {sup 14}C in the reactor such as {sup 13}C(n, {gamma}){sup 14}C, {sup 14}N(n, p){sup 14}C and {sup 17}O(n, {alpha}){sup 14}C there was the potential to directly contaminate the STAR environment with {sup 14}C. Furthermore, there was concern that reactor-{sup 14}C could find its way from this building into the building where the radiocarbon sample preparation laboratories are located. This necessitated restrictions on staff movement between the buildings. We report on {sup 14}C control measurements made during and after the operation. These involved direct measurements on the reactor graphite and concrete bioshield, blank targets that were exposed in the building, swipe samples taken

  10. Ultra-sensitive detection of nuclear signatures in support of IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) applies a range of ultra-sensitive detection techniques to provide assurance that Member States are in compliance with their safeguards agreements. Environmental samples are collected which can contain minute traces of nuclear material or other evidence. Careful analysis of these samples reveals the nature of the activities undertaken in the vicinity of the sampling point. This paper reviews the analytical techniques that are being applied. To ensure that the IAEA has access to the best available methods, samples are distributed to a group of qualified laboratories around the world for analysis. The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) is part of this select group of laboratories, and is the only AMS facility currently accredited with the IAEA. AMS provides the highest sensitivity available for detection of particularly useful signature radioisotopes, including 129I,236U and plutonium isotopes

  11. Radiation shielding for neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersez, T. [Reactor Operations, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: tez@ansto.gov.au; Braoudakis, G. [Reactor Operations, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Osborn, J.C. [Reactor Operations, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Models of the neutron guide shielding for the out of bunker guides on the thermal and cold neutron beam lines of the OPAL Reactor (ANSTO) were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. The neutrons that were not reflected inside the guides but were absorbed by the supermirror (SM) layers were noted to be a significant source of gammas. Gammas also arise from neutrons absorbed by the B, Si, Na and K contained in the glass. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies. These arrangements are consistent with safety requirements, floor load limits, and cost constraints. To verify the design a prototype was assembled consisting of 120 mm thick Pb(96%)Sb(4%) walls resting on a concrete block. There was good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated dose rates for bulk shield regions.

  12. The national medical cyclotron facility : statement of evidence to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal is made for the establishment of the national medical cyclotron by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), located at the operated jointly with the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (RPAH), Sydney. The proposal calls for the acquisition of a cyclotron and associated equipment together with the construction of a building to house the cyclotron and the radiopharmaceutical production facilities as well as the establishment of a positron emission tomography (PET) facility. The national medical cyclotron will produce radioisotopes for immediate medical application within the hospital and for nation-wide distribution. It will also provide PET facilities for the investigation and diagnosis of diseases of high social cost such as epilepsy, stroke, heart disease, cancer and certain psychiatric disorders. The estimated capital cost of the installation is $16.4M (January 1988) plus $4.1M for the purchase of the PET Camera

  13. The neutron texture diffractometer at the China Advanced Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Juan, Li; Xiao-Long, Liu; Yun-Tao, Liu; Geng-Fang, Tian; Jian-Bo, Gao; Zhou-Xiang, Yu; Yu-Qing, Li; Li-Qi, Wu; Lin-Feng, Yang; Kai, Sun; Hong-Li, Wang; R. Santisteban, J.; Dong-Feng, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The first neutron texture diffractometer in China has been built at the China Advanced Research Reactor, due to strong demand for texture measurement with neutrons from the domestic user community. This neutron texture diffractometer has high neutron intensity, moderate resolution and is mainly applied to study texture in commonly used industrial materials and engineering components. In this paper, the design and characteristics of this instrument are described. The results for calibration with neutrons and quantitative texture analysis of zirconium alloy plate are presented. The comparison of texture measurements with the results obtained in HIPPO at LANSCE and Kowari at ANSTO illustrates the reliability of the texture diffractometer. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11105231, 11205248, 51327902) and International Atomic Energy Agency-TC program (CPR0012)

  14. Clocks for quaternary environments in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian continent offers a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored, including sediment cores, tree rings, rock surfaces and corals. Rock varnish, mud-wasp nests and pack-rat middens provide alternative archives for vegetation and environmental change in arid areas, where continuous sedimentary sequences or trees are not available. Each of these media contain specific information on past climatic conditions but we must determine their chronology and decipher the relevant environmental parameters. Cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 14C, 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl, analysed by accelerator mass spectrometry, provide valuable radiometric clocks to establish an absolute time scale for the environmental events of the Quaternary. U-series, potassium-argon, argonargon and optically stimulated luminescence are other dating methods used in palaeoenvironmental studies. ANSTO supports the Quaternary science community in Australia providing the analysis of long-lived radionuclides: some significant projects from this program will be illustrated. (author)

  15. Actinides analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the ANTARES accelerator at ANSTO a new beamline has been commissioned, incorporating new magnetic and electrostatic analysers, to optimise the efficiency for Actinides detection by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The detection of Actinides, particularly the isotopic ratios of uranium and plutonium, provide unique signatures for nuclear safeguards purposes. We are currently engaged in a project to evaluate the application of AMS to the measurement of Actinides in environmental samples for nuclear safeguards. Levels of certain fission products, Actinides and other radioactive species can be used as indicators of undeclared nuclear facilities or activities, either on-going or in the past Other applications of ultra-sensitive detection of Actinides are also under consideration. neutron-attenuation images of a porous reservoir rock

  16. In situ neutron diffraction under high pressure-Providing an insight into working catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandemir, Timur [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Liss, Klaus-Dieter [The Bragg Institute, ANSTO, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2232 (Australia); Naumann d' Alnoncourt, Raoul; Schloegl, Robert [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Behrens, Malte, E-mail: behrens@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    In the present work the construction and application of a continuous flow cell is presented, from which neutron diffraction data could be obtained during catalytic reactions at high pressure. By coupling an online gas detection system, parallel structure and activity investigations of working catalysts under industrial relevant conditions are possible. The flow cell can be operated with different feed gases in a wide range from room temperature to 603 K. Pressures from ambient up to 6 MPa are applicable. An exchangeable sample positioning system makes the flow cell suitable for several different goniomter types on a variety of instrument beam lines. Complementary operational test measurements were carried out monitoring reduction of and methanol synthesis over a Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at the high-flux powder diffraction beamline D1B at ILL and high-resolution diffraction beamline Echidna at ANSTO.

  17. 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the accomplishments of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute for fiscal year 1993. The highlights of the report are the following: 1) active technology transfer and commercialization; 2) industry-responsive research and development; 3) nuclear regulations, licensing and safeguards; 4) development of strengthening of S and T; 5) infrastructure; 6) linkages were enhanced through the active participation of PNRI in the newly-formed Quezon City Science Community and the Inter-Agency Task Force on Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy; and the 7) administrative report. List of experts/mission, foreign travel by PNRI and non-PNRI personnel, IAEA operational technical cooperation projects, research contracts, PNRI grants-in-aid, and technical papers are also included. Also in this period the signing of memorandum of understanding on mutual cooperation in the filed of nuclear energy peaceful applications between PNRI and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). (ISD). 7 tabs

  18. Radiation chemistry research education in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry techniques may be used to solve research problems in other fields of chemistry and biology particularly when free radicals, excited states or reduction-oxidation reactions are involved. Using pulse radiolysis, absolute kinetic rate constants can be measured. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering is an organization jointly funded by universities, ANSTO and CSIRO. Over the past several years it has provided fares, accommodation and specialized supplementary equipment to enable PhD students and post doctoral fellows to make use of the unique electron beam and gamma irradiation facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. It also arranges biennial conferences at which this work is presented and discussed. This talk will discuss the contribution made to the education of students in the undergraduate final year and in physical, metal-organic, organic, polymer and enzyme chemistry research

  19. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Loosz, T.; Farrar, Y.

    1997-06-01

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors). 29 refs., 26 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Estimating radiological consequences using the Java programming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) a model is being developed to determine critical parameters affecting radioactive doses to humans following a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Java programming language was chosen because of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) capabilities and its portability across computer platforms, which were a requirement for the application, called RadCon. The mathematical models are applied over the 2D region, performing time varying calculations of dose to humans for each grid point, according to user selected options. The information combined includes: two dimensional time varying air and ground concentrations, transfer factors from soil to plant, plant to animal, plant to humans, plant interception factors to determine amount of radionuclide on plant surfaces, dosimetric data, such as dose conversion factors and user defined parameters, e.g. soil types, lifestyle, diet of animals and humans. Details of the software requirements, pathway parameters and implementation of RadCon are given

  1. Analogue studies in the Alligator Rivers Region of Australia. Contribution to the scientific basis for the performance assessment of proposed repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analogue Studies in the Alligator Rivers Region (ASARR) project is coordinated by the OECD/NEA and involves ANSTO, JAERI, KAERI and the USNRC. Its aim is to contribute to the performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal sites through the building of confidence in predictive transport codes. The project is principally concerned with validating models of sub-surface retardation processes which underpin the codes. This paper will describe recent progress in extending sorption studies from reference minerals to natural materials. The first step in the laboratory program was to investigate uranium uptake on binary systems comprising ferrihydrite and kaolinite. Secondly, the significance of small levels of active minerals such as anatase in a standard kaolinite and iron nodules in geological samples from the Koongarra Uranium deposit is being assessed. Progress towards applying the natural analogue approach to a reference arid site will be reported. The scientific approaches of the individual laboratories are outlined in an annex. (author)

  2. The nuclear safety case for the replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a broad overview of the safety case being used in the licensing of Australia's Replacement Research Reactor. The reactor is a 20 MW pool-type research reactor and is being constructed at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre in Sydney's south. It will be owned and operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and will take over the duties currently performed by HIFAR, a DIDO-type reactor currently operating at the site. The safety case for the RRR considers all aspects of normal operation and anticipated occurrences and will be subject to periodic review and updated in line with evolving methodologies and modifications to plant and procedures. Its scope and degree of detail ensure that the risk posed to members of the public, operators and environment are all adequately low and well in the regulatory limits

  3. Neutronic Design of the First Core of the Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the general neutronic characteristics of the first core of the replacement research reactor (RRR) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). A compact core with 16 FA has been designed to fulfil all the very demanding neutronic requirements of the RRR facility. The contractual performance parameters must be verified for the equilibrium core; a very important design effort was carried out in the initial fresh core to have a similar performance. The description covers different aspects of the neutronic design: a detailed nuclear design of U3Si2 first core, the design calculation tools, together with a comparison of the first core performance against the core design criteria and the equilibrium core performance. (author)

  4. Annual Report 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia has continued to take active part in the process of strengthening of the safeguards system. Activities during the year, discussed in detail in this report, included: participation in international experts' meeting and groups; field trials of new safeguards procedures and techniques to assess their effectiveness, and R and D into new safeguard technology. Australian Safeguard Office (ASO) was active in facilitating IAEA inspections; physical protection arrangements at ANSTO, the two uranium mines and related transport and storage areas were inspected during the year. Entry-into-force of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is expected in the first half of 1997. In preparation, CWC Office has carried out an intensive survey of chemical related industries, and identified approximatively 60 facilities which are expected to be declarable under the CWC. ASO and CWCO activities in 1995-1996 are described, grouped according to the corporate strategy and evaluated in relation to particular performance indicators. tabs., ills

  5. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed

  6. Recent progress with digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by ANSTO as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue to digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4Π beta detector and a NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software based algorithms. The system is operational and results are now being routinely collected and analysed. Some of the early work is presented for Co-60, Na-22 and Sm-153

  7. Unification of PIXE, PIGE and RBS ion beam analysis techniques for use as a single package for sample characterization in environmental and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis techniques of PIXE and PIGE using 2-3 MeV protons have been combined into one software analysis package which includes matrix corrections from PIGE for light elements being iteratively fed back into the matrix corrections for PIXE. This package can run in batch mode analysing hundreds of spectra at a time for elemental concentrations from fluorine to uranium to for concentrations from μg/g to 100%. This software package is called 'doiba' and has been published as an ANSTO external report. Future work is ongoing to include the proton Rutherford Backscattering technique as well into this doiba package particularly for carbon, nitrogen and oxide matrix corrections. (author)

  8. Effect of microstructure changes on the mobility of radionuclides in simulated HLW ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic matrices for immobilization of HLW (e.g. perovskite, zirconolite, brannerite, zircon mineral based ceramics), prepared at ANSTO and C.I.A.E., respectively were characterized at the NRI Rez from the viewpoint of their microstructure and transport property changes caused by leaching. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and diffusion structural analysis (DSA) techniques were used. The thermal behavior of 'as leached' and 'as prepared' samples were compared. The DSA was used for the evaluation of atomic transport properties of the ceramic matrices. The effect of leaching on the thermal stability of the ceramics microstructure was characterized. The behaviour of the ceramic HLW matrices in simulated repository conditions was predicted by using the results of the mathematical modeling. (author)

  9. Australia's new high performance research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A contract for the design and construction of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000 between ANSTO and INVAP from Argentina. Since then the detailed design has been completed, a construction authorization has been obtained, and construction has commenced. The reactor design embodies modern safety thinking together with innovative solutions to ensure a highly safe and reliable plant. Also significant effort has been placed on providing the facility with diverse and ample facilities to maximize its use for irradiating material for radioisotope production as well as providing high neutron fluxes for neutron beam research. The project management organization and planing is commensurate with the complexity of the project and the number of players involved. (author)

  10. Residual stress diffractometer KOWARI at the Australian research reactor OPAL: Status of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron scattering using diffraction techniques is now recognized as the most precise and reliable method of mapping sub-surface residual stresses in materials or even components, which are not only of academic but also of industrial-economic relevance. The great potential of neutrons in the field of residual stresses was recognized by ANSTO and its external Beam Instrument Advisory Group for the new research reactor OPAL. The recommendation was to build the dedicated strain scanner KOWARI among the first suite of instruments available to users. We give an update on the overall project and present the current status of the diffractometer. It is anticipated that the instrument will be commissioned in mid 2006 and available to users at the end of the OPAL project

  11. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  12. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre during 1996. All low-level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorizations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.010 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1% of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by thr National Health and Medical Research Council and 3.3% of the site dose constraint of 0.3mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. Details of the environmental sample collection and analytical procedures are given in the appendices. (authors)

  13. Neutron scattering for industrial and engineering research at the OPAL reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPAL research reactor at ANSTO has a number of neutron instruments available for science and engineering applications. The instruments have a unique non-destructive ability to determine critical aspects of a wide variety of material systems. This includes surfaces, defects, fine scale dispersions, texture and residual stresses. This information can provide a direct impact into optimization of modern manufacturing processes, improved product reliability, enhanced design performance, reduced production cost, and extended life prediction on significant engineering assets (e.g. power-station utilities, gas pipelines, aircrafts, trains, etc.). This presentation will focus on two instruments in particular: Kowari, the strain and crystallographic texture measurement system and Dingo the radiography/tomography instrument. (author)

  14. Environmental and effluent monitoring at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of environmental and effluent monitoring conducted in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL) during 1994. All low level liquid and gaseous effluent discharges complied with existing discharge authorisations and relevant environmental regulations. Potential effective doses to the general public from controlled airborne discharges during this period, were estimated to be less than 0.015 mSv/year for receptor locations on the 1.6 km buffer zone boundary around HIFAR. This value represents 1.5 % of the 1 mSv/year dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council, and 5 % of the site dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/year adopted by ANSTO. 27 refs., 22 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent's response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO's view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  16. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, I.; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R. A.; Cohen, D. D.

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  17. Secondary standards dosimetry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is part of an international network of dosimetry laboratories established by the IAEA and WHO. The network services maintain the consistency and accuracy of the therapeutic dose by exercising a national and international intercomparison program as well as providing calibration services to the end users, mainly radiotherapy departments in hospitals. The SSDL's are designated by national laboratories (such as Primary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories, PSDL's) to provide national and international absorbed dose traceability for users in that country. The advantage of the SSDL is that the absorbed dose measurements are consistent among the stakeholder countries.The Physics and Safety divisions have recently re-established an SSDL at ANSTO. The SSDL utilises a collimated cobalt-60 source of activity 170 TBq and dose rate of SmGy/sec at 1 metre (within ±2%), and provides a service to calibrate therapy level thimble ionisation chambers and electrometers

  18. Study of medical isotope production facility stack emissions and noble gas isotopic signature using automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Hoffmann, Emmy; Ungar, Kurt; Dolinar, George; Miley, Harry; Mekarski, Pawel; Schrom, Brian; Hoffman, Ian; Lawrie, Ryan; Loosz, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear industry emissions of the four CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) relevant radioxenon isotopes are unavoidably detected by the IMS along with possible treaty violations. Another civil source of radioxenon emissions which contributes to the global background is radiopharmaceutical production companies. To better understand the source terms of these background emissions, a joint project between HC, ANSTO, PNNL and CRL was formed to install real-time detection systems to support 135Xe, 133Xe, 131mXe and 133mXe measurements at the ANSTO and CRL 99Mo production facility stacks as well as the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) primary coolant monitoring system at CRL. At each site, high resolution gamma spectra were collected every 15 minutes using a HPGe detector to continuously monitor a bypass feed from the stack or CANDU primary coolant system as it passed through a sampling cell. HC also conducted atmospheric monitoring for radioxenon at approximately 200 km distant from CRL. A program was written to transfer each spectrum into a text file format suitable for the automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform and then email the file to a server. Once the email was received by the server, it was automatically analysed with the gamma-spectrum software UniSampo/Shaman to perform radionuclide identification and activity calculation for a large number of gamma-spectra in a short period of time (less than 10 seconds per spectrum). The results of nuclide activity together with other spectrum parameters were saved into the Linssi database. This database contains a large amount of radionuclide information which is a valuable resource for the analysis of radionuclide distribution within the noble gas fission product emissions. The results could be useful to identify the specific mechanisms of the activity release. The isotopic signatures of the various radioxenon species can be determined as a function of release time. Comparison of 133mXe and 133Xe activity

  19. New research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIFAR, Australia's major research reactor was commissioned in 1958 to test materials for an envisaged indigenous nuclear power industry. HIFAR is a Dido type reactor which is operated at 10 MW. With the decision in the early 1970's not to proceed to nuclear power, HIFAR was adapted to other uses and has served Australia well as a base for national nuclear competence; as a national facility for neutron scattering/beam research; as a source of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment; and as a source of export revenue from the neutron transmutation doping of silicon for the semiconductor industry. However, all of HIFAR's capabilities are becoming less than optimum by world and regional standards. Neutron beam facilities have been overtaken on the world scene by research reactors with increased neutron fluxes, cold sources, and improved beams and neutron guides. Radioisotope production capabilities, while adequate to meet Australia's needs, cannot be easily expanded to tap the growing world market in radiopharmaceuticals. Similarly, neutron transmutation doped silicon production, and export income from it, is limited at a time when the world market for this material is expanding. ANSTO has therefore embarked on a program to replace HIFAR with a new multi-purpose national facility for nuclear research and technology in the form of a reactor: a) for neutron beam research, - with a peak thermal flux of the order of three times higher than that from HIFAR, - with a cold neutron source, guides and beam hall, b) that has radioisotope production facilities that are as good as, or better than, those in HIFAR, c) that maximizes the potential for commercial irradiations to offset facility operating costs, d) that maximizes flexibility to accommodate variations in user requirements during the life of the facility. ANSTO's case for the new research reactor received significant support earlier this month with the tabling in Parliament of a report by the Australian Science

  20. Strontium in 19th century Australian children's teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enamel of teeth from 57 children, who died in the mid to late 1800s, were analysed to investigate strontium (Sr) concentrations in historic teeth. Teeth were analysed using proton induced X-ray emission at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Where available, multiple teeth were analysed for each individual including permanent (molars and premolars) and deciduous teeth (molars). Preliminary results show that Sr does not appear to be affected by the postmortem environment. Sr levels in permanent molars strongly correlate with levels in the premolars but not with the deciduous molars. Concerns are raised over the large variation seen in Sr levels and the effect it would have on the interpretation of Sr levels in studies with small sample sizes

  1. Radiological Consequences Model, A Radiological Consequences Model for use in the Australian and South East Asian Region, Model evaluation for the Iput scenario exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), a model - RadCon - was developed to assist in assessing the radiological consequences after an incident in any climate, depending on the meteorological and parameter input. The major areas of interest to the developers are those within tropical and subtropical climates, particularly of South East Asia. This is particularly so, given that nuclear energy use is increasing and may become a mainstay for economies in these regions within the foreseeable future. Therefore, data acquisition and choice of parameter values have been concentrated primarily on these climate types. The intended use of the model is for assessing consequences in an affected area following an accidental release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. The current RadCon model does not directly implement countermeasures, but these can be addressed through changes to the soil characteristics and food processing parameters

  2. Accelerators for the Australian environment and heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian researchers have access to a variety of natural systems where records of the Earth's past environment have been stored. These archives include sediment cores, Antarctic ice, Tasmanian pine trees, rock surfaces, corals, etc. Each of these media contain information on past environmental conditions but the records must be carefully deciphered and compared with one-another. The AMS analysis of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides is essential for providing absolute time scales for these natural archives. Other analytical methods based on high-energy ion interactions are well suited to characterise environmental and archaeological samples with high sensitivity. The use of ANSTO's accelerators in research programs related to the environment in the Australian region is reviewed

  3. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of `As Low As Reasonably Achievable` would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  4. Advances in neutron polarisation analysis capability for material sciences research on OPAL instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are opening to the user community a new material sciences research capability of using neutron polarization analysis on the instruments in the OPAL reactor at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology (ANSTO). Polarised neutron scattering is a powerful technique that can cleanly separates the magnetic scattering of magnetic moments and magnetic excitations from the nuclear scattering of the chemical structure and structural dynamics. We can identify the location, strength, and direction of the magnetic moments to atomic resolution and the strength and polarization of magnetic excitations with this technique. In addition, it allows us to separate the structural signal and the hydrogen background signal in hydrogen-rich materials which has long been a challenge in studying organic materials with neutrons. At ANSTO, polarisation analysis has previously been available on the reflectometer PLATYPUS for thin film and multilayer studies. The operation of a 3He polarising station has now provided this capability for more instruments. We have now measured the magnetic structure of multiferroic single-crystals and giant-magnetocaloric powder samples on the WOMBAT diffractometer and the TAIPAN triple-axis spectrometer. We have also measured the polarization and location of magnon excitation in a multiferroic single-crystal on the TAIPAN triple-axis spectrometer. These capabilities are now opened to users in the research community. Commissioning tests have been done for polarised off-specular scattering capability on PLATYPUS to study lateral magnetic surface structure. It will soon be followed by polarization analysis on the cold neutron chopper spectrometer PELICAN for magnetic excitation measurements and polarised SANS on QUOKKA for magnetic nanostructured material and hydrogen-rich material studies. This presentation will highlight the material sciences measurements done using this new capability and present the main characteristics of this technique.

  5. Ion beam analysis techniques for the elemental fingerprinting of fine particle smoke from vegetation burning in NSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, including PIXE, PIGME, RBS and PESA, have been used to analyse elemental compositions of airborne particles covering a 60,000 square kilometres area of Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. These IBA techniques provide elemental concentrations for over 20 different elements from hydrogen to lead, they include H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The four ion beam techniques are performed simultaneously on the 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator at ANSTO and have been described in detail elsewhere. They are sufficiently sensitive to analyse for many of these elements to levels around 10 ng/m{sup 3} or less in about five minutes of accelerator running time per filter. This is more than adequate for aerosol analyses as most filters contain around 150 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} of material which corresponds to about 10{mu}g/m{sup 3} of fine particles in the atmosphere. For this work fine particles are those with diameters less than 2.5{mu}m. Fine particle data has been collected twice a week and analysed for each of the above elements by ANSTO since 1991 at more than 25 different sites throughout NSW. This large dataset set allows us to not only determine the composition of fine particles and to look for signature elements for particular sources but also to use multivariate statistics to define elemental source fingerprints and then to determine the percentage contributions of these fingerprints to the total fine particle mass in the atmosphere. This paper describes the application of these techniques to the study of domestic wood fires and vegetation burning in NSW over a two year period from 1992-93. It also presents, for the first time, fine particle data related to the January 1994 bushfires in NSW. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Inelastic neutron scattering MAX phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to produce new materials at a rapid rate has meant that the process of thoroughly investigating and characterizing them through experimentation is struggling to keep apace. This is particularly the case for properties such as the elastic stiffness tensor that can best be measured using single crystal samples which because of the speed of development may not be available. With the advent of computational materials science simulation packages properties not experimentally accessible are able to be studied to some extent. A material experiencing this rapid development process with limited experimental accessibility to properties is MAX phase ceramics, in this research the archetype Ti3SiC2. Publications of DFT based elastic tensors are readily available and are general agreement with values for over 250 MAX phase materials and for Ti3SiC2 the elastic tensor c44=158GPa. Using elastic neutron scattering and developing their own stress/strain method Kisi et al. measured this elastic tensor experimentally and got c44=440GPa. With the help of ANSTO and AINSE my research has focused on firstly verifying the simulation represented the physical reality of the material and its impact on the value of c44. Starting with verifying the simulation of Ti3SiC2, a DFT and DFT-MD model was provided by Kearley and Kutteh of ANSTO. Using the AMRFP grant in 2010 a Density of States was measured on Pharos, at LANSCE, USA. Directly comparing the simulated and experimentally measured DOS over a range of low temperatures clearly showed the simulation does not encapsulate all the physical phenomena. Delving into the simulation it was shown that although assumed to be moving harmonically the Si was displaying anharmonic motion not accounted for when calculating the elastic tensor. Also identified were a set of low energy peaks not predicted by the simulation.

  7. Ion beam analysis techniques for the elemental fingerprinting of fine particle smoke from vegetation burning in NSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques, including PIXE, PIGME, RBS and PESA, have been used to analyse elemental compositions of airborne particles covering a 60,000 square kilometres area of Wollongong, Sydney and Newcastle. These IBA techniques provide elemental concentrations for over 20 different elements from hydrogen to lead, they include H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The four ion beam techniques are performed simultaneously on the 3MV Van de Graaff accelerator at ANSTO and have been described in detail elsewhere. They are sufficiently sensitive to analyse for many of these elements to levels around 10 ng/m3 or less in about five minutes of accelerator running time per filter. This is more than adequate for aerosol analyses as most filters contain around 150 μg/cm2 of material which corresponds to about 10μg/m3 of fine particles in the atmosphere. For this work fine particles are those with diameters less than 2.5μm. Fine particle data has been collected twice a week and analysed for each of the above elements by ANSTO since 1991 at more than 25 different sites throughout NSW. This large dataset set allows us to not only determine the composition of fine particles and to look for signature elements for particular sources but also to use multivariate statistics to define elemental source fingerprints and then to determine the percentage contributions of these fingerprints to the total fine particle mass in the atmosphere. This paper describes the application of these techniques to the study of domestic wood fires and vegetation burning in NSW over a two year period from 1992-93. It also presents, for the first time, fine particle data related to the January 1994 bushfires in NSW. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. AINSE's role in tertiary sector applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) is a collaboration between the Universities and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Its aim is to foster research and training in areas associated with the applications of Nuclear Science and allied techniques. AINSE is now into the fifth decade of this unique association and in 2001 can claim the active membership of thirty-six of the publicly funded Universities in Australia plus the University of Auckland and its NZ government partner the Institute for Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS). The widespread membership has brought with it a breadth of research areas and the traditional domains of fundamental nuclear science and allied engineering have found that they are now the stable platforms from which are launched environmental, archaeological, biomedical and novel-materials science. ANSTO's fifth decade will see the replacement of HIFAR with a state of the art research reactor that will bring biological applications to a sharper focus. A new accelerator-mass spectrometer will be commissioned during 2002 and is funded, in part, by a $1 M RIEF grant which itself recognises the quality and track record of all AINSE members' research. It will significantly assist a wide range of dating applications and also provide support to ion beam analysis (IBA) experiments. AINSE will continue to aid community collaboration with its conferences, workshops and participation in national conferences such as the AIP Congress, Vacuum Society, etc. On the international scene it is actively participating in major conferences to be held in Australia. The winter school is a venture into the undergraduate sphere

  9. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  10. The regulatory role of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency in relation to spent fuel arising from research reactors in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe the elements and performance of ARPANSA's regulatory management of spent fuel arising in Australia, with particular emphasis on the experience of ensuring compliance with the Code of Practice Code of Practice for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials in relation to in land surface transport of spent fuel within Australia. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency is the regulatory authority for Commonwealth entities, such as the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), who operate nuclear installations in Australia.. Nuclear installations that operate under ARPANSA facility licence include research reactors and plants for the storage and management of research reactor fuel. ANSTO is the only operator of nuclear installations in Australia. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency is also the competent Authority for inland surface transport. ARPANSA has adopted the IAEA Safety Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials domestically in the form of the ARPANSA Code of Practice for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (RPS 2). s the competent authority ARPANSA approves the shipment and design of a new cask, validate original certificate applying the requirements of the RPS 2. RPANSA's regulatory oversight of compliance with the requirements of its own legislation and the requirements of the Code emphasises assurance of safety in the operation of nuclear installations and the shipment of spent fuel is achieved principally by prior assessment of the operator/consignors safety case, and by compliance monitoring through regular reporting (quarterly and annually), as well as planned and reactive inspections. During the operating life of these facilities for several decades there have been no incidents which have had off-site or significant on-site, consequences. This paper will examine that experience and in particular focus on the regulatory experience of oversight of

  11. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In common with many other nuclear facilities, ANSTO undertakes an extensive program of meteorological measurements. The prime reason for such a program is to allow estimates to be made of the downwind concentration of any airborne pollutants, particularly radionuclides, released from the site through routine operations or under accident conditions. The data collection from this program provide the necessary input to the atmospheric dispersion model called ADDCOR (ANSTO 1989) which can be used to compute the effective dose to an individual due to the routine airborne or accidental release of radionuclides from the LHRL. None of the samples taken from possible human food chains in the vicinity of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories contained radioactivity which could be attributed to the operation of the site. Discharges of airborne radioactive gases were within authorised limits when averaged over the year. The dose to the most sensitive members of the public from iodine-131 release, was -3 mSv/year and the calculated dose from released noble gases to the most exposed individuals was less than 0.01 mSv/year. These figures represent less than one per cent of the most restrictive limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. The annual average liquid effluent discharge to the Water Board Sewer during 1991 was less than 29 per cent of the permitted level. For tritium, the concentration was less than 2 per cent of the specified limit. The data presented in this report clearly shows that the environmental impact of operations at LHRL has been very low. The effective dose to residents living in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor are very difficult to measure directly but calculated dose estimates are far lower than those due to natural background radiation and medical exposures. 24 refs., 19 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Establishment of the Neutron Beam Research Facility at the OPAL Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Australia's first research reactor, HIFAR, reached criticality in January 1958. At that time Australia's main agenda was establishment of a nuclear power program. HIFAR operated for nearly 50 years, providing a firm foundation for the establishment of Australia's second generation research Reactor OPAL, which reached criticality in August 006. In HIFAR's early years a neutron beam facility was established for materials characterization, partly in aid of the nuclear energy agenda and partly in response to interest from Australia's scientific community. By the time Australia's nuclear energy program ceased (in the 1970s), radioisotope production and research had also been established at Lucas Heights. Also, by this time the neutron beam facility for scientific research had evolved into a major utilization programme, warranting establishment of an independent body to facilitate scientific access (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering). In HIFAR's lifetime, ANSTO established a radiopharmaceuticals service for the Australian medical community and NDT silicon production was also established and grew to maturity. So when time came to determine the strategy for nuclear research in Australia into the 21st century, it was clear that the replacement for HIFAR should be multipurpose, with major emphases on scientific applications of neutron beams and medical isotope production. With this strategy in mind, ANSTO set about to design and build OPAL with a world-class neutron beam facility, capable of supporting a large and diverse scientific research community. The establishment of the neutron beam facility became the mission of the Bragg Institute management team. This journey began in 1997 with establishment of a working budget, and reached its first major objective when OPAL reached 20 MW thermal power nearly one decade later (in 2006). The first neutron beam instruments began operation soon after (in 2007), and quickly proved themselves to be

  13. On the calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Dosemeters for external beam radiotherapy are calibrated in Australia by ARPANSA, against the national primary standards of exposure and absorbed dose. The primary standards are free air chambers for exposure at low and medium energy X-rays, a graphite cavity chamber for exposure at 60Co, and a graphite calorimeter for absorbed dose at 60Co and high energy (MV) X -rays. Radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated against these standards using a well documented formalism to provide calibration factors suitable for use with dosimetry protocols. A dosemeter usually comprises an ionization chamber connected to an independent electrometer. These are calibrated separately if possible. A combined calibration factor is reported together with the electrometer calibration factor (sensitivity). The dosimetry protocol used in radiotherapy centres in Australia and New Zealand is currently the simplified version of the IAEA TRS277 protocol, published by the New Zealand NRL and recommended by the ACPSEM. This protocol requires the use of an exposure or air kerma calibration factor at 60Co (Nx or Nk) to evaluate the absorbed dose to air calibration factor ND. The chamber is then placed in a water phantom with its centre displaced from the reference point by peff. ARPANSA can also supply calibration factors in absorbed dose to water (ND,w), as required as input to the new IAEA CoP. If an absorbed dose to water calibration factor is used by the radiotherapy centre, the chamber should be placed with its centre at the reference point in the water phantom. ARPANSA has for some years coordinated the participation of Australian radiotherapy centres in the IAEA TLD Quality Audit service. Note that this service does not represent a calibration and should not be referred to as such. The only calibration is that provided by ARPANSA for a reference dosemeter at each radiotherapy centre. As soon as the ANSTO SSDL is operational, calibrations of reference dosemeters will also be available

  14. Low-risk alternative waste forms for problematic high-level and long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The highest cost component the nuclear waste clean up challenge centres on high-level waste (HLW) and consequently the greatest opportunity for cost and schedule savings lies with optimising the approach to HLW cleanup. The waste form is the key component of the immobilisation process. To achieve maximum cost savings and optimum performance the selection of the waste form should be driven by the characteristics of the specific nuclear waste to be immobilised, rather than adopting a single baseline approach. This is particularly true for problematic nuclear wastes that are often not amenable to a single baseline approach. The use of tailored, high-performance, alternative waste forms that include ceramics and glass-ceramics, coupled with mature process technologies offer significant performance improvements and efficiency savings for a nuclear waste cleanup program. It is the waste form that determines how well the waste is locked up (chemical durability), and the number of repository disposal canisters required (waste loading efficiency). The use of alternative waste forms for problematic wastes also lowers the overall risk by providing high performance HLW treatment alternatives. The benefits tailored alternative waste forms bring to the HLW cleanup program will be briefly reviewed with reference to work carried out on the following: The HLW calcines at the Idaho National Laboratory; SYNROC ANSTO has developed a process utilising a glass-ceramic combined with mature hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) technology and has demonstrated this at a waste loading of 80 % and at a 30 kg HIP scale. The use of this technology has recently been estimated to result in a 70 % reduction in waste canisters, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass technology; Actinide-rich waste streams, particularly the work being done by SYNROC ANSTO with Nexia Solutions on the Plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield in the UK, which if implemented is forecast to result in substantial

  15. The 1997 determination of the Australian standards of exposure and absorbed dose at {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, R.B.; Boas, J.F. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Yallambie, VIC (Australia); Van der Gaast, H. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-05-01

    The arrangements for the maintenance of the Australian standards for {sup 60}Co are described in detail. The primary standards are a graphite cavity chamber for exposure/air kerma and a graphite calorimeter for absorbed dose. These secondary standards are described and their responses in corresponding {sup 90}Sr reference sources are reported. Accurate ratios between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology (ANSTO) {sup 90}Sr reference sources are derived for use in future calibrations. The value of 28.8 years for the half-life of {sup 90}Sr is confirmed. The usefulness of {sup 90}Sr reference source measurements in quality assurance is discussed. The charge sensitivity and linearity of the ANSTO electrometers are reported by two different methods and are compared with previous results. Calibration factors for all the secondary standard ionization chambers are given, in terms of exposure, air kerma and absorbed dose to water. Calibration factors are also given for most of the chambers in terms of absorbed dose to graphite. The methods of deriving the calibration factors are explained in detail, including all the corrections applied to both the primary and secondary standard measurements. Three alternative methods of deriving the absorbed dose to water calibration factors are compared. The reported calibration factors are compared with previous results. Changes in the Australian units of exposure, air kerma and absorbed dose to graphite and water are derived from changes in the corresponding calibration factors. The Australian units of exposure and air kerma have not changed significantly since 1990. The Australian unit of absorbed dose to graphite is now 1.1 % smaller than in 1993 and 1.3 % smaller than in 1990. The Australian unit of absorbed dose to water is now 1.4 % smaller than in 1993, but is only 0.9 % smaller than in 1990. Comparisons of the Australian standards of exposure/air kerma and absorbed dose with

  16. A REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON RADIOLOGICAL SECURITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP/RSRS partnership is to cooperate with regional neighbors in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports NNSA and IAEA objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need, and developing national programs, to: protect and control such materials; improve the security of such materials and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. To date, agreed upon joint activities have included assistance with the improvement of regulatory infrastructure for the control of radioactive sources, training on the physical protection of radioactive sources, training and assistance with the search, location, identification and securing of orphan radioactive sources and overall assistance with implementing the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. Since the inception of the partnership, ten Southeast Asian nations have participated in a range of activities from receiving general training on the security of radioactive sources to receiving specialized equipment and training to locate orphan or abandoned radioactive sources. By having a shared vision and objectives for radioactive source security in the Southeast Asian region, ANSTO and NNSA have been able to develop a successful partnership which has effectively utilized the technical, financial and political resources of each contributing partner. An example of how this partnership works is the cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency, Indonesia (BAPETEN) to

  17. Source Security Program in the Philippines: a lost source search experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), the national agency in the licensing and regulations of radioactive materials in the country, is strengthening its capabilities in the security of radioactive sources. Part of this program is the PNRI's participation in the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The project has provided equipment and methods training, assistance in the development of PNRI's own training program and support for actual orphan source search activities. On May 2007, a source search for the two lost Cs-137 level gauges of a steel manufacturing company was conducted by the PNRI and ANSTO. The source search are the: a) Development of instrument and source search training for the team, the National Training Workshop on Orphan Source Searches which was organized and conducted as a result of train-the-trainors fellowship under the RSRS project; and b) Planning and implementation of the lost source search activity. The conduct of the actual search on warehouses, product yard, canals, dust storage, steel making building, scrap yards and nearby junk shops of the steel plant took one week. The week-long search did not find the lost sources. However, naturally occurring radioactive materials identified to be Thorium, were found on sands, bricks and sack piles that are stored and/or generally present in the warehouses, yard and steel making building. The search activity had therefore cleared the facility of the lost source and its corresponding hazards. The NORM found present in the plant's premises on the other hand brought the attention of the management of the needed measures to ensure safety of the staff from possible hazards of these materials. Currently, the course syllabus that was developed is continuously enhanced to accommodate the training needs of the PNRI staff particularly for the emergency response and preparedness. This component of the source

  18. Code of Practice for the safe transport of radioactive substances - Nuclear Safety Bureau experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be used for the shipment for compliance with the Transport Code and provided advice to ARL on the acceptability of the proposed transport arrangements. With regard to the shipment earlier this year of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) facilities at Lucas Heights, to Port Botany, the NSB reviewed the design, manufacture, operation and maintenance of the transport package for compliance with the Transport Code to support ARL as the designated Competent Authority. In order to demonstrate compliance with the Transport Code, ANSTO carried out pre-shipment leak testing and inspections, and prepared written submissions relating to maintenance while the package had been used for interim fuel storage

  19. Highlights of the PSA analyses performed for the RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2000, ANSTO signed a contract with the Argentinian company INVAP S.E. for the design, construction and commissioning of a replacement research reactor (RRR). INVAP contracted CEDIAC to prepare the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for the RRR in support of the ANSTO application for the construction licence. The PSA is complementary to the Safety Analysis, in the sense that it asks questions such as 'What if the Postulated Initiating Events were to occur and more than one piece of equipment were to fail? What if several things were to go wrong?' The PSA attempts to determine all the possible combinations of how the plant could respond to an initiating event, group all the possible outcomes, obtain conservative estimates of the frequency, and bounding estimates of the consequences (i.e., doses to the worst exposed individual of the public). The frequency and consequence constitute the risk, and when evaluated for all possible events can be compared against the safety objectives set out in the regulatory principles. Besides the basic objective of the PSA, which is the quantitative evaluation of the risks associated with the RRR, and its comparison to the regulatory objectives, the PSA studies have been performed in parallel with the basic engineering phase of the project. Therefore, preliminary results from 'the risk point of view' were used as input to the design process, thus permitting improvements to be made to the design, and resulting in an effective reduction of the residual risk. To perform the PSA studies several methodological developments were made, in order to obtain a representative list of internal and external initiating events, to treat component and human-related failures, to consider common-cause failures, and to consider some specific aspects of the design (i.e., fail-safe components, passive systems, and lack of need for support systems). The PSA studies were performed to obtain not only quantitative estimations of the risk, but also

  20. The use of long-lived radionuclides in antarctic ice as tracers and chronometers in global climate change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collaborative project between the Physics Division at ANSTO, the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research [DAR], the Australian Antarctic Division [AAD] and the Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre is focused upon the record found in the ice and firn from Law Dome, Antarctica. The combined physical and intellectual resources of these organisations result in a potent and effective mix for climate change research which has already been demonstrated in a successful collaborative study entitled 'Determination of the Age and Age Spread of Air in Ice Cores', funded under a National Greenhouse Advisory Committee [NGAC] Grant. The broad objectives of this collaboration are to determine the global atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide budget and to correlate the variability in solar activity and historical climate change in the southern hemisphere. The aim is to define the levels of 'natural' variability in global climate change in the Holocene and to identify the mechanisms controlling the variations, with the emphasis on species which force or reflect global environmental change. Clearly answering all of these questions is beyond the scope of a short project, however we hope to develop the techniques and abilities which will allow us to investigate these matters in future studies. The combined effort by the collaborating organisations will result in a precise, high-time resolution, multi species record from Antarctic ice cores which will complement other southern hemisphere palaeo records throughout the Holocene and into the last Glacial. ANSTO's role is the examination of cosmogenic and bio-geochemical forcing of the atmospheric radionuclides 14C and 10Be in Antarctic ice. Specifically, we are using the ANTARES AMS facility for the measurement of 14C in carbon dioxide and methane contained in air extracted from the porous firn layer overlying the ice and from bubbles trapped within the ice. We are also using AMS to measure 10Be from the firn and ice. An indication

  1. The 1997 determination of the Australian standards of exposure and absorbed dose at 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangements for the maintenance of the Australian standards for 60Co are described in detail. The primary standards are a graphite cavity chamber for exposure/air kerma and a graphite calorimeter for absorbed dose. These secondary standards are described and their responses in corresponding 90Sr reference sources are reported. Accurate ratios between the Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) and Australian Nuclear Science and Technology (ANSTO) 90Sr reference sources are derived for use in future calibrations. The value of 28.8 years for the half-life of 90Sr is confirmed. The usefulness of 90Sr reference source measurements in quality assurance is discussed. The charge sensitivity and linearity of the ANSTO electrometers are reported by two different methods and are compared with previous results. Calibration factors for all the secondary standard ionization chambers are given, in terms of exposure, air kerma and absorbed dose to water. Calibration factors are also given for most of the chambers in terms of absorbed dose to graphite. The methods of deriving the calibration factors are explained in detail, including all the corrections applied to both the primary and secondary standard measurements. Three alternative methods of deriving the absorbed dose to water calibration factors are compared. The reported calibration factors are compared with previous results. Changes in the Australian units of exposure, air kerma and absorbed dose to graphite and water are derived from changes in the corresponding calibration factors. The Australian units of exposure and air kerma have not changed significantly since 1990. The Australian unit of absorbed dose to graphite is now 1.1 % smaller than in 1993 and 1.3 % smaller than in 1990. The Australian unit of absorbed dose to water is now 1.4 % smaller than in 1993, but is only 0.9 % smaller than in 1990. Comparisons of the Australian standards of exposure/air kerma and absorbed dose with those of the Bureau International

  2. Strange bedfellows: The curious case of STAR and Moata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2 MV tandem accelerator named ‘STAR’ was installed at ANSTO in 2003 and commissioned in 2004. It is used for ion beam analysis (IBA) and for radiocarbon measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Convenient space for the accelerator was found in the same building occupied by the decommissioned Argonaut-class nuclear reactor ‘Moata’; the name derives from the aboriginal word for ‘fire stick’ or ‘gentle fire’, appropriate for a 100 kW research reactor. This reactor operated between 1961 and 1995. In 2007 ANSTO’s Engineering Division assembled a team to dismantle and remove the reactor structure, along with its 12.1 tonnes of graphite reflector. The removal and remediation was completed in November 2010 and has won the team a number of prestigious awards. The entire operation was conducted inside a negatively-pressurised double-walled vinyl tent. An air curtain was positioned around the reactor core. The exhaust air from the tent passed through 2-stage HEPA filters before venting through an external stack. Neither ANSTO staff nor contractors received any significant radiation dose during the operation. Given the sensitivity of STAR for detection of 14C/12C (∼10−16) and the numerous routes for production of 14C in the reactor such as 13C(n, γ)14C, 14N(n, p)14C and 17O(n, α)14C there was the potential to directly contaminate the STAR environment with 14C. Furthermore, there was concern that reactor-14C could find its way from this building into the building where the radiocarbon sample preparation laboratories are located. This necessitated restrictions on staff movement between the buildings. We report on 14C control measurements made during and after the operation. These involved direct measurements on the reactor graphite and concrete bioshield, blank targets that were exposed in the building, swipe samples taken inside the tent and around the building and aerosol samples that were collected inside the building throughout the

  3. Media and Australia's replacement reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1997, the Commonwealth Government of Australia announced a proposal to build a replacement nuclear research reactor at Lucas Heights in Sydney. Extensive public consultation, parliamentary debate and independent reports were prepared to ensure that the new facility would meet strict international requirements, national safety and environmental standards, and performance specifications servicing the needs of Australia - for decades to come. On 6 June 2000, Argentine company INVAP SE was announced as the preferred tenderer. In July 2000 contracts were signed between INVAP and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for the construction the replacement reactor, due to be completed in 2005. In order to retain a strong local presence, INVAP undertook a joint venture with two of Australia's foremost heavy construction businesses. Briefly the new research reactor will be a replacement for the ageing Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Nuclear science and technology, in Australia, is no stranger to media controversy and misinformation. Understandably the announcement of a preferred tenderer followed by the signing of contracts, attracted significant national and international media attention. However in the minds of the media, the issue is far from resolved and is now a constant 'news story' in the Australian media. Baseless media stories have made claims that the project will cost double the original estimates; question the credibility of the contractors; and raise issues of international security. The project is currently linked with Australia's requirements for long term nuclear waste management and there has been an attempt to bring national Indigenous People's issues into play. Some of these issues have been profiled in the press internationally. So, just to set the record straight and give you an appropriate impression of what's 'really happening' I would like to highlight a few issues, how ANSTO dealt with these, and what was finally reported

  4. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  5. Atmospheric aerosol characterisation at Cape Grim and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australia Global Baseline monitoring station at Cape Grim in north western Tasmania is operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. ANSTO has been sampling, measuring and characterising fine particles of 2.5 μm diameters and less (PM2.5) at Cape Grim since the middle of 1992. Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques [2-41 have been used to identify over 25 different elemental species present in over 500 filters collected to date. The elements measured by PIXE, PIGME, ERDA and RBS include, H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. Of the measured elements not listed the majority occurred at concentrations below 10 ng/m3. The average monthly mass variations over the 5 year period from 1992 to 1997 are given. The average non-soil potassium was 92% of the total potassium, showing that the vast majority of fine potassium was associated with smoke from biomass burning. The highest lead value of 542 ng/m3 occurred on 21 June 1992 and was associated with 337 ng/m3 of bromine which, after correction for bromine in sea salt (Na was 3), was about the correct ratio to be associated with combustion of leaded petrol in motor vehicles

  6. The design and application of a radiological consequence model for tropical and subtropical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post Chernobyl era has seen the development of a plethora of radiological consequence models. The information used in these models pertains mostly to temperate and cold climate data, with these data mostly being hard-wired into the body of the model. At the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), a model is being developed with a user-friendly interface which will assess the radiological consequences, after an incident, in tropical and sub-tropical climates. The model combines specific regional data (South East Asia) with transfer parameters (soil to plant, plant to animal) obtained for tropical and sub-tropical regions. Flexibility has been incorporated into the the design of the model to allow application in other regions. Where the relevant data are not available, default temperate data are used whilst specific research will be initiated to determine the information required. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is used for the display of input and output data allowing quick access to not only the results but also to the underlying assumptions

  7. The performance of Synroc under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program at ANSTO on 'the performance of Synroc under repository conditions' is aimed at determining the ability of this waste form to incorporate high-level waste under varying ground water conditions. Important aspects of this study are the verification of the successful inclusion of active elements into the Synroc matrix, the collection of leaching data, description of the mechanisms by which ground water/Synroc and ground water/Synroc/repository host rock interaction proceeds and the use of all of this information as the basis for modelling the performance of Synroc in waste repository environments. Studies, described in this report are focused on long-term leach rates of actinide elements in deionized water, silicate, brine and carbonate leachants, the effect of Boom Clay and granitic materials on actinide releases and in-situ testing carried out for 3.5 years in the underground laboratory at Mol, Belgium. Studies also included comparison between results from experimental studies and findings obtained from naturally occurring zirconolite samples, which have been shown to be good natural analogues for the zirconolite phase in Synroc. (author)

  8. An investigation into the technical feasibility of cyclotron production of technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of technetium-99m in nuclear medicine is well established with 80 per cent to 90 per cent of all nuclear medicine studies utilising this isotope. Technetium-99m is currently produced from nuclear reactors via production of the parent radionuclide molybdenum-99. The reactor production of 99mTc has both significant financial and environmental costs, with unresolved problems in the areas of radioactive waste disposal and reactor decommissioning. Recent scientific publications have indicated that medical quality 99mTc may be produced using cyclotrons without having the associated problems of waste disposal and decommissioning. Further scientific research is now required to demonstrate the feasibility of this cyclotron production technique. A collaboration between the Cyclotron and PET Centre, Austin Hospital, the National Medical Cyclotron, ANSTO, Sydney, and the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, University of California, Davis, USA has been proposed. The general objective of the proposed collaboration is to acquire additional scientific data to evaluate the 99mTc cyclotron production method and to determine the feasibility of cyclotron technology for Australian nuclear medicine. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  9. Phase resolved methods for investigation of electro-mechanical actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an electric field (static or dynamic) is applied to a bulk ceramic electro-mechanical material, transient states often exist which are not observed by static or ex-situ experiments. These transient states are critical for understanding electro-mechanical actuation mechanisms. Stroboscopic data acquisition approaches have allowed for detailed investigations of timeresolved structural changes under electric field when large changes to the structure occur. However, this technique is not sensitive to relatively small changes and often requires very long acquisition times, which lead to sample fatigue and failure. The event streaming mode data acquisition system of the Wombat neutron diffractometer at ANSTO involves the recording of each individual neutron event with its position and absolute time-stamp. This allows the postprocessing of data in the most flexible way possible, for instance, applying phase sensitive demodulation of the data. This work explores the use of phase sensitive data analysis methods for creating the most sensitive time-resolved scattering experiments possible. The application to electro-mechanical materials where in-situ electric fields are applied will further our understanding of the very subtle structural response of these systems.

  10. The agreement between the Argentine Republic and Australia on the cooperation for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and its fitting to the Argentine Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the legal aspects of the cooperation agreement between Australia and Argentina signed in Camberra on August 8, 2001, the authors elaborate upon the following points: 1. The interpretation of the constitutional texts. Its need; 2. Facts: the development of nuclear energy in Argentina. The contract INVAP-ANSTO. The cooperation agreement Argentina-Australia; 3. The great publicity campaign. The appeal to fear; 4. The difference with the case of power reactors. Distinction between power and research reactors; 5. The difference with the Chernobyl case; 6. Shipment safety; 7. Other clarifications; 8. Factual and juridical distinction between spent fuel and radioactive waste concepts; 9. The regulatory framework of the difference; 10. The essence of the adjective 'Immediate'. Its juridical meaning; 11. The concept of 'entry'. The need to overcome an intentional literalness; 12. The harmonious interpretation of the constitution; 13. The engagement with the future generations; 14. The adaptation to the global trends. The Kyoto protocol; 15. The bases of the constitutional doctrine. They conclude that nothing in the agreement is contrary to the Argentine constitution

  11. 10Be concentrations in recent firn and ice from Law Dome Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO has been collaborating with the AAD Glaciology Program and CSIRO Atmospheric Research over the last six years on the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes from Law Dome ice sheet, East Antarctica. In this paper we present our first result s of 10Be concentrations measured in the ice and firn from samples spanning this century and taken from three cores with up to a seven-fold variation in accumulation rate. In combination with a well established ice chronology, this has enabled a study of the relationship between the snow accumulation rate and the measured 10Be concentration. Preliminary results suggest that, for Law Dome, the 10 Be concentration is independent of accumulation rate and that most 10Be is incorporated into the ice sheet as a result of 'wet' precipitation. Questions concerning the degree to which 10Be is adsorbed on dust particles or present as a soluble form have complicated the interpretation of the 10Be record in Northern Hemisphere ice cores. To better understand the implications for Law Dome ice we have undertaken two pilot experiments. One experiment involved measurement of the short lived radioisotope 7Be along with 10Be in surface snow samples in an attempt to elucidate transport effects. The second experiment was aimed at determination of the partitioning of 10Be among terrestrial dust particles of different

  12. Solidification of acidic liquid waste from 99Mo isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production of the radioisotope molybdenum-99 by the fission process began at ANSTO in the late 1960's. Molybdenum-99, with a half life of 66 hours, decays by beta emission to produce technetium-99m, a metastable isotope. Technetium-99m is the most widely used medical radioisotope due to its near ideal properties, particularly the radioactive half life of only 6 hours. ANSTO has been producing generators for around 30 years for distribution to hospitals and nuclear medicine centres. These generators produce technetium-99m for medical use by decay of the contained molybdenum-99. To produce molybdenum-99, uranium dioxide pellets enriched to 2.2% 235U are irradiated in ANSTO's HIFAR reactor for about one week. The irradiated pellets are subsequently dissolved in nitric acid to allow the recovery of the molybdenum. An acidic intermediate level liquid waste results from this processing. A primary waste results from the raw leach solution (after removal of the molybdenum onto a packed alumina column) and a weaker secondary waste is produced from a series of column washing steps. The waste solution contains uranium, the majority of the other fission products and low levels of ammonia in a nitric acid solution. This liquid waste had been accumulating and stored in specially designed shielded tanks in a storage facility. A process has been developed at ANSTO to convert this intermediate level liquid waste into a crystalline solid form of considerably less volume and mass, for improved storage. The operation comprises three processing steps. The lower strength secondary waste solution first requires concentration, with the removal of water and some acid into a condensate. The condensate is chemically neutralised and treated through the conventional water treatment plant. Concentrated solution is then treated in a batch chemical process to reduce the low levels of ammonia to very low levels. The final evaporation process removes further water and acid and

  13. Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Uranium and Plutonium Residues Wastes - 13164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of work has been undertaken to treat plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield. These have arisen from past fuel development work and are highly variable in both physical and chemical composition. The principal radiological elements present are U and Pu, with small amounts of Th. The waste packages contain Pu in amounts that are too low to be economically recycled as fuel and too high to be disposed of as lower level Pu contaminated material. NNL and ANSTO have developed full-ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms in which hot-isostatic pressing is used as the consolidation step to safely immobilize the waste into a form suitable for long-term disposition. We discuss development work on the glass-ceramic developed for impure waste streams, in particular the effect of variations in the waste feed chemistry glass-ceramic. The waste chemistry was categorized into actinides, impurity cations, glass formers and anions. Variations of the relative amounts of these on the properties and chemistry of the waste form were investigated and the waste form was found to be largely unaffected by these changes. This work mainly discusses the initial trials with Th and U. Later trials with larger variations and work with Pu-doped samples further confirmed the flexibility of the glass-ceramic. (authors)

  14. Managing the risks of legacy radioactive sources from a security perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety and security risk posed by highly radioactive, long-lived sources at the end of their normal use has not been consistently well-managed in previous decades. The Brazilian Cs-137 accident in 1986 and the Thailand Co-60 accident in 2000 are prime examples of the consequences that ensue from the loss of control of highly dangerous sources after their normal use. With the new international emphasis on security of radioactive sources throughout their life cycle, there is now further incentive to address the management of risks posed by legacy, highly dangerous radioactive sources. The ANSTO South-East Asia Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project has identified, and is addressing, a number of legacy situations that have arisen as a result of inadequate management practices in the past. Specific examples are provided of these legacy situations and the lessons learned for managing the consequent safety and security risk, and for future complete life-cycle management of highly radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Radiation research in AINSE-affiliated universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) has enabled research workers from its member universities to make extensive use of the (sometimes unique) radiation facilities at Lucas Heights. This has resulted in a better understanding of the action of gamma, X-ray and electron beam radiation on physical, chemical and biological systems, and of the radical and excited species which are produced. A selection of the ensuing first class publications is described. Over the years the emphasis has changed from the obtaining of a fundamental understanding of the science and the refining of the techniques to utilising these in attacking problems in other fields. Examples are given of the use of radiation chemistry techniques in metal-organic, polymer, excited state and biological chemistry. In radiation biology, the early emphasis on genetics and on the production of chromosomal aberrations by radiation has given way to molecular biology and cancer treatment studies. In all of this, AAEC/ANSTO and CSIRO have played major roles. In addition, AINSE has organised a continuing series of specialist conferences which has facilitated interaction between research groups within the universities and involved other investigators in Australia, New Zealand and the rest of the world

  16. Regulatory aspects of criticality control in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the creation of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) the Australian approach to criticality safety was revisited. Consistency with international best practices is required by the Act that created ARPANSA and this was applied to practices in criticality safety adopted in other countries. This required extensive regulatory efforts both in auditing the major Australian Nuclear Operator, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), and assessing the existing in Australia criticality safety practices and implementing the required changes using the new legislative power of ARPANSA. The adopted regulatory approach is formulated through both the issued by ARPANSA licenses for nuclear installations (including reactors, fuel stores and radioactive waste stores) and the string of new regulatory documents, including the Regulatory Assessment Principles and the Regulatory Assessment Guidelines for criticality safety. The main features of the adopted regulation include the requirements of independent peer-review, ongoing refresher training coupled with annual accreditation and the reliance on the safe design rather than on an administrative control. (author)

  17. Polarized neutrons for Australian scientific research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Shane J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: sjk@ansto.gov.au

    2005-02-15

    Polarized neutron scattering has been a feature at ANSTO's HIFAR research reactor since the first polarization analysis (PA) spectrometer Longpol began operation over 30 years ago. Since that time, we have improved performance of Longpol and added new capabilities in several reincarnations of the instrument. Most of the polarized neutron experiments have been in the fields of magnetism and superconductivity, and most of that research has involved PA. Now as we plan our next generation neutron beam facility, at the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR), we intend to continue the tradition of PA but with a far broader scope in mind. Our new capabilities will combine PA and energy analysis with both cold and thermal neutron source spectra. We will also provide capabilities for research with polarized neutrons in small-angle neutron scattering and in neutron reflectometry. The discussion includes a brief historical account of the technical developments with a summary of past and present applications of polarized neutrons at HIFAR, and an outline of the polarized neutron capabilities that will be included in the first suite of instruments, which will begin operation at the new reactor in 2006.

  18. Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Uranium and Plutonium Residues Wastes - 13164

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Martin W.A.; Moricca, Sam A.; Zhang, Yingjie; Day, R. Arthur; Begg, Bruce D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Scales, Charlie R.; Maddrell, Ewan R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, UK, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Hobbs, Jeff [Sellafield Limited, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, UK, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    A program of work has been undertaken to treat plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield. These have arisen from past fuel development work and are highly variable in both physical and chemical composition. The principal radiological elements present are U and Pu, with small amounts of Th. The waste packages contain Pu in amounts that are too low to be economically recycled as fuel and too high to be disposed of as lower level Pu contaminated material. NNL and ANSTO have developed full-ceramic and glass-ceramic waste forms in which hot-isostatic pressing is used as the consolidation step to safely immobilize the waste into a form suitable for long-term disposition. We discuss development work on the glass-ceramic developed for impure waste streams, in particular the effect of variations in the waste feed chemistry glass-ceramic. The waste chemistry was categorized into actinides, impurity cations, glass formers and anions. Variations of the relative amounts of these on the properties and chemistry of the waste form were investigated and the waste form was found to be largely unaffected by these changes. This work mainly discusses the initial trials with Th and U. Later trials with larger variations and work with Pu-doped samples further confirmed the flexibility of the glass-ceramic. (authors)

  19. Healthy radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story

  20. Final guidelines for an Environmental Impact Statement on the proposed construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These guidelines are based on the requirements of paragraphs 4.1 and 4.3 of the Administrative Procedures under the Commonwealth Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 (EPIP Act).The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been designated as proponent under the EPIP Act in relation to the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC). The term 'environment' refers to all aspects of the surroundings of human beings, whether affecting human beings as individuals or in social groupings. It includes the natural environment, the built environment, and social aspects of our surroundings. The definition covers such factors as air, water, soils, flora,fauna, buildings, roads, employment, hazards and risks, and safety. As set out in the guidelines, the scope of this assessment shall encompass those issues and alternatives directly related to the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the LHSTC. The EIS will need to make clear the site selection criteria used, and the basis, in assessing Lucas Heights as being suitable for a new reactor. While the EIS will address all aspects of the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor, it will not address issues associated with the treatment of spent nuclear fuel rods from the existing High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR facility). The EIS will also address issues associated with the eventual decommissioning of the proposed replacement reactor, and eventual decommissioning of the existing HIFAR facility

  1. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Nuclear science and a better environment - an oxymoron?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Specialist Committee of AINSE is a relatively recent addition to the areas of special interest but AINSE and ANSTO have supported environmental research for many years in areas such as environmental engineering studies, insect control, sensitive analytical techniques (which are in many cases at the heart of an improved understanding of environmental processes) and environmental radioactivity and the control of radioactive waste. Such techniques make a direct contribution to the remediation of contaminated industrial and mining sites and to monitoring the continued effect of these sites on the environment. Recently the spread of quaternary studies with distinct environmental importance has increased the AINSE involvement in supporting the use of AMS techniques involving cosmogenic radionuclides, not only for studies of current processes but also for historic studies designed to reveal past climates and geomorphology. Nuclear science of this kind contributes to a better understanding of patterns of atmospheric circulation, underground water resources and climate change. Even a simple application of nuclear science, the neutron soil moisture probe, improves the efficiency of water use in agriculture and reduces the environmental impact of irrigation. The environmental impact of development in the third world will have major environmental consequences in the next twenty years. Developments in nuclear science in chemical analysis, the dynamics of environmental processes and in monitoring resources will help in controlling a sustainable and rational use of the environment

  3. Low temperature plasma: fundamentals to commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper provides an overview of some selected aspects of low temperature plasmas that have been relevant to the wide variety of activities undertaken at Lucas Heights. Reference will be made to some early fundamental studies of weakly ionized plasmas. These investigations provided reliable, new and precise information about the spatial and temporal growth of ionization in both static electric fields and combined electric and magnetic fields. The ionization behaviour was determined essentially by electron, ion and photon processes in pure molecular gases but when investigations were extended to a study of the influence of trace impurities on the ionization behaviour, dramatic new influences were revealed. Removal of the impurities demonstrated the influence of excited neutral metastable particles. These are not influenced by electric or magnetic fields but are controlled by the process of diffusion and exert strong effects at metal surfaces. Studies of these metastable particle influences proved to be important in developing new lasers, e g. the high power excimer laser which operates in mixtures of inert gases. Most recently considerable interest has developed in the role played by similar metastable particles in plasmas established in molecular nitrogen. The role of metastable particles generated in pure nitrogen is now being examined exhaustively because strong evidence has emerged that they play an important role in commercial plasma nitriding. The latest developments emerging from the co-operative studies by ANSTO, AINSE and the University of New England have yielded new information and further investigations are continuing

  4. Application of FEPs analysis to identify research priorities relevant to the safety case for an Australian radioactive waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has established a project to undertake research relevant to the safety case for the proposed Australian radioactive waste facility. This facility will comprise a store for intermediate level radioactive waste, and either a store or a near-surface repository for low-level waste. In order to identify the research priorities for this project, a structured analysis of the features, events and processes (FEPs) relevant to the performance of the facility was undertaken. This analysis was based on the list of 137 FEPs developed by the IAEA project on 'Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities' (ISAM). A number of key research issues were identified, and some factors which differ in significance for the store, compared to the repository concept, were highlighted. For example, FEPs related to long-term groundwater transport of radionuclides are considered to be of less significance for a store than a repository. On the other hand, structural damage from severe weather, accident or human interference is more likely for a store. The FEPs analysis has enabled the scientific research skills required for the inter-disciplinary project team to be specified. The outcomes of the research will eventually be utilised in developing the design, and assessing the performance, of the future facility. It is anticipated that a more detailed application of the FEPs methodology will be undertaken to develop the safety case for the proposed radioactive waste management facility. (authors)

  5. Progress in the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Steering Committee agreed on 1 October 1987 to sponsor the International Alligator Rivers Analogue Project (ARAP) for a three year program with a formal starting date of 1 September 1987. The participants are six organisations from five NEA Member States with ANSTO as the managing participant. A detailed tehnical program was agreed by a Joint Technical Committee and this comprises six main technical sub-projects: modelling of radionuclide migration, hydrogeology at Koongarra, uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies, colloid and groundwater studies, fission product studies and transuranic nuclide studies. A modelling workshop for participants and contractors was held in Sydney in February 1988 and a field visit was undertaken in May 1988. Laboratory studies on samples obtained in previous field visits were carried out from September 1987. Data from the project are being provided for participants as case 8 in the INTRAVAL model validation project coordinated by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. A Joint Technical Committee meeting to approve the technical program and budjet for the second year will be held in Sydney in July 1988

  6. Bomb radiocarbon in annual tree rings from Thailand and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the atmospheric 14C excess in the tropics and the southern hemisphere temperate region in the bomb pulse period, using two sets of cross-dated tree rings. One set was from a medium-sized three-leaf pine (Pinus kesiya) grown in northwestern Thailand and the other was from a Huon pine (Lagarostrobos franklinii) grown in northwestern Tasmania, Australia. A total of 48 annual tree rings (24 pairs) from 1952 to 1975 AD were pretreated to alpha-cellulose, combusted to CO2 and converted to graphite for 14C measurement in the tandem accelerator at ANSTO. Excellent agreement was found between our measured 14C data from tree rings and atmospheric 14C records at similar latitudes. A large depletion of atmospheric 14C for Thailand in 1953-1954 AD was observed. This might be due to a combination of the Suess effect and upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean. The results also showed the rise and decay of bomb 14C peaks from north to south with a time delay of about 1.5 yr, and the effects of minor atmospheric nuclear tests in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A delay of at least one month for 14C in tree cellulose of Huon pine compared with that in the atmosphere was also found

  7. SIKA - the cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer with multiplexing analyzer at Bragg Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIKA is a high-flux cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer funded by Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan and currently being operated by National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center. It locates at the OPAL reactor face at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Its incident energy ranges from 2.5meV to 30meV with the highest flux at ~8meV. With an advanced design, SIKA is equipped with an analyzer array of 13 PG(002) blades (Fig. 1), a multi-wire detector, and a separate diffraction detector. Such a design allows SIKA to run in a traditional step-by-step mode or in various mapping (or dispersive) modes by changing the configuration of analyzers and detectors. Several typical mapping modes are analyzed and simulated using Monte Carlo ray-tracing package SIMRES of RESTRAX. [1] The performance of different mapping modes are demonstrated and evaluated, providing the dispersion relations of these operation modes as references for experimental studies. In hotcommissioning, a multiplexing mode with constant Ef was used to measure the phonon dispersion in a Pb single crystal. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate the flexibility and fast data-collecting potential of SIKA as a next generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer.

  8. Australian RRRP seismic design and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on the structural design and qualification that has been carried out for the safety against seismic events at the Australian RRRP (Replacement Research Reactor Project). The RRRP is a 20 MW multi-purpose nuclear research reactor designed and constructed by INVAP from Argentina, for ANSTO (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) in Sydney, Australia. On account of the site characteristics, the australian regulations and the engineering and design standards applicable to the project, the design requirements for the reactor included very stringent and clear guidelines that should be observed to ensure that appropriate levels of protection are provided against seismic events. Despite the fact of being a research reactor with a thermal power two orders of magnitude lower than that of nuclear power plants, the methodology used in the seismic qualification was based on the one used for NPPs instead of using simplified methods as suggested by the literature on research reactors. With this in mind, the regulatory and engineering frame was based on IAEA standards for power reactors and complementary guides for specific issues. The paper describes the Design Basis Ground Motion, Seismic Levels, Seismic Classification and the particular design criteria and qualification methods used for systems as: Civil, Mechanical, Process, Instrumentation and Control, Electrical, HVAC, etc. (authors)

  9. Past processes in peats : untangling the origin of dried peat in the Australian alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peat soils form where decomposition is hindered, often by a combination of cold and wet conditions, such that production of organic matter outweighs decomposition. Such conditions are rare in the hot, dry continent of Australia. Consequently peat barely features on a map of Australian soils, though small areas are noted to occur in the alps and along the humid east coast. It is pertinent to ask several questions about the origin of peat in the alps. Is dried peat a remnant of bog peat? And if so, when did bogs drain to form dried peat? The study site, on Wellington Plains in the south-east Gippsland Alps, contains a substantial area of bog peat and extensive areas of dried peat. AMS radiocarbon dating of surface, base and, for the bog peat only, mid-profile peat samples, was carried out at ANSTO. 14C dating enabled us to look at the initiation of peat accumulation, but the change from bog peat to dried peat is thought to have occurred more recently, since the introduction of stock to the alps. The short half-life of 210Pb (22.6 years) and the constant supply from the upper atmosphere makes 210Pb an appropriate technique to investigate this time frame. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I) - General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining regime; 3. Radioactive substances and equipment; 4. Nuclear installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Protection of the environment against radiation effects); 5. Trade in nuclear materials and equipment; 6. Radiation protection; 7. Radioactive waste management; 8. Non-proliferation and physical protection (Bilateral safeguards agreements; International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Agreement; The South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty Act; The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Act; The Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act); 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear third party liability; II) - Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and supervisory authorities (Minister for Health and Ageing; Minister for Foreign Affairs; Minister for the Environment, Heritage and the Arts; Minister for, Resources, Energy and Tourism); 2. Advisory bodies (Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council; Advisory Committees); 3. Public and semi-public agencies (Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA); Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO); Supervising Scientist)

  11. Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO Environment is playing a pioneering role in developing new methods for monitoring adherence to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Working with the IAEA Department of Safeguards, new analytical procedures have been developed to assist with their environmental monitoring programme. Signatures of nuclear activities, in the form of trace amounts of radioisotopes in environmental samples, can be used to identify undeclared nuclear facilities or undeclared activities at declared facilities. At ANSTO we have developed the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of 236U in environmental samples. 236U is a sensitive indicator of irradiated uranium. AMS is also used to detect the long- lived fission product 129I at extremely low levels. The presence of 129I can be a signature of reprocessing. ANSTO performs analyses of these radioisotopes as an accredited member of the IAEA Safeguards network of analytical laboratories. Australian soldiers on duty in the Gulf risk possible exposure to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is the uranium that is left after most of the radioactive isotopes are removed for nuclear fuel. Due to its high density, it is the ideal material for use in armour-piercing ammunition and in armour for fighting vehicles. However, like any heavy metal, it is toxic in high doses. Depleted uranium enters the body through inhalation of the dust- like particles, ingestion of contaminated food or through wounds. At ANSTO, a sensitive analytical technique based on isotope dilution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect depleted uranium in urine samples. By addition of known quantities of 236U (isotope dilution) to the urine samples and measuring the relative abundances of different isotopes (236U, 235U and 238U) of uranium by ICP-MS, we are able to quantify (quantification limit of 20 ng/L) and distinguish between natural and depleted uranium. In Australia, there are legislative limits on the

  12. Neutronic Design of a Cold Neutron Source with MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutronic design of a cold neutron source (CNS) requires the use of powerful tools to model neutron transport as accurately as possible. For this purpose, nowadays, the increase in hardware calculation power makes it possible to make use of Monte Carlo techniques, even during the design stage. For design purposes, the goal is to find the optimal combination between positioning and geometry of the moderator chamber and composition of the moderator material to produce the maximum cold neutron flux at the experimental location. Close to the optimum balance, the influence of each of these parameters on the cold flux can be expected to be about 1-5%. These small effects must be discriminated from statistical errors without a strong increase of the calculation time. A short description of the calculation line, leading to a fast and reliable method to perform these optimization calculations with low statistical errors and times compatible with a design schedule is presented. Several parametric analyses of the design variables are presented in order to show how this calculation methodology works and how consistent their results are. The analysis was done during the design of the replacement research reactor (RRR) CNS for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). As a conclusion to the paper, we demonstrate the possibility to apply Monte Carlo techniques in a design project framework to obtain an optimized CNS neutronic design. (author)

  13. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  14. Nuclear microprobe analysis of lead profile in crocodile bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Hammerton, K.; Jeffree, R.A.; Cohen, D.D

    2003-09-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead were found in Australian free ranging saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) bone and flesh. Lead shots were found as potential source of lead in these animals. ANSTO's heavy ion nuclear microprobe was used to measure the distribution of Pb in a number of bones and osteoderms. The aim was to find out if elevated Pb concentration remains in growth rings and if the concentration is correlated with the blood levels recorded at the time. Results of our study show a very distinct distribution of accumulated Pb in bones and osteoderms as well as good correlation with the level of lead concentration in blood. To investigate influence of ion species on detection limits measurements of the same sample were performed by using 3 MeV protons, 9 MeV He ions and 20 MeV carbon ions. Peak to background ratios, detection limits and the overall 'quality' of obtained spectra are compared and discussed.

  15. Plutonium and uranium contamination in soils from former nuclear weapon test sites in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, D.P., E-mail: dpc@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Hotchkis, M.A.C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    The British government performed a number of nuclear weapon tests on Australian territory from 1952 through to 1963 with the cooperation of Australian government. Nine fission bombs were detonated in South Australia at Emu Junction and Maralinga, and a further three fission weapons were detonated in the Monte Bello Islands off the coast of Western Australia. A number of soil samples were collected by Australian Radiation Laboratories in 1972 and 1978 during field surveys at these nuclear weapon test sites. They were analysed by gamma spectrometry and, for a select few samples, by alpha spectrometry to measure the remaining activities of fission products, activation products and weapon materials. We have remeasured a number of these Montebello Islands and Emu Junction soil samples using the ANTARES AMS facility, ANSTO. These samples were analysed for plutonium and uranium isotopic ratios and isotopic concentrations. Very low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratios were measured at both sites ({approx}0.05 for Alpha Island and {approx}0.02 for Emu Field), substantially below global fallout averages. Well correlated but widely varying {sup 236}U and plutonium concentrations were measured across both sites, but {sup 233}U did not correlate with these other isotopes and instead showed correlation with distance from ground zero, indicating in situ production in the soils.

  16. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  17. Accelerated damage studies of titanate ceramics containing simulated PW-4b and JW-A waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic waste forms are affected by radiation damage, primarily arising from aloha-decay processes that can lead to volume expansion and amorphization of the component crystalline phases. The understanding of the extent and impact of these effects on the overall durability of the waste form is critical to the prediction of their long-term performance under repository conditions. Since 1985 ANSTO and JAERI have carried out joint studies on the use of 244Cm to simulate alpha-radiation damage in ceramic waste forms. These studies have focussed on synroc formulations doped with simulated PW-4b and JW-A wastes. The studies have established the relationship between density change and irradiation levels for Synroc containing JW-A and PW-4b wastes. The storage of samples at 200 C halves the rate of decrease in the density of the samples compared to that measured at room temperature. This effect is consistent with that found for natural samples where the amorphization of natural samples stored under crustal conditions is lower, by factors between 2 and 4, than that measured for samples from accelerated doping experiments stored at room temperature. (J.P.N.)

  18. Sulphur hexafluoride as a stripper gas for tandem accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M.A.C., E-mail: mah@ansto.gov.au; Child, D.; Fink, D.; Garton, D.; Levchenko, V.; Wilcken, K.

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: •Sulphur hexafluoride is investigated as a stripper gas in tandem accelerators. •For heavy ions at low terminal voltage, mean charge states are found to be up to 1 charge unit higher than with argon gas. •Charge state distributions are found to be broader than with argon gas. •For charge states above the mean charge state, yields are typically doubled using SF{sub 6}. •Using SF{sub 6} stripper gas, the efficiency of actinides AMS analysis is doubled. -- Abstract: We have investigated sulphur hexafluoride as a stripper gas in tandem accelerators by using the ANTARES accelerator system at ANSTO to measure charge state distributions for this gas. Results are reported at 4 MV terminal voltage for injected negative ions ranging from carbon to uranium oxide. For iodine and thorium the distributions are extended across a range of energies of practical use for accelerator mass spectrometry, ion beam analysis and other accelerator applications. Charge state distributions using sulphur hexafluoride are found to have mean charge states up to 1 charge unit higher than, and to be broader than, corresponding distributions for argon gas, except in the case of carbon beams. As a result, SF{sub 6} is shown to provide significantly higher yields for charge states of heavy ions above the mean charge state. We now perform actinide AMS measurements with 9% yield to the 5+ charge state, compared to 4–5% achieved previously with argon gas.

  19. Determination of NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector efficiency above and below 250 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO is implementing a standardised real-time stack monitoring system for monitoring airborne emissions, using identical NaI(Tl) detectors, Multi-channel analyzers (MCA) and locally produced software. This work focuses on gamma energies below 250 keV, as the majority of noble gases discharged during 99Mo production, emit in this region. It was necessary to extend the calculations beyond this region, to ensure they could be used to quantify emissions from the National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) and also used for quantifying 41Ar, produced and discharged by operations at the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR). Determination of NaI(Tl) detector efficiency below 250 keV has always been considered a difficult task, one not made easier by the lack of variety in calibrated low-energy emitting gamma sources or by the lack of specific internal NaI(Tl) detector dimensions required for accurate computer modeling. This project seeks to overcome these obstacles by combining experimental data with computed tomography (CT) imaging, 2D/3D image analysis and reconstruction software,. Monte Carlo code (MCNP-4B) and comparison with high resolution HPGe detectors

  20. Australia's South East Asia Regional Security of Radioactive Sources Project (Achievements and Lessons Learned)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, as part of the Australian Government’s commitment to a broad range of counter-terrorism cooperation in South East Asia, the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project was created by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The RSRS Project’s purpose is to reduce Australian and other States’ vulnerabilities to the unauthorised acquisition and malicious use of high activity, dangerous radioactive sources by working with Australia’s neighbouring countries to improve their physical protection and security management of radioactive sources and their associated facilities throughout their life-cycle. In addition, should prevention measures fail, the RSRS Project aims to improve those countries’ radiological emergency preparedness and response capabilities to deal effectively and safely with radioactive sources out of regulatory control and malicious acts involving radioactive materials. Covering both policy and operational matters, the RSRS Project cooperates with partner countries’ relevant organisations and other entities to develop and deliver their own effective and sustainable radioactive source security programs, consistent with the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and other international guidance and requirements. This paper reviews the achievements and lessons learned from such international cooperation. (author)

  1. A twelve month study of PM2.5 and PM10 fine particle aerosol composition in the Sydney region using ion beam analysis techniques. Appendix 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam (IBA) analysis techniques of PIXE, PIGME, PESA, and RBS have been used to characterise fine particles at selected sites in the Sydney region. The four techniques operating simultaneously provide elemental concentrations on 24 chemical species, including H, Q N, 0, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, Br and Pb. The total mass and the elemental carbon by laser integrated plate techniques were also measured. A stacked filter system, built by the University of Gent, Belgium and supplied by the IAEA was used to provide fine particle data on PM2.5 and PM10 particles. While a cyclone sampler, built at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, was used to provide data on PM2.5 particles only. The two different types of units were operated along side each other for the whole of 1994 and the results compared. The use of the multi-elemental IBA techniques also allowed for some fine particle source fingerprinting to be performed. (author)

  2. Commissioning of the Open Pool Australian Lightwater (OPAL) research reactor - A health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2006 and 2007 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) commissioned OPAL, a 20 MW open pool Research Reactor. This commissioning involved three stages; Stage A, testing the reactors systems prior to fuel loading, Stage B, first loading of fuel, achieving first criticality, reactor characterisation and systems testing up to 400kW, and Stage C, raising the power of the reactor in steps, up to its full operating power of 20MW. Prior to and following fuel loading a series of radiation measurements were made throughout the plant. These included dose rates, radioactivity in air, on surfaces and in cooling and shielding liquids. Installed continuous monitoring and portable equipment were used. Health physics measurements were repeated at increasing reactor power levels to check engineering design features and design of plant for radiation protection aspects. A Radiation Protection Plan and associated monitoring programs were implemented, including establishing and maintaining area, task and personnel monitoring regimes in the facility. Health Physics assessments and advice at each stage, played a major role in this commissioning process. This paper discusses the health physics experience of commissioning the OPAL Research Reactor and describes health physics results, actions taken and lessons learned during commissioning. (author)

  3. The residual-stress diffractometer for the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Many residual stress-related problems exist in a wide variety of fields in industry, such as the manufacturing industries, mining, oil and gas, rail transport, defense and life extension. Stress scanning at the new Replacement Research Reactor will provide a tool for solving problems to complement facilities at the major research institutes in Australia, CSIRO, AMIRA, DSTO, ANSTO and the universities. Typically, the spacing of the crystal lattice provides a natural gauge of the state of strain, and hence stress, locked within an engineering component. For this reason, diffraction measurements have been performed for at least seventy years to measure residual strains. These complement mechanical, but destructive, methods of measuring strains and have comparable accuracy. Stress plays an acknowledged role in welding technologies. Stresses are the precursor to the distortions occurring upon welding. As well, tensile stresses can concentrate hydrogen near a weld and provides the driving force for crack growth. The extent of the stress-field in a weld matches the spatial resolution easily available with strain scanning and provides information over the whole weld, near the surface as well as at depth. Strain scanning provides a diagnostic tool to optimize post-weld heat treatment to bring the stresses to acceptable levels since the same sample can be repeatedly tested. At present all efforts are taken in order to optimize the residual-stress diffractometer which will belong to the first generation of instruments for the Replacement Research Reactor and the results will be presented

  4. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca+2 cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca+2 cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma

  5. Erinnerung und Geschichte – Ein früher Bericht aus dem Frauen-KZ Moringen 1936/37 Memory and History—An Early Report from the Women’s Concentration Camp in Moringen 1936/37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Schikorra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Der Erinnerungsbericht von Gabriele Herz ist einerseits bedeutsam wegen der Beschreibung individuelle Erfahrungen und der Einnahme einer persönlichen Perspektive. Andererseits stellt er ein bedeutendes Dokument für die Geschichtsschreibung zu frühen Konzentrationslagern dar, und hier insbesondere zu den Verfolgungserfahrungen jüdischer Frauen im Deutschland der 30er Jahre. In der äußerst aufschlussreichen Einleitung der Historikerin Jane Caplan, die den Anstoß für die Herausgabe dieses einzigartigen Dokuments gab, wird die Komplexität des Erinnerungszeugnisses von Gabriele Herz aufgezeigt und gewürdigt.Gabriele Herz’s memoir is important on the one hand because of its description of individual experience through its use of the personal perspective. On the other hand, it also presents an important document for historiography on early concentration camps and in particular on the experience of the persecution of Jewish women in 1930s Germany. The extremely enlightening introduction by the historian Jane Caplan, who also provided the impetus for the publication of this extraordinary testimonial, sketches and honors the complexities of Gabriele Herz’s memoir.

  6. Residual stresses in high strengths steel tubes for large scale infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a green star rating system was introduced in Australia to promote sustainability in the construction industry (Green Building Council of Australia, 2009). Steel and concrete are the two most widely used construction materials. Sustainability in civil engineering construction can be achieved by using high strength steels as well as high strength concrete. High strength quenched and tempered (QT) and Very High Strength Steels (VHS) and high strength concrete with reduced amounts of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) can be adopted. This project will therefore consider the behaviour of concrete filled steel columns using higher strength steels with higher strength concrete incorporating low percentages of OPQ. The characterisation of residual stresses in high strength steel is important in understanding the buckling strength of concrete filled columns. Previous research on local and post-local buckling has been addressed for mild structural steel by Uy (2000) and Uy (2001) and these approaches will be augmented by using high strength steel and high strength concrete. In this paper preliminary measurements of residual stresses on the Kowari strain scanner at ANSTO, within the high strength steel joints will be discussed and future research plans will be presented.

  7. The production of multicomponent powders by sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of sol-gel processes, based on alkoxide hydrolysis, has been developed for the preparation of multicomponent, ceramic precursor powders. The basic approach for preparing such powders, where co-precipitation, co-hydrolysis or sol-gel preparation involving all components is difficult, or impossible, involves : * preparation of an initial homogeneous hydrolysate containing as many components as possible; * sorption of any additional components, as soluble species or as sols, onto the surface of the hydrolysate. An example of this approach is provided by the preparation of a multicomponent titanate ceramic, Synroc, which has been produced on a 100 kg scale by such methods. The problems associated with using an all-alkoxide system or the hydrolysate/sorption technique are compared. The basic aspects of the Synroc process chemistry which have a general applicability to the processing of sol-gel powders with controlled properties from alkoxides are reviewed, including the formation of alkoxide complexes in ethanol, their hydrolysis in basic media and the subsequent sorption of alkaline earth cations. The properties of the multicomponent powders and gels were controlled by the processing parameters employed, including the sequence used to mix the reactants, their concentration, the pH of the medium and the drying methods used. This hydrolysate/sorption technique has been used at ANSTO to produce powders and hydrolysates with such varied compositions as SYNROC, titanate-based dielectrics, lead zirconate titanate, lead lanthanum zirconate titanate, mullite, zirconia-based ceramics, etc. (authors)

  8. Investigation of elemental changes in brain tissues following excitotoxic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Rainer, E-mail: rns@ansto.gov.au [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Howell, Nicholas R.; Callaghan, Paul D. [Life Sciences, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Pastuovic, Zeljko [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    Recently the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe has been used for elemental mapping of thin brain tissue sections. The fact that a very small portion of the proton energy is used for X-ray excitation combined with small variations of the major element concentrations makes μ-PIXE imaging and GeoPIXE analysis a challenging task. Excitotoxic brain injury underlies the pathology of stroke and various neurodegenerative disorders. Large fluxes in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations are a key feature of the initiation of this pathophysiological process. In order to understand if these modifications are associated with changes in the elemental composition, several brain sections have been mapped with μ-PIXE. Increases in Ca{sup +2} cytosolic concentrations were indicative of the pathophysiological process continuing 1 week after an initiating neural insult. We were able to measure significant variations in K and Ca concentration distribution across investigated brain tissue. These variations correlate very well with physiological changes visible in the brain tissue. Moreover, the obtained μ-PIXE results clearly demonstrate that the elemental composition changes significantly correlate with brain drauma.

  9. Concentration-dependent binding of CO2 and CD4 in UiO-66(Zr): A combination of neutron powder diffraction and first-principle DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last twenty years, tremendous progress has been achieved in the field of Metal Organic Frameworks. Among these materials, the zirconium terephthalate UiO-66(Zr) [1] has attracted a growing attention because of its interesting thermal, chemical and water stability and has shown to be a promising material for the separation of CO2/CH4 gas mixtures. In order to get a better understanding of its sorption behavior towards these gases, a Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD) investigation of UiO-66 loaded with sequential doses of CO2 and CD4 has been carried out on the High Resolution Powder Diffractometer instrument “Echidna” at the OPAL reactor (ANSTO, Sydney). In total, three adsorption sites for CO2 and three adsorption sites for CD4 within the UiO-66(Zr) have been located by NPD then characterized by a combination of first-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, binding energies and Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM) theory. An example of the first CO2 adsorption site is given in figure 1.

  10. Magnetic structure of melilite-related centrosymmetric K2CoP2O7: neutron diffraction and DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great number of X2(ZT2)O7 compositions with large X=Ln, Ca-Ba, Na, K and small Z and T=Be,Al,Si,Ga,Ge,P,V adopt the melilite crystal structure type. The structure is built of tetrahedral layers of five-member rings and X is located in the interlayer space. Typically, the materials crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric P-421m space group. The compositions with magnetic ions (e.g. Z=Mn2+,Fe2+,Co2+,Cu2+) are very interesting systems from the magnetic structure point of view due to the 2D character of the structure and lack of inversion center. Depending on chemistry and geometry of a particular composition, a variety of magnetic structures were reported, from simple 3D antiferromagnets to 2D spirals and multiferroics. During our investigations of melilite-type materials a K2CoP2O7 composition was prepared and its magnetic property and structure characterized. The material is built of melilite-type tetrahedral layers but crystallizes in centro-symmetric P4/mnm space group. The magnetic structure has been determined using neutron powder diffraction on the Echidna diffractometer (ANSTO) and further explored with DFT. The results will be presented and discussed in the context of the broad melilite structural family.

  11. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis of optoelectronic and semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Johnston, P.; Walker, S. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Whitlow, H.; Hult, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Oestling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil spectrometry (HIERDA) has been applied to analyse multi-phase, thin layer devices used in optoelectronics, semiconductors and solar power generation. HIERDA gives simultaneously, mass resolved elemental concentration vs depth profiles of the matrix constituents, and is particularly suited to the determination of light elements in a heavy matrix. The beam/target interaction process is similar to RBS, but has the difference that the recoiling target atoms are detected instead of the scattered projectile. High energy, heavy ions beams bombard the sample, ejecting recoil atoms which are detected at a forward angle of 45 deg. A time-of-flight and total energy detection system enables the ejected particle`s mass to be identified, and allows energy spectra to be obtained and interpreted in an analogous way to RBS, but with the important difference that the elemental spectra are separated, and not superimposed on a background as in RBS. Some of the measurements made with a HIERDA system on the ANTARES Tandem Accelerator at ANSTO are described. 1 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related analytical techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A co-ordinated research programme (CRP) on applied research on air pollution using nuclear-related techniques is a global CRP which started in 1992, and is scheduled to run until early 1997. The purpose of this CRP is to promote the use of nuclear analytical techniques in air pollution studies, e.g. NAA, XRF, and PIXE for the analysis of toxic and other trace elements in air particulate matter. The main purposes of the core programme are i) to support the use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution, ii) to identify major sources of air pollution affecting each of the participating countries with particular reference to toxic heavy metals, and iii) to obtain comparative data on pollution levels in areas of high pollution (e.g. a city centre or a populated area downwind of a large pollution source) and low pollution (e.g. rural area). This document reports the discussions held during the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) for the CRP which took place at ANSTO in Menai, Australia. (author)

  13. SIMS applications in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: SIMS has been utilised as a tool for biological research since the early 1970's. SIMS' abilities in isotopic detection with high sensitivity, imaging capabilities at a subcellular level, and the possibility of molecular imaging have been the main areas of interest for biological development. However, whilst hundreds of instruments are available in industrial and university laboratories for semiconductor and materials analysis, only a handful successfully perform biological research. For this reason there is generally a lack of awareness of SIMS by the biological community. Biological SIMS analysis requires a working knowledge of both biology and SIMS. Sample preparation is a critical and time consuming prerequisite for any successful biological SIMS study. In addition, for quantification to be possible a homogeneous, matrix matched standard must be available. Once these difficulties are more widely understood and overcome there will be a greater motivation for the biological community to embrace SIMS as a unique tool in their research. This paper provides an overview of some of the more successful biological SIMS application areas internationally, and summarises the types of biological SIMS requests received by ANSTO

  14. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  15. Modification of surfaces following plasma implantation of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface and sub-surface regions of silicon and a range of titanium- and vanadium-based metals have been modified by implantation of helium at energies of 20-50 keV, using the Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PI3) facility at ANSTO. In the case of silicon, the resulting structure has been altered further, either by thermal annealing, or by thermal annealing following the application of a thin, sputtered, film of gold onto the surface. For the metals, the implanted structure has been oxidised in several ways; thermally, anodically, and by plasma implantation. Surfaces modified in these ways might be expected to have unique chemical and physical properties. They have been investigated by a range of techniques including electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and nuclear reaction analysis. The structure and phases of oxides developed on plasma-implanted metals are compared with those on unimplanted, but otherwise identically treated, metals. Corresponding results for helium-ion implantation at higher energies are also presented. It is shown that implantation can affect the blend of oxide phases at the surface and the degree of oxidation

  16. Plutonium and uranium contamination in soils from former nuclear weapon test sites in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British government performed a number of nuclear weapon tests on Australian territory from 1952 through to 1963 with the cooperation of Australian government. Nine fission bombs were detonated in South Australia at Emu Junction and Maralinga, and a further three fission weapons were detonated in the Monte Bello Islands off the coast of Western Australia. A number of soil samples were collected by Australian Radiation Laboratories in 1972 and 1978 during field surveys at these nuclear weapon test sites. They were analysed by gamma spectrometry and, for a select few samples, by alpha spectrometry to measure the remaining activities of fission products, activation products and weapon materials. We have remeasured a number of these Montebello Islands and Emu Junction soil samples using the ANTARES AMS facility, ANSTO. These samples were analysed for plutonium and uranium isotopic ratios and isotopic concentrations. Very low 240Pu/239Pu ratios were measured at both sites (∼0.05 for Alpha Island and ∼0.02 for Emu Field), substantially below global fallout averages. Well correlated but widely varying 236U and plutonium concentrations were measured across both sites, but 233U did not correlate with these other isotopes and instead showed correlation with distance from ground zero, indicating in situ production in the soils.

  17. Human activity and climate variability project: annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the state of the Australian environment, including natural climate variability, prior to colonial settlement is vital if we are to define and understand the impact of over two hundred years of post-industrial human activity on our landscape. ANSTO, in conjunction with university partners, is leading a major research effort to provide natural archives of human activity and climate variability over the last 500 years in Australia, utilising a variety of techniques, including lead-210 and radiocarbon dating and analyses of proxy indicators (such as microfossils) as well as direct evidence (such as trace elements) of human activity and climate variability. The other major project objectives were to contribute to the understanding of the impact of human induced and natural aerosols in the East Asian region on climate through analysis and sourcing of fine particles and characterisation of air samples using radon concentrations and to contribute to the improvement of land surface parameterisation schemes and investigate the potential to use stable isotopes to improve global climate models and thus improve our understanding of future climate

  18. A neutron powder diffraction study of the Fe and Ni distribution in synthetic pentlandite using 60Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cation ordering in the important iron nickel sulfide mineral, pentlandite was studied by neutron powder diffraction using samples prepared with isotopically enriched 60Ni. Natural pentlandite undergoes an irreversible thermal expansion upon heating to 2500C and this is thought to be associated with the break down of Fe and Ni over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites1. Preliminary experiments attempted to make synthetic pentlandite of composition Fe4.8Ni4.28 exsolved in a matrix of pyrrhotite FeS8, order by annealing at 1500C for 3 months but were unsuccessful. The final cell repeat of 10.1296(1) A (space group Fm3m) was some 0.8% larger than the expected volume for a fully ordered state[21. Subsequently, the sample was annealed for a further 33 months at 1050C and high resolution powder neutron diffraction data was collected on the Echidna diffractometer at ANSTO. Refinement of the pattern showed that the 60Ni and Fe are randomly distributed over both site, but the cell parameter 10.1229(1) had decreased slightly. However the pyrrhotite, Fe7S8 has fully magnetically ordered in a monoclinic rather than hexagonal structure.

  19. The interpretation of archaeological dates from an AMS perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XVII century saw the establishment of the scientific method and scholars such as Galileo were giving excellent contributions to a variety of fields ranging from the natural sciences to the humanities. At the dawn of the new millenium, after a period of excessive specialization, the scientific climate is once again encouraging broad collaborations across different disciplines. For projects involving AMS measurements in general and radiocarbon dating in particular, the benefits of this new trend are numerous. For example, the full potential of the radiocarbon dating method can be exploited only through the mutual understanding of the problems related to sample selection, chemical preparation, AMS measurement, data analysis and interpretation. This paper is intended to enhance the exchange of information by reporting to our current and potential collaborators about the latest technical developments undertaken at the ANTARES AMS facility at ANSTO. Furthermore, we will present two splendid examples of collaborative research: the radiocarbon dating of a replica of a famous chesspiece and the archaeological investigations at the ancient settlement of Sos Hoyuk (north-eastern Anatolia, Turkey) where the multidisciplinary approach was the key to a better understanding of the social structure, settlement patterns, land use and cultural contact, especially with the lands of Trans-Caucasus. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs

  20. Commissioning of the Open Pool Australian Light water (OPAL) research reactor: a health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2006 and 2007 the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) commissioned OPAL, a 20 MW open pool Research Reactor. This commissioning involved three stages: Stage A: testing the reactors systems prior to fuel loading; Stage B: first loading of fuel, achieving first criticality, reactor characterisation and systems testing up to 400 kw; and Stage C: raising the power of the reactor in steps, up to its full operating power of 20 MW. Prior to and following fuel loading a series of radiation measurements were made throughout the plant. These included dose rates, radioactivity in air, on surfaces and in cooling and shielding liquids. Installed continuous monitoring and portable equipment were used. Health physics measurements were repeated at increasing reactor power levels to check engineering design features and design of plant for radiation protection aspects. A Radiation Protection Plan and associated monitoring programs were implemented, including establishing and maintaining area, task and personnel monitoring regimes in the facility. Health Physics assessments and advice at each stage, played a major role in this commissioning process. This paper discusses the health physics experience of commissioning the OPAL Research Reactor and describes health physics results, actions taken and lessons learned during commissioning. (author)

  1. Reactor Simulator Development Facility for Operating Personnel Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor simulator development facility (FARSim) for operator training is presented. This facility is a software product that can be divided into four main modules: the model manager (MM), the simulator human machine interface (SHMI), the instructor station (IS) and the simulation manager (SM). It is designed as a distributed system where each module takes charge of a specific simulator task that could run in the same computer or distributed in a computer network. The main module is the SM which is responsible for routing the messages between the other modules and managing the simulation. The MM interfaces to the plant mathematical model (PMM). The IS is the process where the instructor commands the simulation, performing tasks such as start, pause and stop the simulation. The SHMI is the interface with the simulator SCADA (which can be identical to the plant SCADA) and is used by the trainee to observe the simulated plant output and to act upon it. The PMM is built using Matlab-Simulink simulation engine and graphical design user interface, for which specific libraries have been developed with a comprehensive set of nuclear and thermohydraulic plant components. This simulator development facility is being used to develop the ANSTO replacement research reactor full-scope and partial replica reactor training simulator (RTS). (author)

  2. Kino filmų titrai kaip kalbų mokymosi priemonė. Untertitel als Mittel zum Fremdsprachenerwerb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Baravykaitė

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Das in den letzten Jahren spürbare Bestreben der litauischen Gesetzgeber, Untertitelung von Fernsehfilmen zwecks Fremdsprachenerwerb gesetzlich anzuordnen, löste eine Auseinandersetzung in der Öffentlichkeit aus, die sich in der Presse sowie im Internet widerspiegelt und als Anstoß zum vorliegenden Beitrag dient. Diese Arbeit stellt den Versuch dar, die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Untertitelung als eines Mittels zum Fremdsprachenerwerb zu untersuchen. Auf Grund der fehlenden wissenschaftlichen Forschungen in diesem Bereich sollen dabei empirische Betrachtungen und die vergleichende Textanalyse von Original und Übersetzung als Hilfe dienen. Auch wenn die Relevanz der Untertitelung für den Fremdsprachenerwerb nicht bestreitbar ist, ist sie aber zugleich nicht zu überschätzen: Durch die lediglich für diese Form der audiovisuellen Übersetzung charakteristischen Merkmale (kurze Einblendezeit, kondensierte Sprache und begrenzte Übertragungsmöglichkeiten von Realia-Begriffen, Phraseologismen, Intertextualismen, dem Wortspiel etc. bleiben dem Zuschauer oft sprachliche Stilmittel vorenthalten und der in allen Übersetzungsbereichen vorkommende unausweichliche Sinn- und Wirkungsverlust des Originals wird erheblich verstärkt. Anbetracht der erwähnten Aspekte und der häufigen fehlerhaften Übersetzungen sollen Untertitel nur als Hilfsmittel beim Fremdsprachenerwerb angewendet werden, wobei herkömmliche Lehr- und Lernstrategien von Fremdsprachen in den Vordergrund treten müssen.

  3. Evaluation of relative comparator and k0-NAA for characterization of Aboriginal Australian ochre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochre is a significant material in Aboriginal Australian cultural expression from ceremonial uses to its application on many types of artifacts. However, ochre is a complex material, with associated surrounding minerals potentially challenging the overall analysis. In recent literature several studies have attempted to characterize ochre by a variety of techniques to understand procurement and trade. However, ochre is difficult to differentiate on major elemental or mineralogical composition and requires a detailed analysis of its geochemical 'fingerprint'. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) provides the high sensitivity (sub-ppm), precision and accuracy in multi-elemental analysis required for ochre. The elements of interest for ochre generally include rare earth elements (REEs) and certain transition metal elements as well as arsenic and antimony. Data from relative comparator NAA (MURR, University of Missouri, USA) is compared with data from k0-NAA OPAL (ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia). A discussion of the two methods will be examined for their utility in 'fingerprinting' the provenance of ochre. The continuing importance of NAA to archaeometry will also be discussed. (author)

  4. Final guidelines for an Environmental Impact Statement on the proposed construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines are based on the requirements of paragraphs 4.1 and 4.3 of the Administrative Procedures under the Commonwealth Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 (EPIP Act).The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has been designated as proponent under the EPIP Act in relation to the proposed replacement nuclear research reactor at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (LHSTC). The term `environment` refers to all aspects of the surroundings of human beings, whether affecting human beings as individuals or in social groupings. It includes the natural environment, the built environment, and social aspects of our surroundings. The definition covers such factors as air, water, soils, flora,fauna, buildings, roads, employment, hazards and risks, and safety. As set out in the guidelines, the scope of this assessment shall encompass those issues and alternatives directly related to the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor at the LHSTC. The EIS will need to make clear the site selection criteria used, and the basis, in assessing Lucas Heights as being suitable for a new reactor. While the EIS will address all aspects of the construction and operation of a replacement nuclear research reactor, it will not address issues associated with the treatment of spent nuclear fuel rods from the existing High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR facility). The EIS will also address issues associated with the eventual decommissioning of the proposed replacement reactor, and eventual decommissioning of the existing HIFAR facility.

  5. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Mandić, Luka; Orlić, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.

    2014-10-01

    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivošević, Tatjana [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Mandić, Luka, E-mail: lukam@phy.uniri.hr [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Orlić, Ivica [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Radmile Matejčić 2, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM{sub 2.5} fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. The use of honey bees in environmental monitoring of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bees are excellent random samplers of relatively defined areas. A bee typically flies up to 1.5 km from the hive, covering an area of approximately 7 km2. Within this area the bee forages from many plants and collects water from various sources. Bee products, such as pollen and honey, therefore reflect the conditions of the immediate environment. In this study we were interested in the transfer of the anthropogenically produced isotope 137Cs from environmental sinks into the bee products. 137Cs originates principally from the atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Minute quantities could also originate from nuclear establishments (such as ANSTO in Australia) where it is used in scientific research. Once released into the environment 137Cs is known to bind tightly with the clay component and organic fractions in soil and its distribution largely reflects the physical transport of soil. In this work we compared the 137Cs levels from the Sydney region and other parts of NSW against Ireland (which were high as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident)

  8. Neutron diffraction and in situ gas-loading investigations of functional MOFs for energy-relevant gas separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense research is currently directed towards realising metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for industrially-applied gas separation and storage due to their unique structural properties, including: robustness; thermal and chemical stability; unprecedented internal surface area; and high void volume. A particular focus of current research is the development of MOFs for the separation of CO, from the other components of flue gas in fossil-fuelled power plants. The use of NPD to study gas adsorption in framework materials is a relatively new but growing field. Structural measurements, which show the arrangement of both the host and guest, allow derivation of the nature of the host-guest interaction, and the host's response to the guest. The capability to perform these measurements, with accurate gas dosing and temperature control, has recently been realised at ANSTO's Bragg Institute. Using these techniques, we have investigated the adsorption mechanisms of a number of gases in selected new and established MOFs that display impressive selectivity for specific gases. The location and orientation of industrially-relevant gases including D2, 02, CO2, and CD4, within their crystal structures provide insights into the modes of binding, which will help to tune the materials' performance and benefit the design and development process for the next generation of materials.

  9. Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO2 through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing 14C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented

  10. Neutron beam facilities at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is building a research reactor to replace the HIFAR reactor at Lucas Heights by the end of 2005. Like HIFAR, the Replacement Research Reactor will be multipurpose with capabilities for both neutron beam research and radioisotope production. It will be a pool-type reactor with thermal neutron flux (unperturbed) of 4 x 1014 n/cm2/sec and a liquid D2 cold neutron source. Cold and thermal neutron beams for neutron beam research will be provided at the reactor face and in a large neutron guide hall. Supermirror neutron guides will transport cold and thermal neutrons to the guide hall. The reactor and the associated infrastructure, with the exception of the neutron beam instruments, is to be built by INVAP S.E. under contract. The neutron beam instruments will be developed by ANSTO, in consultation with the Australian user community. This status report includes a review the planned scientific capabilities, a description of the facility and a summary of progress to date. (author)

  11. Rapid Software Development for Experiment Control at OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO is undertaking the parallel development of instrument control and graphical experiment interface software for seven neutron beam instruments at OPAL. Each instrument poses several challenges for a common system solution, including custom detector interfaces, a range of motion and beamline optics schema, and a spectrum of online data reduction requirements. To provide a superior system with the least development effort, the computing team have adopted proven, configurable, server-based control software (SICS)1., a highly Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment (GumTree)2. and industry-standard database management systems. The resulting graphical interfaces allow operation in a familiar experiment domain, with monitoring of data and parameters independent of control system specifics. GumTree presents the experimenter with a consistent interface for experiment management, instrument control and data reduction tasks. The facility instrument scientists can easily reconfigure instruments and add ancillaries. The user community can expect a reduced learning curve for performing each experiment. GumTree can be installed anywhere for pre-experiment familiarisation, postprocessing of acquired data sets, and integration with third party analysis tools. Instrument scientists are seeing faster software development iterations and have a solid basis to prepare for the next suite of instruments. 1. SICS from PSI (lns00.psi.ch). 2. GumTree (gumtree.sourceforge.net), new site: http://gumtree.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

  12. Biodeuterated microbial chitosan for characterisation by neutron scattering and development of new biocompatible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is one of the most abundant natural polysaccharides on earth and has found a wide range of applications in biomedical and environmental fields. The most common source of commercially available chitosan is produced through the deacetylation of chitin from crustacean (mostly shrimp) shells. However, chitosan (along with chitin) is also a major component of the cell walls of a range of fungi, which can be grown and processed under controlled conditions to influence the degree of deacetylation and molecular weight of the extracted chitosan. We have selected the single cell yeast Pichia pastoris, which can also be used for recombinant expression of biodeuterated proteins. P. pastoris was cultivated in a bioreactor using deuterated methanol (CD3OD,) as sole carbon source in the growth medium and heavy water (D20) as the solvent. NMR and mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the complete deuteration of the non-exchangeable protons in the extracted chitosan molecule. Further tuning of the level of deuteration may be achieved by changing the H/D content in the growth medium. Apart from limited reports of partially deuterated chitosan through functional groups or exchangeable protons using deuterated solvent, there are no examples of biosynthesised deuterated chitosan in the literature. This capability, developed at the National Deuteration Facility, ANSTO, provides a range of possibilities for characterising chitosan materials using isotope-sensitive techniques.

  13. Annual report of the Chief Executive Officer of Australian Radiation Protection And Nuclear Safety Agency, 2001-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period analysed ARPANSA contributed to the (then) Health and Aged Care portfolio's 'Outcome 1: Population Health and Safety'. The objective of this outcome was the promotion and protection of the health of all Australians and minimising the incidence of preventable mortality, illness, injury and disability. The main outcomes, as outlined in the reports are: regulation of Commonwealth activities involving radiation sources and nuclear facilities; progress towards the development of a National Directory for Radiation Protection; quality assurance programs in medical radiation and conduct evaluations of individual and population doses; health impact assessment of radiation exposure and methodologies for this assessment, recommendations and guidelines for limiting radiation exposure; progress towards third-party quality assurance certification for the personal radiation monitoring service, radionuclide analysis of gamma ray emitting nuclides, Ultraviolet Protection Factor; assessing radiopharmaceutical testing and the protection dosimeter calibration service; maintenance of a network for monitoring radionuclides in the atmosphere; safety standards and guidance in support of the work of the Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee. The major priorities for ARPANSA in the reporting year, included the assessment of an application to construct the replacement research reactor at ANSTO, implementation of a process for public consultation and participation in the licensing of nuclear facilities and the development of national standards and codes of practice, including a standard for radiofrequency radiation

  14. Developing ceramic based technology for the immobilisation of waste on the Sellafield site - 16049

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Nuclear Laboratory, in collaboration with the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, is developing hot isostatic press (HIP) based ceramic technology for the immobilisation of a diverse range of wastes arising from nuclear fuel processing activities on the Sellafield site. Wasteform compositions have been identified and validated for the immobilisation of these plutonium containing wastes and residues in glass-ceramic and ceramic forms. A full scale inactive facility has been constructed at NNL's Workington Laboratory to support the demonstration of the technology. Validation of the inactive wasteform development using plutonium has been carried out at ANSTO's Lucas Heights facility. A feasibility study has been conducted to evaluate the construction and operation of a plutonium active pilot facility which would demonstrate the immobilisation of actual residues in the NNL Central Lab. This could form the basis of a facility to treat the plutonium wastes and residues in their entirety. The technology is being explored for the immobilisation of additional wastes arising on the Sellafield site taking advantage of the investment already made in skills and facilities. (authors)

  15. Geometric Optimization of Hydraulic Rotation Device for Neutron Transmutation Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yongsoo; Kang, Hanok; Park, Kijung; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing a Hydraulic Rotation Device (HRD) for NTD facilities (NTDHRD) as a part of the Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) project. This concept has many advantages when compared to the motor driven method, which is currently used in the HANARO research reactor located at KAERI. The OPAL research reactor located at ANSTO has already applied this method. To achieve a constant rotation speed, which is substantial for uniform doping, with a minimal amount of fluid flow, certain geometric requirements should be satisfied. This paper describes the approach we used while determining the number of impulse jet nozzles used to rotate the NTDHRD at a set number of blades as well as the angle of the nozzles of the NTDHRD. The approach that our group has used to geometrically optimize the design of a NTDHRD was described. The adaptation of this approach allows one to predict the required amount of inlet fluid flow and to determine the number of nozzles based on the rule that it should avoid being a divisor of the number of blades, and provides a reference while determining the tile angle of the nozzles. A CFD analysis will be performed as a future study.

  16. Environmental radioactivity in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twining, John [Environmental Science Division, ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    2002-06-01

    Environmental research mainly carried out at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) related to nuclear activities in Australia such as uranium mining, transfer factor studies related to U- and Th-series radionuclides, dose assessment modelling, radiation monitoring, and nuclear waste repository, is outlined. Many aspects of radioecology, marine and freshwater geochemistry and radiochemical dating techniques; bioaccumulation including archival monitoring and kinetics, ground water studies, atmospheric issues including climate change and geomorphology are being studied with the help of a high neutron flux reactor, a cyclotron and a tandem accelerator as well as modern analytical equipment. Only a very small number of examples of radioactivity applications are presented: Microbiotic crusts covering up to 50% of the soil surface at Maralinga nuclear test site where more than 80% of the residual Am-241 was found to retain within the top 5 mm after 30 years. SIMS analysis of crocodile bones indicating that the only metal affected by U mining in Kakadu region was lead (Pb). In mineral sands such as zircon, U(VI) is more stable than U(IV) as evidenced by ion beam and SEM imaging and XANES analysis. Use of radioisotopes in atmospheric and climate studies, terrestrial studies particularly in dating techniques, and aquatic-continental and aquatic-ocean waters, and in biological studies such as biokinetics of copper metabolism in rainbow fishes living downstream of a mine are presented. (S. Ohno)

  17. Immobilisation of Higher Activity Wastes from Nuclear Reactor Production of 99Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin W. A. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of intermediate- and low-level liquid and solid wastes are produced from reactor production of 99Mo using UAl alloy or UO2 targets and in principle can be collectively or individually converted into waste forms. At ANSTO, we have legacy acidic uranyl-nitrate-rich intermediate level waste (ILW from the latter, and an alkaline liquid ILW, a U-rich filter cake, plus a shorter lived liquid stream that rapidly decays to low-level waste (LLW standards, from the former. The options considered consist of cementitious products, glasses, glass-ceramics, or ceramics produced by vitrification or hot isostatic pressing for intermediate-level wastes. This paper discusses the progress in waste form development and processing to treat ANSTO’s ILW streams arising from 99Mo. The various waste forms and the reason for the process option chosen will be reviewed. We also address the concerns over adapting our chosen process for use in a hot-cell environment.

  18. High resolution palaeoclimate records from Indonesia, Australia and Antarctica: The High Resolution Palaeoclimate Records Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment and Physics Divisions at ANSTO has initiated a project to integrate the research efforts of palaeoecologists and isotope specialists working in the Southeast Asian, Australasian and Antractic regions. Entitled the High Resolution Palaeoclimate Records Project, its major goals are as follows: To improve the chronological control of key long palaeoecological records on a north-south transect from Indonesia, through Australia to Antarctica using U/Th and AMS radiocarbon dating techniques; To provide additional isotope information for these records; To correlate Palaeoclimatic change from different areas with the study region and contribute to the understanding of climatic change over the past 350,000 a; To contribute to the prediction of short and long term climate change scenarios using the principle that the past is the key to the present. The project will be a major contributor to the International Geosphere Biosphere Program (IGBP), and especially to the sub-programme Past Global Changes (PAGES) Pole-Equator-Pole II (PEP II) transect

  19. Recent tree ring analyses at the ANTARES AMS centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 48 annual tree rings (24 pairs) from 1952 to 1975 AD have been carefully split, milled and pretreated to alpha-cellulose, the most reliable component of wood for dating. Due to the small amount of material available in each ring, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) rather than the conventional method (radiometry) has been used for the determination of the 14C content in tree rings. Pretreated material was combusted to CO2 and then converted to graphite for the 14C measurement in ANTARES, the tandem accelerator at ANSTO. Excellent matching between our measured 14C tree-ring data and atmospheric 14C records at the same latitude has been found. Our data can therefore be used for: extension of atmospheric 14C bomb-pulse curves in tropical regions and the Southern Hemisphere back to the early stage of the nuclear age in the 1950's, for which few direct atmospheric records are available. This is needed to gain a better understanding of global carbon cycle and air-sea interactions; determination of the growth rate of trees in tropical regions (Murphy et al., 1997); and dating of modern organic material in tropical regions and the Southern Hemisphere (in combination with 14C atmospheric data)

  20. Chemical deuteration in neutron scattering: Demand, supply and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular deuteration significantly increases the options in structure function investigations using Neutron Scatteringand diffraction techniques. There have been limited global initiatives in the field of molecular deuteration where the majority of these programs focus on biological deuteration of proteins and lipids, while more complex deuterated small molecules haven’t been widely available to the neutron community. This has limited the experiments that can be performed, and formed a bottle-neck for advancing the applications of neutron scattering. In this paper we will discuss the recent advancements and the impact of deuteration on the research outcomes achieved by using deuterated molecules produced by the chemical deuteration laboratories at the National Deuteration Facility in the Bragg Institute, ANSTO. Recent high-impact case studies will be presented which reveal the exciting and diverse characterisation studies which are now available for the neutron community. We describe here the synthesis and application of deuterated organic molecules used to investigate complex nanoscale systems in the fields of molecular electronics, structural biology, and biotechnology. The chemical deuteration of surfactants, sugars, heterocyclic and aromatic compounds has made possible a wide range of investigations. This includes the study of (i) the localisation of sugars in lipid membranes using neutron diffraction to give insights into cryoprotective mechanisms, (ii) the pH-responsiveness of the assembly of lipid digestion products in biologically relevant systems, and (iii) the structure and host-guest properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using neutron diffraction.

  1. The use of honey bees in environmental monitoring of 137Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bees are excellent random samplers of relatively defined areas. A bee typically flies up to 1.5 km from the hive, covering an area of approximately 7 km2. Within this area the bee forages from many plants and collects water from various sources. Bee products, such as pollen and honey, therefore reflect the conditions of the immediate environment. In this study we were interested in the transfer of the anthropogenically produced isotope 137Cs from environmental sinks into the bee products. 137Cs originates principally from the atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Minute quantities could also originate from nuclear establishments (such as ANSTO in Australia) where it is used in scientific research. Once released into the environment 137Cs is known to bind tightly with the clay component and organic fractions in soil and its distribution largely reflects the physical transport of soil. In this work we compared the 137Cs levels from the Sydney region and other parts of NSW against Ireland (which were high as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident). (author). 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolanthanides such as Holmium-166 (T1/2 26.8h), Samarium-153 (T1/2 46.3h) and Lutetium-177 (T1/2 6.7 days) all have beta emissions suitable for radiopharmaceutical therapy, bone marrow ablation and for pain palliation of skeletal metastases. They also emit gamma photons of energies which permit quantitative imaging on conventional gamma cameras which facilitates calculation of dosimetry in individual patients. The range of half-lives has the potential to match the irradiation of tumour cells to the residence time of the radiopharmaceutical thus minimising radiotoxicity to normal tissues. Relative ease and low cost of production of these radiolanthanides in rectors such as HIFAR at ANSTO render radiolanthanides a practical option for radiopharmaceutical treatment of cancer for patients in whom conventional therapy has failed. Radioimmunotherapy of cancer using various monoclonal antibodies targeted to specific tumor-cell antigens has been performed with Samarium-153, Holmium-166 and Lutetium-177-labelled antibodies in human tumor xenographs in nude mice and in clinical trials. The development of a large animal model of human cancer will be described, in particular in relation to improving the accuracy of prediction of dosimetry and preclinical evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of radiolanthanides in therapeutic nuclear oncology

  3. Improvement of buried radioactive source situation at a hospital in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the successful outcome and completion of improvement works at the buried radioactive source site at a hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by the ANSTO Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project. We describe the background of the situation and the efforts made since 2005 by the RSRS Project in collaboration with international partners, the New Zealand National Radiation Laboratory (NRL), as part of the New Zealand contribution to the Global Initiative to Combat Global Terrorism (GICNT), and the United States National Nuclear Security Administration represented by the Pacific North West National Laboratory (PNNL) who provided security upgrades as part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GIRD. We describe the objectives related to characterising the buried source and improving the site's safety, security and area amenity. The potential options available to meet these objectives, justification for the strategy chosen, and the preparation and conduct of the works involved are discussed. Shielding calculations, dose rate criteria, and occupational health and safety considerations from a radiation protection and construction perspective are presented.

  4. Nuclear regulation in Australia - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's current nuclear regulatory arrangements reflect two major factors: that we are a federation, with a constitutional division of powers between the Commonwealth and the States, and that we have no nuclear industry, other than uranium mining. Australia's only nuclear facilities are operated by a Commonwealth instrumentality, ANSTO. Current Commonwealth regulatory arrangements are a response to international treaty commitments -principally the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) -and to the commencement of commercial uranium mining and export in the late 1970's. Although at present no nuclear industry activities, other than mining, are in prospect, this might not always be the case, and with the establishment of ARPANSA (the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) it is timely to give some thought to regulatory arrangements which might be appropriate to Australia's future circumstances. This paper will discuss the regulation activities relating to the nuclear fuel cycle , i e activities involved with the production and use of nuclear materials (uranium, thorium and plutonium) for the generation of energy through nuclear fission

  5. Radiocarbon in tropical tree rings during the Little Ice Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross-dated tree-ring cores (Pinus maker's) from north-central Thailand, spanning AD 1620-1780, were used to investigate atmospheric 14C for the tropics during the latter part of the Little Ice Age. In addition, a cross-dated section of Huon pine from western Tasmania, covering the same period of time, was investigated. A total of 16 pairs of decadal samples were extracted to alpha-cellulose for AMS 14C analysis using the ANTARES facility at ANSTO. The 14C results from Thailand follow the trend of the southern hemisphere, rather than that of the northern hemisphere. This is a surprising result, and we infer that atmospheric 14C for north-central Thailand, at 17 deg. N, was strongly influenced by the entrainment of southern hemisphere air parcels during the southwest Asian monsoon, when the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone moves to the north of our sampling site. Such atmospheric transport and mixing are therefore considered to be one of the principal mechanisms for regional 14C offsets

  6. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community

  7. Effect of crystal shape on neutron rocking curves of perfect single crystals designed for ultra-small-angle scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to 'see' the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.

  8. Processing of lateritic ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly weathered or lateritic ores that contain high proportions of fine clay minerals present specific problems when they are processed to extract uranium. Of perhaps the greatest significance is the potential of the fine minerals to adsorb dissolved uranium (preg-robbing) from leach liquors produced by processing laterites or blends of laterite and primary ores. These losses can amount to 25% of the readily soluble uranium. The clay components can also restrict practical slurry densities to relatively low values in order to avoid rheology problems in pumping and agitation. The fine fractions also contribute to relatively poor solid-liquid separation characteristics in settling and/or filtration. Studies at ANSTO have characterised the minerals believed to be responsible for these problems and quantified the effects of the fines in these types of ores. Processing strategies were also examined, including roasting, resin-in-leach and separate leaching of the laterite fines to overcome potential problems. The incorporation of the preferred treatment option into an existing mill circuit is discussed. (author)

  9. Radiocarbon determinations for Chillagoe rock paintings: small sample AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States). Department of Chemistry; David, B. [Queensland Univ St. Lucia, QLD (Australia); Tuniz, C.; Lawson, E.; Jacobsen, G.; Hua, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Indirect dating methods have been applied to the rock paintings of Chillagoe, north Queensland, revealing patterns of superimposition, depictions of items of known antiquity, the use of fragile paints such as mud, and in-situ pigment stratigraphies (David 1994). These patterns suggest that the Chillagoe rock paintings are relatively young, likely less than 3000 years old. A change in the geographical distribution of rock painting styles suggests a regionalization of the styles starting around 3000 years BP. Such regionalization implies that major cultural changes accompanied the changes in rock painting styles. This model of temporal change is now being investigated through a collaboration between the University of Queensland, ANSTO and the Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University to directly analyze radiocarbon in the charcoal pigments in several of the Chillagoe rock paintings. Samples collected from fourteen separate charcoal rock drawings at five rock shelters in the Chillagoe region were submitted to plasma chemical treatment. Though unreactive, the excited and energetic argon atoms in the plasma remove surface-absorbed CO{sub 2} through inelastic collisions. Samples yielding less than 100 micrograms carbon required special handling for AMS analysis. An isotope dilution technique utilizing {sup 14}C-free carbon was chosen. Radiocarbon analysis were also performed and the results will be presented. Paper No. 25; 2 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Neutronic design and characteristics of the RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the general neutronic characteristics of the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The description covers different aspect of the neutronic design: fuel assemblies (FA) characteristics, irradiation facilities, requirements, operational requirements, etc. An important neutronic characteristic of the RRR design is that it handles two types of FA, the well-known and qualified U3Si2 fuel type and the under qualification process U-Mo FA type. Several irradiation facilities are located around the reactor core. Three types of neutron sources: a cold neutron source with two tangential beams and several neutron guides, a thermal neutron beam with two beams and several neutron guides, and a room reserved for a future hot neutron source with a beam. The core has also 17 vertical irradiation tubes with 5 targets each for bulk radioisotope production (for example: Ir, Mo and I), 19 pneumatic rigs with 58 target positions for different purposes: radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis (NAA). Finally it has 6 neutron transmutation doping (NTD) facilities. A general description and main characteristics of the present core design is also given. (author)

  11. Development of the RRR Cold Neutron Source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some general design issues on the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The description covers different aspects of the design: the requirements that lead to an innovative design, the overall design itself and the definition of a technical approach in order to develop the necessary design solutions. The RRR-CNS has liquid Deuterium (LD2) moderator, sub-cooled to ensure maximum moderation efficiency, flowing within a closed natural circulation Thermosiphon loop. The Thermosiphon is surrounded by a CNS Vacuum Containment made of zirconium alloy, that provides thermal insulation and a multiple barriers scheme to prevent Deuterium from mixing with water or air. Consistent with international practice, this vessel is designed to withstand any hypothetical energy reaction should Deuterium and air mix in its interior. The applied design approach allows ensuring that the RRR-CNS, in spite of being innovative, will meet all the design, performance and quality requirements. (author)

  12. Development of the RRR cold neutron beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes some general design issues on the neutron beam facilities (cold neutron source and neutron beam transport system) of the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The description covers different aspect of the design: the requirements that lead to an innovative design, the overall design itself, the definition of a technical approach in order to develop the necessary design solutions, and finally the organizational framework by which international expertise from five different institutions is integrated. From the technical viewpoint, the RRR-CNS is a liquid Deuterium (LD2) moderator, sub-cooled to ensure maximum moderation efficiency, flowing within a closed natural circulation thermosyphon loop. The thermosyphon is surrounded by a zirconium alloy CNS vacuum containment that provides thermal insulation and a multiple barriers scheme to prevent Deuterium from mixing with water or air. Consistent with international practice, this vessel is designed to withstand any hypothetical energy reaction should Deuterium and air mix in its interior. The 'cold' neutrons are then taken by the NBTS and transported by the neutron guide system into the reactor beam hall and neutron guide hall, where neutron scattering instruments are located. From the management viewpoint, the adopted distributed scheme is successful to manage the complex interfacing between highly specialized technologies, allowing a smooth integration within the project. (author)

  13. First application of simultaneous SANS and differential scanning calorimetry: Microphase separated alkane blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For almost 30 years, it has been possible at synchrotron facilities to perform small-angle x-ray scattering experiments whilst simultaneously measuring phase transitions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). However, a range of challenges exist to enable the collection of simultaneous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and DSC data associated not only with intrinsic flux limitations but also scattering geometry and thermal control. The development of a DSC (temperature range ca. −150 C to 500 C) suitable for SANS is detailed here which, to our knowledge, is the first and only one of its kind. An example study is presented from the 40 m SANS instrument, QUOKKA, at the OPAL reactor at ANSTO (Figure 1), concerned with phase transitions in a binary blend of normal alkanes in which one component has been deuterium labelled[1]. The ability to conduct simultaneous DSC and neutron scattering studies allows investigators to use these two complementary techniques to provide insight into structural and thermal changes and opens up the opportunity for SANS to make significant new contributions to a range of systems in which either scattering contrast is insufficient for SAXS studies or where neutron scattering is essential or inherently desirable (e.g. isotope effects).

  14. Training and Development for the Security of Radioactive Sources - Promoting Effectiveness and Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2004, the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) Project of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) in partnership with the United States Global Threat Reduction Initiative (US GTRI) have cooperated with countries in South East Asia to develop and improve their requirements and measures for the physical protection and security management of radioactive sources (PP&SM). This includes conducting needs analyses and implementing action plans based on the identified and evaluated needs. One significant feature of this cooperation has been the development and regular delivery of national awareness seminars for senior government officials, decision makers, regulators and managers from high activity radioactive source facilities. Another feature is national training courses on PP&SM for Security Level A radioactive sources and their associated facilities for regulatory staff and operators, with subsequent training development workshops intended to transfer requisite skills and knowledge to responsible agencies and people. This leads to the enhancement of agencies’ capacity to sustainably and effectively deliver their own programs of source security training and exercises. This paper describes the methods employed, and highlights some of the activities and outcomes of this international radioactive source security cooperation with counterparts in Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines. (author)

  15. Report on the workshop on neutrons for engineering and its conclusions regarding the residual-stress diffractometer at the Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the workshop was to: inform the Australian research organizations and universities of the capabilities of an engineering and materials science instrument; promote the use of neutron diffraction to map and investigate strains/stresses in materials and components for industrial applications and research; identify the future needs and opportunities in this area; present the options for a stress mapping diffractometer at the Replacement Research Reactor and receive feedback on these options; identify the ancillary equipment and facilities required. Presented papers and discussions at the workshop indicated that there are a number of important benefits to Australia in the building of a first-class instrument for materials science and engineering and many residual stress-related problems in a wide variety of fields in Australia, such as the manufacturing industries, mining, oil and gas, rail transport, defense and life extension. Stress scanning provides another tool for solving problems to complement facilities at the major research institutes, CSIRO, AMIRA, DSTO, ANSTO and the universities. It will create a regional pool of experts who may tap into the pool of expertise internationally. The turn around time for tests for Australian customers will be reduced thus avoiding having to go overseas to have the tests performed. From an educational perspective the instrument will build expertise in Australia and will help to attract graduates into engineering. A detailed list of the attendees and affiliations is in Appendix C

  16. The national synchrotron ray of hope or ring of fire?

    CERN Document Server

    Hollis, T

    2002-01-01

    While most agree the synchrotron will be a boost for Australian science, the author reports on concerns about the cost of building and operating the project Biotech industry representatives want to know how that $100 million will be used and want to see the government's justification for pouring more than a third of its total technology budget for 2001/2 into the synchrotron. They, and the opposition, also want to know where the private money will come from to make up the balance or whether the state will ultimately have to pitch in the rest itself. Indeed, an Auditor-General's report released last week warned of the need for comprehensive financial risk management of the facility. The National Synchrotron, to be built at Monash University, will be a hollow ring of about 60 metres diameter and initially housing nine beamlines, each capable of performing independent experiments simultaneously. According to Dr Richard Garrett, director of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (http://www.ansto.gov.au/natf...

  17. Reactor training simulator for the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the ANSTO Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) Reactor Training Simulator (RTS) are presented.The RTS is a full-scope and partial replica simulator.Its scope includes a complete set of plant normal evolutions and malfunctions obtained from the plant design basis accidents list.All the systems necessary to implement the operating procedures associated to these transients are included.Within these systems both the variables connected to the plant SCADA and the local variables are modelled, leading to several thousands input-output variables in the plant mathematical model (PMM).The trainee interacts with the same plant SCADA, a Foxboro I/A Series system.Control room hardware is emulated through graphical displays with touch-screen.The main system models were tested against RELAP outputs.The RTS includes several modules: a model manager (MM) that encapsulates the plant mathematical model; a simulator human machine interface, where the trainee interacts with the plant SCADA; and an instructor console (IC), where the instructor commands the simulation.The PMM is built using Matlab-Simulink with specific libraries of components designed to facilitate the development of the nuclear, hydraulic, ventilation and electrical plant systems models

  18. A Risk Perspective for the Replacement Research Reactor in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 2000, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) signed a contract with the company INVAP S.E. of Argentina for the design, construction and commissioning of a replacement research reactor (RRR). INVAP contracted CEDIAC to prepare the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the RRR in support of the ANSTO application for the construction licence. The PSA is complementary to the safety analysis, in the sense that it asks questions such as ''What if the postulated initiating events were to occur and more than one piece of equipment were to fail? What if several things were to go wrong?''The PSA attempts to determine all the possible combinations of how the plant could respond to an initiating event, group all the possible outcomes, obtain conservative estimates of the frequency, and bounding estimates of the consequences (i.e. doses to the worst exposed individual of the public). The frequency and consequence constitute the risk, and when evaluated for all possible events, can be compared against the safety objectives set out in the regulatory principles. Besides the basic objective of the PSA, which is the quantitative evaluation of the risks associated with the RRR, and its comparison to the regulatory objectives, the PSA studies have been performed in parallel with the basic engineering phase of the project. Therefore, preliminary results from the 'risk point of view' were used as input to the design process, thus permitting improvements to be made to the design, and resulting in an effective reduction of the residual risk. To perform the PSA studies, several methodological developments were made in order to obtain a representative list of internal and external initiating events, to treat component and human related failures, to consider common-cause failures, and to consider some specific aspects of the design (i.e. fail safe components, passive systems, and lack of need for support systems). The PSA studies were performed to

  19. Neutrons put the brakes on stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don't you hate it when you're driving along, put your foot on the brake and feel that juddering feeling through the pedal? It happens when the disc brake rotors become distorted through normal use of the brakes. To the car manufacturing industry it's called runout, and is a multimillion dollar warranty problem each year. Not to mention a pain for drivers! Dr Maurice Ripley and Dr Oliver Kirstein from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) wanted to figure out whether runout is caused by residual stresses from the manufacturing process or by normal use of the brake, so they decided to test and compare a used and new brake disc. 'To picture what metal looks like at the atomic level, imagine spheres stacked evenly around each other in all three dimensions,' explained Kirstein. The spheres represent atoms in the metal and the structure is called a metallic lattice.' We're familiar with the idea that metal expands when it gets hot - the atoms get excited with the heat and have the energy to move further away from each other, so spaces between the atoms in the lattice get larger. 'When parts of the metal are heated up and cool down at different rates, you may end up with a distorted lattice with some parts expanded and others not,' explained Kirstein. 'This unevenness in the lattice creates residual stress.' While a bunch of methods were available to test the discs, Kirstein and Ripley picked neutrons from ANSTO's HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) as their tool of choice. 'Neutrons allow us to look at the inside of the metal without damaging it,' said Kirstein. 'They can penetrate through the iron, so we were able to take measurements at a series of points at different depths through the brake disc.' Word around the car industry is that when residual stresses are relaxed through heating of the brake disc during use, the discs could potentially distort, causing the runout and that juddering feeling. But everyone was clueless as to what

  20. Sterile insect technique applied to Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) aims to suppress or eradicate pest populations by flooding wild populations with sterile males. To control fruit fly million of flies of both sexes are mass reared at the Gosford Post-Harvest laboratory near Sydney, mixed with sawdust and fluorescent dye at the pupal stage and transported to Ansto where they are exposed to low dose of 70-75Gy of gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. Following irradiation the pupae are transported to the release site in plastic sleeves then transferred to large plastic garbage bins for hatching. These bins are held at 30 deg. C. to synchronise hatching and files are released 48-72 hours after hatching begins. In most cases these bins are placed among fruit trees in the form of an 800 metre grid. This maximises survival of the emerging flies which are released on an almost daily basis. Progress of the SIT program is monitored by collecting flies from traps dotted all over the infested site. The ratio of sterile to wild flies can be detected because the sterile files are coated with the fluorescent dust which can be seen under ultra-violet light. If the SIT program is successful entomologists will trap a high proportion of sterile flies to wild flies and this should result in a clear reduction in maggot infestations. Surveillance, quarantine, and trapping activities continue for 8 or 9 months to check for any surviving pockets of infestation. If any are found the SIT program is reactivated. These programs demonstrated that SIT was an efficient and environmental friendly non-chemical control method for eradicating outbreaks or suppressing fruit fly populations in important fruit growing areas. ills

  1. Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office, Annual Report 2001-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the year Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office (ASNO) continued our substantial contribution to the development and strengthening of international verification regimes concerned with weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Domestically, ASNO conducted, or contributed to, review of WMD- related legislation and administration, amending permits to enhance security arrangements, and beginning development of supporting legislative changes. Another major area of work is the replacement research reactor project, where ASNO has been closely involved through safeguards and security aspects. This year has been dominated by the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 on the United States, and ongoing consequences. These events, and the concern that terrorists would use WMD if they were able to acquire them, have served to emphasise the importance of effective counter-proliferation and counter-terrorism measures to complement the non-proliferation regimes. They have also focused attention on the need to deal with non- compliance with WMD treaty commitments. The key achivements reported for the year under review include: 1. All treaty and statutory requirements met in respect of: nuclear material and nuclear items in Australia, Australian uranium exports (Australian Obligated Nuclear Material), chemicals covered by the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention) and establishment of CTBT(Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) monitoring stations; 2. Effective contribution to strengthening non-proliferation verification regimes and counter terrorism initiatives: ongoing support for IAEA safeguards development, regional outreach on IAEA safeguards, CWC implementation and encouraging CTBT ratification, ANSTO security upgraded; security plan approved for construction of replacement research reactor, review, with other responsible authorities, of security of CWC related chemicals, and radiation sources

  2. LeukoScan, sulesomab - kit for the preparation of technetium-99m labelled leukoscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeukoScan, produce and commercialised by the Australian Radioisotope at ANSTO, is a radiodiagnostic agent consisting of a murine monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment, sulesomab, formulated to be labelled with technetium-99m. The active component, sulesomab, is a Fab' fragment generated from IMMU-MN3, a murine IgG1 monoclonal antibody produced in murine ascites IMMU-MN3 is purified from the ascitic fluid and is digested with pepsin to produce F(ab')2 fragments and subsequently reduced to produce the 50,000-dalton sulesomab. Each vial contains the non-radioactive materials necessary to prepare one patient dose LeukoScan is a sterile, lyophilized formulation, containing 0.31 mg of sulesomab per vial and includes 0.22 mg stannous chloride dihydrate, 3.2 mg potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate, 7.4 mg sodium acetate trihydrate, 5.5 mg sodium chloride, glacial acetic acid (trace), hydrochloric acid (trace), 37.8 mg sucrose, nitrogen (vacuum). The imaging agent, technetium-99m LeukoScan [technetium-99m sulesomab] is formed by reconstitution of the contents of the LeukoScan vial with 0.5 mL sodium chloride for injection USP followed by the addition of 1100 MBq of sodium pertechnetate [99mTc] in 1 mL of Sodium Chloride for Injection, USP. The resulting solution has a pH of 4.5-5.5 and is intended for intravenous use only. Following administration, the labelled antibody can be visualized by common nuclear medicine instrumentation. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  3. Radon-222 as a tracer of atmospheric transport phenomena on different spatial and temporal scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radon is the most frequently used naturally occurring radioactive tracer of atmospheric dynamics on local, regional, and hemispheric scales. The paper presents a short review of the most recent applications of this tracer relevant to the Pacific Basin. The first example relates to a five year experiment in which hourly measurements of atmospheric radon concentrations were made at three ground-based coastal stations in East Asia (Hok Tsui, Hong Kong Island, China; Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea; Sado, Sado Island, Japan). Results are contrasted with those from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, gathered during the same period. The experiment was part of the most recent Aerosol Characterisation Experiment in East Asia, and aimed to comprehensively characterise air masses associated with East Asian continental outflow events to the Pacific. Seasonal and inter-annual changes of the areas of strongest and weakest interaction with land have been delineated for each station using back trajectories corresponding to low and high hourly radon events. The ambient radon background at the four stations is also discussed. It shows strong seasonality due to the continental influence on outflow events to the Pacific. The second example focuses on a new capability developed at ANSTO for the quantitative characterisation of exchange and mixing processes in the lower atmosphere on different time scales based on the measurement of vertical radon gradients. The measurements rely on tower- and light aircraft-based platforms. First results obtained using the tower-based system (with inlets at 2m and 50m), which aimed to characterise the vertical mixing in the surface layer, are discussed, as well as a system based on an airborne radon sampler, which is capable of in-situ extraction of radon from up to 300 L of air at a given altitude with the resulting lower limit of detection of about 0.01 Bq m

  4. Zur Geschichte der Geowissenschaften im Museum für Naturkunde zu Berlin. Teil 3: Von A. G. Werner und R. J. Haüy zu C. S. Weiss – Der Weg von C. S. Weiss zum Direktor des Mineralogischen Museums der Berliner Universität

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hoppe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Berufung von C. S. Weiss an die Universität Berlin im Jahre 1810 gingen Entwicklungen voraus, die durch die Kristallographie des Franzosen R. J. Haüy, besonders durch dessen Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, ausgelöst wurden. Sie stehen mit der Übersetzung dieses Lehrbuchs im Zusammenhang und führten zur Qualifizierung von C. S. Weiss zum Mineralogen und Kristallographen sowie zur weiteren Entwicklung der Kristallographie innerhalb des Lehrgebäudes der Mineralogie. Den Anstoß gab der mit dem Berliner Mineralogen D. L. G. Karsten befreundete Geologe L. v. Buch, der die Kristallographie Haüys als Erster kennen lernte. Als dessen stark kristallographisch orientiertes Lehrbuch der Mineralogie erschien, entschloss sich Karsten, eine kommentierte Übersetzung desselben zu organisieren. Weiss, der hierfür gewonnen werden konnte, bildete sich zunächst an der Bergakademie Freiberg weiter aus, wobei er die Lehre des führenden Mineralogen A. G. Werner voll in sich aufnahm. Im Verlaufe der Mitarbeit an der Übersetzung gelangte Weiss gegenüber den atomistischen Vorstellungen Haüys zu Ansichten über die Gesetzmäßigkeiten des Kristallbaues. die sich auf Kants Naturphilosophie gründeten. Mit Haüy, den er in Paris näher kennen lernte, kam es deshalb zum Bruch. Seine "dynamische" Kristallographie baute Weiss mathematisch aus und vermochte bereits weit in die Gesetzmäßigkeiten des Kristallbaues einzudringen. Dadurch schuf er die Voraussetzungen für seine Berufung auf den für Karsten vorgesehenen Berliner Mineralogie-Lehrstuhl, der durch dessen frühen Tod frei wurde. doi:10.1002/mmng.20000030102x

  5. The contribution of AMS to geosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This presentation outlines some of the advances in AMS methods with emphasis on Australian examples and measurements using the accelerators at ANSTO and the Australian National University. Perhaps the best known of these techniques is the application of AMS 14C dating which has the advantage of needing much smaller amounts of sample (typically 14C determinations by β counting. AMS 14C has been applied to dating an enormous array of materials including archaeological samples and sites, tree rings, ice cores, banding in coals and circulation and ventilation changes in the world's oceans. An exciting application of the measurement of the rare long-lived isotopes 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl is in the relatively new field of cosmogenic exposure dating. Accumulation of these cosmogenically produced nuclides formed in-situ in exposed rock surfaces is used to estimate both the time of exposure of the rock surface and mean erosion rates. A large variety of landscape-related processes have been successfully addressed including weathering and sediment-transport rates and the ages of glacial retreat, tectonic uplift and lava eruptions. In the field of hydrology, 36Cl studies of dissolved chloride have been used to successfully estimate the ages of ground waters and trace their origins. The tracing of atmospheric air masses that deliver rain and the origin of Australian salt lakes and continental salinisation using 36Cl lead to important conclusions on the origin and residence time of chloride in the Australian landscape. The ultimate origin of the bulk of the surficial chloride in Australia is shown to be meteoric, and for the western part of the continent, a mean residence time of about 0.75 Ma pertains. The realisation of the long-term and continuing delivery of salts to the landscape needs recognition in planning strategies to combat salinisations of agricultural areas

  6. Flexible process options for the immobilisation of residues and wastes containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues and waste streams containing plutonium present unique technical, safety, regulatory, security, and socio-political challenges. In the UK these streams range from lightly plutonium contaminated materials (PCM) through to residue s resulting directly from Pu processing operations. In addition there are potentially stocks of Pu oxide powders whose future designation may be either a waste or an asset, due to their levels of contamination making their reuse uneconomic, or to changes in nuclear policy. While waste management routes exist for PCM, an immobilisation process is required for streams containing higher levels of Pu. Such a process is being developed by Nexia Solutions and ANSTO to treat and immobilise Pu waste and residues currently stored on the Sellafield site. The characteristics of these Pu waste streams are highly variable. The physical form of the Pu waste ranges from liquids, sludges, powders/granules, to solid components (e.g., test fuels), with the Pu present as an ion in solution, as a salt, metal, oxide or other compound. The chemistry of the Pu waste streams also varies considerably with a variety of impurities present in many waste streams. Furthermore, with fissile isotopes present, criticality is an issue during operations and in the store or repository. Safeguards and security concerns must be assessed and controlled. The process under development, by using a combination of tailored waste form chemistry combined with flexible process technology aims to develop a process line to handle a broad range of Pu waste streams. It aims to be capable of dealing with not only current arisings but those anticipated to arise as a result of future operations or policy changes. (authors)

  7. List mode acquisition for examining kinetic processes in thin film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many systems that are studied by reflectometry techniques exhibit interesting kinetic behaviour over a wide range of timescales. Instruments that possess a wide dynamic Q range, such as energy dispersive reflectometers, have the greatest ability to follow such pathways. The most common case is where the kinetics are reasonably slow compared to acquisition time — one takes repeated measurements over a long period, with each of those measurements representing the sample at a particular time. Another example is a stroboscopic experiment (such as oscillatory shear), where the sample has an external stimulus applied to it at regular intervals and the sample response is repeatable. Here one accumulates statistics in several reflectivity curves that correspond to different subperiods in the time frame between applied stimuli. However, most of the current approaches to acquiring kinetic information are suboptimal. In the first case one has to decide on how long an individual measurement will be, but what happens if the kinetics occur on a much faster or much slower time scale — sometimes you only get one shot! In the second case has to decide on how many subperiods are required, and the possibility of the sample changing over time is ignored. At the Platypus reflectometer at ANSTO we have been pioneering the application of list mode acquisition to study kinetic processes. Here, the X/Y/Time-of-flight/Frame number of each neutron hitting the detector is recorded (the frame structure is created by the pulsed nature of our beam). By the use of processing techniques we can produce reflectivity profiles corresponding to the desired time periods of interest. Quite simply, one can add all neutron events together if there is no kinetic evolution, or divide into arbitrary periods if the sample changes. This processing can occur during or after acquisition. In this paper we outline the utility of this method and describe its application in a couple of different experimental

  8. The polarized platypus polarized neutron reflectometry made possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The magnetic moment of the neutron, together with it's highly penetrating non destructive manner, make polarized neutron reflectometry an excellent tool to study magnetic phenomena across surfaces and interfaces of thin films. Unlike other magnetometry techniques which ordinarily yield only average magnetization values or, in case of probes with higher spatial resolution (e.g. electron microscopy or scanning tunnelling microscopy), show a high surface sensitivity, PNR together with magnetic x-ray scattering provides the ability to spatially resolve vector magnetization well beneath the surface [1] The ability to obtain vector magnetization profiles across interfaces and surfaces of thin films and multilayers offers the intriguing possibility to study systematically magnetic configurations and magnetic exchange interactions through intervening layers. In this paper we present the performance of the new polarization system installed on the time of flight neutron reflectometer PLATYPUS at ANSTO's Bragg Institute. The spin state of the neutrons is polarized and analysed by spatial separation of different neutron spin states using polarizing Fe/Si supermirrors before, and after the sample stage. The supermirrors have a large wavelength acceptance bandwidth of 3 A to 12 A. To control the desired spin direction of the incoming and reflected beam from the sample, two sets of RF spin flippers are installed. In the free space between the spin flippers and the sample stage the neutron spin direction is maintained by two sets of magnetic guide field coils. The new sample environment for studies of magnetic samples includes a 1 T electromagnet and a closed cycle refrigerator which gives access to a temperature range from 4K to 350K.

  9. Natural radioactivity in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use natural radioactivity in environmental studies has proven a very powerful tool to determine the dynamics of both natural and antrophogenic processes in our environment. The use of 14C in archeology and past climate studies has led to many scientific discoveries (i.e. shroud of Turin and Utze 'the ice-man' from Austria). The use of the 238U-decay series is of at least equal value to studies in archeology and past climates. Some of the Isotopes studied supplement 14C (which is limited to 40,000 years) up to 350,000 years and others can be utilized to date very young sediments, which can't be dated by 14C. The so-called 210Pb dating method has been used over the past 3 decades to date recent sediment. The method uses the disequilibrium in the 238U decay chain, caused by the escape of the intermediate daughter 222Rn (a noble gas) from the earth's crust. In the atmosphere the 222Rn decays via short-lived daughter isotopes to 210Pb. This 210Pb with a very convenient half-life of 22,3 years decays to stable 206Pb. By measuring the surface activity of a sediment core and subsequent samples at regular intervals one can establish a chronology for the sediment core. By studying the trace metals in these cores, one could deduce a contamination history for the region. Examples of studies supported by AINSE and ANSTO will be given

  10. The S-E Asia regional partnership for source security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A regional partnership is being realised under the ANSTO-led project on the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources for South-East Asian countries. The Australian Government is funding this program over three years from July 2004 to work in partnership with regional countries, and others, to enhance and maintain the control and security of radioactive sources. Planning and consultation meetings have been conducted, with self-assessment and peer evaluation undertaken of the identified needs to improve and to sustain the appropriate control and security of radioactive sources throughout their life-cycle. The resulting program of activities, which is currently being implemented, includes satisfying such functional objectives as: committing to, and implementing, the IAEA Code of Conduct and its requirements for all regional countries; conducting risk assessment and developing appropriate risk management methods for source legacy issues including regaining control of, searching for, and/or securing sources; implementing training programs: for example, the practical workshop held in Sydney in February on searching, locating, identifying, recovering and disposition of uncontrolled radioactive sources, with eight S-E Asian countries participating; peer-reviewing and advising on improvements to national legislation, regulations and authorization and source registry systems, and inspection procedures and practices; providing information outreach to users and the public, and the information coordination of national and regional authorities such as customs and police. One of the challenges in this regional partnership is that due to the region's diverse history, geography and cultures, each country, national organisation or user, may have quite different methods and varying levels of resources to achieve successful outcomes for these functional objectives. However, a fundamental, yet somewhat tacit, objective being achieved is a better understanding and improvement

  11. Calibration of the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator for 18F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary standardisation was performed on a solution of 18F using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting efficiency-tracing extrapolation method with 60Co used as a tracer nuclide. The result was used to calibrate the ANSTO secondary standard ionisation chamber which is used to disseminate Australian activity standards for gamma emitters. Using the secondary activity standard for 18F, the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quality Control (QC) Section was calibrated. The dial setting number recommended by the manufacturer for the measurement of the activity of 18F is 439. In this work, the dial setting numbers for the activity measurement of the solution of 18F in Wheaton vials were experimentally determined to be 443+/-12, 446+/-12, 459+/-11, 473+/-15 for 0.1, 1, 4.5 and 9ml solution volumes, respectively. The uncertainties given above are expanded uncertainties (k=2) giving an estimated level of confidence of 95%. The activities determined using the manufacturer recommended setting number 439 are 0.8%, 1.4%, 4.0% and 6.5% higher than the standardised activities, respectively. It is recommended that a single dial setting number of 459 determined for 4.5ml is used for 0.1-9ml solution in Wheaton vials in order to simplify the operation procedure. With this setting the expended uncertainty (k=2) in the activity readout from the Capintec dose calibrator would be less than 6.2%

  12. Calibration of the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator for {sup 18}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia) and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: lmx@ansto.gov.au; Reinhard, M.I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Davies, J.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Alexiev, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Baldock, C. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-04-15

    Primary standardisation was performed on a solution of {sup 18}F using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting efficiency-tracing extrapolation method with {sup 60}Co used as a tracer nuclide. The result was used to calibrate the ANSTO secondary standard ionisation chamber which is used to disseminate Australian activity standards for gamma emitters. Using the secondary activity standard for {sup 18}F, the Capintec CRC-712M dose calibrator at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron (NMC) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Quality Control (QC) Section was calibrated. The dial setting number recommended by the manufacturer for the measurement of the activity of {sup 18}F is 439. In this work, the dial setting numbers for the activity measurement of the solution of {sup 18}F in Wheaton vials were experimentally determined to be 443+/-12, 446+/-12, 459+/-11, 473+/-15 for 0.1, 1, 4.5 and 9ml solution volumes, respectively. The uncertainties given above are expanded uncertainties (k=2) giving an estimated level of confidence of 95%. The activities determined using the manufacturer recommended setting number 439 are 0.8%, 1.4%, 4.0% and 6.5% higher than the standardised activities, respectively. It is recommended that a single dial setting number of 459 determined for 4.5ml is used for 0.1-9ml solution in Wheaton vials in order to simplify the operation procedure. With this setting the expended uncertainty (k=2) in the activity readout from the Capintec dose calibrator would be less than 6.2%.

  13. Research and development of waste forms for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics are candidate materials for immobilizing high-level waste (HLW) stemming from the reprocessing of spent fuels. We are proceeding with R and D on two types of ceramic waste form : a polyphase titanate ceramic named Synroc and three kinds of single-phase zirconium ceramics. The effect of self-irradiation damage on the long-term integrity of Synroc due to alpha decay was studied under a cooperative program between JAERI and ANSTO. The hot-pressed polyphase titanate ceramic (10 wt% waste loading) was doped with 244Cm to accumulate a dose of 1.6 x 1018 alpha decays/g. The phase assemblage of the curium-doped titanate ceramic included freudenbergite and loveringite in addition to three main phases: hollandite, perovskite and zirconolite. Accumulation of alpha decays was accompanied by a gradual decrease in density. The change in density was -2.7 % after an equivalent age of 45000 years. The durability of three single-phase zirconium ceramics which contained the appropriate amount of simulated high-level waste elements was examined at 90degC and 150degC in hydrochloric acid or deionized water. The waste forms examined included 10 mol% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2, La2Zr2O7 with a pyrochlore structure, and CaZrO3 with a perovskite structure. La2Zr2O7 showed excellent durability, and leach rates of all constituents were less than about 10-4 g·m-2·day-1 at 150degC in deionized water. This suggests that La2Zr2O7 is a promising candidate material for immobilization of waste elements from HLW. (J.P.N.)

  14. The scientific and technical requirements for biology at Australia's Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Symposium and Workshop on Neutrons for Biology was held in the School of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Melbourne, under the auspices of AINSE, Univ of Melbourne and ANSTO. Invited talks were given on the subjects of Genome, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) as a critical framework for understanding bio-molecular, neutron diffraction at high and low resolution, and the investigation of viruses and large-scale biological structures using neutrons. There were also talks from prominent NMR practitioners and X-ray protein crystallographers, with substantial discussion about how the various methods might fit together in the future. Significant progress was made on defining Australia's needs, which include a strong push to use SANS and reflectometry for the study of macromolecular complexes and model membranes, and a modest network of supporting infrastructure in Brisbane, Melbourne and the Sydney Basin. Specific recommendations were that the small-angle neutron scattering and reflectometry instruments in the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) be pursued with high priority, that there be no specific effort to provide high-resolution protein-crystallography facilities at the RRR, but that a watching brief be kept on instrumentation and sample-preparation technologies elsewhere. A watch be kept on inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering capabilities elsewhere, although these methods will not initially be pursued at the RRR and that should be input from this community into the design of the biochemistry/chemistry laboratories at the Replacement Research Reactor. It was also recommended that a small number of regional facilities be established (or enhanced) to allow users to perform deuteration of biomolecules. These facilities would be of significant value to the NMR and neutron scattering communities

  15. Japan-Australia Co-operative Program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes: phase II (1990-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major activities associated with Japan-Australia Co-operative Program were the preparation, characterization and subsequent testing of both Cm-doped Synroc containing PW-4b simulated waste and Cm-doped single-phase zirconolite and perovskite, and the initiation of studies on naturally-occurring zirconolites to study the long-term durability of this mineral phase over geological time. The preparation of the Cm-doped samples was carried out in JAERI's WASTEF facility at Tokai, with technical information and assistance provided by ANSTO where necessary. The experiments were designed to induce accelerated radiation damage in Synroc samples that would correspond to periods of Synroc storage of up to 100,000 years. The results are of considerable importance in evaluating the potential of the Synroc process as a means of dealing with HLW waste streams and represent a significant contribution to the understanding of the ability of Synroc to immobilize HLW elements. Overall the Phase II Co-operative Program has continued the excellent co-operative working relationship between the staff at the two institutions, and provided a better understanding of the potential advantages and limitations of Synroc as a second generation waste form. The work has shown the need for additional studies to be carried out on the effect of the levels of Cm-doping on the Cm leach rate, extension of natural analogue studies to define the geological conditions under which zirconolite is stable and development of models to provide long-term predictions of releases of HLW elements from Synroc under a range of repository conditions. It is strongly recommended that the program carried out in Phase II of the Co-operative Agreement be extended for a further three years to allow additional information on the above areas to be collected and reported in a document providing an overview of the Co-operative Program and recommendations on HLW management strategies. (J.P.N.)

  16. Surface exposure history using in-situ cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl - applications to the Australian environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1999-11-01

    Production of the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides, {sup 10}Be (T{sub 1/2}=1.5Ma), {sup 26}Al (0.7Ma) and {sup 36}Cl (0.3Ma), is dominated by the interaction of cosmic-rays with the upper atmosphere. They are also produced in exposed surface rocks and within the first meter or so of the Earth`s crust. This is called in-situ production and although only a million atoms or so of {sup 10}Be are produced within a ten thousand year exposure period per gram of surface rock, the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be applied to measure this tell-tale signal. The build-up over time of these radionuclides can be utilised as radiometric clocks to elucidate the exposure history of geomorphic formations and surfaces that have experienced some event or process that delivers previously unexposed material to cosmic-ray irradiation. Hence the reconstruction of glacial chronologies (ie time a bedrock surface was uncovered by ice retreat, or deposition age of glacial moraines), development of raised river terraces and paleo-beach ridges, age of meteorite impact craters and volcanic eruptions have been addressed with the in-situ method. Moreover, geomorphological processes of landscape evolution such as surface erosion rates, continental weathering, sediment transport and deposition, uplift rates can also be studied. The in-situ method is described along with examples of cosmogenic dating projects at ANSTO. It is estimated that it works best over the time period from 5 ka to 5 Ma and can identify erosion rates ranging from 0.1 to 10 mm/ka 20 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Preparation of biological samples for SIMS analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the first time at ANSTO, a program of SIMS analysis of biological samples was undertaken. This presentation will discuss how the wide variety of samples were prepared, and the methods used to gain useful information from SIMS analysis. Lack of matrix-matched standards made quantification difficult, but the strength of SIMS lies in the ability to detect a wide range of stable isotopes with good spatial resolution. This makes the technique suitable for studying organisms that archive signature elements in their structure. Samples such as bivalve shells and crocodile osteoderms were vacuum-impregnated in resin to a size suitable for the SIMS sample holder. Polishing was followed by a sputter coating with gold to alleviate charging of the sample during SIMS analysis. Some samples were introduced directly on the sample holder, either stuck to a glass slide or simply held in place with spring and backing plate. The only treatment in this case was gold coating and degassing in a vacuum pumping station. The porous nature of materials such as leaves and stromatolites requires a period of time under vacuum to remove gases which could interfere with the ultra high vacuum required for SIMS analysis. A calcite standard was used for comparison of oxygen isotopic ratios, but the only matrix-matched standard was available for metal analysis of coral skeletons. Otherwise, the calcium content of the material was assumed to be uniform and acted as an internal standard from which isotopic ratios of other elements could be determined. SIMS analysis of biological samples demonstrated that some matrices could reveal an archive of pollution histories. These samples require matrix-matched standards if the trends observed from analyses are to be quantified

  18. Measurement of tritiated water transpiration from tree leaves following root injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sydney Water Board were looking for a means of assessing the efficacy and practicality of using tritiated water (HTO) for the treatment of sewer systems infested by tree roots. After discussion, it was agreed that ANSTO would assess the use of tritiated water as a means of determining the water transport function in roots. The proposed method of assessment is based upon measuring the rate at which tritiated water is moved away from the root infesting the sewer by the normal transpiration stream. The method assumes that the treatment applied to the sewer drastically reduces, if not destroys, root function. This should be reflected in a significant increase in the delay of HTO arrival at the leaves following application to the affected root. Any significant flux from the affected root would indicate inadequate treatment as water flow from the affected root would encourage subsequent re-invasion of the sewer. If deemed suitable, this tracer would in turn be used to determine the efficacy of the treatment in inhibiting root function. Constraints on the study as well as the optimal conditions for using HTO are discussed. The method which involves injection of tritium into the xylem tissue of the tree followed by collection of transpirate to observe the pattern of tritium arrival, is amenable to the task of assessing the efficiency of the treatment process if the site of infestation can be excavate without damage to the roots and if HDO can be injected and sealed with a root of adequate dimensions. 2 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  19. Regional Radiological Security Partnership in Southeast Asia - Increasing the Sustainability of Security Systems at the Site-Level by Using a Model Facility Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP is to cooperate with countries in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need and developing national programs to protect and control such materials, improve the security of such materials, and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. The RRSP has utilized many tools to meet those objectives including: provision of physical protection upgrades, awareness training, physical protection training, regulatory development, locating and recovering orphan sources, and most recently - development of model security procedures at a model facility. This paper discusses the benefits of establishing a model facility, the methods employed by the RRSP, and three of the expected outcomes of the Model Facility approach. The first expected outcome is to increase compliance with source security guidance materials and national regulations by adding context to those materials, and illustrating their impact on a facility. Second, the effectiveness of each of the tools above is increased by making them part of an integrated system. Third, the methods used to develop the model procedures establishes a sustainable process that can ultimately be transferred to all facilities beyond the model. Overall, the RRSP has utilized the Model Facility approach as an important tool to increase the security of radioactive sources, and to position facilities and countries for the long term secure management of those sources.

  20. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor: Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the replacement of the Australian Research reactor has been released. An important objective of the EIS process is to ensure that all relevant information has been collected and assessed so that the Commonwealth Government can make an informed decision on the proposal. The environmental assessment of the proposal to construct and operate a replacement reactor described in the Draft EIS has shown that the scale of environmental impacts that would occur would be acceptable, provided that the management measures and commitments made by ANSTO are adopted. Furthermore, construction and operation of the proposed replacement reactor would result in a range of benefits in health care, the national interest, scientific achievement and industrial capability. It would also result in a range of benefits derived from increased employment and economic activity. None of the alternatives to the replacement research reactor considered in the Draft EIS can meet all of the objectives of the proposal. The risk from normal operations or accidents has been shown to be well within national and internationally accepted risk parameters. The dose due to reactor operations would continue to be small and within regulatory limits. For the replacement reactor, the principle of 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' would form an integral part of the design and licensing process to ensure that doses to operators are minimized. Costs associated with the proposal are $286 million (in 1997 dollars) for design and construction. The annual operating and maintenance costs are estimated to be $12 million per year, of which a significant proportion will be covered by commercial activities. The costs include management of the spent fuel from the replacement reactor as well as the environmental management costs of waste management, safety and environmental monitoring. Decommissioning costs for the replacement reactor would arise at the end of its lifetime

  1. Larger scale structures in starch granules chartacterised via small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is the primary carbohydrate component in the human diet and the major storage polysaccharide in plants. Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques have an extensive track record in illuminating the semi-crystalline lamellar structure of the starch granule, however, there have been few attempts to use SAS techniques to characterise larger-scale structures reported from imaging techniques, such as growth rings, blocklets or pores. In this study, SAS data collected over an extended q range were gathered from dry and hydrated starch powders of various botanical origins. The use of neutrons and x-rays, as well as comparing dry and hydrated granules, allowed different levels of contrast in scattering length density to be probed and therefore selected structural regions to be highlighted. SAXS measurements were obtained with the Bruker Nanostar, whilst SANS measurements taken at the QUOKKA instrument, ANSTO. Data were analysed with the 'unified' method, which fits SAS curves from hierarchical structures, with each level consisting of a Guinier and Porod component which can be refined during fitting. The lowest q range, 0.002 - 0.04 Å-1, was found to be dominated by scattering from the starch granules themselves, especially in the dry powders; however an inflection point from a low contrast structure was observed at 0.035 Å-1. The associated scattering was interpreted within a unified scattering framework with the inflexion point correlating with a structure with radius of gyration -90 Å - a size comparable to small blocklets or superhelices. In hydrated starches, it is observed that there is an inflection point between lamellar and q-4 power-law scattering regions at approximately 0.004 Å-1 which may correlate with growth rings and large blocklets. The implications of these findings on existing models of starch lamellar scattering are discussed.

  2. Archive monitoring of pollutants in the Dee River using SIMS analysis of mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Mt Morgan was mined for copper and gold from 1882 to 1982 and subsequent tailings re-processing ceased in 1990. Direct and accidental deposition of tailings into the adjacent Dee River and acid mine drainage from the mine site continues to impact the Dee River. The Queensland Department of Natural Resources gauging and monitoring station at Kenbula (adjacent to the mine) continuously monitors pH of around 2.8. Twenty kilometres downstream of the mine the pH improves to 3.5. Elevated sediment metal concentrations have been recorded over 50 kilometres downstream in investigations conducted by CSIRO (Jones et al. 1995, 1996) and others. Biological monitoring by Mackey (1988) and subsequently by Duivendoorden (1995,1997), confirmed significant impact on the fish, macrophyte of macro invertebrate populations downstream of the mine. The current AINSE sponsored project will investigate the use of mussels (genus Allathryia) to archive the pollutant load in the Dee River using SIMS. In 1995 ANSTO conducted similar studies on mussels (Velesunio angasi) in the Finniss River downstream of Rum Jungle NT. Preliminary analysis has commenced on mussels collected at Deeford and Calliungal Station, approximately 50 and 60 kilometres downstream of the mine. Mussels will also be collected from upstream sites on the Dee and the Dawson Rivers. Mussel searching will continue upstream of Deeford to determine whether this is the closest site to the mine that the mussels survive. At least one collection site will be located in the Dawson River, downstream of the Dee, which is a major source of water for the many surrounding agricultural and grazing properties

  3. Electrochemistry and structure of electode materials for li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of battery materials such as electrodes and electrolytes with good performance and stability is essential to emerging electric-vehicle technologies. Of serious environmental concern is that materials with these properties developed so far contain toxic and expensive elements, such as Co. Intensive studies on “green” Li-ion batteries (LIBs) have been undertaken at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials (ISEM) at the University of Wollongong. The strong collaboration of the ISEM team with the Energy materials research project at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) offers a good strategic platform for battery materials research. In this presentation we will discuss our study of the novel, Li-rich, Co-free Li1+xMO2 (M = Li, Ni, Mn, Fe) composite positive electrode material as an example result from this collaboration. The electrode is prepared via a template-free, onestep wet-chemical method followed by conventional annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. Although isotypic to the commercial LiCoO2 material, the Li1+xMO2 is Co free and exhibits superior cycling performance. Our collaborative studies used neutron powder diffraction (NPD) to characterize the material, connecting its electrochemical performance and function to its crystallography, yielding an atomistic-level understanding of function. High-resolution NPD studies (ECHIDNA) revealed that the material has an unprecedented level of cation mixing. Operando high-intensity NPD studies (WOMABT) revealed that the lithiation/delithiation of the electrode occurs via a solid-solution reaction where the lattice responds approximately linearly with cycling during the Ni2+/Ni3+/Ni4+ redox transitions, differing to that observed for the isostructural commercial cathodes containing a lower level of cation mixing. The understanding made in this work paves the way to develop new electrode materials for use in LIBs, as well as future Na-ion battery technology.

  4. Ultra-small-angle neutron scattering: large-scale structure determination from a bird's eye view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both natural and synthetic materials science and engineering rely increasingly on detailed knowledge of the microstructure and interactions in soft and hard materials. Contemporary research areas in biology and the life sciences, e.g., include membrane biophysics, drug-delivery systems and pharmacology, denial and medical composites, biomaterials, fillings and implants in each of these areas large length scale measurements become necessary as model biological systems begin to approach the complexity of natural systems Porosity (void structure) and particle size need to be understood so that the processes of agglomeration and water transport can be quantified in materials such as cements, oil bearing rooks, and pewit pigments Complex fluids, containing structures and complexes in the nanometre and much larger length scales, have widely varying physical properties and are extensively used in food, cosmetic/personal care, pharmaceuticals and drug-delivery, and mining industries. In these length-scales are some of the organisational features that dictate the bulk rheological and stability properties of solutions. At ANSTO a new ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument, Kookaburra (currently) under construction with an expected transition to operation in mid-2013), will advance large-scale structure determination in the size range of 0.1-10 µm. Based on the well-established Bonse-Hart method. Kookaburra will individually operate at two different wavelengths to optimally accommodate weakly and strongly scattering samples at one sample position. This contribution will present specifics of Kookaburra and also discuss a practical application of the USANS technique in polymer science. Both its versatility and estimated neutron flux suggest that this state-.of-the-art instrument will generate a major impact in the field of large-scale structure determination.

  5. Second generation laser-heated microfurnace for the preparation of microgram-sized graphite samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Smith, A. M.; Long, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present construction details and test results for two second-generation laser-heated microfurnaces (LHF-II) used to prepare graphite samples for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at ANSTO. Based on systematic studies aimed at optimising the performance of our prototype laser-heated microfurnace (LHF-I) (Smith et al., 2007 [1]; Smith et al., 2010 [2,3]; Yang et al., 2014 [4]), we have designed the LHF-II to have the following features: (i) it has a small reactor volume of 0.25 mL allowing us to completely graphitise carbon dioxide samples containing as little as 2 μg of C, (ii) it can operate over a large pressure range (0-3 bar) and so has the capacity to graphitise CO2 samples containing up to 100 μg of C; (iii) it is compact, with three valves integrated into the microfurnace body, (iv) it is compatible with our new miniaturised conventional graphitisation furnaces (MCF), also designed for small samples, and shares a common vacuum system. Early tests have shown that the extraneous carbon added during graphitisation in each LHF-II is of the order of 0.05 μg, assuming 100 pMC activity, similar to that of the prototype unit. We use a 'budget' fibre packaged array for the diode laser with custom built focusing optics. The use of a new infrared (IR) thermometer with a short focal length has allowed us to decrease the height of the light-proof safety enclosure. These innovations have produced a cheaper and more compact device. As with the LHF-I, feedback control of the catalyst temperature and logging of the reaction parameters is managed by a LabVIEW interface.

  6. Neutrons, deuteration and synchrotron X-rays for the study of biology and advanced materials: A match made in atoms..

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together, the Australian Synchrotron in Melbourne and the OPAL research reactor, at the Bragg Institute in Sydney represent Australia's largest ever investment in scientific infrastructure. Both facilities commenced operation in 2007, have passed through their infancy and adolescence to take their place amongst the rank of top-flight international user facilities. Far from middle-aged, these two vibrant landmark facilities (each with 10 operational beamlines) and along with the National Deuteration Facility at ANSTO have provided transformational research capabilities for the Australian scientific community. Although modest in size compared to the well-established international competition, both institutions are producing excellent amounts of high-quality research with the Bragg Institute and the Australian Synchrotron generating more than 200 and 450 peer-reviewed publications per annum respectively. At first glance both synchrotron and neutron sources show similar scientific profiles, encompassing an extremely wide range of disciplines: materials, chemistry, biology, condensed matter physics, nanotechnology, engineering, geosciences, archaeology and studies relating to cultural heritage. Common to both are advanced capabilities for the study of atomic and molecular structure, as well as operational studies of functional materials under a diverse range of extreme environments. A more forensic examination however reveals fundamental differences in their DNA. While the biological, pharmaceutical and medical research communities drive substantial capability development and research outcomes at the Australian Synchrotron, neutron scattering and molecular deuteration at the Bragg Institute provides a focus for studies in soft condensed matter, physical and inorganic chemistry, solid state physics and crystallography. Although their respective probes are generated from different parts of the atom and interact with matter in fundamentally different ways, my

  7. Possible inverse proximity effect on the [YBCO(10nm)/LSMO (10nm)]4 superlattice films on STO (001) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong coupling between the spin, orbital and lattice leads to abundant phenomena in oxide SC/FM superlattice films, such as a magnetic proximity effect, a giant magnetoresistance and a SC induced magnetic depletion in the FM layers. In this study, superlattice of [YBCO(10nm)/LSMO (10nm)]4 multilayer film were grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrates by a UHV pulse laser deposition technique. To reveal the magnetic structure fluctuation at SC/FM interfaces, a polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) measurements were carried out at 300 K (applied magnetic field 1.4mT & 1T) and at 8 K (applied magnetic field 1.4mT field cooled under 1T) in the Platypus beam line of ANSTO. The reflectivity intensities of each curve span over 5 orders of magnitude which reflect good interface quality with very low roughness. PNR data at 300 K where YBCO layers are in normal metal states shows presence of depletion layers at the SC/FM interfaces near the YBCO side. This depletion layers acts like YBCO in a normal metal state and is independent of the polarization of the incident Neutron beam. At low temperature, the depletion layer transfers to a magnetic layer with characteristics very similar both on the scattering length density and magnetization to LSMO layers. A thin interface layer near the YBCO/LSMO interface on the YBCO side shows destruction of superconductivity and induces a mall magnetic moment antiparallel to Mn moment FM layers. This phenomena can be explained on the basis of inverse proximity effect, where the suppression of superconductivity accompanying a Cu magnetic moment can be induced antiparallel to Mn moment as observed earlier by D. K. Satapathy et al.

  8. Target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antares Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy Centre at ANSTO has two chemistry labs dedicated to preparing targets for measurement. Target preparation encompasses a variety of activities ranging from the curation of incoming samples to the numerous steps involved in the purification and processing of dissimilar samples. One of the two laboratories is set up for the physical and chemical pretreatment of 14C samples. Treatments include cleaning by sonification, sorting, grinding and sieving, and chemical treatments such as the standard AAA treatment, and solvent extraction. Combustion and graphitization are also carried out in this laboratory. The second laboratory is a clean room and is dedicated to the combustion, hydrolysis and graphitization of 14C samples as well as the process of the targets for the other isotopes. Combustion is achieved by heating the sample to 900 deg C in the presence of CuO, the resulting gas is purified by passing over Ag and Cu wire at 600 deg C. Graphitization is carried out by reducing the CO2 with an iron catalyst (600 deg C) in the presence of zinc (400 deg C) and a small amount of hydrogen. Samples such as charcoal, shell bone, wood, sediment, seawater and groundwater, containing 0.3-1 mg or more of original carbon, are processed routinely for radiocarbon analysis. The current 14C chemistry background for 1 mg carbon is ∼ 0.3 percent of modern carbon (pMC) enabling us to date materials up to 45 000 BP. Samples of 0.5 - 3 mg carbon or more are routinely performed with a precision 129I, 10Be, 36CI and 26Al. Initial tests for the extraction of 129I from groundwater and sediment have been carried out. 5 refs., 2 figs

  9. Japan-Australia Co-operative Program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes: phase II (1990-1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hart, K.P. [eds.

    1996-05-01

    The major activities associated with Japan-Australia Co-operative Program were the preparation, characterization and subsequent testing of both Cm-doped Synroc containing PW-4b simulated waste and Cm-doped single-phase zirconolite and perovskite, and the initiation of studies on naturally-occurring zirconolites to study the long-term durability of this mineral phase over geological time. The preparation of the Cm-doped samples was carried out in JAERI`s WASTEF facility at Tokai, with technical information and assistance provided by ANSTO where necessary. The experiments were designed to induce accelerated radiation damage in Synroc samples that would correspond to periods of Synroc storage of up to 100,000 years. The results are of considerable importance in evaluating the potential of the Synroc process as a means of dealing with HLW waste streams and represent a significant contribution to the understanding of the ability of Synroc to immobilize HLW elements. Overall the Phase II Co-operative Program has continued the excellent co-operative working relationship between the staff at the two institutions, and provided a better understanding of the potential advantages and limitations of Synroc as a second generation waste form. The work has shown the need for additional studies to be carried out on the effect of the levels of Cm-doping on the Cm leach rate, extension of natural analogue studies to define the geological conditions under which zirconolite is stable and development of models to provide long-term predictions of releases of HLW elements from Synroc under a range of repository conditions. It is strongly recommended that the program carried out in Phase II of the Co-operative Agreement be extended for a further three years to allow additional information on the above areas to be collected and reported in a document providing an overview of the Co-operative Program and recommendations on HLW management strategies. (J.P.N.).

  10. Important radiation protection aspects of the operation of a commercial medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since July 1991 the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a 30 MeV H'- ion Medical Cyclotron (Model; CYCLONE 30, Manufacturer: Ion Beam Applications, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium). During routine isotope production operations at the cyclotron a thick copper substrate plate electroplated with thin layer of selected enriched target material are bombarded with 30 MeV proton beam current up to 450 μA. The nuclear reaction of protons with the copper atoms result in the reduction of prompt evaporation neutrons with a peak energy of ∼ 1.8 MeV. These evaporation neutrons slow down via multiple collisions with the concrete shielding walls of the target cave, bounce back to the,interior space of the cave activating the cyclotron parts, beam tube components and other utilities installed in the irradiation cave. After the completion of 60 hour isotope production run, gamma dose equivalent rates of ∼105 μSvh-1 were measured at contact with the target irradiation stations and beam collimators. Evidently, these gamma rays emitted from the activated cyclotron components impose crucial radiation exposure hazard problems for the cyclotron maintenance technicians. Experiments had been carried out in order to identify the specific pathways of cyclotron component activation and to assess the probable personnel radiation exposure during handling of the activated cyclotron parts. The cool-down (radioactive decay) of the activated cyclotron components was estimated experimentally at different target bombardment conditions using the wall mounted gamma area monitors interfaced to the Health Physics Data Acquisition System. The gamma dose equivalent rates at contact with various locations of interest at the target irradiation station and at the typical work areas of the maintenance personnel were carefully recorded with a radiation (gamma) survey instrument during the three years operation period of the cyclotron. A

  11. Molecular Deuteration at the national deuteration facility (NDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Deuteration Facility, Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Australia The National Deuteration Facility (NDF) has developed capabilities in both in vivo deuteration of biomolecules and chemical deuteration of small organic molecules. The range of biodeuterated molecules includes proteins, peptides. DNA. and biopolymers (PHAs, cellulose, and chitosan) Likewise, lipids, phospholipids, heterocyclics, aromatics, and sugars have been deuterated using catalysed chemical hydrogen-deuterium exchange combined with chemical synthesis. We have developed a standard approach lo biodeuteration that routinely yields 100s of mg/L of deuterated protein. Proteins nave been produced by the NDF for a range of SANS, reflectometry and inelastic experiments including the subunit structure of magnesium chelatase (involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis], the interaction of α-synuclein (implicated in Parkinson's Disease) with the chaperone αrB-crystallin, and investigation of the Munc18:Syntaxin neuronal protein complex involved in signal propagation at synapses, and the effect of molecular weight of peptides on surfactant properties. The chemical deuteration of heterocyclic and aromatic compounds has made possible a diverse range of investigations including the study of molecular diffusion in thin film triple-layer organic light emitting devices (OLEDS) by simultaneous neutron reflectometry, and neutron diffraction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) used for gas-separation and sequestration - facilitating the localization of hydrogen gas atoms inside the framework the deuteration of oleic acid and the production of derivative lipids (glycerol mono-oleate) and phospholipids has enabled a range of reflectometry studies on biomembrane and anti-oxidant phenomena as well as a SANS study of surfactant interactions m lyotropic liquid crystals (cubosomes and hexosomes). An overview of deuteration methods and experimental applications will be given. The NDF was funded under the National

  12. Surface exposure history using in-situ cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl - applications to the Australian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides, 10Be (T1/2=1.5Ma), 26Al (0.7Ma) and 36Cl (0.3Ma), is dominated by the interaction of cosmic-rays with the upper atmosphere. They are also produced in exposed surface rocks and within the first meter or so of the Earth's crust. This is called in-situ production and although only a million atoms or so of 10Be are produced within a ten thousand year exposure period per gram of surface rock, the technique of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can be applied to measure this tell-tale signal. The build-up over time of these radionuclides can be utilised as radiometric clocks to elucidate the exposure history of geomorphic formations and surfaces that have experienced some event or process that delivers previously unexposed material to cosmic-ray irradiation. Hence the reconstruction of glacial chronologies (ie time a bedrock surface was uncovered by ice retreat, or deposition age of glacial moraines), development of raised river terraces and paleo-beach ridges, age of meteorite impact craters and volcanic eruptions have been addressed with the in-situ method. Moreover, geomorphological processes of landscape evolution such as surface erosion rates, continental weathering, sediment transport and deposition, uplift rates can also be studied. The in-situ method is described along with examples of cosmogenic dating projects at ANSTO. It is estimated that it works best over the time period from 5 ka to 5 Ma and can identify erosion rates ranging from 0.1 to 10 mm/ka

  13. The design and application of a radiological consequence model for tropical and subtropical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post Chernobyl era has seen the development of a plethora of radiological consequence models. At ANSTO, a model is being developed with a user-friendly interface which will assess the radiological consequences, after an incident, in tropical and sub-tropical climates. The model combines specific regional dispersion and deposition data to determine the dose to man via the major pathways of external and internal irradiation. The external irradiation data will need to include lifestyle information such as time spent L indoors/outdoors, the high/low activity times of the different groups of people (especially critical groups) and shielding factors for housing. The internal irradiation data requires food consumption values, effect of food processing and transfer parameters (soil to plant, plant to animal) to be obtained for tropical and sub-tropical regions. The model allows the user to specify the radionuclide of interest, the age of the person receiving l the dose, race, dietary components and lifestyle. The operator may use a number of default categories, but regional information may also be entered and incorporated into the radiological model allowing assessment of dose to critical groups using site specific data. Initially, the model will deal with the South East Asian region but flexibility has been incorporated into the design to allow application in other regions. A geographic information system is used for display of all input and output data allowing quick access to not only the results but also the underlying assumptions. The model also has portability across computer platforms. The model has been developed to provide a tool for directing future research, has application as a planing tool for emergency response operations but its priority lies in understanding the behaviour of radionuclides in the tropical and sub-tropical environments and their effect on humankind

  14. Progress report of Applications of Nuclear Physics. July 1993 - June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Applications of Nuclear Physics Program Area are: The development and promotion of research programs on national nuclear science facilities such as charged particle accelerators and neutron beam instruments thereby encouraging strategic research in nuclear science and technology at ANSTO, in tertiary institutions and industrial research and development laboratories; Participation in and management ofA ustralian use of international neutron scattering, synchrotron radiation and high energy physics facilities to assist graduate training in the universities and to foster Australian benefits from developments in high technology; The maintenance of expertise in fundamental nuclear and atomic processes relevant to nuclear science and technology including neutron physics, ion interactions, radiation standards, dosimetry and laser enrichment; Expansion of the use of the accelerator mass spectrometry service both nationally and internationally to make major contributions in the understanding and remediation of severe environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect; The application of charged particle beams and ionizing radiation to industrial, biological and environmental problems; The exploitation of neutron scattering techniques in the development of new materials, drugs, biological substances and complex chemicals. The Program Area is continuing the development of several major new facilities. These include new beam lines and a new ion source on the Tandem accelerator (ANTARES), preliminary calibration of the small angle neutron scattering instrument (AUSANS) on the HIFAR reactor, refurbishment of one of the single crystal spectrometers on HIFAR (2TANA) and further development of the Australian National Beam line Facility at the Photon Factory at Tsukuba in Japan. In addition, significant improvements were made to the two neutron powder diffractometers on HIFAR (autor)

  15. Application of network technology to Remote Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Safeguards Office (ASO) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have sponsored work under a bilateral agreement to implement a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) at an Australian nuclear site operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The RMS, designed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), was installed in February 1994 at the Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DSFSF) located at Lucas Heights, Australia. The RMS was designed to test a number of different concepts that would be useful for unattended remote monitoring activities. The DSFSF located in Building 27 is a very suitable test site for a RMS. The RMS uses a network of low cost nodes to collect data from a number of different sensors and security devices. Different sensors and detection devices have been installed to study how they can be used to complement each other for C/S applications. The data collected from the network will allow a comparison of how the various types of sensors perform under the same set of conditions. A video system using digital compression collects digital images and stores them on a hard drive and a digital optical disk. Data and images from the storage area are remotely monitored via telephone from Canberra, Australia and Albuquerque, NM, USA. These remote monitoring stations operated by ASO and SNL respectively, can retrieve data and images from the RMS computer at the DSFSF. The data and images are encrypted before transmission. The Remote Monitoring System field tests have been operational for six months with good test results. Sensors have performed well and the digital images have excellent resolution. The hardware and software have performed reliably without any major difficulties. This paper summarizes the highlights of the prototype system and the ongoing field tests

  16. Neutronic characteristics of the RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the general neutronic characteristics of the Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The RRR Facility is a multi-purpose open-pool type reactor. The nominal fission power of the reactor is 20 MW. The core is located inside a chimney, surrounded by heavy water contained in the Reflector Vessel. The whole assembly is at the bottom of the Reactor Pool, which is full of de-mineralized light water acting as coolant and moderator and biological shielding. The description covers different aspect of the neutronic design: fuel assemblies (FA) characteristics, irradiation facilities, requirements, operational requirements, etc. An important neutronic characteristic of the RRR design is that it handles two types of FA, the well-known and qualified U3Si2 fuel type and the under qualification process U-Mo FA type. Reactor shut down can be achieved by two independent means, which are the insertion of five CRs into the core, or the partial drainage of the heavy water from the Reflector Vessel. Several irradiation facilities are located around the reactor core. Three types of neutron sources: a cold neutron source with two tangential beams and several neutron guides, a thermal neutron source with two beams and several neutron guides, and a room reserved for a future hot neutron source with a beam. The core has also 17 vertical irradiation tubes with 5 targets each for bulk radioisotope production (for example: Ir, Mo and I), 19 pneumatic rigs with 57 target positions for different purposes: radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis (NAA). Finally it has 6 neutron transmutation doping (NTD) facilities. A general description and main characteristics of the present core design is also given. (author)

  17. The new neutron radiography/tomography/imaging station DINGO at OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new neutron imaging instrument will be built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument will be designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defence, industrial, mining, space and aircraft applications. It will also be a useful tool for assessing oil and water flow in sedimentary rock reservoirs (like the North West Shelf), assessing water damage in aircraft components, and the study of hydrogen distribution and cracking in steel. The instrument is planned to be completed by the end of June 2013 and is currently in the design stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it also depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The designated instrument position for DINGO is the beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The estimated flux for an L/D of approximately 250 at HB-2 is calculated by Mcstas simulation in a range of 4.75x107 n/cm2 s, which is in the same range of other facilities like ANSTARES (FRM II; Schillinger et al., 2004 ) or BT2 (NIST; Hussey et al., 2005 ). A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator place in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 250 and 1000. A secondary collimator will separate the two beams and block one. The whole instrument will operate in two different positions, one for high resolution and the other for high speed.

  18. Australian regulatory licensing and compliance monitoring of the construction of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) was established by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 to perform a number of specific functions. Licensing and Compliance Monitoring of those activities involving radiation, that are undertaken by Commonwealth entities, are two of these functions. When making a decision on whether to issue a licence, the CEO of ARPANSA is obliged by the ARPANS Act to take into account a number of matters. The information that the CEO may request to assist make his decision includes (but is not limited to): (a) The design of the controlled facility, including ways in which the design deals with the physical and environmental characteristics of the site; (b) Any fundamental difficulties that will need to be resolved before any future authorisation is given; (c) The construction plan and schedule; (d) A preliminary safety analysis report that demonstrates the adequacy of the design of the facility and identifies structure, components and systems that are safety related items; (e) The arrangements for testing and commissioning safety related items. A licence granted by the CEO of ARPANSA is subject to a number of licence conditions. These licence conditions fall into three categorises: (1) Licence conditions prescribed by the Act and Regulations; (2) Licence conditions imposed by the CEO at the time of making the licence decision; (3) Licence conditions imposed by the CEO at a time after the licence has been granted. The regulatory compliance monitoring of these conditions during the construction of the ANSTO Replacement Research Reactor will be described. Two licence conditions of significance during the construction process are: (1) The holder of a licence must seek the CEO's prior approval to make a relevant change that will have significant implications for safety. (2) The holder of a licence, or person covered by a licence, must only construct an item that is important

  19. Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office and the Chemical Weapons Convention Annual Report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General, Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office (ASNO), combines the statutory office of Director of Safeguards with that of Director, Chemical Weapons Convention Office (CWCO). The Director General also performs the functions of the Director, Australian Comprehensive Test-Ban Office (ACTBO) on an informal basis, as the relevant legislation has not yet come into effect. Throughout the year, ASNO made a substantial contribution to the development of strengthened IAEA safeguards and the integration of strengthened safeguards with the established (classical) safeguards system. ASNO is working closely with the IAEA to develop the procedures and methods required to effectively implement the IAEA's authority and responsibilities as the Additional Protocol enters general application, as well as the specific arrangements which will apply in Australia. In the latter context, ASNO offers the IAEA a safeguards-friendly environment, together with constructive critique, to assist in the development and testing of new techniques. This work is important in ensuring the effective implementation of strengthened safeguards elsewhere. Substantial progress were made on several new bilateral nuclear safeguards agreements. An agreement with the US covering transfer of the Silex laser enrichment technology came into force, and ASNO is now working with US authorities to develop the detailed administrative arrangements required to give effect to this agreement. Also concluded during the year was an agreement with New Zealand covering transfers of uranium for non-nuclear use (as a colouring agent in glass manufacture). ASNO was also working closely with ANSTO to ensure that nuclear material accountancy and control at Lucas Heights accords with best international practice, particularly having regard to the requirements of the IAEA under integrated safeguards. Excellent professional relationship were maintained with the OPCW and counterpart national authorities

  20. Micro-and nanodosimetry for radiobiological planning in radiotherapy and cancer risk assessment in radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Microdosimetric and nanodosimetric measurements of 250 MeV proton radiation fields at the proton accelerator of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) using SOI microdosimeter and gas nanodosimeter will be presented. Good agreement between GEANT Monte Carlo simulations of ionization cluster and pattern of deposited energies measured by nanodosimeter and microdosimeter have been achieved. Replacement of a gas nanodosimeter with 10 nm SV volume of a silicon detector is a challenge. However with the development of Si nanotechnology it is feasible and track structure sensitive array of 3D submicron size Si detectors will be presented. Challenges in the conversion of Si microdosimetric and nanodosimetric spectra to tissue equivalent will be discussed. This project is a large scale collaboration with ANSTO and U NSW in Australia and LLUMC, USNA, Johns Hopkins Uni and MSKCC in the USA

  1. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, Corazon C.; Roceles, Pilar C. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon (Philippines)

    2000-12-01

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will

  2. Neutron diffraction study of diffuse scattering in Cu{sub 2-{delta}S}e superionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilkin, S.A., E-mail: s.danilkin@ansto.gov.au [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232, Australia, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights (Australia); Avdeev, M. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC NSW 2232, Australia, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights (Australia); Sakuma, T. [Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito, 310-8512 (Japan); Macquart, R.; Ling, C.D. [School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-05

    Highlights: > Neutron diffraction study of crystal structure and short-range order in superionic and non-superionic Cu{sub 2-{delta}S}e compounds. > Structural model with occupation of both 8c and 32f (x = 0.39/0.41) sites gives better agreement with experiment for Cu{sub 1.75}Se and Cu{sub 1.98}Se in superionic phase compared to the model with only 8c site occupied. Allowing Cu atoms occupy the 4b position does not improve the quality of refinement. > Superionic {alpha}-phase of Cu{sub 1.75}Se and Cu{sub 1.98}Se show the presence of broad peaks of diffuse scattering centred at Q {approx} 3, 5.5 and 8 A{sup -1}. Theoretical simulations indicate that the increase in diffuse intensity both with temperature and increasing Cu content is related to contributions from correlated thermal vibrations of Se and Cu atoms, with Se-Cu(8c, 32f) and Cu(8c)-Cu(8c) correlations being most important. - Abstract: Crystal structure and short-range order in Cu{sub 2-{delta}S}e compounds were studied in superionic and non-superionic phases using high-resolution neutron diffractometer Echidna at ANSTO. In diffraction patterns of {beta}-Cu{sub 1.98}Se (ordered phase at ambient T), both Bragg peaks and diffuse background change sharply through the {beta} {yields} {alpha} structural phase transition at T = 414 K during heating. In case of {alpha}-Cu{sub 1.75}Se (disordered superionic phase at ambient T) the changes are monotonic, showing gradual shifts of Bragg peaks and increased intensity of the diffuse background as a function of temperature. On cooling, both compounds undergo a {beta} {yields} {beta}' transformation. Diffuse scattering in the {alpha}-phase shows an oscillating dependence on wavevector, with broad peaks centred at Q {approx} 3, 5.5 and 8 A{sup -1}. The measurements taken in energy dispersive mode show that the oscillating diffuse background arises from correlated thermal displacements of the ions. Diffuse scattering is higher for compositions close to stoichiometry

  3. Neutron diffraction study of diffuse scattering in Cu2-δSe superionic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Neutron diffraction study of crystal structure and short-range order in superionic and non-superionic Cu2-δSe compounds. → Structural model with occupation of both 8c and 32f (x = 0.39/0.41) sites gives better agreement with experiment for Cu1.75Se and Cu1.98Se in superionic phase compared to the model with only 8c site occupied. Allowing Cu atoms occupy the 4b position does not improve the quality of refinement. → Superionic α-phase of Cu1.75Se and Cu1.98Se show the presence of broad peaks of diffuse scattering centred at Q ∼ 3, 5.5 and 8 A-1. Theoretical simulations indicate that the increase in diffuse intensity both with temperature and increasing Cu content is related to contributions from correlated thermal vibrations of Se and Cu atoms, with Se-Cu(8c, 32f) and Cu(8c)-Cu(8c) correlations being most important. - Abstract: Crystal structure and short-range order in Cu2-δSe compounds were studied in superionic and non-superionic phases using high-resolution neutron diffractometer Echidna at ANSTO. In diffraction patterns of β-Cu1.98Se (ordered phase at ambient T), both Bragg peaks and diffuse background change sharply through the β → α structural phase transition at T = 414 K during heating. In case of α-Cu1.75Se (disordered superionic phase at ambient T) the changes are monotonic, showing gradual shifts of Bragg peaks and increased intensity of the diffuse background as a function of temperature. On cooling, both compounds undergo a β → β' transformation. Diffuse scattering in the α-phase shows an oscillating dependence on wavevector, with broad peaks centred at Q ∼ 3, 5.5 and 8 A-1. The measurements taken in energy dispersive mode show that the oscillating diffuse background arises from correlated thermal displacements of the ions. Diffuse scattering is higher for compositions close to stoichiometry and increases with temperature. Theoretical calculations show that the increase in diffuse intensity both with temperature

  4. Advances in absorbed dose measurement standards at the australian radiation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of ionising radiation in the medical and industrial fields require both an accurate knowledge of the amount of ionising radiation absorbed by the medium in question and the capability of relating this to National and International standards. The most useful measure of the amount of radiation is the absorbed dose which is defined as the energy absorbed per unit mass. For radiotherapy, the reference medium is water, even though the measurement of the absorbed dose to water is not straightforward. Two methods are commonly used to provide calibrations in absorbed dose to water. The first is the calibration of the chamber in terms of exposure in a Cobalt-60 beam, followed by the conversion by a protocol into dose to water in this and higher energy beams. The other route is via the use of a graphite calorimeter as a primary standard device, where the conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose in water is performed either by theoretical means making use of cavity ionisation theory, or by experiment where the graphite calorimeter and secondary standard ionisation chamber are placed at scaled distances from the source of the radiation beam (known as the Dose-Ratio method). Extensive measurements have been made at Cobalt-60 at ARL using both the exposure and absorbed dose to graphite routes. Agreement between the ARL measurements and those based on standards maintained by ANSTO and NPL is within ± 0.3%. Absorbed dose measurements have also been performed at ARL with photon beams of nominal energy 16 and 19 MeV obtained from the ARL linac. The validity of the protocols at high photon energies, the validity of the methods used to convert from absorbed dose in graphite to absorbed dose in water and the validity of the indices used to specify the beams are discussed. Brief mention will also be made of the establishment of a calibration facility for neutron monitors at ARL and of progress in the development of ERP dosimetry

  5. Progress of the RERTR program in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the 2001 progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners. Postirradiation examinations of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-Mo dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. Irradiation of two new batches of miniplates of greater sizes was completed in the ATR to investigate the swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g/cm3 range. Qualification of the U-Mo dispersion fuels has been delayed by a patent issue involving KAERI. Test fuel elements with uranium density of 6 g/cm3 are being fabricated by BWXT and are expected to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten reactor around March 2003, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by mid-2005. U-Mo fuel with uranium density of 8-9 g/cm3 is expected to be qualified by mid-2007. Final irradiation tests of LEU 99Mo targets in the RAS-GAS reactor at BATAN, in Indonesia, had to be postponed because of the 9/11 attacks, but the results collected to date indicate that these targets will soon be ready for commercial production. Excellent cooperation is also in progress with the CNEA in Argentina, MDSN/AECL in Canada, and ANSTO in Australia. Irradiation testing of five WWR-M2 tube-type fuel assemblies fabricated by the NZChK and containing LEU UO2 dispersion fuel was successfully completed within the Russian RERTR program. A new LEU U-Mo pin-type fuel that could be used to convert most Russian-designed research reactors has been developed by VNIINM and is ready for testing. Four additional shipments containing 822 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. by September 30, 2001. Altogether, 4,562 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors had

  6. A study of the environmental impact on Australia of a nuclear accident in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, G.D.; Davidson, N.E.; Logan, W.; Mills, G.A.; Puri, K. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); McDonald, N.R.; Cameron, R.F.; Clark, G.; Crawford, J.; Domel, R.U.; Hambley, D.; Harris, F.F.; Barton, R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Manins, P.C.; Hibberd, M.F. [Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation, Aspendale, VIC (Australia). Division of Atmospheric Research

    1998-12-31

    This study has considered the circumstances under which radioactive material, released as a result of a severe accident in a reactor of the type that could be proposed for Indonesia, might reach Australia. This assumes the latest available technology for a pressurised water reactor, a boiling water reactor, or an `advanced` light-water reactor, each with a modern containment building. The methodology consisted of developing detailed definitions of the accident scenarios, calculating he transport of the radioactive cloud to Australia and its dispersion by means of a numerical meteorological model, developed by ANSTO, and determining the impact on individuals in Australia by means of a radiological consequences model. A single release was considered with variations in the time of release, the meteorological situation, the height of release, its duration, the amount and the type of material released. The calculations are currently based on the ICRP Standard 70 Kg man. The major pathways considered are inhalation, groundshine, cloudshine and ingestion of plants, meet and milk. A source term was determined for radionuclides, represented by Xenon-133, Iodine-131 and Cesium- 137. Three type of weather conditions that could cause a radioactive cloud to reach Australia were considered. The calculations have shown that the active monsoonal cases impact on north-western and northern Australia, the monsoonal break-period cases impact on western and north-western Australia and that mid-tropospheric cases can impact on a wide band across central and southern Australia. The area of impact for a mid-tropospheric release can be greater than for a near-surface release. It was concluded that even with an extreme release, for actual meteorological conditions, the maximum dose would be below the 5 mSv, dose at which the National Health and Medical Research Council advises that consideration be given to control of milk and foodstuff. This study has been limited in scope, primarily

  7. Target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, G.E.; Hua, Q.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Antares Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy Centre at ANSTO has two chemistry labs dedicated to preparing targets for measurement. Target preparation encompasses a variety of activities ranging from the curation of incoming samples to the numerous steps involved in the purification and processing of dissimilar samples. One of the two laboratories is set up for the physical and chemical pretreatment of {sup 14}C samples. Treatments include cleaning by sonification, sorting, grinding and sieving, and chemical treatments such as the standard AAA treatment, and solvent extraction. Combustion and graphitization are also carried out in this laboratory. The second laboratory is a clean room and is dedicated to the combustion, hydrolysis and graphitization of {sup 14}C samples as well as the process of the targets for the other isotopes. Combustion is achieved by heating the sample to 900 deg C in the presence of CuO, the resulting gas is purified by passing over Ag and Cu wire at 600 deg C. Graphitization is carried out by reducing the CO{sub 2} with an iron catalyst (600 deg C) in the presence of zinc (400 deg C) and a small amount of hydrogen. Samples such as charcoal, shell bone, wood, sediment, seawater and groundwater, containing 0.3-1 mg or more of original carbon, are processed routinely for radiocarbon analysis. The current {sup 14}C chemistry background for 1 mg carbon is {approx} 0.3 percent of modern carbon (pMC) enabling us to date materials up to 45 000 BP. Samples of 0.5 - 3 mg carbon or more are routinely performed with a precision < 1% At present, procedures are being tested for the treatment of samples containing a minimum of 20 {mu}g original carbon. Such small samples sre more likely to be affected by contamination with modern carbon. These laboratories are also being expanded to cater for the processing of a variety of samples for the measurement of other isotopes, ie {sup 129}I, {sup 10}Be, {sup 36}CI and {sup 26}Al. Initial tests for the extraction of

  8. Heavy metal pathways and archives in biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear milli and microprobes at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) were used to determine lead accumulation in native Australian plants and animals. Three species of eucalypt plants (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus lesouefii), one species of salt bush (Atriplex burbhanyana) and one species each of acacia (Acacia saligna) and estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) were investigated. Experimentally grown plants were subjected to a nutrient solution with a pH of 5 and spiked with a 200 μmol concentration of Pb. Lead concentrations in leaves of both E. globulus and E. camaldulensis showed an almost exponential decrease from the base of the main vein to the tip. Similarly, Pb concentrations decreased from the main vein to secondary veins. Concentrations of essential elements such as K, Fe, Zn and Br in the main and secondary veins were constant within experimental uncertainty. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb in the leaf veins of E. lesouefii were much lower and showed no systematic pattern. In stem and root samples the highest concentration of Pb was found in roots and stem of E. globulus and A. burbhanyana followed by E. camaldulensis. Some Pb was found in roots of A. saligna and only very low concentration in stem of the same plant. More detailed analysis of thin cross-sectional samples of roots and stem showed that Pb is present in much higher concentration in the growth area of the plant structure (i.e. meristemic region) and in relatively low concentration within the pith region and outer cortex. The osteoderms (dermal bones) of estuarine crocodiles, exposed to lead ammunition in food from the hunting activities of traditional Aboriginal owners, were sampled at two sites in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. PIXE analyses showed enhanced, but relatively constant, ratios of Pb/Ca in the annual laminations. This was consistent with both their history of long term exposure to elevated

  9. Principle of shielding design for the target cave of a high current medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During routine isotope production regimen at the H-ion Medical Cyclotron of the Radiopharmaceutical Division of ANSTO a thick copper plate electroplated with enriched target material is bombarded with a 30 MeV proton beam at 250μA which results in the production of fast evaporation neutrons with an average energy of 5.1 MeV (Nakamura, T. et al, Nucl Sci Engg, 83: 444-458, 1992). This paper highlights the principle of shielding design using the empirical method (Mukherjee, B. Proc. 14th Int. Conf. on Cyclotrons and their Applications, Cape Town, South Africa, October 1995) for a new target cave proposed to house a solid target irradiation station to be bombarded with a proton beam of 500μA and thereby producing an intense flux of fast neutrons. Important nuclear data such as the neutron and gamma source terms defined as the corresponding dose equivalent rates for lμA proton beam current at 1m from the target as well as the neutron energy distribution required for the shielding calculations were previously estimated experimentally (Mukherjee, B. Proc. 14th Int. Conf. on Cyclotrons and their Applications, Cape Town, South Africa, October 1995). The neutron attenuation coefficients of the 4 legged maze were explicitly evaluated from experiments conducted in the existing cyclotron vault and beam room (Mukherjee, B. et al, Appl Radiat Isot, in print, June 1996). Low sodium content high density (2350 kg.m-3) concrete was used as the shielding material. The optimum lateral thicknesses of the shielding walls (t1 and t2) were calculated to be 2.1 m and 2.5 m and the length of the maze legs (ab, bc, cd, de) were evaluated as 1.2 m, 3.1 m, 1.5 m and 6 m respectively. The dose equivalent (gamma plus neutron) rates at the locations of interest 'P1', 'P2' and 'e' were set at 0.5 μSvh-1, 10 pSvh-1 and 10 μSvh-1 respectively. The neutron shielding calculation method presented in this paper was found to be more suitable than the Monte Carlo code generally used for

  10. Progress of the RERTR program in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the 2001 progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners. Postirradiation examinations of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-Mo dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. Irradiation of two new batches of mini plates of greater sizes was completed in the ATR to investigate the swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g/cm3 range. Qualification of the U-Mo dispersion fuels has been declared by a patent issue involving KAERI. Test fuel elements with uranium density of 6 g/cm3 are being fabricated by BWXT and are expected to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten reactor around March 2003, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by mid 2005. U-Mo fuel with uranium density of 8-9 g/cm3 is expected to be qualified by mid 2007. Final irradiation tests of LEU 99Mo targets in the RAS-GAS reactor at BATAN, in Indonesia, had to be postponed because of the 9/11 attacks, but the results collected to date indicate that these targets will soon be ready for commercial production. Excellent cooperation is also in progress with the CNEA in Argentina, MDSN/ AECL in Canada, and ANSTO in Australia. Irradiation testing of five WWR-M2 tube-type fuel assemblies fabricated by the NZChK and containing LEU UO2 dispersion fuel was successfully completed within the Russian RERTR program. A new LEU U-Mo pin-type fuel that could be used to convert most Russian-designed research reactors has been developed by VNIJNM and is ready for testing. Four additional shipments containing 822 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. by September 30, 2001. Altogether, 4'562 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors

  11. 2012 Progress report on HEU minimization activities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extension of the original CNEA-NNSA DoE contract for the RA-6 reactor core conversion was signed in March 2010 to enhance the final national HEU inventories minimization. Previously, CNEA reserved a small inventory of HEU for further R and D uses in fission chambers, neutronic probes and standards. This minimization comprises all fresh and irradiated HEU remnant inventories coming from fuels and Mo-99 targets fabrication and irradiated HEU-oxides retained in production filters and solutions. Those inventories are being recovered, down-blended into LEU and purified or, in few cases and due to cost benefit considerations, declared wastes. CNEA has a R and D program focused on the development of the fabrication technology of UMo monolithic (Zry-4 cladding) mini-plates to support the qualification activities of the RERTR program. Some monolithic 58% enrichment and LEU 8%Mo and U10%Mo mini-plates and plates were and are being delivered to INL-DoE to be irradiated in the ATR reactor core. Full scale plates will take part of the ALT FUTURE irradiation at the BR II Belgium reactor. CNEA, a worldwide leader on LEU technology for fission radioisotope production is providing Brazil with 1/3 of the national requirements on Mo-99 by weekly deliveries. ANSTO is firmly producing several fission radioisotopes batches by week. During November and December 2011 the production in the new fission Mo-99 facilities of the Atomic Egyptian Agency (AEA) in Inshas Atomic Center, Egypt was demonstrated. To support these activities CNEA is refurbishing in Ezeiza Atomic Center a set of radiochemical cells where the spent LEU based material retained in the filters of the Mo-99 production facility of CNEA along these last 10 years will be separated from wastes, recovered and purified to be re-utilized in this or in other nuclear applications. CNEA is strongly committed to improve the diffusion of LEU target and radiochemical technology for radioisotope production and target and their process

  12. Phase transformation studies of methane-propane hydrate using neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hydrate nucleation process. Our first SANS experiments, on Quokka, reveal rapid uptake of methane-propane gas on ice crystallites well below the accepted phase boundary, offering the prospect of valuable insights in planned future experiments using a gas-liquid flow loop, which is under development at ANSTO.

  13. Monitoring of reported sudden emission rate changes of major radioxenon emitters in the northern and southern hemispheres in 2008 to assess their contribution to the respective radioxenon backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, P. R. J.; Auer, M.; Becker, A.; Colmanet, S.; Hoffmann, E.; Nikkinen, M.; Schlosser, C.; Sonck, M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric radioxenon monitoring is a key component of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Radiopharmaceutical production facilities (RPF) have recently been identified of emitting the major part of the environmental radioxenon measured at globally distributed monitoring sites deployed to strengthen the radionuclide part of the CTBT verification regime. Efforts to raise a global radioxenon emission inventory revealed that the global total emission from RPF's is 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the respective emissions related to maintenance of all nuclear power plants (NPP). Given that situation we have seen in 2008 two peculiar hemisphere-specific situations: 1) In the northern hemisphere, a joint shutdown of the global largest four radiopharmaceutical facilities revealed the contribution of the normally 'masked' NPP related emissions. Due to an incident, the Molybdenum production at the "Institut des Radioéléments" (IRE) in Fleurus, Belgium, was shut down between Monday 25 August and 2 December 2008. IRE is the third largest global producer of medical isotopes. In the same period, but for different reasons, the other three worldwide largest producers (CRL in Canada, HFR in The Netherlands and NTP in South Africa) also had scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns. The activity concentrations of 133Xe measured at the Schauinsland Mountain station near Freiburg in Germany (situated 380 km SW of Fleurus) which have a mean of 4.8 mBq/m3 for the period February 2004 - August 2008, went down to 0.87 mBq/m3 for the period September - November 2008. 2) In the southern hemisphere, after a long break, the only radiopharmaceutical facility in Australia started up test production in late November 2008. In the period before the start-up, the background of radioxenon in Australia (Melbourne and Darwin) was below measurable quantities. During six test runs of the renewed RPF at ANSTO in Lucas Heights, up to 6 mBq/m3 of 133Xe were measured in

  14. SANS from interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    irradiation dose. SANS proved extremely useful for examining the size and shape of the phase domains in these IPNs. We have examined a range of both thermal and radiation crosslinked IPNs using SANS facilities at ANSTO and NIST. Selected samples were sectioned into 1mm strips and stacked to form a composite sample to examine in-plane structure.2 The examination of some of the samples in two perpendicular directions greatly assisted structure determination. New results from real-time thermal polymerisation experiments will also be discussed

  15. Progress of the RERTR program in 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelli, A. [Technology Development Division Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439-4841 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the 2001 progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners. Postirradiation examinations of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-Mo dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. Irradiation of two new batches of mini plates of greater sizes was completed in the ATR to investigate the swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g/cm{sup 3} range. Qualification of the U-Mo dispersion fuels has been declared by a patent issue involving KAERI. Test fuel elements with uranium density of 6 g/cm{sup 3} are being fabricated by BWXT and are expected to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten reactor around March 2003, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by mid 2005. U-Mo fuel with uranium density of 8-9 g/cm{sup 3} is expected to be qualified by mid 2007. Final irradiation tests of LEU {sup 99}Mo targets in the RAS-GAS reactor at BATAN, in Indonesia, had to be postponed because of the 9/11 attacks, but the results collected to date indicate that these targets will soon be ready for commercial production. Excellent cooperation is also in progress with the CNEA in Argentina, MDSN/ AECL in Canada, and ANSTO in Australia. Irradiation testing of five WWR-M2 tube-type fuel assemblies fabricated by the NZChK and containing LEU UO{sub 2} dispersion fuel was successfully completed within the Russian RERTR program. A new LEU U-Mo pin-type fuel that could be used to convert most Russian-designed research reactors has been developed by VNIJNM and is ready for testing. Four additional shipments containing 822 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. by September 30, 2001. Altogether, 4'562 spent fuel

  16. RadCon: A radiological consequences model. Technical guide - Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Radiological Consequence model (RadCon) is being developed at ANSTO to assess the radiological consequences, after an incident, in any climate, using appropriate meteorological and radiological transfer parameters. The major areas of interest to the developers are tropical and subtropical climates. This is particularly so given that it is anticipated that nuclear energy will become a mainstay for economies in these regions within the foreseeable future. Therefore, data acquisition and use of parameter values have been concentrated primarily on these climate types. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition for Australia can be modelled and supplied by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC, one of five in the world) which is part of the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC), Puri et al. (1992). RadCon combines these data (i.e. the time dependent air and ground concentration generated by the dispersion model or measured quantities in the case of an actual incident) with specific regional parameter values to determine the dose to people via the major pathways of external and internal irradiation. For the external irradiation calculations, data are needed on lifestyle information such as the time spent indoors/outdoors, the high/low physical activity rates for different groups of people (especially critical groups) and shielding factors for housing types. For the internal irradiation calculations, data are needed on food consumption, effect of food processing, transfer parameters (soil to plant, plant to animal) and interception values appropriate for the region under study. Where the relevant data are not available default temperate data are currently used. The results of a wide ranging literature search has highlighted where specific research will be initiated to determine the information required for tropical and sub-tropical regions. The user is able to initiate sensitivity analyses within RadCon. This allows the parameters to be ranked in

  17. Single crystal neutron diffraction - an authoritative method for chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    between multiple possibilities or proving a single structure postulated to be consistent with the available data. Our experience with KOALA at ANSTO is that it is sufficiently often the case that the result is not as “expected” or “predicted” that single crystal neutron diffraction studies remain an important method in chemical crystallography.

  18. A new research reactor? Report by the Select Committee for an inquiry into the contract for a new reactor at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 15 August 2000, the Senate resolved to establish the Select Committee for an Inquiry into the Contract for a New Reactor at Lucas Heights and report to the Parliament. The Select committee majority report is divided into three parts: the need for a new reactor; the tendering process and the nature of the contract; and Australia's nuclear waste management strategy and public health and safety. There is a final chapter which brings together the major issues examined in the report. Based on the evidence presented to it, the Committee notes that some Australian scientists and engineers present a strong case for the new reactor. While the Committee is of the view that nuclear science and technology is not backward looking and does offer opportunities for researchers to keep at the forefront of important areas in scientific research and development it does not automatically follow that the best way to promote scientific and medical research in this country is by spending substantial amounts of public funds for the next forty years on a single research reactor. Nevertheless, the Committee recommends that before the Government proceeds any further with the proposed reactor, it undertake a thorough and comprehensive public review of funding for medical and scientific research in Australia with a view to assessing priorities including the role, if any, a research reactor would have in contributing to Australia's scientific, medical and industrial interests. The Committee also requested that the Australian National Audit Office consider examining the tender and contract documents for the new reactor at Lucas Heights with a view to determining: whether further investigation of the tendering process and the contract is warranted; whether, during the tendering process, ANSTO ensured that there was adequate and appropriate independent verification and validation of the tenderers claims. Two supplementary report are included: one from the Liberal and National members (minority

  19. Light and heavy ion beam analysis of thin biological sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques to thin biological sections (ThBS) presents unique challenges in sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis. These samples are often the end product of expensive, time-consuming experiments, which involve many steps that require careful attention. Analysis via several techniques can maximise the information that is collected from these samples. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectroscopy are two generally non-destructive IBA techniques that use the same MeV ions and can be performed simultaneously. The use of heavy ion PIXE applied to thick samples has, in the past, resulted in X-ray spectra of a poorer quality when compared to those obtained with proton beams. One of the reasons for this is the shorter probing depth of the heavy ions, which does not affect thin sample analysis. Therefore, we have investigated and compared 3-MeV proton and 36-MeV carbon ion beams on 7-μm thick mouse brain sections at the ANSTO Heavy ion microprobe (HIMP). The application of a 36-MeV C4+ ion beam for PIXE mapping of ThBS on thin Si3N4 substrate windows produced spectra of high quality that displayed close to a nine-times gain in signal yield (Z2/q) when compared to those obtained for 3-MeV protons for P, S, Cl and K but not for Fe, Cu and Zn. Image quality was overall similar; however, some elements showed better contrast and features with protons whilst others showed improved contrast with a carbon ion beam. RBS spectra with high enough counting statistics were easily obtained with 3-MeV proton beams resulting in high resolution carbon maps, however, the count rate for nitrogen and oxygen was too low. The results demonstrate that on thin samples, 36-MeV C4+ will produce good quality PIXE spectra in less time; therefore, carbon ions may be advantageous depending on which element is being studied. However, these advantages may be outweighed by the inherent disadvantages including

  20. A radioactive controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 2002, the National Congress of Argentina began discussing the 'Agreement between the Republic of Argentina and Australia on cooperation in the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy'. This document has revived the debate regarding development of a national nuclear industry. The debate was spurred by a commercial contract signed in 2000 by INVAP, an Argentinean company who sold a nuclear reactor to the ANSTO, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization. More than sixty non-governmental organizations are opposed to the ratification of the agreement, because they interpret that the text leaves the door wide open for the transport and deposit of Australian nuclear waste to Argentina, to be processed in national territory. Article 41 of the Argentinean National Constitution, explicitly prohibits the generation of any income from 'radioactive residues'. Those who support the agreement say that it does not promote the deposit of nuclear waste in Argentina, and argue that environmentalists are hampering efforts of this advanced technological industry to flourish in Argentina. The point of conflict in the agreement lies in article 12, which states that Argentina will continue the process of reactor-driven irradiated fuel outside Argentina. Once the treatment is completed, the fuel conditioned and the resulting waste must return to the country of origin for their storage. The possibility of spent fuel being sent to Argentina lies in the hypothetical case that the French company Cogema, which currently holds treatment responsibility, stops treatment sometime within the next fifteen years, when the fuel must be treated. The non-ratification of the agreement on Argentina part will not imply any sort of impediment in the realization of the reactor, it will only put on hold the possibility that the Australians spent fuels will complete treatment in Argentina. The constitutionality of the agreement lies in the question of waste, but this too is not a simple question. The

  1. Heavy metal pathways and archives in biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, I. E-mail: ivo@ansto.gov.au; Siegele, R.; Menon, D.D.; Markich, S.J.; Cohen, D.D.; Jeffree, R.A.; McPhail, D.C.; Sarbutt, A.; Stelcer, E

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear milli and microprobes at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) were used to determine lead accumulation in native Australian plants and animals. Three species of eucalypt plants (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus lesouefii), one species of salt bush (Atriplex burbhanyana) and one species each of acacia (Acacia saligna) and estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) were investigated. Experimentally grown plants were subjected to a nutrient solution with a pH of 5 and spiked with a 200 {mu}mol concentration of Pb. Lead concentrations in leaves of both E. globulus and E. camaldulensis showed an almost exponential decrease from the base of the main vein to the tip. Similarly, Pb concentrations decreased from the main vein to secondary veins. Concentrations of essential elements such as K, Fe, Zn and Br in the main and secondary veins were constant within experimental uncertainty. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb in the leaf veins of E. lesouefii were much lower and showed no systematic pattern. In stem and root samples the highest concentration of Pb was found in roots and stem of E. globulus and A. burbhanyana followed by E. camaldulensis. Some Pb was found in roots of A. saligna and only very low concentration in stem of the same plant. More detailed analysis of thin cross-sectional samples of roots and stem showed that Pb is present in much higher concentration in the growth area of the plant structure (i.e. meristemic region) and in relatively low concentration within the pith region and outer cortex. The osteoderms (dermal bones) of estuarine crocodiles, exposed to lead ammunition in food from the hunting activities of traditional Aboriginal owners, were sampled at two sites in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. PIXE analyses showed enhanced, but relatively constant, ratios of Pb/Ca in the annual laminations. This was consistent with both their history of long term exposure to elevated

  2. A study of the environmental impact on Australia of a nuclear accident in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study has considered the circumstances under which radioactive material, released as a result of a severe accident in a reactor of the type that could be proposed for Indonesia, might reach Australia. This assumes the latest available technology for a pressurised water reactor, a boiling water reactor, or an 'advanced' light-water reactor, each with a modern containment building. The methodology consisted of developing detailed definitions of the accident scenarios, calculating he transport of the radioactive cloud to Australia and its dispersion by means of a numerical meteorological model, developed by ANSTO, and determining the impact on individuals in Australia by means of a radiological consequences model. A single release was considered with variations in the time of release, the meteorological situation, the height of release, its duration, the amount and the type of material released. The calculations are currently based on the ICRP Standard 70 Kg man. The major pathways considered are inhalation, groundshine, cloudshine and ingestion of plants, meet and milk. A source term was determined for radionuclides, represented by Xenon-133, Iodine-131 and Cesium- 137. Three type of weather conditions that could cause a radioactive cloud to reach Australia were considered. The calculations have shown that the active monsoonal cases impact on north-western and northern Australia, the monsoonal break-period cases impact on western and north-western Australia and that mid-tropospheric cases can impact on a wide band across central and southern Australia. The area of impact for a mid-tropospheric release can be greater than for a near-surface release. It was concluded that even with an extreme release, for actual meteorological conditions, the maximum dose would be below the 5 mSv, dose at which the National Health and Medical Research Council advises that consideration be given to control of milk and foodstuff. This study has been limited in scope, primarily

  3. A SANS study of the adsorption of guar gum on talc surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagents based on guar gum are commonly used as 'gangue' depressants in the flotation of sulphides from ores containing naturally floating layer silicate minerals such as talc. Nickel sulphide ores processed by WMC Resources Ltd. at the Leinster Nickel Operations in Western Australia typically contain 1-2 % talc. Guar gum, added to the flotation cell, depresses the talc by adsorbing onto its surface, thereby reducing its hydrophobic nature. Guar gum is a long chain polysaccharide containing many hydroxyl functional groups along the length of its chain. The ratio of chain length to the number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups causes the guar gum to be selective in depressing talc rather than nickel sulphide minerals. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) it is an excellent tool for probing structures in the nano length scale. Unlike X-rays, neutrons are sensitive to low atomic weight elements, especially hydrogen and therefore organics. Using SANS it is possible to contrast different parts of a composite sample to get information on spatial arrangements. These qualities make SANS an obvious choice for studying the adsorption of guar gum on the surface of talc in aqueous solutions. Complimentary SANS experiments were carried out in Australia at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and in the United States at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Initially talc samples were studied 'as supplied', however as experiments proceeded attempts to reduce the particle size and distribution were carried out by milling and centrifuging procedures. Contrast matching techniques were used to observed the scattering behaviour of talc with and without the presence of guar gum and vice versa, over a total q range of 0.002 - 0.1 Angstroms-1. The size of the talc particles appears to affect the scattering behaviour not only of talc but also of guar gum in the same solutions. This implies that the structure of the guar gum is strongly

  4. Heavy metal pathways and archives in biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlic, I.; Siegele, R.; Menon, D. D.; Markich, S. J.; Cohen, D. D.; Jeffree, R. A.; McPhail, D. C.; Sarbutt, A.; Stelcer, E.

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear milli and microprobes at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) were used to determine lead accumulation in native Australian plants and animals. Three species of eucalypt plants ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus lesouefii), one species of salt bush ( Atriplex burbhanyana) and one species each of acacia ( Acacia saligna) and estuarine crocodiles ( Crocodylus porosus) were investigated. Experimentally grown plants were subjected to a nutrient solution with a pH of 5 and spiked with a 200 μmol concentration of Pb. Lead concentrations in leaves of both E. globulus and E. camaldulensis showed an almost exponential decrease from the base of the main vein to the tip. Similarly, Pb concentrations decreased from the main vein to secondary veins. Concentrations of essential elements such as K, Fe, Zn and Br in the main and secondary veins were constant within experimental uncertainty. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb in the leaf veins of E. lesouefii were much lower and showed no systematic pattern. In stem and root samples the highest concentration of Pb was found in roots and stem of E. globulus and A. burbhanyana followed by E. camaldulensis. Some Pb was found in roots of A. saligna and only very low concentration in stem of the same plant. More detailed analysis of thin cross-sectional samples of roots and stem showed that Pb is present in much higher concentration in the growth area of the plant structure (i.e. meristemic region) and in relatively low concentration within the pith region and outer cortex. The osteoderms (dermal bones) of estuarine crocodiles, exposed to lead ammunition in food from the hunting activities of traditional Aboriginal owners, were sampled at two sites in Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. PIXE analyses showed enhanced, but relatively constant, ratios of Pb/Ca in the annual laminations. This was consistent with both their history of long term exposure to elevated

  5. Development of automated health physics monitoring system for a medical cyclotron complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A Health Physics surveillance system (Watchdog) for the real-time detection, processing and storage of various radiological protection related data of the Cyclotron facility of the Radiopharmaceutical Division of ANSTO developed during 1991 has been operational since March 1992 (Mukherjee, B. et al. Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Cyclotrons and their Applications, Vancouver, Canada, July 1992). In this paper a upgraded version of the Health Physics Monitoring system installed to monitor the radiation fields in the vicinity of the new PET and SPECT target caves as well as the stack effluent discharge is presented. Standard gamma and neutron area monitors (GD1...GD7 and ND1) were modified with novel electronic 'Piggy back' circuits to respond to the new ICRP 1990 radiation weighting factor (ICRP Publication No. 61, 1991). The monitor outputs were connected to a datalogger via RF shielded twisted pair cables in 'Current-loop' mode. Two NaI-scintillation detectors (SM1 and SM2) connected to single channel analysers were used in the stack monitors to detect the release of positron emitting gases and Iodine-123. The operation of the suction pump (SP) was controlled by a solenoid valve connected to the datalogger in order to compensate the 'residence-time' error of the stack detectors. The datalogger was interfaced to a 100 MHz Pentium-CPU based Personal computer with a 2GB Hard disk for long term data storage. The neutron and gamma dose equivalent rates were sampled in every minute and displayed in the user friendly mimics. In total 6 mimics were simultaneously operational in 'Multi-tasking' mode. The datalogger output signals were linearised using 'multi-degree' polynomials. The data was collected in a block of 24 hours and stored in the Excel V5 spreadsheet for statistical analysis and graphical display. The long term Health Physics data collected in the spreadsheets was used to analyse the global performance of the entire cyclotron facility which includes the

  6. Cooperation in Southeast Asia [Strengthening the infrastructure related to radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its budget of May 2004, the Australian Government made provision for two initiatives related to strengthening infrastructure related to radioactive sources. Both initiatives flow from Australia's history of active involvement in international efforts to develop the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. The first initiative, a programme to enhance Australia's national radiation emergency preparedness and response capability, is being led by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Agency. The second programme is a three year, US $3 million project to strengthen the security of radioactive sources in the Southeast Asia and Pacific regions. It is based on the recognition of security threats in the region and on the Australian Government's desire to strengthen regional partnerships in the field of security and radiation protection. That project, known as the Securing Sources project, is being led by my organization, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The project has a wide scope that includes technical, administrative and regulatory aspects of source security. It is being delivered in two programmes, one of which covers 11 Southeast Asian countries closest to Australia. These include the seven IAEA Member States Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, as well as four States that are not members of the IAEA: Laos, Cambodia, Brunei and East Timor. A companion programme focuses on 14 Pacific Island countries, including Papua New Guinea, Fiji and the Solomon Islands, which are not members of the IAEA. The Regional Security project aims are to assist countries in a region to manage poorly controlled sources and to generally improve source security. Activities include strategies for remediation of legacies of orphan sources and poorly controlled sources; sharing of historic information on source transfers

  7. Present status and needs of human resource development in the nuclear field in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first nuclear power plant was nearing completion. However, due to change in political climate and support for the nuclear power program, this has been mothballed. There is a possibility for the introduction of nuclear power plant in the country's projected energy sources by the year 2020. The country has one research reactor, but at the present time it is undergoing repair and is not operational. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), an Institute under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), is the sole government agency mandated by the law to take charge of all matters pertaining to nuclear science and technology, and the regulation of nuclear energy. There is one another government agency, the Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health, which is responsible for regulating the use and application of X-rays and non-ionizing radiation. The PNRI conducts national training courses in nuclear science and technology, and radiation protection to users of radioisotopes. Individual courses are outlined in the paper. Up to the present time, around 7,300 have participated in national training courses conducted by PNRI. Distributions of PNRI trainees are: 53 % for industrial, 12 % medical, 12 % for academe, and 23 % for others. Nuclear science and technology education in schools and universities are presented. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training activities availed 77 % of the total foreign training from 1993 to 1998; Japan follows next at 20 %; and others comprise the remaining 3 %. An approach to training and human resources development, which could reach out to more target trainees, is Distance Learning. In 1998, as a part of a Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) and IAEA project, the Philippines participated in the trial of distance learning modules in radiation protection. The distance learning modules were developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). These modules will be

  8. Preclinical targeted alpha therapy for melanoma, leukaemia, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Targeted Alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micro-metastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The alpha emitting radioisotopes Tb-149 and Bi-213 are produced by accelerator and generator respectively and are chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody, peptide or protein to form the alpha-conjugates (AC) against melanoma, leukaemia, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. These ACs are tested for stability, specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo using several nude mouse models. The Australian TAT program began some 7 years at ANSTO but was still-born. Later, TAT had a second wind at St George Hospital, where collaborative research led to the investigation of Tb-149 as a new alpha emitting radionuclide. Subsequently, increased emphasis was placed on the Ac-225 generator to produce Bi-213. Although in-house funding was terminated in 1998, the project received its third wind with local fund raising in the Shire and a US grant in 1999, and continues to break new ground in the control of the above cancers. Stable alpha-ACs are produced which are highly specific and cytotoxic in vitro against melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 11.5 million cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. The tumour growth is compared with untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. Local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast cancer tumour growth in the primary site and metastatic invasion of the lymph nodes. These results point to the application of local

  9. EUROPART: an European integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: The EUROPART project is a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, from 10 countries, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6, together with CRIEPI from Japan and ANSTO from Australia. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of the treatment of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous European FP5 programs named PARTNEW, CALIXPART and PYROREP, respectively. The two main axes of research within EUROPART are: 1/ the partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from wastes issuing from the reprocessing of high burn-up UOX fuels and multi-recycled MOX fuels, 2/ the partitioning of the whole actinide family of elements for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (this work will be connected to the studies to be performed within the EUROTRANS European integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organized in five Work Packages (WP). Four are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods and of solid extractants, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparations. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WPs, listed hereafter: (i) study of the basic chemistry of transuranium elements and of some fission products in molten salts (chlorides, fluorides), (ii) development of actinide partitioning methods, (iii) study of the conditioning of the salt wastes, (iv) system studies. Moreover, a strong management team is concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe

  10. Currents trends in the application of IBA techniques to air pollution source fingerprinting and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Form Development Interim and Final Data Report Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanKonynenburg, R.; Ebbinghaus, B.

    2000-06-01

    Contained within this report are summaries of the available interim and final data summary reports provided by ANSTO, ANL, LLNL, and WSRC in support of work in the Form Development activity in the Plutonium Immobilization Development and Testing Program. Milestone reports and technical papers prepared for journals or conference proceedings are not included in this list. This document covers work from about 1997 to the present. All of the following reports are available from the Plutonium Immobilization Program Document Control Center (DCC) at LLNL. In most cases, the documents can also be obtained from the libraries the originating site or from the document's authors. All samples of the various formulations discussed in the following summaries were prepared by one of four processes: Wet-milling, dry-milling, an alkoxide-nitrate process, or attritor milling. The fabrication processes differ primarily in the mixing steps. The wet milling process is the one most commonly used. It is a simple ball milling process where water is added that provides intimate mixing of the materials. The dry milling process is a worst case dry mixing process. The alkoxide-nitrate process provides for very intimate mixing and is used when equilibrium samples are desired. The attritor milling process simulates the process being developed for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant. After mixing, the subsequent calcination and consolidation steps are generally the same. Most samples were consolidated by cold pressing and sintering although some of the earlier samples or Some of the single-phase samples were prepared by hot pressing. The sample identification numbers (ID's) that are referenced in the summaries (e.g. A-0, B3-13, etc.) are described in the Sample Test Matrix (PIP-99-012 and PIP-00-016). Samples which contain both plutonium and uranium are given the designation Hf-Pu-U samples. When Ce was used as a surrogate for Pu, the designation is Hf-Ce-U. When Th was used as a

  12. Medizinbibliotheken 20XX. Zuverlässig, Zukunftsweisend, Unverzichtbar [Medical Libraries 20XX. Reliable, forward-looking, indispensible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    ür interdisziplinäre Wissenschaft – eine Anforderungsanalyse aus Anwendersicht, Annette Kustos (Die neue Hochschulbibliothek für Gesundheitswissenschaften der Hochschule für Gesundheit (hsg Bochum, Christoph Poley (Mit MEDPILOT auf dem Weg ins Semantic Web, Henriette Senst & Jens Erling (Neue Arbeitsfelder in der Bibliothek des Robert Koch-Instituts: Open Access und institutionelles Repositorium, Matti Stöhr („Mich interessierten kostengünstige Alternativen zu Citavi“: Über den Fortbildungsworkshop „Literaturverwaltung im Fokus“ im Rahmen der AGMB-Tagung 2012, Martin Zangl (Qualitätsmanagement für Kunst- und Museumsbibliotheken – ein Anstoß für Krankenhausbibliotheken?! und Ulf Paepcke & Gabriele Menzel (Medizinbibliotheken 20XX. Zuverlässig, Zukunftsweisend, Unverzichtbar. Jahrestagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Medizinisches Bibliothekswesen (AGMB e.V. vom 24. bis 26.09.2012 in Aachen.

  13. Chemical durability studies of synthetic brannerite for immobilization of actinide-rich radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work being carried out at ANSTO since 2000 under research agreement No. AUL-10644. It covers the dissolution of synthetic brannerite in acidic and alkaline fluids, the effects of solution pH and U valence state on the dissolution of U-substituted thorutite, and kinetic modelling of the oxidative dissolution of brannerite. The dissolution of synthetic brannerite in aqueous media at 40 deg C and 90 deg C under atmospheric redox conditions has been studied. At 40 deg C, the presence of phthalate as a buffer component in the pH range of 2 to 6 has little effect on uranium release from brannerite. Bicarbonate increases uranium release and enhances the dissolution of brannerite. Compared to UO2, brannerite is more resistant to dissolution in bicarbonate solutions. In under-saturated conditions at 90 deg C, the dissolution of brannerite is incongruent (preferential release of uranium) at pH 2 and nearly congruent at pH 11. TEM examinations reveal a polymorph of TiO2 (pH 2 specimen) and a fibrous Ti-rich material (pH 11 specimen) as secondary phases. XPS analyses indicate the existence of U(V) and U(VI) species on the surfaces of specimens both before and after leaching, and U(VI) was the dominant component on the specimen leached in the pH 11 solution. The dissolution of the thorium analogue of brannerite (ThTi2O6-I) and U(IV)/U(V) doped Th-brannerite (Th0.97U0.03Ti2O6-II and Th0.955U0.03Ca0.015Ti2O6-III) in aqueous media under atmospheric condition has been studied to elucidate the effects of pH and uranium valence state on the dissolution rate. The dissolution of I is nearly stoichiometric but slightly preferential release of U occurs for II and preferential release of Ca and U occurs for III. The V-shape pH dependence previously observed for U-brannerite only occurs for U (not other matrix elements) for II, indicating that the pH dependence is related to the U oxidation state upon dissolution. The normalised U dissolution rates of III are

  14. Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Matthew Jason

    There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would

  15. AREVA Back-End Possibilities for the Used Fuel of Research Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major issues faced by the Research and Test Reactor (RTR) operators is the back end management of the used fuel elements. RTR used fuel for both HEU and LEU types are problematic for storing and disposal as their Aluminium cladding degrades leading to activity release, possible loss of containment and criticality concerns. Thus, direct disposal of RTR used fuel, (without prior treatment and conditioning) is in this respect hardly suitable. In the same manner, long term interim storage of RTR used fuel has to take into account the issue of fuel corrosion. Treating RTR used fuel allows separating the content into recyclable materials and residues. It offers many advantages as compared to direct disposal such as the retrieval of valuable fissile material, the reduction of radio-toxicity and a very significant reduction of the volume of the ultimate waste package (reduction factor between 30 and 50). In addition, the vitrification of the residues provides a package that has been specifically designed to ensure long term durability for long term interim storage as well as final disposal (99% of the activity is encapsulated into a stable matrix). RTR fuel treatment process was developed several decades ago by AREVA with now thirty years of experience at an industrial level. The treatment process consists in dissolving the whole assembly (including the Al cladding) in nitric acid and then diluting it with standard Uranium Oxide fuel dissolution liquor prior to treatment with the nominal Tributylphosphate solvent extraction process. A wide range of RTR spent fuel has already been treated in the AREVA facilities. First, at the Marcoule plant over 18 tons of U-Al type RTR fuel from 21 reactors in 11 countries was processed. The treatment activities are now undertaken at the La Hague plant where 17 tons of RTR used fuel from Australia Belgium, and France aligned for treatment. In June 2005, AREVA started to treat at La Hague ANSTO's Australian RTR used fuel from

  16. Development, Qualification, and Manufacturing of LEU-Foil Targetry for the Production of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solbrekken, Gary L.; Turner, Kyler; Govindarajan, Srisharan; Makarewicz, Philip [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, E2411 Lafferre Hall, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Allen, Charlie [University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), University of Missouri, 1513 Research Park Dr., Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work in progress to develop low enriched uranium (LEU) foil targets for the production of the medical isotope molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo). The development strategy utilizes analytical and numeric simulation methods, and in-situ testing to establish design rules, that include manufacturing constraints, for a safe and cost-effective {sup 99}Mo production target. A project team, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy - National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of Global Threat Reduction, has been formed to support the efforts of the large-scale {sup 99}Mo producers to convert from highly enriched uranium (HEU)-based to LEU-based Mo-99 production. This work also directly supports the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) International Working Group on Conversion Planning for Mo-99 Production Facilities from HEU to LEU, and the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP); entitled 'Developing Techniques for Small-Scale, Indigenous Production of Mo-99 Using Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) or Neutron Activation.' This IAEA sponsored project supports the utilization of research reactors worldwide by providing them the technology to develop and implement a viable radioisotope production capability that is consistent with non-proliferation objectives. The project team is comprised of personnel representing Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), B and W Y-12, LLC, and the University of Missouri's College of Engineering. Additional support will be provided by the Institute of Nuclear Research - Pitesti Reactor Facility (Romania), and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The objectives of the project are to: 1. Establish a target qualification methodology that is bounding for all {sup 99}Mo target irradiators. 2. Develop the target qualification methodology by building upon the annular LEU-foil target design work and testing previously performed by ANL and ANSTO/CERCA. 3. Develop a final product in

  17. Calendar of Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    78712. Tel +1-512-471-1322, E-mail stewart@hagar.ph.utexas.edu. 17 - 18 February 1997 Plasma '97: 21st Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering Plasma Science and Technology Conference Sydney, Australia Contact: Margaret Lanigan, Conference Manager, PMB 1, MENAI NSW 2234, Australia. Fax +61-(0)2-439-6561, E-mail ainse@ansto.gov.au. 6 - 11 April 1997 10th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating Ameland, The Netherlands Contact: J Hamers-Smit, FOM - Instituut voor Plasmafysica 'Rijnhuizen', Postbus 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein. Tel +31-30-6096999, Fax +31-30-6031204, E-mail ec10@rijnh.nl. Application and abstract deadline: 17 January 1997. 8 - 12 September 1997 12th International Conference on Gas Discharges and their Applications Greifswald, Germany Contact: Dr G Babucke, Inst. f. Niedertemperatur-Plasmaphysik, Robert-Blum-Str. 8 - 10, 17489 Greifswald, Germany. Tel +49-3834-554411, Fax +49-3834-554301, E-mail gd97@public.inp.uni-greifswald.de.

  18. Neutron beam instruments at the Bragg Institute, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OPAL. There are some real choices to be made, between (a) the classical-style machine (like IN16), (b) a phase-space-transforming machine (as at NIST or FRM-II), and (c) a time-of-flight machine. The choice is strongly coupled to guide options, and in the next few months, the NBI2 team will examine and assess all three guide-instrument combinations. Neutron Radiography/lmaging/Tomography at OPAL will open up the study of engineering, cultural heritage, fossils, energy extraction and other technologies in which one wants to see hydrogenous materials like water, oils or plastics inside metallic or ceramic objects, or need the penetration that neutrons give. The preferred location will be in OPAL's Reactor Beam Hall on HB-1 or HB-2. The machine will have extremely high intensity, and will likely give ANSTO the opportunity to excel in dynamic imaging with neutrons. Regarding sample-environment apparatus, the workshop came up with a prioritised list of magnets, cryogenic devices, furnaces, pressure cells, stress rigs and so on. In the spirit of the existing naming convention at OPAL, the following names were suggested for the three new instruments: GOANNA (2nd SANS), EMU (Backscattering) and DINGO (Radiography).

  19. Progress report of Applications of Nuclear Physics. July 1994 - June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Applications of Nuclear Physics Program Area are: The development and promotion of research programs on national nuclear science facilities such as charged particle accelerators and neutron beam instruments thereby encouraging strategic research in nuclear science and technology at ANSTO, in tertiary institutions and industrial research and development laboratories; Participation in and management of Australian use of international neutron scattering, synchrotron radiation and high energy physics facilities to assist graduate training in the Universities and to foster Australian benefits ,from developments in high technology; The maintenance of expertise in fundamental nuclear and atomic processes relevant to nuclear science and technology including neutron physics, ion interactions, radiation standards, dosimetry and laser enrichment; Expansion of the use of accelerator mass spectromety both nationally and internationally to make major contributions in the understanding and remediation of severe environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect; The application of charged particle beams and ionizing radiation to industrial. biological nad environmental problems; The exploitation of neutron scattering techniques in the development of new materials, drugs, biological substances and complex chemicals. The research activities of the Applications of Nuclear Physics Pro-ram Area are organized into several large projects: Accelerator Applications, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Neutron Scattering, International Science (incorporating High Energy Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Research), Radiation Technology and Standards. In addition, there were a number of other supporting projects. An important aspect of the activities of the Program Area, as will be clear from the objectives listed above, is the development and improvement of the larger experimental facilities within the Program Area. Considerable progress has been made in the development

  20. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    define the feasibility of converting each Russian-designed research and test reactor to either fuel type. The plan for the Accelerated RERTR Program is structured to achieve LEU conversion of all HEU research reactors supplied by the United States and Russia during the next nine years. This effort will address, in addition to the fuel development and qualification, the analyses and performance/economic/safety evaluations needed to implement the conversions. In combination with this over-arching goal, the RERTR program plans to achieve at the earliest possible date qualification of LEU U-Mo dispersion fuels with uranium densities of 6 g/cm3 and 7 g/cm3. Reactors currently using or planning to use LEU silicide fuel will rely on this fuel after termination of the FRRSNFA program, because it is acceptable to COGEMA for reprocessing. Qualification of LEU U-Mo dispersion fuels has suffered some unavoidable delays but, to accelerate it as much as possible, the RERTR program, the French CEA, and the Australian ANSTO have agreed to jointly pursue a two-element qualification test of LEU U-Mo dispersion fuel with uranium density of 7.0 g/cm3 to be performed in the Osiris reactor during 2004. The RERTR program also intends to eliminate all obstacles to the utilization of LEU in targets for isotope production, so that this important function can be performed without the need for weapons-grade materials. All of us, working together as we have for many years, can ensure that all these goals will be achieved. By promoting the efficiency and safety of research reactors while eliminating the traffic in weapons-grade uranium, we can prevent the possibility that some of this material might fall in the wrong hands. Few causes can be more deserving of our joint efforts. (author)

  1. PREFACE 12th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Stephen; Sullivan, James; White, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    ) Ronald White (JCU, Townsville)C Beling (Hong Kong) Jim Williams (UWA, Perth)R Brusa (Italy) Suzanne Smith (ANSTO, Sydney)P Coleman (UK) Igor Bray (Curtin U., Perth)C Corbel (France) Casten Makochekanwa (ANU, Canberra)M Fujinami (Japan) Michael Went (ANU, Canberra)R Krause-Rehberg (Germany) Adric Jones (ANU, Canberra)K Lynn (USA) Peter Caradonna (ANU, Canberra)H Schut (Netherlands) Ryan Weed (ANU, Canberra)P Simpson (Canada) Jason Roberts (ANU, Canberra)R Suzuki (Japan) Josh Machacek (ANU, Canberra)F Tuomisto (Finland) A Weiss (USA) SLOPOS photo SLOPOS-12 Delegates, 1-6 August 2010, Magnetic Island, Australia SPONSORS SLOPOS sponsors

  2. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the following discussion we will first review the basic principles of AMS analysis and radiocarbon dating and then we will present some case studies of forensic significance, often drawing from the experience of the AMS laboratory of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). Twenty-five years have passed since it was first demonstrated that AMS could count radiocarbon atoms directly in natural organic samples, overcoming the fundamental limitations of decay counting and conventional mass spectrometry. Since then, AMS systems have been developed at more than forty laboratories and the analysis capabilities of AMS have been extended to a wide range of low abundance radionuclides, for applications in archaeology, environmental sciences, biomedicine and other disciplines based on the use of long lived tracers and chronometers. The majority of radioisotopes with half-lives in the range 103 - 107 years have been detected by AMS. This includes a number of radioisotopes that exist only as a result of the nuclear age, such as plutonium and other actinide isotopes. AMS systems are still evolving, with a trend towards smaller accelerators and lower voltages. A spectrometer based on a 500 kV accelerator has been developed by the PSI/ ETH group using thick gas stripper to destroy the molecules in the 1+ charge state. The same group is presently testing the analysis of 14C at 250 kV, opening the way to the construction of table-top AMS systems. Carbon-14 is formed in the atmosphere by nuclear reactions of secondary cosmic neutrons with nitrogen and is quickly distributed throughout the atmosphere as 14CO2. In pre-industrial times, the atmospheric isotope ratio 14C/12C was about 1.2 x 10-12. In a simplified model that is often used to introduce the basic idea, living organisms participating in the carbon cycle via metabolic processes are characterized by this radiocarbon concentration. When a living organism dies, the carbon exchange stops. Hence by

  3. Sustainability of groundwater under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of the effective recharge (above), the water balance and the residence time distribution of the water. The use of isotopes to establish a water balance at a site in the Darling basin has been demonstrated. c) Evaluation of climate models: The use of isotopes to evaluate climate change models has been demonstrated in the Amazon basin. The principles will be extended to arid and semi arid areas using isotopic data in age dated groundwater as a probe for variations in effective recharge and therefore in the aridity index. The concept will be illustrated with data from the Great Artesian Basin and the Mereenie Sandstone aquifer in Central Australia. On-going project work will be focussed on ANSTO's contribution to the Murray-Darling Water Basin Study through the GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) Hydrometeorological Panel and the IAEA Coordinated Research Program Isotope Tracing of Hydrological Processes in Large River Basins, 2002-2004. The Organisation is also contributing to the Integrated Climate System Study (ICSYS) initiative of the IAEA/WCRP (World Climate Research Programme). (author)